WorldWideScience

Sample records for thermal electric hybridization

  1. On-line energy and battery thermal management for hybrid electric heavy-duty truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, H.T.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Huisman, R.G.M.; Nevels, R.M.P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses an integrated approach for energy and thermal management to minimize the fuel consumption of a hybrid electric heavy-duty truck. Conventional Energy Management Systems (EMS) operate separately from the Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS) in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs).

  2. Analysis and optimization of hybrid electric vehicle thermal management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamut, H. S.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G. F.

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the thermal management system of a hybrid electric vehicle is optimized using single and multi-objective evolutionary algorithms in order to maximize the exergy efficiency and minimize the cost and environmental impact of the system. The objective functions are defined and decision variables, along with their respective system constraints, are selected for the analysis. In the multi-objective optimization, a Pareto frontier is obtained and a single desirable optimal solution is selected based on LINMAP decision-making process. The corresponding solutions are compared against the exergetic, exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental single objective optimization results. The results show that the exergy efficiency, total cost rate and environmental impact rate for the baseline system are determined to be 0.29, ¢28 h-1 and 77.3 mPts h-1 respectively. Moreover, based on the exergoeconomic optimization, 14% higher exergy efficiency and 5% lower cost can be achieved, compared to baseline parameters at an expense of a 14% increase in the environmental impact. Based on the exergoenvironmental optimization, a 13% higher exergy efficiency and 5% lower environmental impact can be achieved at the expense of a 27% increase in the total cost.

  3. An Approach for Designing Thermal Management Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Battery Packs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.; Keyser, Matthew; Burch, Steve

    1999-01-01

    If battery packs for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are to operate effectively in all climates, thermal management of the packs is essential. In this paper, we will review a systematic approach for designing and evaluating battery pack thermal management systems. A thermal management system using air as the heat transfer medium is less complicated than a system using liquid cooling/heating. Generally, for parallel HEVs, an air thermal management system is adequate, whereas for EVs and series HEVs, liquid-based systems may be required for optimum thermal performance. Further information on battery thermal management can be found on the Web site www.ctts.nrel.gov/BTM

  4. Thermal modeling of secondary lithium batteries for electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hallaj, Said; Selman, J. R.

    A major obstacle to the development of commercially successful electric vehicles (EV) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) is the lack of a suitably sized battery. Lithium ion batteries are viewed as the solution if only they could be "scaled-up safely", i.e. if thermal management problems could be overcome so the batteries could be designed and manufactured in much larger sizes than the commercially available near-2-Ah cells. Here, we review a novel thermal management system using phase-change material (PCM). A prototype of this PCM-based system is presently being manufactured. A PCM-based system has never been tested before with lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries and battery packs, although its mode of operation is exceptionally well suited for the cell chemistry of the most common commercially available Li-ion batteries. The thermal management system described here is intended specifically for EV/HEV applications. It has a high potential for providing effective thermal management without introducing moving components. Thereby, the performance of EV/HEV batteries may be improved without complicating the system design and incurring major additional cost, as is the case with "active" cooling systems requiring air or liquid circulation.

  5. Integrated energy and advanced thermal management system for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, C.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) featuring a fuel source engine and an energy storage source battery play an important role in improving fuel efficiency compared with its conventional counterparts. In view of the drawbacks of the existing research neglecting the thermal aspects when it comes to

  6. Characterization of Alternative Hybrid Solar Thermal Electric Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Hybrid power towers offer a number of advantages over solar-only power tower systems for early commercial deployment of the technology. These advantages include enhanced modularity, reduced financial and technical risks, and lower energy costs. With the changes in the domestic and world markets for bulk power, hybrid power towers are likely to have the best opportunities for power projects. This paper discusses issues that are likely to be important to the deployment of hybrid power towers in the near future. A large number of alternative designs are possible, and it is likely that there is no single approach that can be considered best or optimal for all project opportunities. The preferred design will depend on the application, as well as the unique objectives and perspectives of the person evaluating the design

  7. Energy integration on multi-periods and multi-usages for hybrid electric and thermal powertrains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrova, Zlatina; Maréchal, François

    2015-01-01

    The improvement of the efficiency of vehicle energy systems promotes an active search to find innovative solutions during the design process. This requires more accurate modeling of complex systems, which offers new ways to improve the design efficiency of energy systems. The vehicle is a highly dynamic system. The size and the efficiency of the convertors are dependent on the dynamic driving profile. In order to increase the energy efficiency, using energy integration techniques, an adapted methodology is required to choose the best points for the integrated system design. The idea is to clusterize the dynamic profile on typical multi-periods of the vehicle use. The energy system design is then optimized for these typical multi-periods. In this article a new methodology is applied on hybrid electric vehicles, in order to define the energy integrated powertrain configuration of the vehicle. The energy recovery potential of a single stage Organic Rankine Cycle for a thermal engine in combination with a hybrid electric powertrain is assessed for different drive cycles profiles and comfort situations. After the energy integration, a multi-objective optimization is applied to define the optimal design of a hybrid electric vehicle with a waste heat recovery system. - Highlights: • K-means algorithm transforms the dynamic driving profile on static multi-periods. • The clusters represent the typical powertrain use and size the heat recovery utility. • The maximal heat recovery potential on thermal powertrains is 11% for urban driving. • The maximal heat recovery potential on hybrid electric powertrains is 5%. • Engine downsizing increases heat recovery potential on hybrid electric powertrains

  8. Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in a regional wind-thermal power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeransson, Lisa; Karlsson, Sten; Johnsson, Filip

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates consequences of integrating plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in a wind-thermal power system supplied by one quarter of wind power and three quarters of thermal generation. Four different PHEV integration strategies, with different impacts on the total electric load profile, have been investigated. The study shows that PHEVs can reduce the CO 2 -emissions from the power system if actively integrated, whereas a passive approach to PHEV integration (i.e. letting people charge the car at will) is likely to result in an increase in emissions compared to a power system without PHEV load. The reduction in emissions under active PHEV integration strategies is due to a reduction in emissions related to thermal plant start-ups and part load operation. Emissions of the power sector are reduced with up to 4.7% compared to a system without PHEVs, according to the simulations. Allocating this emission reduction to the PHEV electricity consumption only, and assuming that the vehicles in electric mode is about 3 times as energy efficient as standard gasoline operation, total emissions from PHEVs would be less than half the emissions of a standard car, when running in electric mode.

  9. Day-Ahead Self-Scheduling of Thermal Generator in Competitive Electricity Market Using Hybrid PSO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pindoriya, N.M.; Singh, Sri Niwas; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    in day-ahead energy market subject to operational constraints and 2) at the same time, to minimize the risk due to uncertainty in price forecast. Therefore, it is a conflicting biobjective optimization problem which has both binary and continuous optimization variables considered as constrained mixed......This paper presents a hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm (HPSO) to solve the day-ahead selfscheduling for thermal power producer in competitive electricity market. The objective functions considered to model the selfscheduling problem are: 1) to maximize the profit from selling energy...... integer nonlinear programming. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for self-scheduling in a dayahead energy market, the locational margin price (LMP) forecast uncertainty in PJM electricity market is considered. An adaptive wavelet neural network (AWNN) is used to forecast the dayahead...

  10. A Crewed Mission to Apophis Using a Hybrid Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David R.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Burke, Laura M.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    A BNTEP system is a dual propellant, hybrid propulsion concept that utilizes Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion during high thrust operations, providing 10's of kilo-Newtons of thrust per engine at a high specific impulse (Isp) of 900 s, and an Electric Propulsion (EP) system during low thrust operations at even higher Isp of around 3000 s. Electrical power for the EP system is provided by the BNTR engines in combination with a Brayton Power Conversion (BPC) closed loop system, which can provide electrical power on the order of 100's of kWe. High thrust BNTR operation uses liquid hydrogen (LH2) as reactor coolant propellant expelled out a nozzle, while low thrust EP uses high pressure xenon expelled by an electric grid. By utilizing an optimized combination of low and high thrust propulsion, significant mass savings over a conventional NTR vehicle can be realized. Low thrust mission events, such as midcourse corrections (MCC), tank settling burns, some reaction control system (RCS) burns, and even a small portion at the end of the departure burn can be performed with EP. Crewed and robotic deep space missions to a near Earth asteroid (NEA) are best suited for this hybrid propulsion approach. For these mission scenarios, the Earth return V is typically small enough that EP alone is sufficient. A crewed mission to the NEA Apophis in the year 2028 with an expendable BNTEP transfer vehicle is presented. Assembly operations, launch element masses, and other key characteristics of the vehicle are described. A comparison with a conventional NTR vehicle performing the same mission is also provided. Finally, reusability of the BNTEP transfer vehicle is explored.

  11. High thermal performance lithium-ion battery pack including hybrid active–passive thermal management system for using in hybrid/electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel Li-ion battery pack design including hybrid active–passive thermal management system is presented. The battery pack is suitable for using in hybrid/electric vehicles. Active part of the hybrid thermal management system uses distributed thin ducts, air flow and natural convection as cooling media while the passive part utilizes phase change material/expanded graphite composite (PCM/EG) as cooling/heating component to optimize the thermal performance of the proposed battery pack. High melting enthalpy of PCM/EG composite together with melting of PCM/EG composite at the temperature of 58.9 °C remains the temperature distribution of the battery units in the desired temperature range (below 60 °C). The temperature and voltage distributions in the proposed battery pack design consisting of battery units, distributed thin ducts and PCM/EG composite are calculated by numerical solving of the related partial differential equations. Simulation results obtained by writing M-files code in Matlab environment and plotting the numerical data are presented to validate the theoretical results. A comparison between the thermal and physical characteristics of the proposed battery pack and other latest works is presented that explicitly proves the battery pack performance. - Highlights: • Novel Li-ion battery pack including active and passive thermal management systems. • The battery pack has high thermal performance for ambient temperatures until 55 °C. • Uniform temperature and voltage distributions. • The maximum observed temperature in each battery unit is less than other works. • The maximum temperature dispersion in each battery is less than other works

  12. Investigation of Solar Hybrid Electric/Thermal System with Radiation Concentrator and Thermoelectric Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Arturo Chávez Urbiola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of a solar-concentrating system based on thermoelectric generators (TEGs was performed. The system included an electrical generating unit with 6 serially connected TEGs using a traditional semiconductor material, Bi2Te3, which was illuminated by concentrated solar radiation on one side and cooled by running water on the other side. A sun-tracking concentrator with a mosaic set of mirrors was used; its orientation towards the sun was achieved with two pairs of radiation sensors, a differential amplifier, and two servomotors. The hot side of the TEGs at midday has a temperature of around 200°C, and the cold side is approximately 50°C. The thermosiphon cooling system was designed to absorb the heat passing through the TEGs and provide optimal working conditions. The system generates 20 W of electrical energy and 200 W of thermal energy stored in water with a temperature of around 50°C. The hybrid system studied can be considered as an alternative to photovoltaic/thermal systems, especially in countries with abundant solar radiation, such as Mexico, China, and India.

  13. Hybrids of Solar Sail, Solar Electric, and Solar Thermal Propulsion for Solar-System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar sails have long been known to be an attractive method of propulsion in the inner solar system if the areal density of the overall spacecraft (S/C) could be reduced to approx.10 g/sq m. It has also long been recognized that the figure (precise shape) of useful solar sails needs to be reasonably good, so that the reflected light goes mostly in the desired direction. If one could make large reflective surfaces with reasonable figure at an areal density of approx.10 g/sq m, then several other attractive options emerge. One is to use such sails as solar concentrators for solar-electric propulsion. Current flight solar arrays have a specific output of approx. 100W/kg at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) from the sun, and near-term advances promise to significantly increase this figure. A S/C with an areal density of 10 g/sq m could accelerate up to 29 km/s per year as a solar sail at 1 AU. Using the same sail as a concentrator at 30 AU, the same spacecraft could have up to approx. 45 W of electric power per kg of total S/C mass available for electric propulsion (EP). With an EP system that is 50% power-efficient, exhausting 10% of the initial S/C mass per year as propellant, the exhaust velocity is approx. 119 km/s and the acceleration is approx. 12 km/s per year. This hybrid thus opens attractive options for missions to the outer solar system, including sample-return missions. If solar-thermal propulsion were perfected, it would offer an attractive intermediate between solar sailing in the inner solar system and solar electric propulsion for the outer solar system. In the example above, both the solar sail and solar electric systems don't have a specific impulse that is near-optimal for the mission. Solar thermal propulsion, with an exhaust velocity of the order of 10 km/s, is better matched to many solar system exploration missions. This paper derives the basic relationships between these three propulsion options and gives examples of missions that might be enabled by

  14. Analysis of Heat Transfer in Power Split Device for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Thermal Network Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixin Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rational prediction of temperature field on the differential hybrid system (DHS based on the thermal network method (TNM. The whole thermal network model is built by considering both the contact thermal resistance between gasket and planet gear and the temperature effect on the physical property parameters of lubricant. The contact thermal resistance is obtained by using the concept of contact branch thermal resistance and G-W elastic model. By building an elaborate thermal network model and computing models for power losses and thermal resistances between components, the whole temperature field of DHS under typical operating condition is predicted. Results show that thermal network method can be effectively used to predict the temperature distribution and the rule of temperature variation, the surface roughness significantly affects contact thermal conduction, and the decrease in the thermal resistance of the natural convection between air and DHS housing can effectively improve the thermal environment of DHS.

  15. Novel thermal management system using boiling cooling for high-powered lithium-ion battery packs for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zareer, Maan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    2017-09-01

    A thermal management system is necessary to control the operating temperature of the lithium ion batteries in battery packs for electrical and hybrid electrical vehicles. This paper proposes a new battery thermal management system based on one type of phase change material for the battery packs in hybrid electrical vehicles and develops a three dimensional electrochemical thermal model. The temperature distributions of the batteries are investigated under various operating conditions for comparative evaluations. The proposed system boils liquid propane to remove the heat generated by the batteries, and the propane vapor is used to cool the part of the battery that is not covered with liquid propane. The effect on the thermal behavior of the battery pack of the height of the liquid propane inside the battery pack, relative to the height of the battery, is analyzed. The results show that the propane based thermal management system provides good cooling control of the temperature of the batteries under high and continuous charge and discharge cycles at 7.5C.

  16. Hybrid electric vehicle thermal management and study of the power electronics cooling; Gestion thermique du vehicule hybride et etude du refroidissement de l'electronique de puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouaud, C.

    2004-07-01

    For decreasing the engine's consumption and pollutant emissions, automobile makers are developing hybrid electric vehicles incorporating an electric motor and power electronics leading to new under-hood thermal constraints. This is why we first present the tests results of a new common cooling circuit for all the vehicle components. With the aim of developing new energy management strategies between the components, we have chosen the nodal method to simulate the thermal behaviour of the engine, the electric motor, the power electronics and the cooling circuit. The second part of this thesis deals with a thermal-hydraulic analysis of several power electronics cooling methods, which has led us to choose the multiple jet impingement cooling. Several tests have been made for characterising the performances of this technique and enabled us to establish an optimal configuration. The last part shows the thermal simulation results run with the help of an innovative reduction method of thermal models applied to the power electronics. This technique allowed us to have a low cost of time simulation and will permit, in the future, the real-time control of the hybrid electric vehicle components. (author)

  17. The electrical and thermal transport properties of hybrid zigzag graphene-BN nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Lu, Wei; Zheng, Guo-Hui; Jia, Yalei; Ke, San-Huang

    2017-06-01

    The electron and phonon transport in hybrid graphene-BN zigzag nanoribbons are investigated by the nonequilibrium Green’s function method combined with density functional theory calculations. A 100% spin-polarized electron transport in a large energy window around the Fermi level is found and this behavior is independent of the ribbon width as long as there contain 3 zigzag carbon chains. The phonon transport calculations show that the ratio of C-chain number to BN-chain number will modify the thermal conductance of the hybrid nanoribbon in a complicated manner.

  18. The electrical and thermal transport properties of hybrid zigzag graphene-BN nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Song; Lu, Wei; Zheng, Guo-Hui; Jia, Yalei; Ke, San-Huang

    2017-01-01

    The electron and phonon transport in hybrid graphene-BN zigzag nanoribbons are investigated by the nonequilibrium Green’s function method combined with density functional theory calculations. A 100% spin-polarized electron transport in a large energy window around the Fermi level is found and this behavior is independent of the ribbon width as long as there contain 3 zigzag carbon chains. The phonon transport calculations show that the ratio of C-chain number to BN-chain number will modify the thermal conductance of the hybrid nanoribbon in a complicated manner. (paper)

  19. Electrically and Thermally Conductive Low Density Polyethylene-Based Nanocomposites Reinforced by MWCNT or Hybrid MWCNT/Graphene Nanoplatelets with Improved Thermo-Oxidative Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Paszkiewicz; Anna Szymczyk; Daria Pawlikowska; Jan Subocz; Marek Zenker; Roman Masztak

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the electrical and thermal conductivity and morphological behavior of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) + graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) hybrid nanocomposites (HNCs) have been studied. The distribution of MWCNTs and the hybrid of MWCNTs/GNPs within the polymer matrix has been investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the thermal and electrical conductivity of the LDPE-based nanocomposites increased along wi...

  20. Mechatronics design and experimental verification of an electric-vehicle-based hybrid thermal management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an electric-vehicle-based thermal management system was designed for dual energy sources. An experimental platform developed in a previous study was modified. Regarding the mechanical components, a heat exchanger with a radiator, proportional valve, coolant pipes, and coolant pump was appropriately integrated. Regarding the electric components, two heaters emulating waste heat were controlled using two programmable power supply machines. A rapid-prototyping controller with two temperature inputs and three outputs was designed. Rule-based control strategies were coded to maintain optimal temperatures for the emulated proton exchange membrane fuel cells and lithium batteries. To evaluate the heat power of dual energy sources, driving cycles, energy management control, and efficiency maps of energy sources were considered for deriving time-variant values. The main results are as follows: (a an advanced mechatronics platform was constructed; (b a driving cycle simulation was successfully conducted; and (c coolant temperatures reached their optimal operating ranges when the proportional valve, radiator, and coolant pump were sequentially controlled. The benefits of this novel electric-vehicle-based thermal management system are (a high-efficiency operation of energy sources, (b low occupied volume integrated with energy sources, and (c higher electric vehicle traveling mileage. This system will be integrated with real energy sources and a real electric vehicle in the future.

  1. Thermal and electrical performance of a hybrid design of a solar-thermoelectric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, K.S.; Naghavi, M.S.; Lim, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid solar-thermoelectric system studied under outdoor conditions. • Electrical output voltage and hot water temperatures peaked around 15.30. • Total electrical efficiency was very low, about 0.16% at around 15.30 h. - Abstract: An evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector was fitted with four thermoelectric modules and four water cooling jackets on the condenser side to produce electricity and hot water simultaneously. Each cooling jacket had six mini water-flow channels inside it. Solar heat was absorbed and collected by the evaporator section. Experiments were conducted under outdoor environment with various water coolant flow rates. Once-through coolant water flow was adopted as a first step. Further investigations would be conducted to incorporate an insulated hot water storage tank to evaluate the system economic viability as a power producer and hot water generator. Temperatures were recorded along the evaporator and condenser sections of the heat pipe, thermoelectric junction temperatures and inlet/outlet water channels. This paper presents the experimental results obtained. Typical daily experimental results showed that electrical output voltage and hot water temperatures peaked around 15.30 before decreasing towards the evening. Total electrical efficiency was very low, about 0.16% at around 15.30 h.

  2. A detailed thermal-electrical model of three photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) hybrid air collectors and photovoltaic (PV) module: Comparative study under Algiers climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimani, Mohamed El Amine; Amirat, Madjid; Kurucz, Ildikó; Bahria, Sofiane; Hamidat, Abderrahmane; Chaouch, Wafa Braham

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A detailed thermal and electrical model for PV and PV/T systems has been presented. • The developed numerical model was validated successfully with previously published experimental results. • A comparative study between four solar devices (PV and PV/T systems) was carried out. • The experimental weather conditions of Algiers site are used in the numerical model. • The glazed double-pass photovoltaic/thermal air collector shows the best overall energy efficiency. - Abstract: The thermal photovoltaic hybrid collector is a genuine cogeneration technology; it can produce electricity and heat simultaneously. In this paper, a comparative study is presented between four solar device configurations: photovoltaic module (PV-I), conventional hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-II), glazed hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-III) and glazed double-pass hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-IV). A numerical model is developed and validated through experimental results indicated in the previous literature. The numerical model takes the heat balance equations and different thermal and electrical parameters into account for each configuration included in this study, the energy performances are evaluated with a sample weather data of Algiers site. The numerical results show that the daily average of overall energy efficiency reaches: 29.63%, 51.02%, 69.47% and 74% for the first (PV-I), the second (PV/T-II), the third (PV/T-III) and the fourth (PV/T-IV) configurations respectively. These values are obtained with an air flow of 0.023 kg/s and introducing a sample of experimental weather data collected in Algiers site for a sunny day in summer.

  3. Synthesis and electrical characterization of low-temperature thermal-cured epoxy resin/functionalized silica hybrid-thin films for application as gate dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Moonkyong, E-mail: nmk@keri.re.kr [HVDC Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); System on Chip Chemical Process Research Center, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Taec [Creative and Fundamental Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Cheol [HVDC Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Dong [Creative and Fundamental Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-31

    Thermal-cured hybrid materials were synthesized from homogenous hybrid sols of epoxy resins and organoalkoxysilane-functionalized silica. The chemical structures of raw materials and obtained hybrid materials were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal resistance of the hybrids was enhanced by hybridization. The interaction between epoxy matrix and the silica particles, which caused hydrogen bonding and van der Waals force was strengthened by organoalkoxysilane. The degradation temperature of the hybrids was improved by approximately 30 °C over that of the parent epoxy material. The hybrid materials were formed into uniformly coated thin films of about 50 nm-thick using a spin coater. An optimum mixing ratio was used to form smooth-surfaced hybrid films. The electrical property of the hybrid film was characterized, and the leakage current was found to be well below 10{sup −6} A cm{sup −2}. - Highlights: • Preparation of thermal-curable hybrid materials using epoxy resin and silica. • The thermal stability was enhanced through hybridization. • The insulation property of hybrid film was investigated as gate dielectrics.

  4. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  5. High thermal efficiency and low emission performance of a methanol reformed gas fueled engine for hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Nakajima, Y.; Shudo, T.; Hiruma, M. [Musahi Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan); Komatsu, H.; Takagi, Y. [Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., Yokosuka (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    An internal combustion engine (ICE) operation was carried out experimentally by using the mixture of air and fuel simulating the reformed gas as the fuel. It has been found that the engine can expectedly attain ultra-low emission and high thermal efficiency, namely 35% brake thermal efficiency in the basis of the low heat value of the theoretically reformed gas or 42% in the basis of the low heat value of methanol. By using the result for the estimation of the total thermal efficiency at the end of the motor output shaft of a hybrid electric vehicle, it has been found that the total thermal efficiency of the reformed gas engine system is 34% in case of a 120% energy increment and 33% in case of a 116% energy increment with a little higher NOx emission of 60 ppm while the counterpart of the fuel cell system is 34%. When the emission level for EZEV is required, the total thermal efficiency falls to 32% in case of a 120% energy increment and 31% in case of a 116% energy increment. From the points of the reliability proved by the long history, higher specific power and low cost, the internal combustion engine system with the thermal efficiency almost equal to that of the fuel cell (FC) system is further more practical when methanol is used as the fuel. (orig.)

  6. Prediction of thermal behaviors of an air-cooled lithium-ion battery system for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Seok; Kang, Dal Mo

    2014-12-01

    Thermal management has been one of the major issues in developing a lithium-ion (Li-ion) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery system since the Li-ion battery is vulnerable to excessive heat load under abnormal or severe operational conditions. In this work, in order to design a suitable thermal management system, a simple modeling methodology describing thermal behavior of an air-cooled Li-ion battery system was proposed from vehicle components designer's point of view. A proposed mathematical model was constructed based on the battery's electrical and mechanical properties. Also, validation test results for the Li-ion battery system were presented. A pulse current duty and an adjusted US06 current cycle for a two-mode HEV system were used to validate the accuracy of the model prediction. Results showed that the present model can give good estimations for simulating convective heat transfer cooling during battery operation. The developed thermal model is useful in structuring the flow system and determining the appropriate cooling capacity for a specified design prerequisite of the battery system.

  7. Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization based Day-Ahead Self-Scheduling for Thermal Generator in Competitive Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pindoriya, Naran M.; Singh, S.N.; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    in day-ahead energy market subject to operational constraints and 2) at the same time, to minimize the risk due to uncertainty in price forecast. Therefore, it is a conflicting bi-objective optimization problem which has both binary and continuous optimization variables considered as constrained mixed......This paper presents a hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm (HPSO) to solve the day-ahead self-scheduling for thermal power producer in competitive electricity market. The objective functions considered to model the self-scheduling problem are 1) to maximize the profit from selling energy...... integer nonlinear programming. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for self-scheduling in a day-ahead energy market, the locational margin price (LMP) forecast uncertainty in PJM electricity market is considered. An adaptive wavelet neural network (AWNN) is used to forecast the day...

  8. Thermoelectrics as elements of hybrid-electric vehicle thermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headings, Leon; Washington, Gregory; Jaworski, Christopher M.

    2008-03-01

    Despite vast technological improvements, the traditional internal combustion powered vehicle still achieves only 25- 30% efficiency, with the remainder lost primarily as heat. While the load leveling offered by hybrid-electric vehicle technology helps to improve this overall efficiency, part of the efficiency gains are achieved by making new systems such as regenerative braking viable. In a similar fashion, thermoelectric (TE) energy recovery has long been considered for traditional vehicles with mixed results, but little has been done to consider thermoelectrics in the framework of the unique energy systems of hybrid vehicles. Systems that may not have been viable or even possible with traditional vehicles may offer improvements to system efficiency as well as emissions, vehicle durability, passenger comfort, and cost. This research describes a simulation developed for evaluating and optimizing thermoelectric energy recovery systems and results for four different system configurations. Two novel system configurations are presented which offer the potential for additional benefits such as emissions reduction that will soon be quantified. In addition, a test setup is presented which was constructed for the testing and validation of various thermoelectric recovery systems. Actual test performance was near the expected theoretical performance and supported the conclusions reached from the computer simulations.

  9. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  10. Electrically and Thermally Conductive Low Density Polyethylene-Based Nanocomposites Reinforced by MWCNT or Hybrid MWCNT/Graphene Nanoplatelets with Improved Thermo-Oxidative Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Paszkiewicz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electrical and thermal conductivity and morphological behavior of low density polyethylene (LDPE/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs + graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs hybrid nanocomposites (HNCs have been studied. The distribution of MWCNTs and the hybrid of MWCNTs/GNPs within the polymer matrix has been investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results showed that the thermal and electrical conductivity of the LDPE-based nanocomposites increased along with the increasing content of carbon nanofillers. However, one could observe greater improvement in the thermal and electrical conductivity when only MWCNTs have been incorporated. Moreover, the improvement in tensile properties and thermal stability has been observed when carbon nanofillers have been mixed with LDPE. At the same time, the increasing content of MWCNTs and MWCNTs/GNPs caused an increase in the melt viscosity with only little effect on phase transition temperatures.

  11. Electrically and Thermally Conductive Low Density Polyethylene-Based Nanocomposites Reinforced by MWCNT or Hybrid MWCNT/Graphene Nanoplatelets with Improved Thermo-Oxidative Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszkiewicz, Sandra; Szymczyk, Anna; Pawlikowska, Daria; Subocz, Jan; Zenker, Marek; Masztak, Roman

    2018-04-22

    In this paper, the electrical and thermal conductivity and morphological behavior of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) + graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) hybrid nanocomposites (HNCs) have been studied. The distribution of MWCNTs and the hybrid of MWCNTs/GNPs within the polymer matrix has been investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the thermal and electrical conductivity of the LDPE-based nanocomposites increased along with the increasing content of carbon nanofillers. However, one could observe greater improvement in the thermal and electrical conductivity when only MWCNTs have been incorporated. Moreover, the improvement in tensile properties and thermal stability has been observed when carbon nanofillers have been mixed with LDPE. At the same time, the increasing content of MWCNTs and MWCNTs/GNPs caused an increase in the melt viscosity with only little effect on phase transition temperatures.

  12. Evaluation of the Effect of Operating Parameters on Thermal Performance of an Integrated Starter Generator in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The belt-driven-type integrated starter generator motor in a hybrid electric vehicle is vulnerable to thermal problems owing to its high output power and proximity to the engine. These problems may cause demagnetization and insulation breakdown, reducing the performance and durability of the motor. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal performance and enhance the cooling capacity of the belt-driven type Integrated Starter Generator. In this study, the internal temperature variations of the motor were investigated with respect to the operating parameters, particularly the rotation speed and environment temperature. At a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 4500 rpm, the coil of the motor was heated to approximately 189 °C in generating mode. The harsh conditions of the starting mode were analyzed by assuming that the motor operates during the start-up time at a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 800 rpm; the coil was heated to approximately 200 °C, which is close to the insulation temperature limit. The model for analyzing the thermal performance of the ISG was verified by comparing its results with those obtained through a generating-mode-based experiment

  13. Electrochemical modeling and performance evaluation of a new ammonia-based battery thermal management system for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zareer, Maan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    The operating temperatures of lithium ion battery packs in electrical vehicles and hybrid electrical vehicles need to be maintained in an optimum range for better performance and longer battery life. This paper proposes a new battery pack cooling system that utilizes the low saturation temperature of the fuel in ammonia based future hybrid electric vehicles. In the proposed cooling system, the batteries are partially submerged in to the liquid ammonia, and the liquid ammonia cools the battery by absorbing the heat and evaporating and the ammonia vapor cools the part of the battery not covered by liquid ammonia. The relationships between the performance of the battery cooling system and the maximum temperature (and the temperature distribution) in the battery are investigated for practical applications. The effect of the length of the battery that is submerged in to the liquid ammonia on the thermal performance of battery is studied and evaluated. The present results show that the proposed ammonia based cooling system offers a unique opportunity to maintain the operating temperature of the battery in an optimum range for consecutive charging and discharging phases at a high rate of 7.5C.

  14. Exergy analysis and optimization of a thermal management system with phase change material for hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javani, N.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G.F.; Yilbas, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, energy and exergy analyses are conducted to investigate a new cooling system of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). A latent heat thermal energy storage system is integrated with an active refrigeration cycle where octadecane is selected as the phase change material (PCM). The liquid cooling system flows through the chiller following a conventional vapor compression cooling cycle. The latent heat shell and the tube heat exchanger operate in parallel with the chiller and a fraction of coolant enters the heat exchanger and, therefore, decreases the heat load of the chiller, leading to a lower work required by the compressor. The exergy destruction rate and the exergy efficiency of each component in a hybrid thermal management system (TMS) are calculated. In addition, the effects of parameters such as the fraction of coolant entering the heat storage system (PCM mass fraction), evaporator temperature, and compressor pressure ratio on the system performance are investigated. The findings of the exergy analysis reveal that the overall exergy efficiency of the system with PCM presence is 31%, having the largest exergy destruction rate of 0.4 kW and the heat exchangers have lower exergy efficiency as compared to other components. In addition, the results of the parametric study show that an increase in PCM mass fraction results in an increase in exergy efficiency of the system. An environmental impact assessment is also conducted and the results show that an increase in exergy efficiency of the cooling system reduces greenhouse gasses and also increases the sustainability of the system. Moreover, a multi-objective optimization using the genetic algorithm is performed by incorporating two objective functions, namely exergy efficiency to be maximized and total cost rate of the system to be minimized. A Pareto frontier is obtained and a single desirable optimal solution is selected based on LINMAP decision-making process. The results show that the maximum

  15. Thermal Performance of Motor and Inverter in an Integrated Starter Generator System for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Chul Kim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available If the integrated starter generator (ISG motor and inverter operate under continuously high loading conditions, the system’s performance and durability will decrease and the heat dissipation requirements will increase. Therefore, in this study, we developed two cooling designs for the ISG motor and inverter, and then carried out both a model analysis and an experiment on the fluid flow and thermal characteristics of the system under various operating conditions. As the outdoor temperature increased from 25 °C to 95 °C, the coil temperature of the air-cooled motor increased by about 82 °C. Under the harsh-air condition of 95 °C, the coil of the air-cooled motor increased to a maximum temperature of about 158.5 °C. We also determined that the temperature of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET chip in the liquid-cooled inverter increased to a maximum temperature of about 96.8 °C under a coolant flow rate of 4 L/min and a coolant temperature of 65 °C. The observed thermal performance of the ISG motor and inverter using the proposed cooling structures was found to be sufficient for heat loads under various real driving conditions for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV.

  16. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  17. Optimal stochastic short-term thermal and electrical operation of fuel cell/photovoltaic/battery/grid hybrid energy system in the presence of demand response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majidi, Majid; Nojavan, Sayyad; Zare, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • On-grid photovoltaic/battery/fuel cell system is considered as hybrid system. • Thermal and electrical operation of hybrid energy system is studied. • Hybrid energy system is used to reduce dependency on upstream grid for load serving. • Demand response program is proposed to manage the electrical load. • Demand response program is proposed to reduce hybrid energy system’s operation cost. - Abstract: In this paper, cost-efficient operation problem of photovoltaic/battery/fuel cell hybrid energy system has been evaluated in the presence of demand response program. Each load curve has off-peak, mid and peak time periods in which the energy prices are different. Demand response program transfers some amount of load from peak periods to other periods to flatten the load curve and minimize total cost. So, the main goal is to meet the energy demand and propose a cost-efficient approach to minimize system’s total cost including system’s electrical cost and thermal cost and the revenue from exporting power to the upstream grid. A battery has been utilized as an electrical energy storage system and a heat storage tank is used as a thermal energy storage system to save energy in off-peak and mid-peak hours and then supply load in peak hours which leads to reduction of cost. The proposed cost-efficient operation problem of photovoltaic/battery/fuel cell hybrid energy system is modeled by a mixed-integer linear program and solved by General algebraic modeling system optimization software under CPLEX solver. Two case studies are investigated to show the effects of demand response program on reduction of total cost.

  18. Electric Motor-Generator for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Odvářka, Erik; Mebarki, Abdeslam; Gerada, David; Brown, Neil; Ondrůšek, Čestmír

    2009-01-01

    Several topologies of electrical machines can be used to meet requirements for application in a hybrid electric vehicle. This paper describes process of an electric motor-generator selection, considering electromagnetic, thermal and basic control design. The requested electrical machine must develop 45 kW in continuous operation at 1300 rpm with field weakening capability up to 2500 rpm. Both radial and axial flux topologies are considered as potential candidates. A family of axial flux machi...

  19. Facile preparation of carbon nanotubes-graphene hybrids and the effect of aspect ratio of carbon nanotubes on electrical and thermal properties of silicone rubber based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shizhen; Bai, Lu; Zheng, Junping

    2018-01-01

    Thermal exfoliation, as an effective and easily scalable method, was widely used to produce graphene (GE). In order to prevent the severe stacking of GE sheets after thermal exfoliation process, a facile technique was used to solve this problem through the barrier effect of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Two kinds of CNTs with different aspect ratios (AR) were taken to prepare CNTs-GE hybrids using this technique, and then the effect of AR of CNTs (namely CNTs-L for low AR and CNTs-H for high AR) in the hybrids on the performance of silicone rubber (SR) composites was investigated. The results indicate that the presence of CNTs can effectively impede the stacking of GE sheets and the hybrids are dispersed uniformly in the SR matrix. With the addition of CNTs-GE hybrids, the resulted SR composites exhibit greatly improved electrical and thermal properties, especially for the composites filled with CNTs-H-GE hybrid. At the hybrids content of 3.0 wt%, the volume resistivity of CNTs-H-GE/SR composite is 5 × 104 Ω cm (about 10 orders of magnitude decrease compared with pure SR). And the thermal conductivity increases by 78% compared to the pure SR. But as for the CNTs-L-GE/SR composite, the corresponding values are 3 × 106 Ω cm and 59%, respectively. In terms of thermal stability, the CNTs-H-GE/SR composite containing 1.0 wt% hybrid exhibits the maximum improvement of initial degradation temperature (419 °C) compared with the CNTs-L-GE/SR composite (393 °C) and pure SR (365 °C).

  20. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle LiFePO4 battery life implications of thermal management, driving conditions, and regional climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Tugce; Litster, Shawn; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2017-01-01

    Battery degradation strongly depends on temperature, and many plug-in electric vehicle applications employ thermal management strategies to extend battery life. The effectiveness of thermal management depends on the design of the thermal management system as well as the battery chemistry, cell and pack design, vehicle system characteristics, and operating conditions. We model a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with an air-cooled battery pack composed of cylindrical LiFePO4/graphite cells and simulate the effect of thermal management, driving conditions, regional climate, and vehicle system design on battery life. We estimate that in the absence of thermal management, aggressive driving can cut battery life by two thirds; a blended gas/electric-operation control strategy can quadruple battery life relative to an all-electric control strategy; larger battery packs can extend life by an order of magnitude relative to small packs used for all-electric operation; and batteries last 73-94% longer in mild-weather San Francisco than in hot Phoenix. Air cooling can increase battery life by a factor of 1.5-6, depending on regional climate and driving patterns. End of life criteria has a substantial effect on battery life estimates.

  1. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  2. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  3. Hybrid fuel cells technologies for electrical microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, Jose Ignacio; Zamora, Inmaculada; San Martin, Jose Javier; Aperribay, Victor; Eguia, Pablo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Alda. de Urquijo, s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Hybrid systems are characterized by containing two or more electrical generation technologies, in order to optimize the global efficiency of the processes involved. These systems can present different operating modes. Besides, they take into account aspects that not only concern the electrical and thermal efficiencies, but also the reduction of pollutant emissions. There is a wide range of possible configurations to form hybrid systems, including hydrogen, renewable energies, gas cycles, vapour cycles or both. Nowadays, these technologies are mainly used for energy production in electrical microgrids. Some examples of these technologies are: hybridization processes of fuel cells with wind turbines and photovoltaic plants, cogeneration and trigeneration processes that can be configured with fuel cell technologies, etc. This paper reviews and analyses the main characteristics of electrical microgrids and the systems based on fuel cells for polygeneration and hybridization processes. (author)

  4. Optimum Dispatch of Hybrid Solar Thermal (HSTP Electric Power Plant Using Non-Smooth Cost Function and Emission Function for IEEE-30 Bus System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Kumar Dash

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic objective of economic load dispatch (ELD is to optimize the total fuel cost of hybrid solar thermal electric power plant (HSTP. In ELD problems the cost function for each generator has been approximated by a single quadratic cost equation. As cost of coal increases, it becomes even more important have a good model for the production cost of each generator for the solar thermal hybrid system. A more accurate formulation is obtained for the ELD problem by expressing the generation cost function as a piece wise quadratic cost function. However, the solution methods for ELD problem with piece wise quadratic cost function requires much complicated algorithms such as the hierarchical structure approach along with evolutionary computations (ECs. A test system comprising of 10 units with 29 different fuel [7] cost equations is considered in this paper. The applied genetic algorithm method will provide optimal solution for the given load demand.

  5. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  6. Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, D. C.

    The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

  7. Electrical conductivity of the thermal dusty plasma under the conditions of a hybrid plasma environment simulation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukhovitskii, Dmitry I.; Petrov, Oleg F.; Hyde, Truell W.; Herdrich, Georg; Laufer, Rene; Dropmann, Michael; Matthews, Lorin S.

    2015-05-01

    We discuss the inductively heated plasma generator (IPG) facility in application to the generation of the thermal dusty plasma formed by the positively charged dust particles and the electrons emitted by them. We develop a theoretical model for the calculation of plasma electrical conductivity under typical conditions of the IPG. We show that the electrical conductivity of dusty plasma is defined by collisions with the neutral gas molecules and by the electron number density. The latter is calculated in the approximations of an ideal and strongly coupled particle system and in the regime of weak and strong screening of the particle charge. The maximum attainable electron number density and corresponding maximum plasma electrical conductivity prove to be independent of the particle emissivity. Analysis of available experiments is performed, in particular, of our recent experiment with plasma formed by the combustion products of a propane-air mixture and the CeO2 particles injected into it. A good correlation between the theory and experimental data points to the adequacy of our approach. Our main conclusion is that a level of the electrical conductivity due to the thermal ionization of the dust particles is sufficiently high to compete with that of the potassium-doped plasmas.

  8. Tuning of the Seebeck Coefficient and the Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Hybrid Materials Based on Polypyrrole and Bismuth Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnida, Katarzyna E; Pilarczyk, Kacper; Knutelski, Marcin; Marzec, Mateusz; Gajewska, Marta; Kosonowski, Artur; Chlebda, Damian; Lis, Bartłomiej; Przybylski, Marek

    2018-04-06

    The growing demand for clean energy catalyzes the development of new devices capable of generating electricity from renewable energy resources. One of the possible approaches focuses on the use of thermoelectric materials (TE), which may utilize waste heat, water, and solar thermal energy to generate electrical power. An improvement of the performance of such devices may be achieved through the development of composites made of an organic matrix filled with nanostructured thermoelectric materials working in a synergetic way. The first step towards such designs requires a better understanding of the fundamental interactions between available materials. In this paper, this matter is investigated and the questions regarding the change of electrical and thermal properties of nanocomposites based on low-conductive polypyrrole enriched with bismuth nanowires of well-defined geometry and morphology is answered. It is clearly demonstrated that the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient may be tuned either simultaneously or separately within particular Bi NWs content ranges, and that both parameters may be increased at the same time. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  10. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid Electric Vehicle Evaluations Hybrid Electric Vehicle Evaluations How Hybrid Electric Vehicles Work Hybrid electric vehicles combine a primary power source, an energy storage system, and an is used to propel the vehicle during normal drive cycles. The batteries supply additional power for

  11. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications The following technical papers, conference papers, and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hybrid electric fleet vehicle Class 8 Hybrid Electric Delivery Trucks. Mike Lammert. (2011) FedEx Delivery Trucks In-Use and Vehicle

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    . A wide variety of hybrid electric vehicle models is currently available. Although HEVs are often -go traffic), further improving fuel economy. Mild hybrid systems cannot power the vehicle using Hybrid Electric Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric

  13. Solar thermal electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasemagha, Khairy Ramadan

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of modeling the thermal performance and economic feasibility of large (utility scale) and small solar thermal power plants for electricity generation. A number of solar concepts for power systems applications have been investigated. Each concept has been analyzed over a range of plant power ratings from 1 MW(sub e) to 300 MW(sub e) and over a range of capacity factors from a no-storage case (capacity factor of about 0.25 to 0.30) up to intermediate load capacity factors in the range of 0.46 to 0.60. The solar plant's economic viability is investigated by examining the effect of various parameters on the plant costs (both capital and O & M) and the levelized energy costs (LEC). The cost components are reported in six categories: collectors, energy transport, energy storage, energy conversion, balance of plant, and indirect/contingency costs. Concentrator and receiver costs are included in the collector category. Thermal and electric energy transport costs are included in the energy transport category. Costs for the thermal or electric storage are included in the energy storage category; energy conversion costs are included in the energy conversion category. The balance of plant cost category comprises the structures, land, service facilities, power conditioning, instrumentation and controls, and spare part costs. The indirect/contingency category consists of the indirect construction and the contingency costs. The concepts included in the study are (1) molten salt cavity central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-C-Salt); (2) molten salt external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Salt); (3) sodium external central receiver with sodium storage (PFCR/RE-Na); (4) sodium external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Na/Salt); (5) water/steam external central receiver with oil/rock storage (PFCR/R-E-W/S); (6) parabolic dish with stirling engine conversion and lead acid battery storage (PFDR/SLAB); (7) parabolic dish

  14. Photovoltaic solar panel for a hybrid PV/thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenko, R.; Licea-Jimenez, L.; Perez-Garcia, S.A.; Perez-Robles, J.F.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Vorobiev, Y. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro, (Mexico); Vorobiev, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria; Dehesa-Carrasco, U. [Instituto Tec. Del Istmo, Oaxaco (Mexico). Dep. de Ingenieria Electromecanica

    2004-05-01

    The hybrid PV-thermal system was studied, with the photovoltaic panel (PVP) area much smaller than that of the solar collector. Performance of the different panels in the system was investigated, in particular, those made of crystalline (c-) Si, {alpha}-Si and CuInSe{sub 2} as well as different materials and constructions for the thermal contact between the panel and the collector. Our conclusion is that the PVP for application in a hybrid system needs a special design providing efficient heat extraction from it. PVP was designed and made. Its study has shown that this design provides the high electrical and thermal efficiency of the hybrid system. (author)

  15. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  16. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Boberg, Evan S.; Lawrie, Robert E.; Castaing, Francois J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

  17. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R.G. Jr.; Boberg, E.S.; Lawrie, R.E.; Castaing, F.J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration. 34 figs.

  18. Thermal electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.

    2001-01-01

    The basic principle of a thermal power plant is to heat up water in the pipe system of a boiler to generate steam, which exits the boiler with high pressure and releases its energy to a tandem-arranged turbine. This energy is transmitted to a generator over a common shaft. The generated electricity is fed into the power supply system. The processed steam is condensed to water by means of a condenser and transferred back into the pipe system of the boiler (feed water circuit). In general the following techniques are applied for the combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels: dry bottom boiler, wet bottom boiler, grate firing, fluidized bed combustion, gasification systems - integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), oil firing technique, gas firing technique. Residues from power plants are generated by the following processes and emission reduction measures: separation of bottom ash or boiler slag in the boiler; separation of fly ash (particulate matter) by means of filters or electric precipitators; desulphurization through lime additive processes, dry sorption or spray absorption processes and lime scrubbing processes; desulphurization according to Wellmann-Lord and to the Walther process; reduction of NO x emissions by selective catalytic reduction (SCR). In this case spent catalyst results as a waste unless it is recycled. No residues are generated by the following measures to reduce NO x emissions: minimization of nitrogen by selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR); adaptations of the firing technology to avoid emissions - primary measures (low-NO x burners, CO reduction). However, this may change the quality of fly ash by increasing unburnt carbon. Combustion of fossil fuels (with the exception of gaseous fuels) and biomass generates large quantities of residues - with coal being the greatest contributor - either from the fuel itself in the form of ashes, or from flue gas cleaning measures. In coal-fired power plants huge amounts of inorganic residues

  19. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  20. Thermal Performance of Motor and Inverter in an Integrated Starter Generator System for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Sung Chul Kim

    2013-01-01

    If the integrated starter generator (ISG) motor and inverter operate under continuously high loading conditions, the system’s performance and durability will decrease and the heat dissipation requirements will increase. Therefore, in this study, we developed two cooling designs for the ISG motor and inverter, and then carried out both a model analysis and an experiment on the fluid flow and thermal characteristics of the system under various operating conditions. As the outdoor temperature in...

  1. Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Thermal Behavior of a Lithium-Ion Battery Module for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeshin Yi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a modeling methodology to predict the effects of operating conditions on the thermal behavior of a lithium-ion battery (LIB module. The potential and current density distributions on the electrodes of an LIB cell are predicted as a function of discharge time based on the principle of charge conservation. By using the modeling results of the potential and current density distributions of the LIB cell, the non-uniform distribution of the heat generation rate in a single LIB cell within the module is calculated. Based on the heat generation rate in the single LIB cell determined as a function of the position on the electrode and time, a three-dimensional thermal modeling of an LIB module is performed to calculate the three-dimensional velocity, pressure, and temperature distributions within the LIB module as a function of time at various operating conditions. Thermal modeling of an LIB module is validated by the comparison between the experimental measurements and the modeling results. The effect of the cooling condition of the LIB module on the temperature rise of the LIB cells within the module and the uniformity of the distribution of the cell temperatures are analyzed quantitatively based on the modeling results.

  2. Overview of hybrid electric vehicle trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haomiao; Yang, Weidong; Chen, Yingshu; Wang, Yun

    2018-04-01

    With the increase of per capita energy consumption, environmental pollution is worsening. Using new alternative sources of energy, reducing the use of conventional fuel-powered engines is imperative. Due to the short period, pure electric vehicles cannot be mass-produced and there are many problems such as imperfect charging facilities. Therefore, the development of hybrid electric vehicles is particularly important in a certain period. In this paper, the classification of hybrid vehicle, research status of hybrid vehicle and future development trends of hybrid vehicles is introduced. It is conducive to the public understanding of hybrid electric vehicles, which has a certain theoretical significance.

  3. The Federal electric and hybrid vehicle program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The commercial development and use of electric and hybrid vehicles is discussed with respect to its application as a possible alternative transportation system. A market demonstration is described that seeks to place 10,000 electric hybrid vehicles into public and private sector demonstrations.

  4. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  5. Mechanical and thermal design of hybrid blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    The thermal and mechanical aspects of hybrid reactor blanket design considerations are discussed. This paper is intended as a companion to that of J. D. Lee of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory on the nuclear aspects of hybrid reactor blanket design. The major design characteristics of hybrid reactor blankets are discussed with emphasis on the areas of difference between hybrid reactors and standard fusion or fission reactors. Specific examples are used to illustrate the design tradeoffs and choices that must be made in hybrid reactor design. These examples are drawn from the work on the Mirror Hybrid Reactor

  6. Hybrid photovoltaic–thermal solar collectors dynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrizal, N.; Chemisana, D.; Rosell, J.I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal dynamic model is presented. ► The model, once calibrated, can predict the power output for any set of climate data. ► The physical electrical model includes explicitly thermal and irradiance dependences. ► The results agree with those obtained through steady-state characterization. ► The model approaches the junction cell temperature through the system energy balance. -- Abstract: A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal transient model has been developed and validated experimentally. The methodology extends the quasi-dynamic thermal model stated in the EN 12975 in order to involve the electrical performance and consider the dynamic behavior minimizing constraints when characterizing the collector. A backward moving average filtering procedure has been applied to improve the model response for variable working conditions. Concerning the electrical part, the model includes the thermal and radiation dependences in its variables. The results revealed that the characteristic parameters included in the model agree reasonably well with the experimental values obtained from the standard steady-state and IV characteristic curve measurements. After a calibration process, the model is a suitable tool to predict the thermal and electrical performance of a hybrid solar collector, for a specific weather data set.

  7. Thermal Properties of Hybrid Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Cano, Roberto J.; Luong, Hoa; Ratcliffe, James G.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites possess many advantages for aircraft structures over conventional aluminum alloys: light weight, higher strength- and stiffness-to-weight ratio, and low life-cycle maintenance costs. However, the relatively low thermal and electrical conductivities of CFRP composites are deficient in providing structural safety under certain operational conditions such as lightning strikes. One possible solution to these issues is to interleave carbon nanotube (CNT) sheets between conventional carbon fiber (CF) composite layers. However, the thermal and electrical properties of the orthotropic hybrid CNT/CF composites have not been fully understood. In this study, hybrid CNT/CF polymer composites were fabricated by interleaving layers of CNT sheets with Hexcel (Registered Trademark) IM7/8852 prepreg. The CNT sheets were infused with a 5% solution of a compatible epoxy resin prior to composite fabrication. Orthotropic thermal and electrical conductivities of the hybrid polymer composites were evaluated. The interleaved CNT sheets improved the in-plane thermal conductivity of the hybrid composite laminates by about 400% and the electrical conductivity by about 3 orders of magnitude.

  8. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Lori [Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  9. Predictive cruise control in hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Naus, M.J.G.; Jager, B. de; Molengraft, G.J.L. van de; Steinbuch, M.; Aneke, N.P.I.

    2009-01-01

    Deceleration rates have considerable influence on the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles. Given the vehicle characteristics and actual/measured operating conditions, as well as upcoming route information, optimal velocity trajectories can be constructed that maximize energy recovery. To

  10. Thermal stability of PMMA–clay hybrids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Thermal stability of PMMA–clay hybrids. TANUSHREE CHOUDHURY* and NIRENDRA M MISRA. Department of Applied Chemistry, Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad 826 004, India. MS received 9 December 2008. Abstract. Materials with small particle size are being extensively used in composites and hybrid ...

  11. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Imagine being able to one that's in a standard hybrid electric vehicle. The larger battery pack allows plug-in hybrids to between fill-ups) that's very similar to the range of a conventional vehicle. A plug-in hybrid vehicle's

  12. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  13. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  14. Performance analysis of a hybrid photovoltaic thermal solar air heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohd Yusof; Yatim, Baharudin; Abu Bakar, Mohd Nazari; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman

    2006-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV/T) air heater is a collector that combines thermal and photovoltaic systems in one single hybrid generating unit. It generators both thermal and electrical energies simultaneously. A new design of a double-pass photovoltaic-thermal solar air collector with CPC and fins was successfully developed and fabricated at Universiti Kebangsaam Malaysia. This collector tested under actual environmental conditions to study its performance over a range of operating conditions. The test set-up, instrumentation and measurement are described further. It was found that the performance of the collector was in agreement with the theoretical prediction. Results of the outdoors test are presented and discussed(Author)

  15. Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles plugging the vehicle into an electric power source. PHEVs are powered by an internal combustion engine that

  16. Thermal simulation of a cooling system of hybrid commercial vehicles; Thermalsimulation eine Hybrid-LKW-Kuehlsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroh, Christoph; Schnoerch, Stefan; Rathberger, Christian [Magna Powertrain Engineering Center Steyr GmbH und Co. KG, St. Valentin (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    In the past few years hybrid vehicles have been in the center of automotive engineering efforts, in particular in the field of passenger cars. But hybrid powertrains will also be important for commercial trucks. This focus on hybrid vehicles leads to high demands on thermal management since the additional components in a hybrid vehicle need appropriate cooling or even heating. In the given paper the simulation of a complete cooling system of a hybrid commercial vehicle will be explained. For this virtual examination the commercial 1D thermal management software KULI will be used, a co-simulation with several programs will not be done deliberately. Yet all aspects which are relevant for a global assessment of the thermal management are considered. The main focus is put on the investigation of appropriate concepts for the fluid circuits, including low and high temperature circuits, electric water pumps, etc. Moreover, also a refrigerant circuit with a chiller for active battery cooling will be used, the appropriate control strategy is implemented as well. For simulating transient profiles a simple driving simulation model is included, using road profile, ambient conditions, and various vehicle parameters as input. In addition an engine model is included which enables the investigation of fuel consumption potentials. This simulation model shows how the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle can be investigated with a single program and with reasonable effort. (orig.)

  17. Mechanical design of a free-wheel clutch for the thermal engine of a parallel hybrid vehicle with thermal and electrical power-train; Conception mecanique d'un accouplement a roue libre pour le moteur thermique d'un vehicule hybride parallele thermique et electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, J.J.

    2001-07-01

    This thesis deals with the design of a free-wheel clutch. This unit is intended to replace the automated dry single-plate clutch of a parallel hybrid car with thermal and electric power-train. Furthermore, the car is a single shaft zero emission vehicle fitted with a controlled gearbox. Chapter one focuses on the type of hybrid vehicle studied. It shows the need to isolate the engine from the rest of the drive train, depending on the driving conditions. Chapter two presents and compares the two alternatives: automated clutch and free-wheel. In order to develop the free-wheel option, the torsional vibrations in the automotive drive line had to be closely studied. It required the design of a specific modular tool, as presented in chapter three, with the help of MATLAB SIMULINK. Lastly, chapter four shows how this tool was used during the design stage and specifies the way to build it. The free-wheel is then to be fitted to a prototype hybrid vehicle, constructed by both the LAMIH and PSA. (author)

  18. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  19. Electric-drive tractability indicator integrated in hybrid electric vehicle tachometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Goro; Zhou, Jing; Weslati, Feisel

    2014-09-02

    An indicator, system and method of indicating electric drive usability in a hybrid electric vehicle. A tachometer is used that includes a display having an all-electric drive portion and a hybrid drive portion. The all-electric drive portion and the hybrid drive portion share a first boundary which indicates a minimum electric drive usability and a beginning of hybrid drive operation of the vehicle. The indicated level of electric drive usability is derived from at least one of a percent battery discharge, a percent maximum torque provided by the electric drive, and a percent electric drive to hybrid drive operating cost for the hybrid electric vehicle.

  20. A new parallel-type hybrid electric-vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Huang, K.; Tzeng, S.-C.

    2004-01-01

    This new system promises an internal-combustion engine that always maintains optimal operating conditions. The system comprises two parts: (1) an internal-combustion power-distribution device and (2) an integrated design involving the engine and electronic motor. The internal-combustion power-distribution device provides an engine capable of constantly operating in an optimal fashion, minimizing emissions and maximizing thermal-efficiency. The electric motor can generate extra power. Notably, the integrated torque design comprises three helical gears. This design can release the power of the engine or electric motor separately, or can integrate these two different powers into a hybridized power system

  1. The hybrid electric vehicle revolution, off road

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, B.E. [ePower Technologies (United States)

    2004-07-01

    In this presentation the author presents concepts and details of hybrid vehicles in general, including their benefits, then describes off-road hybrid vehicles. Hybrid vehicles have been experimented with for over a century. Demonstrator vehicles include a diesel-electric tractor, an electric lawn tractor, a hybrid snow thrower, and a hybrid wheel loader. A duty cycle for the loader is shown with battery-assisted acceleration, and regenerative braking. Both of these keep the size of the engine small, the loads on it less variable, thus improving fuel economy. A hybrid excavator and its duty cycle is shown. A fuel cell lift truck that is currently in design is illustrated. The author then describes the possibilities of the hydrogen economy where sourcing and infrastructure are yet to be demonstrated on a commercial scale. The author predicts that off-road hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will be commercially viable five years before on-road applications. The author predicts hydrogen sourced from biogas, photovoltaics, and wind power. tabs, figs.

  2. INNOVATIVE HYBRID GAS/ELECTRIC CHILLER COGENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Kollross; Mike Connolly

    2004-06-30

    Engine-driven chillers are quickly gaining popularity in the market place (increased from 7,000 tons in 1994 to greater than 50,000 tons in 1998) due to their high efficiency, electric peak shaving capability, and overall low operating cost. The product offers attractive economics (5 year pay back or less) in many applications, based on areas cooling requirements and electric pricing structure. When heat is recovered and utilized from the engine, the energy resource efficiency of a natural gas engine-driven chiller is higher than all competing products. As deregulation proceeds, real time pricing rate structures promise high peak demand electric rates, but low off-peak electric rates. An emerging trend with commercial building owners and managers who require air conditioning today is to reduce their operating costs by installing hybrid chiller systems that combine gas and electric units. Hybrid systems not only reduce peak electric demand charges, but also allow customers to level their energy load profiles and select the most economical energy source, gas or electricity, from hour to hour. Until recently, however, all hybrid systems incorporated one or more gas-powered chillers (engine driven and/or absorption) and one or more conventional electric units. Typically, the cooling capacity of hybrid chiller plants ranges from the hundreds to thousands of refrigeration tons, with multiple chillers affording the user a choice of cooling systems. But this flexibility is less of an option for building operators who have limited room for equipment. To address this technology gap, a hybrid chiller was developed by Alturdyne that combines a gas engine, an electric motor and a refrigeration compressor within a single package. However, this product had not been designed to realize the full features and benefits possible by combining an engine, motor/generator and compressor. The purpose of this project is to develop a new hybrid chiller that can (1) reduce end-user energy

  3. Velocity trajectory optimization in Hybrid Electric trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Jager, B. de; Foster, D.L.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) enable fuel savings by re-using kinetic and potential energy that was recovered and stored in a battery during braking or driving down hill. Besides, the vehicle itself can be seen as a storage device, where kinetic energy can be stored and retrieved by changing the

  4. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  5. Online energy management for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Kok, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits

  6. Configurations of hybrid-electric cars propulsion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cundev, Dobri; Sarac, Vasilija; Stefanov, Goce

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, hybrid electric cars have taken significant role in automotive market. There are successful technological solutions of hybrid-electric propulsion systems implemented in commercial passenger cars. Every automobile manufacturer of hybrid vehicles has unique hybrid propulsion system. In this paper, all implemented systems are described, analyzed and compared.

  7. Hybrid electric vehicles energy management strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief deals with the control and optimization problem in hybrid electric vehicles. Given that there are two (or more) energy sources (i.e., battery and fuel) in hybrid vehicles, it shows the reader how to implement an energy-management strategy that decides how much of the vehicle’s power is provided by each source instant by instant. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: •introduces methods for modeling energy flow in hybrid electric vehicles; •presents a standard mathematical formulation of the optimal control problem; •discusses different optimization and control strategies for energy management, integrating the most recent research results; and •carries out an overall comparison of the different control strategies presented. Chapter by chapter, a case study is thoroughly developed, providing illustrative numerical examples that show the basic principles applied to real-world situations. In addition to the examples, simulation code is provided via a website, so that readers can work on the actua...

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Fueling and Driving Options Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle batteries can be charged by an outside sized hybrid electric vehicle. If the vehicle is driven a shorter distance than its all-electric range drives the wheels almost all of the time, but the vehicle can switch to work like a parallel hybrid at

  9. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  10. A hybrid model for electricity spot prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Electricity prices were highly regulated prior to the deregulation of the electric power industry. Prices were predictable, allowing generators and wholesalers to calculate their production costs and revenues. With deregulation, electricity has become the most volatile of all commodities. Electricity must be consumed as soon as it is generated due to the inability to store it in any sufficient quantity. Economic uncertainty exists because the supply of electricity cannot shift as quickly as the demand, which is highly variable. When demand increases quickly, the price must respond. Therefore, price spikes occur that are orders of magnitude higher than the base electricity price. This paper presents a robust and realistic model for spot market electricity prices used to manage risk in volatile markets. The model is a hybrid of a top down data driven method commonly used for financial applications, and a bottom up system driven method commonly used in regulated electricity markets. The advantage of the model is that it incorporates primary system drivers and demonstrates their effects on final prices. The 4 primary modules of the model are: (1) a model for forced outages, (2) a model for maintenance outages, (3) an electrical load model, and (4) a price model which combines the results of the previous 3 models. The performance of each model was tested. The forced outage model is the first of its kind to simulate the system on an aggregate basis using Weibull distributions. The overall spot price model was calibrated to, and tested with, data from the electricity market in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland. The model performed well in simulated market prices and adapted readily to changing system conditions and new electricity markets. This study examined the pricing of derivative contracts on electrical power. It also compared a range of portfolio scenarios using a Cash Flow at Risk approach

  11. A hybrid model for electricity spot prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.L.D.

    2004-07-01

    Electricity prices were highly regulated prior to the deregulation of the electric power industry. Prices were predictable, allowing generators and wholesalers to calculate their production costs and revenues. With deregulation, electricity has become the most volatile of all commodities. Electricity must be consumed as soon as it is generated due to the inability to store it in any sufficient quantity. Economic uncertainty exists because the supply of electricity cannot shift as quickly as the demand, which is highly variable. When demand increases quickly, the price must respond. Therefore, price spikes occur that are orders of magnitude higher than the base electricity price. This paper presents a robust and realistic model for spot market electricity prices used to manage risk in volatile markets. The model is a hybrid of a top down data driven method commonly used for financial applications, and a bottom up system driven method commonly used in regulated electricity markets. The advantage of the model is that it incorporates primary system drivers and demonstrates their effects on final prices. The 4 primary modules of the model are: (1) a model for forced outages, (2) a model for maintenance outages, (3) an electrical load model, and (4) a price model which combines the results of the previous 3 models. The performance of each model was tested. The forced outage model is the first of its kind to simulate the system on an aggregate basis using Weibull distributions. The overall spot price model was calibrated to, and tested with, data from the electricity market in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland. The model performed well in simulated market prices and adapted readily to changing system conditions and new electricity markets. This study examined the pricing of derivative contracts on electrical power. It also compared a range of portfolio scenarios using a Cash Flow at Risk approach.

  12. Thermal management of hybrid vehicles. Challenges and solutions; Thermomanagement von Hybridfahrzeugen. Herausforderungen und Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckenberger, T. [Behr GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Higher thermal management demands are placed on hybrid vehicles than on conventional vehicles. The thermal comfort of the passengers must be assured when the combustion engine shuts down, i.e. during start-stop phases and during purely electric driving. Likewise, the particular hybrid modules and components must be cooled to temperature levels that are too low for conventional cooling circuits. Behr is presently developing cooling and climate control systems for all three types of hybrid vehicles: micro-, mild, and full hybrids. (orig.)

  13. Performance results of a solar greenhouse combining electrical and thermal energy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, P.J.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Campen, J.B.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Janssen, H.J.J.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Performance results are given of a new type of greenhouse, which combines reflection of near infrared radiation (NIR) with electrical power generation using hybrid photovoltaic cell/thermal collector modules. Besides the generation of electrical and thermal energy, the reflection of the NIR will

  14. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  15. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin

    2016-06-07

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  16. Parallel Hybrid Gas-Electric Geared Turbofan Engine Conceptual Design and Benefits Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lents, Charles; Hardin, Larry; Rheaume, Jonathan; Kohlman, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual design of a parallel gas-electric hybrid propulsion system for a conventional single aisle twin engine tube and wing vehicle has been developed. The study baseline vehicle and engine technology are discussed, followed by results of the hybrid propulsion system sizing and performance analysis. The weights analysis for the electric energy storage & conversion system and thermal management system is described. Finally, the potential system benefits are assessed.

  17. Electric Motors for Non-Cryogenic Hybrid Electric and Turboelectric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion concepts for future aircraft to reduce fuel burn, emissions, and noise. Systems studies show that the weight and efficiency of the electric system components need to be improved for this concept to be feasible. However, advances in motor component materials such as soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, conductors, thermal insulation, and structural materials are expected in the coming years, and should improve motor performance. This study investigates several motor types for a one megawatt application, and projects the motor performance benefits of new component materials that might be available in the coming decades.

  18. Electric Motor Considerations for Non-Cryogenic Hybrid Electric and Turboelectric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion concepts for future aircraft to reduce fuel burn, emissions, and noise. Systems studies show that the weight and efficiency of the electric system components need to be improved for this concept to be feasible. However, advances in motor component materials such as soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, conductors, thermal insulation, and structural materials are expected in the coming years, and should improve motor performance. This study investigates several motor types for a one megawatt application, and projects the motor performance benefits of new component materials that might be available in the coming decades.

  19. Photovoltaic. Solar thermal. Solar thermal electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The year 2008 was excellent for solar energy in the European Union. The growth of the installed capacity for photovoltaic was +159% (it means +4747.018 MW) to reach 9689.952 MW and that for solar thermal was +51.5% (it means +3172.5 MW) to reach 19982.7 MW. Worldwide concentrated solar thermal capacity stood at 679 MW in 2009, while this figure may seem low, the sector has a promising future ahead of it. (A.C.)

  20. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  1. Exergetic evaluation on photovoltaic/thermal hybrid panel; Taiyoko netsu hybrid panel no exergy hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwaki, H; Morita, Y; Fujisawa, T; Tani, T [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The photovoltaic/thermal hybrid panel (PV/T) is an energy converter that was designed for the composite use of electricity and heat. In this paper, the validity of PV/T designed for trial was evaluated based on an exergetic theory. As the result of an experiment, the electric exergetic value of PV/T and PV is each 65.8 kWh/m{sup 2} and 58.6 kWh/m{sup 2}. The former is higher than the latter by 11.2%. The total exergetic value of PV/T is also 1.2 and 8.2 times as high as those of a PV and solar collector (SC), respectively. The calculation result of the optimum temperature operation showed that the exergetic value of PV/T is 3.1 times as high as the electric exergetic value. Therefore, the operation must be performed with the electric and thermal exergetic values set in a ratio of 3.1 to 1. In this paper, the operating mode is handled in which importance was more attached to the electric exergy than the thermal exergy. The flow rate of a heating medium on PV/T is not thus the flow control that maximizes the PV/T exergy. In the future, studies including these points will be promoted. 7 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faussurier, G., E-mail: gerald.faussurier@cea.fr; Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2014-09-15

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  3. Hybrid Electric Propulsion Technologies for Commercial Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Jansen, Ralph; Jankovsky, Amy

    2016-01-01

    NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate has set strategic research thrusts to address the major drivers of aviation such as growth in demand for high-speed mobility, addressing global climate and capitalizing in the convergence of technological advances. Transitioning aviation to low carbon propulsion is one of the key strategic research thrust and drives the search for alternative and greener propulsion system for advanced aircraft configurations. This work requires multidisciplinary skills coming from multiple entities. The Hybrid Gas-Electric Subproject in the Advanced Air Transportation Project is energizing the transport class landscape by accepting the technical challenge of identifying and validating a transport class aircraft with net benefit from hybrid propulsion. This highly integrated aircraft of the future will only happen if airframe expertise from NASA Langley, modeling and simulation expertise from NASA Ames, propulsion expertise from NASA Glenn, and the flight research capabilities from NASA Armstrong are brought together to leverage the rich capabilities of U.S. Industry and Academia.

  4. Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczúr-Ürmössy, G.

    Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g., nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries.

  5. Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczur-Uermoessy, G. [DAUG Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft, Esslingen (Germany)

    1998-03-30

    Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g. nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries. (orig.)

  6. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle R&D plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-06-01

    FCVT, in consultation with industry and other appropriate DOE offices, developed the Draft Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle R&D Plan to accelerate the development and deployment of technologies critical for plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Hybrid Electrical Engineering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large class of systems that have found application in various industries and households, electrified transportation facilities and energy sector has been classified as electrical engineering systems. Their characteristic feature is a combination of continuous and discontinuous modes of operation, which is reflected in the appearance of a relatively new term “hybrid systems”. A wide class of hybrid systems is pulsed DC converters operating in a pulse width modulation, which are non-linear systems with variable structure. Using various methods for linearization it is possible to obtain linear mathematical models that rather accurately simulate behavior of such systems. However, the presence in the mathematical models of exponential nonlinearities creates considerable difficulties in the implementation of digital hardware. The solution can be found while using an approximation of exponential functions by polynomials of the first order, that, however, violates the rigor accordance of the analytical model with characteristics of a real object. There are two practical approaches to synthesize algorithms for control of hybrid systems. The first approach is based on the representation of the whole system by a discrete model which is described by difference equations that makes it possible to synthesize discrete algorithms. The second approach is based on description of the system by differential equations. The equations describe synthesis of continuous algorithms and their further implementation in a digital computer included in the control loop system. The paper considers modeling of a hybrid electrical engineering system using differential equations. Neglecting the pulse duration, it has been proposed to describe behavior of vector components in phase coordinates of the hybrid system by stochastic differential equations containing generally non-linear differentiable random functions. A stochastic vector-matrix equation describing dynamics of the

  8. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  9. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  10. Electric and hybrid vehicle technology: TOPTEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between 'refueling' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of 'Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  11. Hybrid Solar: A Review on Photovoltaic and Thermal Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Chow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity generation is growing rapidly. New ideas on hybrid solar technology evolve for a wide range of applications, such as in buildings, processing plants, and agriculture. In the building sector in particular, the limited building space for the accommodation of solar devices has driven a demand on the use of hybrid solar technology for the multigeneration of active power and/or passive solar devices. The importance is escalating with the worldwide trend on the development of low-carbon/zero-energy buildings. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collector systems had been studied theoretically, numerically, and experimentally in depth in the past decades. Together with alternative means, a range of innovative products and systems has been put forward. The final success of the integrative technologies relies on the coexistence of robust product design/construction and reliable system operation/maintenance in the long run to satisfy the user needs. This paper gives a broad review on the published academic works, with an emphasis placed on the research and development activities in the last decade.

  12. Visions of the Future: Hybrid Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investing continually in improving civil aviation. Hybridization of aircraft propulsion is one aspect of a technology suite which will transform future aircraft. In this context, hybrid propulsion is considered a combination of traditional gas turbine propulsion and electric drive enabled propulsion. This technology suite includes elements of propulsion and airframe integration, parallel hybrid shaft power, turbo-electric generation, electric drive systems, component development, materials development and system integration at multiple levels.

  13. Electrical power system integrated thermal/electrical system simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper adds thermal properties to previously developed electrical Saber templates and incorporates these templates into a functional Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS) simulation. These combined electrical and thermal templates enable the complete and realistic simulation of a vehicle EPS on-orbit. Applications include on-orbit energy balance determinations for system load changes, initial array and battery EPS sizing for new EPS development, and array and battery technology trade studies. This effort proves the versatility of the Saber simulation program in handling varied and complex simulations accurately and in a reasonable amount of computer time. 9 refs

  14. Matching indices taking the dynamic hybrid electrical and thermal grids information into account for the decision-making of nZEB on-site renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Sunliang; Sirén, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Use dynamic hourly-based grid information (PEF/CEF/tariffs) in nZEB control. • Hourly dynamic primary energy factor, CO 2 factor and tariffs for hybrid grids. • Methodology which links the on-site matching with dynamic grid information. • Multi-objective control indicators reflects both matching and grid information. • The influence of the dynamic grid information on the energy/environment/cost. - Abstract: Future nearly-zero energy buildings (nZEBs) will be involved with the twofold problem of on-site matching and hybrid–grid interactions. Theoretically, the hybrid grids’ information is dynamic, such as primary energy factors, equivalent CO 2 emission factors, and grid tariffs. Regarding primary energy consumption, equivalent CO 2 emissions or the grid cost of the nZEB, the significance of specific aspects of the matching capability, such as on-site energy faction (OEF) and on-site energy matching (OEM), will also become dynamic and variable with respect to the evolution of the grid information. Therefore, the primary goal is to develop a methodology as a multi-objective control criterion for the nZEB energy system, which can reflect both the on-site matching capability and dynamic grid information of environmental or economic impacts. The developed methodology is to quantitatively link the dynamic grid information with the weighting factors of the weighted matching index (WMI), following the monotone relationships between the extended matching indices and grid information. The methodology is implemented in this study to control an nZEB energy system with hybrid grid connections. The results show that the developed methodology can seek an optimised balance between the objectives of maximising the matching capability and minimising the environmental/economic load

  15. Electrical Load Survey and Forecast for a Decentralized Hybrid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrical Load Survey and Forecast for a Decentralized Hybrid Power System at Elebu, Kwara State, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... The paper reports the results of electrical load demand and forecast for Elebu rural community ...

  16. The limits to solar thermal electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The potential and limits of solar thermal power systems depend primarily on their capacity to meet electricity demand in mid-winter, and the associated cost, storage and other implications. Evidence on output and costs is analysed. Most attention is given to central receivers. Problems of low radiation levels, embodied energy costs, variability and storage are discussed and are found to set significant difficulties for large scale solar thermal supply in less than ideal latitudes and seasons. It is concluded that for solar thermal systems to meet a large fraction of anticipated global electricity demand in winter would involve prohibitive capital costs. - Highlights: • Output and capital cost data for various solar thermal technologies is examined. • Special attention is given to performance in winter. • Attention is also given to the effect of solar intermittency. • Implications for storage are considered. • It is concluded that there are significant limits to solar thermal power

  17. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  18. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  19. Modeling, hybridization, and optimal charging of electrical energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Yasha

    The rising rate of global energy demand alongside the dwindling fossil fuel resources has motivated research for alternative and sustainable solutions. Within this area of research, electrical energy storage systems are pivotal in applications including electrified vehicles, renewable power generation, and electronic devices. The approach of this dissertation is to elucidate the bottlenecks of integrating supercapacitors and batteries in energy systems and propose solutions by the means of modeling, control, and experimental techniques. In the first step, the supercapacitor cell is modeled in order to gain fundamental understanding of its electrical and thermal dynamics. The dependence of electrical parameters on state of charge (SOC), current direction and magnitude (20-200 A), and temperatures ranging from -40°C to 60°C was embedded in this computationally efficient model. The coupled electro-thermal model was parameterized using specifically designed temporal experiments and then validated by the application of real world duty cycles. Driving range is one of the major challenges of electric vehicles compared to combustion vehicles. In order to shed light on the benefits of hybridizing a lead-acid driven electric vehicle via supercapacitors, a model was parameterized for the lead-acid battery and combined with the model already developed for the supercapacitor, to build the hybrid battery-supercapacitor model. A hardware in the loop (HIL) setup consisting of a custom built DC/DC converter, micro-controller (muC) to implement the power management strategy, 12V lead-acid battery, and a 16.2V supercapacitor module was built to perform the validation experiments. Charging electrical energy storage systems in an efficient and quick manner, motivated to solve an optimal control problem with the objective of maximizing the charging efficiency for supercapacitors, lead-acid, and lithium ion batteries. Pontryagins minimum principle was used to solve the problems

  20. Experimental Comparison of Two Configurations of Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal Collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaled Toufeka; Mourad Haddadib; Ali Mkc

    2011-01-01

    The combination of a thermal collector and a photovoltaic module in a single system allows for increased efficiency of the total conversion of solar energy. A synergistic effect can be obtained in a structure combining these two devices in a judicious manner to those of thermal and photovoltaic system installed separately. Production of total energy from hybrid collector depends on the input (that is to say, the. energy of solar radiation, air temperature and wind speed) and output which is the electric production and the temperature of the system. Thin production also depends on the mode of heal extraction. In this paper, an experimental Study of two configurations of hybrid collectors is described. The configuration that the absorber is made by galvanized steel and in the second, the absorber is a copper serpentine. The advantages of the first configuration are mainly due to low cost and simplicity but the second configuration has the advantage of promoting the heat transfer between cells and fluid. (authors)

  1. Bony ankylosis following thermal and electrical injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balen, P.F.; Helms, C.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Objective. Bony ankylosis has been described following trauma, paralysis, psoriasis, Reiter's syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile chronic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Reports of bony ankylosis following thermal and electrical injury are limited.Design and patients. Thirteen cases of burn-related joint ankylosis in four patients are presented.Conclusion. Patients with burns from thermal or electrical injury may develop bony ankylosis among other radiographic manifestations. This bony ankylosis may result either from bridging extra-articular heterotopic ossification with preservation of the underlying joint or from intra-articular fusion due to joint destruction. (orig.)

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of pumped thermal electricity storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Alexander; Parks, Geoff; Markides, Christos N.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater need for electricity storage. Although there are many existing and emerging storage technologies, most have limitations in terms of geographical constraints, high capital cost or low cycle life, and few are of sufficient scale (in terms of both power and storage capacity) for integration at the transmission and distribution levels. This paper is concerned with a relatively new concept which will be referred to here as Pumped Thermal Electricity Storage (PTES), and which may be able to make a significant contribution towards future storage needs. During charge, PTES makes use of a high temperature ratio heat pump to convert electrical energy into thermal energy which is stored as ‘sensible heat’ in two thermal reservoirs, one hot and one cold. When required, the thermal energy is then converted back to electricity by effectively running the heat pump backwards as a heat engine. The paper focuses on thermodynamic aspects of PTES, including energy and power density, and the various sources of irreversibility and their impact on round-trip efficiency. It is shown that, for given compression and expansion efficiencies, the cycle performance is controlled chiefly by the ratio between the highest and lowest temperatures in each reservoir rather than by the cycle pressure ratio. The sensitivity of round-trip efficiency to various loss parameters has been analysed and indicates particular susceptibility to compression and expansion irreversibility

  3. Solar thermal energy conversion to electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh, Anh-Khoi; González, Ivan; Fournier, Luc; Pelletier, Rémi; Sandoval V, Juan C.; Lesage, Frédéric J.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of solar energy to electricity currently relies primarily on the photovoltaic effect in which photon bombardment of photovoltaic cells drives an electromotive force within the material. Alternatively, recent studies have investigated the potential of converting solar radiation to electricity by way of the Seebeck effect in which charge carrier mobility is generated by an asymmetric thermal differential. The present study builds upon these latest advancements in the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric system management by combining solar evacuated tube technology with commercially available Bismuth Telluride semiconductor modules. The target heat source is solar radiation and the target heat sink is thermal convection into the ambient air relying on wind aided forced convection. These sources of energy are reproduced in a laboratory controlled environment in order to maintain a thermal dipole across a thermoelectric module. The apparatus is then tested in a natural environment. The novelty of the present work lies in a net thermoelectric power gain for ambient environment applications and an experimental validation of theoretical electrical characteristics relative to a varying electrical load. - Highlights: • Solar radiation maintains a thermal tension which drives an electromotive force. • Voltage, current and electric power are reported and discussed. • Theoretical optimal thermoelectric conversion predictions are presented. • Theory is validated with experimentally measured data

  4. Synthesis, structural and electrical characterizations of thermally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis, structural and electrical characterizations of thermally evaporated Cu 2 SnS 3 thin films. ... The surface profilometer shows that the deposited films are rough. The XRD spectra identified the ... The electrical resistivity of the deposited Cu2SnS3 film is 2.55 x 10-3 Ωcm. The conductivity is in the order of 103 Ω-1cm-1.

  5. Hybrid-electric propulsion for automotive and aviation applications

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, C; Robertson, Paul Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In parallel with the automotive industry, hybrid-electric propulsion is becoming a viable alternative propulsion technology for the aviation sector and reveals potential advantages including fuel savings, lower pollution, and reduced noise emission. Hybrid-electric propulsion systems can take advantage of the synergy between two technologies by utilizing both internal combustion engines and electric motors together, each operating at their respective optimum conditions...

  6. Cost-effective energy management for hybrid electric heavy-duty truck including battery aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, H.T.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Huisman, R.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Battery temperature has large impact on battery power capability and battery life time. In Hybrid Electric Heavy-duty trucks (HEVs), the high-voltage battery is normally equipped with an active Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS) guaranteeing a desired battery life time. Since the BTMS can

  7. Peripapillary retinal thermal coagulation following electrical injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjari Tandon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have presented the case report of a 20 year old boy who suffered an electric injury shock, following which he showed peripapillary retinal opacification and increased retinal thickening that subsequently progressed to retinal atrophy. The fluorescein angiogram revealed normal retinal circulation, thus indicating thermal damage to retina without any compromise to retinal circulation.

  8. Optimal control of a fuel cell/wind/PV/grid hybrid system with thermal heat pump load

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sichilalu, S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal energy management strategy for a grid-tied photovoltaic–wind-fuel cell hybrid power supply system. The hybrid system meets the load demand consisting of an electrical load and a heat pump water heater supplying thermal...

  9. DIAGNOSTICS CONCEPTION OF ELECTRICAL DRIVE OF A HYBRID VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Borodenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual approach to creat the diagnostic system of the power elements of the electric drive of the hybrid vehicle has been considered. Approbation of the imitation model of electric drive with brushless DC electric motor as a diagnostic object has been carried out.

  10. Chip Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary Driven Thermal Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chip-Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary-Driven Thermal Management System is a two year that will leverage independently attained yet related prototype hardware...

  11. Non-electrical uses of thermal energy generated in the production of fissile fuel in fusion--fission reactors: a comparative economic parametric analysis for a hybrid with or without synthetic fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, A.S.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    A parametric analysis has been carried out for testing the sensitivity of the synfuel production cost in relation to crucial economic and technologic quantities (investment costs of hybrid and synfuel plant, energy multiplication of the fission blanket, recirculating power fraction of the fusion driver, etc.). In addition, a minimum synfuel selling price has been evaluated, from which the fission--fusion--synfuel complex brings about a higher economic benefit than does the fusion--fission hybrid entirely devoted to fissile-fuel and electricity generation. Assuming an electricity cost of 2.7 cents/kWh, an annual investment cost per power unit of 4.2 to 6 $/GJ (132 to 189 k$/MWty) for the fission--fusion complex and 1.5 to 3 $/GJ (47 to 95 k$/MWty) for the synfuel plant, the synfuel production net cost (i.e., revenue = cost) varies between 6.5 and 8.6 $/GJ. These costs can compete with those obtained by other processes (natural gas reforming, resid partial oxidation, coal gasification, nuclear fission, solar electrolysis, etc.). This study points out a potential use of the fusion--fission hybrid other than fissile-fuel and electricity generation

  12. Highly Electrically Conducting Glass-Graphene Nanoplatelets Hybrid Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, E; Nistal, A; Khalifa, A; Essa, Y; Martín de la Escalera, F; Osendi, M I; Miranzo, P

    2015-08-19

    Hybrid coatings consisting of a heat resistant Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 (YAS) glass containing 2.3 wt % of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were developed by flame spraying homogeneous ceramic powders-GNP granules. Around 40% of the GNPs survived the high spraying temperatures and were distributed along the splat-interfaces, forming a percolated network. These YAS-GNP coatings are potentially interesting in thermal protection systems and electromagnetic interference shields for aerospace applications; therefore silicon carbide (SiC) materials at the forefront of those applications were employed as substrates. Whereas the YAS coatings are nonconductive, the YAS-GNP coatings showed in-plane electrical conductivity (∼10(2) S·m(-1)) for which a low percolation limit (below 3.6 vol %) is inferred. Indentation tests revealed the formation of a highly damaged indentation zone showing multiple shear displacements between adjacent splats probably favored by the graphene sheets location. The indentation radial cracks typically found in brittle glass coatings are not detected in the hybrid coatings that are also more compliant.

  13. Research on minimum sound specifications for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-30

    This report documents research by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to identify ways : to develop sound specifications for electric and hybrid vehicles. The research was conducted to support activities : related to the implem...

  14. Research on Energy Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Tao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the fuel economy and reduce emissions of hybrid electric vehicles, energy management strategy has received high attention. In this paper, by analyzing the deficiency of existing energy management strategy for hybrid cars, it not only puts forward the minimal equivalent fuel consumption adaptive strategy, but also is the first time to consider the driving dynamics target simultaneously, and to explain the future development direction of China’s hybrid energy management strategy.

  15. Design and Research of the Movable Hybrid Photovoltaic-Thermal (PVT System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the development of photovoltaic system and photo-thermal system technology, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PVT technology has been a breakthrough in many aspects. This paper describes the movable hybrid PVT system from the aspects of appearance structure, energy flow, and control circuit. The system is equipped with rolling wheels and the simulated light sources also can be removed so that the system can be used in the outdoor conditions. The movable system is also suitable for the PVT system and its related applications without any external power supply. This system combines two technologies: photovoltaic power generation and photo-thermal utilization. The first part of the power supply is for the systems own output power supply, and the second part is for generating thermal energy. The two separate parts can be controlled and monitored respectively through the control circuits and the touch screens. The experimental results show that the system can generate 691 kWh electric energy and 3047.8 kWh thermal energy each year under normal working conditions. The efficiency of the proposed movable hybrid PVT system is calculated to be approximately 42.82% using the revised equations that are proposed in this paper. Therefore, the movable hybrid PVT system can meet the daily demands of hot water and electricity power in remote areas or islands and other non-grid areas. It also can be used to conduct experiment tests for the PVT system.

  16. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Arief Subekti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the problems and finds the solutions to prevent the same failure of electric car commercialization process from happening to hybrid electric car . This study was done by collecting and analyzing the primary and secondary data through interviews, discussing electric hybrid car with stakeholders, and examining earlier study results and regulations. Based on this study, several policies to support sustainability research of hybrid electric car were proposed. Some recommendations were the making of national roadmap and regulation for the usage of hybrid electric car on the road. For policy makers at LIPI, a research focus, research coordination, and pre-commercialization program were recommended.

  17. Electrical-thermal coupling of induction machine for improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrical-thermal coupling of induction machine for improved thermal performance. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... The interaction of its electrical and mechanical parts leads to an increase in temperature which if not properly monitored ...

  18. Determining an energy-optimal thermal management strategy for electric driven vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchaneck, Andre; Probst, Tobias; Puente Leon, Fernando [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. of Industrial Information Technology (IIIT)

    2012-11-01

    In electric, hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles, thermal management may have a significant impact on vehicle range. Therefore, optimal thermal management strategies are required. In this paper a method for determining an energy-optimal control strategy for thermal power generation in electric driven vehicles is presented considering all controlled devices (pumps, valves, fans, and the like) as well as influences like ambient temperature, vehicle speed, motor and battery and cooling cycle temperatures. The method is designed to be generic to increase the thermal management development process speed and to achieve the maximal energy reduction for any electric driven vehicle (e.g., by waste heat utilization). Based on simulations of a prototype electric vehicle with an advanced cooling cycle structure, the potential of the method is shown. (orig.)

  19. Personal Rotorcraft Design and Performance with Electric Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent and projected improvements for more or all-electric aviation propulsion systems can enable greater personal mobility, while also reducing environmental impact (noise and emissions). However, all-electric energy storage capability is significantly less than present, hydrocarbon-fueled systems. A system study was performed exploring design and performance assuming hybrid propulsion ranging from traditional hydrocarbon-fueled cycles (gasoline Otto and diesel) to all-electric systems using electric motors generators, with batteries for energy storage and load leveling. Study vehicles were a conventional, single-main rotor (SMR) helicopter and an advanced vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft. Vehicle capability was limited to two or three people (including pilot or crew); the design range for the VTOL aircraft was set to 150 miles (about one hour total flight). Search and rescue (SAR), loiter, and cruise-dominated missions were chosen to illustrate each vehicle and degree of hybrid propulsion strengths and weaknesses. The traditional, SMR helicopter is a hover-optimized design; electric hybridization was performed assuming a parallel hybrid approach by varying degree of hybridization. Many of the helicopter hybrid propulsion combinations have some mission capabilities that might be effective for short range or on-demand mobility missions. However, even for 30 year technology electrical components, all hybrid propulsion systems studied result in less available fuel, lower maximum range, and reduced hover and loiter duration than the baseline vehicle. Results for the VTOL aircraft were more encouraging. Series hybrid combinations reflective of near-term systems could improve range and loiter duration by 30. Advanced, higher performing series hybrid combinations could double or almost triple the VTOL aircrafts range and loiter duration. Additional details on the study assumptions and work performed are given, as well as suggestions for future study effort.

  20. Optimal powertrain dimensioning and potential assessment of hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murgovski, Nikolce

    2012-07-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), compared to conventional vehicles, complement the traditional combustion engine with one, or several electric motors and an energy buffer, typically a battery and/or an ultra capacitor. This gives the vehicle an additional degree of freedom that allows for a more efficient operation, by e.g. recuperating braking energy, or operating the engine at higher efficiency. In order to be cost effective, the HEV may need to include a downsized engine and a carefully selected energy buffer. The optimal size of the powertrain components depends on the powertrain configuration, ability to draw electric energy from the grid, charging infrastructure, drive patterns, varying fuel, electricity and energy buffer prices and on how well adapted is the buffer energy management to driving conditions. This thesis provides two main contributions for optimal dimensioning of HEV powertrains while optimally controlling the energy use of the buffer on prescribed routes. The first contribution is described by a methodology and a tool for potential assessment of HEV powertrains. The tool minimizes the need for interaction from the user by automizing the processes of powertrain simplification and optimization. The HEV powertrain models are simplified by removing unnecessary dynamics in order to speed up computation time and allow Dynamic Programming to be used to optimize the energy management. The tool makes it possible to work with non-transparent models, e.g. models which are compiled, or hidden for intellectual property reasons. The second contribution describes modeling steps to reformulate the powertrain dimensioning and control problem as a convex optimization problem. The method considers quadratic losses for the powertrain components and the resulting problem is a semi definite convex program. The optimization is time efficient with computation time that does not increase exponentially with the number of states. This makes it possible to include more

  1. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Alexander, E-mail: ajw36@cam.ac.uk [Hopkinson Laboratory, Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge. CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-22

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on “sensible heat” storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  2. The integration of electrical axle drives in hybrid vehicle and electric vehicles; Die Integration elektrischer Achsantriebe in Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Heinz [hofer eds GmbH, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In the following contribution the advantages of a high integrated electrical axle module will be explained. Furthermore different electrical machines will be introduced and the specific operational behavior will be described. After a short introduction regarding the utilization of electrical machines some proposals regarding the gear ratio will be given. At the end a novel hybrid transmission with electrical power split will be introduced. (orig.)

  3. Electrical and thermal modeling of railguns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Electrical and thermal modeling of railguns at Los Alamos has been done for two purposes: (1) to obtain detailed information about the behavior of specific railgun components such as the rails, and (2) to predict overall performance of railgun tests. Detailed electrical and thermal modeling has concentrated on calculations of the inductance and surface current distribution of long parallel conductors in the high-frequency limit and on calculations of current and thermal diffusion in rails. Inductance calculations for various rail cross sections and for magnetic flux compression generators (MFCG) have been done. Inductance and current distribution results were compared with experimental measurements. Twodimensional calculations of current and thermal diffusion in rail cross sections have been done; predictions of rail heating and melting as a function of rail size and total current have been made. An overall performance model of a railgun and power supply has been developed and used to design tests at Los Alamos. The lumped-parameter circuit model uses results from the detailed inductance and current diffusion calculations along with other circuit component models to predict rail current and projectile acceleration, velocity, and position as a function of time

  4. Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Polyimide Composites Filled with Modified h-BN and Nanodiamond Hybrid Filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Yu, Xiaoyan; Naito, Kimiyoshi; Ding, Huili; Qu, Xiongwei; Zhang, Qingxin

    2018-05-01

    A new thermally conductive and electrically insulative polyimide were prepared by filling different amounts of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) particles, and the thermal conductivity of Polyimide (PI) composites were improved with the increasing h-BN content. Based on this, two methods were applied to improve thermal conductivity furtherly at limited filler loading in this paper. One is modifying the h-BN to improve interface interaction, another is fabricating a nano-micro hybrid filler with 2-D h-BN and 0-D nano-scale nanodiamond (ND) to build more effective conductive network. Both surface modification and hybrid system have a positive effect on thermal conductivity. The composites introducing 40 wt% hybrid filler (the weight ratio of ND/modified BN was 1/10) showed the highest thermal conductivity, being up to 0.98 W/(m K) (5.2 times that of PI). In addition, the composites exhibits excellent electrical insulation, thermal stability properties etc.

  5. On the Optimal Thermal Management of Hybrid-Electric Vehicles with Heat Recovery Systems Sur le thermo-management optimal d’un véhicule électrique hybride avec un système de récupération de chaleur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merz F.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A general framework to combine optimal energy management (powertrain supervisory control and thermal management in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV is presented. A HEV system with engine exhaust aftertreatment and exhaust heat recovery system is simulated under various scenarios, including warm and cold start. Optimal strategies are derived from Pontryagin Minimum Principle (PMP. The concept of fuel equivalent of thermal energy variations – similar to the equivalence factors for battery energy of standard Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS – is introduced. The PMP-based strategies are compared with a heuristic, rule-based strategy. The benefits in fuel economy and reduction of pollutant emissions that are obtained for several scenarios are very promising. Une approche généralisée pour combiner la gestion de l’énergie (supervision du groupe motopropulseur et le thermo-management dans les véhicules hybrides électriques est proposée. Un système hybride incluant le post-traitement des polluants et un système de récupération de la chaleur à l’échappement du moteur thermique est simulé pour plusieurs scénarii, y compris le cas de départ à froid. Des stratégies de gestion de l’énergie optimales sont dérivées à partir du Principe de Minimum de Pontriaguine (PMP. Inspirée par les facteurs d’équivalence pour la consommation électrique que l’on retrouve dans la stratégie ECMS, la notion d’équivalent en carburant des flux d’énergie thermique est introduite. Les stratégies dérivées du PMP sont comparées avec une stratégie heuristique basée sur des règles. Les bénéfices en termes d’économies de carburant et réduction des émissions polluantes que l’on trouve pour différents scénarii sont encourageantes.

  6. Analysis of the Fuel Efficiency of a Hybrid Electric Drive with an Electric Power Splitter

    OpenAIRE

    D. Čundev

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of the fuel efficiency of a hybrid electric car drive, with an electric power splitter based on a double rotor synchronous permanent magnet generator. The results have been obtained through a precisely determined mathematical model and by simulating the characteristics of all essential values for the entire drive. This work is related to the experimental working stand for electric and hybrid car drive research, which has been developed at the Fac...

  7. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  8. THE ELECTRIC DRIVE FOR A CONVERSION HYBRID CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bazhinov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of converting a car with an internal combustion engine and manual transmission in a hybrid is regarded. Is regarded the technique of choosing the parameters of the electric and simple technical solution to achieve the efficient operation of the brushless electric motor in the traction mode and into recovery mode.

  9. Bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M.; Veen, W.R. ter; Raadschelders, J.W.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    2000-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) the requirements on batteries are very different from those for battery electric vehicles (BEV). A high power (bipolar) lead-acid battery could be a good alternative for other types of batteries under development for this application. It is potentially cheap and

  10. A comparative study on three types of solar utilization technologies for buildings: Photovoltaic, solar thermal and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huide, Fu; Xuxin, Zhao; Lei, Ma; Tao, Zhang; Qixing, Wu; Hongyuan, Sun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Models of Solar thermal, Photovoltaic and Photovoltaic/thermal systems are developed. • Experiments are performed to validate the simulation results. • Annual performances of the three solar systems used in china are predicted. • Energy comparison between the three solar systems is analyzed. - Abstract: Buildings need energy including heat and electricity, and both of them can be provided by the solar systems. Solar thermal and photovoltaic systems absorb the solar energy and can supply the heat and electricity for buildings, respectively. However, for the urban residential buildings, the limited available area makes installation of the solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic modules together impossible. A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal system can simultaneously generate heat and electricity, which is deemed to be quite suitable for the urban residential buildings application. And yet, for a rural house of China, the available area for installation of the solar collectors is large but daily domestic hot water demand of a rural family is generally not exceeded 300 L. If only the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal collectors are installed on the whole available area, this will lead to an overproduction of the thermal energy, especially in summer. Moreover, buildings requiring for the heat and electricity are different in different regions and different seasons. In this paper, simulation models of the solar thermal, photovoltaic and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal systems are presented, and experiments are also performed to validate the simulation results. Using the validated models, performances of the three solar systems for residential applications were predicted. And energy comparison between the three solar systems used in Hongkong, Lhasa, Shanghai and Beijing of China, respectively, were also studied. Results show that, for the urban residential building with limited available installation space, a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal system may have the

  11. Manitoba plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoemsen, R. [Red River College, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Parsons, R. [Government of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Centre for Emerging Renewable Energy

    2010-07-01

    Manitoba has low electricity rates, the highest proportion of renewables, and a legislated commitment to reduce greenhouse gases. However, the province still relies heavily on oil as everyone else. The mix of energy opportunities in Manitoba were highlighted in this presentation, with particular reference to the commercialization of electric vehicles. Several photographs were presented of the Toyota plug-in hybrid vehicle and a plug-in hybrid electric demonstration vehicle. A demonstration project overview was offered that used technology from A123 Systems Inc. The conversion module and vehicle users were profiled. Topics that were presented related to the demonstration project included monitoring; gasoline fuel economy results; fuel economy variability; cold weather operation; cold weather issues; battery upgrade solutions; and highly qualified personnel. It was concluded that in terms of follow-up, there is a need to combine findings of current plug-in hybrid electric vehicle demonstration with those for the new Toyota production plug-in hybrid vehicles. Key next steps for the demonstration are to address cabin heating requirements; better characterizing winter performance; and implementation of IPLC units on all plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for electricity consumption. figs.

  12. Sensorless Suitability Analysis of Hybrid PM Machines for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Torben Nørregaard; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2009-01-01

    Electrical machines for traction in electric vehicles are an essential component which attract attention with respect to machine design and control as a part of the emerging renewable industry. For the hybrid electric machine to replace the familiar behaviour of the combustion engine torque......, control seems necessary to implement. For hybrid permanent magnet (PM) machines torque control in an indirect fashion using dq-current control is frequently done. This approach requires knowledge about the machine shaft position which may be obtained sensorless. In this article a method based on accurate...

  13. A hybrid society model for simulating residential electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Minjie [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zhaoguang [State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Wu, Junyong; Zhou, Yuhui [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China)

    2008-12-15

    In this paper, a hybrid social model of econometric model and social influence model is proposed for evaluating the influence of pricing policy and public education policy on residential habit of electricity using in power resources management. And, a hybrid society simulation platform based on the proposed model, called residential electricity consumption multi-agent systems (RECMAS), is designed for simulating residential electricity consumption by multi-agent system. RECMAS is composed of consumer agent, power supplier agent, and policy maker agent. It provides the policy makers with a useful tool to evaluate power price policies and public education campaigns in different scenarios. According to an influenced diffusion mechanism, RECMAS can simulate the residential electricity demand-supply chain and analyze impacts of the factors on residential electricity consumption. Finally, the proposed method is used to simulate urban residential electricity consumption in China. (author)

  14. A hybrid society model for simulating residential electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Minjie; Hu, Zhaoguang; Wu, Junyong; Zhou, Yuhui

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid social model of econometric model and social influence model is proposed for evaluating the influence of pricing policy and public education policy on residential habit of electricity using in power resources management. And, a hybrid society simulation platform based on the proposed model, called residential electricity consumption multi-agent systems (RECMAS), is designed for simulating residential electricity consumption by multi-agent system. RECMAS is composed of consumer agent, power supplier agent, and policy maker agent. It provides the policy makers with a useful tool to evaluate power price policies and public education campaigns in different scenarios. According to an influenced diffusion mechanism, RECMAS can simulate the residential electricity demand-supply chain and analyze impacts of the factors on residential electricity consumption. Finally, the proposed method is used to simulate urban residential electricity consumption in China. (author)

  15. Electric energy storage systems for future hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, Hans; Huelshorst, Thomas [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Sauer, Dirk Uwe [Elektrochemische Energiewandlung und Speichersystemtechnik, ISEA, RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Electric energy storage systems play a key role in today's and even more in future hybrid and electric vehicles. They enable new additional functionalities like Start/Stop, regenerative braking or electric boost and pure electric drive. This article discusses properties and requirements of battery systems like power provision, energy capacity, life time as a function of the hybrid concepts and the real operating conditions of the today's and future hybrid drivetrains. Battery cell technology, component sizing, system design, operating strategy safety measures and diagnosis, modularity and vehicle integration are important battery development topics. A final assessment will draw the conclusion that future drivetrain concepts with higher degree of electrician will be significantly dependent on the progress of battery technology. (orig.)

  16. Advanced Electrical Machines and Machine-Based Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Cheng; Le Sun; Giuseppe Buja; Lihua Song

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a number of advanced solutions on electric machines and machine-based systems for the powertrain of electric vehicles (EVs). Two types of systems are considered, namely the drive systems designated to the EV propulsion and the power split devices utilized in the popular series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle architecture. After reviewing the main requirements for the electric drive systems, the paper illustrates advanced electric machine topologies, including a stator perm...

  17. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    OpenAIRE

    Subekti, Ridwan Arief; Hartanto, Agus; Susanti, Vita

    2012-01-01

    The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the probl...

  18. Solar thermal electric power information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar thermal electric power are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from five solar thermal electric power groups of respondents are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  19. Integrated powertrain control for hybrid electric vehicles with electric variable transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Foster, D.L.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The electric variable transmission (EVT) offers a powersplit for hybrid electric vehicles by integrating two motor/ generator sets into one electric machine. This double rotor concept implements a continuously variable transmission between the engine and the driveline, including the possibility for

  20. Preparation and optical and electrical evaluation of bulk SiO2 sonogel hybrid composites and vacuum thermal evaporated thin films prepared from molecular materials derived from (Fe, Co) metallic phthalocyanines and 1,8 dihydroxiantraquinone compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Vergara, Maria Elena; Morales-Saavedra, Omar G.; Ontiveros-Barrera, Fernando G.; Torres-Zuniga, Vicente; Ortega-Martinez, Roberto; Ortiz Rebollo, Armando

    2009-01-01

    Semiconducting molecular material of PcFe(CN)L1 and PcCo(CN)L1 (L1 = 1,8 dihydroxianthraquinone), PcFe(CN)L2 and PcCo(CN)L2 (L2 = double potassium salt of 1,8 dihydroxianthraquinone) have been successfully used to prepare thin film and bulk sol-gel hybrid optical materials. These samples were developed according to the vacuum thermal evaporation technique and the catalyst-free sonogel route, respectively. Thin films samples were deposited on Corning glass substrates and crystalline silicon wafers and were characterized by infrared (FTIR), Raman and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies. IR-spectroscopy and Raman studies unambiguously confirmed that the molecular material thin films exhibit the same intra-molecular bonds, which suggests that the thermal evaporation process does not alter these bonds significantly. These results show that it is possible to deposit molecular materials of PcFe(CN)L2 and PcCo(CN)L2 on Corning glass substrates and silicon wafers. From the UV-vis studies the optical band gap (E g ) was evaluated. The effect of temperature on conductivity was also evaluated in these samples. Finally, the studied molecular systems dissolved at different concentrations in tetrahydrofuran (THF) were successfully embedded into a highly pure SiO 2 sonogel network generated via sonochemical reactions to form several solid state, optically active sol-gel hybrid glasses. By this method, homogeneous and stable hybrid monoliths suitable for optical characterization can be produced. The linear optical properties of these amorphous bulk structures were determined by the Brewster angle method and by absorption-, Raman- and photoluminescent (PL)-spectroscopies, respectively

  1. Preparation and optical and electrical evaluation of bulk SiO{sub 2} sonogel hybrid composites and vacuum thermal evaporated thin films prepared from molecular materials derived from (Fe, Co) metallic phthalocyanines and 1,8 dihydroxiantraquinone compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Vergara, Maria Elena [Coordinacion de Ingenieria Mecatronica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Anahuac Mexico Norte. Avenida Universidad Anahuac 46, Col. Lomas Anahuac, 52786 Huixquilucan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Morales-Saavedra, Omar G. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, CCADET-UNAM, A.P. 70-186, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: omar.morales@ccadet.unam.mx; Ontiveros-Barrera, Fernando G.; Torres-Zuniga, Vicente; Ortega-Martinez, Roberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, CCADET-UNAM, A.P. 70-186, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz Rebollo, Armando [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, IIM-UNAM, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-02-25

    Semiconducting molecular material of PcFe(CN)L1 and PcCo(CN)L1 (L1 = 1,8 dihydroxianthraquinone), PcFe(CN)L2 and PcCo(CN)L2 (L2 = double potassium salt of 1,8 dihydroxianthraquinone) have been successfully used to prepare thin film and bulk sol-gel hybrid optical materials. These samples were developed according to the vacuum thermal evaporation technique and the catalyst-free sonogel route, respectively. Thin films samples were deposited on Corning glass substrates and crystalline silicon wafers and were characterized by infrared (FTIR), Raman and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies. IR-spectroscopy and Raman studies unambiguously confirmed that the molecular material thin films exhibit the same intra-molecular bonds, which suggests that the thermal evaporation process does not alter these bonds significantly. These results show that it is possible to deposit molecular materials of PcFe(CN)L2 and PcCo(CN)L2 on Corning glass substrates and silicon wafers. From the UV-vis studies the optical band gap (E{sub g}) was evaluated. The effect of temperature on conductivity was also evaluated in these samples. Finally, the studied molecular systems dissolved at different concentrations in tetrahydrofuran (THF) were successfully embedded into a highly pure SiO{sub 2} sonogel network generated via sonochemical reactions to form several solid state, optically active sol-gel hybrid glasses. By this method, homogeneous and stable hybrid monoliths suitable for optical characterization can be produced. The linear optical properties of these amorphous bulk structures were determined by the Brewster angle method and by absorption-, Raman- and photoluminescent (PL)-spectroscopies, respectively.

  2. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D. Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-01

    With the push to reduce component volumes, lower costs, and reduce weight without sacrificing performance or reliability, the challenges associated with thermal management increase for power electronics and electric motors. Thermal management for electric motors will become more important as the automotive industry continues the transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. The transition to more electrically dominant propulsion systems leads to higher-power duty cycles for electric drive systems. Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform, and as thermal management improves, there will be a direct trade-off between motor performance, efficiency, cost, and the sizing of electric motors to operate within the thermal constraints. The goal of this research project is to support broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management. Work in FY15 focused on two areas related to motor thermal management: passive thermal performance and active convective cooling. Passive thermal performance emphasized the thermal impact of materials and thermal interfaces among materials within an assembled motor. The research tasks supported the publication of test methods and data for thermal contact resistances and direction-dependent thermal conductivity within an electric motor. Active convective cooling focused on measuring convective heat-transfer coefficients using automatic transmission fluid (ATF). Data for average convective heat transfer coefficients for direct impingement of ATF jets was published. Also, experimental hardware for mapping local-scale and stator-scale convective heat transfer coefficients for ATF jet impingement were developed.

  3. Design and implementation of a hybrid electric motorcycle management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Yuan-Yong; Lu, Shao-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a successful design and implement of a shunt-winding hybrid electric motorcycle management system which utilizes an electronic control unit (ECU) to integrate two major subsystems together, one being the traditional system of 125 c.c. internal combustion engine and the other an electric power motor. The hybrid electric motorcycle is assembled together robustly by these two major subsystems and eventually leads to successful road tests. The hybrid power system thus implemented can recharge its own batteries with electricity provided by the electrical recharge system and thus increasing the cruising mileages largely. The testing results obtained by using the proposed experimental platform indicate that lead-acid cells can boost their state of charge (SOC) by approximately 4% when it is operated under the hybrid mode for four driving cycles (about 1600 s) with the recharger on in a standard ECE-40 testing procedure. The results of road tests also clearly show that the pollutant emissions of the engine can be reduced at a lower speed or idling condition, and the problem of insufficient cruising range for electric motorcycles can also be greatly enhanced.

  4. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected......‐2013). Also the power capabilities may increase meaning that e.g. acceleration capabilities will improve as well as the top speed. This development occurs due to new battery technology that may experience substantial improvements in the coming years. When looking at plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles...... developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while...

  5. Thermal Modeling of a Hybrid Thermoelectric Solar Collector with a Compound Parabolic Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Rungsiyopas, M.

    2013-07-01

    In this study radiant light from the sun is used by a hybrid thermoelectric (TE) solar collector and a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) to generate electricity and thermal energy. The hybrid TE solar collector system described in this report is composed of transparent glass, an air gap, an absorber plate, TE modules, a heat sink to cool the water, and a storage tank. Incident solar radiation falls on the CPC, which directs and reflects the radiation to heat up the absorber plate, creating a temperature difference across the TE modules. The water, which absorbs heat from the hot TE modules, flows through the heat sink to release its heat. The results show that the electrical power output and the conversion efficiency depend on the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of the TE modules. A maximum power output of 1.03 W and a conversion efficiency of 0.6% were obtained when the temperature difference was 12°C. The thermal efficiency increased as the water flow rate increased. The maximum thermal efficiency achieved was 43.3%, corresponding to a water flow rate of 0.24 kg/s. These experimental results verify that using a TE solar collector with a CPC to produce both electrical power and thermal energy seems to be feasible. The thermal model and calculation method can be applied for performance prediction.

  6. An experimental study on energy generation with a photovoltaic (PV)-solar thermal hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdil, Erzat; Ilkan, Mustafa; Egelioglu, Fuat

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid system, composed of a photovoltaic (PV) module and a solar thermal collector is constructed and tested for energy collection at a geographic location of Cyprus. Normally, it is required to install a PV system occupying an area of about 10 m 2 in order to produce electrical energy; 7 kWh/day, required by a typical household. In this experimental study, we used only two PV modules of area approximately 0.6 m 2 (i.e., 1.3x0.47 m 2 ) each. PV modules absorb a considerable amount of solar radiation that generate undesirable heat. This thermal energy, however, may be utilized in water pre-heating applications. The proposed hybrid system produces about 2.8 kWh thermal energy daily. Various attachments that are placed over the hybrid modules lead to a total of 11.5% loss in electrical energy generation. This loss, however, represents only 1% of the 7 kWh energy that is consumed by a typical household in northern Cyprus. The pay-back period for the modification is less than 2 years. The low investment cost and the relatively short pay-back period make this hybrid system economically attractive

  7. Hybrid systems to address seasonal mismatches between electricity production and demand in nuclear renewable electrical grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles

    2013-01-01

    A strategy to enable zero-carbon variable electricity production with full utilization of renewable and nuclear energy sources has been developed. Wind and solar systems send electricity to the grid. Nuclear plants operate at full capacity with variable steam to turbines to match electricity demand with production (renewables and nuclear). Excess steam at times of low electricity prices and electricity demand go to hybrid fuel production and storage systems. The characteristic of these hybrid technologies is that the economic penalties for variable nuclear steam inputs are small. Three hybrid systems were identified that could be deployed at the required scale. The first option is the gigawatt-year hourly-to-seasonal heat storage system where excess steam from the nuclear plant is used to heat rock a kilometer underground to create an artificial geothermal heat source. The heat source produces electricity on demand using geothermal technology. The second option uses steam from the nuclear plant and electricity from the grid with high-temperature electrolysis (HTR) cells to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is primarily for industrial applications; however, the HTE can be operated in reverse using hydrogen for peak electricity production. The third option uses variable steam and electricity for shale oil production. -- Highlights: •A system is proposed to meet variable hourly to seasonal electricity demand. •Variable solar and wind electricity sent to the grid. •Base-load nuclear plants send variable steam for electricity and hybrid systems. •Hybrid energy systems can economically absorb gigawatts of variable steam. •Hybrid systems include geothermal heat storage, hydrogen, and shale-oil production

  8. Implementation of a solar thermal electricity pilot plant (Concentrated Tower) of 1MW and introduction of a bus fleet of plug-in hybrids on the Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Implementacao de uma planta piloto de heliotermia (Torre de Concentracao) de 1MW e introducao de uma frota de onibus hibridos plug-in na Ilha do Fundao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Bruno Soares Moreira Cesar; Malagueta, Diego Cunha [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to simulate a solar thermal electricity pilot plant at the Campus of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), at Fundao Island, which would generate part of the electricity demanded by the Technology Center (CT) of the UFRJ. Based on the electricity demand from UFRJ and the electric prices paid by the institution, this study proposes the construction of a 1MW Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) pilot plant and analyses the economical, energy and environmental viability of implementation of this plant, operating from 2015 to 2045. This CSP plant would cover a field of 0,01km{sup 2} and have a 30% of capacity factor. This study also evaluates the impact caused by the substitution of the current Campus internal bus fleet for plug-in hybrid electric buses. The current service is provided by Normandy, which operates 12 buses plus 1 backup. These new buses would be regularly partially recharged by the energy generated from CSP. All the simulations have been made with the RETScreen software, which simulated the operation of the CSP, the amount of electricity produced, the carbon emissions avoided, the acquisition and implementation of the plug-in hybrid electric bus fleet and the cash flow. Six scenarios generated were, namely A1, B1, C1 (all for lower costs for the CSP plants) and A2, B2, C2 (for higher costs). For a social discount rate around 8% and along 30 years, only the A1, C1 and C2 scenarios showed a non-negative cash flow. Also, the emissions avoided were around 222 tCO{sub 2}/yr (or 6.660 tCO{sub 2} over 30 years) in the A1 and A2 scenarios, and around 550 tCO{sub 2}/yr (or 16.512 tCO{sub 2} over 30 years) in all others scenarios. (author)

  9. Analysis of the Fuel Efficiency of a Hybrid Electric Drive with an Electric Power Splitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Čundev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of the fuel efficiency of a hybrid electric car drive, with an electric power splitter based on a double rotor synchronous permanent magnet generator. The results have been obtained through a precisely determined mathematical model and by simulating the characteristics of all essential values for the entire drive. This work is related to the experimental working stand for electric and hybrid car drive research, which has been developed at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FEE at CTU in Prague. 

  10. Novel thermal management structures and their applications in new hybrid technologies and feed-through structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, A.A.; Oliveira, R. de; Gandi, A.

    1999-01-01

    Novel techniques are described for fabricating a new thermal management structure (TMS), in the form of rigid low-mass structures with extremely high in-plane thermal conductivity. The core materials can be forms of thermally anisotropically conducting pyrolytic graphite that are directly encapsulated in a new thin-layering process. The structures can be used in a large variety of applications, including: (a) Efficient interfacing with ceramic materials and metals to provide new thermal management technologies. (b) Providing the source for a new hybrid technology where low-mass custom-designed multilayer thin-film circuits can be directly processed onto such structures. Alternatively, having been prefabricated on an independent substrate, hybrids can be efficiently interfaced to such thermal management structures. (c) Providing electrical connectivity between both sides of a TMS board through a new feedthrough technology that allows the fabrication of both single-sided and double-sided hybrids. These thermal management techniques and their applications are the subject of an international patent application number PCT/GB99/02180, filed in the names of the European Organization for Nuclear Research and Queen Mary and Westfield College, London. (orig.)

  11. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  12. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John Sheungchun

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. Hybrid Electric Vehicles Icon cost and emissions with a conventional vehicle. Select Fuel/Technology Electric Hybrid Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20) Propane (LPG) Next Vehicle Cost

  14. Simulation of hybrid renewable microgeneration systems for variable electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandoni, C.; Renzi, M.; Caresana, F.; Polonara, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a hybrid renewable system that consists of a micro-Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CCHP) unit and a solar energy conversion device. In addition to a traditional PV system, a High Concentrator Photovoltaic (HCPV) device, the design of which is suitable for building integration application, was also modelled and embedded in the hybrid system. The work identifies the optimal management strategies for the hybrid renewable system in an effort to minimise the primary energy usage, the carbon dioxide emissions and the operational costs for variable electricity prices that result from the day-ahead electricity market. An “ad hoc” model describes the performance of the HCPV module, PV and Internal Combustion Engine, whilst the other units were simulated based on their main characteristic parameters. The developed algorithm was applied to three different building typologies. The results indicate that the best configuration is the hybrid renewable system with PV, which can provide a yearly primary energy reduction of between 20% and 30% compared to separate production. The hybrid renewable system with HCPV becomes competitive with the PV technology when the level of solar radiation is high. - Highlights: • The paper addresses a hybrid renewable system that consists of a micro-CCHP unit and a solar energy conversion device. • Both PV and High Concentrator Photovoltaic (HCPV) systems have been modelled and embedded in the hybrid system. • The work identifies the optimal management strategies for variable electricity prices. • Hybrid renewable systems provide a yearly primary energy reduction of between 20% and 30% compared to separate production. • When the level of solar radiation is high, HCPV becomes competitive with the PV technology

  15. Hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy systems in forecasting regional electricity loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, Ping-Feng [Department of Information Management, National Chi Nan University, 1 University Road, Puli, Nantou 545, Taiwan (China)

    2006-09-15

    Because of the privatization of electricity in many countries, load forecasting has become one of the most crucial issues in the planning and operations of electric utilities. In addition, accurate regional load forecasting can provide the transmission and distribution operators with more information. The hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy system was originally designed to solve control and pattern recognition problems. The main objective of this investigation is to develop a hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy system for time series forecasting (HEFST) and apply the proposed model to forecast regional electricity loads in Taiwan. Additionally, a scaled conjugate gradient learning method is employed in the supervised learning phase of the HEFST model. Subsequently, numerical data taken from the existing literature is used to demonstrate the forecasting performance of the HEFST model. Simulation results reveal that the proposed model has better forecasting performance than the artificial neural network model and the regression model. Thus, the HEFST model is a valid and promising alternative for forecasting regional electricity loads. (author)

  16. Hybrid Test Bed of Wind Electric Generator with Photovoltaic Panels

    OpenAIRE

    G.D.Anbarasi Jebaselvi; S.Paramasivam

    2014-01-01

    Driven by the increasing costs of power production and decreasing fossil fuel reserves with the addition of global environmental concerns, renewable energy is now becoming significant fraction of total electricity production in the world. Advancements in the field of wind electric generator technology and power electronics help to achieve rapid progress in hybrid power system which mainly involves wind, solar and diesel energy with a good battery back-up. Here the discussion brings about the ...

  17. Kinetic energy recovery and power management for hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Suntharalingam, P

    2011-01-01

    The major contribution of the work presented in this thesis is a thorough investigation of the constraints on regenerative braking and kinetic energy recovery enhancement for electric/hybrid electric vehicles during braking. Regenerative braking systems provide an opportunity to recycle the braking energy, which is otherwise dissipated as heat in the brake pads. However, braking energy harnessing is a relatively new concept in the automotive sector which still requires further research and de...

  18. A hybrid electrical power system for aircraft application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. H.; Chin, C. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Possible improvements to present aircraft electrical power systems for use in future advanced types of aircraft have been investigated. The conventional power system is examined, the characteristics of electric loads are reviewed, and various methods of power generation and distribution are appraised. It is shown that a hybrid system, with variable-frequency generation and high-voltage dc distribution, could overcome some of the limitations of the conventional system.

  19. Developments in batteries and fuel cells for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.

    2013-01-01

    Due to ever increasing threats of climate change, urban air pollution and costly and depleting oil and gas sources a lot of work is being done for the development of electric vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and all electric vehicles are powered by batteries or by hydrogen and fuel cells are the main types of vehicles being developed. Main types of batteries which can be used for electric vehicles are lead-acid, Ni-Cd, Nickel-Metal-Hybrid ( NiMH) and Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries which are discussed and compared. Lithium ion battery is the mostly used battery. Developments in the lithium ion batteries are discussed and reviewed. Redox flow batteries are also potential candidates for electric vehicles and are described. Hybrid electric vehicles can reduce fuel consumption considerably and is a good midterm solution. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles are discussed. Electric vehicles are necessary to mitigate the effects of pollution and dependence on oil. For all the electric vehicles there are two options: batteries and fuel Cells. Batteries are useful for small vehicles and shorter distances but for vehicle range greater than 150 km fuel cells are superior to batteries in terms of cost, efficiency and durability even using natural gas and other fuels in addition to hydrogen. Ultimate solution for electric vehicles are hydrogen and fuel cells and this opinion is also shared by most of the automobile manufacturers. Developments in fuel cells and their applications for automobiles are described and reviewed. Comparisons have been done in the literature between batteries and fuel cells and are described. (author)

  20. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  1. Analyzing the performance index for a hybrid electric vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, D. V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A. F A

    2011-01-01

    The definition of a performance index for the optimization design and optimal control problem of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle is not often considered and analyzed explicitly. In literature, there is no study about proposing a method of building or evaluating whether a performance index is appropriate.

  2. Sizing Analysis for Aircraft Utilizing Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    world, the paragon of animals -William Shakespeare I would not have made it this far without the love and support of my parents. Their work-ethic...xiii  I.  Introduction ...Condition 1 SIZING ANALYSIS FOR AIRCRAFT UTILIZING HYBRID- ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS I. Introduction 1. Background Physically

  3. Analysis and design of hybrid electric regional turboprop aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuijl, M.; van Bogaert, J.; Gangoli Rao, A.

    2017-01-01

    The potential environmental benefits of hybrid electric regional turboprop aircraft in terms of fuel consumption are investigated. Lithium–air batteries are used as energy source in combination with conventional fuel. A validated design and analysis framework is extended with sizing and analysis

  4. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Electric Power Stage in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahri, A.; El Fadil, H.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling the electric power stage of hybrid electric vehicle. The controlled system consists of a fuel cell (FC) as a main source, a supercapacitor as an auxiliary source, two DC-DC power converters, an inverter and a traction induction motor...

  5. Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

  6. Modelling and control of a light-duty hybrid electric truck

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jong-Kyu

    2006-01-01

    This study is concentrated on modelling and developing the controller for the light-duty hybrid electric truck. The hybrid electric vehicle has advantages in fuel economy. However, there have been relatively few studies on commercial HEVs, whilst a considerable number of studies on the hybrid electric system have been conducted in the field of passenger cars. So the current status and the methodologies to develop the LD hybrid electric truck model have been studied through the ...

  7. Electric control of wave vector filtering in a hybrid magnetic-electric-barrier nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong-Hong; Lu, Ke-Yu; He, Ya-Ping; Liu, Xu-Hui; Fu, Xi; Li, Ai-Hua

    2018-06-01

    We theoretically investigate how to manipulate the wave vector filtering effect by a traverse electric field for electrons across a hybrid magnetic-electric-barrier nanostructure, which can be experimentally realized by depositing a ferromagnetic stripe and a Schottky-metal stripe on top and bottom of a GaAs/Al x Ga1- x As heterostructure, respectively. The wave vector filtering effect is found to be related closely to the applied electric field. Moreover, the wave vector filtering efficiency can be manipulated by changing direction or adjusting strength of the traverse electric field. Therefore, such a nanostructure can be employed as an electrically controllable electron-momentum filter for nanoelectronics applications.

  8. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karden, Eckhard; Ploumen, Serve; Fricke, Birger [Ford Research and Advanced Engineering Europe, Suesterfeldstr. 200, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Miller, Ted; Snyder, Kent [Ford Sustainable Mobility Technologies, 15050 Commerce Drive North, Dearborn, MI 48120 (United States)

    2007-05-25

    Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge usage. Lead/acid, either with liquid or absorptive glass-fibre mat electrolyte, is expected to remain the predominant battery technology for 14 V systems, including micro-hybrids, and with a cost-effective battery monitoring system for demanding applications. Advanced AGM batteries may be considered for mild or even medium hybrids once they have proven robustness under real-world conditions, particularly with respect to cycle life at partial-states-of-charge and dynamic charge acceptance. For the foreseeable future, NiMH and Li-ion are the dominating current and potential battery technologies for higher-functionality HEVs. Li-ion, currently at development and demonstration stages, offers attractive opportunities for improvements in performance and cost. Supercapacitors may be considered for pulse power applications. Aside from cell technologies, attention to the issue of system integration of the battery into the powertrain and vehicle is growing. Opportunities and challenges for potential ''battery pack'' system suppliers are discussed. (author)

  9. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Ploumen, Servé; Fricke, Birger; Miller, Ted; Snyder, Kent

    Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge usage. Lead/acid, either with liquid or absorptive glass-fibre mat electrolyte, is expected to remain the predominant battery technology for 14 V systems, including micro-hybrids, and with a cost-effective battery monitoring system for demanding applications. Advanced AGM batteries may be considered for mild or even medium hybrids once they have proven robustness under real-world conditions, particularly with respect to cycle life at partial-states-of-charge and dynamic charge acceptance. For the foreseeable future, NiMH and Li-ion are the dominating current and potential battery technologies for higher-functionality HEVs. Li-ion, currently at development and demonstration stages, offers attractive opportunities for improvements in performance and cost. Supercapacitors may be considered for pulse power applications. Aside from cell technologies, attention to the issue of system integration of the battery into the powertrain and vehicle is growing. Opportunities and challenges for potential "battery pack" system suppliers are discussed.

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversions Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to Coast to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to Coast on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to Coast on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  12. High thermal conductivity connector having high electrical isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, Ralph C.; Gonczy, John D.; Nicol, Thomas H.

    1995-01-01

    A method and article for providing a low-thermal-resistance, high-electrical-isolation heat intercept connection. The connection method involves clamping, by thermal interference fit, an electrically isolating cylinder between an outer metallic ring and an inner metallic disk. The connection provides durable coupling of a heat sink and a heat source.

  13. Possibilities for retrofitting of the existing thermal electric power plants using solar power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matjanov, Erkinjon K.; Abduganieva, Farogat A.; Aminov, Zarif Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Total installed electric power output of the existing thermal electric power plants in Uzbekistan is reaches 12 GW. Thermal electric power plants, working on organic fuel, produce around 88 % of the electricity in the country. The emission coefficient of CO 2 gases is 620 gram/kwph. Average electric efficiency of the thermal electric power plants is 32.1 %. The mentioned above data certifies, that the existing thermal electric power plants of Uzbekistan are physically and morally aged and they need to be retrofitted. Retrofitting of the existing thermal electric power plants can be done by several ways such as via including gas turbine toppings, by using solar technologies, etc. Solar thermal power is a relatively new technology which has already shown its enormous promise. With few environmental impacts and a massive resource, it offers a comparable opportunity to the sunniest Uzbekistan. Solar thermal power uses direct sunlight, so it must be sited in regions with high direct solar radiation. In many regions, one square km of land is enough to generate as much as 100-120 GWh of electricity per year using the solar thermal technology. This is equivalent to the annual production of a 50 MW conventional coal or gas-fired mid-load power plant. Solar thermal power plants can be designed for solar-only or for hybrid operation. Producing electricity from the energy in the sun's rays is a straightforward process: direct solar radiation can be concentrated and collected by a range of Concentrating Solar Power technologies to provide medium- to high temperature heat. This heat is then used to operate a conventional power cycle, for example through a steam turbine or a Stirling engine. Solar heat collected during the day can also be stored in liquid or solid media such as molten salts, ceramics, concrete or, in the future, phase-changing salt mixtures. At night, it can be extracted from the storage medium thereby continuing turbine operation. Currently, the

  14. State-of-the-art assessment of electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Data are presented that were obtained from the electric and hybrid vehicles tested, information collected from users of electric vehicles, and data and information on electric and hybrid vehicles obtained on a worldwide basis from manufacturers and available literature. The data given include: (1) information and data base (electric and hybrid vehicle systems descriptions, sources of vehicle data and information, and sources of component data); (2) electric vehicles (theoretical background, electric vehicle track tests, user experience, literature data, and summary of electric vehicle status); (3) electric vehicle components (tires, differentials, transmissions, traction motors, controllers, batteries, battery chargers, and component summary); and (4) hybrid vehicles (types of hybrid vehicles, operating modes, hybrid vehicles components, and hybrid vehicles performance characteristics).

  15. Batteries for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Elton J; Albertus, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Batteries have powered vehicles for more than a century, but recent advances, especially in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, are bringing a new generation of electric-powered vehicles to the market. Key barriers to progress include system cost and lifetime, and derive from the difficulty of making a high-energy, high-power, and reversible electrochemical system. Indeed, although humans produce many mechanical and electrical systems, the number of reversible electrochemical systems is very limited. System costs may be brought down by using cathode materials less expensive than those presently employed (e.g., sulfur or air), but reversibility will remain a key challenge. Continued improvements in the ability to synthesize and characterize materials at desired length scales, as well as to use computations to predict new structures and their properties, are facilitating the development of a better understanding and improved systems. Battery research is a fascinating area for development as well as a key enabler for future technologies, including advanced transportation systems with minimal environmental impact.

  16. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  17. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  18. Electrically conductive carbon nanofiber/paraffin wax composites for electric thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kun; Han Baoguo; Yu Xun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/paraffin wax composite is found to be a promising electric thermal storage material. ► The thermal storage capacity of CNF/paraffin wax composite is five times of traditional electric thermal storage material. ► CNF is shown to be an effective conductive filler for the composite. - Abstract: The research of electric thermal storage (ETS) has attracted a lot of attention recently, which converts off-peak electrical energy into thermal energy and release it later at peak hours. In this study, new electric thermal storage composites are developed by employing paraffin wax as thermal storage media and carbon nanofiber (CNF) as conductive fillers. Electric heating and thermal energy release performances of the CNF/paraffin wax composites are experimentally investigated. Experimental results show that, when the composites are heated to about 70 °C, the developed electrically conductive CNF/paraffin wax composites present a thermal storage capacity of about 280 kJ/kg, which is five times of that of traditional thermal storage medium such as ceramic bricks (54 kJ/kg). The CNF/paraffin wax composites can also effectively store the thermal energy and release the thermal energy in later hours.

  19. Analysis Of ElectricalThermal Coupling Of Induction Machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interaction of the Electrical and mechanical parts of Electrical machines gives rise to the heating of the machine's constituent parts. This consequently leads to an increase in temperature which if not properly monitored may lead to the breakdown of the machine. This paper therefore presents the Electrical and thermal ...

  20. A hybrid approach for probabilistic forecasting of electricity price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Xu, Zhao; Wang, Yelei

    2014-01-01

    to the nonstationarities involved in market clearing prices (MCPs), it is rather difficult to accurately predict MCPs in advance. The challenge is getting intensified as more and more renewable energy and other new technologies emerged in smart grids. Therefore transformation from traditional point forecasts...... electricity price forecasting is proposed in this paper. The effectiveness of the proposed hybrid method has been validated through comprehensive tests using real price data from Australian electricity market.......The electricity market plays a key role in realizing the economic prophecy of smart grids. Accurate and reliable electricity market price forecasting is essential to facilitate various decision making activities of market participants in the future smart grid environment. However, due...

  1. Optimal Energy Control Strategy Design for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A heavy-duty parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled, and its optimal energy control is studied in this paper. The fundamental architecture of the parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled feed-forwardly, together with necessary dynamic features of subsystem or components. Dynamic programming (DP technique is adopted to find the optimal control strategy including the gear-shifting sequence and the power split between the engine and the motor subject to a battery SOC-sustaining constraint. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement on the fuel economy can be achieved in the heavy-duty vehicle cycle from the natural driving statistics.

  2. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  3. Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: A guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    A typical present-day subcompact electric hybrid vehicle (EHV), operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

  4. A survey of electric and hybrid vehicle simulation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are summarized. Altogether, 111 programs were identified as being in a usable state. The complexity of the existing programs spans a range from a page of simple desktop calculator instructions to 300,000 lines of a high-level programming language. The capability to simulate electric vehicles was most common, heat-engines second, and hybrid vehicles least common. Batch-operated programs are slightly more common than interactive ones, and one-third can be operated in either mode. The most commonly used language was FORTRAN, the language typically used by engineers. The higher-level simulation languages (e.g. SIMSCRIPT, GPSS, SIMULA) used by "model builders" were conspicuously lacking.

  5. Design of digital load torque observer in hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yukun; Zhang, Haoming; Wang, Yinghai

    2008-12-01

    In hybrid electric vehicle, engine begain to work only when motor was in high speed in order to decrease tail gas emission. However, permanent magnet motor was sensitive to its load, adding engine to the system always made its speed drop sharply, which caused engine to work in low efficiency again and produced much more environment pollution. Dynamic load torque model of permanent magnet synchronous motor is established on the basic of motor mechanical equation and permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control theory, Full- digital load torque observer and compensation control system is made based on TMS320F2407A. Experiment results prove load torque observer and compensation control system can detect and compensate torque disturbing effectively, which can solve load torque disturbing and decrease gas pollution of hybrid electric vehicle.

  6. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  7. Component sizing optimization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaolan; Cao, Binggang; Li, Xueyan; Xu, Jun; Ren, Xiaolong

    2011-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are considered as one of the most promising means to improve the near-term sustainability of the transportation and stationary energy sectors. This paper describes a methodology for the optimization of PHEVs component sizing using parallel chaos optimization algorithm (PCOA). In this approach, the objective function is defined so as to minimize the drivetrain cost. In addition, the driving performance requirements are considered as constraints. Finally, the optimization process is performed over three different all electric range (AER) and two types of batteries. The results from computer simulation show the effectiveness of the approach and the reduction in drivetrian cost while ensuring the vehicle performance.

  8. Development of a multi-mode hybrid electric bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemmans, M.J. [Overland Custom Coach, Thorndale, ON (Canada); Bland, C. [BET Services Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes the development of an energy efficient, low floor, 28 foot hybrid electric bus for use as an airport shuttle bus or other specialized transit operations. A multi-mode concept was also adopted to include the capability of operating in battery-only drive, engine-only drive or a range of hybrid electric drive modes. The electric drivetrain was powered by a battery pack or a combination of a battery pack and an internal combustion engine-powered electric generator. The participating companies in this project include Overland Custom Coach, BET Services Inc., Siemens and Transport Canada. The technical feasibility study was described with reference to duty cycles, performance issues, vehicle weight, mechanical drive issues, brakes, suspension, powertrain cooling, heating, ventilation, electrical system, batteries and control system. The commercial feasibility was also described in terms of capital and operating costs. Results of the prototype tests validate the possibilities of zero or reduced emission transit in real world applications. 25 tabs., 32 figs.

  9. Software architecture for hybrid electrical/optical data center network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmeri, Victor; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents hardware and software architecture based on Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm and OpenFlow/NETCONF protocols for enabling topology management of hybrid electrical/optical switching data center networks. In particular, a development on top of SDN open-source controller...... OpenDaylight is presented to control an optical switching matrix based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology....

  10. Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

  11. Regenerative Braking System for Series Hybrid Electric City Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junzhi; Lu, Xin; Xue, Junliang; Li, Bos

    2008-01-01

    Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) provide an efficient method to assist hybrid electric buses achieve better fuel economy while lowering exhaust emissions. This paper describes the design and testing of three regenerative braking systems, one of which is a series regenerative braking system and two of which are parallel regenerative braking systems. The existing friction based Adjustable Braking System (ABS) on the bus is integrated with each of the new braking systems in order to ensure bus...

  12. Panorama 2011: The development of hybrid and electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, S.

    2011-01-01

    Car manufacturers are having to deal with increasingly stringent norms and customers who are increasingly demanding with respect to fuel savings. As a result, large numbers of them are now looking into solutions that involve electrifying their vehicles. Hybrid vehicles, some of which can be recharged, and electric vehicles are the new stars of the auto trade shows. But not all manufacturers are necessarily using the same strategies. (author)

  13. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy Based on Power Loss Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    Defining an operation strategy for a Split Parallel Architecture (SPA) Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is accomplished through calculating powertrain component losses. The results of these calculations define how the vehicle can decrease fuel consumption while maintaining low vehicle emissions. For a HEV, simply operating the vehicle's engine in its regions of high efficiency does not guarantee the most efficient vehicle operation. The results presented are meant only to define a literal str...

  14. Cost Performance Estimating Relationships for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-31

    Permanent magnet motors are more likely to be used as generators, while AC induction motors are more efficiently used as motors. Inverters/controllers can...than permanent magnet motors . Switched Reluctance motors are also used on hybrid electric vehicles, but are not used as widely as either AC...induction or permanent magnet motors , and are not analyzed here. Methodology The motor estimates are based on power, with kilowatts being the unit of

  15. Research on hybrid transmission mode for HVDC with optimal thermal power and renewable energy combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfang; Yan, Xiaoqing; Wang, Hongfu

    2018-02-01

    With the rapid development of renewable energy in Northwest China, curtailment phenomena is becoming more and more serve owing to lack of adjustment ability and enough transmission capacity. Based on the existing HVDC projects, exploring the hybrid transmission mode associated with thermal power and renewable power will be necessary and important. This paper has proposed a method on optimal thermal power and renewable energy combination for HVDC lines, based on multi-scheme comparison. Having established the mathematic model for electric power balance in time series mode, ten different schemes have been picked for figuring out the suitable one by test simulation. By the proposed related discriminated principle, including generation device utilization hours, renewable energy electricity proportion and curtailment level, the recommendation scheme has been found. The result has also validated the efficiency of the method.

  16. Transit experience with hydrogen fueled hybrid electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.B.; Mazaika, D.M.; Levin, J.; Edwards, T.

    2006-01-01

    Both AC Transit and SunLine Transit operate hybrid electric hydrogen fueled buses in their transit service. ACT presently operates three fuel cell buses in daily revenue service, and SunLine operates a fuel cell bus and a HHICE (Hybrid Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine) bus. All these buses use similar electric drive train and electric accessories, although the detailed design differs notably between the fuel cell and the hybrid ICE buses. The fuel cell buses use a 120kW UTC fuel cell and a Van Hool Chassis, whereas the HHICE bus uses a turbocharged Ford engine which is capable of 140kW generator output in a New Flyer Chassis. The HHICE bus was the first in service, and has been subjected to both winter testing in Manitoba, Canada and summer testing in the Palm Springs, CA region. The winter testing included passenger sampling using questionnaires to ascertain passenger response. The fuel cell buses were introduced to service at the start of 2006. All five buses are in daily revenue service use. The paper will describe the buses and the experience of the transit properties in operating the buses. (author)

  17. Conceptual Design of Operation Strategies for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Hoelzen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambitious targets to reduce emissions caused by aviation in the light of an expected ongoing rise of the air transport demand in the future drive the research of propulsion systems with lower CO2 emissions. Regional hybrid electric aircraft (HEA powered by conventional gas turbines and battery powered electric motors are investigated to test hybrid propulsion operation strategies. Especially the role of the battery within environmentally friendly concepts with significantly reduced carbon footprint is analyzed. Thus, a new simulation approach for HEA is introduced. The main findings underline the importance of choosing the right power-to-energy-ratio of a battery according to the flight mission. The gravimetric energy and power density of the electric storages determine the technologically feasibility of hybrid concepts. Cost competitive HEA configurations are found, but do not promise the targeted CO2 emission savings, when the well-to-wheel system is regarded with its actual costs. Sensitivity studies are used to determine external levers that favor the profitability of HEA.

  18. Model Predictive Control for Connected Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new model predictive control system for connected hybrid electric vehicles to improve fuel economy. The new features of this study are as follows. First, the battery charge and discharge profile and the driving velocity profile are simultaneously optimized. One is energy management for HEV for Pbatt; the other is for the energy consumption minimizing problem of acc control of two vehicles. Second, a system for connected hybrid electric vehicles has been developed considering varying drag coefficients and the road gradients. Third, the fuel model of a typical hybrid electric vehicle is developed using the maps of the engine efficiency characteristics. Fourth, simulations and analysis (under different parameters, i.e., road conditions, vehicle state of charge, etc. are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the method to achieve higher fuel efficiency. The model predictive control problem is solved using numerical computation method: continuation and generalized minimum residual method. Computer simulation results reveal improvements in fuel economy using the proposed control method.

  19. Optimal Day-Ahead Scheduling of a Hybrid Electric Grid Using Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    with 214 turbines [22]. In July 2011, the DoD declared that a complete study of 217 wind farm projects proposed in 35 states and Puerto Rico found...14. SUBJECT TERMS Hybrid electric grid , Microgrid , Hybrid renewable energy system , energy management center, optimization, Day...electric grid. In the case of a hybrid electric grid (HEG), or hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) where the microgrid can be connected to the commercial

  20. Substantial improvements of fuel economy. Potentials of electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, K [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Nielsen, L H [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This paper evaluates the scope for improvement of the energy and environmental impacts of road traffic by means of electrical and hybrid electric propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy of vehicles compared to the present vehicle types as well as beneficial effects for the energy and traffic system. The paper - based on work carried out in the project `Transportation fuel based on renewable energy`, funded by the National Energy Agency of Denmark and carried out by Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark and System Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory - assesses the potentials for reduction of the primary energy consumption and emissions, and points to the necessary technical development to reap these benefits. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulations, comparing electric and hybrid electric passenger car to an equivalent reference vehicle (a conventional gasoline passenger car). (au) 10 refs.

  1. Rectification of electronic heat current by a hybrid thermal diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, Maria José; Fornieri, Antonio; Giazotto, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Thermal diodes--devices that allow heat to flow preferentially in one direction--are one of the key tools for the implementation of solid-state thermal circuits. These would find application in many fields of nanoscience, including cooling, energy harvesting, thermal isolation, radiation detection and quantum information, or in emerging fields such as phononics and coherent caloritronics. However, both in terms of phononic and electronic heat conduction (the latter being the focus of this work), their experimental realization remains very challenging. A highly efficient thermal diode should provide a difference of at least one order of magnitude between the heat current transmitted in the forward temperature (T) bias configuration (Jfw) and that generated with T-bias reversal (Jrev), leading to ℛ = Jfw/Jrev ≫ 1 or ≪ 1. So far, ℛ ≈ 1.07-1.4 has been reported in phononic devices, and ℛ ≈ 1.1 has been obtained with a quantum-dot electronic thermal rectifier at cryogenic temperatures. Here, we show that unprecedentedly high ratios of ℛ ≈ 140 can be achieved in a hybrid device combining normal metals tunnel-coupled to superconductors. Our approach provides a high-performance realization of a thermal diode for electronic heat current that could be successfully implemented in true low-temperature solid-state thermal circuits.

  2. Design, fabrication and performance of a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) active solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shiv; Tiwari, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Two solar stills (single slope passive and single slope photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) active solar still) were fabricated and tested at solar energy park, IIT New Delhi (India) for composite climate. Photovoltaic operated DC water pump was used between solar still and photovoltaic (PV) integrated flat plate collector to re-circulate the water through the collectors and transfer it to the solar still. The newly designed hybrid (PV/T) active solar still is self-sustainable and can be used in remote areas, need to transport distilled water from a distance and not connected to grid, but blessed with ample solar energy. Experiments were performed for 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 m water depth, round the year 2006-2007 for both the stills. It has been observed that maximum daily yield of 2.26 kg and 7.22 kg were obtained from passive and hybrid active solar still, respectively at 0.05 m water depth. The daily yield from hybrid active solar still is around 3.2 and 5.5 times higher than the passive solar still in summer and winter month, respectively. The study has shown that this design of the hybrid active solar still also provides higher electrical and overall thermal efficiency, which is about 20% higher than the passive solar still.

  3. Conceptual design of hybrid-electric transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornet, C.; Isikveren, A. T.

    2015-11-01

    The European Flightpath 2050 and corresponding Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) as well as the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation N+ series have elaborated aggressive emissions and external noise reduction targets according to chronological waypoints. In order to deliver ultra-low or even zero in-flight emissions levels, there exists an increasing amount of international research and development emphasis on electrification of the propulsion and power systems of aircraft. Since the late 1990s, a series of experimental and a host of burgeouning commercial activities for fixed-wing aviation have focused on glider, ultra-light and light-sport airplane, and this is proving to serve as a cornerstone for more ambitious transport aircraft design and integration technical approaches. The introduction of hybrid-electric technology has dramatically expanded the design space and the full-potential of these technologies will be drawn through synergetic, tightly-coupled morphological and systems integration emphasizing propulsion - as exemplified by the potential afforded by distributed propulsion solutions. With the aim of expanding upon the current repository of knowledge associated with hybrid-electric propulsion systems a quad-fan arranged narrow-body transport aircraft equipped with two advanced Geared-Turbofans (GTF) and two Electrical Fans (EF) in an under-wing podded installation is presented in this technical article. The assessment and implications of an increasing Degree-of-Hybridization for Useful Power (HP,USE) on the overall sizing, performance as well as flight technique optimization of fuel-battery hybrid-electric aircraft is addressed herein. The integrated performance of the concept was analyzed in terms of potential block fuel burn reduction and change in vehicular efficiency in comparison to a suitably projected conventional aircraft employing GTF-only propulsion targeting year 2035. Results showed that by increasing HP,USE, significant

  4. Electrically Driven Thermal Management: Flight Validation, Experiment Development, Future Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2018-01-01

    Electrically Driven Thermal Management is an active research and technology development initiative incorporating ISS technology flight demonstrations (STP-H5), development of Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) flight experiment, and laboratory-based investigations of electrically based thermal management techniques. The program targets integrated thermal management for future generations of RF electronics and power electronic devices. This presentation reviews four program elements: i.) results from the Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) Long Term Flight Demonstration launched in February 2017 ii.) development of the Electrically Driven Liquid Film Boiling Experiment iii.) two University based research efforts iv.) development of Oscillating Heat Pipe evaluation at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  5. Concentrating PV/T Hybrid System for Simultaneous Electricity and Usable Heat Generation: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longzhou Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV power generation is one of the attractive choices for efficient utilization of solar energy. Considering that the efficiency and cost of PV cells cannot be significantly improved in near future, a relatively cheap concentrator to replace part of the expensive solar cells could be used. The photovoltaic thermal hybrid system (PV/T, combining active cooling with thermal electricity and providing both electricity and usable heat, can enhance the total efficiency of the system with reduced cell area. The effect of nonuniform light distribution and the heat dissipation on the performance of concentrating PV/T was discussed. Total utilization of solar light by spectral beam splitting technology was also introduced. In the last part, we proposed an integrated compound parabolic collector (CPC plate with low precision solar tracking, ensuring effective collection of solar light with a significantly lowered cost. With the combination of beam splitting of solar spectrum, use of film solar cell, and active liquid cooling, efficient and full spectrum conversion of solar light to electricity and heat, in a low cost way, might be realized. The paper may offer a general guide to those who are interested in the development of low cost concentrating PV/T hybrid system.

  6. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Draft Environmental Assessment for Rulemaking To Establish Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register...-0148] RIN 2127-AK93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and...

  7. Multiple target sound quality balance for hybrid electric powertrain noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera-Sánchez, J. A.; Sarrazin, M.; Janssens, K.; de Oliveira, L. P. R.; Desmet, W.

    2018-01-01

    The integration of the electric motor to the powertrain in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) presents acoustic stimuli that elicit new perceptions. The large number of spectral components, as well as the wider bandwidth of this sort of noises, pose new challenges to current noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) approaches. This paper presents a framework for enhancing the sound quality (SQ) of the hybrid electric powertrain noise perceived inside the passenger compartment. Compared with current active sound quality control (ASQC) schemes, where the SQ improvement is just an effect of the control actions, the proposed technique features an optimization stage, which enables the NVH specialist to actively implement the amplitude balance of the tones that better fits into the auditory expectations. Since Loudness, Roughness, Sharpness and Tonality are the most relevant SQ metrics for interior HEV noise, they are used as performance metrics in the concurrent optimization analysis, which, eventually, drives the control design method. Thus, multichannel active sound profiling systems that feature cross-channel compensation schemes are guided by the multi-objective optimization stage, by means of optimal sets of amplitude gain factors that can be implemented at each single sensor location, while minimizing cross-channel effects that can either degrade the original SQ condition, or even hinder the implementation of independent SQ targets. The proposed framework is verified experimentally, with realistic stationary hybrid electric powertrain noise, showing SQ enhancement for multiple locations within a scaled vehicle mock-up. The results show total success rates in excess of 90%, which indicate that the proposed method is promising, not only for the improvement of the SQ of HEV noise, but also for a variety of periodic disturbances with similar features.

  8. Electrical, thermal and abusive tests on lithium thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1980-04-01

    Electrical characterizations, thermal characterizations, and outer limits tests of lithium thionyl chloride cells are discussed. Graphs of energy density vs power density and heat rate vs time are presented along with results of forced reversal and high rate discharge tests.

  9. Superconducting Electric Boost Pump for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A submersible, superconducting electric boost pump sized to meet the needs of future Nuclear Thermal Propulsion systems in the 25,000 lbf thrust range is proposed....

  10. Real-Time Energy Management Control for Hybrid Electric Powertrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on embedded control of a hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real-time energy management strategy. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in the opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. There are three main concepts for energy storing devices in hybrid vehicles: electric, hydraulic, and mechanical (flywheel. The real-time control challenge is to balance the system power demands from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle. In the worst-case scenario, only the engine is used and the hybrid system is completely disabled. A rule-based control algorithm is developed and is tuned for different work cycles and could be linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the work machine and its position via GPS and maps both of them to the gains.

  11. Lifecycle cost assessment and carbon dioxide emissions of diesel, natural gas, hybrid electric, fuel cell hybrid and electric transit buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajunen, Antti; Lipman, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates the lifecycle costs and carbon dioxide emissions of different types of city buses. The simulation models of the different powertrains were developed in the Autonomie vehicle simulation software. The carbon dioxide emissions were calculated both for the bus operation and for the fuel and energy pathways from well to tank. Two different operating environment case scenarios were used for the primary energy sources, which were Finland and California (USA). The fuel and energy pathways were selected appropriately in relation to the operating environment. The lifecycle costs take into account the purchase, operating, maintenance, and possible carbon emission costs. Based on the simulation results, the energy efficiency of city buses can be significantly improved by the alternative powertrain technologies. Hybrid buses have moderately lower carbon dioxide emissions during the service life than diesel buses whereas fully-electric buses have potential to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, by up to 75%. The lifecycle cost analysis indicates that diesel hybrid buses are already competitive with diesel and natural gas buses. The high costs of fuel cell and battery systems are the major challenges for the fuel cell hybrid buses in order to reduce lifecycle costs to more competitive levels. - Highlights: • Alternative powertrains can significantly improve energy efficiency of transit buses. • Operating environment has an important impact on the lifecycle costs of buses. • Diesel hybrid buses are already cost effective solution for public transportation. • The cost of fuel cell technology is the major challenge for fuel cell hybrid buses. • Fully-electric buses have potential to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  12. Advanced Electrical Machines and Machine-Based Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Cheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a number of advanced solutions on electric machines and machine-based systems for the powertrain of electric vehicles (EVs. Two types of systems are considered, namely the drive systems designated to the EV propulsion and the power split devices utilized in the popular series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle architecture. After reviewing the main requirements for the electric drive systems, the paper illustrates advanced electric machine topologies, including a stator permanent magnet (stator-PM motor, a hybrid-excitation motor, a flux memory motor and a redundant motor structure. Then, it illustrates advanced electric drive systems, such as the magnetic-geared in-wheel drive and the integrated starter generator (ISG. Finally, three machine-based implementations of the power split devices are expounded, built up around the dual-rotor PM machine, the dual-stator PM brushless machine and the magnetic-geared dual-rotor machine. As a conclusion, the development trends in the field of electric machines and machine-based systems for EVs are summarized.

  13. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Some Theoretical Considerations on Consumption Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Carlucci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Solving the problem of the lack of environmental sustainability in transport activities requires the involvement of new technologies, particularly in populated cities where mobility activities play a major role in generating externalities. The move from cars powered by conventional internal combustion engines to cars powered by alternative energies can make an important contribution to reducing emissions and achieving a more sustainable transport system. Unfortunately, green car market development still remains uncertain because of the higher production costs of batteries and engines. In this context, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to analysing the economic factors affecting consumers’ behaviour in the choice of hybrid electric vehicles. To fill this gap, the diffusion process of hybrid technology as well as intrinsic and extrinsic motivations and the crowding-out effect on consumers’ purchasing decisions are taken under consideration. Finally, some policy recommendations are provided.

  14. Thermal and electrical conductivities of Cd-Zn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saatci, B; Ari, M; Guenduez, M; Meydaneri, F; Bozoklu, M; Durmus, S

    2006-01-01

    The composition and temperature dependences of the thermal and electrical conductivities of three different Cd-Zn alloys have been investigated in the temperature range of 300-650 K. Thermal conductivities of the Cd-Zn alloys have been determined by using the radial heat flow method. It has been found that the thermal conductivity decreases slightly with increasing temperature and the data of thermal conductivity are shifting together to the higher values with increasing Cd composition. In addition, the electrical measurements were determined by using a standard DC four-point probe technique. The resistivity increases linearly and the electrical conductivity decreases exponentially with increasing temperature. The resistivity and electrical conductivity are independent of composition of Cd and Zn. Also, the temperature coefficient of Cd-Zn alloys has been determined, which is independent of composition of Cd and Zn. Finally, Lorenz number has been calculated using the thermal and electrical conductivity values at 373 and 533 K. The results satisfy the Wiedemann-Franz (WF) relation at T 373 K), the WF relation could not hold and the phonon component contribution of thermal conductivity dominates the thermal conduction

  15. Electrical-Loss Analysis of Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonfiglio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing development of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs has seen the spread of architectures with transmission based on planetary gear train, realized thanks to two electric machines. This architecture, by continuously regulating the transmission ratio, allows the internal combustion engine (ICE to work in optimal conditions. On the one hand, the average ICE efficiency is increased thanks to better loading situations, while, on the other hand, electrical losses are introduced due to the power circulation between the two electrical machines mentioned above. The aim of this study is then to accurately evaluate electrical losses and the average ICE efficiency in various operating conditions and over different road missions. The models used in this study are presented for both the Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT architecture and the Discontinuously Variable Transmission (DVT architecture. In addition, efficiency maps of the main components are shown. Finally, the simulation results are presented to point out strengths and weaknesses of the CVT architecture.

  16. Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Young, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peng, F.Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure the continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Transit experience with hydrogen fueled hybrid electric buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.B.; Mazaika, D.M. [ISE Corp., Poway, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Mass transit buses are ideal candidates for hydrogen implementation due to their capability of carrying 30 to 60 kg of hydrogen. ISE Corporation is a supplier of hydrogen fueled buses, including the first hybrid electric fuel cell bus which was commercialized in 2002, the hybrid electric fuel cell bus, and the hybrid hydrogen internal combustion engine (HHICE) bus which was commercialized in 2004. The configuration of a HHICE bus was illustrated with reference to its engine, control system, energy storage, generator, drive motor, inverter and accessories. Although these vehicles are expensive, the cost is amortized over a large base of hours used and passengers carried. The buses are operated primarily in urban areas where quiet and clean operation is needed the most. ISE has established a joint venture with Thor industries to develop a series of fuel cell buses equipped with a 60 kW PEM fuel cell. A schematic illustrating the energy flow in HHICE bus was also presented. It was shown that regenerative braking recovers the energy of motion. When using regenerative braking, most of the braking energy is saved in the battery. ISE drive systems convert 30 per cent or more of the bus energy to electrical energy to be used in later acceleration. Reduced fuel consumption also reduces the vehicle emissions. Testing of HHICE buses in both summer and winter operating conditions have shown that the range needs to be improved along with engine component reliability and durability. Fuel supply is also a major issue. A comparison with a fuel cell hybrid system was also presented. In the United States, more than 100,000 miles have been logged for the use of hydrogen hybrid buses, fuel cell buses and HHICE buses. The HHICE bus offers low capital cost, familiar technologies, but some NOx. CAT absorber technology offers the possibility of near zero emission capability. The fuel cell bus was found to be more fuel efficient, and can travel nearly twice as far per unit energy as

  18. PV Thermal systems: PV panels supplying renewable electricity and heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, van W.G.J.; Zolingen, van R.J.C.; Zondag, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    With PV Thermal panels sunlight is converted into electricity and heat simultaneously. Per unit area the total efficiency of a PVT panel is higher than the sum of the efficiencies of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors. During the last 20 years research into PVT techniques and concepts

  19. Smooth hybrid inflation and non-thermal Type II leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sil, Arunansu

    2013-01-01

    We consider a smooth hybrid inflation scenario based on a supersymmetricSU(2) L ⊗ SU(2) R ⊗ U(1) B-L model. The Higgs triplets involved in the model play a key role in inflation as well as in explaining the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe. We show that the baryon asymmetry can originate via non-thermal triplet leptogenesis from the decay of SU(2) B-L triplets, whose tiny vacuum expectation values also provide masses for the light neutrinos. (author)

  20. Hybrid Electric Energy Storages: Their Specific Features and Application (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel', O. S.; Tarasenko, A. B.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents a review of various aspects related to development and practical use of hybrid electric energy storages (i.e., those uniting different energy storage technologies and devices in an integrated system) in transport and conventional and renewable power engineering applications. Such devices, which were initially developed for transport power installations, are increasingly being used by other consumers characterized by pronounced nonuniformities of their load schedule. A range of tasks solved using such energy storages is considered. It is shown that, owing to the advent of new types of energy storages and the extended spectrum of their performance characteristics, new possibilities for combining different types of energy storages and for developing hybrid systems have become available. This, in turn, opens up the possibility of making energy storages with better mass and dimension characteristics and achieving essentially lower operational costs. The possibility to secure more comfortable (base) operating modes of primary sources of energy (heat engines and renewable energy source based power installations) and to achieve a higher capacity utilization factor are unquestionable merits of hybrid energy storages. Development of optimal process circuit solutions, as well as energy conversion and control devices facilitating the fullest utilization of the properties of each individual energy storage included in the hybrid system, is among the important lines of research carried out in this field in Russia and abroad. Our review of existing developments has shown that there are no universal technical solutions in this field (the specific features of a consumer have an essential effect on the process circuit solutions and on the composition of a hybrid energy storage), a circumstance that dictates the need to extend the scope of investigations in this promising field.

  1. Battery Test Manual For 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Lee Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    This manual details the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium and U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program goals, test methods, and analysis techniques for a 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle system. The test methods are outlined stating with characterization tests, followed by life tests. The final section details standardized analysis techniques for 48 V systems that allow for the comparison of different programs that use this manual. An example test plan is included, along with guidance to filling in gap table numbers.

  2. Battery Test Manual For 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Lee Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This manual details the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium and U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program goals, test methods, and analysis techniques for a 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle system. The test methods are outlined stating with characterization tests, followed by life tests. The final section details standardized analysis techniques for 48 V systems that allow for the comparison of different programs that use this manual. An example test plan is included, along with guidance to filling in gap table numbers.

  3. Electric and hybrid vehicle system R/D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The work being done to characterize the level of current propulsion technology through component testing is described. Important interactions between the battery and the propulsion system will be discussed. Component development work, involving traction motors, motor controllers and transmissions are described and current results are presented. Studies of advanced electric and hybrid propulsion system studies are summarized and the status of propulsion system development work supported by the project is described. A strategy for fostering joint industry/government projects for commercialization of propulsion components and systems is described briefly.

  4. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  5. Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

  6. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamor, Michael Alan

    2001-03-06

    Several control methods are presented for application in a hybrid electric vehicle powertrain including in various embodiments an engine, a motor/generator, a transmission coupled at an input thereof to receive torque from the engine and the motor generator coupled to augment torque provided by the engine, an energy storage device coupled to receive energy from and provide energy to the motor/generator, an engine controller (EEC) coupled to control the engine, a transmission controller (TCM) coupled to control the transmission and a vehicle system controller (VSC) adapted to control the powertrain.

  7. Lower hybrid current drive in the presence of electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saveliev Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new one-dimensional approach to the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD modelling in the presence of an inductive electric field is suggested in this paper. The approach is based on using time-dependent solutions of a well-known Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution function of fast electrons calculated concurrently with solving plasma transport equation in the Automated System for TRansport Analysis (ASTRA [1]. A good agreement between experimental and modelling results is demonstrated for an FT-2 [2] plasma shot. Also new formulae for the steady-state solution of this kinetic equation are found.

  8. Lower hybrid current drive in the presence of electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Alexander; Zakharov, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    A new one-dimensional approach to the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) modelling in the presence of an inductive electric field is suggested in this paper. The approach is based on using time-dependent solutions of a well-known Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution function of fast electrons calculated concurrently with solving plasma transport equation in the Automated System for TRansport Analysis (ASTRA) [1]. A good agreement between experimental and modelling results is demonstrated for an FT-2 [2] plasma shot. Also new formulae for the steady-state solution of this kinetic equation are found.

  9. A new concept of hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector with natural circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Longsheng; Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Xiaokang

    2017-07-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PVT) technology refers to the integration of a photovoltaic module into a conventional solar thermal collector. Generally, the traditional design of a PVT collector has solar cells fixed on the top surface of an absorber in a flat-plate solar thermal collector. In this work, we presented a new concept of water-based PVT collector in which solar cells were directly placed on the bottom surface of its glass cover. A dynamic numerical model of this new PVT is developed and validated by experimental tests. With numerical analysis, it is found that at same covering factor, the electricity conversion efficiency of solar cells of the new PVT exceed that of the traditional PVT by nearly 10% while its thermal efficiency is approximately 30% lower than that of the traditional PVT. When the covering factor changes from 0.05 to 1, the thermal efficiency of the new PVT drops nearly 70%. The thermal efficiency of both the new PVT and the traditional PVT rise up as the water mass in tank increases. Meanwhile, the final water temperature in tank of the traditional PVT collector declines more than 17 °C, whereas that of the new PVT declines less than 6 °C, when the water mass increases from 100 to 300 kg.

  10. Component sizing optimization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaolan; Cao, Binggang; Li, Xueyan; Xu, Jun; Ren, Xiaolong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are considered as one of the most promising means to improve the near-term sustainability of the transportation and stationary energy sectors. This paper describes a methodology for the optimization of PHEVs component sizing using parallel chaos optimization algorithm (PCOA). In this approach, the objective function is defined so as to minimize the drivetrain cost. In addition, the driving performance requirements are considered as constraints. Finally, the optimization process is performed over three different all electric range (AER) and two types of batteries. The results from computer simulation show the effectiveness of the approach and the reduction in drivetrian cost while ensuring the vehicle performance. (author)

  11. Multi Bus DC-DC Converter in Electric Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krithika, V.; Subramaniam, C.; Sridharan, R.; Geetha, A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper is cotncerned with the design, simulation and fabrication of the prototype of a Multi bus DC- DC converter operating from 42V DC and delivering 14V DC and 260V DC. As a result, three DC buses are interconnected through a single power electronic circuitry. Such a requirement is energized in the development of a hybrid electric automobile which uses the technology of fuel cell. This is implemented by using a Bidirectional DC-DC converter configuration which is ideally suitable for multiple outputs with mutual electrical isolation. For the sake of reduced size and cost of step-up transformer, selection of a high frequency switching cycle at 10 KHz was done.

  12. A summary of EHV propulsion technology. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    While the battery used by an electric vehicle is the primary determinant of range, and to a lesser extent of performance, the design of the vehicle's propulsion system establishes its performance level and is the greatest contributor to its purchase price. Propulsion system weight, efficiency and cost are related to the specific combination of components used. Attention is given to the development status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, through which propulsion component and system design improvements have been made which promise weight savings of 35-50 percent, efficiency gains of 25 percent, and lower costs, when compared to the state of the art at the program's inception.

  13. Battery Management Systems in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pecht

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The battery management system (BMS is a critical component of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the BMS is to guarantee safe and reliable battery operation. To maintain the safety and reliability of the battery, state monitoring and evaluation, charge control, and cell balancing are functionalities that have been implemented in BMS. As an electrochemical product, a battery acts differently under different operational and environmental conditions. The uncertainty of a battery’s performance poses a challenge to the implementation of these functions. This paper addresses concerns for current BMSs. State evaluation of a battery, including state of charge, state of health, and state of life, is a critical task for a BMS. Through reviewing the latest methodologies for the state evaluation of batteries, the future challenges for BMSs are presented and possible solutions are proposed as well.

  14. Study and modeling of energy performance of a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal solar collector: Configuration suitable for an indirect solar dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimani, Mohamed El Amine; Amirat, Madjid; Bahria, Sofiane; Kurucz, Ildikó; Aouli, M’heni; Sellami, Rabah

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The simulation results are in compliance with the experimental measurements indicated in the previous literature. • The accuracy of the numerical model is due to the presented energy analysis and also to the well-adopted correlations. • A comparative study between two solar photovoltaic/thermal air collectors was carried out. • The thermal efficiency of the analyzed hybrid collector increased by 30.85% compared to the basic configuration. • The air temperature supplied by a double-pass photovoltaic/thermal collector is very suitable for solar drying. - Abstract: In this paper, a configuration of photovoltaic-thermal hybrid solar collector embeddable in an indirect solar dryer system is studied. In the present structure of the solar photovoltaic/thermal air collector, the air goes through a double pass below and above the photovoltaic module. A system of electrical and thermal balance equations is developed and analyzed governing various electric and heat transfer parameters in the solar hybrid air collector. The numerical model planned for this study gives a good precision of results, which are close to the experimental ones (of previous literature), and makes it possible to have a good assessment of energy performance regarding the studied configuration (temperature, electric and thermal powers, electrical and thermal efficiencies, etc.). The numerical results show the energy effectiveness of this hybrid collector configuration and particularly its interesting use in an indirect solar dryer system that provides a more suitable air temperature for drying agricultural products. The values of the electrical, thermal and overall energy efficiencies reaches 10.5%, 70% and 90% respectively, with a mass flow rate of 0.0155 kg/s and weather data sample for the month of June in the Algiers site. The results presented in this study also reveal how important the effect of certain parameters and operating conditions on the performance of the hybrid

  15. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Switched Reluctance Motor in a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Siavash Sadeghi; Mojtaba Mirsalim; Arash Hassanpour Isfahani

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic behavior analysis of electric motors is required in order to accuratelyevaluate the performance, energy consumption and pollution level of hybrid electricvehicles. Simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicles are divided into steady state anddynamic models. Tools with steady-state models are useful for system-level analysiswhereas tools that utilize dynamic models give in-depth information about the behavior ofsublevel components. For the accurate prediction of hybrid electric vehicl...

  16. Electrically driven hybrid photonic metamaterials for multifunctional control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lei; Liu, Liu; Campbell, Sawyer D.; Yue, Taiwei; Ren, Qiang; Mayer, Theresa S.; Werner, Douglas H.

    2017-08-01

    The unique light-matter interaction in metamaterials, a type of artificial medium in which the geometrical features of subunits dominate their optical responses, have been utilized to achieve exotic material properties that are rare or nonexistent in natural materials. Furthermore, to extend their behaviors, active materials have been introduced into metamaterial systems to advance tunability, switchability and nonlinearity. Nevertheless, practical examples of versatile photonic metamaterials remain exceedingly rare for two main reasons. On the one hand, in sharp contrast to the broad material options available at lower frequencies, it is less common to find active media in the optical regime that can provide pronounced dielectric property changes under external stimuli, such as electric and magnetic fields. Vanadium dioxide (VO2), offering a large refractive index variation over a broad frequency range due to its near room temperature insulator-to-metal transition (IMT), has been favored in recent studies on tunable metamaterials. On the other hand, it turns out that regulating responses of hybrid metamaterials to external forces in an integrated manner is not a straightforward task. Recently, metamaterial-enabled devices (i.e., metadevices) with `self-sufficient' or `self-contained' electrical and optical properties have enabled complex functionalities. Here, we present a design methodology along with the associated experimental validation of a VO2 thin film integrated optical metamaterial absorber as a hybrid photonic platform for electrically driven multifunctional control, including reflectance switching, a rewritable memory process and manageable localized camouflage. The nanoengineered topologically continuous metal structure simultaneously supports the optical resonance and electrical functionality that actuates the phase transition in VO2 through the process of Joule heating. This work provides a universal approach to creating self-sufficient and highly

  17. Layout design and energetic analysis of a complex diesel parallel hybrid electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finesso, Roberto; Spessa, Ezio; Venditti, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Layout design, energetic and cost analysis of complex parallel hybrid vehicles. • Development of global and real-time optimizers for control strategy identification. • Rule-based control strategies to minimize fuel consumption and NO x . • Energy share across each working mode for battery and thermal engine. - Abstract: The present paper is focused on the design, optimization and analysis of a complex parallel hybrid electric vehicle, equipped with two electric machines on both the front and rear axles, and on the evaluation of its potential to reduce fuel consumption and NO x emissions over several driving missions. The vehicle has been compared with two conventional parallel hybrid vehicles, equipped with a single electric machine on the front axle or on the rear axle, as well as with a conventional vehicle. All the vehicles have been equipped with compression ignition engines. The optimal layout of each vehicle was identified on the basis of the minimization of the overall powertrain costs during the whole vehicle life. These costs include the initial investment due to the production of the components as well as the operating costs related to fuel consumption and to battery depletion. Identification of the optimal powertrain control strategy, in terms of the management of the power flows of the engine and electric machines, and of gear selection, is necessary in order to be able to fully exploit the potential of the hybrid architecture. To this end, two global optimizers, one of a deterministic nature and another of a stochastic type, and two real-time optimizers have been developed, applied and compared. A new mathematical technique has been developed and applied to the vehicle simulation model in order to decrease the computational time of the optimizers. First, the vehicle model equations were written in order to allow a coarse time grid to be used, then, the control variables (i.e., power flow and gear number) were discretized, and the

  18. Design, modeling and performance analysis of dual channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal hybrid module in the cold environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sonveer; Agrawal, Sanjay; Avasthi, D.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal modeling of novel dual channel semitransparent PVT hybrid module. • Exergy and carbon credit analysis has been performed. • Annual performance has been evaluated for Srinagar (India). • There are improvements in results for case-I as compared to case-II. - Abstract: In this work, thermal modeling and performance analysis of the dual channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal (DCSPVT) module has been carried out. For extracting heat associated with the lower and upper surface of the solar cell, two channels have been proposed; (i) one is above the solar cell called upper channel and (ii) second is below the solar cell called lower channel. Firstly, thermal modeling of DCSPVT module has been developed. After that, performance analysis of the above system has been carried out for Srinagar, Indian climatic condition. Performance in terms of electrical gain (EG), thermal gain (TG), overall exergy gain (OEG), overall thermal gain (OTG), electrical efficiency (EE) and overall exergy efficiency (OEE) of the DCSPVT module (case-I) have been compared with single channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal (SCSPVT) hybrid module (case-II). The average improvement in EG, TG, OEG, OTG of the case-I have been observed by 71.51%, 34.57%, 5.78% and 35.41% respectively as compared to case-II.

  19. Effective electrical and thermal conductivity of multifilament twisted superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechetkin, V.R.

    2013-01-01

    The effective electrical and thermal conductivity of composite wire with twisted superconducting filaments embedded into normal metal matrix is calculated using the extension of Bruggeman method. The resistive conductivity of superconducting filaments is described in terms of symmetric tensor, whereas the conductivity of a matrix is assumed to be isotropic and homogeneous. The dependence of the resistive electrical conductivity of superconducting filaments on temperature, magnetic field, and current density is implied to be parametric. The resulting effective conductivity tensor proved to be non-diagonal and symmetric. The non-diagonal transverse–longitudinal components of effective electrical conductivity tensor are responsible for the redistribution of current between filaments. In the limits of high and low electrical conductivity of filaments the transverse effective conductivity tends to that of obtained previously by Carr. The effective thermal conductivity of composite wires is non-diagonal and radius-dependent even for the isotropic and homogeneous thermal conductivities of matrix and filaments.

  20. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  1. Thermal stability of DNA quadruplex-duplex hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kah Wai; Khong, Zi Jian; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2014-01-14

    DNA has the capacity to adopt several distinct structural forms, such as duplex and quadruplex helices, which have been implicated in cellular processes and shown to exhibit important functional properties. Quadruplex-duplex hybrids, generated from the juxtaposition of these two structural elements, could find applications in therapeutics and nanotechnology. Here we used NMR and CD spectroscopy to investigate the thermal stability of two classes of quadruplex-duplex hybrids comprising fundamentally distinct modes of duplex and quadruplex connectivity: Construct I involves the coaxial orientation of the duplex and quadruplex helices with continual base stacking across the two components; Construct II involves the orthogonal orientation of the duplex and quadruplex helices with no base stacking between the two components. We have found that for both constructs, the stability of the quadruplex generally increases with the length of the stem-loop incorporated, with respect to quadruplexes comprising nonstructured loops of the same length, which showed a continuous drop in stability with increasing loop length. The stability of these complexes, particularly Construct I, can be substantially influenced by the base-pair steps proximal to the quadruplex-duplex junction. Bulges at the junction are largely detrimental to the adoption of the desired G-quadruplex topology for Construct I but not for Construct II. These findings should facilitate future design and prediction of quadruplex-duplex hybrids.

  2. Design of a hybrid emissivity domestic electric oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Ozgur; Onbasioglu, Seyhan Uygur

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the radiative properties of the surfaces of an electric oven were investigated. Using experimental data related to an oven-like enclosure, a novel combination of surface properties was developed. Three different surface emissivity combinations were analysed experimentally: low-emissivity, high emissivity (black-coated), and hybrid emissivity. The term "hybrid emissivity design" here corresponds to an enclosure with some high emissive and some low-emissive surfaces. The experiments were carried out according to the EN 50304 standard. When a brick (load) was placed in the enclosure, the view factors between its surfaces were calculated with the Monte Carlo method. These and the measured surface temperatures were then used to calculate the radiative heat fluxes on the surfaces of the load. The three different models were compared with respect to energy consumption and baking time. The hybrid model performed best, with the highest radiative heat transfer between the surfaces of the enclosure and the load and minimum heat loss from the cavity. Thus, it was the most efficient model with the lowest energy consumption and the shortest baking time. The recent European Union regulation regarding the energy labelling of domestic ovens was used.

  3. Improving Thermal and Electrical Efficiency in Photovoltaic Thermal Systems for Sustainable Cooling System Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alobaid

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into photovoltaic thermal systems is important in solar technologies as photovoltaic thermal systems are designed to produce both electrical and thermal energy, this can lead to improved performance of the overall system. The performance of photovoltaic thermal systems is based on several factors that include photovoltaic thermal materials, design, ambient temperature, inlet and outlet fluid temperature and photovoltaic cell temperature. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of photovoltaic thermal outlet water temperatures and solar cell temperature on both electrical and thermal efficiency for different range of inlet water temperature. To achieve this, a mathematical model of a photovoltaic thermal system was developed to calculate the anticipated system performance. The factors that affect the efficiency of photovoltaic thermal collectors were discussed and the outlet fluid temperature from the photovoltaic thermal is investigated in order to reach the highest overall efficiency for the solar cooling system. An average thermal and electrical efficiency of 65% and 13.7%, respectively, was achieved and the photovoltaic thermal mathematical model was validated with experimental data from literature.

  4. Hybrid Electric Propulsion System for a 4 Passenger VTOL Aircraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The advancement of hybrid-electric propulsion systems for rotorcraft enables vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) vehicles to take advantage of aerodynamic...

  5. Design and implementation of a hybrid electric motorcycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, C.C.; Jwo, W.S.; Chien, W.L.; Liu, Y.L.; Chen, S.W.; Hsu, C.Y. [Chienkuo Technology Univ., Changhua, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    A hybrid electric motorcycle (HEM) was described. The HEM was developed from a modified 50 cc motorcycle currently available on the market. The motorcycle gearbox was attached to the back wheel. A master-slave tracking control method was used to expedite the HEM's development phases and cost. A 600 watt DC servo-motor was used to track the speed of the rear wheel of the HEM as well as to increase torque. The real time master-slave composite was comprised of a gearbox, a frequency-voltage converter, and a proportional, integrative, and derivative (PID) speed tracking controller. The frequency-voltage converter was used to convert the frequency signals of the rear wheels and electric motor rotational speeds into voltage signals. A Hall was used to sense 4 permanent magnets place along the rear wheel. A Schmitt trigger gate was used to detect signals from the rear wheel. An actuation system consisted of a motor driving circuit, a current-limiting protection circuit, and a low battery voltage protection circuit. It was concluded that the HEM design is both feasible and highly marketable. Artificial intelligence will be used to build a high performance hybrid motorcycle in the future. 10 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  6. Electricity-price arbitrage with plug-in hybrid electric vehicle: Gain or loss?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Duo; Sun, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    Customers, utilities, and society can gain many benefits from distributed energy resources (DERs), including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Using battery on PHEV to arbitrage electricity price is one of the potential benefits to PHEV owners. There is, however, disagreement on the magnitude of such profit. This study uses a stochastic optimization model to estimate the potential profit from electricity price arbitrage of two types of PHEVs (PHEV-10, and PHEV-40) under three scenarios with variant electricity tariff and PHEV owners over a five-year period. The simulation results indicate that under current market structure, even with significant improvement in battery technologies (e.g., higher efficiency, lower cost), the PHEV owners can't achieve a positive arbitrage profit. This finding implies that expected arbitrage profit solely is not a viable option to engage PHEVs larger adoption. Subsidy and combining PHEV arbitraging with alternative PHEV services are required. - Highlights: •A stochastic optimization model is proposed to assess the arbitrage value of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). •Under current market condition, PHEV owners lose money from conducting PHEV arbitrage if counting battery degradation cost. •PHEV owner loses more money at real time pricing (RTP) than at time of use (TOU) scheme. •Battery improvement will reduce but can't even the arbitrage loss. •Expected arbitrage profit is not a viable option to engage PHEVs in dispatching and in providing ancillary services.

  7. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

  8. Energy storage technology for electric and hybrid vehicles. Matching technology to design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstroem, J. [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    A central issue when dealing with electrical vehicles has always been how to store energy in sufficient quantities. On April 27 through 28 1999 a workshop was held on this matter at University of California Davis (UC Davis). Organizer and host was Dr. Andrew Burke and the Institute of Transportation Studies (ITS) at UC Davis. The workshop included battery technology, ultra capacitors and fly wheels, but did not include fuel cell technology. In this paper the conference is reviewed with the emphasis on battery development. A section on ultra capacitors and flywheels is also included. The overall observation made at the conference is that most of the effort on energy storage in electric and hybrid vehicles are put into batteries. There is some development on ultra capacitors but almost none on flywheels. The battery also seems to be the choice of the car industry at this point, especially the pulse battery for engine dominant hybrid vehicles, like the Toyota Prius. The battery manufacturers seem to focus more on technology development than cost reduction at this point. An important technological issue as of now is to improve thermal management in order to increase life of the batteries. But when the technological goals are met focus must shift to cost minimization and marketing if the battery electric vehicle shall make a market break through.

  9. Intelligent emission-sensitive routing for plugin hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhonghao; Zhou, Xingshe

    2016-01-01

    The existing transportation sector creates heavily environmental impacts and is a prime cause for the current climate change. The need to reduce emissions from this sector has stimulated efforts to speed up the application of electric vehicles (EVs). A subset of EVs, called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), backup batteries with combustion engine, which makes PHEVs have a comparable driving range to conventional vehicles. However, this hybridization comes at a cost of higher emissions than all-electric vehicles. This paper studies the routing problem for PHEVs to minimize emissions. The existing shortest-path based algorithms cannot be applied to solving this problem, because of the several new challenges: (1) an optimal route may contain circles caused by detour for recharging; (2) emissions of PHEVs not only depend on the driving distance, but also depend on the terrain and the state of charge (SOC) of batteries; (3) batteries can harvest energy by regenerative braking, which makes some road segments have negative energy consumption. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a green navigation algorithm (GNA) which finds the optimal strategies: where to go and where to recharge. GNA discretizes the SOC, then makes the PHEV routing problem to satisfy the principle of optimality. Finally, GNA adopts dynamic programming to solve the problem. We evaluate GNA using synthetic maps generated by the delaunay triangulation. The results show that GNA can save more than 10 % energy and reduce 10 % emissions when compared to the shortest path algorithm. We also observe that PHEVs with the battery capacity of 10-15 KWh detour most and nearly no detour when larger than 30 KWh. This observation gives some insights when developing PHEVs.

  10. Evaluation of sounds for hybrid and electric vehicles operating at low speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    Electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), operated at low speeds may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic creating a safety issue. This field study compares the auditory detectability of num...

  11. Electrical and thermal behavior of unsaturated soils: experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouveau, Marie; Grandjean, Gilles; Leroy, Philippe; Philippe, Mickael; Hedri, Estelle; Boukcim, Hassan

    2016-05-01

    When soil is affected by a heat source, some of its properties are modified, and in particular, the electrical resistivity due to changes in water content. As a result, these changes affect the thermal properties of soil, i.e., its thermal conductivity and diffusivity. We experimentally examine the changes in electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity for four soils with different grain size distributions and clay content over a wide range of temperatures, from 20 to 100 °C. This temperature range corresponds to the thermal conditions in the vicinity of a buried high voltage cable or a geothermal system. Experiments were conducted at the field scale, at a geothermal test facility, and in the laboratory using geophysical devices and probing systems. The results show that the electrical resistivity decreases and the thermal conductivity increases with temperature up to a critical temperature depending on soil types. At this critical temperature, the air volume in the pore space increases with temperature, and the resulting electrical resistivity also increases. For higher temperatures , the thermal conductivity increases sharply with temperature up to a second temperature limit. Beyond it, the thermal conductivity drops drastically. This limit corresponds to the temperature at which most of the water evaporates from the soil pore space. Once the evaporation is completed, the thermal conductivity stabilizes. To explain these experimental results, we modeled the electrical resistivity variations with temperature and water content in the temperature range 20 - 100°C, showing that two critical temperatures influence the main processes occurring during heating at temperatures below 100 °C.

  12. A thermal study of an encapsulated electrical transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A. [Unidad Geotermia, Temixco (Mexico). Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas; Espinosa-Paredes, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Vicentina (Mexico). Dpto. de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica; Hernandez, I. [Centro de Sistemas de Manufactura, Nuevo Leon (Mexico). Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey

    2002-11-01

    A thermal study of a 45 KVA-prototype encapsulated transformer is described. Casting resin systems were used as insulating systems for encapsulated electric transformers. Normal transformer operation is at full load and, thus the conductor and insulating system becomes hot owing to current circulation through the winding. To determine the various temperature distributions throughout the transformer, the thermal properties of the insulating system and boundary conditions must be known, so that hot spots are located via numerical modelling and maximum permissible temperatures are not attained. Results presented herein include thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat capacity. Thermal conductivity was obtained experimentally by means of the line-source technique at various temperatures, between room temperature and 155{sup o}C which is the thermal limit of class F insulators. The thermal diffusivity was obtained by parameter estimation by fitting an approximate analytical model to the temperature-time data of the thermal conductivity experiment. Specific heat capacity was obtained from the definition of thermal diffusivity and the insulating-system density. In order to improve the electrical performance of the transformer criteria, a numerical simulation of the different dielectric structures was made using computer program. The boundary conditions for the thermal simulation stage were also determined experimentally from temperature test runs. Finally, in order to obtain data for thermal design, a numerical simulation of the high tension winding was carried out. The thermal simulation stage was performed at different current densities in the conductor with and without electrostatic shields to determine the temperature field and maximum attainable temperatures. Maximum transformer temperature were found to be 15-20{sup o}C below its thermal limit and a correlation of maximum temperature as function of circulating current was developed for design

  13. Lithium-ion batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles; Lithium-Ionen-Batterie-Entwicklung fuer Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Michael; Birke, Peter; Schiemann, Michael; Moerstaedt, Uwe [Continental AG, Berlin (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich HEV

    2009-03-15

    Continental is the first company worldwide to produce lithium-ion batteries for a serial production vehicle (Mercedes S 400 Hybrid). The supplier describes cell and system strategies, as well as safety relevant production details and integration strategies, which determine the application in hybrid and electric vehicles. (orig.)

  14. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  15. Electrical and thermal properties of graphite/polyaniline composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdo, Shawn E., E-mail: sxbourdo@ualr.edu [Center for Integrative Nanotechnology Sciences, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Warford, Brock A.; Viswanathan, Tito [Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    A composite of a carbon allotrope (graphite) and an inherently conducting polymer, polyaniline (PANI), has been prepared that exhibits an electrical conductivity greater than either of the two components. An almost 2-fold increase in the bulk conductivity occurs when only a small mass fraction of polyaniline exists in the composite (91% graphite/ 9% polyaniline, by mass). This increase in dc electrical conductivity is curious since in most cases a composite material will exhibit a conductivity somewhere between the two individual components, unless a modification to the electronic nature of the material occurs. In order to elucidate the fundamental electrical properties of the composite we have performed variable temperature conductivity measurements to better understand the nature of conduction in these materials. The results from these studies suggest a change in the mechanism of conduction as the amount of polyaniline is increased in the composite. Along with superior electrical properties, the composites exhibit an increase in thermal stability as compared to the graphite. - Graphical abstract: (Left) Room temperature electrical conductivity of G-PANI composites at different mass ratios. (Right) Electrical conductivity of G-PANI composites at temperatures from 5 K to 300 K. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composites of graphite and polyaniline have been synthesized with unique electrical and thermal properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Certain G-PANI composites are more conductive and more thermally stable than graphite alone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G-PANI composites exhibit a larger conductivity ratio with respect to temperature than graphite alone.

  16. A hybrid solar photovoltaic-wind turbine-Rankine cycle for electricity generation in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energy demand model by designing a hybrid solar-wind-thermal power generation system of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a promising substitute for the expensive battery banks. The study models the future energy demand of Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus based on the IPCC emissions scenario A1B and A2 by designing a new hybrid solar-wind-thermal power system that satisfies the current and future requirements of firm capacity during peak periods. The study suggests an improvement in a hybrid solar-wind-thermal power system performance by predicting reliable outputs that can integrate renewable energy technologies to conventional power generation. The energy consumption prediction model emphasizes the energy requirement that has a growing demand from 300 to 400 GWh in scenario A1B and 150–450 GWh in scenario A2 from 2010 to 2050. The proposed design can meet 400 GWh of electricity demand in TRNC based on IPCC scenario A1B and 450 GWh of electricity demand in TRNC based on IPCC scenario A2. The percentage contribution of solar, wind and thermal energy for 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050 are presented along with CO2 emissions and water consumption for each of the years.

  17. Utility emissions associated with electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This project is a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to conduct a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the emission impacts of electric and hybrid vehicles (EHVs). The study determines local and regional emission impacts under a variety of scenarios, covering both conservative and optimistic assumptions about vehicle efficiency, power plant efficiency, and other factors. In all scenarios, EHV use significantly reduces urban emissions of CO, VOC, and TSP. Changes in NO x and CO 2 emissions are very sensitive to average or marginal power plant emissions and vehicle efficiency assumptions. NO x and CO 2 emissions changes vary dramatically by region. Certain combinations of EHV and CV scenarios and regions result in significant reductions, while other combinations result in significant increases. Careful use of these results is advised. In all scenarios, SO 2 increases with EHV use although the amount is small-less than 1% of total utility emissions even vath the deployment of 12 million EHVS. But because of emission cap provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, national SO 2 totals will not be allowed to increase. Thus, utilities will have to apply more stringent measures to combat increased SO 2 emissions due to the increased use of electric vehicles

  18. Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Measurements of CDA 510 Phosphor Bronze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, James E.; Canavan, Edgar; DiPirro, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Many cryogenic systems use electrical cables containing phosphor bronze wire. While phosphor bronze's electrical and thermal conductivity values have been published, there is significant variation among different phosphor bronze formulations. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will use several phosphor bronze wire harnesses containing a specific formulation (CDA 510, annealed temper). The heat conducted into the JWST instrument stage is dominated by these harnesses, and approximately half of the harness conductance is due to the phosphor bronze wires. Since the JWST radiators are expected to just keep the instruments at their operating temperature with limited cooling margin, it is important to know the thermal conductivity of the actual alloy being used. We describe an experiment which measured the electrical and thermal conductivity of this material between 4 and 295 Kelvin.

  19. Thermal and Electrical Characterization of Alumina Substrate for Microelectronic Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Ibrahim, A.; Alias, R.; Shapee, S. M.; Ambak, Z.; Zakaria, S. Z.; Yahya, M. R.; Mat, A. F. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on thermal and electrical properties of alumina material as substrate for microelectronic devices. Alumina materials in the form of green sheet with 1 mm thickness were sintered at 1100 deg. C, 1300 deg. C and 1500 deg. C for about 20 hours using heating and cooling rates of 2 deg. C/min. The densities were measured using densitometer and the microstructures of the samples were analyzed using SEM micrographs. Meanwhile thermal and electrical properties of the samples were measured using flash method and impedance analyzer respectively. It was found that thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the substrate increases as sintering temperature increases. It was found also that the dielectric constant of alumina substrate increases as the sintering temperature increases.

  20. Thermal and Electrical Characterization of Alumina Substrate for Microelectronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Ibrahim, A.; Alias, R.; Shapee, S. M.; Ambak, Z.; Zakaria, S. Z.; Yahya, M. R.; Mat, A. F. A.

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on thermal and electrical properties of alumina material as substrate for microelectronic devices. Alumina materials in the form of green sheet with 1 mm thickness were sintered at 1100° C, 1300° C and 1500° C for about 20 hours using heating and cooling rates of 2° C/min. The densities were measured using densitometer and the microstructures of the samples were analyzed using SEM micrographs. Meanwhile thermal and electrical properties of the samples were measured using flash method and impedance analyzer respectively. It was found that thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the substrate increases as sintering temperature increases. It was found also that the dielectric constant of alumina substrate increases as the sintering temperature increases.

  1. Thermal and electrical conductivities of high purity tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of three high purity tantalum samples have been measured as functions of temperature over a temperature range of 5K to 65K. Sample purities ranged up to a resistivity ratio of 1714. The highest purity sample had a residual resistivity of .76 x 10 -10 OMEGA-m. The intrinsic resistivity varied as T 3 . 9 from 10K to 31K. The thermal conductivity of the purest sample had a maximum of 840 W/mK at 9.8K. The intrinsic thermal resistivity varied as T 2 . 4 from 10K to 35K. At low temperatures electrons were scattered primarily by impurities and by phonons with both interband and intraband transitions observed. The electrical and thermal resistivity is departed from Matthiessen's rule at low temperatures

  2. Mild hybrids with CVT: comparison of electrical and mechanical torque assist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Druten, van R.M.; Serrarens, A.F.A.; Vroemen, B.G.; Tillaart, van den E.L.; de Haas, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper evaluates two mild hybrid drive trains for a mid-class passenger car with a gasoline engine by means of comptuer simulation. The term mild hybrid is used for vehicles with sustained electric propulsion. The mild hybrid drive trains both have a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) with

  3. Problems associated with accelerated thermal aging of electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isgro, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential problems that may be experienced when accounting for aging mechanisms in organic polymers when utilizing accelerated thermal aging techniques for electrical equipment qualification. Included are discussions of actual experiences and problems encountered in the qualification of electrical and electronic equipment for a complete nuclear power plant. The wide variety of approaches to thermal accelerated aging by various manufacturers of diverse equipment types provides depth to the discussion. A description of how to account for aging mechanisms is also presented

  4. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  5. Thermal energy storage for electricity-driven space heating in a day-ahead electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pensini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) in a space heating (SH) application was investigated. The study aimed to determine the economic benefits of introducing TES into an electricity-driven SH system under a day-ahead electricity market. The performance of the TES was assessed by comparing the cost...... of electricity in a system with a TES unit to the case where no storage is in use and the entire heat requirement is fulfilled by purchasing electricity according to the actual load. The study had two goals: 1. Determining how the size – in terms of electricity input (Pmax) and energy capacity (Emax...

  6. Technology Roadmaps - Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    The mass deployment of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and PHEVs) that rely on low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission electricity generation has great potential to significantly reduce the consumption of petroleum and other high CO2-emitting transportation fuels. The vision of the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid (EV/PHEV) Vehicles Roadmap is to achieve by 2050 the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs, which together represent more than 50% of annual LDV (light duty vehicle) sales worldwide. In addition to establishing a vision, this roadmap sets strategic goals to achieve it, and identifies the steps that need to be taken to accomplish these goals. This roadmap also outlines the roles and collaboration opportunities for different stakeholders and shows how government policy can support the overall achievement of the vision. The strategic goals for attaining the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs worldwide by 2050 cover the development of the EV/PHEV market worldwide through 2030 and involve targets that align with global targets to stabilise GHG concentrations. These technology-specific goals include the following: Set targets for electric-drive vehicle sales; Develop coordinated strategies to support the market introduction of electric-drive vehicles; Improve industry understanding of consumer needs and behaviours; Develop performance metrics for characterising vehicles; Foster energy storage RD and D initiatives to reduce costs and address resource-related issues; and, Develop and implement recharging infrastructure. The roadmap outlines additional recommendations that must be considered in order to successfully meet the technology milestones and strategic goals. These recommendations include the following: Use a comprehensive mix of policies that provide a clear framework and balance stakeholder interests; Engage in international collaboration efforts; and, Address policy and industry needs at a national level. The IEA will work in an

  7. Thermal burn and electrical injuries among electric utility workers, 1995-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, Tiffani A; Kelsh, Michael; Lu, Elizabeth T; Sahl, Jack D; Yager, Janice W

    2007-03-01

    This study describes the occurrence of work-related injuries from thermal-, electrical- and chemical-burns among electric utility workers. We describe injury trends by occupation, body part injured, age, sex, and circumstances surrounding the injury. This analysis includes all thermal, electric, and chemical injuries included in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Occupational Health and Safety Database (OHSD). There were a total of 872 thermal burn and electric shock injuries representing 3.7% of all injuries, but accounting for nearly 13% of all medical claim costs, second only to the medical costs associated with sprain- and strain-related injuries (38% of all injuries). The majority of burns involved less than 1 day off of work. The head, hands, and other upper extremities were the body parts most frequently injured by burns or electric shocks. For this industry, electric-related burns accounted for the largest percentage of burn injuries, 399 injuries (45.8%), followed by thermal/heat burns, 345 injuries (39.6%), and chemical burns, 51 injuries (5.8%). These injuries also represented a disproportionate number of fatalities; of the 24 deaths recorded in the database, contact with electric current or with temperature extremes was the source of seven of the fatalities. High-risk occupations included welders, line workers, electricians, meter readers, mechanics, maintenance workers, and plant and equipment operators.

  8. Exergy analysis of thermal management system for range-extended electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamut, H. S.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G. F. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (Canada)], email: Ibrahim.Dincer@uoit.ca

    2011-07-01

    In the last few decades, the energy crisis, increasing gas prices and concerns over environmental pollution have encouraged the development of electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technologies. In this paper, a thermal management system (TMS) installed in a range-extended electric vehicle is examined and is found to have a substantial impact on battery efficiency and vehicle performance. An exergy analysis was conducted on the refrigeration and coolant circuits and the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the baseline system was determined to be 2.0 with a range of 1.8 to 2.4. The overall exergy was found to be 32% with a range of 26% to 39%. Ambient temperature had the largest impact on overall exergy efficiency but there is a need to further investigate temperature effects on battery efficiency, since the battery's performance has such a high impact on vehicle performance overall.

  9. Design Optimization of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangun, Firdause; Idres, Moumen; Abdullah, Kassim

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an optimization work on hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrain using Genetic Algorithm (GA) method. It focused on optimization of the parameters of powertrain components including supercapacitors to obtain maximum fuel economy. Vehicle modelling is based on Quasi-Static-Simulation (QSS) backward-facing approach. A combined city (FTP-75)-highway (HWFET) drive cycle is utilized for the design process. Seeking global optimum solution, GA was executed with different initial settings to obtain sets of optimal parameters. Starting from a benchmark HEV, optimization results in a smaller engine (2 l instead of 3 l) and a larger battery (15.66 kWh instead of 2.01 kWh). This leads to a reduction of 38.3% in fuel consumption and 30.5% in equivalent fuel consumption. Optimized parameters are also compared with actual values for HEV in the market.

  10. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yin

    In this thesis, in order to investigate the impact of charging load from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), a stochastic model is developed in Matlab. In this model, two main types of PHEVs are defined: public transportation vehicles and private vehicles. Different charging time schedule, charging speed and battery capacity are considered for each type of vehicles. The simulation results reveal that there will be two load peaks (at noon and in evening) when the penetration level of PHEVs increases continuously to 30% in 2030. Therefore, optimization tool is utilized to shift load peaks. This optimization process is based on real time pricing and wind power output data. With the help of smart grid, power allocated to each vehicle could be controlled. As a result, this optimization could fulfill the goal of shifting load peaks to valley areas where real time price is low or wind output is high.

  11. Generator voltage stabilisation for series-hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, P; Gladwin, D; Stewart, J; Cowley, R

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a controller for use in speed control of an internal combustion engine for series-hybrid electric vehicle applications. Particular reference is made to the stability of the rectified DC link voltage under load disturbance. In the system under consideration, the primary power source is a four-cylinder normally aspirated gasoline internal combustion engine, which is mechanically coupled to a three-phase permanent magnet AC generator. The generated AC voltage is subsequently rectified to supply a lead-acid battery, and permanent magnet traction motors via three-phase full bridge power electronic inverters. Two complementary performance objectives exist. Firstly to maintain the internal combustion engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly to supply a stable 42 V supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the internal combustion engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. An electronically operated throttle allows closed loop engine velocity control. System time delays and nonlinearities render closed loop control design extremely problematic. A model-based controller is designed and shown to be effective in controlling the DC link voltage, resulting in the well-conditioned operation of the hybrid vehicle.

  12. Modelling and Investigation of a Hybrid Thermal Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorov Todor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with dynamical and experimental investigations of a hybrid energy harvester containing shape memory alloy (SMA wire and elastic cantilever with piezoelectric layer. The SMA wire periodically changes its temperature under the influence of a heated plate that approaches and moves away from the SMA wire. The change of SMA wire length causes rotation of the hot plate. The plate is heated by a heater with constant temperature. The repeated SMA wire extensions and contractions bend the piezoelectric cantilever which generates electric charges. The shape memory effect is presented as a temperature approximation of the Young’s modulus. A dynamical model of the energy harvester is created and some analytical investigations are presented. With the help of an experimental setup the acceleration, the force, the temperature, and the output voltage have been measured. The theoretical results are validated experimentally. Some conclusions are made about the best performance of the energy harvester.

  13. Integration and Validation of a Thermal Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mingyu [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; Craig, Timothy [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; Wolfe, Edward [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; LaClair, Tim J. [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Levin, Michael [Ford Motor Company; Demitroff, Danrich [Ford Motor Company; Shaikh, Furqan [Ford Motor Company

    2017-03-01

    It is widely recognized in the automotive industry that, in very cold climatic conditions, the driving range of an Electric Vehicle (EV) can be reduced by 50% or more. In an effort to minimize the EV range penalty, a novel thermal energy storage system has been designed to provide cabin heating in EVs and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) by using an advanced phase change material (PCM). This system is known as the Electrical PCM-based Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) [1, 2]. When the EV is connected to the electric grid to charge its traction battery, the ePATHS system is also “charged” with thermal energy. The stored heat is subsequently deployed for cabin comfort heating during driving, for example during commuting to and from work.The ePATHS system, especially the PCM heat exchanger component, has gone through substantial redesign in order to meet functionality and commercialization requirements. The final system development for EV implementation has occurred on a mid-range EV and has been evaluated for its capability to extend the driving range. Both simulated driving in a climatic tunnel and actual road testing have been carried out. The ePATHS has demonstrated its ability to supply the entire cabin heating needs for a round trip commute totaling 46 minutes, including 8 hours of parking, at an ambient temperature of -10°C.

  14. A PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle real time control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongqiao

    In recent years, environmental friendly technologies and alternative energy solutions have drawn a lot of public attentions due to global energy crisis and pollution issues. Fuel cell (FC), a technology invented almost at the same time as the internal combustion (IC) engine, is now the focus of the automotive industry again. The fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has zero emission and its efficiency is significantly higher than the conventional IC engine power vehicles. Among a variety of FCV technologies, proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC vehicle appears to be far more attractive and mature. The prototype PEMFC vehicle has been developed and demonstrated to the public by nearly all the major automotive manufacturers in recent years. However, to the interest of the public research, publications and documentations on the PEMFC vehicle technology are rarely available due to its proprietary nature, which essentially makes it a secured technology. This dissertation demonstrates a real world application of a PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle. Through presenting the vehicle design concept, developing the real time control system and generating generic operation principles, this dissertation targets at establishing the public knowledge base on this new technology. A complete PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle design, including vehicle components layout, process flow diagram, real time control system architecture, subsystem structures and control algorithms, is presented in order to help understand the whole vehicle system. The design concept is validated through the vehicle demonstration. Generic operating principles are established along with the validation process, which helps populate this emerging technology. Thereafter, further improvements and future research directions are discussed.

  15. New Electro-Thermal Battery Pack Model of an Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Alhanouti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution of the electric and hybrid vehicle, the analysis of batteries’ characteristics and influence on driving range has become essential. This fact advocates the necessity of accurate simulation modeling for batteries. Different models for the Li-ion battery cell are reviewed in this paper and a group of the highly dynamic models is selected for comparison. A new open circuit voltage (OCV model is proposed. The new model can simulate the OCV curves of lithium iron magnesium phosphate (LiFeMgPO4 battery type at different temperatures. It also considers both charging and discharging cases. The most remarkable features from different models, in addition to the proposed OCV model, are integrated in a single hybrid electrical model. A lumped thermal model is implemented to simulate the temperature development in the battery cell. The synthesized electro-thermal battery cell model is extended to model a battery pack of an actual electric vehicle. Experimental tests on the battery, as well as drive tests on the vehicle are performed. The proposed model demonstrates a higher modeling accuracy, for the battery pack voltage, than the constituent models under extreme maneuver drive tests.

  16. EHV systems technology - A look at the principles and current status. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the basic principles and practices of systems engineering is undertaken in the context of their application to the component and subsystem technologies involved in electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) development. The limitations of purely electric vehicles are contrasted with hybrid, heat engine-incorporating vehicle technology, which is inherently more versatile. A hybrid vehicle concept assessment methodology is presented which employs current technology and yet fully satisfies U.S. Department of Energy petroleum displacement goals.

  17. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Mohamed [Automotive and Tractors Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  18. Integration of thermal photovoltaic hybrid sensors to the building. Final report july 2004. Integrated research project 6.2; Integration de capteurs hybrides photovoltaiques thermiques au bati. Rapport final juillet 2004. Projet de recherche integre 6.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The electricity and the heat are two complementary energies necessary for the accommodation. A thermal solar installation needs the electric power for the coolant fluid flow. This research project concerns the optimization of integrated solutions to the building, providing simultaneously these two energies. This document presents the proposed researches programs: analysis of the socio-economic aspects, the physical phenomena knowledge, simulation of the behavior, experimentation, hybrid components integration, simulation of the photovoltaic modules operating and thermal simulation of an electric converter. (A.L.B.)

  19. PRICING ELECTRIC POWER UNDER A HYBRID WHOLESALE MECHANISM: EVALUATING THE TURKISH ELECTRICITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Karahan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the restructuring process, Turkish electricity sector has gone through significant changes both in wholesale and retail markets. In this framework, the Market Financial Settlement Mechanism established for handling market imbalances has become a spot market in time. So, it can be claimed that the wholesale electricity market in Turkey is a hybrid mechanism composed of bilateral contracts and the balancing market. On the other hand, the main target of liberalization program is providing consumers with affordable electric power. Hence, this study attempts to explore the link between retail tariffs for ineligible consumers and prices in the two wholesale mechanisms, in the period after the launch of the day-ahead market. Findings suggest that regulated wholesale prices are more effective in the determination of end-user prices, whereas unregulated ones might have a price reduction effect in case the free market dominates. However, the volatility in spot market prices implies that the sector would better continue with the hybrid mechanism for quite some time.

  20. Simultaneous thermal analysis and thermodilatometry of hybrid fiber reinforced UHPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinherrová, Lenka; Fořt, Jan; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Development of concrete technology and the availability of variety of materials such as silica fume, mineral microfillers and high-range water-reducing admixtures make possible to produce Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) with compressive strength higher than 160 MPa. However, UHPC is prone to spall under high temperatures what limits its use for special applications only, such as offshore and marine structures, industrial floors, security barriers etc. The spalling is caused by the thermal stresses due to the temperature gradient during heating, and by the splitting force owing to the release of water vapour. Hybrid fibre reinforcement based on combination of steel and polymer fibres is generally accepted by concrete community as a functional solution preventing spalling. In this way, Ultra-High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) is produced possessing high mechanical strength, durability and resistance to water and salt ingress. Since UHPFRC find use in construction industry in tunnel linings, precast tunnel segments, and high-rise buildings, its behaviour during the high-temperature exposure and its residual parameters are of the particular importance. On this account, Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) and Thermodilatometry Analysis (TDA) were done in the paper to identify the structural and chemical changes in UHPFRC during its high-temperature load. Based on the experimental results, several physical and chemical processes that studied material underwent at high-temperatures were recognized. The obtained data revealed changes in the composition of the studied material and allowed identification of critical temperatures for material damage.

  1. Polyaniline-CuO hybrid nanocomposite with enhanced electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vânia S.; da Frota, Hidembergue O.; Sanches, Edgar A.

    2018-02-01

    A hybrid nanocomposite based on a polymer matrix constituted of Polyaniline Emeraldine-salt form (PANI-ES) reinforced by copper oxide II (CuO) particles was obtained by in situ polymerization. Structural, morphological and electrical properties of the pure materials and nanocomposite form were investigated. The presence of CuO particles in the nanocomposite material affected the natural alignment of the polymer chains. XRD technique allowed the visualization of the polymer amorphization in the nanocomposite form, suggesting an interaction between both phases. The FTIR spectra confirmed this molecular interaction due to the blue shift of the characteristic absorption peaks of PANI-ES in the nanocomposite form. SEM images revealed that the polymer nanofiber morphology was no longer observed in the nanocomposite. The CuO spherical particles are randomly dispersed in the polymer matrix. The density functional theory plus the Coulomb interaction method revealed a charge transfer from PANI to CuO slab. Moreover, the density of states (DOS) has revealed that the nanocomposite behaves as a metal. In agreement, the electrical conductivity showed an increase of 60% in the nanocomposite material.

  2. Stochastic Optimal Control of Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyan Qin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy management strategies (EMSs in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are highly related to the fuel economy and emission performances. However, EMS constitutes a challenging problem due to the complex structure of a HEV and the unknown or partially known driving cycles. To meet this problem, this paper adopts a stochastic dynamic programming (SDP method for the EMS of a specially designed vehicle, a pre-transmission single-shaft torque-coupling parallel HEV. In this parallel HEV, the auto clutch output is connected to the transmission input through an electric motor, which benefits an efficient motor assist operation. In this EMS, demanded torque of driver is modeled as a one-state Markov process to represent the uncertainty of future driving situations. The obtained EMS has been evaluated with ADVISOR2002 over two standard government drive cycles and a self-defined one, and compared with a dynamic programming (DP one and a rule-based one. Simulation results have shown the real-time performance of the proposed approach, and potential vehicle performance improvement relative to the rule-based one.

  3. Evaluation of Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Polymeric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: This work being gingered by the big menace being posed on our environment by polymeric waste and it's rechanneling involved the studying of the electrical and thermal conductivities of the polymers PP, PE, PS and nylon66 doped with charcoal and graphite. Five grams of each polymer was mixed with ...

  4. Electrically and Thermally Insulated Joint for Liquid Nitrogen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Carsten; Jensen, Kim Høj; Holbøll, Joachim T.

    1999-01-01

    A prototype of a superconducting cable is currently under construction. The cable conductor is cooled by liquid nitrogen in order to obtain superconductivity. The peripheral cooling circuit is kept at ground potential. This requires a joint which insulates both electrically and thermally...

  5. Experience of Milled Peat Burning at Thermal Electric Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Zhikhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents extensive knowledge and practical experience on burning of milled peat in the boilers of thermal electric power plants in Belarus and Russia. The accumulated experience can be used for solution of problems pertaining to substitution of some types of fuel imported to Belarus by milled peat which is extracted at many fuel effective peat enterprises of the Republic.

  6. Morphology, thermal, electrical and electrochemical stability of nano

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop nano aluminium oxide (Al2O3)-filled polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite gel electrolytes. Surface morphological studies, thermal behaviour, electrochemical stability and electrical characterization of these composite gel electrolytes have been performed. An increase ...

  7. Evaluation of electrical and thermal conductivity of polymeric wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work being gingered by the big menace being posed on our environment by polymeric waste and it's rechanneling involved the studying of the electrical and thermal conductivities of the polymers PP, PE, PS and nylon66 doped with charcoal and graphite. Five grams of each polymer was mixed with varying ...

  8. Electricity pricing model in thermal generating stations under deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reji, P.; Ashok, S.; Moideenkutty, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    In regulated public utilities with competitive power markets, deregulation has replaced the monopoly. Under the deregulated power market, the electricity price primarily depends on market mechanism and power demand. In this market, generators generally follow marginal pricing. Each generator fixes the electricity price based on their pricing strategy and it leads to more price volatility. This paper proposed a model to determine the electricity price considering all operational constraints of the plant and economic variables that influenced the price, for a thermal generating station under deregulation. The purpose of the model was to assist existing stations, investors in the power sector, regulatory authorities, transmission utilities, and new power generators in decision-making. The model could accommodate price volatility in the market and was based on performance incentive/penalty considering plant load factor, availability of the plant and peak/ off peak demand. The model was applied as a case study to a typical thermal utility in India to determine the electricity price. It was concluded that the case study of a thermal generating station in a deregulated environment showed that the electricity price mainly depended on the gross calorific value (GCV) of fuel, mode of operation, price of the fuel, and operating charges. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  9. Thermal and Electrical Analysis of Mars Rover RTGs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T; Skrabek, Emanuel A

    2012-01-19

    The RTG designs described in the preceding paper in these proceedings were analyzed for their thermal and electrical performance. Each analysis consisted of coupled thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical analyses, using Fairchild-generated specialized computer codes. These were supplemented with preliminary structural and mass analyses. For each design, various cases representing different operating conditions (water-cooled/radiation-cooled, BOM/EOM, summer/winter, day/night) and different thermoelectric performance assumptions (from conservative to optimistic) were analyzed; and for every case, the heat flow rates, temperatures and electrical performance of each layer of thermoelectric elements and of the overall RTG were determined. The analyses were performed in great detail, to obtain accurate answers permitting meaningful comparisons between different designs. The results presented show the RTG performance achievable with current technology, and the performance improvements that would be achievable with various technology developments.

  10. Research on Braking Stability of Electro-mechanical Hybrid Braking System in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Fenzhu; Tian, Mi

    2010-01-01

    For the electro-mechanical hybrid braking system, which is composed of electric brake and general friction brake, the models of electric braking force, total braking force and the utilization adhesion coefficient for front and rear axles were established based on the analysis of braking torque distribution. The variation relationship between electric braking force and friction braking force in different braking intensity was calculated and analyzed with the paralleled-hybridized braking contr...

  11. Design and Testing of a Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mingyu [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; WolfeIV, Edward [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; Craig, Timothy [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Without the waste heat available from the engine of a conventional automobile, electric vehicles (EVs) must provide heat to the cabin for climate control using energy stored in the vehicle. In current EV designs, this energy is typically provided by the traction battery. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required to heat the EV cabin can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, the driving range of an EV can be reduced very significantly during winter months, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs to achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to the EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The system uses the stored latent heat of an advanced phase change material (PCM) to provide cabin heating. The PCM is melted while the EV is connected to the electric grid for charging of the electric battery, and the stored energy is subsequently transferred to the cabin during driving. To minimize thermal losses when the EV is parked for extended periods, the PCM is encased in a high performance insulation system. The electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) was designed to provide enough thermal energy to heat the EV s cabin for approximately 46 minutes, covering the entire daily commute of a typical driver in the U.S.

  12. Numerical analysis of using hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar water heater in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadi Sarduei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Electrical performance of solar cells decreases with increasing cell temperature, basically because of growth of the internal charge carrier recombination rates, caused by increased carrier concentrations. Hybrid Photovoltaic/thermal (PVT systems produce electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. PVT solar collectors convert the heat generated in the solar cells to low temperature useful heat energy and so they provide a lower working temperature for solar cells which subsequently leads to a higher electrical efficiency. Recently, in Iran, the reforming government policy in subsidy and increasing fossil fuels price led to growing an interest in use of renewable energies for residual and industrial applications. In spite of this, the PV power generator investment is not economically feasible, so far. Hybrid PVT devices are well known as an alternative method to improve energy performance and therefore economic feasibility of the conventional PV systems. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of a PVT solar water heater in four different cities of Iran using TRNSYS program. Materials and Methods The designed PVT solar water system consists of two separate water flow circuits namely closed cycle and open circuit. The closed cycle circuit was comprised of a solar PVT collector (with nominal power of 880 W and area of 5.6 m2, a heat exchanger in the tank (with volume of 300 L, a pump and connecting pipes. The water stream in the collector absorbs the heat accumulated in the solar cells and delivers it to the water in the tank though the heat exchanger. An on/off controller system was used to activate the pump when the collector outlet temperature was higher than that of the tank in the closed cycle circuit. The water in the open circuit, comes from city water at low temperature, enters in the lower part of the storage tank where the heat transfer occurs between the two separate circuits. An auxiliary heater, connected

  13. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase 2. Volume 2; Hybrid Electric Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the hybrid electric concept design, analysis, and modeling work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech.Performance and sizing tasks were conducted for hybrid electric versions of a conventional tube-and-wing aircraft and a hybrid wing body. The high wing Truss Braced Wing (TBW) SUGAR Volt was updated based on results from the TBW work (documented separately) and new engine performance models. Energy cost and acoustic analyses were conducted and technology roadmaps were updated for hybrid electric and battery technology. NOx emissions were calculated for landing and takeoff (LTO) and cruise. NPSS models were developed for hybrid electric components and tested using an integrated analysis of superconducting and non-superconducting hybrid electric engines. The hybrid electric SUGAR Volt was shown to produce significant emissions and fuel burn reductions beyond those achieved by the conventionally powered SUGAR High and was able to meet the NASA goals for fuel burn. Total energy utilization was not decreased but reduced energy cost can be achieved for some scenarios. The team was not able to identify a technology development path to meet NASA's noise goals

  14. Electrical bistability in conductive hybrid composites of doped polyaniline nanofibers-gold nanoparticles capped with dodecane thiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, A; Agoretti, P; Cassinese, A; D'Angelo, P; Mohanraj, G T; Sanguigno, L

    2009-11-01

    A novel electrical bistable hybrid nanocomposite based on doped Polyaniline nanofibers with 1-Dodecanethiol-protected Gold nanoparticle (PAni.AuDT), 3-4 nm in size, as the conductive component and polystyrene as polymer matrix was prepared. The structural morphology of the composite and the dispersion of nanoparticles inside it were evaluated using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The thermal stability and the ratio Polyaniline/Gold nanoparticles in the composite were determined by using thermogravimetric analysis. The electrical bistability of the PAni.AuDT-PS composite, the influence of the dispersion of the PAni.AuDT conductive network and the basic operation mechanism, have been assessed by measuring the electrical response of planar device architectures, also as a function of the environmental temperature (in the range 200 K K). The basic operation mechanism of the hybrid compound has been then correlated to the combined action of the thermally-induced scattering of charge carriers and the thermal contraction of the hosting polymeric matrix. Moreover, the right compromise between these two effects in terms of the most efficient bistability has been studied, founding the concentration of the conductive component which optimizes the device on-off ratio (I(on)/ I(off)).

  15. Linear engine development for series hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Nagy, Csaba

    This dissertation argues that diminishing oil reserves, concern over global climate change, and desire to improve ambient air quality all demand the development of environment-friendly personal transportation. In certain applications, series hybrid electric vehicles offer an attractive solution to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Furthermore, linear engines are emerging as a powerplant suited to series HEV applications. In this dissertation, a linear engine/alternator was considered as the auxiliary power unit of a range extender series hybrid electric vehicle. A prototype linear engine/alternator was developed, constructed and tested at West Virginia University. The engine was a 2-stroke, 2-cylinder, dual piston, direct injection, diesel engine. Experiment on the engine was performed to study its behavior. The study variables included mass of the translator, amount of fuel injected, injection timing, load, and stroke with operating frequency and mechanical efficiency as the basis of comparison. The linear engine was analyzed in detail and a simple simulation model was constructed to compare the trends of simulation with the experimental data and to expand on the area where the experimental data were lacking. The simulation was based on a simple and analytical model, rather than a detailed and intensely numerical one. The experimental and theoretical data showed similar trends. Increasing translator mass decreased the operating frequency and increased compression ratio. Larger mass and increased compression ratio improved the ability of the engine to sustain operation and the engine was able to idle on less fuel injected into the cylinder. Increasing the stroke length caused the operating frequency to drop. Increasing fueling or decreasing the load resulted in increased operating frequency. This projects the possibility of using the operating frequency as an input for feedback control of the engine. Injection timing was varied to investigate two different

  16. Hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle performance testing by the US Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Donald; Francfort, James

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), part of the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modeling, and vehicle development programs. The AVTA has tested full size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and hydrogen internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Currently, the AVTA is conducting baseline performance, battery benchmark and fleet tests of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). Testing has included all HEVs produced by major automotive manufacturers and spans over 2.5 million test miles. Testing is currently incorporating PHEVs from four different vehicle converters. The results of all testing are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory.

  17. Overall energy, exergy and carbon credit analysis by different type of hybrid photovoltaic thermal air collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Sanjay; Tiwari, G.N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Comparative study of PVT air collectors. ► CO 2 analysis of all type of PVT air collectors. ► Study of thermal energy, exergy gain and exergy efficiency. ► Exergy efficiency of unglazed hybrid PVT tiles air collector is most efficient. - Abstract: In this paper, comparative analysis of different type of photovoltaic thermal (PVT) air collector namely: (i) unglazed hybrid PVT tiles, (ii) glazed hybrid PVT tiles and (iii) conventional hybrid PVT air collectors have been carried out for the composite climate of Srinagar (India). The comparative study has been carried out in terms of overall thermal energy and exergy gain, exergy efficiency and carbon credit earned by different type of hybrid PVT air collectors. It has been observed that overall annual thermal energy and exergy gain of unglazed hybrid PVT tiles air collector is higher by 27% and 29.3% respectively as compared to glazed hybrid PVT tiles air collector and by 61% and 59.8% respectively as compared to conventional hybrid PVT air collector. It has also been observed that overall annual exergy efficiency of unglazed and glazed hybrid PVT tiles air collector is higher by 9.6% and 53.8% respectively as compared to conventional hybrid PVT air collector. On the basis of comparative study, it has been concluded that CO 2 emission reduction per annum on the basis of overall thermal energy gain of unglazed and glazed hybrid PVT tiles air collector is higher by 62.3% and 27.7% respectively as compared to conventional hybrid PVT air collector and on the basis of overall exergy gain it is 59.7% and 22.7%.

  18. Dynamic simulation of urban hybrid electric vehicles; Dynamische Simulation von Stadthybridfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winke, Florian; Bargende, Michael [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen (IVK)

    2013-09-15

    As a result of the rising requirements on the development process of modern vehicles, simulation models for the prediction of fuel efficiency have become an irreplaceable tool in the automotive industry. Especially for the design of hybrid electric drivetrains, the increasingly short development cycles can only be met by the use of efficient simulation models. At the IVK of the University of Stuttgart, different approaches to simulating the longitudinal dynamics of hybrid electric vehicles were analysed and compared within the presented project. The focus of the investigations was on urban operation. The objective was to develop a hybrid vehicle concept that allows an equitable comparison with pure battery electric vehicles. (orig.)

  19. Multilayered Functional Insulation System (MFIS) for AC Power Transmission in High Voltage Hybrid Electrical Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizcano, Maricela

    2017-01-01

    High voltage hybrid electric propulsion systems are now pushing new technology development efforts for air transportation. A key challenge in hybrid electric aircraft is safe high voltage distribution and transmission of megawatts of power (>20 MW). For the past two years, a multidisciplinary materials research team at NASA Glenn Research Center has investigated the feasibility of distributing high voltage power on future hybrid electric aircraft. This presentation describes the team's approach to addressing this challenge, significant technical findings, and next steps in GRC's materials research effort for MW power distribution on aircraft.

  20. A hybrid optimization model of biomass trigeneration system combined with pit thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominković, D.F.; Ćosić, B.; Bačelić Medić, Z.; Duić, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid optimization model of biomass trigeneration system with PTES is developed. • Influence of premium feed-in tariffs on trigeneration systems is assessed. • Influence of total system efficiency on biomass trigeneration system with PTES is assessed. • Influence of energy savings on project economy is assessed. - Abstract: This paper provides a solution for managing excess heat production in trigeneration and thus, increases the power plant yearly efficiency. An optimization model for combining biomass trigeneration energy system and pit thermal energy storage has been developed. Furthermore, double piping district heating and cooling network in the residential area without industry consumers was assumed, thus allowing simultaneous flow of the heating and cooling energy. As a consequence, the model is easy to adopt in different regions. Degree-hour method was used for calculation of hourly heating and cooling energy demand. The system covers all the yearly heating and cooling energy needs, while it is assumed that all the electricity can be transferred to the grid due to its renewable origin. The system was modeled in Matlab© on hourly basis and hybrid optimization model was used to maximize the net present value (NPV), which was the objective function of the optimization. Economic figures become favorable if the economy-of-scale of both power plant and pit thermal energy storage can be utilized. The results show that the pit thermal energy storage was an excellent option for storing energy and shaving peaks in energy demand. Finally, possible switch from feed-in tariffs to feed-in premiums was assessed and possible subsidy savings have been calculated. The savings are potentially large and can be used for supporting other renewable energy projects

  1. Thermal design of an electric motor using Particle Swarm Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandaud, P-O; Harmand, S; Fakes, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, flow inside an electric machine called starter-alternator is studied parametrically with CFD in order to be used by a thermal lumped model coupled to an optimization algorithm using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). In a first case, the geometrical parameters are symmetric allowing us to model only one side of the machine. The optimized thermal results are not conclusive. In a second case, all the parameters are independent. In this case, the flow is strongly influenced by the dissymmetry. Optimization results are this time a clear improvement compared to the original machine.

  2. Computational analysis on plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, S. J.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle (PHEM) is an alternative to promote sustainability lower emissions. However, the PHEM overall system packaging is constrained by limited space in a motorcycle chassis. In this paper, a chassis applying the concept of a Chopper is analysed to apply in PHEM. The chassis 3dimensional (3D) modelling is built with CAD software. The PHEM power-train components and drive-train mechanisms are intergraded into the 3D modelling to ensure the chassis provides sufficient space. Besides that, a human dummy model is built into the 3D modelling to ensure the rider?s ergonomics and comfort. The chassis 3D model then undergoes stress-strain simulation. The simulation predicts the stress distribution, displacement and factor of safety (FOS). The data are used to identify the critical point, thus suggesting the chassis design is applicable or need to redesign/ modify to meet the require strength. Critical points mean highest stress which might cause the chassis to fail. This point occurs at the joints at triple tree and bracket rear absorber for a motorcycle chassis. As a conclusion, computational analysis predicts the stress distribution and guideline to develop a safe prototype chassis.

  3. Research on the Interior Sound Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Lian Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even the overall level of vehicle interior noise of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV reduced to a certain degree, the vibration and noise generated by the engine, motor, generator and power split have made greater effect on the vehicle interior sound quality in HEV. In order to research the feature of vehicle interior sound quality in HEV, the HEV is used to be the research object, the binaural noise sample of the driver when playing different kinds of music in the vehicle with the speed of sixty kilometers per hour is collected. ArtemiS is used to conduct frequency division processing, so as to obtain the relative weight of each frequency band and the overall noise. The tone, roughness and sharpness of sound quality subjective evaluation parameters are quantified, the SPSS is used to establish the linear regression model of the sample, and the best masking music tracks are found out. Then, the sound samples that contains the best music tracks and the simple vehicle interior noise are re-collected, the regression model and ArtemiS are used to predict the subjective evaluation value. The research results show that when adding the music, the tone degree rises and the lowering degree decreases, thus the disturbing degree reduces, which significantly improves the sound quality in the HEV.

  4. Study and Analysis of Congestion Management in Hybrid Electric Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayed Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The congestion management system is a systematic approach, collaboratively developed and implemented throughout a metropolitan region that provides for the safe and effective management and operation of new and existing transportation facilities through the use of demand reduction and operational management strat­e­gies. In this paper we try to present some points which should be investigated in congestion management problems. We calculate different kinds of congestion problems which may be occurred in our network. Here, the hybrid model is used to solve problems in the electricity market to solve the congestion problem in the network and Benders techniques is used together with an optimal power flow (OPF. In fact, by using of Benders algorithm the problem is divided into two major and minor problems. Therefore, the major problem related to the economy sector and no network is included and the minor problem is to solve the network and examine the accuracy of the network. Benders algorithm has been tested on a standard network IEEE 24 bus and Matlab software is used to implement the algorithm.

  5. Development of commercial hybrid electric vehicle with native key components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bakhmutov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspectives of development of medium weight cargo vehicles with hybrid powertrain including Russian native key components are considered in this article. Series-parallel scheme of HEV is more relevant owing to limitations of series and parallel schemes. An example of this technology is described. This technical solution has good facilities for variation of HEV and AWD type. The authors have patented it. In addition, another main issue is to choose the types of key components with good correlation for parameters of ICE, electric motors, batteries, and inverter. Using mathematical model of the vehicle a selection and correlation of technical characteristics were carried out to meet ecological and economical requirements. After computing calculation two control strategies were accepted. The first strategy contributes to good fuel consumption, while the other one is aimed at ecology. Researchers use test benches to confirm the results of calculation, and this one was built by the authors applying native components. The result of experiment on the test bench is the growth of fuel consumption of the medium weight cargo vehicle by 25% and compliance with ecological class Euro-4.

  6. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle system controller (20) is presented for a LSR parallel hybrid electric vehicle having an engine (10), a motor (12), wheels (14), a transmission (16) and a battery (18). The vehicle system controller (20) has a state machine having a plurality of predefined states (22-32) that represent operating modes for the vehicle. A set of rules is defined for controlling the transition between any two states in the state machine. The states (22-32) are prioritized according to driver demands, energy management concerns and system fault occurrences. The vehicle system controller (20) controls the transitions from a lower priority state to a higher priority state based on the set of rules. In addition, the vehicle system controller (20) will control a transition to a lower state from a higher state when the conditions no longer warrant staying in the current state. A unique set of output commands is defined for each state for the purpose of controlling lower level subsystem controllers. These commands serve to achieve the desire vehicle functionality within each state and insure smooth transitions between states.

  7. Simulation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. F.; Cole, G. H.

    Computer programs for the simulation of the operation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems are described. These programs treat cases in which high energy density ultracapacitors or high power density pulse batteries are used to load level the main energy storage battery in the vehicle. A generalized control strategy for splitting the power between the main battery and the pulse power devices is implemented such that the user can specify the nominal battery power as a function of the state-of-charge of the ultracapacitor or pulse power battery. The programs display graphically on the screen, as they run, the power from both the main battery and the pulse power device and the state-of-charge of the pulse power device. After each run is completed, a summary is printed out from which the effect of load leveling the battery on vehicle range and energy consumption can be determined. Default input files are provided with the programs so various combinations of vehicles, driveline components, and batteries of special current interest to the EV community can be run with either type of pulse power device. Typical simulation results are shown including cases in which the pulse power devices are connected in parallel with the main battery without interface electronics.

  8. Study of hydrogen engine for a hybrid electric vehicle. 1; Hybrid denki jidoshayo suiso engine ni kansuru kenkyu. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, T.; Numata, T. Hiruma, M.; Yamane, K.; Nakajima, Y.; Furuhama, S. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Takagi, Y. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-15

    Study was made on application of a hydrogen engine to series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV). Power of 20kW (for steady driving of a vehicle of 1t in total weight on flat road surface at 100km/h), and NOx emission concentration equivalent to that of EZEV (equivalent zero emission vehicle) were used as target performance. One of the merits of using a hydrogen engine for HEV is that conventional high-reliability gasoline engines can be used as hydrogen engines only by a bit of modification. A modified conventional 4-cylinder 4-cycle gasoline engine was used for this study. Hydrogen gas was continuously supplied through an intake manifold for premixed combustion by spark ignition. Brake thermal efficiency was improved from 30.5% to 35.5% by use of a high compression ratio and reduction of friction loss. NOx emission concentration could be controlled within 10ppm by ultra-lean combustion even at excess air ratios over 2.5. Both high efficiency and low emission were achieved at the same time around 3000rpm in engine revolution. 4 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Optical and thermal response of single-walled carbon nanotube–copper sulfide nanoparticle hybrid nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Yi-Hsuan; He Yuan; Que Long; Lakshmanan, Santana; Yang Chang; Chen Wei

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the optical and thermal response of a single-walled carbon nanotube–copper sulfide nanoparticle (SWNT–CuS NP) hybrid nanomaterial and its application as a thermoelectric generator. The hybrid nanomaterial was synthesized using oleylamine molecules as the linker molecules between SWNTs and CuS NPs. Measurements found that the hybrid nanomaterial has significantly increased light absorption (up to 80%) compared to the pure SWNT. Measurements also found that the hybrid nanomaterial thin-film devices exhibit a clear optical and thermal switching effect, which can be further enhanced up to 10 × by asymmetric illumination of light and thermal radiation on the thin-film devices instead of symmetric illumination. A simple prototype thermoelectric generator enabled by the hybrid nanomaterials is demonstrated, indicating a new route for achieving thermoelectricity. (paper)

  10. Evaluation of energy requirements for all-electric range of plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, Shaik; Rudramoorthy, R.; Neelakrishnan, S.; Sri Raja Varman, K.; Arjunan, T.V.

    2011-01-01

    Recently plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are emerging as one of the promising alternative to improve the sustainability of transportation energy and air quality especially in urban areas. The all-electric range in PHEV design plays a significant role in sizing of battery pack and cost. This paper presents the evaluation of battery energy and power requirements for a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler for different all-electric ranges. An analytical vehicle model and MATLAB simulation analysis has been discussed. The MATLAB simulation results estimate the impact of driving cycle and all-electric range on energy capacity, additional mass and initial cost of lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries. This paper also focuses on influence of cycle life on annual cost of battery pack and recommended suitable battery pack for implementing in plug-in hybrid electric two-wheelers. -- Research highlights: → Evaluates the battery energy and power requirements for a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler. → Simulation results reveal that the IDC demand more energy and cost of battery compared to ECE R40. → If cycle life is considered, the annual cost of Ni-MH battery pack is lower than lead-acid and Li-ion.

  11. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Report of the International Evaluation Committee. June 96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlen, H [Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany); Maggetto, G [Vrije Univ., Brussel (Belgium); Scrosati, B [Univ. di Roma (Italy); Srinivasan, S [Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States)

    1996-11-01

    As requested by NUTEK our task was to evaluate the results and progress achieved in the electric and hybrid electric vehicles programme. This is a multidisciplinary research programme involving 12 projects at four universities and is planned to be extended over two three-year periods, i.e. 1993-1996 and 1997-1999 at a level of 8 MSKR (about USD 1,2M) per year. The programme has been launched to stimulate the development of electric vehicle technology in Sweden and is supporting projects to optimize the material processes, improve battery and engine components and promote of their production by the Swedish industry. In addition, the programme is directed to: 1. improve the knowledge and experience in the field at the academic level; 2. to support long time research on the subject and, 3. promote collaboration nationally and internationally. Our first comment is that the latter aspect appears to be satisfactorily accomplished. Most of the groups we have visited demonstrate an acquired experience in the field and presented their results with competence and enthusiasm. In many cases, we found valid interactions on ongoing projects in Swedish universities and established collaborations with high rank international groups. The programme has provided the material and the motivation for high-quality thesis work and, consequently, the formation of a class of well prepared and professionally competent students. Since electric vehicle technology is fast developing and is expected to have important fall-outs not only in the car industry but also in battery and electric engine manufacturing, the training of competent scientists and engineers in the field is of paramount relevance for Sweden where these types of industries are active and spread out. Therefore, we believe that as far as educational promotion is concerned, the funds distribution was worthwhile in all the projects which we evaluated

  12. Probe branes thermalization in external electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali-Akbari, M.; Ebrahim, H.; Rezaei, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We study thermalization on rotating probe branes in AdS 5 ×S 5 background in the presence of constant external electric and magnetic fields. In the AdS/CFT framework this corresponds to thermalization in the flavour sector in field theory. The horizon appears on the worldvolume of the probe brane due to its rotation in one of the sphere directions. For both electric and magnetic fields the behaviour of the temperature is independent of the probe brane dimension. We also study the open string metric and the fluctuations of the probe brane in such a set-up. We show that the temperatures obtained from open string metric and observed by the fluctuations are larger than the one calculated from the induced metric

  13. Thermal and Electrical Investigation of Conductive Polylactic Acid Based Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, R. A.; Marcu, A. E.; Drumea, A.; Vlădescu, M.

    2018-06-01

    Printed electronics gain momentum as the involved technologies become affordable. The ability to shape electrostatic dissipative materials in almost any form is useful. The idea to use a general-purpose 3D printer to manufacture the electrical interconnections for a circuit is very attractive. The advantage of using a 3D printed structure over other technologies are mainly the lower price, less requirements concerning storage and use conditions, and the capability to build thicker traces while maintaining flexibility. The main element allowing this to happen is a printing filament with conductive properties. The paper shows the experiments that were performed to determine the thermal and electrical properties of polylactic acid (PLA) based ESD dissipative filament. Quantitative results regarding the thermal behavior of the DC resistance and the variation of the equivalent parallel impedance model parameters (losses resistance, capacitance, impedance magnitude and phase angle) with frequency are shown.. Using these results, new applications like printed temperature sensors can be imagined.

  14. UAV Mission Optimization through Hybrid-Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwelder, Philip Scott

    Hybrid-electric powertrain leverages the superior range of petrol based systems with the quiet and emission free benefits of electric propulsion. The major caveat to hybrid-electric powertrain in an airplane is that it is inherently heavier than conventional petroleum powertrain due mostly to the low energy density of battery technology. The first goal of this research is to develop mission planning code to match powertrain components for a small-scale unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to complete a standard surveillance mission within a set of user input parameters. The second goal is to promote low acoustic profile loitering through mid-flight engine starting. The two means by which midmission engine starting will be addressed is through reverse thrust from the propeller and a servo actuated gear to couple and decouple the engine and motor. The mission planning code calculates the power required to complete a mission and assists the user in sourcing powertrain components including the propeller, motor, battery, motor controller, engine and fuel. Reverse thrust engine starting involves characterizing an off the shelf variable pitch propeller and using its torque coefficient to calculate the advance ratio required to provide sufficient torque and speed to start an engine. Geared engine starting works like the starter in a conventional automobile. A servo actuated gear will couple the motor to the engine to start it and decouple once the engine has started. Reverse thrust engine starting was unsuccessful due to limitations of available off the shelf variable pitch propellers. However, reverse thrust engine starting could be realized through a custom larger diameter propeller. Geared engine starting was a success, though the system was unable to run fully as intended. Due to counter-clockwise crank rotation of the engine and the right-hand threads on the crankshaft, cranking the engine resulted in the nut securing the engine starter gear to back off as the engine cranked

  15. Prospects for solar thermal electricity generation - an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLaquil, P.

    1991-01-01

    The future potential for solar thermal electric power plants is quite significant. The size of the renewable energy resource base for the United States of America alone is almost 500 times its current primary energy consumption. Unfortunately, the levels of current utilization are quite small. Why have these technologies not made a larger contribution to today's market? The answer is that significant barriers still exist. (orig.)

  16. Macroeconomic impact of the Solar Thermal Electricity Industry in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    In the last three years, Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) in Spain has grown significantly. Its weight within the renewables mix is becoming relevant, and even more so, its impact on economics, society, the environment, and reducing energy dependence. This report was carried out by Deloitte for Protermosolar to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the main macroeconomic variables derived from the development of this technology in Spain from 2008 to 2010, and forecast its possible future impact.

  17. Outdoor thermal and electrical characterisation of photovoltaic modules and systems

    OpenAIRE

    Herteleer, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Current and future investors in photovoltaic systems are interested in how well the system performs, and how predictable this is over the expected lifetime. To do so, models have been developed and measurements of photovoltaic systems have been done. This dissertation presents the outdoor measurement set-up that has been developed for thermal and electrical characterisation of photovoltaic modules and systems, aimed at measuring transient effects and changes. The main design decisions and ...

  18. Electrical stimulation vs thermal effects in a complex electromagnetic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Jesús M; Rufo, Montaña; Jiménez, Antonio; Antolín, Alicia; Sánchez, Miguel

    2009-08-01

    Studies linking exposure to low levels of radiofrequencies with adverse health effects, notwithstanding their present apparent inconsistency, have contributed to a steady improvement in the quality of evaluating that exposure. In complex electromagnetic environments, with a multitude of emissions of different frequencies acting simultaneously, knowledge of the spectral content is fundamental to evaluating human exposure to non-ionizing radiation. In the present work, we quantify the most significant spectral components in the frequency band 0.5-2200 MHz in an urban area. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyzer and monopole, biconical, and log-periodic antennas. Power density levels were calculated separately for the medium wave, short wave, and frequency modulation radio broadcasting bands, and for the television and GSM, DCS, and UMTS mobile telephony bands. The measured levels were compared with the ICNIRP reference levels for exposure to multiple frequency sources for thermal effects and electrical stimulation. The results showed the criterion limiting exposure on the basis of preventing electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves and muscles to be stricter (exposure quotient 24.7 10(-4)) than that based on thermal considerations (exposure quotient 0.16 10(-4)). The bands that contribute most to the latter are short wave, with 46.2%, and mobile telephony with 32.6% of the total exposure. In a complex electromagnetic environment, knowledge of the radiofrequency spectrum is essential in order to quantify the contribution of each type of emission to the public's exposure. It is also necessary to evaluate the electrical effects as well as the thermal effects because the criterion to limit exposure on the basis of the effect of the electrical stimulation of tissues is stricter than that based on thermal effects.

  19. Electrical stimulation vs thermal effects in a complex electromagnetic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniagua, Jesus M.; Rufo, Montana; Jimenez, Antonio; Antolin, Alicia; Sanchez, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Studies linking exposure to low levels of radiofrequencies with adverse health effects, notwithstanding their present apparent inconsistency, have contributed to a steady improvement in the quality of evaluating that exposure. In complex electromagnetic environments, with a multitude of emissions of different frequencies acting simultaneously, knowledge of the spectral content is fundamental to evaluating human exposure to non-ionizing radiation. In the present work, we quantify the most significant spectral components in the frequency band 0.5-2200 MHz in an urban area. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyzer and monopole, biconical, and log-periodic antennas. Power density levels were calculated separately for the medium wave, short wave, and frequency modulation radio broadcasting bands, and for the television and GSM, DCS, and UMTS mobile telephony bands. The measured levels were compared with the ICNIRP reference levels for exposure to multiple frequency sources for thermal effects and electrical stimulation. The results showed the criterion limiting exposure on the basis of preventing electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves and muscles to be stricter (exposure quotient 24.7 10 -4 ) than that based on thermal considerations (exposure quotient 0.16 10 -4 ). The bands that contribute most to the latter are short wave, with 46.2%, and mobile telephony with 32.6% of the total exposure. In a complex electromagnetic environment, knowledge of the radiofrequency spectrum is essential in order to quantify the contribution of each type of emission to the public's exposure. It is also necessary to evaluate the electrical effects as well as the thermal effects because the criterion to limit exposure on the basis of the effect of the electrical stimulation of tissues is stricter than that based on thermal effects.

  20. Characteristic on photovoltaic/thermal hybrid collector. Evaluation of excergetic theory; Taiyoko netsu hybrid collector no tokusei. Exergy ni yoru hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwawaki, H; Morita, Y; Fujisawa, T; Tani, T [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Described herein are characteristics of photovoltaic (PV)/thermal hybrid collectors (PV/Ts), in which a PV module is combined with a plate-shape solar heat collector to simultaneously produce electric power and heat. Their efficiency is assessed by exergy. The test results indicate that the PV/T system gives a 1.07 times higher exergy than the PV system, 86.3 versus 80.7kWh. In terms of energy, the optimum values (OVs) are 5, 44 and 37% lower than the measuring values (MVs) for electrical energy, thermal energy and total exergy. In terms of exergy, on the other hand, OV is 5% lower than MV for electrical energy, but 893 times higher for thermal energy and 1.26 times higher for total exergy. As a result, the exergy level is 26% higher than that of a system which generates power as the main product and heat as the auxiliary product. 3 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Electrifying Australian transport: Hybrid life cycle analysis of a transition to electric light-duty vehicles and renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, Paul; Wiedmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •This research assesses life-cycle carbon impacts of different powertrains. •We illustrate a transition to low-carbon vehicles in a hybrid IO-LCA model. •Different electricity and transport scenarios are integrated in the model. •With Australia’s current grid-mix, electric vehicles offer no mitigation potential. •Using renewable energy, electric vehicle carbon footprints can be cut by 66%. -- Abstract: Recent life cycle assessments confirmed the greenhouse gas emission reduction potential of renewable electricity and electric vehicle technologies. However, each technology is usually assessed separately and not within a consistent macro-economic, multi-sectoral framework. Here we present a multi-regional input-output based hybrid approach with integrated scenarios to facilitate the carbon footprint assessment of all direct and indirect effects of a transition to low-emission transportation and electricity generation technologies in Australia. The work takes into account on-road energy consumption values that are more realistic than official drive-cycle energy consumption figures used in previous work. Accounting for these factors as well as for Australia’s grid electricity, which heavily relies on coal power, electric vehicles are found to have a higher carbon footprint than conventional vehicles, whereas hybrid electric vehicles have the lowest. This means that – from a carbon footprint perspective – powertrain electrification is beneficial only to a certain degree at the current stage. This situation can be changed by increasing shares of renewable electricity in the grid. In our best-case scenario, where renewable energy accounts for 96% of the electricity mix in 2050, electric vehicle carbon footprints can be cut by 66% by 2050 relative to 2009. In the business-as-usual scenario (36% renewable electricity share by 2050), electric vehicles can reach a 56% reduction if fossil fuel power plants significantly increase their efficiencies

  2. Performance of a thermal imager employing a hybrid pyroelectric detector array with MOSFET readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watton, R.; Mansi, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal imager employing a two-dimensional hybrid array of pyroelectric detectors with MOSFET readout has been built. The design and theoretical performance of the detector are discussed, and the results of performance measurements are presented. 8 references

  3. Chip Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary Driven Thermal Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chip-Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary-Driven Thermal Management System is a two year that will leverage independently attained yet related prototype hardware...

  4. Understanding the thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarathi, R.; Sahu, R.K.; Rajeshkumar, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy nanocomposite materials were studied. The electrical insulation characteristics were analyzed through short time breakdown voltage test, accelerated electrical ageing test, and by tracking test. The breakdown voltage increases with increase in nano-clay content up to 5 wt%, under AC and DC voltages. The volume resistivity, permittivity and tan(δ) of the epoxy nanocomposites were measured. The Weibull studies indicate that addition of nanoclay upto 5 wt% enhances the characteristic life of epoxy nanocomposite insulation material. The tracking test results indicate that the tracking time is high with epoxy nanocomposites as compared to pure epoxy. Ageing studies were carried out to understand the surface characteristic variation through contact angle measurement. The hydrophobicity of the insulating material was analysed through contact angle measurement. The diffusion coefficients of the material with different percentage of clay in epoxy nanocomposites were calculated. The exfoliation characteristics in epoxy nanocomposites were analyzed through wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) studies. The thermal behaviour of the epoxy nanocomposites was analyzed by carrying out thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) studies. Heat deflection temperature of the material was measured to understand the stability of the material for intermittent temperature variation. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results indicated that storage modulus of the material increases with small amount of clay in epoxy resin. The activation energy of the material was calculated from the DMA results

  5. Electrical and thermal modeling of a large-format lithium titanate oxide battery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The future of mass transportation is clearly moving towards the increased efficiency of hybrid and electric vehicles. Electrical : energy storage is a key component in most of these advanced vehicles, with the system complexity and vehicle cost shift...

  6. Tokamak hybrid thermonuclear reactor for the production of fissionable fuel and electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhov, E.P.; Glukhikh, V.A.; Gur'ev, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The results of feasibility studies of a tokamak- based hybrid reactor concept are presented. The system selected has a D-T plasma volume of 575 m 3 with additional plasma heating by injection of fast neutral particles. The method of heating makes it possible to achieve an economical two-component tokamak regime at ntau=(4-6)x10 13 sxcm -3 , i e. far below the Lawson criterion. Plasma and vacuum chamber are surrounded by a blanket where fissionable plutonium is produced and heat transformed into electric power is generated. Major plasma-neutron-physical characteristics of the 6905 MWth (2500 MWe) reactor and its electromagnetic system are presented. Evaluations show that the hybrid reactor can produce about 800 kg of Pu per 1GWth/yr as compared to 70-150 kg of Pu for fast breeder reactors. The increased Pu production rate is the major merit of the concept promising for both power generation and fuelling thermal fission reactions

  7. Synthetic fuels for transportation : background paper #1 : the future potential of electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    This report presents a comprehensive review of the future of electric and hybrid : vehicles through the year 2010 in the United States. It was prepared for the : Office of Technology Assessment as background information for its study, : "Synthetic Fu...

  8. Internet Enabled Remote Driving of a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System for Duty Cycle Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodell, Jarrett; Compere, Marc; Smith, Wilford; Holtz, Dale; Brudnak, Mark; Pozolo, Mike; Paul, Victor; Mohammad, Syed; Mortsfield, Todd; Shvartsman, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a human-in-the-loop motion-based simulator interfaced to hybrid-electric power system hardware, both of which were used to measure the duty cycle of a combat vehicle in a virtual...

  9. The Swedish electric and hybrid vehicle R, D and D program. Seminar October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This publication presents a selection of the ongoing projects in the form of abstracts, within the KFB RDD-program Electric- and Hybrid Vehicles. These projects were presented at a project manager seminar 20-21 October 1998

  10. Dynamic thermal characteristics of heat pipe via segmented thermal resistance model for electric vehicle battery cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifei; Lan, Fengchong; Chen, Jiqing

    2016-07-01

    Heat pipe cooling for battery thermal management systems (BTMSs) in electric vehicles (EVs) is growing due to its advantages of high cooling efficiency, compact structure and flexible geometry. Considering the transient conduction, phase change and uncertain thermal conditions in a heat pipe, it is challenging to obtain the dynamic thermal characteristics accurately in such complex heat and mass transfer process. In this paper, a ;segmented; thermal resistance model of a heat pipe is proposed based on thermal circuit method. The equivalent conductivities of different segments, viz. the evaporator and condenser of pipe, are used to determine their own thermal parameters and conditions integrated into the thermal model of battery for a complete three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The proposed ;segmented; model shows more precise than the ;non-segmented; model by the comparison of simulated and experimental temperature distribution and variation of an ultra-thin micro heat pipe (UMHP) battery pack, and has less calculation error to obtain dynamic thermal behavior for exact thermal design, management and control of heat pipe BTMSs. Using the ;segmented; model, the cooling effect of the UMHP pack with different natural/forced convection and arrangements is predicted, and the results correspond well to the tests.

  11. Electrically and Thermally Conducting Nanocomposites for Electronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Santos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites made up of polymer matrices and carbon nanotubes are a class of advanced materials with great application potential in electronics packaging. Nanocomposites with carbon nanotubes as fillers have been designed with the aim of exploiting the high thermal, electrical and mechanical properties characteristic of carbon nanotubes. Heat dissipation in electronic devices requires interface materials with high thermal conductivity. Here, current developments and challenges in the application of nanotubes as fillers in polymer matrices are explored. The blending together of nanotubes and polymers result in what are known as nanocomposites. Among the most pressing current issues related to nanocomposite fabrication are (i dispersion of carbon nanotubes in the polymer host, (ii carbon nanotube-polymer interaction and the nature of the interface, and (iii alignment of carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix. These issues are believed to be directly related to the electrical and thermal performance of nanocomposites. The recent progress in the fabrication of nanocomposites with carbon nanotubes as fillers and their potential application in electronics packaging as thermal interface materials is also reported.

  12. Thermal Management and Reliability of Power Electronics and Electric Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, Sreekant

    2016-08-03

    Increasing the number of electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) on America's roads has been identified as a strategy with near-term potential for dramatically decreasing the nation's dependence on oil -- by the U.S. Department of Energy, the federal cross-agency EV-Everywhere Challenge, and the automotive industry. Mass-market deployment will rely on meeting aggressive technical targets, including improved efficiency and reduced size, weight, and cost. Many of these advances will depend on optimization of thermal management. Effective thermal management is critical to improving the performance and ensuring the reliability of EDVs. Efficient heat removal makes higher power densities and lower operating temperatures possible, and in turn enables cost and size reductions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), along with DOE and industry partners is working to develop cost-effective thermal management solutions to increase device and component power densities. In this presentation, the activities in recent years related to thermal management and reliability of automotive power electronics and electric machines will be presented.

  13. Thermal Management and Reliability of Power Electronics and Electric Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, Sreekant

    2016-06-13

    Increasing the number of electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) on America's roads has been identified as a strategy with near-term potential for dramatically decreasing the nation's dependence on oil - by the U.S. Department of Energy, the federal cross-agency EV-Everywhere Challenge, and the automotive industry. Mass-market deployment will rely on meeting aggressive technical targets, including improved efficiency and reduced size, weight, and cost. Many of these advances will depend on optimization of thermal management. Effective thermal management is critical to improving the performance and ensuring the reliability of EDVs. Efficient heat removal makes higher power densities and lower operating temperatures possible, and in turn enables cost and size reductions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), along with DOE and industry partners is working to develop cost-effective thermal management solutions to increase device and component power densities. In this presentation, the activities in recent years related to thermal management and reliability of automotive power electronics and electric machines are presented.

  14. FEV's new parallel hybrid transmission with single dry clutch and electric torque support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellenbroich, Gereon [VKA, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Rosenburg, Volker [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    FEV is currently developing a new 7-speed hybrid transmission for transverse installation. The transmission with a design torque of 320 Nm is based on AMT (automated manual transmission) technology and uses a single electric motor. The innovative gear set layout combines the advantages of modern AMTs such as best efficiency, low costs and few components with full hybrid capabilities and electric torque support during all gear shifts. Furthermore, the gear set layout allows for very short-shift-times due to the favorable distribution of inertias. Other features include an A/C compressor being electrically driven by the electric motor of the transmission during start/stop phases. (orig.)

  15. Hybrid power system (hydro, solar and wind) for rural electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahinda Kurukulasuriya

    2000-01-01

    Generation of affordable cheap electric energy for rural development by a hybrid power system (10-50 kW) of hydropower, solar and wind energies on self determining basis and computer application to determine its performance. In this paper the following topics were discussed, design of hybrid power system, its justification and economic analysis, manufacturing and installation of the system. (Author)

  16. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    OpenAIRE

    GANDZHA S.A.; KIESSH I.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding) for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric...

  17. Study of the electrical and thermal performances of photovoltaic thermal collector-compound parabolic concentrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahed Hameed Jaaz

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of utilizing the solar energy as a very suitable source among multi-source approaches to replace the conventional energy is on the rise in the last four decades. The invention of the photovoltaic module (PV could be the corner stone in this process. However, the limited amount of energy obtained from PV was and still the main challenge of full utilization of the solar energy. In this paper, the use of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC along with the thermal photovoltaic module (PVT where the cooling process of the CPC is conducted using a novel technique of water jet impingement has applied experimentally and physically tested. The test includes the effect of water jet impingement on the total power, electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency, and total efficiency on CPC-PVT system. The cooling process at the maximum irradiation by water jet impingement resulted in improving the electrical efficiency by 7%, total output power by 31% and the thermal efficiency by 81%. These results outperform the recent highest results recorded by the most recent work. Keywords: Photovoltaic thermal collectors, Electrical performance, Thermal performance, Compound parabolic concentrator, Jet impingement

  18. Aircraft Electric/Hybrid-Electric Power and Propulsion Workshop Perspective of the V/STOL Aircraft Systems Tech Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hange, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the AIAA Electric Hybrid-Electric Power Propulsion Workshop on July 29, 2016. The workshop is being held so the AIAA can determine how it can support the introduction of electric aircraft into the aerospace industry. This presentation will address the needs of the community within the industry that advocates the use of powered-lift as important new technologies for future aircraft and air transportation systems. As the current chairman of the VSTOL Aircraft Systems Technical Committee, I will be presenting generalized descriptions of the past research in developing powered-lift and generalized observations on how electric and hybrid-electric propulsion may provide advances in the powered-lift field.

  19. REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY PASSENGER CAR WITH USING OF NON-ELECTRICAL HYBRID DRIVE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Skrucany

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only electrical hybrid technology is used for drivetrain of passenger cars. Also other systems using non-electrical principles (hydraulic or air pressure, mechanical energy storage can be found in current vehicles. There is a quantification of the spared energy by using a hybrid vehicle in the paper. Driving cy-cle ECE 15 was chosen as a platform for simulation of driving resistances.

  20. Short-term electricity prices forecasting in a competitive market by a hybrid intelligent approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalao, J.P.S. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Center for Innovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Pousinho, H.M.I. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Mendes, V.M.F. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1950-062 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper, a hybrid intelligent approach is proposed for short-term electricity prices forecasting in a competitive market. The proposed approach is based on the wavelet transform and a hybrid of neural networks and fuzzy logic. Results from a case study based on the electricity market of mainland Spain are presented. A thorough comparison is carried out, taking into account the results of previous publications. Conclusions are duly drawn. (author)

  1. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Experimental Model with CAN Network Real Time Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATOI, M.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an experimental model with a distributed control system of a hybrid electrical vehicle is presented. A communication CAN network of high speed (1 Mbps assures a distributed control of the all components. The modeling and the control of different operating regimes are realized on an experimental test-bench of a hybrid electrical vehicle. The experimental results concerning the variations of the mains variables (currents, torques, speeds are presented.

  2. Influence of electrical and hybrid heating on bread quality during baking

    OpenAIRE

    Chhanwal, N.; Ezhilarasi, P. N.; Indrani, D.; Anandharamakrishnan, C.

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency and product quality are the key factors for any food processing industry. The aim of the study was to develop energy and time efficient baking process. The hybrid heating (Infrared + Electrical) oven was designed and fabricated using two infrared lamps and electric heating coils. The developed oven can be operated in serial or combined heating modes. The standardized baking conditions were 18 min at 220°C to produce the bread from hybrid heating oven. Effect of baking with h...

  3. Short-term electricity prices forecasting in a competitive market by a hybrid intelligent approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalao, J.P.S.; Pousinho, H.M.I.; Mendes, V.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid intelligent approach is proposed for short-term electricity prices forecasting in a competitive market. The proposed approach is based on the wavelet transform and a hybrid of neural networks and fuzzy logic. Results from a case study based on the electricity market of mainland Spain are presented. A thorough comparison is carried out, taking into account the results of previous publications. Conclusions are duly drawn. (author)

  4. Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, W. W.; Sekar, R. R.; Ahlheim, M. C.

    A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack was analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, were evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

  5. Energy savings and increased electric vehicle range through improved battery thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Joshua; Hinterberger, Michael; Schneider, Christoph; Koehler, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-ion cells are temperature sensitive: operation outside the optimal operating range causes premature aging and correspondingly reduces vehicle range and battery system lifetime. In order to meet consumer demands for electric and hybrid-electric vehicle performance, especially in adverse climates, a battery thermal management system (BTMS) is often required. This work presents a novel experimental method for analyzing BTMS using three sample cooling plate concepts. For each concept, the input parameters (ambient temperature, coolant temperature and coolant flow rate) are varied and the resulting effect on the average temperature and temperature distribution across and between cells is compared. Additionally, the pressure loss along the coolant path is utilized as an indicator of energy efficiency. Using the presented methodology, various cooling plate layouts optimized for production alternative techniques are compared to the state of the art. It is shown that these production-optimized cooling plates provide sufficient thermal performance with the additional benefit of mechanical integration within the battery and/or vehicle system. It is also shown that the coolant flow influences battery cell thermal behavior more than the solid material and that pressure drop is more sensitive to geometrical changes in the cooling plate than temperature changes at the module.

  6. Vibration, buckling and smart control of microtubules using piezoelectric nanoshells under electric voltage in thermal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farajpour, A., E-mail: ariobarzan.oderj@gmail.com; Rastgoo, A.; Mohammadi, M.

    2017-03-15

    Piezoelectric nanomaterials such as zinc oxide (ZnO) are of low toxicity and have many biomedical applications including optical imaging, drug delivery, biosensing and harvesting biomechanical energy using hybrid nanogenerators. In this paper, the vibration, buckling and smart control of microtubules (MTs) embedded in an elastic medium in thermal environment using a piezoelectric nanoshell (PNS) are investigated. The MT and PNS are considered to be coupled by a filament network. The PNS is subjected to thermal loads and an external electric voltage which operates to control the mechanical behavior of the MT. Using the nonlocal continuum mechanics, the governing differential equations are derived. An exact solution is presented for simply supported boundary conditions. The differential quadrature method is also used to solve the governing equations for other boundary conditions. A detailed parametric study is conducted to investigate the effects of the elastic constants of surrounding medium and internal filament matrix, scale coefficient, electric voltage, the radius-to-thickness ratio of PNSs and temperature change on the smart control of MTs. It is found that the applied electric voltage can be used as an effective controlling parameter for the vibration and buckling of MTs.

  7. An electrical method for the measurement of the thermal and electrical conductivity of reduced graphene oxide nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Timo; Burg, Brian R; Schirmer, Niklas C; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2009-10-07

    This paper introduces an electrical four-point measurement method enabling thermal and electrical conductivity measurements of nanoscale materials. The method was applied to determine the thermal and electrical conductivity of reduced graphene oxide flakes. The dielectrophoretically deposited samples exhibited thermal conductivities in the range of 0.14-2.87 W m(-1) K(-1) and electrical conductivities in the range of 6.2 x 10(2)-6.2 x 10(3) Omega(-1) m(-1). The measured properties of each flake were found to be dependent on the duration of the thermal reduction and are in this sense controllable.

  8. Study on Two-segment Electric-mechanical Composite Braking Strategy of Tracked Vehicle Hybrid Transmission System

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Tian; Gai, Jiangtao; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2010-01-01

    In order to lighten abrasion of braking system of hybrid electric tracked vehicle, according to characteristic of hybrid electric transmission, electric-mechanical composite braking method was proposed. By means of analyzing performance of electric braking and mechanical braking and three-segment composite braking strategy, two-segment electric-mechanical composite braking strategy was put forward in this paper. Simulation results of Matlab/Simulink indicated that the two-segment electric-mec...

  9. Transmutor demo unit and thermal into electrical energy transformation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Fiedler, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the three circuits layout of the transmutor the heat is transferred from the primary through the secondary circuits by a favourable heat carrier into the tertiary circuit where the thermal into electrical energy transformation in turbo-generator comes into force. Properties as well as parameters of the heat carrier in the secondary circuit affect basically both the conceptual layout of the tertiary circuit and consequently investments costs for its realization and the effectiveness of the transformation of thermal into electrical energy. For several heat carriers considered for the transmutor secondary circuit particular tertiary circuit concepts for the demonstration transmutor unit of approx. 15 W thermal power rate are analyzed, layout features and possibilities of turbogenerator selection are commented and investment costs as well as effectiveness of thermal into electrical energy transformation are estimated. Some of the results are as follows: (i) Heat carrier properties influence thermodynamics of the TDU water/steam cycle substantially. One of the dominant parameters is the melting (freezing) temperature of the heat carrier. (ii) Heat carrier properties influence investment costs of components of the TDU tertiary circuit substantially. Dominantly influenced are costs of the steam generator, steam turbine and high pressure regeneration system. (iii) If the heat carrier has to be a molten salt than a salt with a low melting temperature is recommended to be selected, for example KHF2. (iv) Eutectic alloy Pb-Bi as the heat carrier serves changes to design the TDU with efficient thermodynamics, with acceptable low investment costs of the tertiary as well as secondary circuit components and with an acceptable level of the nuclear safety

  10. The energetic performance of a novel hybrid solar thermal and chemical looping combustion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, Mehdi; Arjomandi, Maziar; Nathan, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid solar chemical looping combustion power cycle is reported. • The cycle is studied for two configurations, with and without an after-burner. • The oxygen carrier particles are used as storage medium for solar thermal energy. • Total solar shares of 41.4% and 60% are achieved with and without the after-burner. • Efficiencies of 50% and 44.0% are achieved with and without the after-burner. - Abstract: The overall energetic performance of a gas turbine combined cycle powered by a hybrid cycle between a solar thermal and a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system firing methane is reported for two configurations. In one case, the outlet from the air reactor is fed directly to a gas turbine, while in the other an after-burner, also firing methane, is added to increase the gas turbine inlet temperature. The cycle is simulated using Aspen Plus software for the average diurnal profile of normal irradiance for Port Augusta, South Australia. The first law efficiency, total solar absorption efficiency, average and peak fractional power boosts, total solar share, net solar to electrical efficiency, fraction of pressurised CO 2 , incremental CO 2 avoidance and the exergy efficiency for both cycles are reported. The calculations predict a first law efficiency of 50.0% for the cycle employing an after-burner, compared with 44.0% for that without the after-burner. However, this is achieved at the cost of decreasing the solar share from 60.0%, without the after-burner, to 41.4% with it. Also reported is the sensitivity analysis of performance to variations in key operating parameters. The sensitivity analysis shows that further improvements to the performance of the cycle are possible

  11. Energy consumption and cost analysis of hybrid electric powertrain configurations for two wheelers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Paul D.; Roser, Holger M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyse several driving cycles to for the preliminary design of hybrid two wheelers. • Simulation of alternate configurations to compare achievable driving range and economy. • Demonstrate that pure electric vehicles provide cost benefits over the vehicle life. • Hybrid and plug-in hybrid two wheelers have comparable costs to conventional vehicles. - Abstract: The development of hybrid electric two wheelers in recent years has targeted the reduction of on road emissions produced by these vehicles. However, added cost and complexity have resulted in the failure of these systems to meet consumer expectations. This paper presents a comparative study of the energy economy and essential costs of alternative forms of small two wheelers such as scooters or low capacity motorcycles. This includes conventional, hybrid, plug-in hybrid and electric variants. Through simulations of vehicle driving range using two popular driving cycles it is demonstrated that there is considerable benefit in fuel economy realised by hybridising such vehicles. However, the added costs associated with electrification, i.e. motor/generator, power electronics, and energy storage provide a significant cost obstacle to the purchase of such vehicles. Only the pure electric configuration is demonstrated to be cost effective over its life in comparison to conventional two wheelers. Both the hybrid electric and plug-in equivalents must overcome significant upfront costs to be cost competitive with conventional vehicles. This is demonstrated to be achieved if the annual driving range of the vehicle is increased substantially from the assumed mean. Given the shorter distances travelled by most two wheeler drivers it can therefore be concluded that the development of similar hybrid electric vehicles are unlikely to achieve the desired acceptance that pure electric or conventional equivalents currently achieve

  12. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power

  13. Frequency Dependence of Electrical Parameters of an Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Composite Based Humidity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Akram

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study highlights the interdependence of ambient humidity levels on the electrical parameters of organic-inorganic hybrid composite based humidity sensor at varied AC frequencies of input signal. Starting from the bottom, the layer stack of the fabricated humidity sensor was 200-nm silver (Ag thin film and 4 μm spun-coated PEPC+NiPC+Cu2O active layer. Silver thin films were deposited by thermal evaporator on well cleaned microscopic glass slides, which served as a substrate. Conventional optical lithography procedure was adapted to define pairs of silver-silver surface electrodes with two sorts of configurations, i.e., interdigitated and rectangular. Humidity-sensitive layers of organic-inorganic composite were then spun-cast upon the channel between the silver electrodes. The changes in relative humidity levels induced variation in capacitance and impedance of the sensors. These variations in electrical parameters of sensors were also found to be highly dependent upon frequency of input AC signal. Our findings reveal that the organic-inorganic composite shows higher humidity sensitivity at smaller orders of frequency. This finding is in accordance with the established fact that organic semiconductors-based devices are not applicable for high frequency applications due to their lower charge carrier mobility values. Two distinct geometries of semiconducting medium between the silver electrodes were investigated to optimize the sensing parameters of the humidity sensor. Furthermore, the effect of temperature change on the resistance of organic composite has also been studied.

  14. A review of concentrated photovoltaic-thermal (CPVT) hybrid solar systems with waste heat recovery (WHR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Ju; Chao Xu; Zhirong Liao; Xiaoze Du; Gaosheng Wei; Zhifeng Wang; Yongping Yang

    2017-01-01

    In conventional photovoltaic (PV) systems,a large portion of solar energy is dissipated as waste heat since the generating efficiency is usually less than 30%.As the dissipated heat can be recovered for various applications,the wasted heat recovery concentrator PV/thermal (WHR CPVT) hybrid systems have been developed.They can provide both electricity and usable heat by combining thermal systems with concentrator PV (CPV) module,which dramatically improves the overall conversion efficiency of solar energy.This paper systematically and comprehensively reviews the research and development ofWHR CPVT systems.WHR CPVT systems with innovative design configurations,different theoretical evaluation models and experimental test processes for several implementations are presented in an integrated manner.We aim to provide a global point of view on the research trends,market potential,technical obstacles,and the future work which is required in the development of WHR CPVT technology.Possibly,it will offer a generic guide to the investigators who are interested in the study of WHR CPVT systems.

  15. Thermal properties of oil palm nano filler/kenaf reinforced epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, N.; Paridah, M. T.; Abdan, K.; Ibrahim, N. A.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this research study was to fabricate nano oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB)/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and to make comparative study on the thermal properties of nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites with the montmorillonite (MMT)/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and organically modified MMT (OMMT)/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites. Epoxy based kenaf hybrid nanocomposites was prepared by dispersing the nano filler (nano OPEFB filler, MMT, OMMT) at 3% loading through high speed mechanical stirrer followed by hand lay-up technique. Thermal properties of hybrid nanocomposites were analyzed through thermogravimetry analyzer (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Obtained results specified that addition of nano OPEFB filler improves the thermal stability and char yield of kenaf/epoxy composites. Furthermore, the increase in decomposition temperature by the nano OPEFB filler was quite comparable to the MMT/kenaf/epoxy but relatively less than OMMT/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites. We concluded from overall consequences that the nano OPEFB filler can be used as the promising and innovative alternative of existing expensive nano filler, with relatively lesser impact on the environment having marked pronounced impact on the construction, automotive, aerospace, electronics and semiconducting sectors as future industries based on bio-wastes with satisfactory light weight and thermal stability on other side.

  16. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume VI. Cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, K.S.

    1979-09-30

    The purpose of the cost analysis is to determine the economic feasibility of a variety of hybrid vehicles with respect to conventional vehicles specifically designed for the same duty cycle defined by the mission analysis. Several different hybrid configurations including parallel, parallel-flywheel, and series vehicles were evaluated. The ramifications of incorporating examples of advanced batteries, these being the advanced lead-acid, nickel-zinc, and sodium sulfur were also investigated. Vehicles were specifically designed with these batteries and for the driving cycles specified by the mission. Simulated operation on the missions yielded the energy consumption (petroleum and/or electricity) over the driving cycles. It was concluded that: in the event that gasoline prices reach $2.50 to $3.00/gal, hybrid vehicles in many applications will become economically competitive with conventional vehicles without subsidization; in some commercial applications hybrid vehicles could be economically competitive, when the gasoline price ranges from $1.20 to $1.50/gal. The cost per kWh per cycle of the advanced batteries is much more important economically than the specific energy; the series hybrid vehicles were found to be more expensive in comparison to the parallel or parallel-flywheel hybrids when designed as passenger vehicles; and hybrid vehicles designed for private use could become economically competitive and displace up to 50% of the fuel normally used on that mission if subsidies of $500 to $2000 were supplied to the owner/operator. (LCL)

  17. Solar thermal electric power generation - an attractive option for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A

    1999-01-01

    Solar Thermal Energy is being successfully used for production of electricity in few developed countries for more than 10 years. In solar Electric Generating Systems high temperature is generated by concentrating solar energy on black absorber pipe in evacuated glass tubes. This heat is absorbed and transported with the help of high temperature oil in to highly insulated heat exchanger storage tanks. They are subsequently used to produce steam that generates power through steam turbines as in standard thermal power plants. Various components involved in Solar thermal field have been developed at the Solar Systems Laboratory of College of EME, NUST Rawalpindi. It is considered as a cost effective alternate for power generation. The research has been partially sponsored by Ministry of Science and Technology under its Public Sector Development Program (PSDP) in (1996-1998). Parabolic mirror design, fabrication, polishing, installation, solar tracking, absorber pipe, glass tubes, steam generation al have been developed. This paper will cover the details of indigenous technological break through made in this direction. (author)

  18. Improving the Performance Attributes of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Hot Climates through Key-Off Battery Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Shojaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambient conditions can have a significant impact on the average and maximum temperature of the battery of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Given the sensitivity of the ageing mechanisms of typical battery cells to temperature, a significant variability in battery lifetime has been reported with geographical location. In addition, high battery temperature and the associated cooling requirements can cause poor passenger thermal comfort, while extreme battery temperatures can negatively impact the power output of the battery, limiting the available electric traction torque. Avoiding such issues requires enabling battery cooling even when the vehicle is parked and not plugged in (key-off, but the associated extra energy requirements make applying key-off cooling a non-trivial decision. In this paper, a representative plug-in parallel hybrid electric vehicle model is used to simulate a typical 24-h duty cycle to quantify the impact of hot ambient conditions on three performance attributes of the vehicle: the battery lifetime, passenger thermal comfort and fuel economy. Key-off cooling is defined as an optimal control problem in view of the duty cycle of the vehicle. The problem is then solved using the dynamic programming method. Controlling key-off cooling through this method leads to significant improvements in the battery lifetime, while benefiting the fuel economy and thermal comfort attributes. To further improve the battery lifetime, partial charging of the battery is considered. An algorithm is developed that determines the optimum combination of key-off cooling and the level of battery charge. Simulation results confirm the benefits of the proposed method.

  19. Efficiency maximization and performance evaluation of hybrid dual channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal module using fuzzyfied genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sonveer; Agrawal, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal modeling of novel dual channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal hybrid module. • Efficiency maximization and performance evaluation of dual channel photovoltaic thermal module. • Annual performance has been evaluated for Srinagar, Jodhpur, Bangalore and New Delhi (India). • There are improvements in results for optimized system as compared to un-optimized system. - Abstract: The work has been carried out in two steps; firstly the parameters of hybrid dual channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal module has been optimized using a fuzzyfied genetic algorithm. During the course of optimization, overall exergy efficiency is considered as an objective function and different design parameters of the proposed module have been optimized. Fuzzy controller is used to improve the performance of genetic algorithms and the approach is called as a fuzzyfied genetic algorithm. In the second step, the performance of the module has been analyzed for four cities of India such as Srinagar, Bangalore, Jodhpur and New Delhi. The performance of the module has been evaluated for daytime 08:00 AM to 05:00 PM and annually from January to December. It is to be noted that, an average improvement occurs in electrical efficiency of the optimized module, simultaneously there is also a reduction in solar cell temperature as compared to un-optimized module.

  20. Design, implementation, and experimental validation of optimal power split control for hybrid electric trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Mullem, D. van; Jager, B. van; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles require an algorithm that controls the power split between the internal combustion engine and electric machine(s), and the opening and closing of the clutch. Optimal control theory is applied to derive a methodology for a real-time optimal-control-based power split

  1. Acoustic characteristics of hybrid electric vehicles and the safety of pedestrians who are blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Quieter cars such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic and, as a result, their use may have an adverse impact on pedestrian safety. In order ...

  2. Consumer adoption and grid impact models for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This proposed study focuses on assessing the demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in Wisconsin and its economic : impacts on the States energy market and the electric grid. PHEVs are expected to provide a range of about 40 miles per ...

  3. Auditory detectability of hybrid electric vehicles by pedestrians who are blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Quieter cars such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic and, as a result, their use may have an adverse impact on pedestrian safety. In order ...

  4. An optimal control-based algorithm for hybrid electric vehicle using preview route information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, D.V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A.F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Control strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are generally aimed at optimally choosing the power distribution between the internal combustion engine and the electric motor in order to minimize the fuel consumption and/or emissions. Using vehicle navigation systems in combination with

  5. Field weakening performance of flux-switching machines for hybrid/electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Y.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Flux-switching machines (FSMs) are a viable candidate for electric propulsion of hybrid/electric vehicles. This paper investigates the field weakening performance of FSMs. The investigation starts with general torque and voltage expressions, which reveal the relationships between certain parameters

  6. Electric vehicles batteries thermal management systems employing phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianniciello, Lucia; Biwolé, Pascal Henry; Achard, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Battery thermal management is necessary for electric vehicles (EVs), especially for Li-ion batteries, due to the heat dissipation effects on those batteries. Usually, air or coolant circuits are employed as thermal management systems in Li-ion batteries. However, those systems are expensive in terms of investment and operating costs. Phase change materials (PCMs) may represent an alternative which could be cheaper and easier to operate. In fact, PCMs can be used as passive or semi-passive systems, enabling the global system to sustain near-autonomous operations. This article presents the previous developments introducing PCMs for EVs battery cooling. Different systems are reviewed and solutions are proposed to enhance PCMs efficiency in those systems.

  7. High-precision thermal and electrical characterization of thermoelectric modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodner, Paul

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes an apparatus for performing high-precision electrical and thermal characterization of thermoelectric modules (TEMs). The apparatus is calibrated for operation between 20 °C and 80 °C and is normally used for measurements of heat currents in the range 0-10 W. Precision thermometry based on miniature thermistor probes enables an absolute temperature accuracy of better than 0.010 °C. The use of vacuum isolation, thermal guarding, and radiation shielding, augmented by a careful accounting of stray heat leaks and uncertainties, allows the heat current through the TEM under test to be determined with a precision of a few mW. The fractional precision of all measured parameters is approximately 0.1%.

  8. Physical factors affecting the electrically assisted thermal bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.

  9. Electrical and thermal transport properties of uranium and plutonium carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, H.D.; Kerrisk, J.F.

    1976-09-01

    Contributions of many authors are outlined with respect to the experimental measurement methods used and characteristics of the sample materials. Discussions treat the qualitative effects of sample material composition; oxygen, nitrogen, and nickel concentrations; porosity; microstructural variations; and the variability in transport property values obtained by the various investigators. Temperature-dependent values are suggested for the electrical resistivities and thermal conductivities of selected carbide compositions based on a comparative evaluation of the available data and the effects of variation in the characteristics of sample materials

  10. Performance assessment of a hybrid electric-powered long-range commercial airliner

    OpenAIRE

    Zöld, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Despite the recent increase in the amount of smaller electric general aviation aircrafts, a fully electric airliner is not likely to fly in the near future. Partially inspired by the automotive industry’s success with the hybrid car, this thesis investigated the feasibility of an electric-hybrid propulsion system for an Airbus A340-600 on a long-haul flight and its effect on the aircraft’s performance. First, an analysis was done of the reference aircraft, A340-600, using conventional propuls...

  11. Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Minassians, Artin; Aschenbach, Konrad H.; Sanders, Seth R.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their high relative cost, solar electric energy systems have yet to be exploited on a widespread basis. It is believed in the energy community that a technology similar to photovoltaic (PV), but offered at about $1/W would lead to widespread deployment at residential and commercial sites. This paper addresses the investigation and feasibility study of a low-cost solar thermal electricity generation technology, suitable for distributed deployment. Specifically, we discuss a system based on nonimaging solar concentrators, integrated with free-piston Stirling engine devices incorporating integrated electric generation. We target concentrator-collector operation at moderate temperatures, in the range of 125°C to 150°C. This temperature is consistent with use of optical concentrators with concentration ratios on the order of 1-2. These low ratio concentrators admit wide angles of radiation acceptance and are thus compatible with no diurnal tracking, and no or only a few seasonal adjustments. Thus, costs and reliability hazards associated with tracking hardware systems are avoided. Further, we note that in the intended application, there is no shortage of incident solar energy, but rather it is the capital cost of the solar-electric system that is most precious. Thus, we outline a strategy for exploiting solar resources in a cost constrained manner. The paper outlines design issues, and a specific design for an appropriately dimensioned free-piston Stirling engine. Only standard low-cost materials and manufacturing methods are required to realize such a machine.

  12. Development of Tailorable Electrically Conductive Thermal Control Material Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, M. S.; Harada, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The optical characteristics of surfaces on spacecraft are fundamental parameters in controlling its temperature. Passive thermal control coatings with designed solar absorptance and infrared emittance properties have been developed and have been in use for some time. In this total space environment, the coating must be stable and maintain its desired optical properties as well as mechanical properties for the course of the mission lifetime. The mission lifetimes are increasing and in our quest to save weight, newer substrates are being integrated which limit electrical grounding schemes. All of this has added to already existing concerns about spacecraft charging and related spacecraft failures or operational failures. The concern is even greater for thermal control surfaces that are very large. One way of alleviating such concerns is to design new thermal control material systems (TCMS) that can help to mitigate charging via providing charge leakage paths. The objective of this program was to develop two types of passive electrically conductive TCMS. The first was a highly absorbing/emitting black surface and the second was a low (alpha(sub s)/epsilon(sub N)) type white surface. The surface resistance goals for the black absorber was 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 9) Omega/square, and for the white surfaces it was 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 10) Omega/square. Several material system concepts were suggested and evaluated for space environment stability and electrical performance characterization. Our efforts in designing and evaluating these material systems have resulted in several developments. New concepts, pigments and binders have been developed to provide new engineering quality TCMS. Some of these have already found application on space hardware, some are waiting to be recognized by thermal designers, and some require further detailed studies to become state-of-the-art for future space hardware and space structures. Our studies on baseline state-of-the-art materials and

  13. The impact of government incentives for hybrid-electric vehicles: Evidence from US states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of government incentives policies designed to promote the adoption of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). As a primary methodology, it employs cross-sectional analysis of hybrid registration data over time from US states to test the relationship between hybrid adoption and a variety of socioeconomic and policy variables. It also compares hybrid adoption patterns over time to the US average for specific states that have changed incentive policies, to examine how differences in incentive schemes influence their efficacy. The results of these analyses suggest a strong relationship between gasoline prices and hybrid adoption, but a much weaker relationship between incentive policies and hybrid adoption. Incentives that provide payments upfront also appear to be the most effective

  14. Recent developments in thermally-driven seawater desalination: Energy efficiency improvement by hybridization of the MED and AD cycles

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2015-01-01

    The energy, water and environment nexus is a crucial factor when considering the future development of desalination plants or industry in the water-stressed economies. New generation of desalination processes or plants has to meet the stringent environment discharge requirements and yet the industry remains highly energy efficient and sustainable when producing good potable water. Water sources, either brackish or seawater, have become more contaminated as feed while the demand for desalination capacities increase around the world. One immediate solution for energy efficiency improvement comes from the hybridization of the proven desalination processes to the newer processes of desalination: For example, the integration of the available thermally-driven to adsorption desalination (AD) cycles where significant thermodynamic synergy can be attained when cycles are combined. For these hybrid cycles, a quantum improvement in energy efficiency as well as in increase in water production can be expected. The advent of MED with AD cycles, or simply called the MEDAD cycles, is one such example where seawater desalination can be pursued and operated in cogeneration with the electricity production plants: The hybrid desalination cycles utilize only the low exergy bled-steam at low temperatures, complemented with waste exhaust or renewable solar thermal heat at temperatures between 60 and 80. °C. In this paper, the authors have reported their pioneered research on aspects of AD and related hybrid MEDAD cycles, both at theoretical models and experimental pilots. Using the cogeneration of electricity and desalination concept, the authors examined the cost apportionment of fuel cost by the quality or exergy of working steam for such cogeneration configurations.

  15. Investigation on the effect of thermal resistances on a highly concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system is studied. • The performances of different cooling systems are analyzed and compared. • Sandwiching a copper plate between the PV and TE can improve the efficiency. • Four thermal design principles of the system are proposed. - Abstract: A thermal analysis of a highly concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV-TE) hybrid system is carried out in this paper. Both the output power and the temperature distribution in the hybrid system are calculated by means of a three-dimensional numerical model. Three possible approaches for designing the highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system are presented by analyzing the thermal resistance of the whole system. First, the sensitivity analysis shows that the thermal resistance between the TE module and the environment has a more great effect on the output power than the thermal resistance between the PV and the TE. The influence of the natural convection and the radiation can be ignored for the highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system. Second, it is necessary to sandwich a copper plate between the PV and the TE for decreasing the thermal resistance between the PV and the TE. The role of the copper plate is to improve the temperature uniformity. Third, decreasing the area of PV cells can improve the efficiency of the highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system. It should be pointed out that decreasing the area of PV cells also increases the total thermal resistance, but the raise of the efficiency is caused by the reduction of the heat transfer rate of the system. Therefore, the principle of minimizing the total thermal resistance may not be suitable for optimizing the area of PV cells.

  16. Effect of energy-regenerative braking on electric vehicle battery thermal management and control method based on simulation investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jingying; Qin, Datong; Peng, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-degree-of-freedom lumped thermal model is developed for battery. • The battery thermal model is integrated with vehicle driving model. • Real-time battery thermal responses is obtained. • Active control of current by regenerative braking ratio adjustment is proposed. • More energy is recovered with smaller battery temperature rise. - Abstract: Battery thermal management is important for the safety and reliability of electric vehicle. Based on the parameters obtained from battery hybrid pulse power characterization test, a two-degree-of-freedom lumped thermal model is established. The battery model is then integrated with vehicle driving model to simulate real-time battery thermal responses. An active control method is proposed to reduce heat generation due to regenerative braking. The proposed control method not only subjects to the braking safety regulation, but also adjusts the regenerative braking ratio through a fuzzy controller. By comparing with other regenerative braking scenarios, the effectiveness of the proposed strategy has been validated. According to the results, the proposed control strategy suppresses battery temperature rise by modifying the charge current due to regenerative braking. The overlarge components of current are filtered out whereas the small ones are magnified. Therefore, with smaller battery temperature rise, more energy is recovered. Compared to the traditional passive heat dissipating, the proposed active methodology is feasible and provides a novel solution for electric vehicle battery thermal management.

  17. Thermal modeling of a hydraulic hybrid vehicle transmission based on thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyukjoon; Sprengel, Michael; Ivantysynova, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid vehicles have become a popular alternative to conventional powertrain architectures by offering improved fuel efficiency along with a range of environmental benefits. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles (HHV) offer one approach to hybridization with many benefits over competing technologies. Among these benefits are lower component costs, more environmentally friendly construction materials, and the ability to recover a greater quantity of energy during regenerative braking which make HHVs partially well suited to urban environments. In order to further the knowledge base regarding HHVs, this paper explores the thermodynamic characteristics of such a system. A system model is detailed for both the hydraulic and thermal components of a closed circuit hydraulic hybrid transmission following the FTP-72 driving cycle. Among the new techniques proposed in this paper is a novel method for capturing rapid thermal transients. This paper concludes by comparing the results of this model with experimental data gathered on a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) transmission dynamometer possessing the same architecture, components, and driving cycle used within the simulation model. This approach can be used for several applications such as thermal stability analysis of HHVs, optimal thermal management, and analysis of the system's thermodynamic efficiency. - Highlights: • Thermal modeling for HHVs is introduced. • A model for the hydraulic and thermal system is developed for HHVs. • A novel method for capturing rapid thermal transients is proposed. • The thermodynamic system diagram of a series HHV is predicted.

  18. Electrical potential-assisted DNA hybridization. How to mitigate electrostatics for surface DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymoczko, Jakub; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Gebala, Magdalena

    2014-12-24

    Surface-confined DNA hybridization reactions are sensitive to the number and identity of DNA capture probes and experimental conditions such as the nature and the ionic strength of the electrolyte solution. When the surface probe density is high or the concentration of bulk ions is much lower than the concentration of ions within the DNA layer, hybridization is significantly slowed down or does not proceed at all. However, high-density DNA monolayers are attractive for designing high-sensitivity DNA sensors. Thus, circumventing sluggish DNA hybridization on such interfaces allows a high surface concentration of target DNA and improved signal/noise ratio. We present potential-assisted hybridization as a strategy in which an external voltage is applied to the ssDNA-modified interface during the hybridization process. Results show that a significant enhancement of hybridization can be achieved using this approach.

  19. Environmental Benefits of Using Wind Generation to Power Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hajian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As alternatives to conventional vehicles, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs running off electricity stored in batteries could decrease oil consumption and reduce carbon emissions. By using electricity derived from clean energy sources, even greater environmental benefits are obtainable. This study examines the potential benefits arising from the widespread adoption of PHEVs in light of Alberta’s growing interest in wind power. It also investigates PHEVs’ capacity to mitigate natural fluctuations in wind power generation.

  20. High Voltage Hybrid Electric Propulsion - Multilayered Functional Insulation System (MFIS) NASA-GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizcano, M.

    2017-01-01

    High power transmission cables pose a key challenge in future Hybrid Electric Propulsion Aircraft. The challenge arises in developing safe transmission lines that can withstand the unique environment found in aircraft while providing megawatts of power. High voltage AC, variable frequency cables do not currently exist and present particular electrical insulation challenges since electrical arcing and high heating are more prevalent at higher voltages and frequencies. Identifying and developing materials that maintain their dielectric properties at high voltage and frequencies is crucial.

  1. Parametric studies and optimisation of pumped thermal electricity storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTigue, Joshua D.; White, Alexander J.; Markides, Christos N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PTES is modelled by cycle analysis and a Schumann-style model of the thermal stores. • Optimised trade-off surfaces show a flat efficiency vs. energy density profile. • Overall roundtrip efficiencies of around 70% are not inconceivable. - Abstract: Several of the emerging technologies for electricity storage are based on some form of thermal energy storage (TES). Examples include liquid air energy storage, pumped heat energy storage and, at least in part, advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Compared to other large-scale storage methods, TES benefits from relatively high energy densities, which should translate into a low cost per MW h of storage capacity and a small installation footprint. TES is also free from the geographic constraints that apply to hydro storage schemes. TES concepts for electricity storage rely on either a heat pump or refrigeration cycle during the charging phase to create a hot or a cold storage space (the thermal stores), or in some cases both. During discharge, the thermal stores are depleted by reversing the cycle such that it acts as a heat engine. The present paper is concerned with a form of TES that has both hot and cold packed-bed thermal stores, and for which the heat pump and heat engine are based on a reciprocating Joule cycle, with argon as the working fluid. A thermodynamic analysis is presented based on traditional cycle calculations coupled with a Schumann-style model of the packed beds. Particular attention is paid to the various loss-generating mechanisms and their effect on roundtrip efficiency and storage density. A parametric study is first presented that examines the sensitivity of results to assumed values of the various loss factors and demonstrates the rather complex influence of the numerous design variables. Results of an optimisation study are then given in the form of trade-off surfaces for roundtrip efficiency, energy density and power density. The optimised designs show a

  2. Longevity-conscious dimensioning and power management of the hybrid energy storage system in a fuel cell hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiaosong; Johannesson, Lars; Murgovski, Nikolce; Egardt, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid energy storage system is optimally sized and controlled for a hybrid bus. • Dynamic battery health model is incorporated in the optimization. • Convex programming is efficient for optimizing hybrid propulsion systems. • Optimal battery replacement strategy is explored. • Comparison to the battery-only option is made in the health-aware optimization. - Abstract: Energy storage systems (ESSs) play an important role in the performance and economy of electrified vehicles. Hybrid energy storage system (HESS) combining both lithium-ion cells and supercapacitors is one of the most promising solutions. This paper discusses the optimal HESS dimensioning and energy management of a fuel cell hybrid electric bus. Three novel contributions are added to the relevant literature. First, efficient convex programming is used to simultaneously optimize the HESS dimension (including sizes of both the lithium-ion battery pack and the supercapacitor stack) and the power allocation between the HESS and the fuel cell system (FCS) of the hybrid bus. In the combined plant/controller optimization problem, a dynamic battery State-of-Health (SOH) model is integrated to quantitatively examine the impact of the battery replacement strategy on both the HESS size and the bus economy. Second, the HESS and the battery-only ESS options are systematically compared in the proposed optimization framework. Finally, the battery-health-perceptive HESS optimization outcome is contrasted to the ideal one neglecting the battery degradation (assuming that the battery is durable over the bus service period without deliberate power regulation)

  3. Electrical properties and thermal expansion of strontium aluminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchuk, K.V. [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Yaremchenko, A.A., E-mail: ayaremchenko@ua.pt [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Fagg, D.P. [TEMA-NRD, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6}, SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Sr{sub 4}Al{sub 14}O{sub 25} ceramics are semiconductors. • Electrical conductivity is as low as 10{sup −6}−4×10{sup −5} S/cm at 1273 K in dry air. • SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} is a mixed conductor with predominant ionic conductivity. • Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} shows significant contribution of protonic transport in wet atmospheres. • Average TECs vary in the range (8.5–11.1)×10{sup −6} K{sup −1} and are p(O{sub 2})-independent. - Abstract: Strontium aluminate ceramics, including Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6}, SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Sr{sub 4}Al{sub 14}O{sub 25}, synthesized by glycine–nitrate combustion and sintered at 1773 K in air, were characterized by thermal analysis, dilatometry and electrical measurements in controlled atmospheres. All studied strontium aluminates are semiconductors with electrical conductivities as low as 10{sup −6}−4×10{sup −5} S/cm at 1273 K in dry air. Electrical measurements in controlled atmospheres in combination with ion transference number determination demonstrated that SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} is a mixed conductor with predominant ionic conductivity and increasing n-type and p-type electronic contributions under highly reducing and oxidizing conditions, respectively. While the behavior of electrical conductivity of Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} in dry atmospheres was qualitatively similar to that of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, a significant increase of conductivity in wet atmospheres was attributed to a protonic contribution to electrical conduction, in correlation with thermogravimetric data and the tendency of this material to form a hydrogarnet at low temperatures. The average thermal expansion coefficients of strontium aluminates, (8.5–11.1)×10{sup −6} K{sup −1} at 333–1373 K, increase with increasing strontium content in the sequence Sr{sub 4}Al{sub 14}O{sub 25} < SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} < Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} and are essentially

  4. Performance and energy management of a novel full hybrid electric powertrain system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Cheng-Ta; Hung, Yi-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the performance and energy management between a novel full hybrid electric powertrain and a traditional power-split hybrid system. The developed planetary gearset and dual clutch configuration provides five operation modes. Equations for the torque and speed of power sources for the planetary gearset and dual clutch system and the Toyota Hybrid System are firstly derived. By giving vehicle performance of gradability, maximal speeds in hybrid and pure electric modes, the power sources of the 210 kg target vehicle are: a 125 cc engine and two 1.8 kW motor and generator. The optimal tank-to-wheel efficiencies, ratios of circulating power, and operation points at specific vehicle speeds and out loads are calculated. Simulation results show that the dual-motor electric vehicle mode offers superior performance regarding electric drive; the low capacity of the battery is conducive to reducing manufacturing and maintenance costs; the tank-to-wheel efficiency is mainly operated above 20% while the power split electronic-continuously-variable-transmission mode is the major operation mode, and a maximum of 17% fuel economy improvement is achieved compared with the Toyota Hybrid System in most of the vehicle speed ranges. The outstanding performance warrants further real-system development, especially regarding the implementation in plug-in and sport hybrid powertrain designs. - Highlights: • An innovative power split hybrid powertrain was designed. • Dual-motor electric-vehicle mode highlighted for plug-in function. • Power circulation ratios and five driving modes were analyzed. • Global search method utilized for optimal energy management. • Maximal 17+% fuel improvement compared to Toyota Hybrid System

  5. Enhanced Thermal Management System for Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Canister with Hybrid Heat Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Dry storage uses the gas or air as coolant within sealed canister with neutron shielding materials. Dry storage system for spent fuel is regarded as relatively safe and emits little radioactive waste for the storage, but it showed that the storage capacity and overall safety of dry cask needs to be enhanced for the dry storage cask for LWR in Korea. For safety enhancement of dry cask, previous studies of our group firstly suggested the passive cooling system with heat pipes for LWR spent fuel dry storage metal cask. As an extension, enhanced thermal management systems for the spent fuel dry storage cask for LWR was suggested with hybrid heat pipe concept, and their performances were analyzed in thermal-hydraulic viewpoint in this paper. In this paper, hybrid heat pipe concept for dry storage cask is suggested for thermal management to enhance safety margin. Although current design of dry cask satisfies the design criteria, it cannot be assured to have long term storage period and designed lifetime. Introducing hybrid heat pipe concept to dry storage cask designed without disrupting structural integrity, it can enhance the overall safety characteristics with adequate thermal management to reduce overall temperature as well as criticality control. To evaluate thermal performance of hybrid heat pipe according to its design, CFD simulation was conducted and previous and revised design of hybrid heat pipe was compared in terms of temperature inside canister

  6. Direct electrical arc ignition of hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Michael I., Jr.

    Hybrid rockets motors provide distinct safety advantages when compared to traditional liquid or solid propellant systems, due to the inherent stability and relative inertness of the propellants prior to established combustion. As a result of this inherent propellant stability, hybrid motors have historically proven difficult to ignite. State of the art hybrid igniter designs continue to require solid or liquid reactants distinct from the main propellants. These ignition methods however, reintroduce to the hybrid propulsion system the safety and complexity disadvantages associated with traditional liquid or solid propellants. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of a novel direct electrostatic arc ignition method for hybrid motors. A series of small prototype stand-alone thrusters demonstrating this technology were successfully designed and tested using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic and Gaseous Oxygen (GOX) as propellants. Measurements of input voltage and current demonstrated that arc-ignition will occur using as little as 10 watts peak power and less than 5 joules total energy. The motor developed for the stand-alone small thruster was adapted as a gas generator to ignite a medium-scale hybrid rocket motor using nitrous oxide /and HTPB as propellants. Multiple consecutive ignitions were performed. A large data set as well as a collection of development `lessons learned' were compiled to guide future development and research. Since the completion of this original groundwork research, the concept has been developed into a reliable, operational igniter system for a 75mm hybrid motor using both gaseous oxygen and liquid nitrous oxide as oxidizers. A development map of the direct spark ignition concept is presented showing the flow of key lessons learned between this original work and later follow on development.

  7. Simultaneous Thermal and Gamma Radiation Aging of Electrical Cable Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, Leonard S.

    2018-04-11

    The polymers used for insulation in nuclear power plant electrical cables are susceptible to aging during long term operation. Elevated temperature is the primary contributor to changes in polymer structure that result loss of mechanical and electrical properties, but gamma radiation is also a significant source of degradation for polymers used within relevant plant locations. Despite many years of polymer degradation research, the combined effects of simultaneous exposure to thermal and radiation stress are not well understood. As nuclear operators contemplate and prepare for extended operations beyond initial license periods, a predictive understanding of exposure-based cable material degradation is becoming an increasingly important input to safety, licensing, operations and economic decisions. We are focusing on carefully-controlled simultaneous thermal and gamma radiation accelerating aging and characterization of the most common nuclear cable polymers to understand the relative contributions of temperature, time, dose and dose rate to changes in cable polymer material structure and properties. Improved understanding of cable performance in long term operation will help support continued sustainable nuclear power generation.

  8. The Thermal Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Cobos, Doug R.; Campbell, Gaylon S.; Campbell, Colin S.; Cardell, Greg; Foote, Marc C.; Wood, Stephen E.; Mehta, Manish

    2009-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) is a component of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) payload on the Phoenix Lander. TECP will measure the temperature, thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of the regolith. It will also detect and quantify the population of mobile H2O molecules in the regolith, if any, throughout the polar summer, by measuring the electrical conductivity of the regolith, as well as the dielectric permittivity. In the vapor phase, TECP is capable of measuring the atmospheric H2O vapor abundance, as well as augment the wind velocity measurements from the meteorology instrumentation. TECP is mounted near the end of the 2.3 m Robotic Arm, and can be placed either in the regolith material or held aloft in the atmosphere. This paper describes the development and calibration of the TECP. In addition, substantial characterization of the instrument has been conducted to identify behavioral characteristics that might affect landed surface operations. The greatest potential issue identified in characterization tests is the extraordinary sensitivity of the TECP to placement. Small gaps alter the contact between the TECP and regolith, complicating data interpretation. Testing with the Phoenix Robotic Arm identified mitigation techniques that will be implemented during flight. A flight model of the instrument was also field tested in the Antarctic Dry Valleys during the 2007-2008 International Polar year. 2

  9. A review on battery thermal management in electric vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guodong; Cao, Lei; Bi, Guanglong

    2017-11-01

    The global issues of energy crisis and air pollution have offered a great opportunity to develop electric vehicles. However, so far, cycle life of power battery, environment adaptability, driving range and charging time seems far to compare with the level of traditional vehicles with internal combustion engine. Effective battery thermal management (BTM) is absolutely essential to relieve this situation. This paper reviews the existing literature from two levels that are cell level and battery module level. For single battery, specific attention is paid to three important processes which are heat generation, heat transport, and heat dissipation. For large format cell, multi-scale multi-dimensional coupled models have been developed. This will facilitate the investigation on factors, such as local irreversible heat generation, thermal resistance, current distribution, etc., that account for intrinsic temperature gradients existing in cell. For battery module based on air and liquid cooling, series, series-parallel and parallel cooling configurations are discussed. Liquid cooling strategies, especially direct liquid cooling strategies, are reviewed and they may advance the battery thermal management system to a new generation.

  10. Electrical properties of pressure quenched silicon by thermal spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, S.Y.; Gambino, R.J.; Sampath, S.; Herman, H.

    2007-01-01

    High velocity thermal spray deposition of polycrystalline silicon film onto single crystal substrates, yields metastable high pressure forms of silicon in nanocrystalline form within the deposit. The phases observed in the deposit include hexagonal diamond-Si, R-8, BC-8 and Si-IX. The peculiar attribute of this transformation is that it occurs only on orientation silicon substrate. The silicon deposits containing the high pressure phases display a substantially higher electrical conductivity. The resistivity profile of the silicon deposit containing shock induced metastable silicon phases identified by X-ray diffraction patterns. The density of the pressure induced polymorphic silicon is higher at deposit/substrate interface. A modified two-layer model is presented to explain the resistivity of the deposit impacted by the pressure induced polymorphic silicon generated by the thermal spraying process. The pressure quenched silicon deposits on the p - silicon substrate, with or without metastable phases, display the barrier potential of about 0.72 eV. The measured hall mobility value of pressure quenched silicon deposits is in the range of polycrystalline silicon. The significance of this work lies in the fact that the versatility of thermal spray may enable applications of these high pressure forms of silicon

  11. Method and apparatus for controlling battery charging in a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2003-06-24

    A starter/alternator system (24) for hybrid electric vehicle (10) having an internal combustion engine (12) and an energy storage device (34) has a controller (30) coupled to the starter/alternator (26). The controller (30) has a state of charge manager (40) that monitors the state of charge of the energy storage device. The controller has eight battery state-of-charge threshold values that determine the hybrid operating mode of the hybrid electric vehicle. The value of the battery state-of-charge relative to the threshold values is a factor in the determination of the hybrid mode, for example; regenerative braking, charging, battery bleed, boost. The starter/alternator may be operated as a generator or a motor, depending upon the mode.

  12. State-of-the-art assessment of electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976 (PL 94-413) requires that data be developed to characterize the state of the art of vehicles powered by an electric motor and those propelled by a combination of an electric motor and an internal combustion engine or other power sources. Data obtained from controlled tests of a representative number of sample vehicles, from information supplied by manufacturers or contained in the literature, and from surveys of fleet operators of individual owners of electric vehicles is discussed. The results of track and dynamometer tests conducted by NASA on 22 electric, 2 hybrid, and 5 conventional vehicles, as well as on 5 spark-ignition-engine-powered vehicles, the conventional counterparts of 5 of the vehicles, are presented.

  13. Implementation and evaluation of change-over speed in plug-in hybrid electric two wheeler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, Shaik; Rudramoorthy, R.; Sadagopan, P.; Neelakrishnan, S.

    2016-01-01

    In Asia, two wheelers are popular mode of transportation to a large group of people because of their relative affordability and ability to maneuver in heavy city traffic. However, the rate of fuel consumption and emission contribution by them, especially in urban areas need more attention to improve sustainability of energy and air quality. Recently, plug-in hybrid technology has been emerged as one of the most promising alternatives in reducing petroleum consumption and emission. This paper presents the implementation of plug-in hybrid technology on a two wheeler by formulation of novel control strategy suitable for Indian city driving needs. Experimental investigations on hub motor and IC (internal combustion) engine has been carried out to fix the change-over speed in hybrid mode, followed by road test on prototype vehicle. The performance of prototype vehicle on IDC (Indian driving cycle) simulated road pattern and actual road driving, confirmed the change-over speed of vehicle in hybrid mode. The converted plug-in hybrid electric two wheeler also demonstrated the drive strategy adopted for higher energy efficiency up to 2.5 times. So, plug-in hybrid electric two wheelers show significant improvements in fuel economy by replacing petroleum fuel with electricity for portions of trip to achieve nations' energy security. - Highlights: • Implementation of plug-in hybrid concept for two wheelers suitable for city driving. • Investigation on hub motor, engine and prototype vehicle to fix change-over speed. • Plug-in hybrid electric two wheeler demonstrates 2.48 times higher fuel efficiency. • Significant improvements in fuel economy help to achieve nations' energy security.

  14. Large format lithium ion pouch cell full thermal characterisation for improved electric vehicle thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Thomas; Barai, Anup; Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Guo, Yue; McGordon, Andrew; Marco, James

    2017-08-01

    It is crucial to maintain temperature homogeneity in lithium ion batteries in order to prevent adverse voltage distributions and differential ageing within the cell. As such, the thermal behaviour of a large-format 20 Ah lithium iron phosphate pouch cell is investigated over a wide range of ambient temperatures and C rates during both charging and discharging. Whilst previous studies have only considered one surface, this article presents experimental results, which characterise both surfaces of the cell exposed to similar thermal media and boundary conditions, allowing for thermal gradients in-plane and perpendicular to the stack to be quantified. Temperature gradients, caused by self-heating, are found to increase with increasing C rate and decreasing temperature to such an extent that 13.4 ± 0.7% capacity can be extracted using a 10C discharge compared to a 0.5C discharge, both at -10 °C ambient temperature. The former condition causes an 18.8 ± 1.1 °C in plane gradient and a 19.7 ± 0.8 °C thermal gradient perpendicular to the stack, which results in large current density distributions and local state of charge differences within the cell. The implications of these thermal and electrical inhomogeneities on ageing and battery pack design for the automotive industry are discussed.

  15. A hybrid HTGR system producing electricity, hydrogen and such other products as water demanded in the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X., E-mail: yan.xing@jaea.go.jp; Noguchi, H.; Sato, H.; Tachibana, Y.; Kunitomi, K.; Hino, R.

    2014-05-01

    Alternative energy products are being considered by the Middle East countries for both consumption and export. Electricity, water, and hydrogen produced not from oil and gas are amongst those desirable. A hybrid nuclear production system, GTHTR300C, under development in JAEA can achieve this regional strategic goal. The system is based on a 600 MWt HTGR and equipped to cogenerate electricity by gas turbine and seawater desalination by using only the nuclear plant waste heat. Hydrogen is produced via a thermochemical water-splitting process driven by the reactor's 950 °C heat. Additionally process steam may be produced for industrial uses. An example is shown of manufacturing soda ash, an internationally traded commodity, from using the steam produced and the brine discharged from desalination. The nuclear reactor satisfies nearly all energy requirements for the hybrid generations without emitting CO{sub 2}. The passive safety of the reactor as described in the paper permits proximity of siting the reactor with the production facilities to enhance energy transmission. Production flowsheet of the GTHTR300C is given for up to 300 MWe electricity, 58 t/day hydrogen, 56,000 m{sup 3}/day potable water, 3500 t/day steam, and 1000 t/day soda ash. The production thermal efficiency reaches 88%.

  16. Eighteen-Month Final Evaluation of UPS Second Generation Diesel Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2012-09-01

    A parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system was evaluated at a UPS facility in Minneapolis using on-vehicle data logging, fueling, and maintenance records. Route and drive cycle analysis showed different duty cycles for hybrid vs. conventional delivery vans; routes were switched between the study groups to provide a valid comparison. The hybrids demonstrated greater advantage on the more urban routes; the initial conventional vans' routes had less dense delivery zones. The fuel economy of the hybrids on the original conventional group?s routes was 10.4 mpg vs. 9.2 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year earlier. The hybrid group's fuel economy on the original hybrid route assignments was 9.4 mpg vs. 7.9 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year later. There was no statistically significant difference in total maintenance cost per mile or for the vehicle total cost of operation per mile. Propulsion-related maintenance cost per mile was 77% higher for the hybrids, but only 52% more on a cost-per-delivery-day basis. Laboratory dynamometer testing demonstrated 13%-36% hybrid fuel economy improvement, depending on duty cycle, and up to a 45% improvement in ton-mi/gal. NOx emissions increased 21%-49% for the hybrids in laboratory testing.

  17. Towards an ankle neuroprosthesis for hybrid robotics: Concepts and current sources for functional electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casco, S; Fuster, I; Galeano, R; Moreno, J C; Pons, J L; Brunetti, F

    2017-07-01

    Hybrid rehabilitation robotics combine neuro-prosthetic devices (close-loop functional electrical stimulation systems) and traditional robotic structures and actuators to explore better therapies and promote a more efficient motor function recovery or compensation. Although hybrid robotics and ankle neuroprostheses (NPs) have been widely developed over the last years, there are just few studies on the use of NPs to electrically control both ankle flexion and extension to promote ankle recovery and improved gait patterns in paretic limbs. The aim of this work is to develop an ankle NP specifically designed to work in the field of hybrid robotics. This article presents early steps towards this goal and makes a brief review about motor NPs and Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) principles and most common devices used to aid the ankle functioning during the gait cycle. It also shows a current sources analysis done in this framework, in order to choose the best one for this intended application.

  18. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  19. Benchmarking of OEM Hybrid Electric Vehicles at NREL: Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. J.; Rajagopalan, A.

    2001-10-26

    A milestone report that describes the NREL's progress and activities related to the DOE FY2001 Annual Operating Plan milestone entitled ''Benchmark 2 new production or pre-production hybrids with ADVISOR.''

  20. Thermal resistance analysis and optimization of photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ershuai; Li, Qiang; Xuan, Yimin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A detailed thermal resistance analysis of the PV-TE hybrid system is proposed. • c-Si PV and p-Si PV cells are proved to be inapplicable for the PV-TE hybrid system. • Some criteria for selecting coupling devices and optimal design are obtained. • A detailed process of designing the practical PV-TE hybrid system is provided. - Abstract: The thermal resistance theory is introduced into the theoretical model of the photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV-TE) hybrid system. A detailed thermal resistance analysis is proposed to optimize the design of the coupled system in terms of optimal total conversion efficiency. Systems using four types of photovoltaic cells are investigated, including monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic cell, polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic cell, amorphous silicon photovoltaic cell and polymer photovoltaic cell. Three cooling methods, including natural cooling, forced air cooling and water cooling, are compared, which demonstrates a significant superiority of water cooling for the concentrating photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid system. Influences of the optical concentrating ratio and velocity of water are studied together and the optimal values are revealed. The impacts of the thermal resistances of the contact surface, TE generator and the upper heat loss thermal resistance on the property of the coupled system are investigated, respectively. The results indicate that amorphous silicon PV cell and polymer PV cell are more appropriate for the concentrating hybrid system. Enlarging the thermal resistance of the thermoelectric generator can significantly increase the performance of the coupled system using amorphous silicon PV cell or polymer PV cell.

  1. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen He

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UDDS (Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. The simulation results showed that the hybrid power system could greatly optimize and improve the efficiency of the batteries and their dynamic current was also decreased due to the participation of the ultracapacitors, which would have a good influence on batteries’ cycle life. Finally, the parameter matching for the passive hybrid power system was studied by simulation and comparisons.

  2. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jason [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yu, Wensong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Sun, Pengwei [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Leslie, Scott [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Prusia, Duane [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Arnet, Beat [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Smith, Chris [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Cogan, Art [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105°C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  3. Presentation of electric motor and motor control technology for electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles; Denki jidosha hybrid sha yo motor oyobi motor seigyo gijutsu no shokai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsudaira, N.; Masakik, R.; Tajima, F. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    The authors have developed a motor drive system for electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. This system consists of a permanent magnet type synchronous motor, an inverter using insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and a controller based on a single-chip microcomputer. To achieve a compact and light weight synchronous motor, an internal permanent magnet type rotor structure was designed. This paper presents motor control technology for electric vehicles, such as an optimization method of field weakening control and a new current control method. (author)

  4. The structure and control method of hybrid power source for electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Maobing; Xu, Hui; Li, Weimin; Liu, Yin; Li, Fade; Hu, Yue; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an electric vehicle powertrain configuration is presented, which the lithium-ion battery integrated with ultracapacitors is developed as the hybrid power system to improve the transient performance of an electric vehicle, and to decrease the damage to the battery pack. In the proposed system, a bidirectional direct current/direct current converter is used to couple the ultracapacitors bank to the main battery pack. The energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for hybrid power system has been proposed to promote the performance of energy flow in the electric vehicle. The experiment results in urban driving cycles show remarkable advantages of the proposed hybrid system configuration and energy management strategy. About 30% of the battery capacity energy is saved while using the hybrid power source. Besides, the voltage and current curves of battery become smoother than that with the single power. - Highlights: • A hybrid power source electric vehicle powertrain configuration is presented. • The energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic is proposed. • The experiment results show remarkable advantages of the configuration and method.

  5. Influence of electrical and hybrid heating on bread quality during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhanwal, N; Ezhilarasi, P N; Indrani, D; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2015-07-01

    Energy efficiency and product quality are the key factors for any food processing industry. The aim of the study was to develop energy and time efficient baking process. The hybrid heating (Infrared + Electrical) oven was designed and fabricated using two infrared lamps and electric heating coils. The developed oven can be operated in serial or combined heating modes. The standardized baking conditions were 18 min at 220°C to produce the bread from hybrid heating oven. Effect of baking with hybrid heating mode (H-1 and H-2, hybrid oven) on the quality characteristics of bread as against conventional heating mode (C-1, pilot scale oven; C-2, hybrid oven) was studied. The results showed that breads baked in hybrid heating mode (H-2) had higher moisture content (28.87%), higher volume (670 cm(3)), lower crumb firmness value (374.6 g), and overall quality score (67.0) comparable to conventional baking process (68.5). Moreover, bread baked in hybrid heating mode showed 28% reduction in baking time.

  6. Study of the electrical and thermal performances of photovoltaic thermal collector-compound parabolic concentrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaaz, Ahed Hameed; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Gaaz, Tayser Sumer

    2018-06-01

    The importance of utilizing the solar energy as a very suitable source among multi-source approaches to replace the conventional energy is on the rise in the last four decades. The invention of the photovoltaic module (PV) could be the corner stone in this process. However, the limited amount of energy obtained from PV was and still the main challenge of full utilization of the solar energy. In this paper, the use of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) along with the thermal photovoltaic module (PVT) where the cooling process of the CPC is conducted using a novel technique of water jet impingement has applied experimentally and physically tested. The test includes the effect of water jet impingement on the total power, electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency, and total efficiency on CPC-PVT system. The cooling process at the maximum irradiation by water jet impingement resulted in improving the electrical efficiency by 7%, total output power by 31% and the thermal efficiency by 81%. These results outperform the recent highest results recorded by the most recent work.

  7. Microscopic Description of Electric and Magnetic Toroidal Multipoles in Hybrid Orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Satoru; Kusunose, Hiroaki

    2018-03-01

    We derive the quantum-mechanical operator expressions of multipoles under the space-time inversion group. We elucidate that electric and magnetic toroidal multipoles, in addition to ordinary non-toroidal ones, are fundamental pieces to express arbitrary electronic degrees of freedom. We show that electric (magnetic) toroidal multipoles higher than the dipole (monopole) can become active in a hybridized-orbital system. We also demonstrate emergent cross-correlated couplings between the electric, magnetic, and elastic degrees of freedom, such as magneto-electric and magneto(electro)-elastic coupling, under toroidal multipole orders.

  8. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandzha S.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric machine. The machine was modeled using Solidworks program for creating design and Maxwell program for the magnetic field analysis. The result of tests is shown as well.

  9. Performance of electric and hybrid vehicles at the 1995 American Tour de Sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quong, S.; LeBlanc, N.; Buitrago, C.; Duoba, M.; Larsen, R.

    1995-12-31

    Energy consumption and performance data were collected on more than 40 electric and hybrid vehicles during the 1995 American Tour de Sol. At this competition, one electric vehicle drove 229 miles on one charge using nickel metalhydride batteries. The results obtained from the data show that electric vehicle efficiencies reached 9.07 mi./kWh or 70 equivalent mpg of gasoline when compared to the total energy cycle efficiency of electricity and gasoline. A gasoline-fueled 1995 Geo Metro that drove the same route attained 36.4 mpg.

  10. Reducing noise and vibration of hydraulic hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The University of Toledo University Transportation Center (UT-UTC) has identified : hybrid vehicles as one of the three areas of the research. The activities in this research : are directed towards the noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) solutions ...

  11. An energy management for series hybrid electric vehicle using improved dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Yang, Yaoquan; Liu, Chunyu

    2018-02-01

    With the increasing numbers of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), management for two energy sources, engine and battery, is more and more important to achieve the minimum fuel consumption. This paper introduces several working modes of series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) firstly and then describes the mathematical model of main relative components in SHEV. On the foundation of this model, dynamic programming is applied to distribute energy of engine and battery on the platform of matlab and acquires less fuel consumption compared with traditional control strategy. Besides, control rule recovering energy in brake profiles is added into dynamic programming, so shorter computing time is realized by improved dynamic programming and optimization on algorithm.

  12. Environmental assessment for the electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project, performance standards and financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S. J.

    1978-10-01

    The assessment is concerned with the impacts of the demonstration of electric and hybrid vehicles acquired to fulfill certain requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, PL 94-413 as amended. The financial incentives programs and vehicle performance standards associated with the demonstration are also covered. Not included is an assessment of the long term effects of EHV commercialization and of the research and development program being carried out simultaneously with the demonstration, also in response to PL 94-413. These federal actions will be included in a programmatic environmental assessment scheduled for completion in FY 79.

  13. Improvement of Thermal and Electrical Conductivity of Epoxy/boron Nitride/silver Nanoparticle Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seungyong; Lim, Soonho [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, we investigated the effect of BN (boron nitride) on the thermal and the electrical conductivity of composites. In case of epoxy/BN composites, the thermal conductivity was increased as the BN contents were increased. Epoxy/AgNP (Ag nanoparticle) nanocomposites exhibited a slight change of thermal conductivity and showed a electrical percolation threshold at 20 vol% of Ag nanoparticles. At the fixed Ag nanoparticle content below the electrical percolation threshold, increasing the amount of BN enhanced the electrical conductivity as well as thermal conductivity for the epoxy/AgNP/BN composites.

  14. Economic aspects of Solar Thermal Technologies for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinecke, W.

    1993-01-01

    Economic results of German studies are presented, which compare the four solar thermal technologies for electricity generation (parabolic trough collector system, central receiver system, parabolic dish/Stirling system, solar chimney plant). These studies were carried out by Interatom (today Siemens/KWU) in Bergisch Gladbach, Flachglas Solartechnik in Koln and Schlaich Bergermann and Partner in Stuggart under contract of DLR in Koln. Funds were made available by the German Ministry of Research and Development (BMFT). The results indicate that all of the investigated technologies have the potential to reduce the generating costs and that in the future costs of below 0.30 DM/kWh could be expected under excellent insolation conditions (e.G. 2850 kWh/m''2 a direct insolation as in California/USA). (Author) 25 refs

  15. Electrical production for domestic and industrial applications using hybrid PV-wind system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essalaimeh, S.; Al-Salaymeh, A.; Abdullat, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Modeling and building hybrid system of PV and wind turbine. ► Investigation of the electrical generation under Amman–Jordan’s climate. ► Configuration of theoretical and actual characteristics of the hybrid system. ► Testing effects of dust, inclination and load on the electrical generation. ► Financial analysis for various applications. - Abstract: The present work shows an experimental investigation of using a combination of solar and wind energies as hybrid system for electrical generation under the Jordanian climate conditions. The generated electricity has been utilized for different types of applications and mainly for space heating and cooling. The system has also integration with grid connection to have more reliable system. Measurements included the solar radiation intensity, the ambient temperature, the wind speed and the output power from the solar PV panels and wind turbine. The performance characteristic of the PV panels has been obtained by varying the load value through a variable resistance. Some major factors have been studied and practically measured; one of them is the dust effect on electrical production efficiency for photovoltaic panels. Another factor is the inclination of the PV panels, where varying the angle of inclination has a seasonal importance for gathering the maximum solar intensity. Through mathematical calculation and the collected and measured data, a simple payback period has been calculated of the hybrid system in order to study the economical aspects of installing such a system under Jordanian climate conditions and for different usages and local tariffs including domestic, industrial and commercial applications. It was found through this work that the generated electricity of hybrid system and under Jordanian climate conditions can be utilized for electrical heating and cooling through split units and resistive heaters.

  16. Synthesis and electrical characterization of vertically-aligned ZnO–CuO hybrid nanowire p–n junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukird, Supakorn; Song, Wooseok; Noothongkaew, Suttinart; Kim, Seong Ku; Min, Bok Ki; Kim, Seong Jun; Kim, Ki Woong; Myung, Sung; An, Ki-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Vertically-aligned ZnO–CuO hybrid nanowire arrays were synthesized by a two-step thermal chemical vapor deposition process. • The diameter of parallel-connected ZnO and CuO NWs were estimated to be 146 ± 12 nm and 55 ± 11 nm, respectively, and the formation of high-quality hexagonal ZnO and monoclinic CuO NWs were observed. • Clear rectifying behavior related with thermionic emission of carriers and the presence of an electrical potential barrier between the ZnO and CuO NWs were observed. - Abstract: In order to form nanowire (NW)-based p–n junctions, vertically-aligned ZnO–CuO hybrid NW arrays were synthesized by a two-step thermal chemical vapor deposition process. The diameter of parallel-connected ZnO and CuO NWs were estimated to be 146 ± 12 nm and 55 ± 11 nm, respectively, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Chemical and structural characterizations of ZnO–CuO hybrid NW arrays were performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, resulting in the formation of high-quality hexagonal ZnO and monoclinic CuO NWs. The temperature dependence of I–V curves and impedance spectra suggested that clear rectifying behavior related with thermionic emission of carriers and the presence of an electrical potential barrier between the ZnO and CuO NWs

  17. Influence of Hybrid Fillers on Thermal Conductivity of Nylon-6/Graphene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Na

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The thermal insulating properties of polymer greatly restrict the application of polymer as the thermal conductivity materials in industry. Multilayer graphene was chosen as a filler due to its unique thermal transfer property. The effect of alumina oxide (Al2O3 and silicon carbide (SiC with graphene as hybrid fillers on thermal conductivity of polymers was also explored. The thermal conductivity of the composites enhances 161% with 3%(mass fraction graphene content compared to pure nylon-6(PA6. The thermal conductivity of PA6 composites is within 0.653-4.307W·m-1·K-1 by adjusting hybrid fillers content and the ratio of graphene with Al2O3 and SiC. The best thermal conductivity is 20 times higher than the pure PA6. It is no doubt that the exploration can provide valuable experimental basis for extending the utilization of graphene as thermal conductivity filler and the application of PA6 thermal conductivity materials in industry.

  18. Thermal to Electric Energy Conversion for Cyclic Heat Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Benjamin E.

    Today, we find cyclic heat loads almost everywhere. When we drive our cars, the engines heat up while we are driving and cool while parked. Processors heat while the computer is in use at the office and cool when idle at night. The sun heats the earth during the day and the earth radiates that heat into space at night. With modern technology, we have access to a number of methods to take that heat and convert it into electricity, but, before selecting one, we need to identify the parameters that inform decision making. The majority of the parameters for most systems include duty cycle, total cost, weight, size, thermal efficiency, and electrical efficiency. However, the importance of each of these will depend on the application. Size and weight take priority in a handheld device, while efficiency dominates in a power plant, and duty cycle is likely to dominate in highly demanding heat pump applications. Over the past decade, developments in semiconductor technology has led to the creation of the thermoelectric generator. With no moving parts and a nearly endlessly scalable nature, these generators present interesting opportunities for taking advantage of any source of waste heat. However, these generators are typically only capable of 5-8% efficiency from conversion of thermal to electric energy. [1]. Similarly, advancements in photovoltaic cells has led to the development of thermophotovoltaics. By heating an emitter to a temperature so it radiates light, a thermophotovoltaic cell then converts that light into electricity. By selecting materials that emit light in the optimal ranges of the appropriate photovoltaic cells, thermophotovoltaic systems can potentially exceed the current maximum of 10% efficiency. [2]. By pressurizing certain metal powders with hydrogen, hydrogen can be bound to the metal, creating a metal hydride, from which hydrogen can be later re-extracted under the correct pressure and temperature conditions. Since this hydriding reaction is

  19. Energy expansion planning by considering electrical and thermal expansion simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Ali Reza; Seifi, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper focused on the expansion planning optimization of energy systems. • Employing two form of energy: the expansion of electrical and thermal energies. • The main objective is to minimize the costs. • A new Modified Honey Bee Mating Optimization (MHBMO) algorithm is applied. - Abstract: This study focused on the expansion planning optimization of energy systems employing two forms of energy: the expansion of electrical and thermal energies simultaneously. The main objective of this investigation is confirming network adequacy by adding new equipment to the network, over a given planning horizon. The main objective of the energy expansion planning (EEP) is to minimize the real energy loss, voltage deviation and the total cost of installation equipments. Since the objectives are different and incommensurable, it is difficult to solve the problem by the conventional approaches that may optimize a single objective. So, the meta-heuristic algorithm is applied to this problem. Here, Honey Bee Mating Optimization algorithm (HBMO) as a new evolutionary optimization algorithm is utilized. In order to improve the total ability of HBMO for the global search and exploration, a new modification process is suggested such a way that the algorithm will search the total search space globally. Also, regarding the uncertainties of the new complicated energy systems, in this paper for the first time, the EEP problem is investigated in a stochastic environment by the use of probabilistic load flow technique based on Point Estimate Method (PEM). In order to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, two modified test systems are used as case studies

  20. Novel double-stage high-concentrated solar hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector with nonimaging optics and GaAs solar cells reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland; Yablonovitch, Eli; Scranton, Gregg; Cygan, David; Abbasi, Hamid; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel hybrid concentrating photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector is developed. • Thermal component achieves 60× concentration using nonimaging optics. • GaAs solar cells used as spectrally selective mirrors for low energy photons. • Thermal efficiencies of 37% at 365 °C and electrical efficiencies of 8% achieved. • Combined electric efficiency reaches 25% of DNI for system cost of $283.10/m"2". - Abstract: A novel double stage high-concentration hybrid solar photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector using nonimaging optics and world record thin film single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells has been developed. We present a detailed design and simulation of the system, experimental setup, prototype, system performance, and economic analysis. The system uses a parabolic trough (primary concentrator) to focus sunlight towards a secondary nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) to simultaneously generate electricity from single junction GaAs solar cells, as well as high temperature dispatchable heat. This study is novel in that (a) the solar cells inside the vacuum tube act as spectrally selective mirrors for lower energy photons to maximize the system exergy, and (b) secondary concentrator allows the thermal component to reach a concentration ratio ∼60×, which is significantly higher than conventional PV/T concentration ratios. The maximum outlet temperature reached was 365 °C, and on average the thermal efficiency of the experiment was around 37%. The maximum electrical efficiency was around 8%. The total system electricity generation is around 25% of incoming DNI, by assuming the high temperature stream is used to power a steam turbine. The installed system cost per unit of parabolic trough aperture area is $283.10 per m"2.

  1. Electricity/electronics in electric-powered vehicles and electric management III; Elektrik/Elektronik in Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeugen und elektrisches Energiemanagement III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, Carsten; Sirch, Ottmar

    2012-07-01

    The concept of e-Mobility currently is on everyone's lips. Worldwide, manufacturers and suppliers work with high pressure on new concepts and vehicles. Hybrid vehicles pave the way for pure electric-powered vehicles. Due to the problems of energy saving, electric-powered vehicles will take a long time for an extensively utilization. In the book underconsideration, experts from research and practice report on the latest technologies.

  2. Numerical study on optical and electric-thermal performance for solar concentrating PV/T air system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal(PV/T)system with solar concentrator is an effective way to improve solar energy conversion efficiency.In this work,a single-pass PV/T air system with a three-trough compound parabolic concentrator(CPC)of concentration ratio 2.0 is designed and the solar incident distributions at the solar cell surface are calculated by ray tracing method.Based on energy balance,the heat transfer models of all main components in this system are developed.The effects of some main designing and operational parameters on the electric-thermal performance of the system are analyzed. The results show that the solar radiation intensity can be higher than 1200 W/m 2 at most area of the cell surface.The temperature of the air and cell surface increases along the length of the system.Thus the system efficiency of the CPC is higher than that of the system without the CPC.The thermal efficiency, exergy and electrical efficiency of this CPC system increase with increasing of the air mass flow rate and the length of the system.With increasing packing fraction the electrical efficiency increases,but the thermal efficiency decreases.The exergy efficiency increases slightly with the packing fraction rising.The data obtained in this work are valuable for the design and operation for this kind of solar concentrating PV/T systems.

  3. Solar thermal power systems point-focusing thermal and electric applications projects. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, A.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PETEA) project for the fiscal year 1979 are summarized. The main thrust of the PFTEA Project, the small community solar thermal power experiment, was completed. Concept definition studies included a small central receiver approach, a point-focusing distributed receiver system with central power generation, and a point-focusing distributed receiver concept with distributed power generation. The first experiment in the Isolated Application Series was initiated. Planning for the third engineering experiment series, which addresses the industrial market sector, was also initiated. In addition to the experiment-related activities, several contracts to industry were let and studies were conducted to explore the market potential for point-focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) systems. System analysis studies were completed that looked at PFDR technology relative to other small power system technology candidates for the utility market sector.

  4. Survey of solar thermal energy storage subsystems for thermal/electric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C. L.

    1978-08-01

    A survey of the current technology and estimated costs of subsystems for storing the thermal energy produced by solar collectors is presented. The systems considered were capable of producing both electricity and space conditioning for three types of loads: a single-family detached residence, an apartment complex of 100 units, and a city of 30,000 residents, containing both single-family residences and apartments. Collector temperatures will be in four ranges: (1) 100 to 250/sup 0/F (used for space heating and single-cycle air conditioners and organic Rankine low-temperature turbines); (2) 300 to 400/sup 0/F (used for dual-cycle air conditioners and low-temperature turbines); (3) 400 to 600/sup 0/F (using fluids from parabolic trough collectors to run Rankine turbines); (4) 800 to 1000/sup 0/F (using fluids from heliostats to run closed-cycle gas turbines and steam Rankine turbines). The solar thermal energy subsystems will require from 60 to 36 x 10/sup 5/ kWhr (2.05 x 10/sup 5/ to 1.23 x 10/sup 10/ Btu) of thermal storage capacity. In addition to sensible heat and latent heat storage materials, several other media were investigated as potential thermal energy storage materials, including the clathrate and semiclathrate hydrates, various metal hydrides, and heat storage based on inorganic chemical reactions.

  5. On the electrification of road transport - Learning rates and price forecasts for hybrid-electric and battery-electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Martin; Patel, Martin K.; Junginger, Martin; Perujo, Adolfo; Bonnel, Pierre; Grootveld, Geert van

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) and battery-electric vehicles (BEVs) are currently more expensive than conventional passenger cars but may become cheaper due to technological learning. Here, we obtain insight into the prospects of future price decline by establishing ex-post learning rates for HEVs and ex-ante price forecasts for HEVs and BEVs. Since 1997, HEVs have shown a robust decline in their price and price differential at learning rates of 7±2% and 23±5%, respectively. By 2010, HEVs were only 31±22 € 2010 kW −1 more expensive than conventional cars. Mass-produced BEVs are currently introduced into the market at prices of 479±171 € 2010 kW −1 , which is 285±213 € 2010 kW −1 and 316±209 € 2010 kW −1 more expensive than HEVs and conventional cars. Our forecast suggests that price breakeven with these vehicles may only be achieved by 2026 and 2032, when 50 and 80 million BEVs, respectively, would have been produced worldwide. We estimate that BEVs may require until then global learning investments of 100–150 billion € which is less than the global subsidies for fossil fuel consumption paid in 2009. These findings suggest that HEVs, including plug-in HEVs, could become the dominant vehicle technology in the next two decades, while BEVs may require long-term policy support. - Highlights: ► Learning rates for hybrid-electric and battery-electric vehicles. ► Prices and price differentials of hybrid-electric vehicles show a robust decline. ► Battery-electric vehicles may require policy support for decades.

  6. Reversible temperature regulation of electrical and thermal conductivity using liquid–solid phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruiting; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Jianjian; Chen, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Reversible temperature tuning of electrical and thermal conductivities of materials is of interest for many applications, including seasonal regulation of building temperature, thermal storage and sensors. Here we introduce a general strategy to achieve large contrasts in electrical and thermal conductivities using first-order phase transitions in percolated composite materials. Internal stress generated during a phase transition modulates the electrical and thermal contact resistances, leading to large contrasts in the electrical and thermal conductivities at the phase transition temperature. With graphite/hexadecane suspensions, the electrical conductivity changes 2 orders of magnitude and the thermal conductivity varies up to 3.2 times near 18 °C. The generality of the approach is also demonstrated in other materials such as graphite/water and carbon nanotube/hexadecane suspensions. PMID:21505445

  7. Reversible temperature regulation of electrical and thermal conductivity using liquid-solid phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruiting; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Jianjian; Chen, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Reversible temperature tuning of electrical and thermal conductivities of materials is of interest for many applications, including seasonal regulation of building temperature, thermal storage and sensors. Here we introduce a general strategy to achieve large contrasts in electrical and thermal conductivities using first-order phase transitions in percolated composite materials. Internal stress generated during a phase transition modulates the electrical and thermal contact resistances, leading to large contrasts in the electrical and thermal conductivities at the phase transition temperature. With graphite/hexadecane suspensions, the electrical conductivity changes 2 orders of magnitude and the thermal conductivity varies up to 3.2 times near 18 °C. The generality of the approach is also demonstrated in other materials such as graphite/water and carbon nanotube/hexadecane suspensions.

  8. A hybrid solar and chemical looping combustion system for solar thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, Mehdi; Arjomandi, Maziar; Nathan, Graham J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel solar–CLC hybrid system is proposed which integrates a CLC with solar thermal energy. ► The oxygen carrier particles are used as storage medium for thermal energy storage. ► A solar cavity reactor is proposed for fuel reactor. ► The absorbed solar energy is stored in the particles to produce a base heat load. -- Abstract: A novel hybrid of a solar thermal energy and a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system is proposed here, which employs the oxygen carrier particles in a CLC system to provide diurnal thermal energy storage for concentrated solar thermal energy. In taking advantage of the chemical and sensible energy storage systems that are an inherent part of a CLC system, this hybrid offers potential to achieve cost effective, base load power generation for solar energy. In the proposed system, three reservoirs have been added to a conventional CLC system to allow storage of the oxygen carrier particles, while a cavity solar receiver has been chosen for the fuel reactor. The performance of the system is evaluated using ASPEN PLUS software, with the model being validated using independent simulation result reported previously. Operating temperature, solar efficiency, solar fraction, exergy efficiency and the fraction of the solar thermal energy stored for a based load power generation application are reported.

  9. Time series analysis of infrared satellite data for detecting thermal anomalies: a hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppen, W. C.; Pilger, E.; Wright, R.

    2011-07-01

    We developed and tested an automated algorithm that analyzes thermal infrared satellite time series data to detect and quantify the excess energy radiated from thermal anomalies such as active volcanoes. Our algorithm enhances the previously developed MODVOLC approach, a simple point operation, by adding a more complex time series component based on the methods of the Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) algorithm. Using test sites at Anatahan and Kīlauea volcanoes, the hybrid time series approach detected ~15% more thermal anomalies than MODVOLC with very few, if any, known false detections. We also tested gas flares in the Cantarell oil field in the Gulf of Mexico as an end-member scenario representing very persistent thermal anomalies. At Cantarell, the hybrid algorithm showed only a slight improvement, but it did identify flares that were undetected by MODVOLC. We estimate that at least 80 MODIS images for each calendar month are required to create good reference images necessary for the time series analysis of the hybrid algorithm. The improved performance of the new algorithm over MODVOLC will result in the detection of low temperature thermal anomalies that will be useful in improving our ability to document Earth's volcanic eruptions, as well as detecting low temperature thermal precursors to larger eruptions.

  10. Electric and hybrid vehicle program. Quarterly report, January-February-March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Highlights of program developments are discussed, and ETV-1 test results are described. The temperature effects on lead-acid battery performance from 27 to 55/sup 0/C are reported, and the status of demonstration electric vehicle orders and deliveries is summarized. The certification and testing status of demonstration project vehicles is outlined, and a personnel directory for the DOE Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program is included. (WHK)

  11. Eco-efficiency optimization of Hybrid Electric Vehicle based on response surface method and genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Nzisabira, Jonathan; Louvigny, Yannick; Duysinx, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The electric vehicles (EV) and sometimes the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technologies are environmentally very efficient but can not succeed on the market because of a smaller ability to satisfy customer’s requirements. Comparison of clean technologies in automotive and transportation systems has been measured using different analysis tools such as LCA (life cycle analysis). However, these instruments never account for the user’s satisfaction which partly explains the market acceptance prob...

  12. Integration, Testing, and Validation of a Small Hybrid-Electric Remotely-Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    unmanned aircraft offers the capability to unrelentingly pursue a target in a way the stamina of a human pilot simply cannot match. Unmanned systems can...electricity in these examples is provided by batteries, other hybrid-electric systems use generators, solar cells , or even hydrogen fuel cells ... cells , or solar panels. Throughout this paper, HE-RPA will refer specifically to the battery and fossil fuel combination. Usually, the secondary energy

  13. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant.

  14. Magnetic properties and thermal stability of MnBi/NdFeB hybrid bonded magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, S.; Yue, M.; Yang, Y. X.; Zhang, D. T.; Liu, W. Q.; Zhang, J. X.; Guo, Z. H.; Li, W.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic properties and thermal stability were investigated for the MnBi/NdFeB (MnBi = 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 wt.%) bonded hybrid magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. Effect of MnBi content on the magnetic properties of the hybrid magnets was studied. With increasing MnBi content, the coercivity of the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnets increases rapidly, while the remanence and maximum energy product drops simultaneously. Thermal stability measurement on MnBi magnet, NdFeB magnet, and the hybrid magnet with 20 wt.% MnBi indicates that both the NdFeB magnet and the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnet have a negative temperature coefficient of coercivity, while the MnBi magnet has a positive one. The (BH) max of the MnBi/NdFeB magnet (MnBi = 20 wt.%) is 5.71 MGOe at 423 K, which is much higher than 3.67 MGOe of the NdFeB magnet, indicating a remarkable improvement of thermal stability.

  15. Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles—Assessment of Electrical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshin Omar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performances of various lithium-ion chemistries for use in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles have been investigated and compared to several other rechargeable energy storage systems technologies such as lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and electrical-double layer capacitors. The analysis has shown the beneficial properties of lithium-ion in the terms of energy density, power density and rate capabilities. Particularly, the nickel manganese cobalt oxide cathode stands out with the high energy density up to 160 Wh/kg, compared to 70–110, 90 and 71 Wh/kg for lithium iron phosphate cathode, lithium nickel cobalt aluminum cathode and, lithium titanate oxide anode battery cells, respectively. These values are considerably higher than the lead-acid (23–28 Wh/kg and nickel-metal hydride (44–53 Wh/kg battery technologies. The dynamic discharge performance test shows that the energy efficiency of the lithium-ion batteries is significantly higher than the lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride technologies. The efficiency varies between 86% and 98%, with the best values obtained by pouch battery cells, ahead of cylindrical and prismatic battery design concepts. Also the power capacity of lithium-ion technology is superior compared to other technologies. The power density is in the range of 300–2400 W/kg against 200–400 and 90–120 W/kg for lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride, respectively. However, considering the influence of energy efficiency, the power density is in the range of 100–1150 W/kg. Lithium-ion batteries optimized for high energy are at the lower end of this range and are challenged to meet the United States Advanced Battery Consortium, SuperLIB and Massachusetts Institute of Technology goals. Their association with electric-double layer capacitors, which have low energy density (4–6 Wh/kg but outstanding power capabilities, could be very interesting. The study of the rate capability of the lithium-ion batteries has

  16. The Effect of Electric Load Profiles on the Performance of Off-Grid Residential Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Treado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the energy performance of off-grid residential hybrid renewable electric power systems, particularly the effect of electric load profiles on the ability to harvest available solar energy and avoid the consumption of auxiliary energy in the form of propane. The concepts are illustrated by an analysis of the energy performance of electric and propane-fired refrigerators. Off-grid electric power systems frequently incorporate a renewable source, such as wind or solar photovoltaic (PV, with a back-up power provided by a propane fueled motor/generator. Among other design decisions, residential consumers face the choice of employing an electric refrigerator with a conventional vapor compression refrigeration system, or a fuel-fired refrigerator operating as an absorption refrigeration system. One interesting question is whether it is more advantageous from an energy perspective to use electricity to run the refrigerator, which might be provided by some combination of the PV and propane motor/generator, thereby taking advantage of the relatively higher electric refrigerator Coefficient of Performance (COP and free solar energy but having to accept a low electrical conversion efficiency of the motor/generator, or use thermal energy from the combustion of propane to produce the refrigeration effect via an absorption system, albeit with a much lower COP. The analysis is complicated by the fact that most off-grid renewable electrical power systems utilize a battery bank to provide electrical power when it is not available from the wind turbine or PV system, so the state of charge of the battery bank will have a noticeable impact on what energy source is available at any moment in time. Daily electric load profiles combined with variable solar energy input determine the state of charge of the battery bank, with the degree of synchronization between the two being a critical factor in determining performance. The annual energy usage

  17. A comprehensive review of lithium-ion batteries used in hybrid and electric vehicles at cold temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaguemont, J.; Boulon, L.; Dubé, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a comprehensive review on lithium ion batteries used in hybrid and electric vehicles under cold temperatures. • The weak performances of lithium-ion batteries in cold weather are explained. • The influence of low temperatures on the aging mechanisms of lithium ion batteries is discussed. • The different uses of thermal strategies in an automotive application are proposed. - Abstract: Because of their numerous advantages, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have recently become a focus of research interest for vehicle applications. Li-ion batteries are suitable for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) because of advantages such as their high specific energy, high energy density, and low self-discharge rate in comparison with other secondary batteries. Nevertheless, the commercial availability of Li-ion batteries for vehicle applications has been hindered by issues of safety, cost, charging time, and recycling. One principal limitation of this technology resides in its poor low-temperature performance. Indeed, the effects of low temperature reduce the battery’s available energy and increase its internal impedance. In addition, performance-hampering cell degradation also occurs at low temperatures and throughout the entire life of a Li-ion battery. All of these issues pose major difficulties for cold-climate countries. This paper reviews the effects of cold temperatures on the capacity/power fade of Li-ion battery technology. Extensive attention is paid to the aging mechanisms of Li-ion batteries at cold temperatures. This paper also reviews several battery models found in the literature. Finally, thermal strategies are detailed, along with a discussion of the ideal approach to cold-temperature operation.

  18. A new hybrid thermal comfort guideline for the Netherlands : Background and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerstra, A.C.; Van Hoof, J.; Van Weele, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, the first adaptive thermal comfort guideline was introduced in the Netherlands. Recently, a new, upgraded version of this ISSO 74 (ATG) guideline has been developed. The new requirements are hybrid in nature as the 2014 version of the guideline combines elements of traditional non-adaptive

  19. Coupled thermal model of photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid panel for sample cities in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Sera, Dezso; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2016-01-01

    of the hybrid system under different weather conditions. The model takes into account solar irradiation, wind speed and ambient temperature as well as convective and radiated heat losses from the front and rear surfaces of the panel. The model is developed for three sample cities in Europe with different......In general, modeling of photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV/TEG) hybrid panels have been mostly simplified and disconnected from the actual ambient conditions and thermal losses from the panel. In this study, a thermally coupled model of PV/TEG panel is established to precisely predict performance...... weather conditions. The results show that radiated heat loss from the front surface and the convective heat loss due to the wind speed are the most critical parameters on performance of the hybrid panel performance. The results also indicate that, with existing thermoelectric materials, the power...

  20. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-11-11

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep analysis was performed over a number of a different battery sizes, charging powers, and charging stations. The net present value was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for the design evaluation. In all cases, given present day economic assumptions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present value while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario reached lower lifetime costs than the hybrid electric bus. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under low market potential assumptions and high market potential assumptions. The net present value of plug-in hybrid electric bus is close to that of conventional bus.

  1. The Swedish electric and hybrid vehicle R, D and D program. Seminar no. 2, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This publication presents a selection of the ongoing and finalised projects in form of abstracts, within the KFB RDD-program Electric- and Hybride Vehicles. These projects were presented at the second project manager seminar 14-15 June 1999. The first project manager seminar was held 20-21 October 1998

  2. Design sensitivity analysis for heavy-duty hybrid electric trucks with a waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, F.J.R.; Hofman, T.

    One general trend aiming to improve the development of hybrid electric powertrains is the reduction of production cost of powertrains by developing powertrain components that can be used for multiple vehicle segments. The development of these kind of modular powertrain components requires knowledge

  3. Model-based eco-driving and integrated powertrain control for (hybrid) electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivens, T.; Spronkmans, S.; Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) is engaged in research, development and testing of a range of technologies relating to hybrid and electric vehicle energy management and performance. The impact of driver behaviour on vehicle energy consumption is a significant

  4. Approach to Hybrid Energy Storage Systems Dimensioning for Urban Electric Buses Regarding Efficiency and Battery Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nájera

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Hybrid Energy Storage Systems (HESS, consisting of a combination of batteries and Electric Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC, for electric urban busses. The aim of the paper is to develop a methodology to determine the hybridization percentage that allows the electric bus to work with the highest efficiency while reducing battery aging, depending on the chosen topology, control strategy, and driving cycle. Three power electronic topologies are qualitatively analyzed based on different criteria, with the topology selected as the favorite being analyzed in detail. The whole system under study is comprised of the following elements: a battery pack (LiFePO4 batteries, an EDLC pack, up to two DC-DC converters (depending on the topology, and an equivalent load, which behaves as an electric bus drive (including motion resistances and inertia. Mathematical models for the battery, EDLCs, DC-DC converter, and the vehicle itself are developed for this analysis. The methodology presented in this work, as the main scientific contribution, considers performance variation (energy efficiency and battery aging and hybridization percentage (ratio between batteries and EDLCs, defined in terms of mass, using a power load profile based on standard driving cycles. The results state that there is a hybridization percentage that increases energy efficiency and reduces battery aging, maximizing the economic benefits of the vehicle, for every combination of topology, type of storage device, control strategy, and driving cycle.

  5. Households' Stories of Their Encounters with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperello, Nicolette D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    One way to progress toward greenhouse gas reductions is for people to drive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Households in this study participated in a 4- to 6-week PHEV driving trial. A narrative of each household's encounter with the PHEV was constructed by the researchers from multiple in-home interviews, questionnaires completed by…

  6. Investigation of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Rating for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Khaligh, A.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    Combining high energy density batteries and high power density ultracapacitors in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) results in a high efficient, high performance, low size, and light system. Often the batteries are rated with respect to their energy requirement in order to reduce...

  7. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, Hassan; Giri, Fouad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for electric vehicle. The storage system consists of a fuel cell (FC), serving as the main power source, and a supercapacitor (SC), serving as an auxiliary power source. It also contains a power block for energy...

  8. A control-oriented cycle-life model for hybrid electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suri, Girish; Onori, Simona

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a semi-empirical Lithium-iron phosphate-graphite battery aging model is identified over data mimicking actual cycling conditions that a hybrid electric vehicle battery encounters under real driving scenarios. The aging model is then used to construct the severity factor map, used to characterize relative aging of the battery under different operating conditions. This is used as a battery degradation criterion within a multi-objective optimization problem where battery aging minimization is to be achieved along with fuel consumption minimization. The method proposed is general and can be applied to other battery chemistry as well as different vehicular applications. Finally, simulations conducted using a hybrid electric vehicle simulator show how the two modeling tools developed in this paper, i.e., the severity factor map and the aging model, can be effectively used in a multi-objective optimization problem to predict and control battery degradation. - Highlights: • Battery aging model for hybrid electric vehicles using real driving conditions data. • Development of a modeling tool to assess battery degradation for real time optimization. • "3"1P NMR analysis of an enzyme-treated extract showed expected hydrolysis of P forms. • Development of an energy management strategy to minimize battery degradation. • Simulation results from hybrid electric vehicle simulator.

  9. Lyapunov based control of hybrid energy storage system in electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, H.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a Lyapunov based control principle in a hybrid energy storage system for electric vehicle. The storage system consists on fuel cell (FC) as a main power source and a supercapacitor (SC) as an auxiliary power source. The power stage of energy conversion consists on a boost...

  10. A survey of electric and hybrid vehicles simulation programs. Volume 2: Questionnaire responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The data received in a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are presented. The survey was conducted for the Department of Energy by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume 1 of this report summarizes and discusses the results contained in Volume 2.

  11. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module

  12. Hybrid propulsion testing using direct-drive electrical machines for super yacht and inland shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, J.J.H.; Djukic, N.; de Roon, J.A.; Encica, L.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid or full electric propulsions for inland ships are becoming more popular. In these application, direct-drive PM propulsion motors are a preferred machine configuration. This paper discusses the challenges to determine the losses, as estimated with simulations, during the testing procedures of

  13. COOPERATIVE MODE OF ELECTRIC MOTOR AND INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE OPERATION IN THE CONVERSION HYBRID CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article the authors proposed a method to control the car, which is converted into a hybrid one. The electric motor and combustion engine operate alternately in the car. They proposed a device for implementing this method and a circuit design for the device in question. They also calculated the dynamics of the vehicle under the joint acceleration.

  14. Effect of gear shift and engine start losses on control strategies for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, energetic loss models in the events of shifting gear and starting engine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle equipped with an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) will be introduced. The optimal control algorithm for the start-stop, power split and gear shift problem based on Dynamic

  15. Review of Optimization Strategies for System-Level Design in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvas, E.; Hofman, T.; Murgovski, N.; Etman, L.F.P.; Steinbuch, M.

    2017-01-01

    The optimal design of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) can be formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem that spreads over multiple levels (technology, topology, size, and control). In the last decade, studies have shown that by integrating these optimization levels, fuel benefits are

  16. Review of optimization strategies for system-level design in hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvas, E.; Hofman, T.; Murgovski, N.; Etman, P.; Steinbuch, M.

    2017-01-01

    The optimal design of a hybrid electric vehicle can be formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem that spreads over multiple levels (technology, topology, size and control). In the last decade, studies have shown that, by integrating these optimization levels fuel benefits are obtained,

  17. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  18. Environmental Assessment of the US Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Walsh, R.F

    1980-11-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) focuses on the long-term (1985-2000) impacts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) program. This program has been designed to accelerate the development of EHVs and to demonstrate their commercial feasibility as required by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-413), as amended (P.L. 95-238). The overall goal of the program is the commercialization of: (1) electric vehicles (EVs) acceptable to broad segments of the personal and commercial vehicle markets, (2) hybrid vehicles (HVs) with range capabilities comparable to those of conventional vehicles (CVs), and (3) advanced EHVs completely competitive with CVs with respect to both cost and performance. Five major EHV projects have been established by DOE: market demonstration, vehicle evaluation and improvement, electric vehicle commercialization, hybrid vehicle commercialization, and advanced vehicle development. Conclusions are made as to the effects of EV and HV commercialization on the: consumption and importation of raw materials; petroleum and total energy consumption; ecosystems impact from the time of obtaining raw material through vehicle use and materials recycling; environmental impacts on air and water quality, land use, and noise; health and safety aspects; and socio-economic factors. (LCL)

  19. Lauric Acid Hybridizing Fly Ash Composite for Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash includes different mineral phases. This paper reported on the preparation of a novel lauric acid (LA/fly ash (FA composite by vacuum impregnation as a form-stable phase change material (PCM for thermal energy, and especially investigated the effect of the hydrochloric acid-treated fly ash (FAh on the thermal energy storage performance of the composites. The morphology, crystalline structure, and porous textures of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The results indicated that hydrochloric acid treatment was beneficial to the increase of loading capacity and crystallinity of LA in the LA/FAh composite, which caused an enhanced thermal storage capacity with latent heats for melting and freezing of LA/FAh (80.94 and 77.39 J/g, higher than those of LA/FA (34.09 and 32.97 J/g, respectively. Furthermore, the mechanism of enhanced thermal storage properties was investigated in detail.

  20. Investigating the potential of a novel low-energy house concept with hybrid adaptable thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoes, P.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Hoekstra Bonnema, B.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In conventional buildings thermal mass is a permanent building characteristic. → Permanent thermal mass concepts are not optimal in all operational conditions. → We propose a concept that combines the benefits of low and high thermal mass. → Building simulation shows the concept is able to reduce the energy demand with 35%. → Furthermore, the concept increases the performance robustness of the building. -- Abstract: In conventional buildings thermal mass is a permanent building characteristic depending on the building design. However, none of the permanent thermal mass concepts are optimal in all operational conditions. We propose a concept that combines the benefits of buildings with low and high thermal mass by applying hybrid adaptable thermal storage (HATS) systems and materials to a lightweight building. The HATS concept increases building performance and the robustness to changing user behavior, seasonal variations and future climate changes. Building performance simulation is used to investigate the potential of the novel concept for reducing heating energy demand and increasing thermal comfort. Simulation results of a case study in the Netherlands show that the optimal quantity of the thermal mass is sensitive to the change of seasons. This implies that the building performance will benefit from implementing HATS. Furthermore, the potential of HATS is quantified using a simplified HATS model. Calculations show heating energy demand reductions of up to 35% and increased thermal comfort compared to conventional thermal mass concepts.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Hybrid Electric Cars Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    battery is engaged and also powers vehicle accessories. DC/DC converter: This device converts higher -voltage DC power from the traction battery pack to the lower-voltage DC power needed to run vehicle generators that perform both the drive and regeneration functions. Electric traction motor: Using power from

  2. Flexible polyimide films hybrid with functionalized boron nitride and graphene oxide simultaneously to improve thermal conduction and dimensional stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mei-Hui; Tseng, I-Hsiang; Chiang, Jen-Chi; Li, Jheng-Jia

    2014-06-11

    Coupling agent-functionalized boron nitride (f-BN) and glycidyl methacrylate-grafted graphene (g-TrG) are simultaneously blended with polyimide (PI) to fabricate a flexible, electrically insulating and thermally conductive PI composite film. The silk-like g-TrG successfully fills in the gap between PI and f-BN to complete the thermal conduction network. In addition, the strong interaction between surface functional groups on f-BN and g-TrG contributes to the effective phonon transfer in the PI matrix. The thermal conductivity (TC) of the PI/f-BN composite films containing additional 1 wt % of g-TrG is at least doubled to the value of PI/f-BN and as high as 16 times to that of the pure PI. The hybrid film PI/f-BN-50/g-TrG-1 exhibits excellent flexibility, sufficient insulating property, the highest TC of 2.11 W/mK, and ultralow coefficient of thermal expansion of 11 ppm/K, which are perfect conditions for future flexible substrate materials requiring efficient heat dissipation.

  3. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid System Economic Basis for Electricity, Fuel, and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Forsberg; Steven Aumeier

    2014-04-01

    Concerns about climate change and altering the ocean chemistry are likely to limit the use of fossil fuels. That implies a transition to a low-carbon nuclear-renewable electricity grid. Historically variable electricity demand was met using fossil plants with low capital costs, high operating costs, and substantial greenhouse gas emissions. However, the most easily scalable very-low-emissions generating options, nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables (solar and wind), are capital-intensive technologies with low operating costs that should operate at full capacities to minimize costs. No combination of fully-utilized nuclear and renewables can meet the variable electricity demand. This implies large quantities of expensive excess generating capacity much of the time. In a free market this results in near-zero electricity prices at times of high nuclear renewables output and low electricity demand with electricity revenue collapse. Capital deployment efficiency—the economic benefit derived from energy systems capital investment at a societal level—strongly favors high utilization of these capital-intensive systems, especially if low-carbon nuclear renewables are to replace fossil fuels. Hybrid energy systems are one option for better utilization of these systems that consumes excess energy at times of low prices to make some useful product.The economic basis for development of hybrid energy systems is described for a low-carbon nuclear renewable world where much of the time there are massivequantities of excess energy available from the electric sector.Examples include (1) high-temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for non-fossil liquid fuels, direct use as a transport fuel, metal reduction, etc. and (2) biorefineries.Nuclear energy with its concentrated constant heat output may become the enabling technology for economically-viable low-carbon electricity grids because hybrid nuclear systems may provide an economic way to produce dispatachable variable

  4. Effect of hybrid system battery performance on determining CO2 emissions of hybrid electric vehicles in real-world conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Robert; Schlienger, Peter; Weilenmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can potentially reduce vehicle CO 2 emissions by using recuperated kinetic vehicle energy stored as electric energy in a hybrid system battery (HSB). HSB performance affects the individual net HEV CO 2 emissions for a given driving pattern, which is considered to be equivalent to unchanged net energy content in the HSB. The present study investigates the influence of HSB performance on the statutory correction procedure used to determine HEV CO 2 emissions in Europe based on chassis dynamometer measurements with three identical in-use examples of a full HEV model featuring different mileages. Statutory and real-world driving cycles and full electric vehicle operation modes have been considered. The main observation is that the selected HEVs can only use 67-80% of the charge provided to the HSB, which distorts the outcomes of the statutory correction procedure that does not consider such irreversibility. CO 2 emissions corrected according to this procedure underestimate the true net CO 2 emissions of one HEV by approximately 13% in real-world urban driving. The correct CO 2 emissions are only reproduced when considering the HSB performance in this driving pattern. The statutory procedure for correcting HEV CO 2 emissions should, therefore, be adapted.

  5. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winiarski, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carmichael, Robert T. [Cadeo Group, Washington D. C. (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  6. Full-energy-chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions for solar thermal electric power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, B.; Lawson, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Technical attributes and environmental impacts of solar thermal options for centralized electricity generation are discussed. In particular, the full-energy-chain, including embodied energy and energy production, is considered in relation to greenhouse gas emission arising from solar thermal electricity generation. Central receiver, parabolic dish, parabolic trough and solar pond systems are considered. (author)

  7. Hybrid-Electric Aircraft TOGW Development Tool with Empirically-Based Airframe and Physics-Based Hybrid Propulsion System Component Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid-Electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) is becoming widely accepted and new tools will be required for future development. This Phase I SBIR proposal creates a...

  8. Multi-Period Optimization Model for Electricity Generation Planning Considering Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ahmadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges for widespread penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs is their impact on the electricity grid. The energy sector must anticipate and prepare for this extra demand and implement long-term planning for electricity production. In this paper, the additional electricity demand on the Ontario electricity grid from charging PHEVs is incorporated into an electricity production planning model. A case study pertaining to Ontario energy planning is considered to optimize the value of the cost of the electricity over sixteen years (2014–2030. The objective function consists of the fuel costs, fixed and variable operating and maintenance costs, capital costs for new power plants, and the retrofit costs of existing power plants. Five different case studies are performed with different PHEVs penetration rates, types of new power plants, and CO2 emission constraints. Among all the cases studied, the one requiring the most new capacity, (~8748 MW, is assuming the base case with 6% reduction in CO2 in year 2018 and high PHEV penetration. The next highest one is the base case, plus considering doubled NG prices, PHEV medium penetration rate and no CO2 emissions reduction target with an increase of 34.78% in the total installed capacity in 2030. Furthermore, optimization results indicate that by not utilizing coal power stations the CO2 emissions are the lowest: ~500 tonnes compared to ~900 tonnes when coal is permitted.

  9. Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P.

    2012-08-01

    This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

  10. The path to clean energy: direct coupling of nuclear and renewable technologies for thermal and electrical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Nuclear Fuel Performance and Design; Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Advanced Process and Decision Systems; Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes the need to transform the energy infrastructure of the U.S. and elsewhere to systems that can significantly reduce environmental impacts in an efficient and economically viable manner while utilizing both clean energy generation sources and hydrocarbon resources. Thus, DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean nuclear and renewable energy generation sources. A concept being advanced by the DOE Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and the transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a “hybrid system” that is capable of providing energy (thermal or electrical) where it is needed, when it is needed. For the purposes of this work, the hybrid system would integrate two or more energy resources to generate two or more products, one of which must be an energy commodity, such as electricity or transportation fuel. This definition requires coupling of subsystems ‘‘behind’’ the electrical transmission bus, where energy flows are dynamically apportioned as necessary to meet demand and the system has a single connection to the grid that provides dispatchable electricity as required while capital intensive generation assets operate at full capacity. Development of integrated energy systems for an “energy park” must carefully consider the intended location and the associated regional resources, traditional industrial processes, energy delivery infrastructure, and markets to identify viable region-specific system configurations. This paper will provide an overview of the current status of regional hybrid energy system design, development and application of dynamic analysis tools to assess technical and economic performance, and

  11. Performance Analysis of Hybrid Electric Vehicle over Different Driving Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Aishwarya; Bansal, Hari Om

    2017-02-01

    Article aims to find the nature and response of a hybrid vehicle on various standard driving cycles. Road profile parameters play an important role in determining the fuel efficiency. Typical parameters of road profile can be reduced to a useful smaller set using principal component analysis and independent component analysis. Resultant data set obtained after size reduction may result in more appropriate and important parameter cluster. With reduced parameter set fuel economies over various driving cycles, are ranked using TOPSIS and VIKOR multi-criteria decision making methods. The ranking trend is then compared with the fuel economies achieved after driving the vehicle over respective roads. Control strategy responsible for power split is optimized using genetic algorithm. 1RC battery model and modified SOC estimation method are considered for the simulation and improved results compared with the default are obtained.

  12. Enhanced Electric Power Transmission by Hybrid Compensation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, C; Kiu, G Q

    2015-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, new power system engineers are likely to contribute immediately to the task, without years of seasoning via on-the-job training, mentoring, and rotation assignments. At the same time it is becoming obligatory to train power system engineering graduates for an increasingly quality-minded corporate environment. In order to achieve this, there is a need to make available better-quality tools for educating and training power system engineering students and in-service system engineers too. As a result of the swift advances in computer hardware and software, many windows-based computer software packages were developed for the purpose of educating and training. In line with those packages, a simulation package called Hybrid Series-Shunt Compensators (HSSC) has been developed and presented in this paper for educational purposes. (paper)

  13. Thermal behavior of novel hybrid inorganic-organic phosphazene polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscher, G; Wieringa, RH; Jekel, AP; vandeGrampel, JC

    The thermal behavior of the following systems have been investigated by TGA and XPS: the homopolymer of N3P3Cl4(CH3)(CH2C6H4CH=CH2) (1), copolymers of 1 with MMA and styrene, and copolymers of N3P3Cl4(i-C3H7) {C[OC(O)CH3]=CH2} (2) with MMA and styrene. Upon heating under TGA conditions the highest

  14. Multiple synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical and chemical hybrid synapses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Lin; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Tsang, Kaiming; Chan, Wailok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synchronization transitions in hybrid scale-free neuronal networks are investigated. • Multiple synchronization transitions can be induced by the time delay. • Effect of synchronization transitions depends on the ratio of the electrical and chemical synapses. • Coupling strength and the density of inter-neuronal links can enhance the synchronization. -- Abstract: The impacts of information transmission delay on the synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical and chemical hybrid synapses are investigated. Numerical results show that multiple appearances of synchronization regions transitions can be induced by different information transmission delays. With the time delay increasing, the synchronization of neuronal activities can be enhanced or destroyed, irrespective of the probability of chemical synapses in the whole hybrid neuronal network. In particular, for larger probability of electrical synapses, the regions of synchronous activities appear broader with stronger synchronization ability of electrical synapses compared with chemical ones. Moreover, it can be found that increasing the coupling strength can promote synchronization monotonously, playing the similar role of the increasing the probability of the electrical synapses. Interestingly, the structures and parameters of the scale-free neuronal networks, especially the structural evolvement plays a more subtle role in the synchronization transitions. In the network formation process, it is found that every new vertex is attached to the more old vertices already present in the network, the more synchronous activities will be emerge

  15. Thermal performances of vertical hybrid PV/T air collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, I.; Touafek, K.; Bellel, N.; Khelifa, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, numerical analyses and the experimental validation of the thermal behavior of a vertical photovoltaic thermal air collector are investigated. The thermal model is developed using the energy balance equations of the PV/T air collector. Experimental tests are conducted to validate our mathematical model. The tests are performed in the southern Algerian region (Ghardaïa) under clear sky conditions. The prototype of the PV/T air collector is vertically erected and south oriented. The absorber upper plate temperature, glass cover temperature, air temperature in the inlet and outlet of the collector, ambient temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation are measured. The efficiency of the collector increases with increase in mass flow of air, but the increase in mass flow of air reduces the temperature of the system. The increase in efficiency of the PV/T air collector is due to the increase in the number of fins added. In the experiments, the air temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet of the PV/T air collector reaches 10 ° C on November 21, 2014, the interval time is between 10:00 and 14:00, and the temperature of the upper plate reaches 45 ° C at noon. The mathematical model describing the dynamic behavior of the typical PV/T air collector is evaluated by calculating the root mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. A good agreement between the experiment and the simulation results is obtained.

  16. Differential and directional effects of perfusion on electrical and thermal conductivities in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhajsky, Ronald J; Yi, Ming; Mahajan, Roop L

    2009-01-01

    Two different measurement probes--an electrical probe and a thermal conductivity probe--were designed, fabricated, calibrated, and used in experimental studies on a pig liver model that was designed to control perfusion rates. These probes were fabricated by photolithography and mounted in 1.5-mm diameter catheters. We measured the local impedance and thermal conductivity, respectively, of the artificially perfused liver at different flow rates and, by rotating the probes, in different directions. The results show that both the local electrical conductivity and the thermal conductivity varied location to location, that thermal conductivity increased with decreased distance to large blood vessels, and that significant directional differences exist in both electrical and thermal conductivities. Measurements at different perfusion rates demonstrated that both the local electrical and local thermal conductivities increased linearly with the square root of perfusion rate. These correlations may be of great value to many energy-based biomedical applications.

  17. Driving-behavior-aware stochastic model predictive control for plug-in hybrid electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liang; You, Sixiong; Yang, Chao; Yan, Bingjie; Song, Jian; Chen, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The novel approximated global optimal energy management strategy has been proposed for hybrid powertrains. • Eight typical driving behaviors have been classified with K-means to deal with the multiplicative traffic conditions. • The stochastic driver models of different driving behaviors were established based on the Markov chains. • ECMS was used to modify the SMPC-based energy management strategy to improve its fuel economy. • The approximated global optimal energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric buses has been verified and analyzed. - Abstract: Driving cycles of a city bus is statistically characterized by some repetitive features, which makes the predictive energy management strategy very desirable to obtain approximate optimal fuel economy of a plug-in hybrid electric bus. But dealing with the complicated traffic conditions and finding an approximated global optimal strategy which is applicable to the plug-in hybrid electric bus still remains a challenging technique. To solve this problem, a novel driving-behavior-aware modified stochastic model predictive control method is proposed for the plug-in hybrid electric bus. Firstly, the K-means is employed to classify driving behaviors, and the driver models based on Markov chains is obtained under different kinds of driving behaviors. While the obtained driver behaviors are regarded as stochastic disturbance inputs, the local minimum fuel consumption might be obtained with a traditional stochastic model predictive control at each step, taking tracking the reference battery state of charge trajectory into consideration in the finite predictive horizons. However, this technique is still accompanied by some working points with reduced/worsened fuel economy. Thus, the stochastic model predictive control is modified with the equivalent consumption minimization strategy to eliminate these undesirable working points. The results in real-world city bus routines show that the

  18. Benefits of a parallel hybrid electric architecture on medium commercial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boot, Marco Aimo; Consano, Ludovico [Iveco S.p.A, Turin (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    Hybrid electric technology is becoming an increasingly interesting solution for medium and heavy trucks involved in urban and suburban missions. The increasing demand for gas and oil, consequent price rises and environmental concerns are driving a market that is in need of alternative solutions. For these reasons, the growth in the global hybrid market significantly exceeded all the hybrid sales forecasts. The parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) employs an additional power source (electric motogenerator) in combination with the conventional diesel engine. This architecture exploits the benefits of both power sources in order to reduce the fuel consumption, increase the overall power, and above all, decrease CO2 emissions. Moreover, the emissions reduction target is lead by EU Regulations and local initiatives for traffic limitations, but the real drivers for the growth in the market are demonstrable fuel economy improvements and productivity costs optimization (global efficiency). This paper presents the results achieved by Iveco in the development and testing of parallel hybrid systems applied to medium range commercial vehicles, with the intent to evaluate the functionality, driveability performance and leading the best reduction in terms of fuel consumption and emissions in different real-world missions. The system architecture foresees one electric motor/generator and a single clutch unit. An external electrical power source for the battery recharging it is not necessary. The chosen configuration allows to implement the following functional modes: Stop and Start with Electric Launch, Hybrid Mode, Regenerative Braking Mode, Inertial Start and Creeping Mode. The software contained in the supervisor control unit has been tuned to the customer specific missions, taking in account on road data acquisition in order to demonstrate the reliability, driveability and the overall efficiency of the hybrid system. The field tests carried out in collaboration with

  19. Numerical study on optical and electric-thermal performance for solar concentrating PV/T air system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian; SHI MingHeng

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermsl(PV/T)system with solar concentrator is an effective way to improve solar energy conversion efficiency.In this work,a single-pass PV/T sir system with a three-trough compound parabolic concentrator(CPC)of concentration ratio 2.0 is designed and the solar incident distributions at the solar cell surface are calculated by ray tracing method.Based on energy balance,the heat transfer models of all main components in this system are developed.The effects of some main designing and operational parameters on the electric-thermal performance of the system are analyzed.The results show that the solar radiation intensity can be higher than 1200 W/m~2 at most area of the cell surface.The temperature of the air and cell surface increases along the length of the system.Thus the system efficiency of the CPC is higher than that of the system without the CPC.The thermal efficiency,exergy and electrical efficiency of this CPC system increase with increasing of the air mass flow rate and the length of the system.With increasing packing fraction the electrical efficiency increases,but the thermal efficiency decreases.The exergy efficiency increases slightly with the packing fraction rising.The data obtained in this work are valuable for the design and operation for this kind of solar concentrating PV/T systems.

  20. Review on Automotive Power Generation System on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Yap Wee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is a function to recharge power bank on the Plug-in electric vehicles (PHEV and electric vehicles (EV. The weakness of this system is, it can only perform its function when the vehicle is slowing down or by stepping the brake foot pedal. In other words, the electricity recharging system is inconsistent, non-continuous and geography dependent. To overcome the weakness of the regenerative braking system, it is suggested that to apply another generator which is going to be parallel with the regenerative braking system so that continuous charging can be achieved. Since the ironless electricity generator has a less counter electromotive force (CEMF comparing to an ironcored electricity generator and no cogging torque. Applying the ironless electricity generator parallel to the regenerative braking system is seen one of the options which creates sustainable charging system compared to cored electricity generator.