WorldWideScience

Sample records for thermal discharge requirements

  1. Thermally stimulated discharge conductivity in polymer composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. This paper describes the results of thermally stimulated discharge conductivity study of activated charcoal–polyvinyl chloride (PVC) thin film thermoelectrets. TSDC has been carried out in the temperature range 308–400°K and at four different polarizing fields. Results are discussed on the basis of mobility of acti-.

  2. Thermally stimulated discharge conductivity in polymer composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper describes the results of thermally stimulated discharge conductivity study of activated charcoal–polyvinyl chloride (PVC) thin film thermoelectrets. TSDC has been carried out in the temperature range 308–400°K and at four different polarizing fields. Results are discussed on the basis of mobility of activated ...

  3. Implication of thermal discharges into the sea - A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumar, V.; Sastry, J.S.; Swamy, G.N.

    The adverse effects of thermal discharges into coastal waters from power plants have been reviewed. The direct and indirect impacts of thermal pollution to marine biota have been discussed briefly. The tolerance limits documented elsewhere have been...

  4. Thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC) and dielectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2001-10-09

    Oct 9, 2001 ... current (TSDC) peak above room temperature. Hong and Day (1979) applied the techniques of thermally stimulated polarization and depolarization current for studying alkaline ion motion in glasses of sodium silicate and lead silicate. The peaks observed are discussed on the basis of d.c. conductivity and ...

  5. Thermally stimulated discharge conductivity study of zinc oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present work deals with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC) study of inorganic metal oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and its thermoelectrets. The thermoelectrets were prepared by applying different electric ...

  6. Monitoring thermal discharge from a nuclear plant through Landsat 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Wei, Ji-An; Gong, Fang; Zhu, Qiankun; Chen, Peng

    2016-10-01

    The National Development and Reform Commission of China has approved a large number of nuclear power projects, with a total capacity of 23,000 MW. However, concomitant with the accelerated development of nuclear power stations, the environmental effects of thermal discharge will become a problem that cannot be avoided. Real-time monitoring of water temperature needs to be installed following station construction in order to measure its variation with time and to ensure that the operation of the nuclear plant does not result in adverse environmental damage. Landsat is the world's oldest, continuously acquired collection of space-based, moderate-resolution, land remote sensing data. On May 30, 2013, data from the Landsat 8 satellite became available, and the data quality and radiometric quantization of the thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) are significantly greater than those of previous Landsat instruments. The analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) obtained from Landsat 8's TIRS data was used to enhance information about the plume shape, dimensions, and direction of dispersion of the thermal discharge from the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant in Hangzhou Bay on the East China Sea coast. Both single-channel and split-window algorithms were used and focused. The detection of temperature increases through split-window algorithms is considered a preferable method for warm discharge monitoring. Recent results showed that the thermal discharge from the nuclear plant was controlled over a small area, and that it never breached national water quality standards.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Surface Layer Properties of High Thermal Conductivity Tool Steel after Electrical Discharge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Świercz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New materials require the use of advanced technology in manufacturing complex shape parts. One of the modern materials widely used in the tool industry for injection molds or hot stamping dies is high conductivity tool steel (HTCS 150. Due to its hardness (55 HRC and thermal conductivity at 66 W/mK, this material is difficult to machine by conventional treatment and is being increasingly manufactured by nonconventional technology such as electrical discharge machining (EDM. In the EDM process, material is removed from the workpiece by a series of electrical discharges that cause changes to the surface layers properties. The final state of the surface layer directly influences the durability of the produced elements. This paper presents the influence of EDM process parameters: discharge current Ic and the pulse time ton on surface layer properties. The experimental investigation was carried out with an experimental methodology design. Surface layers properties including roughness 3D parameters, the thickness of the white layer, heat affected zone, tempered layer and occurring micro cracks were investigated and described. The influence of the response surface methodology (RSM of discharge current Ic and the pulse time ton on the thickness of the white layer and roughness parameters Sa, Sds and Ssc were described and established.

  8. Thermal-sprayed, thin-film pyrite cathodes for thermal batteries -- Discharge-rate and temperature studies in single cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; DAI,JINXIANG; XIAO,T. DANNY; REISNER,DAVID

    2000-05-25

    Using an optimized thermal-spray process, coherent, dense deposits of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) with good adhesion were formed on 304 stainless steel substrates (current collectors). After leaching with CS{sub 2} to remove residual free sulfur, these served as cathodes in Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal cells. The cells were tested over a temperature range of 450 C to 550 C under baseline loads of 125 and 250 mA/cm{sup 2}, to simulate conditions found in a thermal battery. Cells built with such cathodes outperformed standard cells made with pressed-powder parts. They showed lower interracial resistance and polarization throughout discharge, with higher capacities per mass of pyrite. Post-treatment of the cathodes with Li{sub 2}O coatings at levels of >7% by weight of the pyrite was found to eliminate the voltage transient normally observed for these materials. Results equivalent to those of standard lithiated catholytes were obtained in this manner. The use of plasma-sprayed cathodes allows the use of much thinner cells for thermal batteries since only enough material needs to be deposited as the capacity requirements of a given application demand.

  9. Simulation of Thermal and Chemical Relaxation in a Post-Discharge Air Corona Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Meziane, M; Ducasse, O; Yousfi, M

    2016-01-01

    In a DC point-to-plane corona discharge reactor, the mono filamentary streamers cross the inter electrode gap with a natural repetition frequency of some tens of kHz. The discharge phase (including the primary and the secondary streamers development) lasts only some hundred of nanoseconds while the post-discharge phases occurring between two successive discharge phases last some tens of microseconds. From the point of view of chemical activation, the discharge phases create radical and excited species located inside the very thin discharge filaments while during the post-discharge phases these radical and excited species induce a chemical kinetics that diffuse in a part of the reactor volume. From the point of view of hydrodynamics activation, the discharge phases induce thermal shock waves and the storage of vibrational energy which relaxes into thermal form only during the post-discharge phase. Furthermore, the glow corona discharges that persist during the post-discharge phases induce the so called electri...

  10. Thermal analysis of high pressure micro plasma discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobli, Mostafa

    High pressure micro plasma discharge has been at the center of interest in recent years, because of their vast applications, ease of access and cost efficiency. This attributes to atmospheric discharges that are generated in ambient conditions and therefore can be readily applicable to everyday use. The absence of vacuum makes these high pressure discharges to be inexpensive to operate. Despite the ease of operation, the high pressure is a source of enhanced gas heating as the gas temperature cannot be controlled by diffusion alone. Gas heating is therefore an important factor when it comes to the simulation of high pressure micro plasma discharge, unlike their low pressure counterpart where the heat generation is almost negligible. Low pressure discharge due to their low degree of collisionality generates ionic species and electrons at small concentrations, whereas high pressure discharge due to their higher gas density produces ions and electrons at higher concentrations which is a direct consequence of increase collision. The higher gas density and consequential large concentration of ionic species and electron contributes directly to higher heat generation rates. . In this thesis the gas temperature transport of high pressure micro plasma discharge has been studied with a special focus on the heat source terms, temperature boundary conditions, temperature distribution in the solid phase electrodes and the gas phase and their overall influence on the plasma characteristics. For this purpose a multi-physics mathematical model has been developed that comprised of a plasma module, neutral gas temperature module, external circuit module and conjugate heat transfer module. The plasma module consisted of conservation of the different ionic, electronically excited species, radicals, neutrals and electrons, conservation of the electron temperature, and electric field. The external circuit module resolved the coupled driving circuit comprised of a voltage source, ballast

  11. Pediatric emergency department discharge prescriptions requiring pharmacy clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michelle C; Gittelman, Michael A; Widecan, Michelle L; Luria, Joseph W

    2015-06-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze and classify reasons why retail pharmacies need to contact the pediatric emergency department (PED) for clarification on outpatient prescriptions generated using an electronic prescribing system and to categorize the severity of errors captured. A retrospective chart review was conducted at a PED that cares for approximately 92,000 patients annually. All pharmacy callbacks documented in the electronic medical record between August 1, 2008 and July 31, 2009 were included. A datasheet was used to capture patient demographics (age, sex, race, insurance), prescriptions written, and reason for callback. Each call was then assigned a severity level, and time to respond to all calls was estimated. Frequencies were used to analyze the data. A total of 731 errors for 695 callbacks were analyzed from 49,583 prescriptions written at discharge. The most common errors included administrative/insurance issues 342/731 (47%) and prescription writing errors 298/731 (41%). The errors were classified as insignificant (340/729 [47%]), problematic (288/729 [40%]), significant (77/729 [11%]), serious (12/729 [1.64%]), and severe (12/729 [1.64%]). Almost 96% of errant prescriptions were not able to be filled as originally written and required a change by the prescriber. These calls required approximately 127 hours to complete. Prescription errors requiring a pharmacy callback are typically insignificant. However, 13.8% of callbacks about an error were considered significant, serious, or severe. Automated dose checking and verifying insurance coverage of prescribed medications should be considered essential components of prescription writing in a PED.

  12. 33 CFR 323.4 - Discharges not requiring permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the bottom elevations of, the affected drainageway as it existed prior to the formation of the... located in the proximity of a public water supply intake; (xii) The discharge shall not occur in areas of... in use of an area of waters of the United States. A discharge which elevates the bottom of waters of...

  13. Saturated Resin Ectopic Regeneration by Non-Thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Chunjing Hao; Zehua Xiao; Di Xu; Chengbo Zhang; Jian Qiu; Kefu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Textile dyes are some of the most refractory organic compounds in the environment due to their complex and various structure. An integrated resin adsorption/Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma regeneration was proposed to treat the indigo carmine solution. It is the first time to report ectopic regeneration of the saturated resins by non-thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge. The adsorption/desorption efficiency, surface functional groups, structural properties, regeneration efficiency, ...

  14. 40 CFR 35.918-3 - Requirements for discharge of effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.918-3 Requirements for discharge of effluents. Best practicable waste treatment criteria published... from individual systems. Discharges to surface waters shall meet effluent discharge limitations for...

  15. Thermal enhancement of charge and discharge cycles for adsorbed natural gas storage

    KAUST Repository

    Rahman, Kazi Afzalur

    2011-07-01

    The usage of adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage is hindered by the thermal management during the adsorption and desorption processes. An effective thermal enhancement is thus essential for the development of the ANG technology and the motivation for this study is the investigation of a gas storage system with internal thermal control. We employed a fin-tube type heat exchanger that is placed in a pressurized cylinder. A distributed-parameter model is used for the theoretical modeling and simulations are conducted at assorted charging and discharging conditions. These studies included the transient thermal behaviours of the elements within the ANG-charged cylinder and parameters such as pressure and temperature profiles of adsorbent have been obtained during charge and discharge cycles, and results are compared with a conventional compressed methane vessel. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential ecological risks of thermal-treated waste recombination DNA discharged into an aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao H; Wang, Lei; Li, Meng N; Zeng, Xiao F; Le, Yi Q

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that thermal-treatment at 100 ° C can denature deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), yet this does not cause it to break down completely. To clarify the risk of gene pollution from thermal-treated recombinant DNA, the renaturation characteristics of thermal-denatured plasmid pET-28b and its persistence in aquatic environments were investigated. The results revealed that the double-stranded structure and transforming activity of the thermal-treated plasmid DNA could be recovered even if the thermal-treatment was conducted at 120 ° C. The presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) led to the increase of renaturation efficiency of the denatured DNA. When thermal-treated plasmid DNA was discharged into simulated aquatic environments with pH values from 5 to 9, it showed a longer persistence at pH 7 and 8 than that at 5, 6 and 9; however, the denatured plasmid DNA could persist for more than 33 min at any pH. Moreover, a higher ionic strength further protected the thermal-denatured plasmids from degradation in the simulated aquatic environment. These results indicated that when the thermal-treated DNA was discharged into an aquatic environment, it might not break down completely in a short period. Therefore, there is the potential for the discarded DNA to renature and transform, which might result in gene pollution.

  17. Preliminary fluid channel design and thermal-hydraulic analysis of glow discharge cleaning permanent electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Lijun, E-mail: cailj@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Lin, Tao; Wang, Yingqiao; Wang, Mingxu [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Maruyama, So; Yang, Yu; Kiss, Gabor [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The plasma facing closure cap has to survive after 30,000 thermal heat load cycles. • 0.35 MW/m2 radiation heat load plus nuclear heat load are very challenging for stainless steel. • Multilayer structure has been designed by using advanced welding and drilling technology to solve the neutron heating problem. • Accurate volumetric load application in analysis model by CFX has been mastered. - Abstract: Glow discharge cleaning (GDC) shall be used on ITER device to reduce and control impurity and hydrogenic fuel out-gassing from in-vessel plasma facing components. After first plasma, permanent electrode (PE) will be used to replace Temporary Electrode (TE) for subsequent operation. Two fundamental scenarios i.e., GDC and Plasma Operation State (POS) should be considered for electrode design, which requires the heat load caused by plasma radiation and neutron heating must be taken away by cooling water flowing inside the electrode. In this paper, multilayer cooling channels inside PE are preliminarily designed, and snakelike route in each layer is adopted to improve the heat exchange. Detailed thermal-hydraulic analyses have been done to validate the design feasibility or rationality. The analysis results show that during GDC the cooling water inlet and outlet temperature difference is far less than the allowable temperature rise under water flow rate 0.15 kg/s compromised by many factors. For POS, the temperature rise and pressure drop are within the design goals, but high thermal stress occurs on the front surface of closure cap of electrode. After several iterations of optimization of the closure cap, the equivalent strain range after 30,000 loading cycles for POS is well below 0.3% design goals.

  18. 33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. 151.79 Section 151.79 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Pollution and Sewage § 151.79 Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. (a) A vessel...

  19. Daytime space cooling with phase change material ceiling panels discharged using rooftop photovoltaic/thermal panels and night-time ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Pean, Thibault Quentin; Gennari, Luca

    2016-01-01

    the photovoltaic/thermal varied from 56% to 122%. The phase change material ceiling panels were thus, capable of providing an acceptable thermal environment and the photovoltaic/thermal panels were able to provide most of the required electricity and cold water needed for cooling.......The possibility of using photovoltaic/thermal panels for producing cold water through the process of night-time radiative cooling was experimentally examined. The cold water was used to discharge phase change material in ceiling panels in a climatic chamber. Both night-time radiative cooling...

  20. Experimental study on thermal characteristics of positive leader discharges using Mach-Zehnder interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X., E-mail: zhouxuan12@mails.thu.edu.cn; Zeng, R.; Zhuang, C.; Chen, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Leader discharge is one of the main phases in long air gap breakdown, which is characterized by high temperature and high conductivity. It is of great importance to determine thermal characteristics of leader discharges. In this paper, a long-optical-path Mach-Zehnder interferometer was set up to measure the thermal parameters (thermal diameter, gas density, and gas temperature) of positive leader discharges in atmospheric air. IEC standard positive switching impulse voltages were applied to a near-one-meter point-plane air gap. Filamentary channels with high gas temperature and low density corresponding to leader discharges were observed as significant distortions in the interference fringe images. Typical diameters of the entire heated channel range from 1.5 mm to 3.5 mm with an average expansion velocity of 6.7 m/s. In contrast, typical diameters of the intensely heated region with a sharp gas density reduction range from 0.4 mm to 1.1 mm, about one third of the entire heated channel. The radial distribution of the gas density is calculated from the fringe displacements by performing an Abel inverse transform. The typical calculated gas density reduction in the center of a propagating leader channel is 80% to 90%, corresponding to a gas temperature of 1500 K to 3000 K based on the ideal gas law. Leaders tend to terminate if the central temperature is below 1500 K.

  1. Solar thermal plant impact analysis and requirements definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The technology and economics of solar thermal electric systems (STES) for electric power production is discussed. The impacts of and requirements for solar thermal electric power systems were evaluated.

  2. A novel technique to monitor thermal discharges using thermal infrared imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthulakshmi, A L; Natesan, Usha; Ferrer, Vincent A; Deepthi, K; Venugopalan, V P; Narasimhan, S V

    2013-09-01

    Coastal temperature is an important indicator of water quality, particularly in regions where delicate ecosystems sensitive to water temperature are present. Remote sensing methods are highly reliable for assessing the thermal dispersion. The plume dispersion from the thermal outfall of the nuclear power plant at Kalpakkam, on the southeast coast of India, was investigated from March to December 2011 using thermal infrared images along with field measurements. The absolute temperature as provided by the thermal infrared (TIR) images is used in the Arc GIS environment for generating a spatial pattern of the plume movement. Good correlation of the temperature measured by the TIR camera with the field data (r(2) = 0.89) make it a reliable method for the thermal monitoring of the power plant effluents. The study portrays that the remote sensing technique provides an effective means of monitoring the thermal distribution pattern in coastal waters.

  3. Impacts of Discharge Reductions on Physical and Thermal Habitat Characteristics in a Desert Spring, Death Valley National Park, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, R. R.; Stone, M. C.; Sada, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Desert springs are biodiversity hotspots that are sensitive to anthropogenic activities. Despite their importance, the effects of human disturbance on desert springs are not well known, and scarce information exists describing the biotic or environmental effects of incrementally increasing disturbance. The objective of this research was to quantify the influence of incremental reductions in discharge on the physical and thermal characteristics of a desert springbrook. This objective was accomplished through a combination of field experiments at Travertine Spring in Death Valley National Park, USA, and hydraulic/temperature modeling in order to: (1) quantify changes in physical characteristics of the springbrook channel and aquatic environment; (2) investigate the effects of reduced spring discharge on seasonal spatial temperature patterns; (3) delineate tipping points that exhibit a non-linear response to decreased flow. The study results supported our predictions that decreased discharge would modify physical habitat characteristics of the springbrook, reduce aquatic habitat volume, increase variability in water temperatures along the springbrook, and reduce springbrook suitability for invertebrates that require stable environments. Field observations revealed a significant relationship between water depth and flow velocity with reduced spring discharge. The rate of change of mean water depths, velocities, and habitat volumes were greatest with only a 10% reduction in spring flow. In addition, a non-linear temperature response to flow reductions was present under all modeled conditions. Generally, water temperature gradients increased as flows were decreased, and the sensitivity of reduced discharge increased with distance from the spring source. The degree of sensitivity was a function of season, which reflects the influence of ambient air temperature and wind in the cooling of the springbrook. These results suggest that habitat for species using stable thermal

  4. Microtearing instabilities and resulting electron thermal transport in DIII-D discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritz, A. H.; Rafiq, T.; Luo, L.; Weiland, J.

    2017-10-01

    A reduced transport model for microtearing modes (MTMs), has been developed for use in integrated predictive modeling studies. A unified fluid/kinetic approach is employed in the derivation of the nonlinear MTM dispersion relation. The dependence of the MTMs real frequency and growth rate in DIII-D like L-mode and H-mode plasma discharges is examined for a range of plasma parameters. The saturated amplitude of the magnetic fluctuations is calculated utilizing numerically determined MTM eigenvalues in the nonlinear MTM envelope equation. It is found that the electron temperature gradient in the presence of moderate collision frequency is required for MTMs to become unstable. The effects of small and large collisionality and small and large wavenumbers on MTMs are found to be stabilizing, while the effects of density gradient, plasma beta, low current density, and large magnetic shear are found to be destabilizing. The MTM growth rate, magnetic fluctuation strength, as well as electron thermal diffusivity is found to be larger in the H-mode plasma than in the L-mode plasma. Research supported in part by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science.

  5. Thermal storage/discharge performances of Cu-Si alloy for solar thermochemical process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokon, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Tomoya; Cho, Hyun-seok; Bellan, Selvan; Hatamachi, Tsuyoshi; Kodama, Tatsuya

    2017-06-01

    The present authors (Niigata University, Japan) have developed a tubular reactor system using novel "double-walled" reactor/receiver tubes with carbonate molten-salt thermal storage as a phase change material (PCM) for solar reforming of natural gas and with Al-Si alloy thermal storage as a PCM for solar air receiver to produce high-temperature air. For both of the cases, the high heat capacity and large latent heat (heat of solidification) of the PCM phase circumvents the rapid temperature change of the reactor/receiver tubes at high temperatures under variable and uncontinuous characteristics of solar radiation. In this study, we examined cyclic properties of thermal storage/discharge for Cu-Si alloy in air stream in order to evaluate a potentiality of Cu-Si alloy as a PCM thermal storage material. Temperature-increasing performances of Cu-Si alloy are measured during thermal storage (or heat-charge) mode and during cooling (or heat-discharge) mode. A oxidation state of the Cu-Si alloy after the cyclic reaction was evaluated by using electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA).

  6. Overview of the issues surrounding thermal discharges in the Des Plaines River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    This review effort was undertaken to clarify and, if possible, quantify the issues surrounding the thermal input into the lower Des Plaines River from the Commonwealth Edison Joliet Electrical Generation Facility. The central issue is whether or not a reduction of the thermal discharge from the facility would produce beneficial environmental effects. This issue is clouded due to the fact of a number of environmental problems. These problems include: the river water quality, sediment quality, and barge traffic impacts. These variables, coupled with the uncertain future stream volume and conflicting data, prevent any simplistic conclusions from being drawn. Thus, any short-term study can only result in an overview of the situation.

  7. On the exploitation of optical and thermal band for river discharge estimation: synergy with radar altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpanelli, Angelica; Filippucci, Paolo; Brocca, Luca

    2017-04-01

    River discharge is recognized as a fundamental physical variable and it is included among the Essential Climate Variables by GCOS (Global Climate Observing System). Notwithstanding river discharge is one of the most measured components of the hydrological cycle, its monitoring is still an open issue. Collection, archiving and distribution of river discharge data globally is limited, and the currently operating network is inadequate in many parts of the Earth and is still declining. Remote sensing, especially satellite sensors, have great potential in offering new ways to monitor river discharge. Remote sensing guarantees regular, uniform and global measurements for long period thanks to the large number of satellites launched during the last twenty years. Because of its nature, river discharge cannot be measured directly and both satellite and traditional monitoring are referred to measurements of other hydraulic variables, e.g. water level, flow velocity, water extent and slope. In this study, we illustrate the potential of different satellite sensors for river discharge estimation. The recent advances in radar altimetry technology offered important information for water levels monitoring of rivers even if the spatio-temporal sampling is still a limitation. The multi-mission approach, i.e. interpolating different altimetry tracks, has potential to cope with the spatial and temporal resolution, but so far few studies were dedicated to deal with this issue. Alternatively, optical sensors, thanks to their frequent revisit time and large spatial coverage, could give a better support for the evaluation of river discharge variations. In this study, we focus on the optical (Near InfraRed) and thermal bands of different satellite sensors (MODIS, MERIS, AATSR, Landsat, Sentinel-2) and particularly, on the derived products such as reflectance, emissivity and land surface temperature. The performances are compared with respect to the well-known altimetry (Envisat/Ra-2, Jason

  8. 40 CFR 1700.4 - Discharges requiring control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and the Secretary have determined that it is reasonable and practicable to require use of a Marine Pollution Control Device for at least one class of vessel to mitigate adverse impacts on the marine... fuel to maintain the stability of the vessel. (f) Controllable Pitch Propeller Hydraulic Fluid: the...

  9. Numerical investigation of temperature distribution and thermal performance while charging-discharging thermal energy in aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguly, S.; Mohan Kumar, M.S.; Date, Abhijit; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2017-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) coupled thermo-hydrogeological numerical model for a confined aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system underlain and overlain by rock media has been presented in this paper. The ATES system operates in cyclic mode. The model takes into account heat transport processes of

  10. Degradation of palm oil refinery wastewaters by non-thermal gliding arc discharge at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountapmbeme-Kouotou, P; Laminsi, S; Acayanka, E; Brisset, J-L

    2013-07-01

    The gliding electric discharge in humid air is a source of activated species forming (e.g. (•)OH, (•)NO and their derivatives H2O2, ONO2H and NO3H) which are present in a non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure. These species are able to degrade organic pollutants in palm oil refinery wastewaters (PORW). The increase in acidity (pH decrease), conductivity and total dissolved solids (TDS) and the decrease in the total organic carbon (TOC) of PORW samples exposed to the discharge are reported. More than 50% TOC abatement is obtained for 15 min treatment in batch conditions with a laboratory reactor. The organic pollutants of PORW, i.e. mainly fatty acids are degraded according to a pseudo first-order reaction (k* = 0.06 min(-1)). Post discharge reactions are also observed after having switched off the discharge, which suggests that the pseudo first-order (k ≈ 0.05 min(-1)) degradation reactions should be attributed to the diffusion of soluble reactive species, e.g. H2O2 and ONOOH in the liquid target.

  11. Fabrication of graphene from graphite by a thermal assisted vacuum arc discharge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo-Wei; Chu, Kevin; Chen, Jeng Shiung; Tsai, Jeff T. H.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, graphene was fabricated on copper foils using a high temperature furnace embedded in a vacuum arc discharge method. Combining the advantages of chemical vapor deposition and vacuum arc discharge, single-layer graphene can be fabricated at 600 °C base temperature from the mini furnace embedded with a fast heating via the photon radiation from the vacuum arc to 1100 °C on the substrates' surface. The optimal fabrication condition was determined through a series of experiments on ambient pressure, processing time, arc currents, and the cooling process. Observations by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and optical microscopy showed that the main products were single-layer graphene, which has a uniform thickness across the entire substrate. The results demonstrated that the combination of a vacuum arc with a thermal method that uses graphite as a carbon source provides a low-cost and straight forward method to synthesize graphene films for graphene-based applications.

  12. Power Control and Monitoring Requirements for Thermal Vacuum/Thermal Balance Testing of the MAP Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris; Hinkle, R. Kenneth (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The specific heater control requirements for the thermal vacuum and thermal balance testing of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland are described. The testing was conducted in the 10m wide x 18.3m high Space Environment Simulator (SES) Thermal Vacuum Facility. The MAP thermal testing required accurate quantification of spacecraft and fixture power levels while minimizing heater electrical emissions. The special requirements of the MAP test necessitated construction of five (5) new heater racks.

  13. Behavior of hydrogen atoms in boron films during H{sub 2} and He glow discharge and thermal desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Natsir, M.; Inoue, N. [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen absorption and desorption characteristics in boron films deposited on a graphite liner have been studied. Number of hydrogen atoms absorbed in the films is estimated from a decrease in hydrogen pressure during a hydrogen glow discharge. It was 1.9 x 10{sup 17} atoms/cm{sup 2} in the 1 hour discharge after an evacuation of H atoms contained in the original boron films by thermal desorption. Hydrogen atoms were absorbed continuously without saturation for 3 hours during the discharge. Number of H atoms absorbed reached to 2.6 x 10{sup 17} atoms/cm{sup 2} at 3 hour. A discharge in helium was carried out to investigate H desorption characteristics from hydrogen implanted boron films. It was verified that reactivity for hydrogen absorption was recovered after the He discharge. Hydrogen atoms were accumulated in the films by repetition of alternate He and H{sub 2} discharge. Thermal desorption experiments have been carried out by raising the liner temperature up to 500degC for films after 1 hour, 3 hours hydrogen discharge and 6 times repetition of H{sub 2}/He discharges. Most of H atoms in the films were desorbed for all these cases. The slow absorption process was confirmed through the thermal desorption experiments. (author).

  14. Detection of coastal and submarine discharge on the Florida Gulf Coast with an airborne thermal-infrared mapping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Ellen; Stonehouse, David; Ebersol, Kristin; Holland, Kathryn; Robbins, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Along the Gulf Coast of Florida north of Tampa Bay lies a region characterized by an open marsh coast, low topographic gradient, water-bearing limestone, and scattered springs. The Floridan aquifer system is at or near land surface in this region, discharging water at a consistent 70-72°F. The thermal contrast between ambient water and aquifer discharge during winter months can be distinguished using airborne thermal-infrared imagery. An airborne thermal-infrared mapping system was used to collect imagery along 126 miles of the Gulf Coast from Jefferson to Levy County, FL, in March 2009. The imagery depicts a large number of discharge locations and associated warm-water plumes in ponds, creeks, rivers, and nearshore waters. A thermal contrast of 6°F or more was set as a conservative threshold for identifying sites, statistically significant at the 99% confidence interval. Almost 900 such coastal and submarine-discharge locations were detected, averaging seven to nine per mile along this section of coast. This represents approximately one hundred times the number of previously known discharge sites in the same area. Several known coastal springs in Taylor and Levy Counties were positively identified with the imagery and were used to estimate regional discharge equivalent to one 1st-order spring, discharging 100 cubic feet per second or more, for every two miles of coastline. The number of identified discharge sites is a conservative estimate and may represent two-thirds of existing features due to low groundwater levels at time of overflight. The role of aquifer discharge in coastal and estuarine health is indisputable; however, mapping and quantifying discharge in a complex karst environment can be an elusive goal. The results of this effort illustrate the effectiveness of the instrument and underscore the influence of coastal springs along this stretch of the Florida coast.

  15. Feeding bionomics of juvenile chinook salmon relative to thermal discharges in the central Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford environs of the central Columbia River, Washington consumed almost entirely adult and larval stages of aquatic insects. The food organisms were dominated by midges (Diptera: Tendipedidae); by numbers, adult midges provided 64 and 58% of the diet and larval midges 17 and 18% of the diet, in 1968 and 1969, respectively. The families Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera), Notonectidae (Hemiptera) and Hypogastruridae (Collembola) were of secondary importance. Small fry fed almost exclusively on the small tendipedids. Over 95% of all food organisms originated within the river ecosystem. The distinctive features of food and feeding activity were fourfold: first, relatively few insect groups were utilized; second, the fish depended on drifting, floating, or swimming organisms; third, they visually selected living prey moving in or on the water; and fourth, they were habitat opportunists to a high degree. The 1969 data, were studied to reveal possible thermal effects of heated discharges from plutonium production reactors at Hanford on food and growth parameters. All data were characterized by considerable variation between and within stations. No discernable effects between coldwater and warmwater stations were revealed by analyses of: (1) groups of food organisms utilized, (2) food and feeding activity, (3) numbers of insects consumed, (4) seasonal increases in fish length, (5) fish length-weight relationships, (6) fish coefficients of condition, and (7) stomach biomass. The lack of detectable thermal effects was apparently due to the fact that the main effluent plumes discharge in midstream and the effluents are well mixed before reaching inshore feeding areas. The transient nature of fish groups at each station, influenced by changes in regulated river flows, and the availability of food organisms in the river drift were ecological factors affecting critical thermal evaluation in situ.

  16. Assessing Geologic Controls on Groundwater Discharge in the Loup River Basin of Nebraska by Using Aerial Thermal-Infrared Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobza, C. M.; Schepers, A.

    2016-12-01

    Streamflows in the Loup River basin are sensitive to groundwater withdrawals because of the close hydrologic connection between groundwater and surface water. Groundwater discharge contributes more than 90 percent of streamflow in the Loup River basin in the Nebraska Sand Hills. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper and Lower Loup Natural Resources Districts, and the Nebraska Environmental Trust, are studying the temporal and spatial characteristics of surface-water/groundwater interaction within the Loup River basin. Streams in the Loup River basin are known to receive a combination of focused discharge (groundwater discharge as springs) and diffuse discharge. To map focused groundwater discharge points, aerial thermal-infrared imagery was collected over two stream reaches prior to onset of ice cover in late 2015, when warm thermal anomalies in stream-surface temperatures indicated areas of focused groundwater discharge. Zones of focused groundwater discharge were detected along the upper South Loup, North Fork of South Loup, and Dismal Rivers. Within the active stream channel, the Dismal River is incising into the Ogallala Formation, which is locally characterized as fine-grained sandstone interbedded with siltstone. Some points of focused discharge along the Dismal River result from local confining beds within the Ogallala Formation that create strong vertical gradients near the stream margin. A series of focused groundwater discharge points was detected along the upper South Loup River where the river has incised into Pliocene-age gravel deposits. Stream surface temperatures from the aerial thermal-infrared imagery were plotted against distance downstream. Results showed a substantial increase in the groundwater component of streamflow originating from diffuse groundwater discharge located upstream from mapped springs.

  17. Combining airborne thermal infrared images and radium isotopes to study submarine groundwater discharge along the French Mediterranean coastline

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Bejannin; Pieter van Beek; Thomas Stieglitz; Marc Souhaut; Joseph Tamborski

    2017-01-01

    Study region: The French Mediterranean coastline, which includes karstic springs discharging into coastal seas and coastal lagoons. Study focus: We investigated submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), an important vector for many chemical elements that may impact the quality of the coastal environment. First, we acquired airborne thermal infrared (TIR) images to detect terrestrial groundwater inputs. Then we report in situ data (salinity; temperature; radium isotopes). We use these data i) ...

  18. Effects of a coastal power plant thermal discharge on phytoplankton community structure in Zhanjiang Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Ying; Li, Bin; Sun, Xing-Li

    2014-04-15

    The effects of a thermal discharge from a coastal power plant on phytoplankton were determined in Zhanjiang Bay. Monthly cruises were undertaken at four tide times during April-October 2011. There were significant differences for dominant species among seven sampling months and four sampling tides. Species diversity (H') and Evenness showed a distinct increasing gradient from the heated water source to the control zone and fluctuated during four tides with no visible patterns. Species richness, cell count and Chl a at mixed and control zones were significantly higher than heated zones, and showed tidal changes with no obvious patterns. The threshold temperature of phytoplankton species can be regarded as that of phytoplankton community at ebb slack. The average threshold temperature over phytoplankton species, cell count and Chl a, and the threshold temperature of cell count can be regarded as that of phytoplankton community at flood slack during spring and neap respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative evaluation of effects of ozonated and chlorinated thermal discharges on estuarine and freshwater organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, C.R.; Sugam, R.; Meldrim, J.W.; Holmstrom, E.R.; Balog, G.E.

    1980-08-01

    As a part of a program at PSE and G designed to examine the feasibility of ozonation as an alternative to chlorination for control of biofouling in once-through cooling systems, the biological effects of ozonated and chlorinated thermal discharges were evaluated with estuarine and freshwater organisms. Mortality at salinities between 0.5 to 2.5 ppt with mummichog and white perch indicated greater toxicity for chlorine while the alewife, spottail shiner, rainbow trout and white perch in freshwater were more sensitive to ozone. Behavioral and physograhic results were consistent with those observed in toxicity studies. Initial cough response and avoidance concentrations of mummicog and white perch in estuarine waters were lower when exposed to chlorine than to ozone. In freshwater, blueback herring, alewife, rainbow trout, spottail shiner, banded killifish, and white perch avoided lower concentrations of ozone than chlorine.

  20. Thermal regime of self-heated hollow cathode in a low-pressure high-current pulsed-periodic discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, N. V.; Emlin, D. R.

    2017-11-01

    We have studied the thermal regime of a self-heated hollow cathode in combined low-current (1-5 A) dc discharge and high-current (up to 100 A) pulsed-periodic discharge and the influence of the pulsed parameters on the current-voltage characteristic of the high-current discharge. It has been shown that, after the application of a voltage pulse (200-500 V), the discharge current attains its peak value and is stabilized over a time of 100 μs. The discharge voltage in the quasi-stationary discharge stage exceeds the continuous discharge voltage at the same current by many times and depends on the mean value of the current in the discharge gap. The interpretation of the form of the I-V characteristics of the pulsed discharge is based on the dynamics of heating and cooling of the cathode surface layer and on the variations in the integral temperature of the cathode.

  1. Saturated Resin Ectopic Regeneration by Non-Thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjing Hao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Textile dyes are some of the most refractory organic compounds in the environment due to their complex and various structure. An integrated resin adsorption/Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD plasma regeneration was proposed to treat the indigo carmine solution. It is the first time to report ectopic regeneration of the saturated resins by non-thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge. The adsorption/desorption efficiency, surface functional groups, structural properties, regeneration efficiency, and the intermediate products between gas and liquid phase before and after treatment were investigated. The results showed that DBD plasma could maintain the efficient adsorption performance of resins while degrading the indigo carmine adsorbed by resins. The degradation rate of indigo carmine reached 88% and the regeneration efficiency (RE can be maintained above 85% after multi-successive regeneration cycles. The indigo carmine contaminants were decomposed by a variety of reactive radicals leading to fracture of exocyclic C=C bond, which could cause decoloration of dye solution. Based on above results, a possible degradation pathway for the indigo carmine by resin adsorption/DBD plasma treatment was proposed.

  2. Remote measurement of river discharge using thermal particle image velocimetry (PIV) and various sources of bathymetric information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleiter, Carl; Kinzel, Paul J.; Nelson, Jonathan M.

    2017-01-01

    Although river discharge is a fundamental hydrologic quantity, conventional methods of streamgaging are impractical, expensive, and potentially dangerous in remote locations. This study evaluated the potential for measuring discharge via various forms of remote sensing, primarily thermal imaging of flow velocities but also spectrally-based depth retrieval from passive optical image data. We acquired thermal image time series from bridges spanning five streams in Alaska and observed strong agreement between velocities measured in situ and those inferred by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), which quantified advection of thermal features by the flow. The resulting surface velocities were converted to depth-averaged velocities by applying site-specific, calibrated velocity indices. Field spectra from three clear-flowing streams provided strong relationships between depth and reflectance, suggesting that, under favorable conditions, spectrally-based bathymetric mapping could complement thermal PIV in a hybrid approach to remote sensing of river discharge; this strategy would not be applicable to larger, more turbid rivers, however. A more flexible and efficient alternative might involve inferring depth from thermal data based on relationships between depth and integral length scales of turbulent fluctuations in temperature, captured as variations in image brightness. We observed moderately strong correlations for a site-aggregated data set that reduced station-to-station variability but encompassed a broad range of depths. Discharges calculated using thermal PIV-derived velocities were within 15% of in situ measurements when combined with depths measured directly in the field or estimated from field spectra and within 40% when the depth information also was derived from thermal images. The results of this initial, proof-of-concept investigation suggest that remote sensing techniques could facilitate measurement of river discharge.

  3. Remote measurement of river discharge using thermal particle image velocimetry (PIV) and various sources of bathymetric information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleiter, Carl J.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Nelson, Jonathan M.

    2017-11-01

    Although river discharge is a fundamental hydrologic quantity, conventional methods of streamgaging are impractical, expensive, and potentially dangerous in remote locations. This study evaluated the potential for measuring discharge via various forms of remote sensing, primarily thermal imaging of flow velocities but also spectrally-based depth retrieval from passive optical image data. We acquired thermal image time series from bridges spanning five streams in Alaska and observed strong agreement between velocities measured in situ and those inferred by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), which quantified advection of thermal features by the flow. The resulting surface velocities were converted to depth-averaged velocities by applying site-specific, calibrated velocity indices. Field spectra from three clear-flowing streams provided strong relationships between depth and reflectance, suggesting that, under favorable conditions, spectrally-based bathymetric mapping could complement thermal PIV in a hybrid approach to remote sensing of river discharge; this strategy would not be applicable to larger, more turbid rivers, however. A more flexible and efficient alternative might involve inferring depth from thermal data based on relationships between depth and integral length scales of turbulent fluctuations in temperature, captured as variations in image brightness. We observed moderately strong correlations for a site-aggregated data set that reduced station-to-station variability but encompassed a broad range of depths. Discharges calculated using thermal PIV-derived velocities were within 15% of in situ measurements when combined with depths measured directly in the field or estimated from field spectra and within 40% when the depth information also was derived from thermal images. The results of this initial, proof-of-concept investigation suggest that remote sensing techniques could facilitate measurement of river discharge.

  4. Food and feeding of juvenile chinook salmon in the central Columbia River in relation to thermal discharges and other environmental features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D. [Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States). Ecosystems Dept.

    1970-08-01

    The relationship of thermal discharges from operating Hanford reactors to food and feeding of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the central Columbia River, Washington was studied in 1968 and 1969. The primary objectives were to (1) evaluate the food composition and feeding activities of the fish and (2) determine if heated effluents influenced their welfare. Environmental conditions (seasonal changes in river temperatures and flow volumes) in relation to thermal requirements of young chinook are detailed. Data on food organisms utilized by the fish in 1968 and 1969 are presented, whereas analyses for possible thermal effects are based on the more extensive 1969 data. No consistent differences attributable to thermal increments were evident. The lack of detectable effects apparently results from the fact that the main discharge plumes occur in midriver and the effluents are well mixed before reaching inshore feeding areas. The transient nature of fish at each sampling site and the availability of food organisms in the river drift are ecological factors affecting critical thermal evaluation.

  5. Qualitative and Quantitative Structure of Zooplankton Associations in the Danube Thermal Discharge Area of Nuclear Power Plant Cernavoda

    OpenAIRE

    ŞUNDRI, Mirela Iuliana; GOMOIU, Marian-Traian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: The authors presents the structure of zooplankton community recorded in the Danube River sector influenced by the thermal discharge from the Nuclear Power Plant at Cernavoda (Romania). On the basis of samples collected in the summer season of the 1999-2001 and 2007, in three key stations (Danube River waters upstream NPP – St.1, thermal effluent – St. 4 and downstream effluent – St.6) 31 species were recorded; zooplankton associations, having relative high densitie...

  6. Numerical modelling of the thermal effects on the aquatic environment from the thermal power plant by using two water discharge pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issakhov, Alibek

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents a numerical modelling of the thermal load on the aquatic environment by using two water discharge pipes of the thermal power plant. It is solved by the Navier-Stokes and temperature transport equations for an incompressible fluid in a stratified medium. The numerical solution of the equation system is divided into four stages by using projection method which was approximated by the finite volume method. At the first step it is assumed that the momentum transfer was carried out only by convection and diffusion. Intermediate velocity field is solved by 5-step Runge-Kutta method. At the second stage, the pressure field is solved by found the intermediate velocity field. Poisson equation for the pressure field is solved by Jacobi method. The third step is assumed that the transfer is carried out only by pressure gradient. The fourth step of the temperature transport equation is also solved as momentum equations. The obtained numerical results of stratified turbulent flow for two water discharged pipes were compared with experimental data and with numerical results for one water discharged pipe. General thermal load in the reservoir-cooler decreases comparing one water discharged pipe and revealed qualitatively and quantitatively approximately the basic laws of hydrothermal processes occurring in the reservoir-cooler can be seen that from numerical simulations where two water discharged pipes were used.

  7. Synthesis of graphene sheets with high electrical conductivity and good thermal stability by hydrogen arc discharge exfoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhong-Shuai; Ren, Wencai; Gao, Libo; Zhao, Jinping; Chen, Zongping; Liu, Bilu; Tang, Daiming; Yu, Bing; Jiang, Chuanbin; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2009-02-24

    We developed a hydrogen arc discharge exfoliation method for the synthesis of graphene sheets (GSs) with excellent electrical conductivity and good thermal stability from graphite oxide (GO), in combination with solution-phase dispersion and centrifugation techniques. It was found that efficient exfoliation and considerable deoxygenation of GO, and defect elimination and healing of exfoliated graphite can be simultaneously achieved during the hydrogen arc discharge exfoliation process. The GSs obtained by hydrogen arc discharge exfoliation exhibit a high electrical conductivity of approximately 2 x 10(3) S/cm and high thermal stability with oxidization resistance temperature of 601 degrees C, which are much better than those prepared by argon arc discharge exfoliation (approximately 2 x 10(2) S/cm, 525 degrees C) and by conventional thermal exfoliation (approximately 80 S/cm, 507 degrees C) with the same starting GO. These results demonstrate that this hydrogen arc discharge exfoliation method is a good approach for the preparation of GSs with a good quality.

  8. Effects of thermal discharge on marine ecosystems. A case study from a coastal power station in Southern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, G.; De Zio, V.; Pastorelli, A. M.; Rizzi, E.; Rositani, L.; Ungaro, N. [Laboratorio Provinciale di Biologia Marina, Molo Pizzoli, Bari (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Environmental impact of thermal effluent from a fuel power station (potential production 660x4 MW) was monitored during 1998, when the production was 50%; the thermal discharge area was located on the south-western Adriatic coast (Mediterranean Sea) and two sampling surveys were carried out (February and November) in order to analyze the composition and distribution of phytoplankton and macrobenthos communities. The biological assemblages seemed to be poorly influenced by heat diffusion. Some differences were observed among macrozoobenthos species distribution, nearby the discharge point, probably due to the influence of strong water flow coming out of the discharge duct; in fact, the strong flowing current could affect the bottom features (sedimentation) of the nearest areas. Because of the monitoring design (sampling scheme, short and seasonal time period), the reported results have a preliminary character; additional information from other surveys (to be carried out during the hot seasons and at maximum power station capacity) is needed.

  9. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) removal in non-thermal plasma double dielectric barrier discharge reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Muhammad Farooq; Fu, Xindi; Liu, Yanjun; Abbas, Yawar; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing

    2018-04-05

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) an emerging technology to treat volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in unhygienic point source air streams. In present study, double dielectric barrier discharge (DDBD) reactors were used for the first time to evaluate the removal efficiency of VOCs mixture of different nature at constant experimental conditions (input power 16-65.8 W, VOCs mixture feeding rate 1-6 L/min, 100-101 ppm inlet concentration of individual VOC). Reactor A and B with discharge gap at 6 mm and 3 mm respectively, were used in current study. When treated at an input power of 53.7 W with gas feeding rate of 1 L/min in DDBD reactor A, removal efficiency of the VOCs were: tetrachloroethylene (100%), toluene (100%), trichloroethylene (100%), benzene (100%), ethyl acetate (100%) and carbon disulfide (88.30%); whereas in reactor B, the removal efficiency of all VOCs were 100%. Plasma-catalyst (Pt-Sn/Al 2 O 3 , BaTiO 3 and HZSM-5) synergistic effect on VOCs removal efficiency was also investigated. Highest removal efficiency i.e 100% was observed for each compound with BaTiO 3 and HZSM-5 at an input power 65.8 W. However, integrating NTP with BaTiO 3 and HZSM-5 leads to enhanced removal performance of VOCs mixture with high activity, increase in energy efficiency and suppression of unwanted byproducts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. LASERS: Atomic xenon recombination laser excited by thermal ionizing radiation from a magnetoplasma compressor and discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrukov, A. S.; Kozlov, N. P.; Opekan, A. G.; Protasov, Yu S.; Rudoĭ, I. G.; Soroka, A. M.

    1989-07-01

    A description is given and the results are reported of the first photoionization-recombination laser using atomic xenon excited by thermal ionizing radiation from a plasma. The pump source was a multichannel plasmadynamic discharge in magnetoplasma compressors, which was ignited in the active medium of the laser. When the composition of the working mixture was optimal (Xe:Ar = 1:250) and the total pressure was 1 atm, the output energy was ~ 0.5 J in the form of pulses of ~ 10 μs duration and the maximum specific output energy represented by laser radiation was 1-2 J/liter. The unsaturated gain was 27 m - 1. A kinetic laser scheme was proposed and analyzed. It allowed for the processes of photoionization, ion conversion, dissociative recombination, interaction of excited states with electron and buffer gases, etc. An important role played by heating of the active medium during pumping was demonstrated and it explained the observed characteristics of the spatial and temporal structure of the lasing process, particularly bleaching of large volumes of the active medium. The potential output energy of the laser was considered and specific constructions were proposed to attain a lasing efficiency amounting to a few percent.

  11. Chemical and isotopic study of thermal springs and gas discharges from Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nencetti, A; Tassi, F; Vaselli, O [Department of Earth Sciences, Florence (Italy); Macias, J. L [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Magro, G [CNR-Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Pisa (Italy); Capaccioni, B [Institute of Volcanology and Geochemistry, Urbino (Italy); Minissale, A [CNR-Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Florence (Italy); Mora, J. C [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-01-15

    Thermal water and gas discharges south-east of El Chichon volcano, Mexico are associated mainly with NW-SE oriented fault systems. Spring discharges include i) waters with Na-Cl composition and TDS>3000 mg/L; ii) waters with Ca-SO{sub 4} composition and TDS values between 1400 and 2300 mg/L; iii) waters with Na-Cl composition and TDS of 800 to 2400 mg/L and sulphate content up to 650 mg/L and iv) waters with Ca-HCO{sub 3} composition and low salinity (TDS <250mg/L). Most of these waters are associated with free-gas discharges of N{sub 2} (up to 93 % by vol.), CO{sub 2} (2.4 to 31.2 % by vol.) and Ar (up to 1.25 % by vol.) with a predominant meteoric origin. H{sub 2}S is present only in gas samplers collected at El Azufre (up to 1.1 % by vol.). The {delta}13C CO{sub 2} values are always below -9.7% (PDB) and suggest a partially biogenic origin for CO{sub 2}. Chemical and isotopic features of spring discharges indicate that fluid circulation in the Sierra de Chiapas is mainly regulated by meteoric waters that tend to infiltrate the upper and middle-Cretaceous carbonate units up to the lower Cretaceous-upper Jurassic evaporitic formations (by Lopez-Ramos, 1982). The latter provide the main source of the species in solution. No evidence for high-to-medium enthalpy systems at depth beneath the Sierra de Chiapas has been found. [Spanish] La Sierra de Chiapas localizada en el Sureste de Mexico, se caracteriza por la presencia de descargas de gas y agua. La mayoria de los manantiales termales se asocian a rocas volcanicas Terciarias a lo largo de fallas regionales con orientacion NOSE. Las descargas termales se dividen en cuatro grupos: i) aguas con composicion Na-Cl y Solidos Disueltos Totales (SDT) >3000 mg/L; ii) aguas con composicion Ca-SO{sub 4} y valores de SDT entre 1400 y 2300 mg/L; iii) aguas con composicion Na-Cl, bajos contenidos de SDT (800 2400 mg/L) y un contenido de sulfato alto (hasta 650 mg/L) y iv) aguas con una composicion Ca-HCO{sub 3} y salinidad baja

  12. Constraining groundwater discharge in a large watershed: Integrated isotopic, hydraulic, and thermal data from the Canadian shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; Novakowski, Kent; Cook, Peter G.; Kyser, T. Kurt

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the pattern and rate of groundwater discharge in a large, regulated fractured rock watershed using novel and standard methods that are independent of base flow recession. Understanding the rate and pattern of groundwater discharge to surface water bodies is critical for watershed budgets, as a proxy for recharge rates, and for protecting the ecological integrity of lake and river ecosystems. The Tay River is a low-gradient, warm-water river that flows over exposed and fractured bedrock or a thin veneer of coarse-grained sediments. Natural conservative (δ2H, δ18O, Cl, and specific conductance), radioactive (222Rn), and thermal tracers are integrated with streamflow measurements and a steady state advective model to delimit the discharge locations and quantify the discharge fluxes to lakes, wetlands, creeks, and the Tay River. The groundwater discharge rates to most surface water body types are low, indicating that the groundwater and surface water system may be largely decoupled in this watershed compared to watersheds underlain by porous media. Groundwater discharge is distributed across the watershed rather than localized around lineaments or high-density zones of exposed brittle fractures. The results improve our understanding of the rate, localization, and conceptualization of discharge in a large, fractured rock watershed. Applying hydraulic, isotopic, or chemical hydrograph separation techniques would be difficult because the groundwater discharge "signal" is small compared to the "background" surface water inflows or volumes of the surface water bodies. Although this study focuses on a large watershed underlain by fractured bedrock, the methodology developed is transferable to any large regulated or unregulated watershed. The low groundwater discharge rates have significant implications for the ecology, sustainability, and management of large, crystalline watersheds.

  13. Does age affect analgesia provision at discharge among children with long bone fractures requiring emergency care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Henry W; Vander Velden, Heidi; Lin, Chia-Wei; Engels, James A; Reid, Samuel

    2013-11-01

    Inadequate treatment of painful conditions in children is a significant and complex problem. The wide range of cognitive abilities associated with a child's age is a particular challenge for providers treating children with painful conditions. To examine the effect of patient age on the provision of analgesic medicines at discharge in children treated emergently for a long bone fracture. A retrospective review was performed of all patients during a 1-year period with a long bone fracture treated in two urban pediatric Emergency Departments (EDs). Eight hundred seventy-eight patients were identified who met our inclusion criteria. Nearly 60% of patients received a prescription for an opioid-containing medicine and 19% received a prescription for an over-the-counter analgesic medicine at ED discharge. Patients younger than 4 years old had lower pain scores, less severe fractures, and overall were significantly less likely to receive an opioid-containing prescription compared to children 4 years old or greater. In children with more severe fractures requiring reduction in the ED, no significant age-related differences were noted in opioid prescription rates. No age-related significant differences were noted for over-the-counter prescription analgesic medicines provided at discharge. Young patient age is associated with different analgesic prescription patterns in children treated in the ED for a long bone fracture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating the Thermal Pollution Caused by Wastewaters Discharged from a Chain of Coal-Fired Power Plants along a River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and safe operation of a coal-fired power plant is strongly linked to freshwater resources, and environmental problems related to water sources and wastewater discharge are challenges for power station operation. In this study, an evaluation on the basis of a wastewater thermal pollution vector is reported for the environmental impact of residual water generated and discharged in the Jiu River during the operation of thermoelectric units of the Rovinari, Turceni and Craiova coal-fired power plants in Romania. Wastewater thermal pollutant vector Plane Projection is applied for assessing the water temperature evolution in the water flow lane created downstream of each power plant wastewater outlet channel. Simulation on the basis of an Electricity of France model, and testing validation of the results for thermoelectric units of 330 MW of these power plants are presented.

  15. Test facility requirements for the thermal vacuum thermal balance test of the Cosmic Background Explorer Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Laura J.

    1991-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer Observatory (COBE) underwant a thermal vacuum thermal balance test in the Space Environment Simulator (SES). This was the largest and most complex test ever conducted at this facility. The 4 x 4 m (13 x 13 ft) spacecraft weighed approx. 2223 kg (4900 lbs) for the test. The test set up included simulator panels for the inboard solar array panels, simulator panels for the flight cowlings, Sun and Earth Sensor stimuli, Thermal Radio Frequency Shield heater stimuli and a cryopanel for thermal control in the Attitude Control System Shunt Dissipator area. The fixturing also included a unique 4.3 m (14 ft) diameter Gaseous Helium Cryopanel which provided a 20 K environment for the calibration of one of the spacecraft's instruments, the Differential Microwave Radiometer. This cryogenic panel caused extra contamination concerns and a special method was developed and written into the test procedure to prevent the high buildup of condensibles on the panel which could have led to backstreaming of the thermal vacuum chamber. The test was completed with a high quality simulated space environment provided to the spacecraft. The test requirements, test set up, and special fixturing are described.

  16. Towards In-Flight Applications? - Requirements on the Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Actuator (PA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegseis, Jochen; Simon, Bernhard; Grundmann, Sven

    2016-11-01

    Most of today's flow control (FC) efforts with DBD show a rather one-sided picture. Typically, either the discharge properties are discussed extensively or FC achievements are reported. The former group of contributions only pays limited attention to implications and consequences of most characteristics with respect to subsequent control steps for successful DBD-based FC - the latter group mostly ignores changing discharge properties, thus varying control authority for the respective applications when changes of environment, PA health state or simply a varied angle-of-attack are to be considered. In addition, there still remains a fair bit of uncertainty regarding a universal PA-evaluation metric, such that some of the most promising quantities/characteristics for successful controller operation remain largely untouched from the community. The purpose of the present work is to outline the requirement profile of PAs in one coherent story starting from electrical issues all the way down the road to in-flight FC success, where particular emphasis is placed on the interplay of the involved subtopics. It is hypothesized that such a clear guideline is the only way to advance beyond the present level of lab studies, where there still is an obvious lack of real flight applications.

  17. [Intrahospital mortality after discharge from the ICU (hidden mortality) in patients who required mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, Federico; Núñez, Antonio; Calvo, Enrique; Algora, Alejandro

    2003-09-06

    Our goal was to determine the hidden mortality (HM) in patients who underwent an episode of mechanical ventilation (MV). We also analyzed the factors associated with an increase in the risk of hidden mortality. Prospective cohort study. Patients admitted to an ICU who required MV and who were monitored until their discharge from hospital. We performed a multivariate study with a logistic regression model including all the variables that were present in a univariate analysis p 74 years 1.15 (1.01 to 1.26) (p = 0.02); APACHE II > 29 1.14 (1.01 to 1.27) (p = 0.04); reason for MV being coma 1.21 (1.07 to 1.37) (p = 0.002); reason for MV being cardiopulmonary arrest 1.28 (1.18 to 1.68) (p < 0.001); tracheotomy in ICU 1.31 (1.19 to 1.68) (p < 0.001) and stay in the ICU longer than 16 days 1.35 (1.01 to1.70) (p = 0.04). An important number of patients discharged from the ICU after an episode of MV die in hospital. Risk factors associated with an increased risk of death in hospital identify a group of patients who, after excluding those with non-cardiopulmonary resuscitation orders, would possibly benefit from high surveillance or intermediate care units.

  18. Response surface method optimization of V-shaped fin assisted latent heat thermal energy storage system during discharging process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Lohrasbi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems (LHTESS containing Phase Change Material (PCM are used to establish balance between energy supply and demand. PCMs have high latent heat but low thermal conductivity, which affects their heat transfer performance. In this paper, a novel fin array has been optimized by multi-objective Response Surface Method (RSM based on discharging process of PCM, and then this fin configuration is applied on LHTESS, and comparison between full discharging time by applying this fin array and LHTESS with other fin structures has been carried out. The employed numerical method in this paper is Standard Galerkin Finite Element Method. Adaptive grid refinement is used to solve the equations. Since the enhancement technique, which has been employed in the present study reduces the employed PCM mass, maximum energy storage capacity variations have been considered. Therefore phase change expedition and maximum energy storage capacity have been considered as the objectives of optimization and the importance of second objective is indicated which is proposed as the novelty here. Results indicate that considering maximum energy storage capacity as the objective of optimization procedure leads to efficient shape design of LHTESS. Also employing optimized V-shaped fin in LHTESS, expedites discharging process considerably in comparison with the LHTESS without fin.

  19. Direct analysis of anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption-dielectric barrier discharge ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Nonami, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-08-11

    Rapid detection of trace level anabolic steroids in urine is highly desirable to monitor the consumption of performance enhancing anabolic steroids by athletes. The present article describes a novel strategy for identifying the trace anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption (LPTD) coupled to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ionization mass spectrometry. Using this method the steroid molecules are enriched within a liquid droplet during the thermal desorption process and desorbed all-together at the last moment of droplet evaporation in a short time domain. The desorbed molecules were ionized using a dielectric barrier discharge ion-source in front of the mass spectrometer inlet at open atmosphere. This process facilitates the sensitivity enhancement with several orders of magnitude compared to the thermal desorption at a lower temperature. The limits of detection (LODs) of various steroid molecules were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1 ng mL(-1) for standard solutions and around two orders of magnitude higher for synthetic urine samples. The detection limits of urinary anabolic steroids could be lowered by using a simple and rapid dichloromethane extraction technique. The analytical figures of merit of this technique were evaluated at open atmosphere using suitable internal standards. The technique is simple and rapid for high sensitivity and high throughput screening of anabolic steroids in urine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Solar thermal plant impact analysis and requirements definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Y. P.

    1980-01-01

    Progress on a continuing study comprising of ten tasks directed at defining impact and requirements for solar thermal power systems (SPS), 1 to 10 MWe each in capacity, installed during 1985 through year 2000 in a utility or a nonutility load in the United States is summarized. The point focus distributed receiver (PFDR) solar power systems are emphasized. Tasks 1 through 4, completed to date, include the development of a comprehensive data base on SPS configurations, their performance, cost, availability, and potential applications; user loads, regional characteristics, and an analytic methodology that incorporates the generally accepted utility financial planning methods and several unique modifications to treat the significant and specific characteristics of solar power systems deployed in either central or distributed power generation modes, are discussed.

  1. Heat engine requirements for advanced solar thermal power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Pham, H. Q.

    1981-01-01

    Requirements and constraints are established for power conversion subsystems, including heat engine, alternator and auxiliaries, of dish concentrator solar thermal power systems. In order to be competitive with conventional power systems, it is argued that the heat engine should be of less than 40 kW rated output, in a subsystem with an efficiency of at least 40% at rated output and at least 37% at half power. An interval between major overhauls of 50,000 hours is also desirable, along with minor maintenance and lubrication not more than four times a year requiring no more than one man-hour each time, and optimal reliability. Also found to be important are the capability for hybrid operation using heat from a solar receiver, fuel-fired combustor or both simultaneously, operation at any attitude, stability to transients in input power and output loading, operation at ambient temperatures from -30 to 50 C, and compatibility with environmental and safety requirements. Cost targets include a price of $180/kWe, and operation, maintenance and replacement costs averaging $0.001/kWh for 30 years of operation.

  2. Agricultural Applications and Requirements for Thermal Infrared Scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Some of the applications of thermal scanner data in agriculture are presented along with illustrations of some of the factors affecting the temperature of plants, soil, and water. Examples of thermal imagery are included.

  3. Preliminary Analysis of Effects of Reduced Discharge onThermal Habitat of Pedersen Warm Springs Channel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A preliminary report to study the potential impacts of possible flow reductions in thermal spring systems located in the Warm Springs area of Moapa Valley NWR on the...

  4. Nociceptor-Enriched Genes Required for Normal Thermal Nociception

    OpenAIRE

    Honjo, Ken; Mauthner, Stephanie E.; Wang, Yu; Skene, J.H. Pate; Tracey Jr., W. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a targeted reverse genetic screen for thermal nociception genes in Drosophila larvae. Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analyses of nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons, we identified 275 nociceptor-enriched genes. We then tested the function of the enriched genes with nociceptor-specific RNAi and thermal nociception assays. Tissue-specific RNAi targeted against 14 genes caused insensitive thermal nociception while targeting of 22 genes caused hypersensit...

  5. Studies of thermal energy confinement scaling in PDX plasmas: D/sup 0/. -->. H/sup +/ limiter discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, S.M.; Goldston, R.J.; Bell, M.; Bol, K.; Bitter, M.; Fonck, R.; Grek, B.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Johnson, D.; Kaita, R.

    1984-06-01

    Experiments were performed on the PDX tokamak to study plasma heating and ..beta.. scaling with higher power, near-perpendicular neutral beam injection. The data taken during these experiments were analyzed using a time-dependent data interpretation code (TRANSP) to study the transport and thermal confinement scaling over a wide range of plasma parameters. This study focuses on results from experiments with D/sup 0/ injection into H/sup +/ plasmas using graphite rail limiters, a = 40 to 44 cm, R = 143 cm, I/sub p/ = 200 to 480 kA, B/sub T/ = 0.7 to 2.2 T, and typically anti n/sub e/ = 2.5 to 4.2 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/. The results of this study indicate that for both ohmic and neutral beam heated discharges the energy flow out of the plasma is dominated by anomalous electron losses, attributed to electron thermal conduction. The ion conduction losses are well described to electron thermal conduction. The ion conduction losses are well described by neoclassical theory; however, the total ion loss influences the power balance significantly only at high toroidal fields and high plasma currents.

  6. Thermal dose requirement for tissue effect: experimental and clinical findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhirst, Mark; Viglianti, Benjamin L.; Lora-Michiels, Michael; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hanson, Margaret A.

    2003-06-01

    In this review we have summarized the basic principles that govern the relationships between thermal exposure (temperature and time of exposure) and thermal damage, with an emphasis on normal tissue effects. We have also attempted to identify specific thermal dose information (for safety and injury) for a variety of tissues in a variety of species. We address the use, accuracy and difficulty of conversion of an individual time and temperature (thermal dose) to a standardized value (eg equivalent minutes at 43degC) for comparison of thermal treatments. Although, the conversion algorithm appears to work well within a range of moderately elevated temperatures (2-15degC) above normal physiologic baseline (37-39degC) there is concern that conversion accuracy does not hold up for temperatures which are minimally or significantly above baseline. An extensive review of the literature suggests a comprehensive assessment of the "thermal dose-to-tissue effect" has not previously been assembled for most individual tissues and never been viewed in a semi-comprehensive (tissues and species) manner. Finally, we have addressed the relationship of thermal dose-to-effect vs. baseline temperature. This issues is important since much of the thermal dose-to-effect information has been accrued in animal models with baseline temperatures 1-2 deg higher than that of humans.

  7. Non-thermal dielectric-barrier discharge plasma damages human keratinocytes by inducing oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, KI CHEON; PIAO, MEI JING; HEWAGE, SUSARA RUWAN KUMARA MADDUMA; HAN, XIA; KANG, KYOUNG AH; JO, JIN OH; MOK, YOUNG SUN; SHIN, JENNIFER H.; PARK, YEUNSOO; YOO, SUK JAE; HYUN, JIN WON

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms through which dielectric-barrier discharge plasma damages human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) through the induction of oxidative stress. For this purpose, the cells were exposed to surface dielectric-barrier discharge plasma in 70% oxygen and 30% argon. We noted that cell viability was decreased following exposure of the cells to plasma in a time-dependent manner, as shown by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium was used to monitor superoxide anion production. Plasma induced the generation of ROS, including superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. N-acetyl cysteine, which is an antioxidant, prevented the decrease in cell viability caused by exposure to plasma. ROS generated by exposure to plasma resulted in damage to various cellular components, including lipid membrane peroxidation, DNA breaks and protein carbonylation, which was detected by measuring the levels of 8-isoprostane and diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine assay, comet assay and protein carbonyl formation. These results suggest that plasma exerts cytotoxic effects by causing oxidative stress-induced damage to cellular components. PMID:26573561

  8. Characterization of Terrestrial Discharges into Coastal Waters with Thermal Imagery from a Hierarchical Monitoring Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ferrara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hierarchical use of remotely-sensed imagery from satellites, and then proximally-sensed imagery from helicopter sand drones, can provide a range of spatial and temporal coverage that supports water quality monitoring of complex pollution scenarios. Methods: The study used hierarchical satellite-, helicopter-, and drone-acquired thermal imagery of coastal plumes ranging from 3 to 300 m, near Naples, Italy, and captured temporally- and spatially-overlapping in situ samples to correlate thermal and water quality parameters in each plume and the seawater. Results: In situ sampling determined that between-plume salinity varied by 37%, chlorophyll-a varied by 356%, dissolved oxygen varied by 81%, and turbidity varied by 232%. The radiometric temperature, Trad, for the plume area of interest had a correlation of 0.81 with salinity, 0.74 with chlorophyll-a, 0.98 with dissolved oxygen, and −0.61 with turbidity. Conclusion: This study established hierarchical use of remote and proximal thermal imagery can provide monitoring of complex coastal areas.

  9. Nociceptor-Enriched Genes Required for Normal Thermal Nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Honjo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe a targeted reverse genetic screen for thermal nociception genes in Drosophila larvae. Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analyses of nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons, we identified 275 nociceptor-enriched genes. We then tested the function of the enriched genes with nociceptor-specific RNAi and thermal nociception assays. Tissue-specific RNAi targeted against 14 genes caused insensitive thermal nociception while targeting of 22 genes caused hypersensitive thermal nociception. Previously uncategorized genes were named for heat resistance (i.e., boilerman, fire dancer, oven mitt, trivet, thawb, and bunker gear or heat sensitivity (firelighter, black match, eucalyptus, primacord, jet fuel, detonator, gasoline, smoke alarm, and jetboil. Insensitive nociception phenotypes were often associated with severely reduced branching of nociceptor neurites and hyperbranched dendrites were seen in two of the hypersensitive cases. Many genes that we identified are conserved in mammals.

  10. Nociceptor-enriched genes required for normal thermal nociception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Ken; Mauthner, Stephanie E.; Wang, Yu; Skene, J.H. Pate; Tracey, W. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Here, we describe a targeted reverse genetic screen for thermal nociception genes in Drosophila larvae. Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analyses of nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons we identified 275 nociceptor-enriched genes. We then tested the function of the enriched genes with nociceptor-specific RNAi and thermal nociception assays. Tissue-specific RNAi targeted against 14 genes caused insensitive thermal nociception while targeting of 22 genes caused hypersensitive thermal nociception. Previously uncategorized genes were named for heat resistance (ie. boilerman, fire dancer, oven mitt, trivet, thawb and bunker gear) or heat sensitivity (firelighter, black match, eucalyptus, primacord, jet fuel, detonator, gasoline, smoke alarm, and jetboil). Insensitive nociception phenotypes were often associated with severely reduced branching of nociceptor neurites and hyperbranched dendrites were seen in two of the hypersensitive cases. Many genes that we identified are conserved in mammals. PMID:27346357

  11. Spacecraft Thermal Control System Not Requiring Power Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The thermal management of spacecraft would be enhanced by dynamic control over surface emissivity in the mid-infrared. In this SBIR program, Triton Systems proposes...

  12. 24 CFR 3280.207 - Requirements for foam plastic thermal insulating materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mineral fiber insulation or an equivalent thermal barrier; or (3) The foam plastic insulating material has... thermal insulating materials. 3280.207 Section 3280.207 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.207 Requirements for foam plastic thermal insulating materials. (a...

  13. Atmospheric Pressure Non-Thermal Plasma Activation of CO2in a Packed-Bed Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Danhua; Tu, Xin

    2017-11-17

    Direct conversion of CO 2 into CO and O 2 is performed in a packed-bed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) non-thermal plasma reactor at low temperatures and atmospheric pressure. The maximum CO 2 conversion of 22.6 % is achieved when BaTiO 3 pellets are fully packed into the discharge gap. The introduction of γ-Al 2 O 3 or 10 wt % Ni/γ-Al 2 O 3 catalyst into the BaTiO 3 packed DBD reactor increases both CO 2 conversion and energy efficiency of the plasma process. Packing γ-Al 2 O 3 or 10 wt % Ni/γ-Al 2 O 3 upstream of the BaTiO 3 bed shows higher CO 2 conversion and energy efficiency compared with that of mid- or downstream packing modes because the reverse reaction of CO 2 conversion-the recombination of CO and O to form CO 2 -is more likely to occur in mid- and downstream modes. Compared with the γ-Al 2 O 3 support, the coupling of the DBD with the Ni catalyst shows a higher CO 2 conversion, which can be attributed to the presence of Ni active species on the catalyst surface. The argon plasma treatment of the reacted Ni catalyst provides extra evidence to confirm the role of Ni active species in the conversion of CO 2 . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. What happens after discharge? An analysis of long-term survival in cardiac surgical patients requiring prolonged intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfstrom, K Miriam; Hatefi, Dustin; Kilgo, Patrick D; Puskas, John D; Thourani, Vinod H; Guyton, Robert A; Halkos, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac surgical patients with postoperative complications frequently require prolonged intensive care yet survive to hospital discharge. From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2007, 11,541 consecutive patients underwent cardiac operations at a single academic institution. Of these, 11,084 (95.9%) survived to hospital discharge and comprised the study sample. Patients were retrospectively categorized into four groups according to intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS): 14 days. Survival at 12 months was determined using the Social Security Death Index. Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival curves and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling (hazard ratio, HR) were used to analyze group differences in survival. One-year survival among the four groups according to ICU LOS was: 14 days, 68.3% (265/388) (p 14 days (HR = 1.90) compared to patients with ICU LOS 14 days (HR = 1.63). Although cardiac surgery patients with major postoperative complications frequently survive to hospital discharge, survival after discharge is significantly reduced in patients requiring prolonged ICU care. Reduced survival in patients with a high risk of complications and anticipated long ICU stays should be considered when discussing surgical versus nonsurgical options. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A geothermal resource in the Puna plateau (Jujuy Province, Argentina): New insights from the geochemistry of thermal fluid discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Arnold, Yesica; Cabassi, Jacopo; Tassi, Franco; Caffe, Pablo; Vaselli, Orlando

    2017-04-01

    Several hydrothermal mineralization and thermal fluid discharges are distributed in the high altitude Puna plateau at the eastern border of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes in the Jujuy Province, a region where volcanic explosive activity developed from Oligocene-Miocene to Neogene produced giant calderas and huge ignimbrite deposits. This study presents the geochemical and isotopic composition of thermal fluids discharged from Granada, Vilama, Pairique, Coranzulì and Olaroz zones, which are located between S 22°20'- 23°20' and W 66°- 67°. This aim is to provide insights into the physicochemical features of the deep fluid circulating system in order to have a preliminary indication about the geothermal potential in this area. The occurrence of partially mature Na+-Cl- waters suggests that a deep (>5,000 m b.g.l.) hydrothermal reservoir, hosted within the Paleozoic crystalline basement, represents the main fluid source. Regional tectonics, dominated by S-oriented faulting systems that produced a horst and graben tectonics, as well as NE-, NW- and WE-oriented transverse structures, favour the uprising of the deep-originated fluids, including a significant amount (up to 16%) of mantle He. The dry gas phase mainly consists of CO2 mostly produced from subducted C-bearing organic-rich material. The interaction between meteoric water and Cretaceous, Palaeogene to Miocene sediments at shallow depth gives rise to relatively cold Na+-HCO3-type aquifers. Dissolution of evaporitic surficial deposits (salares), produced by the arid climate of the region, strongly affects the chemistry of the thermal springs in the peripheral zones of the study area. Geothermometry in the Na-K-Ca-Mg system suggests equilibrium temperatures up to 200 °C for the deep aquifer, whereas the H2 geothermometer equilibrates at lower temperatures (from 105 to 155 °C), likely corresponding to those of the shallower aquifer. Although the great depth of the main fluid reservoir represents a

  16. 75 FR 72653 - Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... RIN 3150-AI01 Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal... Regulations (10 CFR) part 50, section 61a to provide alternate fracture toughness requirements for protection...

  17. Mastectomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast removal surgery - discharge; Nipple-sparing mastectomy - discharge; Total mastectomy - discharge; Simple mastectomy - discharge; Modified radical mastectomy - discharge; Breast cancer - mastectomy -discharge

  18. Passenger thermal perceptions, thermal comfort requirements, and adaptations in short- and long-haul vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Huang, Kuo-Tsang; Sun, Chen-Yi; Huang, Ying-Che

    2010-05-01

    While thermal comfort in mass transportation vehicles is relevant to service quality and energy consumption, benchmarks for such comfort that reflect the thermal adaptations of passengers are currently lacking. This study reports a field experiment involving simultaneous physical measurements and a questionnaire survey, collecting data from 2,129 respondents, that evaluated thermal comfort in short- and long-haul buses and trains. Experimental results indicate that high air temperature, strong solar radiation, and low air movement explain why passengers feel thermally uncomfortable. The overall insulation of clothing worn by passengers and thermal adaptive behaviour in vehicles differ from those in their living and working spaces. Passengers in short-haul vehicles habitually adjust the air outlets to increase thermal comfort, while passengers in long-haul vehicles prefer to draw the drapes to reduce discomfort from extended exposure to solar radiation. The neutral temperatures for short- and long-haul vehicles are 26.2 degrees C and 27.4 degrees C, while the comfort zones are 22.4-28.9 degrees C and 22.4-30.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for practitioners involved in determining the adequate control and management of in-vehicle thermal environments, as well as facilitating design of buses and trains, ultimately contributing to efforts to achieve a balance between the thermal comfort satisfaction of passengers and energy conserving measures for air-conditioning in mass transportation vehicles.

  19. Atomic xenon recombination laser excited by thermal ionizing radiation from a magnetoplasma compressor and discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrukov, A. S.; Kozlov, Nicolay P.; Opekan, A. G.; Protasov, Yuri S.; Rudoi, I. G.; Soroka, A. M.

    1991-09-01

    A description is given and the results are reported of the first photoionization-recombination laser using atomic xenon excited by thermal ionizing radiation from a plasma. The pump source was a multichannel plasmadynamic in magnetoplasma compressors, which was ignited in the active medium of the laser. When the composition of the working mixture was optimal (Xe:Ar equals 1:250) and the total pressure was 1 atm, the output energy was approximately 0.5 in the form of pulses of approximately 10 microsecond(s) duration, and maximum specific output energy represented by laser radiation was 1-2 J/l. The unsaturated gain was 27 m. A kinetic laser scheme was proposed and analyzed. It allowed for the processes of photoionization, ion conversion, dissociative recombination, interaction of excited states with electron and buffer gases, etc. An important role played by heating of the active medium during pumping was demonstrated; it explained the observed characteristics of the spatial and temporal structure of the lasing process, particularly bleaching of large volumes of the active medium. The potential output energy of the laser was considered, and specific constructions were proposed to attain a lasing efficiency amounting to a few percent.

  20. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: The Potential Impact of Bottom Water Discharge at Subsurface on Microphytoplankton in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Broise, D.; Giraud, M.; Garcon, V.; Boye, M.

    2016-02-01

    Mélanie Giraud1,2,3, Véronique Garçon3, Marie Boye11LEMAR - UMR 6539 Plouzané France, 2France Energies Marines Brest France, 3LEGOS/CNRS Toulouse -France Part of the solar energy can be harvested and used in different processes. Taking advantage of the natural temperature gradient between the surface and deep ocean, the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) process fulfills this goal. The IMPALA project (Impacts of artificial upwelling on microplankton) aims to study the potential environmental impacts of releasing, below the surface, deep seawater flowing out of a scheduled OTEC pilot plant offshore the Martinique Island in the Caribbean Sea. The OTEC installed off the Caribbean coast of Martinique is expected to pump approximately 100 000 m3/h of deep seawater for its functioning. The resulting impact of this cold nutrient-rich deep seawater discharge on the phytoplankton community of the nutrient depleted surface water is not fully understood. Therefore, a study was initiated before the installation of the pilot plant. The vertical and horizontal seawater plume dispersion of the deep seawater upwelling was described using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Field data allowed describing the expected chemical characteristics of the resulting mixed seawaters. The potential impact on the phytoplankton community was evaluated by in situ microcosm experiments. Two deep seawater ratio (2% and 10%) and two incubation depths (deep chlorophyll maximum and euphotic layer deep limit) were tested, showing a larger impact at the deep chlorophyll maximum and for the higher deep seawater concentration (10%). The microcosm enrichment by 10% of deep seawater induced a significant shift in the phytoplankton assemblage, supporting diatoms development, whereas the enrichment by 2% of deep seawater only showed a small shift in phytoplankton population. Experimental and modelling results were combined in order to identify the deep seawater discharge depth exhibiting the

  1. The determination of relaxation parameters and their distributions using thermally stimulated discharge current measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neagu, Eugen R.; Neagu, Radu

    2002-09-01

    For any elemental peak obtained by the thermally stimulated depolarization current technique, there is a relationship between the activation energy W, the pre-exponential factor τ0, the temperature of the maximum current Tm and the heating rate b. This relationship can yield useful information concerning the values and the distribution of the relaxation parameters. Numerical simulations, using concrete experimental data obtained for nylon 11, are used to demonstrate the analysis for organic dielectrics. Lower limits for the incertitude intervals of W and τ0 represent the natural or minimum incertitude intervals expected for an elemental relaxation process. Taking advantage of the fact that the natural incertitude interval in activation energies is ΔW≅kTm (k is Boltzmann's constant), the natural incertitude interval for τ0 is deduced as Δτ0≅τ0. For example, assuming Tm = 300 K and Δτ0 = 0, the interval ΔTm for two resolved neighbour elemental peaks, in other words the interval in which Tm can have values as W varies in the limits on the natural incertitude interval, increases from 7.1 to 11.9 K as W decreases from 1.05 to 0.59 eV. An experimental thermogram can be decomposed into a limited number of elemental peaks having W and τ0 distributed in the limits of the natural or minimum incertitude intervals (ΔW≅kTm and Δτ0≅τ0). The distribution function for a relaxation parameter cannot be determined unambiguously for the case when the width of the distribution is comparable with the natural standard deviation for the given conditions. Only one parameter or only one distribution must be avoided considering any analysis as variable.

  2. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: the potential impact on microphytoplankton of bottom water discharge at subsurface in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Mélanie; Boye, Marie; Garçon, Véronique; L'Helguen, Stéphane; Donval, Anne; De la Broise, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Part of the solar energy can be harvested and used in different processes. Taking advantage of the natural temperature gradient between the surface and deep ocean, the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) process fulfills this goal. The IMPALA project (Impacts of artificial upwelling on microplankton) aims to study the potential environmental impacts of releasing, below the surface, deep seawater flowing out of a scheduled OTEC pilot plant offshore the Martinique Island in the Caribbean Sea. Biogeochemical processes involved in the artificial upwelling generated by the use of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant were studied in this poor nutrient environment. The biogeochemical and physical ecosystem structure and functioning on the OTEC site were described and deep seawater discharge using in situ microcosm experiments was carried out off Martinique. Surface seawater was collected in ultra-clean conditions at two depths (corresponding to the maximum of chlorophyll a concentration and bottom of nutricline) and mixed in different proportions with deep seawater (2% and 10%). Pigments determination, picophytoplankton abundance, macro-nutrients (silicates, nitrates, and phosphates), particular organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations and primary production were documented to assess the variability between the natural environment and within the microcosms. The latter were immersed for 6 days on a 250 meters mooring. Variations observed in microcosms experiments and in the surrounding waters were compared in order to evaluate the natural variability of the phytoplankton assemblage and the potential shifts induced by deep water supply. Results obtained during two fields campaigns conducted off Martinique at the onset of the dry (November-December 2013) and wet seasons (June 2014), respectively, will be presented and discussed. Incubating mixtures of subsurface and deep waters at two ratios and at two depths, allows evaluating the potential impact of a deep

  3. Race, ethnicity, and analgesia provision at discharge among children with long-bone fractures requiring emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Henry W; Vander Velden, Heidi; Lin, Chia-Wei; Reid, Samuel

    2013-04-01

    Inadequate treatment of painful conditions in children is a significant and complex problem. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of race/ethnicity on the provision of analgesic medicines at discharge in children treated emergently for a long-bone fracture. A retrospective review of all patients during a 1-year period with a long-bone fracture treated in 2 urban pediatric emergency departments was performed. Eight hundred seventy-eight patients who met our inclusion criteria were identified. Sixty percent of patients received a prescription for an opioid-containing medicine, and 19% received a prescription for an over-the-counter analgesic medicine at emergency department discharge. Patients identified as African American, non-Hispanic, biracial, and Hispanic/Latino had significantly lower rates of opioid analgesic prescriptions when compared with other ethnic groups. White, non-Hispanic patients had lower rates of over-the-counter analgesic medicine prescriptions provided at discharge. Patients identified as white, non-Hispanic had a higher percentage of fractures that required reduction in the emergency department when compared with other ethnic groups. Race/ethnicity is associated with different analgesic prescription patterns in children treated in the emergency department for a long-bone fracture.

  4. Thermal discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant outfalls: Impacts on stream temperatures and fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, W.K.; Ryon, M.G.; Hinzman, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.

    1996-03-01

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the US Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7 C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances.

  5. Thermal Discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Outfalls: Impacts on Stream Temperatures and Fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, W.K.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances.

  6. HDAC4 is required for inflammation-associated thermal hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Megan; Khovanov, Nikita; Kelleher, Jayne H; Sharma, Simone; Grant, Andrew D; Bogdanov, Yury; Wood, John N; McMahon, Stephen B; Denk, Franziska

    2015-08-01

    Transcriptional alterations are characteristic of persistent pain states, but the key regulators remain elusive. HDAC4 is a transcriptional corepressor that has been linked to synaptic plasticity and neuronal excitability, mechanisms that may be involved in peripheral and central sensitization. Using a conditional knockout (cKO) strategy in mice, we sought to determine whether the loss of HDAC4 would have implications for sensory neuron transcription and nociception. HDAC4 was found to be largely unnecessary for transcriptional regulation of naïve sensory neurons but was essential for appropriate transcriptional responses after injury, with Calca and Trpv1 expression consistently down-regulated in HDAC4 cKO compared to levels in the littermate controls (0.2-0.44-fold change, n = 4 in 2 separate experiments). This down-regulation corresponded to reduced sensitivity to 100 nM capsaicin in vitro (IC50 = 230 ± 20 nM, 76 ± 4.4% wild-type capsaicin responders vs. 56.9 ± 4.7% HDAC4 cKO responders) and to reduced thermal hypersensitivity in the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) model of inflammatory pain (1.3-1.4-fold improvement over wild-type controls; n = 5-12, in 2 separate experiments). These data indicate that HDAC4 is a novel inflammatory pain mediator and may be a good therapeutic target, capable of orchestrating the regulation of multiple downstream effectors. © The Author(s).

  7. The test facility requirements for the thermal vacuum thermal balance test of the Cosmic Background Explorer Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Laura J.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer Observatory (COBE) underwent a thermal vacuum thermal balance test in the Space Environment Simulator (SES). This was the largest and most complex test ever conducted at this facility. The 4 x 4 m (13 x 13 ft) spacecraft weighed approx. 2223 kg (4900 lbs) for the test. The test set up included simulator panels for the inboard solar array panels, simulator panels for the flight cowlings, Sun and Earth Sensor stimuli, Thermal Radio Frequency Shield heater stimuli and a cryopanel for thermal control in the Attitude Control System Shunt Dissipator area. The fixturing also included a unique 4.3 m (14 ft) diameter Gaseous Helium Cryopanel which provided a 20 K environment for the calibration of one of the spacecraft's instruments, the Differential Microwave Radiometer. This cryogenic panel caused extra contamination concerns and a special method was developed and written into the test procedure to prevent the high buildup of condensibles on the panel which could have led to backstreaming of the thermal vacuum chamber. The test was completed with a high quality simulated space environment provided to the spacecraft. The test requirements, test set up, and special fixturing are described.

  8. 77 FR 34315 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-Proposed Regulations to Establish Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Technologies 6. Facilities With Low Impingement Rates 7. Species of Concern III. General Solicitation of... technologies, and EPA would like to clarify that these concepts are not the same. Most velocity caps do not... facilities by setting requirements that reflect the best technology available (BTA) for minimizing adverse...

  9. Thermal and hydraulic considerations regarding the fate of water discharged by the outflow channels to the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    The identification of possible shorelines in the Martian northern plains suggests that the water discharged by the circum-Chryse outflow channels may have led to the formation of transient seas, or possibly even an ocean, covering as much as one-third of the planet. Speculations regarding the possible fate of this water have included local ponding and reinfiltration into the crust; freezing, sublimation, and eventual cold-trapping at higher latitudes; or the in situ survival of this now frozen water to the present day -- perhaps aided by burial beneath a protective cover of eolian sediment or lavas. Although neither cold-trapping at higher latitudes nor the subsequent freezing and burial of flood waters can be ruled out, thermal and hydraulic considerations effectively eliminate the possibility that any significant reassimilation of this water by local infiltration has occurred given climatic conditions resembling those of today. The arguments against the local infiltration of flood water into the northern plains are two-fold. First, given the climatic and geothermal conditions that are thought to have prevailed on Mars during the Late Hesperian (the period of peak outflow channel activity in the northern plains), the thickness of the cryosphere in Chryse Planitia is likely to have exceeded 1 km. A necessary precondition for the widespread occurrence of groundwater is that the thermodynamic sink represented by the cryosphere must already be saturated with ice. For this reason, the ice-saturated cryosphere acts as an impermeable barrier that effectively precludes the local resupply of subpermafrost groundwater by the infiltration of water discharged to the surface by catastraphic floods. Note that the problem of local infiltration is not significantly improved even if the cryosphere were initially dry, for as water attempts to infiltrate the cold, dry crust, it will quickly freeze, creating a seal that prevents any further infiltration from the ponded water above

  10. 33 CFR 151.66 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage in the Great Lakes and other navigable waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; except that discharges are allowed at: (1) 4.75 miles off Big Sable Point Betsie, along established Lake... each loading or unloading operation, the record must describe: (i) The date of the operation; (ii... each discharge, the record must describe: (i) The date and time the discharge started, and the date and...

  11. Diagnosis of the local thermal equilibrium by optical emission spectroscopy in the evolution of electric discharge; Diagnostico del equilibrio termico local por espectroscopia optica de emision en la evolucion de una descarga electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdivia B, R.; Pacheco S, J.; Pacheco P, M.; Ramos F, F.; Cruz A, A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Velazquez P, S. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Instituto Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho la Virgen, Metepec 52140, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    In this work applies the technique of optical emission spectroscopy to diagnose the temperature of the species generated in plasma in the transition to glow discharge arc. Whit this diagnosis is possible to determine the local thermal equilibrium conditions of the discharge. (Author)

  12. Ground-based thermography of fluvial systems at low and high discharge reveals potential complex thermal heterogeneity driven by flow variation and bioroughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, M.B.; Harvey, J.W.; Packman, A.I.; Scott, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    Temperature is a primary physical and biogeochemical variable in aquatic systems. Field-based measurement of temperature at discrete sampling points has revealed temperature variability in fluvial systems, but traditional techniques do not readily allow for synoptic sampling schemes that can address temperature-related questions with broad, yet detailed, coverage. We present results of thermal infrared imaging at different stream discharge (base flow and peak flood) conditions using a handheld IR camera. Remotely sensed temperatures compare well with those measured with a digital thermometer. The thermal images show that periphyton, wood, and sandbars induce significant thermal heterogeneity during low stages. Moreover, the images indicate temperature variability within the periphyton community and within the partially submerged bars. The thermal heterogeneity was diminished during flood inundation, when the areas of more slowly moving water to the side of the stream differed in their temperature. The results have consequences for thermally sensitive hydroelogical processes and implications for models of those processes, especially those that assume an effective stream temperature. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Combined use of thermal methods and seepage meters to efficiently locate, quantify, and monitor focused groundwater discharge to a sand-bed stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Briggs, Martin; Delin, Geoffrey N.; Hare, Danielle K.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying flow of groundwater through streambeds often is difficult due to the complexity of aquifer-scale heterogeneity combined with local-scale hyporheic exchange. We used fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS), seepage meters, and vertical temperature profiling to locate, quantify, and monitor areas of focused groundwater discharge in a geomorphically simple sand-bed stream. This combined approach allowed us to rapidly focus efforts at locations where prodigious amounts of groundwater discharged to the Quashnet River on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, northeastern USA. FO-DTS detected numerous anomalously cold reaches one to several m long that persisted over two summers. Seepage meters positioned upstream, within, and downstream of 7 anomalously cold reaches indicated that rapid groundwater discharge occurred precisely where the bed was cold; median upward seepage was nearly 5 times faster than seepage measured in streambed areas not identified as cold. Vertical temperature profilers deployed next to 8 seepage meters provided diurnal-signal-based seepage estimates that compared remarkably well with seepage-meter values. Regression slope and R2 values both were near 1 for seepage ranging from 0.05 to 3.0 m d−1. Temperature-based seepage model accuracy was improved with thermal diffusivity determined locally from diurnal signals. Similar calculations provided values for streambed sediment scour and deposition at subdaily resolution. Seepage was strongly heterogeneous even along a sand-bed river that flows over a relatively uniform sand and fine-gravel aquifer. FO-DTS was an efficient method for detecting areas of rapid groundwater discharge, even in a strongly gaining river, that can then be quantified over time with inexpensive streambed thermal methods.

  14. Breathing thermal manikins for indoor environment assessment: important characteristics and requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    and perceived air quality by means of breathing thermal manikins have been made as well. In order to perform accurate measurements and realistic evaluation and assessment, the design and characteristics of a manikin must comply with certain requirements. The most important of these, such as number, size...

  15. Manganese-cerium oxide catalysts prepared by non-thermal plasma for NO oxidation: Effect of O2 in discharge atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zheng, Chenghang; Wu, Shenghao; Gao, Xiang; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2017-09-01

    Non-thermal plasma with different O2 concentration in discharge atmosphere was applied to synthesize manganese and cerium mixed-oxides catalysts, which were compared in NO oxidation activity. Discharge atmosphere displayed a crucial influence on the performance of the catalysts prepared by plasma. Relatively low O2 concentration in discharge atmosphere allows synthesizing manganese-cerium oxides catalysts in a moderate environment and therefore is favorable for better physicochemical properties which lead to superior catalytic behavior. The best catalyst was obtained by treatment with 10% O2/N2 plasma and presented over 80% NO conversion in the temperature range of 275-325 °C, whereas catalyst prepared in pure O2 discharge atmosphere had the same activity with a catalyst prepared by calcinations. A correlation between the surface properties of the plasma prepared catalysts and its catalytic activity in NO oxidation is proposed. The amount of the surface adsorbed oxygen has an obvious linear correlation with the amount of Ce3+, the H2 consumption at low temperatures and the catalytic performance. The superior catalytic performance is mainly attributed to the stronger interaction between manganese oxides and ceria, and the formation of poorly crystallized Mn-O-Ce phase in the catalyst which resulted from the slow decomposition of nitrates and organics during plasma treatment. Catalysts prepared in relatively low O2 concentration have large specific surface area and is abundant in Ce3+ species and active oxygen species. The study suggests that plasma treatment with proper discharge gas components is a promising method to prepare effective manganese- cerium oxides catalyst for NO oxidation.

  16. The application of a non-thermal plasma generated by gas-liquid gliding arc discharge in sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chang Ming; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Lu; Xia Li, Hong; Liu, Hui; Xiong, Ya

    2012-01-01

    Gliding arc discharge has been investigated in recent years as an innovative physicochemical technique for contaminated water treatment at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. In this study we tested a gas-liquid gliding arc discharge reactor, the bacterial suspension of which was treated circularly. When the bacterial suspension was passed through the electrodes and circulated at defined flow rates, almost 100% of the bacteria were killed in less than 3.0 min. Experimental results showed that it is possible to achieve an abatement of 7.0 decimal logarithm units within only 30 s. Circulation flow rates and types of feeding gas caused a certain impact on bacteria inactivation, but the influences are not obvious. So, under the promise of sterilization effect, industrial applications can select their appropriate operating conditions. All inactivation curves presented the same three-phase profile showing an apparent sterilization effect. Analysis of the scanning electron microscope images of bacterial cells supports the speculation that the gas-liquid gliding arc discharge plasma is acting under various mechanisms driven essentially by oxidation and the effect of electric field. These results enhance the possibility of applying gas-liquid gliding arc discharge decontamination systems to disinfect bacterial-contaminated water. Furthermore, correlational research indicates the potential applications of this technology in rapid sterilization of medical devices, spacecraft and food.

  17. High speed imaging, lightning mapping arrays and thermal imaging: a synergy for the monitoring of electrical discharges at the onset of volcanic explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Damien; Cimarelli, Corrado; Behnke, Sonja; Cigala, Valeria; Edens, Harald; McNutt, Stefen; Smith, Cassandra; Thomas, Ronald; Van Eaton, Alexa

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic lightning is being increasingly studied, due to its great potential for the detection and monitoring of ash plumes. Indeed, it is observed in a large number of ash-rich volcanic eruptions and it produces electromagnetic waves that can be detected remotely in all weather conditions. Electrical discharges in volcanic plume can also significantly change the structural, chemical and reactivity properties of the erupted material. Although electrical discharges are detected in various regions of the plume, those happening at the onset of an explosion are of particular relevance for the early warning and the study of volcanic jet dynamics. In order to better constrain the electrical activity of young volcanic plumes, we deployed at Sakurajima (Japan) in 2015 a multiparametric set-up including: i) a lightning mapping array (LMA) of 10 VHF antennas recording the electromagnetic waves produced by lightning at a sample rate of 25 Msps; ii) a visible-light high speed camera (5000 frames per second, 0.5 m pixel size, 300 m field of view) shooting short movies (approx. duration 1 s) at different stages of the plume evolution, showing the location of discharges in relation to the plume; and iii) a thermal camera (25 fps, 1.5 m pixel size, 800 m field of view) continuously recording the plume and allowing the estimation of its main source parameters (volume, rise velocity, mass eruption rate). The complementarity of these three setups is demonstrated by comparing and aggregating the data at various stages of the plume development. In the earliest stages, the high speed camera spots discrete small discharges, that appear on the LMA data as peaks superimposed to the continuous radio frequency (CRF) signal. At later stages, flashes happen less frequently and increase in length. The correspondence between high speed camera and LMA data allows to define a direct correlation between the length of the flash and the intensity of the electromagnetic signal. Such correlation is

  18. Anticipating care needs of patients after discharge from hospital: Frail and elderly patients without physiological abnormality on day of admission are more likely to require social services input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbe, C P; Goulden, N; Mawdsley, K; Smith, R

    2017-11-01

    Acute admissions to hospital are rising. As a part of a service evaluation we examined pathways of patients following hospital discharge depending on data available on admission to hospital. We merged data available on admission to the Wrexham Maelor hospital from an existing data-base in the Acute Medical Unit with follow up data from local social services as part of a data sharing agreement. Patients requiring support by social services post-discharge were matched with patients not requiring social services from the same post-code. Stepwise logistic regression analysis identified candidate variables predicting likely support need. Decision tree analysis identified sub-groups of patients with higher likelihood to require support by social services after discharge from hospital. We found patients with normal physiology on admission as evidenced by a value of zero for the National Early Warning Score who were frail or older than 85years were most likely to require support after discharge. Information available on admission to hospital might inform long term care needs. Prospective testing is needed. The algorithms are prone to be dependent on availability of local services but our methodology is expected to be transferable to other organizations. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pancreatitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  20. Technical support document for proposed revision of the model energy code thermal envelope requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1993-02-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the council of American Building Officials' (CABO) 1993 supplement to the 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (referred to as the 1993 MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. The goal of this analysis was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determined the most cost-effective (least total life-cycle cost [LCC]) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for residences in different locations. The ECMs with the lowest LCC were used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U[sub o]-value (thermal transmittance) curves in the MEC format. The changes proposed here affect the requirements for group R'' residences. The group R residences are detached one- and two-family dwellings (referred to as single-family) and all other residential buildings three stories or less (referred to as multifamily).

  1. Technical support document for proposed revision of the model energy code thermal envelope requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1993-02-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the council of American Building Officials` (CABO) 1993 supplement to the 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (referred to as the 1993 MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. The goal of this analysis was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determined the most cost-effective (least total life-cycle cost [LCC]) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for residences in different locations. The ECMs with the lowest LCC were used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U{sub o}-value (thermal transmittance) curves in the MEC format. The changes proposed here affect the requirements for ``group R`` residences. The group R residences are detached one- and two-family dwellings (referred to as single-family) and all other residential buildings three stories or less (referred to as multifamily).

  2. Earth Entry Requirements for Mars, Europa and Enceladus Sample Return Missions: A Thermal Protection System Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Gage, Peter; Ellerby, Don; Mahzari, Milad; Peterson, Keith; Stackpoole, Mairead; Young, Zion

    2016-01-01

    This oral presentation will be given at the 13th International Planetary Probe Workshop on June 14th, 2016 and will cover the drivers for reliability and the challenges faced in selecting and designing the thermal protection system (TPS). In addition, an assessment is made on new emerging TPS related technologies that could help with designs to meet the planetary protection requirements to prevent backward (Earth) contamination by biohazardous samples.

  3. Proceedings of the OECD/CSNI workshop on transient thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, D.

    1997-07-01

    This is a report on the CSNI Workshop on Transient Thermal-Hydraulic and Neutronic Codes Requirements held at Annapolis, Maryland, USA November 5-8, 1996. This experts` meeting consisted of 140 participants from 21 countries; 65 invited papers were presented. The meeting was divided into five areas: (1) current and prospective plans of thermal hydraulic codes development; (2) current and anticipated uses of thermal-hydraulic codes; (3) advances in modeling of thermal-hydraulic phenomena and associated additional experimental needs; (4) numerical methods in multi-phase flows; and (5) programming language, code architectures and user interfaces. The workshop consensus identified the following important action items to be addressed by the international community in order to maintain and improve the calculational capability: (a) preserve current code expertise and institutional memory, (b) preserve the ability to use the existing investment in plant transient analysis codes, (c) maintain essential experimental capabilities, (d) develop advanced measurement capabilities to support future code validation work, (e) integrate existing analytical capabilities so as to improve performance and reduce operating costs, (f) exploit the proven advances in code architecture, numerics, graphical user interfaces, and modularization in order to improve code performance and scrutibility, and (g) more effectively utilize user experience in modifying and improving the codes.

  4. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAT GRANDELLI, P.E.; GREG ROCHELEAU; JOHN HAMRICK, Ph.D.; MATT CHURCH, Ph.D.; BRIAN POWELL, Ph.D.

    2012-09-29

    This paper describes the modeling work by Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. to simulate the biochemical effects of of the nutrient-enhanced seawater plumes that are discharged by one or several 100 megawatt OTEC plants. The modeling is needed to properly design OTEC plants that can operate sustainably with acceptably low biological impact. In order to quantify the effect of discharge configuration and phytoplankton response, Makai Ocean Engineering implemented a biological and physical model for the waters surrounding O`ahu, Hawai`i, using the EPA-approved Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). Each EFDC grid cell was approximately 1 square kilometer by 20 meters deep, and used a time step of three hours. The biological model was set up to simulate the biochemical response for three classes of organisms: Picoplankton (< 2 um) such as prochlorococccus, nanoplankton (2-20 um), and microplankton (> 20 um) e.g., diatoms. The dynamic biological phytoplankton model was calibrated using chemical and biological data collected for the Hawaii Ocean Time Series (HOTS) project. Peer review of the biological modeling was performed. The physical oceanography model uses boundary conditions from a surrounding Hawai'i Regional Ocean Model, (ROM) operated by the University of Hawai`i and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration. The ROM provided tides, basin scale circulation, mesoscale variability, and atmospheric forcing into the edges of the EFDC computational domain. This model is the most accurate and sophisticated Hawai'ian Regional Ocean Model presently available, assimilating real-time oceanographic observations, as well as model calibration based upon temperature, current and salinity data collected during 2010 near the simulated OTEC site. The ROM program manager peer-reviewed Makai's implementation of the ROM output into our EFDC model. The supporting oceanographic data was collected for a Naval Facilities Engineering Command / Makai project

  5. Seafloor methane discharge at the Guaymas Transform, Gulf of California: New insights from seismic reflection, thermal, and ROV data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealon, J. W.; Holbrook, W. S.; Paull, C. K.; Peltzer, E. T.; Ussler, W.

    2003-12-01

    We combine seismic reflection profiling, thermal gradient data, and ROV observations to examine active venting associated with the methane hydrate system in the Guaymas Transform, Gulf of California. In comparison to the 13 degrees C/km regional average, thermal gradients at the vent site are locally elevated in both measured values (584 C/km) and values calculated from BSR depths (321 C/km). Corresponding with the locally elevated thermal gradient is an abrupt shallowing of the BSR beneath the vent, which suggests a strong link between advective heat flow, vent activity, and hydrate stability zone thickness. A well-developed chemosynthetic biological communities was found surrounding the vent, and similar communities elsewhere along the transform ridge indicate that methane has recently escaped to the seafloor in multiple locations. There is little evidence of other BSR anomalies at these locations indicating that the seeps that supplied methane to these areas were either "cold" or that the local advective heat transport in this system is highly transient and the base of hydrate stability is able to respond to the changes in temperature over time scales of years.

  6. 33 CFR 155.420 - Pumping, piping and discharge requirements for oceangoing ships of 100 gross tons and above but...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or fuel oil tank ballast. (c) This section does not apply to a fixed or floating drilling rig or... OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.420... to stop each pump that is used to discharge oily mixtures; and (6) The ship has a stop valve...

  7. Quantifying cardinal temperatures and thermal time required for germination of Silybum marianum seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Parmoon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The response of seed germination to environmental factors can be estimated by nonlinear regression. The present study was performed to compare four nonlinear regression models (segmented, beta, beta modified, and dent-like to describe the germination rate–temperature relationships of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. at six constant temperatures, with the aim of identifying the cardinal temperatures and thermal times required to reach different germination percentiles. Models and statistical indices were calibrated using an iterative optimization method and their performance was compared by root mean square error (RMSE, coefficient of determination (R2 and Akaike information criterion correction (AICc. The beta model was found to be the best model for predicting the required time to reach 50% germination (D50, (R2 = 0.99; RMSE = 0.004; AICc = − 276.97. Based on the model outputs, the base, optimum, and maximum temperatures of seed germination were 5.19 ± 0.79, 24.01 ± 0.11, and 34.32 ± 0.36 °C, respectively. The thermal times required for 50% and 90% germination were 4.99 and 7.38 degree-days, respectively.

  8. A study of residual inhomogeneities in a gas following a sliding discharge on a dielectric surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, O. A.; Kisletsov, A. V.; Kravtsov, A. I.; Murkin, A. L.; Fedosov, A. I.

    1989-07-01

    Nonstationary gas flows produced by a sliding discharge on the side surface of a discharge chamber were investigated experimentally using the schlieren method. In the frequency mode, the sliding discharge is shown to evolve in a flow of dielectric vapors, which attain a homogeneous structure 100 microseconds after the passage of the discharge current pulse. Forced gas pumping is required for the removal of thermally induced density inhomogeneities from the active laser medium. Gasdynamic perturbations in the plasma electrode region can be reduced by gas suction from the boundary layer, active substrate cooling, and by using thermally stable dielectrics.

  9. Using airborne hyperspectral scanner to monitoring the oceanic thermal plume produced by the surface discharge of the cooling water from Angra dos Reis nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio S. C. Esposito

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first results obtained using a hyperspectral scanner system (HSS and field measurements of the sea surface temperature to map a heated liquid effluent jet (plume produced by the surface discharge of the cooling water from two nuclear power plants into a rather closed bay in southeastern Brazil. The adopted methodology is based on the flight and imaging of study area using the HSS sensor, collecting temperature data from the sea surface and acquiring the imagery at the same time and finally, the statistical analysis of data collected in the field and those ones from the imageries. At this phase, beyond the identification of the best suited IVT channel for the characterization of temperature variations of the thermal plume, coefficients were also generated to create an image of this channel with corrected temperature values for the effects caused by atmosphere acting in data collected by the sensor. Results obtained show that this sensor and the used metodology of data acquisition and processing are well suitable for the study and the monitoring of local thermal plumes. The absolute temperature values from the sea surface obtained from the images after the use of coefficients obtained from statistical analysis agree in average with the measured values from the field with an uncertainty of 0,8oC.

  10. Design of Thermochromic Polynorbornene Bearing Spiropyran Chromophore Moieties: Synthesis, Thermal Behavior and Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A new class of thermochromic polynorbornene with pendent spiropyran moieties has been synthesized. Functionalization of norbornene monomers with spirobenzopyran moieties has been achieved using Steglich esterification. These new monomeric materials were polymerized via Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP. In spite of their poor solubility, polynorbornenes with spirobenzopyran exhibited thermochromic behavior due to the conversion of their closed spiropyran moieties to the open merocyanine form. Moreover, these polymers displayed bathochromic shifts in their optical response, which was attributed to the J-aggregation of the attached merocyanine moieties that were associated with their high concentration in the polymeric chain. The surface of the obtained polymers was exposed to atmospheric pressure air Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD plasma system, which resulted in the reduction of the surface porosity and converted some surface area into completely non-porous regions. Moreover, the plasma system created some areas with highly ordered J-aggregates of the merocyanine form in thread-like structures. This modification of the polymers’ morphology may alter their applications and allow for these materials to be potential candidates for new applications, such as non-porous membranes for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, or molecular separation in the gas phase.

  11. Specification Requirement for Thermal Stability of Sintered NdFeB Materials for Electrical Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Yan; Jiang Daiwei; Chen Lixiang; Chen Hailing; Bi Haitao; Tang Renyuan

    2004-01-01

    Based on IEC standards and Chinese national standards of sintered NdFeB materials, in the paper the hightemperature, room-temperature properties and thermal stability of about one hundred samples of NdFeB materials for electrical machines were measured and analyzed.These materials are produced by ten representative manufactories in China.Combined with the analysis results, the paper points out that the magnetic properties of sintered NdFeB materials for electrical machines should meet not only the specific values in standards, such as Br, (BH)max ,HcJ ,but also the requirement of temperature coefficients a (Br) , a (HcJ).

  12. Thermal requirements and population dynamics of root‐knot nematodes on cucumber and yield losses under protected cultivation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giné, A; López‐Gómez, M; Vela, M. D; Ornat, C; Talavera, M; Verdejo‐Lucas, S; Sorribas, F. J

    2014-01-01

    Several studies were carried out to determine (i) thermal requirements for development, egg production and emergence of juveniles, and completion of the life cycle of Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica on cucumber, (ii...

  13. Technical support document for proposed 1994 revision of the MEC thermal envelope requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1994-03-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the Council of American Building Officials` (CABO) 1994 supplement to the 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for maximum component U{sub 0}-value. The 1994 amendments to the 1993 MEC were established in last year`s code change cycle and did not change the envelope requirements. The research underlying the proposed MEC revision was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Standards program. The goal of this research was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determines the most cost-effective (least total cost) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) (insulation levels and window types) for residential buildings. This least-cost set of ECMs was used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U{sub 0}-values (thermal transmittances). ECMs include window types (for example, double-pane vinyl) and insulation levels (for example, R-19) for ceilings, walls, and floors.

  14. The biology and thermal requirements of the fennel aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B Malaquias

    Full Text Available The relationship between the insect development rate and temperature was established very early and represents an important ecological variable for modeling the population dynamics of insects. The accurate determination of thermal constant values and the lower and upper developmental thresholds of Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini (Hemiptera: Aphididae on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Apiales: Apiaceae crops would obviously benefit the effective application of control measures. This paper is a study of the biology and thermal requirements of H. foeniculi. Winged insects were collected from fennel crops at the Embrapa Algodão in Campina Grande, Paraíba. Nymphs (age ≤24 h produced by winged insects were subjected to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 28, 30 or 33°C, a photophase of 12 h and a relative humidity of 70±10%. The results of the study showed that at temperatures between 15 and 30°C, H. foeniculi nymphs were able to develop normally. The four instars were found at all temperatures tested. However, temperatures of 3 and 33°C were lethal to the nymphs. The nymph stage development time varied from 5 (30°C to 19 (15°C days. The influence of temperature on the development time is dependent on the instar. The base temperature (Tb and the thermal constant (K for the nymph stage were estimated at 11.2°C and 107.5 degree-days, respectively. The shortest nymph development stage was observed at 30°C, and the highest nymph viability (85.0% was observed at 28°C. This information can be used for developing phenological models based on the temperature and development rate relationships so that outbreaks of H. foeniculi in the fennel crop can be predicted, therefore improving the application of control programs targeting this fennel pest.

  15. Minimalistic details in face of thermal protection requirements with lightweight concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lueking

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s governments in Central and Northern Europe established thermal protection requirements, leading to the reduction of heat transfer through the building envelope. Subsequently, two different strategies were employed to decline the heat loss of exterior walls: the first relied on new or modified building materials that possessed decreased thermal conductivity than previously used materials; the second provided a special insulating layer. Concerning detail design, constructions with specialized layers still might appear to be simple but they are complex and fragile on construction level. This leads to the question: Is it possible to design details, which are simple concerning both appearance and construction? In this article I begin with the advantages and constraints of different exterior wall typologies within today’s legal restrictions in Central Europe. After that I focus on to the material lightweight concrete. As a key issue the analysis of different window positions within the wall (flush to the inside/outside wall or in the middle is presented. Since the source of the investigation has architectural roots, constructive capabilities and design constraints are regarded, too. In the conclusion, future prospects of material development and the consequences for the detail design is given.

  16. A Method for Calculating the Heat Required for Windshield Thermal Ice Prevention Based on Extensive Flight Tests in Natural Icing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alun R; Holdaway, George H; Steinmetz, Charles P

    1947-01-01

    An equation is presented for calculating the heat flow required from the surface of an internally heated windshield in order to prevent the formation of ice accretions during flight in specified icing conditions. To ascertain the validity of the equation, comparison is made between calculated values of the heat required and measured values obtained for test windshields in actual flights in icing conditions. The test windshields were internally heated and provided data applicable to two common types of windshield configurations; namely the V-type and the type installed flush with the fuselage contours. These windshields were installed on a twin-engine cargo airplane and the icing flights were conducted over a large area of the United States during the winters of 1945-46 and 1946-47. In addition to the internally heated windshield investigation, some test data were obtained for a windshield ice-prevention system in which heated air was discharged into the windshield boundary layer. The general conclusions resulting from this investigation are as follows: 1) The amount of heat required for the prevention of ice accretions on both flush- and V-type windshields during flight in specified icing conditions can be calculated with a degree of accuracy suitable for design purposes. 2) A heat flow of 2000 to 2500 Btu per hour per square foot is required for complete and continuous protection of a V-type windshield in fight at speeds up to 300 miles per hour in a moderate cumulus icing condition. For the same degree of protection and the same speed range, a value of 1000 Btu per hour per square foot suffices in a moderate stratus icing condition. 3) A heat supply of 1000 Btu per hour per square foot is adequate for a flush windshield located well aft of the fuselage stagnation region, at speeds up to 300 miles per hour, for flight in both stratus and moderate cumulus icing conditions. 4) The external air discharge system of windshield thermal ice prevention is thermally

  17. Discharge lamp technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, James

    1994-03-01

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  18. Discharge lamp technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, James

    1994-01-01

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  19. Experimental and theoretical investigation of Fe-catalysis phenomenon in hydrogen thermal desorption from hydrocarbon plasma-discharge films from T-10 tokama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevich, Vladimir G.; Sukhanov, Leonid P.; Svechnikov, Nicolay Yu.; Lebedev, Alexey M.; Menshikov, Kostantin A.; Kolbasov, Boris N.

    2017-10-01

    Investigations of the effect of Fe impurities on D2 thermal desorption (TD) from homogeneous CDx films (x ˜ 0.5) formed in the D-plasma discharge of the T-10 tokamak were carried out. The experimental TD spectra of the films showed two groups of peaks at 650-850 K and 900-1000 K for two adsorption states. The main result of the iron catalysis effect consists in the shift of the high-temperature peak by -24 K and in the increase in the fraction of the weakly bonded adsorption states. To describe the effect of iron impurities on TD of hydrogen isotopes, a structural cluster model based on the interaction of the Fe+ ion with the 1,3-C6H8 molecule was proposed. The potential energy surfaces of chemical reactions with the H2 elimination were calculated using ab initio methods of quantum chemistry. It was established that the activation barrier of hydrogen TD is reduced by about 1 eV due to the interaction of the Fe+ ion with the π-subsystem of the 1,3-C6H8 molecule leading to a redistribution of the double bonds along the carbon system. Contribution to the topical issue "Plasma Sources and Plasma Processes (PSPP)"", edited by Luis Lemos Alves, Thierry Belmonte and Tiberiu Minea

  20. Hydrogen retention studies on lithiated tungsten exposed to glow discharge plasmas under varying lithiation environments using Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, A. de, E-mail: alfonso.decastro@ciemat.es [Fusion National Laboratory-CIEMAT, Av Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Valson, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Wendelsteinstraße 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Tabarés, F.L. [Fusion National Laboratory-CIEMAT, Av Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    For the design of a Fusion Reactor based on a liquid lithium divertor target and a tungsten first wall at high temperature, the interaction of the wall material with plasmas of significant lithium content must be assessed, as issues like fuel retention, tungsten embrittlement and enhanced sputtering may represent a showstopper for the selection of the first wall material compatible with the presence of liquid metal divertor. In this work we address this topic for the first time at the laboratory level, hot W samples (100 °C) have been exposed to Glow Discharges of H{sub 2} or Li-seeded H{sub 2} followed by in situ thermal desorption studies (TDS) of the uptake of H{sub 2} on the samples. Pure and pre-lithiated tungsten was investigated in order to evaluate the differential effect of Li ion implantation on H retention. Global particle balance was also used for the determination of trapped H into the full W wall of the plasma chamber. A factor of 3-4 lower retention was deduced for samples and main W wall exposed to H/Li plasma than that measured on pre-lithiated W.

  1. An Active Heater Control Concept to Meet IXO Type Mirror Module Thermal-Structural Distortion Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Flight mirror assemblies (FMAs) of large telescopes, such as the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), have very stringent thermal-structural distortion requirements. The spatial temperature gradient requirement within a FMA could be as small as 0.05 C. Con ventionally, heaters and thermistors are attached to the stray light baffle (SLB), and centralized heater controllers (i.e., heater controller boards located in a large electronics box) are used. Due to the large number of heater harnesses, accommodating and routing them is extremely difficult. The total harness length/mass is very large. This innovation uses a thermally conductive pre-collimator to accommodate heaters and a distributed heater controller approach. It minimizes the harness length and mass, and reduces the problem of routing and accommodating them. Heaters and thermistors are attached to a short (4.67 cm) aluminum portion of the pre-collimator, which is thermally coupled to the SLB. Heaters, which have a very small heater power density, and thermistors are attached to the exterior of all the mirror module walls. The major portion (23.4 cm) of the pre-collimator for the middle and outer modules is made of thin, non-conductive material. It minimizes the view factors from the FMA and heated portion of the precollimator to space. It also minimizes heat conduction from one end of the FMA to the other. Small and multi-channel heater controllers, which have adjustable set points and internal redundancy, are used. They are mounted to the mechanical support structure members adjacent to each module. The IXO FMA, which is 3.3 m in diameter, is an example of a large telescope. If the heater controller boards are centralized, routing and accommodating heater harnesses is extremely difficult. This innovation has the following advantages. It minimizes the length/mass of the heater harness between the heater controllers and heater circuits. It reduces the problem of routing and accommodating the harness on the

  2. Heart bypass surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass - discharge; OPCAB - discharge; Beating heart surgery - discharge; Bypass surgery - heart - discharge; CABG - discharge; Coronary artery bypass graft - discharge; Coronary artery ...

  3. Bronchiolitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV bronchiolitis - discharge; Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis - discharge ... Your child has bronchiolitis , which causes swelling and mucus to build up in the smallest air passages of the lungs. In the hospital, ...

  4. Angina - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also learn how to take care of your heart disease . Diet and lifestyle Try to limit how much alcohol ... surgery - discharge Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge Heart disease - risk ... Review Date 8/2/2016 Updated by: Michael ...

  5. Cardiac catheterization - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - cardiac - discharge; Heart catheterization - discharge: Catheterization - cardiac; Heart catheterization; Angina - cardiac catheterization discharge; CAD - cardiac catheterization discharge; Coronary ...

  6. Thermal hygrometric requirements for the rearing and release of Tamarixia radiata (Waterston (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariuxi Lorena Gómez-Torres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal hygrometric requirements for the rearing and release of Tamarixia radiata (Waterston (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae. Tamarixia radiata is the main agent for the biological control of Diaphorina citri in Brazil with a parasitism rate ranging from 20 to 80%. This study investigated the influence of temperature on the development, fecundity and longevity of adults of T. radiata and the effect of relative humidity (RH on their parasitism capacity and survival rate in the pre-imaginal period. The effect of temperature was assessed in the range between 15 and 35 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH, and a 14-h photophase. The RH effect was evaluated in the range from 30 to 90 ± 10%, temperature at 25 ± 1ºC, and photophase of 14-h. At 25ºC, circa 166.7 nymphs were parasitized, the highest parasitism capacity observed compared to other treatments. The longest longevity of females was observed at 25ºC, although the rate did not differ in the 20-30ºC temperature range. The threshold temperature (TT was 7.2ºC, and 188.7 degrees-day were required for the development (egg-to-adult period. The parasitism rate and longevity were higher at 50 and 70% of RH. This shows that temperature and RH may affect the parasitism capacity of T. radiata on nymphs of D. citri, which can explain the great parasitism variation for D. citri observed in citrus groves in São Paulo State, Brazil.

  7. Breathing thermal manikin for indoor environment assessment: Important characteristics and requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2003-01-01

    Recently breathing thermal manikins have been developed and used for indoor environment measurement, evaluation and optimization as well as validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) predictions of airflow around a human body. Advances in the assessment of occupants¿ thermal comfort and per...

  8. Analytical model to describe the thermal behavior of a heat discharge system in roofs; Modelo analitico que describe el comportamiento termico de un sistema de descarga de calor en techos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Gomez, V.H.; Contreras-Espinosa, J.J.; Gonzalez-Ortiz, G.; Morillon-Galvez, D.; Fernandez-Zayas, J.L. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: vichugo@servidor.unam.mx; jjuancon2000@yahoo.com.mx; gilberto_gonzalez25@hotmail.com; damg@pumas.iingen.unam.mx; JFernandezZ@iingen.unam.mx

    2012-01-15

    The present study proposes an analytical model which describes the thermal behavior of a heat discharge system in roof, when the surfaces that constitute it are not translucent. Such a model derives from a thermal balance carried out to a heat discharge system in roofs. To validate it, an experimental prototype that allows simulating the thermal behavior of a heat discharge system in wall and roof was used, and the results were compared to those obtained with the proposed analytical model. It was found that the thermal behavior of the analytical model is similar to the thermal behavior of the experimental prototype; a worthless variation was detected among their respective outcome (The difference of temperatures can be caused by the heat transfer coefficient, of which no studies defining its behavior accurately have been found). Therefore, it can be considered that the proposed analytical model can be employed to simulate the thermal behavior of a heat discharge system in roofs when the surfaces that constitute it are opaque. [Spanish] En el presente estudio se propone un modelo analitico que describe el comportamiento termico de un sistema de descarga de calor en techo, cuando las superficies que lo componen no son translucidos. Dicho modelo surge a partir de un balance termico realizado a un sistema de descarga de calor en techos. Para validarlo, se realizaron dos corridas experimentales en un prototipo que permite simular el comportamiento termico de un sistema de descarga de calor en techo y se compararon los resultados medidos con los calculados por el modelo analitico propuesto. Se encontro que, el comportamiento termico del modelo analitico es similar al comportamiento termico del prototipo experimental, se detecto una variacion despreciable entre los valores arrojados por ambos modelos (la diferencia de temperaturas puede estar ocasionada por la obtencion del coeficiente convectivo de transferencia de calor, del cual no se han encontrado estudios que

  9. Non-Thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD Effects on Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Fibroblasts Are Primary Mediated by Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Balzer

    Full Text Available The proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblast differentiation are crucial in wound healing and wound closure. Impaired wound healing is often correlated with chronic bacterial contamination of the wound area. A new promising approach to overcome wound contamination, particularly infection with antibiotic-resistant pathogens, is the topical treatment with non-thermal "cold" atmospheric plasma (CAP. Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD devices generate CAP containing active and reactive species, which have antibacterial effects but also may affect treated tissue/cells. Moreover, DBD treatment acidifies wound fluids and leads to an accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and nitric oxide products, such as nitrite and nitrate, in the wound. Thus, in this paper, we addressed the question of whether DBD-induced chemical changes may interfere with wound healing-relevant cell parameters such as viability, proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation of primary human fibroblasts. DBD treatment of 250 μl buffered saline (PBS led to a treatment time-dependent acidification (pH 6.7; 300 s and coincidently accumulation of nitrite (~300 μM, nitrate (~1 mM and H2O2 (~200 μM. Fibroblast viability was reduced by single DBD treatments (60-300 s; ~77-66% or exposure to freshly DBD-treated PBS (60-300 s; ~75-55%, accompanied by prolonged proliferation inhibition of the remaining cells. In addition, the total number of myofibroblasts was reduced, whereas in contrast, the myofibroblast frequency was significantly increased 12 days after DBD treatment or exposure to DBD-treated PBS. Control experiments mimicking DBD treatment indicate that plasma-generated H2O2 was mainly responsible for the decreased proliferation and differentiation, but not for DBD-induced toxicity. In conclusion, apart from antibacterial effects, DBD/CAP may mediate biological processes, for example, wound healing by accumulation of H2O2. Therefore, a clinical DBD treatment must be well

  10. Non-Thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Effects on Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Fibroblasts Are Primary Mediated by Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Erhan; Hoffmanns, Martin A.; Baldus, Sabrina; Fuchs, Paul C.; Awakowicz, Peter; Suschek, Christoph V.; Opländer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblast differentiation are crucial in wound healing and wound closure. Impaired wound healing is often correlated with chronic bacterial contamination of the wound area. A new promising approach to overcome wound contamination, particularly infection with antibiotic-resistant pathogens, is the topical treatment with non-thermal “cold” atmospheric plasma (CAP). Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) devices generate CAP containing active and reactive species, which have antibacterial effects but also may affect treated tissue/cells. Moreover, DBD treatment acidifies wound fluids and leads to an accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide products, such as nitrite and nitrate, in the wound. Thus, in this paper, we addressed the question of whether DBD-induced chemical changes may interfere with wound healing-relevant cell parameters such as viability, proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation of primary human fibroblasts. DBD treatment of 250 μl buffered saline (PBS) led to a treatment time-dependent acidification (pH 6.7; 300 s) and coincidently accumulation of nitrite (~300 μM), nitrate (~1 mM) and H2O2 (~200 μM). Fibroblast viability was reduced by single DBD treatments (60–300 s; ~77–66%) or exposure to freshly DBD-treated PBS (60–300 s; ~75–55%), accompanied by prolonged proliferation inhibition of the remaining cells. In addition, the total number of myofibroblasts was reduced, whereas in contrast, the myofibroblast frequency was significantly increased 12 days after DBD treatment or exposure to DBD-treated PBS. Control experiments mimicking DBD treatment indicate that plasma-generated H2O2 was mainly responsible for the decreased proliferation and differentiation, but not for DBD-induced toxicity. In conclusion, apart from antibacterial effects, DBD/CAP may mediate biological processes, for example, wound healing by accumulation of H2O2. Therefore, a clinical DBD treatment must be well

  11. Dynamics of energy coupling and thermalization in barrier discharges over dielectric and weakly conducting surfaces on µs to ms time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, Sergey B.; Petrishchev, Vitaly; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents experiments characterizing discharge development and energy coupling in a surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD), atmospheric air plasmas over dielectric and weakly conducting surfaces, over a wide range of time scales and electrical conductivities. The experiments are done using nanosecond pulse (NS) both single polarity and alternating polarity) and ac voltage waveforms. Discharge development and mechanisms of coupling with quiescent air are analysed using nanosecond gate camera imaging, schlieren imaging, and laser differential interferometry. It is shown that NS SDBD plasmas generate stochastic, localized, near-surface perturbations on a long time scale (>100 μs) after the discharge pulse. These perturbations, entirely different from compression waves generated on a short time scale (~1-10 μs), are caused by discharge contraction and originate from the ends of the filaments. Surface conductivity has almost no effect on discharge behaviour if RC time of the conducting surface layer is much longer compared to the characteristic time of NS or ac voltage waveforms. In the opposite limit of short RC time, the conducting layer acts as an extension of the high-voltage electrode. Discharge contraction significantly increases energy stored on the dielectric surface, which in this case exceeds energy dissipated as Joule heat. The stored energy is dissipated if the discharge pulse is followed by an opposite polarity pulse. In a single polarity discharge, on the other hand, surface charge accumulation limits energy coupled to the plasma by subsequent pulses. The results demonstrate that surface plasma actuator control authority may be significantly increased by using an alternating polarity pulse waveform, which is more effective than the removal of surface charge between the pulses using a weakly conducting surface.

  12. NIPPLE DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Bukharova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data available in the literature, as high as 50% of women have benign breast tumors frequently accompanied by nip- ple discharge. Nipple discharge may be serous, bloody, purulent, and colostric. The most common causes are breast abscess, injury, drugs, prolactinoma, intraductal pappiloma, ductal ectasia, intraductal cancer (not more than 10%.

  13. Discharge lamp technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, J. [GE Lighting, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advance. A general overview of discharge lighting technology can be found in the book of Waymouth (1971). A recent review of low pressure lighting discharge science is found in Dakin (1991). The pioneering paper of Reiling (1964) provides a good introduction to metal halide discharges. Particularly relevant to lighting for plant growth, a recent and thorough treatment of high pressure Na lamps is found in the book by deGroot and vanVliet (1986). Broad practical aspects of lighting application are thoroughly covered in the IES Lighting Handbook edited by Kaufman (1984).

  14. Thermal requirements and estimate number of generations of Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae in different Eucalyptus plantations regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FF Pereira

    Full Text Available To use Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae in a biological control programme of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, it is necessary to study thermal requirements, because temperature can affect the metabolism and bioecological aspects. The objective was to determine the thermal requirements and estimate the number of generations of P. elaeisis in different Eucalyptus plantations regions. After 24 hours in contact with the parasitoid, the pupae was placed in 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 °C, 70 ± 10% of relative humidity and 14 hours of photophase. The duration of the life cycle of P. elaeisis was reduced with the increase in the temperature. At 31 °C the parasitoid could not finish the cycle in T. arnobia pupae. The emergence of P. elaeisis was not affected by the temperature, except at 31 °C. The number of individuals was between six and 1238 per pupae, being higher at 16 °C. The thermal threshold of development (Tb and the thermal constant (K of this parasitoid were 3.92 °C and 478.85 degree-days (GD, respectively, allowing for the completion of 14.98 generations per year in Linhares, Espírito Santo State, 13.87 in Pompéu and 11.75 in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State and 14.10 in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State.

  15. Electronic discharge summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Peter D; Keselman, Alla; Rappaport, Daniel; Van Vleck, Tielman; Cooper, Mary; Boyer, Aurelia; Hripcsak, George

    2005-01-01

    Timely completion of Discharge Summaries is a requirement of high quality care. We developed a system for writing electronic Discharge Summaries. DSUM Writer has generated 2464 of 7349 total summaries (34%) and has paid for itself during its first 8 weeks in production. DSUM Writer is a component of a suite of tools (eNote) for electronic physician documentation used to support clinical care, billing and narrative analysis research.

  16. Determination of Optimum Thermal Insulation Thicknesses for External Walls Considering the Heating, Cooling and Annual Energy Requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer KAYNAKLI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, optimization of thermal insulation thickness applied to the external walls of buildings has been carried out comparatively based on the seasonal (space-heating and cooling and the annual energy requirements considering solar radiation effect. This study has been performed for four degree-day regions of Turkey, namely, Iskenderun (in the first region, Istanbul (in the second region, Ankara (in the third region and Ardahan (in the fourth region. By determining the sol-air temperatures for each region and maximizing the present worth value of seasonal and annual energy savings, the optimum thermal insulation thicknesses have been calculated. The effects of solar radiation on heating-cooling energy requirements, the variation of optimum insulation thicknesses and payback periods with respect to degree-day regions, the differences between the analyses based on seasonal and annual have been presented in tabular and graphical form.

  17. Ear discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antibiotic medicines, which are placed in the ear. Antibiotics may be given by mouth if a ruptured eardrum from an ear infection is causing the discharge. Alternative Names Drainage from the ear; Otorrhea; Ear bleeding; ...

  18. Osteomyelitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000297.htm Osteomyelitis - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have osteomyelitis , a bone infection caused by bacteria or other ...

  19. Thermal requirements for surviving a mass rescue incident in the Arctic: project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boileau, Renee [National Research Council Canada: Institute for Ocean Technology, St. John' s, Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)], email: renee.boileau@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca; DuCharme, Michel B. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Quebec, Quebec (Canada)], email: michel.ducharme@drdc-rddc.gc.ca.gc.ca; Cheung, Stephen [Brock University Department of Physical Education and Kinesiology, St. Catherines, Ontario (Canada)], email: stephen.cheung@brocku.ca; Mak, Lawrence [National Research Council Canada: Institute for Ocean Technology St. John' s, Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)], email: lawrence.mak@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

    2010-07-01

    Recently the number of tourists travelling though the Arctic has risen to over 1.5 million per year, increasing the risk of accidents in these extreme conditions. With such harsh conditions, it could take several days for the rescue to arrive on site; however there are no standards specifying the thermal insulation properties that equipment should have. The aim of this paper is to assess the thermal protection afforded by the equipment available and to assess human endurance. A 3 year study was carried out with experiments being performed in simulated Arctic conditions. This study is intended to assess the likelihood of survival for victims in the Arctic with the use of equipment currently available and to identify the principal risks. Subsequent to this assessment, survival prediction tools are expected to be improved based upon the knowledge gained in this study and recommendations made for better equipment to improve the likelihood of survival in accidents in the Arctic Seas.

  20. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inter-trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Subtrochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Femoral neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - ...

  1. Temperature Thresholds and Thermal Requirements for the Development of the Rice Leaf Folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathi, Chintalapati; Katti, Gururaj; Sailaja, V.; Padmakumari, A.P.; Jhansilakshmi, V.; Prabhakar, M.; Prasad, Y.G.

    2013-01-01

    The rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a predominant foliage feeder in all the rice ecosystems. The objective of this study was to examine the development of leaf folder at 7 constant temperatures (18, 20, 25, 30, 32, 34, 35° C) and to estimate temperature thresholds and thermal constants for the forecasting models based on heat accumulation units, which could be developed for use in forecasting. The developmental periods of different stages of rice leaf folder were reduced with increases in temperature from 18 to 34° C. The lower threshold temperatures of 11.0, 10.4, 12.8, and 11.1° C, and thermal constants of 69, 270, 106, and 455 degree days, were estimated by linear regression analysis for egg, larva, pupa, and total development, respectively. Based on the thermodynamic non-linear optimSSI model, intrinsic optimum temperatures for the development of egg, larva, and pupa were estimated at 28.9, 25.1 and 23.7° C, respectively. The upper and lower threshold temperatures were estimated as 36.4° C and 11.2° C for total development, indicating that the enzyme was half active and half inactive at these temperatures. These estimated thermal thresholds and degree days could be used to predict the leaf folder activity in the field for their effective management. PMID:24205891

  2. Capacitor discharge pulse analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Michael Sean; Griffiths, Stewart K.; Tanner, Danelle Mary

    2013-08-01

    Capacitors used in firing sets and other high discharge current applications are discharge tested to verify performance of the capacitor against the application requirements. Parameters such as capacitance, inductance, rise time, pulse width, peak current and current reversal must be verified to ensure that the capacitor will meet the application needs. This report summarizes an analysis performed on the discharge current data to extract these parameters by fitting a second-order system model to the discharge data and using this fit to determine the resulting performance metrics. Details of the theory and implementation are presented. Using the best-fit second-order system model to extract these metrics results in less sensitivity to noise in the measured data and allows for direct extraction of the total series resistance, inductance, and capacitance.

  3. Analysis of the thermal energy requirements for the extraction of leaf protein concentrate from some green plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangka, Julius K. [Dschang Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, Dschang (Cameroon)

    2003-12-01

    Extraction of protein from the leaves of green plants is very important because of the high cost of conventional forms of protein such as meat, milk and fish. In order to design machinery for this extraction, and also to embark on leaf protein concentrate extraction, it is necessary to measure and analyse the energy requirements to carry out each process involved in the extraction, using different plant species. Experiments were carried out to determine the amount of crude protein, and the thermal energy required to extract leaf protein concentrate, from juices obtained from the leaves of some plant species. Leaves from the following plants were selected: cassava (Manihot esculanta), Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), gliricidia (Gliricidia maculata) and thorny tree (Hura crepetans). The leaves from the plant species were macerated in a laboratory pulper. Juice was obtained from the samples using perforated cylinders and a hydraulic press. The specific heat capacity of the juices was determined using the cooling curve method. The values of the heat capacities were used to calculate the amount of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of each juice from its normal temperature of about 25 deg C to a total protein coagulation temperature of about 80 deg C. The crude protein content of the extract was determined using the Kjeldal method. Results indicate that the green coagulum extracted from all the juices all have a protein content of at least 37%. The thermal energy required to coagulate protein from the juices ranges from 1.59 kJ kg{sup -1} for Hura crepetans to 2.7 kJ kg{sup -1} for Vernonia amygdalina. The energy requirement to obtain crude protein (CP) ranges from 8 kJ kg{sup -1} [CP] with Bura crepetans to 182 kJ kg{sup -1} [CP] with Vernonia amygdalina. Both results are statistically significant at the 0.01 confidence interval. It is concluded that the choice of plant species can significantly lower the thermal energy

  4. Strawberry puree processed by thermal, high pressure, or power ultrasound: Process energy requirements and quality modeling during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Alifdalino; Farid, Mohammed; Silva, Filipa Vm

    2017-06-01

    Strawberry puree was processed for 15 min using thermal (65 ℃), high-pressure processing (600 MPa, 48 ℃), and ultrasound (24 kHz, 1.3 W/g, 33 ℃). These conditions were selected based on similar polyphenoloxidase inactivation (11%-18%). The specific energies required for the above-mentioned thermal, high-pressure processing, and power ultrasound processes were 240, 291, and 1233 kJ/kg, respectively. Then, the processed strawberry was stored at 3 ℃ and room temperature for 30 days. The constant pH (3.38±0.03) and soluble solids content (9.03 ± 0.25°Brix) during storage indicated a microbiological stability. Polyphenoloxidase did not reactivate during storage. The high-pressure processing and ultrasound treatments retained the antioxidant activity (70%-74%) better than the thermal process (60%), and high-pressure processing was the best treatment after 30 days of ambient storage to preserve antioxidant activity. Puree treated with ultrasound presented more color retention after processing and after ambient storage than the other preservation methods. For the three treatments, the changes of antioxidant activity and total color difference during storage were described by the fractional conversion model with rate constants k ranging between 0.03-0.09 and 0.06-0.22 day - 1, respectively. In resume, high-pressure processing and thermal processes required much less energy than ultrasound for the same polyphenoloxidase inactivation in strawberry. While high-pressure processing retained better the antioxidant activity of the strawberry puree during storage, the ultrasound treatment was better in terms of color retention.

  5. 75 FR 5495 - Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 RIN 3150-AI01 Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against... (75 FR 13), that amends the NRC's regulations to provide alternate fracture toughness requirements for...

  6. 75 FR 10410 - Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 RIN 3150-AI01 Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against... (75 FR 13), that amends the NRC's regulations to provide alternate fracture toughness requirements for... adding Table 7 directly after Table 6 to read as follows: Sec. 50.61a Alternate fracture toughness...

  7. Underwater Cycle Ergometry: Power Requirements With and Without Diver Thermal Dress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shykoff, B

    2009-01-01

    .... An ongoing problem has been that, although the power requirement of cycling in the water is known to be greater than that in air for the same ergometer setting, the magnitude of the difference...

  8. Interface requirements to couple thermal-hydraulic codes to severe accident codes: ATHLET-CD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trambauer, K. [GRS, Garching (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    The system code ATHLET-CD is being developed by GRS in cooperation with IKE and IPSN. Its field of application comprises the whole spectrum of leaks and large breaks, as well as operational and abnormal transients for LWRs and VVERs. At present the analyses cover the in-vessel thermal-hydraulics, the early phases of core degradation, as well as fission products and aerosol release from the core and their transport in the Reactor Coolant System. The aim of the code development is to extend the simulation of core degradation up to failure of the reactor pressure vessel and to cover all physically reasonable accident sequences for western and eastern LWRs including RMBKs. The ATHLET-CD structure is highly modular in order to include a manifold spectrum of models and to offer an optimum basis for further development. The code consists of four general modules to describe the reactor coolant system thermal-hydraulics, the core degradation, the fission product core release, and fission product and aerosol transport. Each general module consists of some basic modules which correspond to the process to be simulated or to its specific purpose. Besides the code structure based on the physical modelling, the code follows four strictly separated steps during the course of a calculation: (1) input of structure, geometrical data, initial and boundary condition, (2) initialization of derived quantities, (3) steady state calculation or input of restart data, and (4) transient calculation. In this paper, the transient solution method is briefly presented and the coupling methods are discussed. Three aspects have to be considered for the coupling of different modules in one code system. First is the conservation of masses and energy in the different subsystems as there are fluid, structures, and fission products and aerosols. Second is the convergence of the numerical solution and stability of the calculation. The third aspect is related to the code performance, and running time.

  9. Thermal requirements and estimated number of generations of Neopamera bilobata (Say in strawberry-producing regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana Melissa de Azevedo Kuhn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The thermal threshold and thermal requirements of Neopamera bilobata were determined, and the number of generations that this species may produce in the main strawberry-producing regions of Brazil was estimated. In a climate chamber (70±10% RH and 12h photophase at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, or 30±1°C, the development of 120 eggs was monitored until the adult stage, at each temperature. Nymphs were maintained in individual cages and fed on strawberry fruits of the cultivar Aromas. The mean duration and viability of the egg and nymph stages were calculated by estimating the lower and upper developmental thresholds and the thermal constant, and this information was used to estimate the number of generations per year in different strawberry-producing regions of Brazil. The egg-to-adult duration decreased as temperatures increased, up to 28°C (93.4, 83.2, 43.9, and 31.4 days at 19, 22, 25, and 28°C, respectively. Viability of nymphs was highest between 22 and 28°C. At 30°C, the egg-to-adult duration increased (36 days, while the viability decreased (11.11%. The lower egg-to-adult developmental threshold was 15.2°C and the thermal constant was 418.4 degree-days. Calculating the number of generations indicated that the largest number (5.1 generations yr-1 was obtained for the municipality of Jaboti, Paraná, and the smallest for Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul (1.9 generations yr-1. Our findings demonstrated that important strawberry-producing regions in Brazil are suitable for the development of N. bilobata.

  10. A CFD Analysis of the Characteristics of the Thermal Mixing Under the Transient of the Steam Discharge in a Subcooled Water Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H. S.; Kim, Y. S.; Jun, H. G.; Youn, Y. J.; Song, C. H

    2005-06-15

    A CFD benchmark calculation for the test results was performed for 30 seconds to develop the methodology of numerical analysis for the thermal mixing between the steam and the subcooled water and to apply it into the APR1400 IRWST. In the CFD analysis, the grid model simulating the test facility was developed by the axisymmetric condition and the steam condensation phenomena by the direct contact was modelled by the steam condensation region model. Thermal mixing phenomenon was treated as an incompressible flow, a free surface flow, a turbulent flow, and a buoyancy flow. The comparison of the CFD results with the test data showed a good agreement as a whole, but a small temperature difference was locally found at some locations. The CFD results at some locations showed a higher temperature value and the increasing speed than those of the test results. This difference may have arisen from the fact the temperature and velocity of the calculated condensed water were higher than the real values. However, this CFD analysis methodology can surely simulate the thermal mixing behavior in the subcooled water tank with the minor limit. We can anticipate that the numerical model for the thermal mixing taking place for a long time in the IRWST of APR1400 can be developed by this methodology.

  11. Structural and thermal requirements for the tandem-mirror fusion-test-facility magnet system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanSant, J.H.; Bulmer, R.H.

    1981-02-06

    Structural requirements for the magnet system include unique spatial constraints and materials restrictions to meet the operational needs of the unusual configuration. All of the magnets are liquid helium cooled which represents about 1500 tonnes of 4.5 K structure in the vacuum environment of the large vessel. Magnet support structures must satisfy complex load conditions, including electromagnetic (both normal-operating and fault conditions) and seismically induced. Improved plasma confinement, characterized by long particle lifetimes, requires attention to coil alignment and field errors. Continued monitoring of field accuracy and possible adjustment during operation are contemplated. Operating conditions for the magnet system include rapid cooldown and warm-up to minimize down time for maintenance.

  12. Three dimensional thermal pollution models. Volume 1: Review of mathematical formulations. [waste heat discharge from power plants and effects on ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.

    1978-01-01

    A mathematical model package for thermal pollution analyses and prediction is presented. These models, intended as user's manuals, are three dimensional and time dependent using the primitive equation approach. Although they have sufficient generality for application at sites with diverse topographical features; they also present specific instructions regarding data preparation for program execution and sample problems. The mathematical formulation of these models is presented including assumptions, approximations, governing equations, boundary and initial conditions, numerical method of solution, and same results.

  13. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) platform configuration and integration. Final report. Volume I. Systems requirements and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    Studies leading to the development of two 400 MW Offshore Thermal Energy Conversion Commercial Plants are presented. This volume includes a summary of three tasks: task IIA--systems evaluation and requirements; task IIB--evaluation plan; task III--technology review; and task IV--systems integration evaluation. Task IIA includes the definition of top level requirements and an assessment of factors critical to the selection of hull configuration and size, quantification of payload requirements and characteristics, and sensitivity of system characteristics to site selection. Task IIB includes development of a methodology for systematically evaluating the candidate hullforms, based on interrelationships and priorities developed during task IIA. Task III includes the assessment of current technology and identification of deficiencies in relation to OTEC requirements and the development of plans to correct such deficiencies. Task IV involves the formal evaluation of the six candidate hullforms in relation to sit and plant capacity to quantify cost/size/capability relationships, leading to selection of an optimum commercial plant. (WHK)

  14. 77 FR 12286 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... AGENCY Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater... Discharge Elimination System general permit for stormwater discharges from large and small construction... requirements for construction sites discharging stormwater to waters requiring additional pollutant control...

  15. Uniform National Discharge Standards (UNDS): Rulemaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA and Department of Defense used a batch rulemaking process for establishing the discharge standards for vessels of the Armed Forces. They identified and evaluated the discharges and determined which require marine pollution control devices.

  16. Estimation and monitoring heat discharge rates using Landsat ETM+ thermal infrared data: a case study in Unzen geothermal field, Kyushu, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Md. B.; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Bromely, Chris J.

    2012-10-01

    The Unzen geothermal field, our study area is active fumaroles, situated in Shimabara Peninsula of Kyushu Island in Japan. Our prime objectives were (1) to estimate radiative heat flux (RHF), (2) to calculate approximately heat discharge rate (HDR) using the relationship of radiative heat flux with the total heat loss derived from two geothermal field studies and (3) finally, to monitor RHF as well as HDR in our study area using seven sets of Landsat 7 ETM+ images from 2000 to 2009. We used the NDVI (Normalized differential vegetation index) method for spectral emissivity estimation, the mono-window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) and the Stefan-Boltzmann equation analyzing those satellite TIR images for RHF. We obtained a desired strong correlation of LST above ambient with RHF using random samples. We estimated that the maximum RHF was about 251 W/m2 in 2005 and minimum was about 27 W/m2 in 2001. The highest total RHF was about 39.1 MW in 2005 and lowest was about 12 MW in 2001 in our study region. We discovered that the estimated RHF was about 15.7 % of HDR from our studies. We applied this percentage to estimate heat discharge rate in Unzen geothermal area. The monitoring results showed a single fold trend of HDR from 2000 to 2009 with highest about 252 MW in 2005 and lowest about 78 MW in 2001. In conclusion, TIR remote sensing is thought as the best option for monitoring heat losses from fumaroles with high efficiency and low cost.

  17. Preliminary study on the modelling of negative leader discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo, L; Cooray, V, E-mail: Liliana.Arevalo@angstrom.uu.se [Lightning Research Group, Uppsala University, Angstroemlaboratoriet, Box 524, 751 20, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-08-10

    Nowadays, there is considerable interest in understanding the physics underlying positive and negative discharges because of the importance of improving lightning protection systems and of coordinating the insulation for high voltages. Numerical simulations of positive switching impulses made in long spark gaps in a laboratory are achievable because the physics of the process is reasonably well understood and because of the availability of powerful computational methods. However, the existing work on the simulation of negative switching discharges has been held up by a lack of experimental data and the absence of a full understanding of the physics involved. In the scientific community, it is well known that most of the lightning discharges that occur in nature are of negative polarity, and because of their complexity, the only way to understand them is to generate the discharges in laboratories under controlled conditions. The voltage impulse waveshape used in laboratories is a negative switching impulse. With the aim of applying the available information to a self-consistent physical method, an electrostatic approximation of the negative leader discharge process is presented here. The simulation procedure takes into consideration the physics of positive and negative discharges, considering that the negative leader propagates towards a grounded electrode and the positive leader towards a rod electrode. The simulation considers the leader channel to be thermodynamic, and assumes that the conditions required to generate a thermal channel are the same for positive and negative leaders. However, the magnitude of the electrical charge necessary to reproduce their propagation and thermalization is different, and both values are based on experimental data. The positive and negative streamer development is based on the constant electric field characteristics of these discharges, as found during experimental measurements made by different authors. As a computational tool

  18. Contamination control requirements implementation for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), part 1: optics, instruments and thermal vacuum testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Eve M.; Henderson-Nelson, Kelly; Woronowicz, Michael; Novo-Gradac, Kevin; Perry, Radford L.; Macias, Matthew; Arenberg, Jon; Egges, Joanne

    2014-09-01

    The derivation of contamination control (CC) requirements for the JWST Optical Telescope Element (OTE) was presented at the SPIE conference in 20081. Since then, much work has been done to allocate contamination at each phase of Integration and Test (IandT) and to plan for achieving the allocations. Because JWST is such a large and complicated observatory, plans for meeting the requirements are many and varied. There are primary mirror segments that must be cleaned early and maintained clean; there are four science instruments that each have tight contamination requirements but cannot be cleaned after they are integrated onto the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) structure; there is the composite ISIM structure that is fragile and must be minimally handled; there are numerous cryo-vacuum tests that must be controlled and monitored in order to minimize molecular contamination during return to ambient; … and more. An overview of plans developed to implement contamination control for JWST optics, instruments, and thermal vacuum testing for JWST will be presented.

  19. Leptospira interrogans lpxD Homologue Is Required for Thermal Acclimatization and Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghi, Azad; Henderson, Jeremy; Trent, M Stephen; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging disease with an annual occurrence of over 1 million human cases worldwide. Pathogenic Leptospira bacteria are maintained in zoonotic cycles involving a diverse array of mammals, with the capacity to survive outside the host in aquatic environments. Survival in the diverse environments encountered by Leptospira likely requires various adaptive mechanisms. Little is known about Leptospira outer membrane modification systems, which may contribute to the capacity of these bacteria to successfully inhabit and colonize diverse environments and animal hosts. Leptospira bacteria carry two genes annotated as UDP-3-O-[3-hydroxymyristoyl] glucosamine N-acyltransferase genes (la0512 and la4326 [lpxD1 and lpxD2]) that in other bacteria are involved in the early steps of biosynthesis of lipid A, the membrane lipid anchor of lipopolysaccharide. Inactivation of only one of these genes, la0512/lpxD1, imparted sensitivity to the host physiological temperature (37°C) and rendered the bacteria avirulent in an animal infection model. Polymyxin B sensitivity assays revealed compromised outer membrane integrity in the lpxD1 mutant at host physiological temperature, but structural analysis of lipid A in the mutant revealed only minor changes in the lipid A moiety compared to that found in the wild-type strain. In accordance with this, an in trans complementation restored the phenotypes to a level comparable to that of the wild-type strain. These results suggest that the gene annotated as lpxD1 in Leptospira interrogans plays an important role in temperature adaptation and virulence in the animal infection model. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Stereotactic radiosurgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Linear accelerator - discharge; Lineacs - discharge; Proton beam radiosurgery - discharge ... You received stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), or radiotherapy. This is a form of radiation therapy that focuses high-powered x-rays onto a small ...

  1. Atrial fibrillation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auricular fibrillation - discharge; A-fib - discharge; AF - discharge; Afib - discharge ... Avoid salty and fatty foods. Stay away from fast-food restaurants. ... how to check your pulse, and check it every day. It is better ...

  2. Transfer functions of laminar premixed flames subjected to forcing by acoustic waves, AC electric fields, and non-thermal plasma discharges

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna

    2016-06-23

    The responses of laminar methane-air flames to forcing by acoustic waves, AC electric fields, and nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) glow discharges are reported here. The experimental setup consists of an axisymmetric burner with a nozzle made from a quartz tube. Three different flame geometries have been studied: conical, M-shaped and V-shaped flames. A central stainless steel rod is used as a cathode for the electric field and plasma excitations. The acoustic forcing is obtained with a loudspeaker located at the bottom part of the burner. For forcing by AC electric fields, a metallic grid is placed above the rod and connected to an AC power supply. Plasma forcing is obtained by applying high-voltage pulses of 10-ns duration applied at 10 kHz, between the rod and an annular stainless steel ring, placed at the outlet of the quartz tube. The chemiluminescence of CH is used to determine the heat release rate fluctuations. For forcing by acoustic waves and plasma, the geometry of the flame plays a key role in the response of the combustion, while the flame shape does not affect the response of the combustion to electric field forcing. The flame response to acoustic forcing of about 10% of the incoming flow is similar to those obtained in the literature. The flames are found to be responsive to an AC electric field across the whole range of frequencies studied. A forcing mechanism, based on the generation of ionic wind, is proposed. The gain of the transfer function obtained for plasma forcing is found to be up to 5 times higher than for acoustic forcing. A possible mechanism of plasma forcing is introduced.

  3. Development and thermal requirements of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae); Desenvolvimento e exigencias termicas de Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Simone Martins; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Carvalho, Livia Mendes [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia], e-mail: mmsimone@brfree.com.br, e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br

    2005-10-15

    The temperature strongly influences the development time of insects and the understanding of this aspect for natural enemies is essential for its use as biocontrol agents and for mass rearing purpose. The objective of this work was evaluating the effect of different temperatures on the development time of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) as well as its thermal requirements. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 {+-} 1 deg C; RH 70 {+-} 10% and photo phase 12h. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879) were provided as food. The embryonic period was 14.0, 8.9, 6.6, 4.8, 3.9 and 3.3 days at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 deg C, respectively. Nymphs of all instars (independent of originated sex) were affected by the temperature on their development time; there was a reduction of this period with the increase of the temperature. Males and females presented a development time about 12 days at 25 deg C. The developmental thresholds (To) for egg stage was estimated at 11.78 deg C, and for the nymphal phase were 12.27 deg C and 13.03 deg C for males and females, respectively. The thermal constants (K) for egg stage (63.75 day-degrees) and for nymphal stage were 161.97 and 157.24 day-degrees, for males and females, respectively. The temperature of 25 deg C was the most suitable for development time of O. insidiosus. (author)

  4. Characteristics of 2-heptanone decomposition using nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Yuki; Fukuchi, Yuichi; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Kumamoto University Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) evaporate at room temperature. VOCs typically consist of toluene, benzene and ethyl acetate, which are used in cosmetics, dry cleaning products and paints. Exposure to elevated levels of VOCs may cause headaches, dizziness and irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat; they may also cause environmental problems such as air pollution, acid rain and photochemical smog. As such, they require prompt removal. Nanosecond pulsed discharge is a kind of non-thermal plasma consisting of a streamer discharge. Several advantages of nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma have been demonstrated by studies of our research group, including low heat loss, highly energetic electron generation, and the production of highly active radicals. These advantages have shown ns pulsed discharge plasma capable of higher energy efficiency for processes, such as air purification, wastewater treatment and ozone generation. In this research, nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma was employed to treat 2-heptanone, which is a volatile organic compound type and presents several harmful effects. Characteristics of treatment dependent on applied voltage, gas flow rate and input energy density were investigated. Furthermore, byproducts generated by treatment were also investigated.

  5. The rgg0182 gene encodes a transcriptional regulator required for the full Streptococcus thermophilus LMG18311 thermal adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertin Stéphane

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus thermophilus is an important starter strain for the production of yogurt and cheeses. The analysis of sequenced genomes of four strains of S. thermophilus indicates that they contain several genes of the rgg familly potentially encoding transcriptional regulators. Some of the Rgg proteins are known to be involved in bacterial stress adaptation. Results In this study, we demonstrated that Streptococcus thermophilus thermal stress adaptation required the rgg0182 gene which transcription depends on the culture medium and the growth temperature. This gene encoded a protein showing similarity with members of the Rgg family transcriptional regulator. Our data confirmed that Rgg0182 is a transcriptional regulator controlling the expression of its neighboring genes as well as chaperones and proteases encoding genes. Therefore, analysis of a Δrgg0182 mutant revealed that this protein played a role in the heat shock adaptation of Streptococcus thermophilus LMG18311. Conclusions These data showed the importance of the Rgg0182 transcriptional regulator on the survival of S. thermophilus during dairy processes and more specifically during changes in temperature.

  6. Thermal histories causing low hardness and the minimum hardness requirement in a modified 9Cr1Mo steel for boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Byeong Ook; Ryu, Seog Hyeon; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Jeong Tae [Doosna Heavy Industries and Construction Co. Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    In a Mod.9Cr1Mo steel widely applied to boiler components, low hardness problem related with manufacturing and fabrication processes has become a critical issue recently. In this study, hardness, microstructure, tensile and creep rupture tests have been performed using specimens experienced various thermal cycles to investigate the detailed mechanism causing low hardness values of 150 to 170 Hv and the minimum hardness requirement from a standpoint of tensile and allowable stresses. Low hardness values were mainly attributed to the formation of ferrite structure on cooling after heating at intercritical temperature just above the Ac1, 850 .deg. C. Ferrite transformation on cooling after intercritical heating occurred even at the relatively faster cooling compared to normal heating above the Ac3 since the nose of ferrite transformation in the CCT curve moved to the left due to the very low carbon content in austenite phase formed at intercritical temperature. Low hardness value of 160's Hv occurred occasionally in practical applications was observed at a cooling rate of below 0.167 deg. C/sec(10 .deg. C/min) after intercritical heating. At least 190 Hv of hardness values or more were needed to satisfy tensile properties and maximum allowable stresses specified in ASME B and PV code.

  7. Discharge pulse phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    A model was developed which places radiation induced discharge pulse results into a unified conceptual framework. Only two phenomena are required to interpret all space and laboratory results: (1) radiation produces large electrostatic fields inside insulators via the trapping of a net space charge density; and (2) the electrostatic fields initiate discharge streamer plasmas similar to those investigated in high voltage electrical insulation materials; these streamer plasmas generate the pulsing phenomena. The apparent variability and diversity of results seen is an inherent feature of the plasma streamer mechanism acting in the electric fields which is created by irradiation of the dielectrics. The implications of the model are extensive and lead to constraints over what can be done about spacecraft pulsing.

  8. Runaway breakdown and electrical discharges in thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milikh, Gennady; Roussel-Dupré, Robert

    2010-12-01

    This review considers the precise role played by runaway breakdown (RB) in the initiation and development of lightning discharges. RB remains a fundamental research topic under intense investigation. The question of how lightning is initiated and subsequently evolves in the thunderstorm environment rests in part on a fundamental understanding of RB and cosmic rays and the potential coupling to thermal runaway (as a seed to RB) and conventional breakdown (as a source of thermal runaways). In this paper, we describe the basic mechanism of RB and the conditions required to initiate an observable avalanche. Feedback processes that fundamentally enhance RB are discussed, as are both conventional breakdown and thermal runaway. Observations that provide clear evidence for the presence of energetic particles in thunderstorms/lightning include γ-ray and X-ray flux intensifications over thunderstorms, γ-ray and X-ray bursts in conjunction with stepped leaders, terrestrial γ-ray flashes, and neutron production by lightning. Intense radio impulses termed narrow bipolar pulses (or NBPs) provide indirect evidence for RB particularly when measured in association with cosmic ray showers. Our present understanding of these phenomena and their enduring enigmatic character are touched upon briefly.

  9. Hydrogeological controls on spatial patterns of groundwater discharge in peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Hare

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peatland environments provide important ecosystem services including water and carbon storage, nutrient processing and retention, and wildlife habitat. However, these systems and the services they provide have been degraded through historical anthropogenic agricultural conversion and dewatering practices. Effective wetland restoration requires incorporating site hydrology and understanding groundwater discharge spatial patterns. Groundwater discharge maintains wetland ecosystems by providing relatively stable hydrologic conditions, nutrient inputs, and thermal buffering important for ecological structure and function; however, a comprehensive site-specific evaluation is rarely feasible for such resource-constrained projects. An improved process-based understanding of groundwater discharge in peatlands may help guide ecological restoration design without the need for invasive methodologies and detailed site-specific investigation. Here we examine a kettle-hole peatland in southeast Massachusetts historically modified for commercial cranberry farming. During the time of our investigation, a large process-based ecological restoration project was in the assessment and design phases. To gain insight into the drivers of site hydrology, we evaluated the spatial patterning of groundwater discharge and the subsurface structure of the peatland complex using heat-tracing methods and ground-penetrating radar. Our results illustrate that two groundwater discharge processes contribute to the peatland hydrologic system: diffuse lower-flux marginal matrix seepage and discrete higher-flux preferential-flow-path seepage. Both types of groundwater discharge develop through interactions with subsurface peatland basin structure, often where the basin slope is at a high angle to the regional groundwater gradient. These field observations indicate strong correlation between subsurface structures and surficial groundwater discharge. Understanding these general patterns

  10. Hydrogeological controls on spatial patterns of groundwater discharge in peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Danielle K.; Boutt, David F.; Clement, William P.; Hatch, Christine E.; Davenport, Glorianna; Hackman, Alex

    2017-11-01

    Peatland environments provide important ecosystem services including water and carbon storage, nutrient processing and retention, and wildlife habitat. However, these systems and the services they provide have been degraded through historical anthropogenic agricultural conversion and dewatering practices. Effective wetland restoration requires incorporating site hydrology and understanding groundwater discharge spatial patterns. Groundwater discharge maintains wetland ecosystems by providing relatively stable hydrologic conditions, nutrient inputs, and thermal buffering important for ecological structure and function; however, a comprehensive site-specific evaluation is rarely feasible for such resource-constrained projects. An improved process-based understanding of groundwater discharge in peatlands may help guide ecological restoration design without the need for invasive methodologies and detailed site-specific investigation. Here we examine a kettle-hole peatland in southeast Massachusetts historically modified for commercial cranberry farming. During the time of our investigation, a large process-based ecological restoration project was in the assessment and design phases. To gain insight into the drivers of site hydrology, we evaluated the spatial patterning of groundwater discharge and the subsurface structure of the peatland complex using heat-tracing methods and ground-penetrating radar. Our results illustrate that two groundwater discharge processes contribute to the peatland hydrologic system: diffuse lower-flux marginal matrix seepage and discrete higher-flux preferential-flow-path seepage. Both types of groundwater discharge develop through interactions with subsurface peatland basin structure, often where the basin slope is at a high angle to the regional groundwater gradient. These field observations indicate strong correlation between subsurface structures and surficial groundwater discharge. Understanding these general patterns may allow resource

  11. Concussion - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain injury - concussion - discharge; Traumatic brain injury - concussion - discharge; Closed head injury - concussion - discharge ... a car Ski, snowboard, skate, skateboard, or do gymnastics or martial arts Participate in any activity where ...

  12. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateral epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... Soon after surgery, severe pain will decrease, but you may have mild soreness for 3 to 6 months.

  13. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  14. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VP shunt - discharge; Shunt revision - discharge; Hydrocephalus shunt placement - discharge ... The major problems to watch for are an infected shunt and a blocked shunt. Call your child's provider if your child ...

  15. Hollow needle-to-plate electrical discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekárek, S.; Kríha, V.; Simek, M.; Bálek, R.; Hanitz, F.

    1999-08-01

    Ecological applications dealing with the cleaning of flue gases, the decomposition of volatile hydrocarbons and the destruction of toxic pollutants require, in order to reach high efficiency, the use of non-thermal plasma sources. Typical sources of such non-equilibrium plasmas are barrier discharge, direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC) gliding arc, pulsed or DC corona and DC atmospheric pressure discharge stabilized by a fast gas flow (APD-GFS). In case of APD-GFS the gas flows in a rectangular channel, the top wall of which serves as the anode and the multi-needle cathode is built into the bottom wall of the channel. In order to prevent the transition to a spark and to stabilize this type of discharge the velocity of the gas should be about 100-200 m s-1 or the discharge current must be limited. To avoid the problem connected with the acceleration of the primary (polluted) gas at such a velocity, the external flow of the primary gas around the needle electrodes can be superimposed by a flow of a secondary gas through the needles. Thus the primary gas need not be accelerated to high velocity and in order to stabilize the discharge a relatively small amount of a secondary gas supplied through the needle is required. This work is therefore focused on the study of the DC APD-GFS in hollow needle-to-plane geometry. The basic electrical characteristics, magnetic noise and integral emission spectra of this type discharge with the flow of nitrogen or air through the needle are given.

  16. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...

  17. Powerful glow discharge excilamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Panchenko, Aleksey N.; Skakun, Victor S.; Sosnin, Edward A.; Wang, Francis T.; Myers, Booth R.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A powerful glow discharge lamp comprising two coaxial tubes, the outer tube being optically transparent, with a cathode and anode placed at opposite ends of the tubes, the space between the tubes being filled with working gas. The electrodes are made as cylindrical tumblers placed in line to one other in such a way that one end of the cathode is inserted into the inner tube, one end of the anode coaxially covers the end of the outer tube, the inner tube penetrating and extending through the anode. The increased electrodes' surface area increases glow discharge electron current and, correspondingly, average radiation power of discharge plasma. The inner tube contains at least one cooling liquid tube placed along the axis of the inner tube along the entire lamp length to provide cathode cooling. The anode has a circumferential heat extracting radiator which removes heat from the anode. The invention is related to lighting engineering and can be applied for realization of photostimulated processes under the action of powerful radiation in required spectral range.

  18. Thermal ablation a comparison of thermal dose required for radiofrequency-, microwave-, and laser-induced coagulation in an ex vivo bovine liver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertyna, Pawel; Goldberg, Wallace; Yang, Wei; Goldberg, S Nahum

    2009-12-01

    To compare thermal dosimetry metrics for specified diameters of coagulation achieved using three different ablation energy sources. 204 ablations measuring 20, 30, or 40 +/- 2 mm were created in an ex-vivo bovine liver model using 1) 2.5 cm cluster RF electrodes (n = 114), 2) 3 cm microwave antennas (n = 45), and 3) 3 cm laser diffusing fibers (n = 45). Continuous temperature monitoring was performed 5-20 mm from the applicators to calculate: a) the area under the curve (AUC), b) cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 degrees C (CEM43), and c) Arrhenius damage integral (Omega) for the critical ablation margin (DOC), with results compared by multivariate analysis of variance and regression analysis. The end temperatures at the margin of coagulation varied, and was lowest for the RF cluster electrode (33-58 degrees C), higher for laser (52-72 degrees C), and covered the widest range for microwave (42-95 degrees C). These end temperatures correlated with applied energy, as linear functions (r(2) = 0.74-0.96). The total heat needed to achieve ablation (AUC) varied with applied energy and coagulation diameter as negative exponential (RF and laser) or negative power (microwave) functions (r(2) = 0.82-0.98). Similarly, CEM43 values varied exponentially with energy and distance (r(2) = 0.52-0.76) over a wide range of values (10(12)). Likewise, Omega varied not only based upon energy source and DOC, but also as a positive linear correlation to applied energy and with sigmoid correlation to duration of ablation (r(2) = 0.85-0.97). Our study demonstrates that the thermal dosimetry of ablation is not based solely on a fixed end temperature at the margin of the coagulation zone. Thermal dosimetry is not constant, but dependent on the type and amount of energy applied and distance suggesting the need to take into account the rate of heat transfer for ablation dosimetry.

  19. Microwave discharge electrodeless lamps (MDEL). Part VII. Photo-isomerization of trans-urocanic acid in aqueous media driven by UV light from a novel Hg-free Dewar-like microwave discharge thermally-insulated electrodeless lamp (MDTIEL). Performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Sato, Tatsuro; Sakamoto, Kazutami; Abe, Masahiko; Serpone, Nick

    2011-07-01

    A novel mercury-free Dewar-like (double-walled structure) microwave discharge thermally-insulated electrodeless lamp (MDTIEL) was fabricated and its performance evaluated using the photo-isomerization of trans-urocanic acid (trans-UA) in aqueous media as a test process driven by the emitted UV light when ignited with microwave radiation. The photo-isomerization processes trans-UA → cis-UA and cis-UA → trans-UA were re-visited using light emitted from a conventional high-pressure Hg light source and examined for the influence of UV light irradiance and solution temperature; the temperature dependence of the trans → cis process displayed a negative activation energy, E(a) = -1.3 cal mol(-1). To control the photo-isomerization of urocanic acid from the heat usually dissipated by a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (single-walled MDEL), it was necessary to suppress the microwave-initiated heat. For comparison, the gas-fill in the MDEL lamp, which typically consists of a mixture of Hg and Ar, was changed to the more eco-friendly N(2) gas in the novel MDTIEL device. The dynamics of the photo-isomerization of urocanic acid driven by the UV wavelengths of the N(2)-MDTIEL light source were compared to those from the more conventional single-walled N(2)-MDEL and Hg/Ar-MDEL light sources, and with those from the Hg lamp used to irradiate, via a fiber optic, the photoreactor located in the wave-guide of the microwave apparatus. The heating efficiency of a solution with the double-walled N(2)-MDTIEL was compared to the efficiency from the single-walled N(2)-MDEL device. Advantages of N(2)-MDTIEL are described from a comparison of the dynamics of the trans-UA → cis-UA process on the basis of unit surface area of the lamp and unit power consumption. The considerably lower temperature on the external surface of the N(2)-MDTIEL light source should make it attractive in carrying out photochemical reactions that may be heat-sensitive such as the photothermochromic

  20. Pulsed electrical discharge in conductive solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, V. A.; Vasilyak, L. M.; Vetchinin, S. P.; Pecherkin, V. Ya; Son, E. E.

    2016-09-01

    Electrical discharge in a conductive solution of isopropyl alcohol in tap water (330 μ S cm-1) has been studied experimentally applying high voltage millisecond pulses (rise time  ˜0.4 μ \\text{s} , amplitude up to 15 kV, positive polarity) to a pin anode electrode. Dynamic current-voltage characteristics synchronized with high-speed images of the discharge were studied. The discharge was found to develop from high electric field region in the anode vicinity where initial conductive current with density  ˜100 A cm-2 results in fast heating and massive nucleation of vapor bubbles. Discharges in nucleated bubbles then produce a highly conductive plasma region and facilitate overheating instability development with subsequent formation of a thermally ionized plasma channel. The measured plasma channel propagation speed was 3-15 m s-1. A proposed thermal model of plasma channel development explains the low observed plasma channel propagation speed.

  1. Structural characterization and thermally stimulated discharge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    *, A U UBALE, P S CHIKHALIKAR and. S D MESHRAM. †. PG Department of Physics, Govt. Vidarbha Institute of Science and Humanities, Amravati 444 604, India. †. R.D.I.K. College, Badnera 444 701, India. MS received 24 July 2006; ...

  2. Thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC) and dielectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Measurements of TSDC and dielectric constant, ε ′ , have been carried out in the temperature range 30–300°C. The thermoelectrets were prepared at different polarizing fields. The various observed peaks in the thermograms are discussed on the basis of space charge polarization. The trap energy is evaluated from the ...

  3. Structural characterization and thermally stimulated discharge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrical conductivity of naphthalene doped polystyrene (PS) films (≈ 61.58 m thick) was studied as a function of dopant concentration and temperature. The formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes and strong concentration dependence of carrier mobility point out that the current carriers are transported through ...

  4. Non-storm water discharges technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, S.

    1994-07-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) submitted a Notice of Intent to the California State Water Resources Control Board (hereafter State Board) to discharge storm water associated with industrial activities under the California General Industrial Activity Storm Water National Pollutant Elimination System Discharge Permit (hereafter General Permit). As required by the General Permit, LLNL provided initial notification of non-storm water discharges to the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (hereafter Regional Board) on October 2, 1992. Additional findings and progress towards corrective actions were reported in subsequent annual monitoring reports. LLNL was granted until March 27, 1995, three years from the Notice of Intent submission date, to eliminate or permit the non-storm water discharges. On May 20, 1994, the Regional Board issued Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR Board Order No. 94-131, NPDES No. CA0081396) to LLNL for discharges of non-contact cooling tower wastewater and storm water related to industrial activities. As a result of the issuance of WDR 94-131, LLNL rescinded its coverage under the General Permit. WDR 94-131 allowed continued non-storm water discharges and requested a technical report describing the discharges LLNL seeks to permit. For the described discharges, LLNL anticipates the Regional Board will either waive Waste Discharge Requirements as allowed for in The Water Quality Control Plan for the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region (hereafter Basin Plan) or amend Board Order 94-131 as appropriate.

  5. Plasma diagnostics discharge parameters and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Diagnostics, Volume 1: Discharge Parameters and Chemistry covers seven chapters on the important diagnostic techniques for plasmas and details their use in particular applications. The book discusses optical diagnostic techniques for low pressure plasmas and plasma processing; plasma diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources; as well as Langmuir probes. The text also describes the mass spectroscopy of plasmas, microwave diagnostics, paramagnetic resonance diagnostics, and diagnostics in thermal plasma processing. Electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, microwave engineers, che

  6. Climate change impacts on crop yields, land use and environment in response to crop sowing dates and thermal time requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, Andrea; Webber, Heidi; Zhao, Gang; Ewert, Frank; Kros, Hans; Wolf, Joost; Britz, Wolfgang; Vries, de Wim

    2017-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on European agricultural production, land use and the environment depend on its impact on crop yields. However, many impact studies assume that crop management remains unchanged in future scenarios, while farmers may adapt their sowing dates and cultivar thermal time

  7. Thermal requirements of the coconut pest Atheloca subrufella (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae); Exigencias termicas da praga do coqueiro Atheloca subrufella (Hulst)(Lepidoptera: Phycitidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Suerda W.J. de; Barros, Reginaldo; Torres, Jorge B.; Gondim Junior, Manoel G.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia/Entomologia

    2010-04-15

    Among the important pests of coconut, the coconut moth Atheloca subrufella (Hulst) is a significant pest of flowers and fruits, and is found across all coconut-producing regions in Brazil. We investigated the thermal requirements of A. subrufella and estimated the number of generations for two different growing coconut regions in Pernambuco State. The developmental time of all immature stages reduced as the temperature increased. The egg to adult period ranged from 19.3 to 59.8 days from 32 deg C to 18 deg C, respectively. The survival of the period from egg to adult was 25% at extreme temperatures (18 deg C and 32 deg C), while at the intermediate temperatures it was over 72%. Based on the thermal requirements determined for A. subrufella and the average temperatures determined for Zona da Mata and Sertao of Pernambuco State, it was estimated that A. subrufella is able to complete up to 13 generations per year in both areas. These results indicate that A. subrufella exhibited development and reproduction limited by temperatures higher than 32 deg C and lower than 18 deg C. However, based on the thermal requirements of A. subrufella and the mean temperatures of the Zona da Mata and Sertao of Pernambuco State, this pest can develop throughout the entire year. (author)

  8. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass - discharge; MIDCAB - discharge; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass - discharge; RACAB - discharge; Keyhole heart surgery - discharge; Coronary artery disease - MIDCAB discharge; CAD - ...

  9. Quantitative analysis of the thermal requirements for stepwise physical dormancy-break in seeds of the winter annual Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama-Arachchige, N S; Baskin, J M; Geneve, R L; Baskin, C C

    2013-05-01

    Physical dormancy (PY)-break in some annual plant species is a two-step process controlled by two different temperature and/or moisture regimes. The thermal time model has been used to quantify PY-break in several species of Fabaceae, but not to describe stepwise PY-break. The primary aims of this study were to quantify the thermal requirement for sensitivity induction by developing a thermal time model and to propose a mechanism for stepwise PY-breaking in the winter annual Geranium carolinianum. Seeds of G. carolinianum were stored under dry conditions at different constant and alternating temperatures to induce sensitivity (step I). Sensitivity induction was analysed based on the thermal time approach using the Gompertz function. The effect of temperature on step II was studied by incubating sensitive seeds at low temperatures. Scanning electron microscopy, penetrometer techniques, and different humidity levels and temperatures were used to explain the mechanism of stepwise PY-break. The base temperature (Tb) for sensitivity induction was 17·2 °C and constant for all seed fractions of the population. Thermal time for sensitivity induction during step I in the PY-breaking process agreed with the three-parameter Gompertz model. Step II (PY-break) did not agree with the thermal time concept. Q10 values for the rate of sensitivity induction and PY-break were between 2·0 and 3·5 and between 0·02 and 0·1, respectively. The force required to separate the water gap palisade layer from the sub-palisade layer was significantly reduced after sensitivity induction. Step I and step II in PY-breaking of G. carolinianum are controlled by chemical and physical processes, respectively. This study indicates the feasibility of applying the developed thermal time model to predict or manipulate sensitivity induction in seeds with two-step PY-breaking processes. The model is the first and most detailed one yet developed for sensitivity induction in PY-break.

  10. Review of children with severe trauma or thermal injury requiring intensive care in a Hong Kong hospital: retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, D K K; Cherk, S W W; Yu, W L; Lau, M Y; Ho, J C S; Chau, C K W

    2002-04-01

    To study the injury pattern of children admitted for management of severe trauma or thermal injury. Retrospective review. Paediatric intensive care unit of a regional hospital, Hong Kong. Twenty-eight children were admitted under this category from July 1996 to December 1999. Mechanisms, severity, and circumstances of injury. Road traffic accident was the most common cause of admission, followed by thermal injury, accidental fall, and non-accidental injury. However, children with non-accidental injury were admitted in a significantly more severe condition, as measured by the paediatric risk of mortality score, than those admitted for the other three reasons. Non-accidental injury was also associated with significantly higher morbidity and mortality than the other causes of admission. During the 42-month study period, trauma and thermal injury accounted for 7% of all admissions to the paediatric intensive care unit. Road traffic accident was the most common reason, while non-accidental injury accounted for the most serious injury. Detailed analysis of these cases identified certain preventable risk factors.

  11. Urethral discharge culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture of urethral discharge; Genital exudate culture; Culture - genital discharge or exudate ... 2015:chap 109. Craft AC, Woods GL. Specimen collection and handling for diagnosis of infectious diseases. In: ...

  12. Foot amputation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation - foot - discharge; Trans-metatarsal amputation - discharge ... You have had a foot amputation. You may have had an accident, or your foot may have had an infection or disease and doctors could ...

  13. Hysterectomy - laparoscopic - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a shower the day after surgery. If tape strips were used to close your skin, they should ... cancer Endometriosis Hysterectomy Uterine fibroids Patient Instructions Hysterectomy - abdominal - discharge Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge Review Date 2/18/ ...

  14. Applications of dielectric barrier discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstein, Z.

    1998-12-31

    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in oxygen and air are well established for the production of large quantities of ozone and are more recently being applied to a wider range of plasmachemical processes. Here, the application of DBDs for ozone synthesis, the non-thermal oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air, the generation of incoherent (V)UV radiation and surface processing (etching, ashing) is presented. The main plasmaphysical features of sinusoidally-driven DBDs (transient, filamented, non-thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure) are described, and a simple plasmachemical reaction pathway for ozone synthesis are give. Experimental results on the degradation of VOCs (2-propanol, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride), as well as byproduct formation is presented for stand-alone DBD treatment, as well as for simultaneous (V)UV illumination of the discharge. Illumination of the discharge with (V)UV can change the plasmachemistry by enhanced formation of certain species of radicals--and thereby change byproduct formation--but also can change the discharge physics, known as the Joshi effect. As an example for generation of excited dimers and exiplexes for the production of incoherent UV light, experimental results on a XeBr* excimer UV light source are presented. Effects of the total and partial pressure of a Xe/Br{sub 2} system, the gap spacing and the applied driving frequency on the UV radiant efficiency are shown. For the application of DBDs for surface processing, experimental results of photoresist ashing on Si wafers using DBDs in oxygen are shown function of gas pressure, gap spacing and applied frequency.

  15. Nurse-led discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Carole

    2010-12-01

    Delayed discharges have financial implications for hospital trusts and cause dissatisfaction for patients and their families. This article looks at nurse-led discharge pathways at Milton Keynes Hospital's ambulatory care unit. It explains how giving nurses the responsibility to discharge has improved the patient experience, made nurses more accountable and saved money for the trust.

  16. Chemical routes to discharging graphenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Stephen A; Buckley, David J; Yau, Hin Chun; Skipper, Neal T; Howard, Christopher A; Shaffer, Milo S P

    2017-03-02

    Chemical and electrochemical reduction methods allow the dispersion, processing, and/or functionalization of discrete sp(2)-hybridised nanocarbons, including fullerenes, nanotubes and graphenes. Electron transfer to the nanocarbon raises the Fermi energy, creating nanocarbon anions and thereby activating an array of possible covalent reactions. The Fermi level may then be partially or fully lowered by intended functionalization reactions, but in general, techniques are required to remove excess charge without inadvertent covalent reactions that potentially degrade the nanocarbon properties of interest. Here, simple and effective chemical discharging routes are demonstrated for graphenide polyelectrolytes and are expected to apply to other systems, particularly nanotubides. The discharging process is inherently linked to the reduction potentials of such chemical discharging agents and the unusual fundamental chemistry of charged nanocarbons.

  17. Theory and input requirements for the multidimensional component in RELAP5 for Savannah River Site thermal hydraulic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, R.G.; Johnson, E.C. [eds.; Carlson, K.E.; Riemke, R.A.; Wagner, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    This report documents the theory and input requirements for the multidimensional component in RELAP5/MOD2.5, Version 3w. The equations in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates are presented as well as the shallow water terms. The implementation of these equations is then discussed. Finally, the constitutive models and input requirements are then described.

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - ...

  19. Numerical Modeling of Water Thermal Plumes Emitted by Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azucena Durán-Colmenares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the study of thermal dispersion of plumes emitted by power plants into the sea. Wastewater discharge from power stations causes impacts that require investigation or monitoring. A study to characterize the physical effects of thermal plumes into the sea is carried out here by numerical modeling and field measurements. The case study is the thermal discharges of the Presidente Adolfo López Mateos Power Plant, located in Veracruz, on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. This plant is managed by the Federal Electricity Commission of Mexico. The physical effects of such plumes are related to the increase of seawater temperature caused by the hot water discharge of the plant. We focus on the implementation, calibration, and validation of the Delft3D-FLOW model, which solves the shallow-water equations. The numerical simulations consider a critical scenario where meteorological and oceanographic parameters are taken into account to reproduce the proper physical conditions of the environment. The results show a local physical effect of the thermal plumes within the study zone, given the predominant strong winds conditions of the scenario under study.

  20. Influence of plasma properties on ARC discharge destabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podenok, L. P.; Sharakhovskii, L. I.; Shimanovich, V. D.; Yas'ko, O. I.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of heat transfer processes in arc discharges on the development of thermal instability is considered. A substantial dependence of the process of destabilization on the plasma properties is shown by the example of argon and helium arcs.

  1. Improving Hospital Discharge Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Eid, Ghada R.; Kaddoum, Roland; Tamim, Hani; Hitti, Eveline A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Delays in discharging patients can impact hospital and emergency department (ED) throughput. The discharge process is complex and involves setting specific challenges that limit generalizability of solutions. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of using Six Sigma methods to improve the patient discharge process. This is a quantitative pre and post-intervention study. Three hundred and eighty-six bed tertiary care hospital. A series of Six Sigma driven interventions over a 10-month period. The primary outcome was discharge time (time from discharge order to patient leaving the room). Secondary outcome measures included percent of patients whose discharge order was written before noon, percent of patients leaving the room by noon, hospital length of stay (LOS), and LOS of admitted ED patients. Discharge time decreased by 22.7% from 2.2 hours during the preintervention period to 1.7 hours post-intervention (P discharge. Hospital LOS dropped from 3.4 to 3.1 days postintervention (P hospital was significantly lower in the postintervention period (6.9 ± 7.8 vs 5.9 ± 7.7 hours; P discharge time. The focus of institutions aspiring to tackle delays in the discharge process should be on adopting the core principles of Six Sigma rather than specific interventions that may be institution-specific. PMID:25816029

  2. Applications of dielectric barrier discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstein, Z.

    1998-12-01

    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in oxygen and air are well established for the production of large quantities of ozone and are more recently being applied to a wider range of plasmachemical processes. As an introduction of this type of gas discharge, the main plasmaphysical features of sinusoidal-driven DBDs (transient, non-thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure) will be described, and plasmachemical reaction pathways for the generation of ozone will be briefly discussed. The generation of atomic oxygen for ozone synthesis leads inevitably to the second application of DBDs, the non-thermal oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in dry and humid air. Another application of DBDs is the generation of excited dimers and exiplexes for the production of incoherent (V)UV/visible light. The last and latest application of DBDs is the surface processing near atmospheric pressures. As an example, results of photoresist ashing on Si wafers in an oxygen plasma will be shown as function of gas pressure, gap spacing, and applied frequency. The surface of the etched photoresist is characterized by profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The possibility of material deposition with DBDs will also be presented, where DBDs in acetylene lead to fast substrate deposition. Here, only the effects of the gas pressure and gap distance are explored.

  3. Stability-transport modeling of the SINP tokamak discharges

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... The code has been applied to follow the evolution of tokamak plasma discharges obtained in the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP) tokamak. From these simulations, we have been able to identify the possible models of thermal conductivity, diffusion and impurity contents in these discharges. Effects ...

  4. Readiness for hospital discharge: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Eileen Catherine; Wills, Teresa; Coffey, Alice

    2017-11-01

    To report on an analysis on the concept of 'readiness for hospital discharge'. No uniform operational definition of 'readiness for hospital discharge' exists in the literature; therefore, a concept analysis is required to clarify the concept and identify an up-to-date understanding of readiness for hospital discharge. Clarity of the concept will identify all uses of the concept; provide conceptual clarity, an operational definition and direction for further research. Literature review and concept analysis. A review of literature was conducted in 2016. Databases searched were: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Full Text (H.W. Wilson) and SocINDEX with Full Text. No date limits were applied. Identification of the attributes, antecedents and consequences of readiness for hospital discharge led to an operational definition of the concept. The following attributes belonging to 'readiness for hospital discharge' were extracted from the literature: physical stability, adequate support, psychological ability, and adequate information and knowledge. This analysis contributes to the advancement of knowledge in the area of hospital discharge, by proposing an operational definition of readiness for hospital discharge, derived from the literature. A better understanding of the phenomenon will assist healthcare professionals to recognize, measure and implement interventions where necessary, to ensure patients are ready for hospital discharge and assist in the advancement of knowledge for all professionals involved in patient discharge from hospital. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Plasma recombination in runaway discharges in tokamak TCABR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboleva, T.K. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Galvao, R.M.O.; Kuznetsov, Yu. K.; Nascimento, I.C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Krasheninnikov, S.I. [University of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2002-03-01

    A new regime of runaway discharges has been observed in the TCABR tokamak. One of the most distinctive features of this regime is the effect of plasma detachment from the limiter. This experimental fact can only be explained by the volume recombination, which requires a low-temperature plasma. The analysis of the energy and particle balance in the system plasma-relativistic runaway beam in TCABR, which takes into account only the collisional mechanism of the heat transfer from runaways to thermal electrons, predicts electron temperatures T{sub e} = 0.1 - 2 eV; the temperature decreases with the neutral density increase. The recombination process with the rate constant around 10{sup -16} m3/s is required for the explanation of plasma density behavior in the experiment. At present, it is difficult to conclude about the mechanism of recombination. More reliable and detailed experimental data, mainly about the plasma temperature, are necessary. (author)

  6. Coupled optical/thermal/fluid analysis and design requirements for operation and testing of a supercritical CO2 solar receiver.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khivsara, Sagar [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalor (India)

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have evaluated closed-loop supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) Brayton cycles to be a higher energy-density system in comparison to conventional superheated steam Rankine systems. At turbine inlet conditions of 923K and 25 MPa, high thermal efficiency (~50%) can be achieved. Achieving these high efficiencies will make concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies a competitive alternative to current power generation methods. To incorporate a s-CO2 Brayton power cycle in a solar power tower system, the development of a solar receiver capable of providing an outlet temperature of 923 K (at 25 MPa) is necessary. To satisfy the temperature requirements of a s-CO2 Brayton cycle with recuperation and recompression, it is required to heat s-CO2 by a temperature of ~200 K as it passes through the solar receiver. Our objective was to develop an optical-thermal-fluid model to design and evaluate a tubular receiver that will receive a heat input ~1 MWth from a heliostat field. We also undertook the documentation of design requirements for the development, testing and safe operation of a direct s-CO2 solar receiver. The main purpose of this document is to serve as a reference and guideline for design and testing requirements, as well as to address the technical challenges and provide initial parameters for the computational models that will be employed for the development of s-CO2 receivers.

  7. Preliminary designs for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) stationkeeping subsystems (SKSS). Task I. Design requirements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The results of Task I, Design Requirements, are presented. Environmental conditions for the Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico site are reviewed and synthesized to provide definition of current, wind and wave severity, direction, and occurrence for service, operational, and extreme sea states. SKSS performance requirements, including design life and watch circle, are followed by interface considerations particularly for the electrical transmission riser cable, and design criteria including safety and load factors. The SKSS concepts will be analyzed to evaluate performance, reliability, and cost. Performance analysis conducted included catenary anchor leg static calculations to size components, as well as drag due to environmental loads in the operational and extreme sea states for both ship and spar platforms. Dynamic analyses and trade studies to be conducted in Task II are presented. A reliability and risk assessment analysis of the three basic SKSS types - single-, multiple-, and tension-anchor-leg moors - was completed, indicating that the multiple-anchor-leg/multiple-point rotary or turret moor has the lowest risk-criticality for the ship, while that for the spar is the multiple-anchor-leg/multiple-point moor. The catenary single-anchor-leg/single-point moor has insufficient reliability for both platforms. The life cycle cost analysis methodology, including work breakdown structure, cost estimating, and cost minimization define the approach to costing to be followed throughout the study. The results of these design trades and analyses will first be applied to concept ranking required for recommendation of a SKSS concept for each platform.

  8. Hydrothermal heat discharge in the Cascade Range, northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Mariner, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrothermal heat discharge in the Cascade Range includes the heat discharged by thermal springs, by "slightly thermal" springs that are only a few degrees warmer than ambient temperature, and by fumaroles. Thermal-spring heat discharge is calculated on the basis of chloride-flux measurements and geothermometer temperatures and totals ~ 240 MW in the U.S. part of the Cascade Range, excluding the transient post-1980 discharge at Mount St. Helens (~80 MW as of 2004-5). Heat discharge from "slightly thermal" springs is based on the degree of geothermal warming (after correction for gravitational potential energy effects) and totals ~. 660. MW. Fumarolic heat discharge is calculated by a variety of indirect and direct methods and totals ~160 MW, excluding the transient mid-1970s discharge at Mount Baker (~80 MW) and transient post-1980 discharge at Mount St. Helens (>. 230. MW as of 2005). Other than the pronounced transients at Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker, hydrothermal heat discharge in the Cascade Range appears to be fairly steady over a ~25-year period of measurement. Of the total of ~. 1050. MW of "steady" hydrothermal heat discharge identified in the U.S. part of the Cascade Range, less than 50. MW occurs north of latitude 45??15' N (~0.1 MW per km arc length from 45??15' to 49??N). Much greater rates of hydrothermal heat discharge south of 45??15'N (~1.7 MW per km arc length from 40?? to 45??15'N) may reflect the influence of Basin and Range-style extensional tectonics (faulting) that impinges on the Cascades as far north as Mount Jefferson but is not evident farther north. ?? 2010.

  9. Paediatric vaginal discharge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal discharge in the prepubertal patient is a common symptom, and can be a source of distress for the caregiver and con- cern for the healthcare worker. Several factors predispose these patients to the development of recurrent vaginal discharge. Unless noticed by the caregiver, this problem can persist for long periods ...

  10. Graywater Discharges from Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    both sewage and graywater, or sewage collected from “ honey dipper” trucks, which may contain far less graywater, depending on the source (See... crystal clean effluent discharge. As a reference, Cruiseliners equipped with Scanship AWP systems has obtained continous discharge permits in Hawaii and

  11. Lithium battery discharge tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    The long term discharge of a variety of lithium cells was characterized and the susceptibility of the cells to chemical variation during the slow discharge was tested. A shunt resistor was set across the terminals to monitor the voltage as a function of time. Failures were identified by premature voltage drops.

  12. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  13. Silane Discharge Ion Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatham, Robert Hood, III

    We have studied silane dc, rf and dc proximity discharges, using mass spectroscopic measurements of the positive ions as a detailed diagnostic for the type of discharge used to produce hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar photovoltaic cells. The properties and quality of these films depends in a very complex way upon the interactions of the many reactive neutral and ion species in the discharge. We have developed qualitative models of the ion chemical processes in these discharges from our measurements. Knowledge of the ion-molecule and electron-molecule collision cross sections is important to any attempt at understanding silane discharge chemistry. Consequently, we have measured the electron impact ionization cross sections for silane and disilane, and for comparison purposes also for methane and ethane. In addition, we have measured the rate coefficients for charge exchange reactions of He('+), Ne('+), and Ar('+) with silane, disilane, methane, and ethane, as these are important to understanding discharges in inert gas-silane mixtures. We have developed a detailed quantitative model of the cathode sheath region of a silane dc discharge, by extending the best recent calculation of the electron motion in the sheath to a self-consistent form which includes the ion motion. This model is used with comparison of silane dc discharge data to diagnose the ion chemistry occurring in the sheath region of silane dc discharge. The understanding of the discharge ion chemical processes that we have gained in this study represent an important step toward understanding the chemical and physical processes leading to film growth.

  14. Studying discharges in the Gas Electron Multiplies in Alice Detector

    CERN Document Server

    EُlGedawy, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing discharges is very important in the operation of the GEM detector. Once the discharges happen, a current will go through the GEM, the voltages across the GEM foils sides drop, charge amplification cannot take place anymore, resulting in a loss of signal. So the goal is to understand how the discharges evolve and propagate, in order to find requirements on the voltage settings, which allow to decrease the discharge probability.

  15. Carbon Single-Wall Nanatube Growth in a Volumetrically Confined Arc Discharge System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, K.J.; Alleman, J.L.; Jones, K.M.; Dillon, A.C.; Heben, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes hold significant promise for a vast number of materials applications due to their unique mechanical, electrical, and gas storage properties. Although carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) have been synthesized since 1993 by the arc discharge method, and numerous other synthesis methods have since been developed, no method has yet produced 100% pure carbon nanotubes. Instead, a significant amount of impurities—various carbon structures and metal catalysts—are present in the raw soot. While arc discharge was the first method for SWNT synthesis, it also produces more impure raw soot in comparison to the more recently developed laser vaporization, which has produced the purest raw soot to date but is much slower. Geometry and thermal gradient are appreciably different between traditional arc discharge systems and laser vaporization systems. We report that, by incorporating some characteristics inherent to a laser vaporization system into an arc discharge system, improvement in the yield of SWNT raw soot may be achieved. This is accomplished by confining the arc within a 50 mm diameter quartz tube, similar to laser vaporization. We find through transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy that SWNTs are made in significant numbers in this confined arc discharge system, comparable to laser vaporization synthesized material. Further study is, however, required to prove reproducibility and attain an exact value for the purity of the produced raw soot.

  16. Solar Thermal Energy Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.

    1996-02-01

    Solar Thermal Energy Technology (PST) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required for the advancement of solar thermal systems as a significant energy resource.

  17. Capacitor discharge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1976-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume III: Capacitor Discharge Engineering covers the production and practical application of capacitor dischargers for the generation and utilization of high speed pulsed of energy in different forms. This nine-chapter volume discusses the principles of electric current, voltage, X-rays, gamma rays, heat, beams of electrons, neutrons and ions, magnetic fields, sound, and shock waves in gases and liquids. Considerable chapters consider the applications of capacitor discharges, such as impulse hardening of steel, ultrapulse welding of precision parts, X-ray flash t

  18. INTENSE ENERGETIC GAS DISCHARGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-03-01

    A method and apparatus for initiating and sustaining an energetic gas arc discharge are described. A hollow cathode and a hollow anode are provided. By regulating the rate of gas flow into the interior of the cathode, the arc discharge is caused to run from the inner surface of the cathode with the result that adequate space-charge neutralization is provided inside the cathode but not in the main arc volume. Thus, the gas fed to the cathode is substantially completely ionized before it leaves the cathode, with the result that an energetic arc discharge can be maintained at lower operating pressures.

  19. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...... into account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...

  20. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  1. Brain injury - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000163.htm Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...

  2. Hypospadias repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000158.htm Hypospadias repair - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child had hypospadias repair to fix a birth defect in which ...

  3. Femur fracture repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000166.htm Femur fracture repair - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a fracture (break) in the femur in your leg. It ...

  4. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000293.htm Thyroid gland removal - discharge To use the sharing features ... surgery. This will make your scar show less. Thyroid Hormone Replacement You may need to take thyroid ...

  5. Breast radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - breast - discharge ... You may notice changes in the way your breast looks or feels (if you are getting radiation ... after treatment is over. The skin on your breast may become more sensitive or numb. Skin and ...

  6. Pectus excavatum - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000298.htm Pectus excavatum - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... You or your child had surgery to correct pectus excavatum . This is an abnormal formation of the rib ...

  7. Diverticulitis and diverticulosis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000192.htm Diverticulitis and diverticulosis - discharge To use the sharing features ... JavaScript. You were in the hospital to treat diverticulitis. This is an infection of an abnormal pouch ( ...

  8. Lasik eye surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000525.htm Lasik eye surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lasik eye surgery permanently changes the shape of the cornea ( ...

  9. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  10. Pneumonia - children - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000011.htm Pneumonia in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has pneumonia, which is an infection in the lungs. In ...

  11. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  12. Epilepsy or seizures - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000128.htm Epilepsy or seizures - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have epilepsy . People with epilepsy have seizures. A seizure is ...

  13. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... care for your child. Take Charge of Your Child's Asthma at Home Make sure you know the ...

  14. Abdominal radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - abdomen - discharge; Cancer - abdominal radiation; Lymphoma - abdominal radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after radiation treatment starts, you might notice changes ...

  15. Chest radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - chest - discharge; Cancer - chest radiation; Lymphoma - chest radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after your first treatment: It may be hard ...

  16. Concussion - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000125.htm Concussion in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Your child was treated for a concussion . This is a mild brain injury that can ...

  17. Multiple sclerosis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000129.htm Multiple sclerosis - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... doctor has told you that you have multiple sclerosis (MS). This disease affects the brain and spinal ...

  18. Rapid discharge from hospital in the last days of life: an evaluation of key issues and the discharge sister role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan; Hamilton, Sharon; Nicholson, Alex

    2015-12-01

    When the time comes, most people wish to die at home. Nevertheless, many deaths occur in hospital, often because of delays in the discharge process. This study explored the issues surrounding rapid discharge from hospital in the final days of life, and evaluated the contribution of a discharge sister role. A qualitative design was used, incorporating focus groups and interviews with key stakeholders. A total of 75 staff and 7 carers participated. Participants highlighted the small window of opportunity available to facilitate a rapid but safe discharge from hospital. Early recognition of the last days of life was vital as was the availability of a skilled health professional, such as the discharge sister, to coordinate the patient's journey from hospital to preferred place of death. Rapid discharge is challenging and requires high levels of skill. The discharge sister navigated complex organisational systems to facilitate rapid discharge for those who might otherwise have died in hospital.

  19. Survey of Thermal-Fluids Evaluation and Confirmatory Experimental Validation Requirements of Accident Tolerant Cladding Concepts with Focus on Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ali, Amir [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, Maolong [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blandford, Edward [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is working closely with the nuclear industry to develop fuel and cladding candidates with potentially enhanced accident tolerance, also known as accident tolerant fuel (ATF). Thermal-fluids characteristics are a vital element of a holistic engineering evaluation of ATF concepts. One vital characteristic related to boiling heat transfer is the critical heat flux (CHF). CHF plays a vital role in determining safety margins during normal operation and also in the progression of potential transient or accident scenarios. This deliverable is a scoping survey of thermal-fluids evaluation and confirmatory experimental validation requirements of accident tolerant cladding concepts with a focus on boiling heat transfer characteristics. The key takeaway messages of this report are: 1. CHF prediction accuracy is important and the correlations may have significant uncertainty. 2. Surface conditions are important factors for CHF, primarily the wettability that is characterized by contact angle. Smaller contact angle indicates greater wettability, which increases the CHF. Surface roughness also impacts wettability. Results in the literature for pool boiling experiments indicate changes in CHF by up to 60% for several ATF cladding candidates. 3. The measured wettability of FeCrAl (i.e., contact angle and roughness) indicates that CHF should be investigated further through pool boiling and flow boiling experiments. 4. Initial measurements of static advancing contact angle and surface roughness indicate that FeCrAl is expected to have a higher CHF than Zircaloy. The measured contact angle of different FeCrAl alloy samples depends on oxide layer thickness and composition. The static advancing contact angle tends to decrease as the oxide layer thickness increases.

  20. [Biology, thermal requirements and fertility life table of the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Italia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rodrigo C F; de Oliveira, José V; Haji, Francisca N P; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2006-01-01

    The mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) constitutes one of the main pest of grape crop at the Submédio São Francisco Valley. The objective of this work was to study the biology of the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks), to determine its thermal requirements and its fertility life table in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Italy. Acclimatized chambers (BOD) were used, adjusted to the temperatures of 18, 22, 25, 28 and 32 degrees C, relative humidity of 65 +/- 10% and alternated light of 12h. Egg-adult period was 3.4 and 6.8 days for males and 3.5 and 7.4 days for females, respectively at 32 degrees C and 18 degrees C. At the temperatures of 18, 25 and 32 degrees C, each female deposited, respectively, 16.5, 44.3 and 13.3 eggs. The stages of egg, larva and pupa and egg-adult period presented, respectively, thermal thresholds of 11.23, 9.45, 12.19, and 9.71 degrees C and thermal constant of 28.51, 14.59, 8.33, and 62.73 degrees-day. The mean duration of one generation (T) was 25.6, 10.8 and 8.2 days, respectively, at the temperatures of 18, 25 and 32 degrees C. The net reproductive rate (R0) at the temperature of 25 degrees C was the highest, corresponding to an increase of 30.12 times at each generation. The intrinsic rate of population increase (rm) was 0.10 (18 degrees C), 0.31 (25 degrees C) and 0.12 (32 degrees C) and the finite ratio of population increase (lambda) was 1.10 (18 degrees C), 1.36 (25 degrees C) and 1.13 (32 degrees C). According to the mean temperature values, P. latus can have 95 and 99 generations/year, respectively, for the municipal districts of Petrolina, PE and Juazeiro, BA.

  1. Environmental Compliance Guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Water Act: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    This manual provides general guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) officials for complying with Sect. 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 and amendments. Section 402 authorizes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or states with EPA approved programs to issue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for the direct discharge of waste from a point source into waters of the United States. Although the nature of a project dictates the exact information requirements, every project has similar information requirements on the environmental setting, type of discharge(s), characterization of effluent, and description of operations and wastewater treatment. Additional information requirements for projects with ocean discharges, thermal discharges, and cooling water intakes are discussed. Guidance is provided in this manual on general methods for collecting, analyzing, and presenting information for an NPDES permit application. The NPDES program interacts with many sections of the CWA; therefore, background material on pertinent areas such as effluent limitations, water quality standards, toxic substances, and nonpoint source pollutants is included in this manual. Modifications, variances, and extensions applicable to NPDES permits are also discussed.

  2. Building Envelope Thermal Performance Assessment Using Visual Programming and BIM, based on ETTV requirement of Green Mark and GreenRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taki Eddine Seghier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Accomplishment of green building design requirements and the achievement of the targeted credit points under a specific green rating system are known to be a task that is very challenging. Building Information Modeling (BIM design process and tools have already made considerable advancements in green building design and performance analysis. However, Green building design process is still lack of tools and workflows that can provide real-time feedback of building sustainability and rating during the design stage. In this paper, a new workflow of green building design assessment and rating is proposed based on the integration of Visual Programing Language (VPL and BIM. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop a BIM-VPL based tool for building envelope design and assessment support. The focus performance metric in this research is building Envelope Thermal Transfer Value (ETTV which is an Energy Efficiency (EE prerequisite requirement (up to 15 credits in both Green Mark and GreenRE rating systems. The development of the tool begins first by creating a generic integration framework between BIM-VPL functionalities and ETTV requirements. Then, data is extracted from the BIM 3D model and managed using Revit, Excel and Dynamo for visual scripting. A sample project consisting of a hypothetical residential building is run and its envelope ETTV performance and rating score are obtained for the validation of the tool. This tool will support project team in building envelope design and assessment by allowing them to select the most appropriate façade configuration according to its performance efficiency and the green rating. Furthermore, this tool serves as proof of concept that building sustainability rating and compliance checking can be automatically processed through customized workflows developed based on BIM and VPL technologies.

  3. Requirements and Implementation Feasibility for a CubeSat Thermal Infrared Imaging System to Monitor the Structure of Volcanic Ash Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, D.; Carroll, R.; Webley, P.; Hawkins, J.

    2014-12-01

    The 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland caused the cancellation of approximately 108,000 flights over an 8-day period, disrupted air traffic worldwide, and cost the airline industry more than $400 million per day. The inconvenience and economic impact of this and similar events, such as Puyehue-Cordon-Caulle in 2011, have heightened the interest in developing improved satellite remote sensing techniques for monitoring volcanic plumes and drifting clouds. For aviation safety, the operational/research community has started to move towards classifying the concentrations within volcanic plumes and clouds. Additionally, volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models are often used for forecasting ash cloud locations and they require knowledge of the structure of the erupting column to improve their ash simulations and also downwind 3-D maps of the ash cloud to calibrate/validate their modeling output. Existing remote sensing satellites utilize a brightness temperature method with thermal infrared (TIR) measurements from 10 - 12 μm to determine mass loading of volcanic ash along a single line of sight, but they have infrequent revisit times and they cannot resolve the three-dimensional structure of the ash clouds. A cluster of CubeSats dedicated to the monitoring of volcanic ash and plumes could provide both more frequent updates and the multi-aspect images needed to resolve the density structure of volcanic ash clouds and plumes. In this presentation, we discuss the feasibility and requirements for a CubeSat TIR imaging system and the associated on-board image processing that would be required to monitor the structure of volcanic ash clouds from Low Earth Orbit.

  4. "Ictal" lateralized periodic discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen-Gupta, Indranil; Schuele, Stephan U; Macken, Micheal P; Kwasny, Mary J; Gerard, Elizabeth E

    2014-07-01

    Whether lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs) represent ictal or interictal phenomena, and even the circumstances in which they may represent one or the other, remains highly controversial. Lateralized periodic discharges are, however, widely accepted as being ictal when they are time-locked to clinically apparent symptoms. We sought to investigate the characteristics of "ictal" lateralized periodic discharges (ILPDs) defined by time-locked clinical symptoms in order to explore the utility of using this definition to dichotomize LPDs into "ictal" and "nonictal" categories. Our archive of all continuous EEG (cEEG) reports of adult inpatients undergoing prolonged EEG monitoring for nonelective indications between 2007 and 2011 was searched to identify all reports describing LPDs. Lateralized periodic discharges were considered ILPDs when they were reported as being consistently time-locked to clinical symptoms; LPDs lacking a clear time-locked correlate were considered to be "nonictal" lateralized periodic discharges (NILPDs). Patient charts and available neuroimaging studies were also reviewed. Neurophysiologic localization of LPDs, imaging findings, presence of seizures, discharge outcomes, and other demographic factors were compared between patients with ILPDs and those with NILPDs. p-Values were adjusted for false discovery rate (FDR). One thousand four hundred fifty-two patients underwent cEEG monitoring at our institution between 2007 and 2011. Lateralized periodic discharges were reported in 90 patients, 10 of whom met criteria for ILPDs. Nine of the patients with ILPDs demonstrated motor symptoms, and the remaining patient experienced stereotyped sensory symptoms. Ictal lateralized periodic discharges had significantly increased odds for involving central head regions (odds ratio [OR]=11; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.16-62.6; p=0.018, FDR adjusted), with a trend towards higher proportion of lesions involving the primary sensorimotor cortex (p=0.09, FDR

  5. Cleaning of first mirrors in ITER by means of radio frequency discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Reichle, R.; Vorpahl, C.

    2016-01-01

    implementation in ITER revealed obstacles which needs to be overcome: Since the discharge as an RF load in general is not very well matched to the power generator and transmission line, power reflections will occur leading to a thermal load of the cable. Its implementation for ITER requires additional R......&D. This includes the design of mirrors as RF electrodes, as well as feeders and matching networks inside the vacuum vessel. Mitigation solutions will be evaluated and discussed. Furthermore, technical obstacles (i.e., cooling water pipes for the mirrors) need to be solved. Since cooling water lines are usually...

  6. The design of remote discharge scenario management system on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, W.T, E-mail: wtchai@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xiao, B.J [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Yuan, Q.P; Zhang, R.R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The remote discharge scenario management system is established on EAST, it provides some useful function for operators to manage discharge scenarios and formulate discharge schedule. • Operators can use this system to formulate discharge schedule on account of it can electing optimal scenarios automatically. • The system is not only for local user but also for remote user. • In the future, we can combine with actual discharge data and data mining technology to acquire optimal configuration, which to generate expert database and guiding experiment. - Abstract: The discharge scenarios on EAST plasma control system (PCS), characterized by different waveform parameters and different hardware requirements, will need a systematic discharge scenario management system for remote and local operators, in order to optimize storage structure and rationally manage discharge time. The remote management of discharge scenarios will require extending the functionalities of the present PCS “future shot” and “next shot” modules. Taking advantage of database technique, the operators can acquire detail information of all discharge scenarios directly without PCS user interface and search the specified scenarios by key words. In addition, the system can elect optimal scenarios automatically based on discharge schedule and plasma pulse setting for later artificial selection. To this purpose, a new remote discharge scenario management system (RDSMS) basis for Web is being conceived on EAST. The system contains a database with functions of “user management”, “scenario verification”, “prepared scenario management”, “actual discharge scenario management” and “discharge schedule management”. This paper will present the relevant conceptual design and give an account of the test results for implementation on EAST discharges.

  7. Transport of thermal water from well to thermal baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montegrossi, Giordano; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Nocentini, Matteo; Liccioli, Caterina; Nisi, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    The main problem in building a thermal bath is having a hot spring or a thermal well located in an appropriate position for customer access; since Roman age, thermal baths were distributed in the whole empire and often road and cities were built all around afterwards. Nowadays, the perspectives are changed and occasionally the thermal resource is required to be transported with a pipeline system from the main source to the spa. Nevertheless, the geothermal fluid may show problems of corrosion and scaling during transport. In the Ambra valley, central Italy, a geothermal well has recently been drilled and it discharges a Ca(Mg)-SO4, CO2-rich water at the temperature of 41 °C, that could be used for supplying a new spa in the surrounding areas of the well itself. The main problem is that the producing well is located in a forest tree ca. 4 km far away from the nearest structure suitable to host the thermal bath. In this study, we illustrate the pipeline design from the producing well to the spa, constraining the physical and geochemical parameters to reduce scaling and corrosion phenomena. The starting point is the thermal well that has a flow rate ranging from 22 up to 25 L/sec. The thermal fluid is heavily precipitating calcite (50-100 ton/month) due to the calcite-CO2 equilibrium in the reservoir, where a partial pressure of 11 bar of CO2 is present. One of the most vexing problems in investigating scaling processed during the fluid transport in the pipeline is that there is not a proper software package for multiphase fluid flow in pipes characterized by such a complex chemistry. As a consequence, we used a modified TOUGHREACT with Pitzer database, arranged to use Darcy-Weisbach equation, and applying "fictitious" material properties in order to give the proper y- z- velocity profile in comparison to the analytical solution for laminar fluid flow in pipes. This investigation gave as a result the lowest CO2 partial pressure to be kept in the pipeline (nearly 2

  8. Novel Molecular Discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbig, R.; Koerber, A.; Schwan, S.; Hayashi, D.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic investigation into halides and ~oxides showed the high potential of transition metal oxides as visible radiators for highly efficient gas discharge light sources. Zirconium monoxide (ZrO) has been identified as most promising candidate combining highly attractive green and red emission

  9. Electrostatic Discharge Training Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    NAVSEA SE 003-AA-TRN-OO LEYE V ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE TRAINING MANUAL s DTIC ,T OF I!ELECTE, ,4MA 0W\\R 9 981 E PUBLISHED BY DIRECTION OF COMMANDER...LABORATORY-TYPE DETECTORS SHOULD BE USED. IN SUMMARY, CHARACTERIS- TICS TO CONSIDER IN SELECTING AN ELECTROSTATIC DETECTOR ARE: o SENSITIVITY (MINIMUM

  10. ACL reconstruction - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have redness, pain, swelling, or yellowish discharge from your incisions. You have a temperature higher than 101°F (38.3°C). ... W, Amy E, Sepulveda F. Anterior cruciate ligament tear. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD, eds. ...

  11. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  12. Vehicle exhaust treatment using electrical discharge and materials chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkyn, R.G.; Balmer, M.L.; Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Goulette, D.; Hoard, J. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Scientific Research Lab.

    1997-12-31

    Current 3-way catalytic converters have proven quite effective at removing NO{sub x} from the exhaust of spark ignition vehicles operating near stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratios. However, diesel engines typically operate at very high air-to-fuel ratios. Under such lean burn conditions current catalytic converters are ineffective for NO{sub x} removal. As a result, considerable effort has been made to develop a viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst. Although some materials have been shown to reduce NO{sub x} under lean burn conditions, none exhibit the necessary activity and stability at the high temperatures and humidities found in typical engine exhaust,. As a result, alternative technologies are being explored in an effort to solve the so-called lean NO{sub x} problem. Packed-bed barrier discharge systems are well suited to take advantage of plasma-surface interactions due to the large number of contaminant surface collisions in the bed. The close proximity of the active surface to transient species produced by the plasma may lead to favorable chemistry at considerably lower temperatures than required by thermal catalysts. The authors present data in this paper illustrating that the identity and surface properties of the packing material can alter the discharge-driven chemistry in synthetic leanburn exhaust mixtures. Results using non-porous glass beads as the packing material suggest the limits of NO{sub x} reduction using purely gas phase discharge chemistry. By comparison, encouraging results are reported for several alternative packing materials.

  13. Predicting effects of cold shock: modeling the decline of a thermal plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D.; Trent, D.S.; Schneider, M.J.

    1977-10-01

    Predicting direct impact of cold shock on aquatic organisms after termination of power plant thermal discharges requires thermal tests that provide quantitative data on the resistance of acclimated species to lower temperatures. Selected examples from the literature on cold shock resistance of freshwater and marine fishes are illustrated to show predictive use. Abrupt cold shock data may be applied to field situations involving either abrupt or gradual temperature declines but yield conservative estimates under the latter conditions. Gradual cold shock data may be applied where heated plumes gradually dissipate because poikilotherms partially compensate for lowering temperature regimes. A simplified analytical model is presented for estimating thermal declines in terminated plumes originating from offshore, submerged discharges where shear current and boundary effects are minimal. When applied to site-specific conditions, the method provides time-temperature distributions for correlation with cold resistance data and, therefore, aids in assessing cold shock impact on aquatic biota.

  14. Thermal requirements and estimate of the annual number of generations of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on strawberry crop; Exigencias termicas e estimativa do numero de geracoes anuais de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) em morangueiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nondillo, Aline; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Pinent, Silvia M.J.; Gitz, Rogerio [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fitotecnica. Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mails: RS; alinondillo@yahoo.com.br, luredael@ufrgs.br; silviapi@portoweb.com.br; rogitz29@yahoo.com.br; Botton, Marcos [Embrapa Uva e Vinho, Bento Goncalves, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcos@cnpuv.embrapa.br

    2008-11-15

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is one of the major strawberry pests in southern Brazil. The insect causes russeting and wither in flowers and fruits reducing commercial value. In this work, the thermal requirements of the eggs, larvae and pupae of F. occidentalis were estimated. Thrips development was studied in folioles of strawberry plants at six constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 deg C) in controlled conditions (70 +- 10% R.H. and 12:12 L:D). The number of annual generations of F. occidentalis was estimated for six strawberry production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State based on its thermal requirements. Developmental time of each F. occidentalis stages was proportional to the temperature increase. The best development rate was obtained when insects were reared at 25 deg C and 28 deg C. The lower threshold and the thermal requirements for the egg to adult stage were 9.9 deg C and 211.9 degree-days, respectively. Considering the thermal requirements of F. occidentalis, 10.7, 12.6, 13.1, 13.6, 16.5 and 17.9 generations/year were estimated, respectively, for Vacaria, Caxias do Sul, Farroupilha, Pelotas, Porto Alegre and Taquari producing regions located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. (author)

  15. Partial discharges in spheroidal voids: Void orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1997-01-01

    Partial discharge transients can be described in terms of the charge induced on the detecting electrode. The influence of the void parameters upon the induced charge is examined and discussed for spheroidal voids. It is shown that a quantitative interpretation of the induced charge requires...

  16. Dynamic Reduction Effect of CO2 Gas Discharge in Introducing Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Inaba, Tsuginori

    For this study, the dynamic reduction effect of CO2 gas discharge for change from internal combustion engines to electric vehicles, EVs, was investigated quantitatively. The Japanese power generation status, which shows characteristics of electricity generation, and optimized adjustment to electricity demand, load and environment was examined. Based on a CO2 gas discharge basic unit, the estimated reduction quantity of CO2 gas discharge from EVs was calculated. The reduction effect of CO2 gas discharge is expected to be 52% by changing gas-fuelled vehicles to EVs. However, the dynamic differential is only 19% reduction by using the thermal power and -2% if only the coal thermal power is used.

  17. Thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae, parasitoids of the avocado defoliator Nipteria panacea (Lep.: Geometridae, in eggs of two alternative hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, parasitoids of Nipteria panacea (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, with eggs of the alternative hosts Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae aiming to use these natural enemies in biological control programs of this pest in avocado orchards. T. pretiosum needed 151.83 and 160.04 degree-days, above threshold of 10.70 and 10.75°C, while these values were 158.50 and 155.46 degree-days, above threshold of 10.67 and 10.46°C for T. acacioi when exposed to eggs of A. kuehniella and S. cerealella, respectively.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar as exigências térmicas de Trichogramma pretiosum e T. acacioi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, parasitóides de Nipteria panacea (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, em ovos dos hospedeiros alternativos Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae e Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae visando utilizar estes inimigos naturais em programas de controle biológico desta praga em pomares de abacate. T. pretiosum apresentou temperaturas base (Tb de 10.70 e 10.75°C e constantes térmicas (K de 151.83 e 160.04 graus-dia, sendo estes valores de 10.67 e 10.46°C e 158.50 e 155.46 graus-dia para T. acacioi em ovos de A. kuehniella e S. cerealella, respectivamente.

  18. GASEOUS DISCHARGE DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    An extremely compact two-terminal gaseous discharge device is described that is capable of producing neutrons in copious quantities, relatively high energy ions, intense x rays, and the like. Principal novelty resides in the provision of a crossed electric-magnetic field region in the discharge envelope that traps electrons and accelerates them to very high energies to provide an intense ionizing medium adjacent the anode of the device for ionizing gas therein with extremely high efficiency. In addition, the crossed-field trapping region holds the electrons close to the anode whereby the acceleration of ions to the cathode is not materially effected by the electron sheath and the ions assume substantially the full energy of the anodecathode potential drop. (auth)

  19. Epileptiform discharge propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mălîia, Mihai Dragos; Meritam, Pirgit; Scherg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    propagation was analyzed using sequential voltage-maps of the averaged spikes, and principal components analysis. When propagation was detected, sources were modeled both at onset and peak. RESULTS: Propagation occurred in half of the patients. The median time of propagation between onset and peak was 17 ms......OBJECTIVE: To investigate how often discharge propagation occurs within the spikes recorded in patients evaluated for epilepsy surgery, and to assess its impact on the accuracy of source imaging. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 50 consecutive patients who had presurgical workup. Discharge....... In 60% of the cases with propagation (15/25 patients) this remained in the same sub-lobar area where onset occurred. The accuracy of source imaging in cases of propagating spikes was 67% when only analyzing onset or peak. This was lower as compared to cases without propagation (79%). Combining source...

  20. Diffuse Discharge Switch Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    discharge current, jO’ is also fixed by ne* For methane-argon, 9:1, the minimum starts at an E/n of 2.5 Td and gives an elec-7 (21) tron drift velocity of...deposition (assuming 10 ) is 280 W/cm , the discharge current density (at E/n = 2.5 Td ) is 8 A/cm ,and the area of the switch is 2.5 m . Since one reason for 3...34 ne e = 6.7x10-2 ne A/cm 2 (6) eb (p/p ) 12For ne 5x10,this gives 167211 (mA/cm 2 (7) 3eb (pipo0 ) The current gain is JO e ve ne 2.4 x 1014 (8) Jeb

  1. Modeling electronegative plasma discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenberg, A.J.; Lieberman, M.A. [Univ. of California, Berkley, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Macroscopic analytic models for a three-component electronegative gas discharge are developed. Assuming the negative ions to be in Boltzmann equilibrium, a positive ion ambipolar diffusion equation is derived. The discharge consists of an electronegative core and electropositive edges. The electron density in the core is nearly uniform, allowing a parabolic approximation to the plasma profile to be employed. The resulting equilibrium equations are solved analytically and matched to a constant mobility transport model of an electropositive edge plasma. The solutions are compared to a simulation of a parallel-plane r.f. driven oxygen plasma for p = 50 mTorr and n{sub eo}= 2.4 x 10{sup 15} m{sup -3}. The ratio {alpha}{sub o} of central negative ion density to electron density, and the electron temperature T{sub e}, found in the simulation, are in reasonable agreement with the values calculated from the model. The model is extended to: (1) low pressures, where a variable mobility model is used in the electropositive edge region; and (2) high {alpha}{sub o} in which the edge region disappears. The inclusion of a second positive ion species, which can be very important in describing electronegative discharges used for materials processing, is a possible extension of the model.

  2. Theory of gas discharge plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Boris M

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the theory of gas discharge plasmas in a didactical way. It explains the processes in gas discharge plasmas. A gas discharge plasma is an ionized gas which is supported by an external electric field. Therefore its parameters are determined by processes in it. The properties of a gas discharge plasma depend on its gas component, types of external fields, their geometry and regimes of gas discharge. Fundamentals of a gas discharge plasma include elementary, radiative and transport processes which are included in its kinetics influence. They are represented in this book together with the analysis of simple gas discharges. These general principles are applied to stationary gas discharge plasmas of helium and argon. The analysis of such plasmas under certain conditions is theoretically determined by numerical plasma parameters for given regimes and conditions.

  3. Conduction heat transfer in a cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadat, H. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France)], E-mail: hamou.sadat@univ-poitiers.fr; Dubus, N. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France); Pinard, L.; Tatibouet, J.M.; Barrault, J. [Laboratoire en catalyse et chimie organique, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France)

    2009-04-15

    The thermal behaviour of a dielectric barrier discharge reactor is studied. The experimental tests are performed on a laboratory reactor with two working fluids: helium and air. A simple heat conduction model for calculating the heat loss is developed. By using temperature measurements in the internal and external electrodes, a thermal resistance of the reactor is defined. Finally, the percentage of the input power that is dissipated to the environment is given.

  4. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  5. State waste discharge permit application: Hydrotest, maintenance and construction discharges. Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    On December 23, 1991, the US DOE< Richland Operation Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 (216 Consent Order) (Ecology and US DOE 1991). The 216 Consent Order list regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site and requires compliance with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. Hanford Site liquid effluent streams discharging to the soil column have been categorized on the 216 Consent Order as follows: Phase I Streams; Phase II Streams; Miscellaneous Streams. Phase I and Phase II Streams were initially addressed in two report. Miscellaneous Streams are subject to the requirements of several milestones identified in the 216 Consent Order. This document constitutes the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit application for hydrotest,maintenance and construction discharges throughout the Hanford Site. This categorical permit application form was prepared and approved by Ecology.

  6. Medication reconciliation to solve discrepancies in discharge documents after discharge from the hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Marlies M E; van der Flier, Merel; de Vries-Bots, Anne M B; Brink-van der Wal, Thaliet I C; de Gier, Johan J

    2013-08-01

    When patients are admitted to, and discharged from hospital there is a high chance of discrepancies and errors occurring during the transfer of patients' medication information. This often causes drug related problems. Correct and fast communication of patients' medication information between community pharmacy and hospital is necessary. To investigate the number, type, and origin of discrepancies within discharge documents and between discharge documents and information in the pharmacy computer system, concerning the medication of patients living independently when they are discharged from hospital. Second, to test which variables have an impact on the number of discrepancies found and to study the time spent on the medication reconciliation process. One quality-certified community pharmacy in the Netherlands. Pharmacists reviewed discharge documents of patients discharged over one year. This information was compared to information available in the pharmacy computer system. Discrepancies were discussed with medical specialists and/or general practitioners. Type and origin of discrepancies were classified. Differences in variables between hospitals were tested using Independent-Samples Mann-Whitney U Test and Pearson Chi Square test. Poisson regression analysis was performed to test the impact of variables on the number of discrepancies found. Number, type and origin of discrepancies for all independently living patients discharged from the hospital. During the study period, 100 discharges took place and were analyzed. No differences were found between the two main hospitals, a university hospital and a teaching hospital. In total, 223 discrepancies were documented. Sixty-nine discharges (69.0 %) required consultation with a patients' medical specialist. A majority of the discrepancies (73.1 %) have their origin in hospital information. The number of discrepancies found increased with the number of medicines prescribed at discharge. The community pharmacist spent

  7. Desenvolvimento e exigências térmicas de Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae Development and thermal requirements of Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Martins Mendes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A temperatura exerce grande influência no desenvolvimento dos insetos e o conhecimento desse aspecto é essencial para subsidiar o uso de inimigos naturais como agentes de controle biológico, bem como para a sua criação massal. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas no desenvolvimento de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832, bem como as suas exigências térmicas. O experimento foi conduzido em câmaras climáticas, a 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 e 31±1°C; UR de 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Como alimento foram utilizados ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879. O período embrionário foi de 14,0; 8,9; 6,6; 4,8; 3,9 e 3,3 dias nas temperaturas de 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 e 31°C, respectivamente. Ninfas de todos os instares (independente do sexo que deram origem foram influenciadas pela temperatura quanto ao seu desenvolvimento, com redução nesse período com o aumento da temperatura. Machos e fêmeas, na temperatura de 25°C, apresentaram um período de desenvolvimento em torno de 12 dias. A temperatura base da fase de ovo foi de 11,78°C e a da fase ninfal foi de 12,27°C e de 13,03°C, para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente. A constante térmica para a fase de ovo foi de 63,75 e para a fase de ninfa de 161,97 e 157,24 graus-dia, para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente. A temperatura de 25°C foi a mais adequada para o desenvolvimento de O. insidiosus.The temperature strongly influences the development time of insects and the understanding of this aspect for natural enemies is essential for its use as biocontrol agents and for mass rearing purpose. The objective of this work was evaluating the effect of different temperatures on the development time of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 as well as its thermal requirements. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 ±1°C; RH 70±10% and photophase 12h. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 were provided as food. The embryonic period

  8. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge & Elimination System) Minor Dischargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into waters of the United States. The NPDES permit program regulates direct discharges from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities that discharge directly into surface waters. The NPDES permit program is part of the Permit Compliance System (PCS) which issues, records, tracks, and regulates point source discharge facilities. Individual homes that are connected to a municipal system, use a septic system, or do not have a surface discharge do not need an NPDES permit. Facilities in PCS are identified as either major or minor. Within the major/minor classification, facilities are grouped into municipals or non-municipals. In many cases, non-municipals are industrial facilities. This data layer contains Minor dischargers. Major municipal dischargers include all facilities with design flows of greater than one million gallons per day; minor dischargers are less that one million gallons per day. Essentially, a minor discharger does not meet the discharge criteria for a major. Since its introduction in 1972, the NPDES permit program is responsible for significant improvements to our Nation's water quality.

  9. Interoperability challenges in river discharge modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mattia; Schlummer, Manuela; Andres, Volker; Jirka, Simon; Looser, Ulrich; Mladek, Richard; Pappenberger, Florian; Strauch, Adrian; Utech, Michael; Zsoter, Ervin

    2014-05-01

    River discharge is a critical water cycle variable, as it integrates all the processes (e.g. runoff and evapotranspiration) occurring within a river basin and provides a hydrological output variable that can be readily measured. Its prediction is of invaluable help for many water-related areas such as water resources assessment and management, as well as flood protection and disaster mitigation. Observations of river discharge are very important for the calibration and validation of hydrological or coupled land, atmosphere and ocean models . This requires the use of data from different scientific domains (Water, Weather, etc.). Typically, such data are provided using different technological solutions and formats. This complicates the integration of new hydrological data sources into application systems. Therefore, a considerable effort is often spent on data access issues instead of the actual scientific question. In the context of the FP7 funded project GEOWOW (GEOSS Interoperability for Weather, Ocean and Water), the "River Discharge" use scenario was developed in order to combine river discharge observations data from the Global Runoff Data Center (GRDC) database and model outputs produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) predicting river discharge based on weather forecast information. In this presentation we describe interoperability solutions which were adopted in order to address the technological challenges of the "River Discharge" use scenario: 1) Development of a Hydrology Profile for the OGC SOS 2.0 standard; 2) Enhancement of the GEO DAB (Discovery and Access Broker) to support the use scenario: 2.1) Develop new interoperability arrangements for GRDC and ECMWF capacities; 2.2) Select multiple time series for comparison. The development of the above functionalities and tools aims to respond to the need of Water and Weather scientists to assess river discharge forecasting models.

  10. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  11. Thermal management of batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbard, H. F.; Chen, C.-C.

    Control of the internal temperature during high rate discharge or charge can be a major design problem for large, high energy density battery systems. A systematic approach to the thermal management of such systems is described for different load profiles based on: thermodynamic calculations of internal heat generation; calorimetric measurements of heat flux; analytical and finite difference calculations of the internal temperature distribution; appropriate system designs for heat removal and temperature control. Examples are presented of thermal studies on large lead-acid batteries for electrical utility load levelling and nickel-zinc and lithium-iron sulphide batteries for electric vehicle propulsion.

  12. Polymerization of 1-Naphthylamine by DC discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, A.; Yablokov, M.; Augustyniak-Jablokov, M.; Tadyszak, K.; Kuznetsov, A.

    2012-12-01

    Thin polymer films from 1-naphthylamine have been obtained for the first time by polymerization at the cathode and anode in DC discharge. The morphology of the films synthesized at the cathode was examined by SEM and AFM. The elemental composition, chemical structure, and thermal stability of the polymer have been studied by pyrolysis chromatography, IR and UV spectroscopy, and thermogravimetry, respectively. The surface contact properties of the films and their thickness have been determined with a microinterferometer. Polymer was also investigated by ESR method.

  13. Land-based discharges of marine debris: From local to global regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Nollkaemper (Andre)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis article outlines the major regulatory requirements involved in the control of land-based discharges of marine debris, and reviews the main developments in the process towards more appropriate international controls of such discharges.

  14. Compact Intracloud Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    In November of 1993, mysterious signals recorded by a satellite-borne broadband VHF radio science experiment called Blackboard led to a completely unexpected discovery. Prior to launch of the ALEXIS satellite, it was thought that its secondary payload, Blackboard, would most often detect the radio emissions from lightning when its receiver was not overwhelmed by noise from narrowband communication carriers. Instead, the vast majority of events that triggered the instrument were isolated pairs of pulses that were one hundred times more energetic than normal thunderstorm electrical emissions. The events, which came to be known as TIPPs (for transionospheric pulse pairs), presented a true mystery to the geophysics community. At the time, it was not even known whether the events had natural or anthropogenic origins. After two and one half years of research into the unique signals, two ground-based receiver arrays in New Mexico first began to detect and record thunderstorm radio emissions that were consistent with the Blackboard observations. On two occasions, the ground-based systems and Blackboard even recorded emissions that were produced by the same exact events. From the ground based observations, it has been determined that TIPP events areproduced by brief, singular, isolated, intracloud electrical discharges that occur in intense regions of thunderstorms. These discharges have been dubbed CIDS, an acronym for compact intracloud discharges. During the summer of 1996, ground-based receiver arrays were used to record the electric field change signals and broadband HF emissions from hundreds of CIDS. Event timing that was accurate to within a few microseconds made possible the determination of source locations using methods of differential time of arrival. Ionospheric reflections of signals were recorded in addition to groundwave/line-of-sight signals and were used to determine accurate altitudes for the discharges. Twenty-four CIDS were recorded from three

  15. A Thermal Switch for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Various planned NASA missions require thermal switches for active thermal control. As an example cryocoolers, including redundant coolers are incorporated on select...

  16. Influence of mine hydrogeology on mine water discharge chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, S.B.; Bowell, R.J.; Wiseman, I. [SRK Consulting, Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-01

    Using data for 18 coal mine discharges in the UK, the influence of discharge hydrogeology on discharge chemistry is assessed and typical chemical parameters derived for five discharge types. A combination of modified and new classification schemes is used to differentiate between the various discharge sources. Drainage from spoil tips generally has a pH below 5 and net-alkalinity values as low as -2500 mgl{sup -1} CaCO{sub 3}. Drainage from flooded workings and pumped discharges are net-alkaline, while drainage from flooded and free draining workings are either moderately net-alkaline or net-acidic. Iron is the major contaminant of concern, although many mine waters contain less than 30 mgl{sup -1} and Fe/SO{sub 4} ratios are less than unity. The classification schemes developed can be used to assess mine water treatment requirements and processes operating in passive treatment systems. 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Arc Discharge Electrode Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, G.

    The ASI was dedicated to the topic "Electrical Breakdown and Discharges in Gases," — a part of the general field called "Gaseous Electronics." There are physicists — more than a few — who have hardly heard about Gaseous Electronics. There are others — particularly, so called pure theoreticians — who consider this field the esoterica of physics filled with bizarre oddities. But there are also those experts who dared to look closer into this field and found that it has many fascinating and tempting aspects combining extreme features from various fields of physics.

  18. Continuous pile discharging machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillips P.

    1976-05-11

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug.

  19. Transient charging and discharging current study in pure PVF and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. PVF; PVDF; polyblend; fluoropolymers; transient current. Abstract. The transient current were analysed by considering the effect of variation of forming time, temperature, field and composition of blend specimens. Measurements indicated that transient charging and discharging currents exhibited thermally ...

  20. Discharge consents in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosie, Andrew J; Singleton, Peter T R

    2002-06-01

    The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) is charged with the protection of the Scottish environment, and this is achieved through the regulation of polluting discharges and through consulting, influencing and educating others who interact with it. This paper describes aspects of the agency's regulatory work as it applies to the Scottish fish-farming industry. By far the largest sector of the industry in Scotland involves the rearing of fin-fish in cages, presently still dominated by Atlantic salmon, and the paper is based on experiences gained within this sector. The present circumstances affecting its development are described with reference to the environmental impacts associated with cage-rearing techniques used for production in marine waters. This paper briefly reviews the statutory background behind Scotland's system of discharge consents, including relevant aspects of European legislation. Methods developed to control the environmental risks posed by sea louse treatment chemicals are described. The concept of farming the sea is explored in relation to SEPA's 'allowable zone of effects' approach and the growing public concern about perceived environmental damage. Finally, the future prospects for the industry in Scotland are reviewed in relation to sea louse control.

  1. Introducing a discharge planning and resource folder on acute hospital wards: A simple intervention to improve communication and quality of care at discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, Karen; Looney, Eileen; McKiernan, Margaret; O'Connor, Kieran Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hospital discharge especially for those patients with complex needs requires good coordination between hospital and community services. Communication with patients, families and community healthcare teams is vital on discharge. Failure to enlist appropriate community services on discharge home may leave patients vulnerable to adverse outcomes and readmission.Our hospital actively manages discharge procedures through our hospital planning committee. A survey of nurses in our hosp...

  2. Process Performances of 2 ns Pulsed Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takao; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori

    2011-08-01

    Pulsed discharge plasmas have been used to treat exhaust gases. Since pulse duration and the rise time of applied voltage to the discharge electrode has a strong influence on the energy efficiency of pollutant removal, the development of a short-pulse generator is of paramount importance for practical applications. In this work, it is demonstrated that the non thermal plasma produced by the 2 ns pulsed discharge has a higher energy efficiency than the 5 ns pulsed discharge plasma for NO removal and ozone generation. Typically, the NO removal efficiency was 1.0 mol kW-1 h-1 for 70% NO removal (initial NO concentration = 200 ppm, gas flow = 10 L/min). Meanwhile, the ozone yield was 500 g kW-1 h-1 for 20 g/m3 ozone concentration in the case of oxygen feeding. These energy efficiencies are the highest in the literature.

  3. Biology and thermal requirements to Trichogramma spp. selection for Ecdytolopha aurantiana control; Selecao de Trichogramma spp., para o controle de Ecdytolopha aurantiana, com base na biologia e exigencias termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Rosa M.S.; Parra, Jose R.P. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola], e-mail: rmsmolina@ig.com.br, e-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.br; Fronza, Vanoli [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Uberaba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: vanoli@epamig.br

    2005-03-15

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman and Platner, 1983 and T. pretiosum Riley, 1879 as agents of control of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important Citrus pest in Sao Paulo State (South-East Brazil). In order to provide subsidies to programs of biological control with these parasitoids, studies of biology in different temperatures, thermal requirements and parasitism capacity were carried out. The temperatures (18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 deg C) did not affect the sex ratio, however, female longevity of both species was higher at 22 and 25 deg C. The temperature of 25 deg C tended to be more suitable to both emergency rate and female longevity. The egg-adult period for both Trichogramma species was inversely proportional to temperature. The thermal requirements of the two species were very close, about 108 DD (degree days). Neither the natural rearing host, E. aurantiana, nor the alternative host Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), affected the number of parasitized eggs per Trichogramma female. The parasitism rate and the number of emerged adults per egg on E. aurantiana eggs were higher than on A. kuehniella eggs. However, the emergency rate was higher when the parasitoids were reared on A. kuehniella eggs. Both Trichogramma species could be tested in the field for citrus fruit borer control. The thermal requirements and the parasitism capacity also could be good parameters for selection of Trichogramma species/strains. (author)

  4. Effects of non-thermal plasma on mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Kalghatgi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal plasmas and lasers have been widely used in medicine to cut, ablate and cauterize tissues through heating; in contrast, non-thermal plasma produces no heat, so its effects can be selective. In order to exploit the potential for clinical applications, including wound healing, sterilization, blood coagulation, and cancer treatment, a mechanistic understanding of the interaction of non-thermal plasma with living tissues is required. Using mammalian cells in culture, it is shown here that non-thermal plasma created by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD has dose-dependent effects that range from increasing cell proliferation to inducing apoptosis. It is also shown that these effects are primarily due to formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. We have utilized γ-H2AX to detect DNA damage induced by non-thermal plasma and found that it is initiated by production of active neutral species that most likely induce formation of organic peroxides in cell medium. Phosphorylation of H2AX following non-thermal plasma treatment is ATR dependent and ATM independent, suggesting that plasma treatment may lead to replication arrest or formation of single-stranded DNA breaks; however, plasma does not lead to formation of bulky adducts/thymine dimers.

  5. Survey of European and Major ISC Facilities for Supporting Mars and Sample Return Mission Aerothermodynamics and Tests Required for Thermal Protection System and Dynamic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Bugel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of future sample return missions to Mars, asteroids, and comets, investigated by the European Space Agency, a review of the actual aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics capabilities in Europe for Mars entry of large vehicles and high-speed Earth reentry of sample return capsule has been undertaken. Additionally, capabilities in Canada and Australia for the assessment of dynamic stability, as well as major facilities for hypersonic flows available in ISC, have been included. This paper provides an overview of European current capabilities for aerothermodynamics and testing of thermal protection systems. This assessment has allowed the identification of the needs in new facilities or upgrade of existing ground tests for covering experimentally Mars entries and Earth high-speed reentries as far as aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and thermal protection system testing are concerned.

  6. HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE THERMAL LANDSLIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vantine, J.

    1985-01-22

    The large Thermal Landslide overlies the initial area of geothermal development at The Geysers. The landslide is waterbearing while the underlying Franciscan formation bedrock units are essentially non-waterbearing except where affected by hydrothermal alteration. Perched ground water moving through the landslide is heated prior to discharge as spring flow.

  7. Marine ecological habitat: A case study on projected thermal power plant around Dharamtar creek, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kulkarni, V.A.; Naidu, V.S.; Jagtap, T.G.

    of intake and discharge of water for cooling. Discharges from such developments remain constant threat of increasing thermal pollution and affecting the quality of environment. The baseline information on prevailing quality of aquatic environment comes handy...

  8. Investigation of thermal and electrical stabilities of a GdBCO coil using grease as an insulation material for practical superconducting applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D H; Kim, K L; Kim, Y G; Park, Y J; Kim, W J; Kim, S H; Lee, H G

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the effects of thermal grease on the electrical and thermal characteristics of GdBCO pancake coils, observed through charge-discharge, sudden discharge, over-current, and thermal quench testing. In charge-discharge and sudden discharge tests, a coil using thermal grease as an insulation material demonstrated faster charging/discharging rates compared to a coil without turn-to-turn insulation. In the case of over-current tests, the coil using thermal grease exhibited the highest electrical stability. Furthermore, thermal quench testing showed the coil employing thermal grease to possess superior thermal characteristics, with rapid cooling and low temperature rise. Overall, the use of thermal grease as an insulation material may be a potential solution to the problems observed with the existing insulation materials, possessing fast charging/discharging rates with superior thermal and electrical stabilities.

  9. Machining and Surface Characteristics of AISI 304L After Electric Discharge Machining for Copper and Graphite Electrodes in Different Dielectric Liquids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S. Anjum; M. Shah; N. A. Anjum; S. Mehmood; W. Anwar

    2017-01-01

    In Electric Discharge Machining (EDM), the thermal energy used for material erosion depends on the intensity of electric sparks, the thermal conductivities of electrode material and the dielectric liquid...

  10. 76 FR 10913 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Pay Off or Discharge an Alien Crewman

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Off or Discharge an Alien Crewman AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... requirement concerning the Application to Pay Off or Discharge an Alien Crewman (Form I-408). This request for...: Title: Application to Pay Off or Discharge an Alien Crewman. OMB Number: 1651-0106. Form Number: I-408...

  11. [Redesigning the hospital discharge process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramos, M; Flores-Pardo, E; Uris-Sellés, J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show that the redesign and planning process of hospital discharge advances the departure time of the patient from a hospital environment. Quasi-experimental study conducted from January 2011 to April 2013, in a local hospital. The cases analysed were from medical and surgical nursing units. The process was redesigned to coordinate all the professionals involved in the process. The hospital discharge improvement process improvement was carried out by forming a working group, the analysis of retrospective data, identifying areas for improvement, and its redesign. The dependent variable was the time of patient administrative discharge. The sample was classified as pre-intervention, inter-intervention, and post-intervention, depending on the time point of the study. The final sample included 14,788 patients after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The mean discharge release time decreased significantly by 50 min between pre-intervention and post-intervention periods. The release time in patients with planned discharge was one hour and 25 min less than in patients with unplanned discharge. Process redesign is a useful strategy to improve the process of hospital discharge. Besides planning the discharge, it is shown that the patient leaving the hospital before 12 midday is a key factor. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Batteries: Discharging the right product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sampson; Archer, Lynden A.

    2016-03-01

    The chemistry of the discharge products of metal-oxygen batteries is related to the battery's efficiency but knowledge of their formation mechanism is incomplete. Now, the initial discharge product in sodium-oxygen batteries is shown to be sodium superoxide, which undergoes dissolution and then transforms to sodium peroxide dihydrate.

  13. Advanced thermal management materials

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Guosheng; Kuang, Ken

    2012-01-01

    ""Advanced Thermal Management Materials"" provides a comprehensive and hands-on treatise on the importance of thermal packaging in high performance systems. These systems, ranging from active electronically-scanned radar arrays to web servers, require components that can dissipate heat efficiently. This requires materials capable of dissipating heat and maintaining compatibility with the packaging and dye. Its coverage includes all aspects of thermal management materials, both traditional and non-traditional, with an emphasis on metal based materials. An in-depth discussion of properties and m

  14. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on "sensible heat" storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  15. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1984 to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeb, C.M.; Libby, R.A.; Holter, G.M.

    1985-04-01

    The original spent fuel utility data base (SFDB) has been adjusted to produce agreement with the EIA nuclear energy generation forecast. The procedure developed allows the detail of the utility data base to remain intact, while the overall nuclear generation is changed to match any uniform nuclear generation forecast. This procedure adjusts the weight of the reactor discharges as reported on the SFDB and makes a minimal (less than 10%) change in the original discharge exposures in order to preserve discharges of an integral number of fuel assemblies. The procedure used in developing the reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, as well as the resulting data bases themselves, are described in detail in this report. Discussions of the procedure cover the following topics: a description of the data base; data base adjustment procedures; addition of generic power reactors; and accuracy of the data base adjustments. Reactor-specific discharge and storage requirements are presented. Annual and cumulative discharge projections are provided. Annual and cumulative requirements for additional storage are shown for the maximum at-reactor (AR) storage assumption, and for the maximum AR with transshipment assumption. These compare directly to the storage requirements from the utility-supplied data, as reported in the Spent Fuel Storage Requirements Report. The results presented in this report include: the disaggregated spent fuel discharge projections; and disaggregated projections of requirements for additional spent fuel storage capacity prior to 1998. Descriptions of the methodology and the results are included in this report. Details supporting the discussions in the main body of the report, including descriptions of the capacity and fuel discharge projections, are included. 3 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Thermal requirements of Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) immature stages; Exigencias termicas de estagios imaturos de Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Aline C.; Prezoto, Fabio [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Biologicas]. E-mail: ac-bio@bol.com.br; fprezoto@icb.ufjf.br; Prata, Marcia C. de A.; Furlong, John [EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: mprata@cnpgl.embrapa.br, john@cnpgl.embrapa.br

    2007-09-15

    The rearing of Galleria mellonella L. in laboratory is important for multiplication of entomopathogenic nematodes, mandatory for biological control studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three thermal profiles on development stages of this insect, allowing synchronization of cycle production. Two distinct rearing phases were done: firstly, using nucleous of incubation for development of eggs and, secondly, using circular-aluminum manifolds for development of larvae and pupae. The time necessary for development of the immature stages decreased with higher temperatures. Incubation periods lasted 13.4 days at 22 deg C, 8.3 at 27 deg C and 6.8 days at 32 deg C, while periods for larvae development lasted 40.4, 27.2, and 23.4 days, respectively, for the same temperatures. Development to pupal stage was observed 18.2, 15.0, and 12.2 days, respectively, for the same temperatures. Larval survival was higher at 32 deg C, however embryonic stages and pupae survival were higher at 27 deg C and 22 deg C, respectively. The threshold temperature was 11.209167 deg C for the embryonic development stage, 7.695869 deg C for larval stage, and 1.943050 deg C for pupal stage of G. mellonella. Thermal constants were 138.380533 DG (degree day) for egg, 554.968830 DG for larvae, and 369.054080 DG for pupae. (author)

  17. Sustained diffusive alternating current gliding arc discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Li, Zhongshan

    2014-01-01

    Rapid transition from glow discharge to thermal arc has been a common problem in generating stable high-power non-thermal plasmas especially at ambient conditions. A sustained diffusive gliding arc discharge was generated in a large volume in atmospheric pressure air, driven by an alternating...... current (AC) power source. The plasma column extended beyond the water-cooled stainless steel electrodes and was stabilized by matching the flow speed of the turbulent air jet with the rated output power. Comprehensive investigations were performed using high-speed movies measured over the plasma column......, synchronized with simultaneously recorded current and voltage waveforms. Dynamic details of the novel non-equilibrium discharge are revealed, which is characterized by a sinusoidal current waveform with amplitude stabilized at around 200 mA intermediate between thermal arc and glow discharge, shedding light...

  18. Characterization of a dielectric barrier discharge in controlled atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelheide, Friederike; Offerhaus, Björn; Bibinov, Nikita; Bracht, Vera; Smith, Ryan; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Awakowicz, Peter; Stapelmann, Katharina; Bimap Team; Aept Team

    2016-09-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas are advantageous for various biomedical applications as they make a contact- and painless therapy possible. Due to the potential medical relevance of such plasma sources further understanding of the chemical and physical impact on biological tissue regarding the efficacy and health-promoting effect is necessary. The knowledge of properties and effects offers the possibility to configure plasmas free of risk for humans. Therefore, tailoring the discharge chemistry in regard to resulting oxidative and nitrosative effects on biological tissue by adjusting different parameters is of growing interest. In order to ensure stable conditions for the characterization of the discharge, the used dielectric barrier discharge was mounted in a vessel. Absolutely calibrated optical emission spectroscopy was carried out to analyze the electron density and the reduced electric field. The rather oxygen-based discharge was tuned towards a more nitrogen-based discharge by adjusting several parameters as reactive nitrogen species are known to promote wound healing. Furthermore, the impact of an ozone-free discharge has to be studied. This work was funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) with the packet grant PAK 816 `Plasma Cell Interaction in Dermatology'.

  19. Transition from symmetric discharge to asymmetric discharge in a short gap helium dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Wenjun; Dai, Dong; Zhang, YuHui; Hao, Yanpeng; Li, Licheng

    2017-07-01

    The discharge dynamics of a 2.08 mm gap helium dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) are studied with a one-dimensional fluid model. By increasing the amplitude of a sinusoidal voltage source, it is observed that the discharge is symmetric at first and abruptly turns into an asymmetric state after passing a certain critical value. Compared with former publications dealing with relatively larger gap-distance DBD, our simulation results indicate some new discoveries. First, in both the symmetric and asymmetric states, every discharge event is fully developed from Townsend discharge to glow discharge, and the discharge current appears as a steep narrow pulse. Second, the residual positive column is always completely dissipated before the next break down; therefore, its influence on the symmetric-to-asymmetric transition can be eliminated. It is further revealed that the symmetric-to-asymmetric transition in the short-gap DBD is more delicate. A subtle phase shift is observed before the transition process. When the phase shift is further promoted with voltage rising, a discordance of the evolution paces between electron and ions occurs, which consequently leads to the formation of discharge asymmetry.

  20. Thermally stimulated discharge conductivity study of zinc oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Polymer/Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Govt. Vidarbha Institute of Science and Humanities, ... research efforts due to the unusual physical properties that are expected on entering this size regime. Control ... were grounded into fine powder and the pellets of diameter 1⋅16 cm were fabricated using a manual hydrau-.

  1. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge & Elimination System) Minor Dischargers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources...

  2. Influence of the process control on the thermal energy requirement of convection dryers in the brick industry; Einfluss der Prozessfuehrung auf den thermischen Energiebedarf von Konvektionstrocknern in der Ziegelindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretau, Anne

    2008-06-10

    Brick manufacturing demands high amount of energy. The energy flow analysis inside the brick factory shows that the convective drying of green bricks consumes more than half of the total thermal energy required for brick manufacturing. Therefore this paper deals with the theoretical analysis and investigation for the energy requirement of green bricks. For this, a physical-based model has been developed, which describes the dependence of drying-kinetics as well as the energy-requirement interims of the process parameter like mass of the supply air. It turns out that the specific energy requirement substantially depends on temperature and humidity of the ambience air and also supply air mass flow and its temperature. Due to the continuous temperature rise of the green bricks during the second drying section the specific energy requirement increases significantly with the progressive motion of the drying in a chamber dryer. This is due to the fact that the green brick as well as the air conditioning distance more and more from the cooling limit. Just a low part of the dryer exhaust air is saturated. The exhaust air is continuously sucked out and the green bricks are pulled inside the dryer. So the exhaust air has a relatively higher water saturation. On general, continuous dryers have a lower energy requirement than chamber dryer. For the both types of dryers, the mathematical model shows that the increasing of the supply air temperature combined with a commensurate subsidence of supply air mass flow, results in a reduction of drying energy requirement. The change of other essential parameters of drying like green brick thickness, and density as well as the moisture diffusion coefficient, and the vapour diffusity which are only important in the second drying section are of comparatively negligible effect. The developed mathematical model is successfully implemented for the energy investigation in the industrial dryers. The increase in supply air temperature results

  3. Pulsed electrical discharge in gas bubbles in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Sophia

    A phenomenological picture of pulsed electrical discharge in gas bubbles in water is produced by combining electrical, spectroscopic, and imaging methods. The discharge is generated by applying one microsecond long 5 to 20 kilovolt pulses between the needle and disk electrodes submerged in water. A gas bubble is generated at the tip of the needle electrode. The study includes detailed experimental investigation of the discharge in argon bubbles and a brief look at the discharge in oxygen bubbles. Imaging, electrical characteristics, and time-resolved optical emission data point to a fast streamer propagation mechanism and formation of a plasma channel in the bubble. Spectroscopic methods based on line intensity ratios and Boltzmann plots of line intensities of argon, atomic hydrogen, and argon ions and the examination of molecular emission bands from molecular nitrogen and hydroxyl radicals provide evidence of both fast beam-like electrons and slow thermalized ones with temperatures of 0.6 -- 0.8 electron-volts. The collisional nature of plasma at atmospheric pressure affects the decay rates of optical emission. Spectroscopic study of rotational-vibrational bands of hydroxyl radical and molecular nitrogen gives vibrational and rotational excitation temperatures of the discharge of about 0.9 and 0.1 electron-volt, respectively. Imaging and electrical evidence show that discharge charge is deposited on the bubble wall and water serves as a dielectric barrier for the field strength and time scales of this experiment. Comparing the electrical and imaging information for consecutive pulses applied at a frequency of 1 Hz indicates that each discharge proceeds as an entirely new process with no memory of the previous discharge aside from long-lived chemical species, such as ozone and oxygen. Intermediate values for the discharge gap and pulse duration, low repetition rate, and unidirectional character of the applied voltage pulses make the discharge process here unique

  4. Evaluation of discharge documentation after hospitalization for stroke patients discharged home in Australia: A cross-sectional, pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Ashley; Pond, Dimity; Baker, Amanda; Turner, Alyna; Levi, Christopher

    2017-08-29

    In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the quality of discharge documentation for stroke patients discharged home. Participants were stroke patients discharged from a regional tertiary acute and rehabilitation hospital in Australia from 2014 to 2015. Compliance with expected discharge documentation and its relationship with readmission was measured using an audit instrument for stroke patients (n = 54), and a post-discharge survey of carers was conducted. There were deficits in the documentation of the mechanism of stroke (70%), functional assessments (58%), pending test results (39%), types of support services required after discharge (35%), and patient/carer meetings with the multi-disciplinary stroke team (20%). Readmission was associated with lower compliance scores for information provided to patients or their carer. The survey results suggested that carer burden was high for carers of stroke patients discharged home. Documentation of carer/family meetings with the stroke team, functional assessments, medications, and adequate support services needs to be improved. General practitioners and carers need this information, so that they can address the post-discharge needs of these vulnerable patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. An introduction to gas discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Howatson, A M

    2013-01-01

    An Introduction to Gas Discharges: Second Edition aims to provide a compact introduction to the subject of gas discharges, which continues to make both scientific and industrial progress. In this second edition, the author has made minor corrections, rewritten and expanded some sections, used SI units and modernized notions, in hopes of making the book more up to date. Included in the book is a short history of the subject, an introduction that enumerates the types of gas discharges, the fundamental processes, and then moves on to the more specific areas such as the breakdown, the self-sustai

  6. Shape memory thermal conduction switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajan (Inventor); Krishnan, Vinu (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A thermal conduction switch includes a thermally-conductive first member having a first thermal contacting structure for securing the first member as a stationary member to a thermally regulated body or a body requiring thermal regulation. A movable thermally-conductive second member has a second thermal contacting surface. A thermally conductive coupler is interposed between the first member and the second member for thermally coupling the first member to the second member. At least one control spring is coupled between the first member and the second member. The control spring includes a NiTiFe comprising shape memory (SM) material that provides a phase change temperature <273 K, a transformation range <40 K, and a hysteresis of <10 K. A bias spring is between the first member and the second member. At the phase change the switch provides a distance change (displacement) between first and second member by at least 1 mm, such as 2 to 4 mm.

  7. Comparison of dielectric barrier discharge, atmospheric pressure radiofrequency-driven glow discharge and direct analysis in real time sources for ambient mass spectrometry of acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Jan; Mester, Zoltán; Sturgeon, Ralph E.

    2011-08-01

    Three plasma-based ambient pressure ion sources were investigated; laboratory constructed dielectric barrier and rf glow discharges, as well as a commercial corona discharge (DART source). All were used to desorb and ionize a model analyte, providing sampling techniques for ambient mass spectrometry (MS). Experimental parameters were optimized to achive highest signal for acetaminophen as the analyte. Insight into the mechanisms of analyte desorption and ionization was obtained by means of emission spectrometry and ion current measurements. Desorption and ionization mechanisms for this analyte appear to be identical for all three plasma sources. Emission spectra differ only in the intensities of various lines and bands. Desorption of solid analyte requires transfer of thermal energy from the plasma source to sample surface, in the absence of which complete loss of MS response occurs. For acetaminophen, helium was the best plasma gas, providing 100- to 1000-fold higher analyte response than with argon or nitrogen. The same trend was also evident with background ions (protonated water clusters). MS analyte signal intensity correlates with the ion density (expressed as ion current) in the plasma plume and with emission intensity from excited state species in the plasma. These observations support an ionization process which occurs via proton transfer from protonated water clusters to analyte molecules.

  8. Comparison of dielectric barrier discharge, atmospheric pressure radiofrequency-driven glow discharge and direct analysis in real time sources for ambient mass spectrometry of acetaminophen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzer, Jan [Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v.v.i., Veveri 97, CZ-602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Mester, Zoltan [Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Sturgeon, Ralph E., E-mail: Ralph.Sturgeon@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    Three plasma-based ambient pressure ion sources were investigated; laboratory constructed dielectric barrier and rf glow discharges, as well as a commercial corona discharge (DART source). All were used to desorb and ionize a model analyte, providing sampling techniques for ambient mass spectrometry (MS). Experimental parameters were optimized to achive highest signal for acetaminophen as the analyte. Insight into the mechanisms of analyte desorption and ionization was obtained by means of emission spectrometry and ion current measurements. Desorption and ionization mechanisms for this analyte appear to be identical for all three plasma sources. Emission spectra differ only in the intensities of various lines and bands. Desorption of solid analyte requires transfer of thermal energy from the plasma source to sample surface, in the absence of which complete loss of MS response occurs. For acetaminophen, helium was the best plasma gas, providing 100- to 1000-fold higher analyte response than with argon or nitrogen. The same trend was also evident with background ions (protonated water clusters). MS analyte signal intensity correlates with the ion density (expressed as ion current) in the plasma plume and with emission intensity from excited state species in the plasma. These observations support an ionization process which occurs via proton transfer from protonated water clusters to analyte molecules.

  9. Multiple sensor tracking of submarine groundwater discharge: concept study along the Dead Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Christian; Mallast, Ulf; Rödiger, Tino; Ionescu, Danny; Schwonke, Friedhelm; Hall, John K.; Sade, Aharon R.; Pohl, Thomas; Merkel, Broder

    2014-05-01

    As a result of the continuously declining water level of the Dead Sea, vast areas of its former lakebed are exposed. That unconsolidated sequence of clay minerals and evaporates (e.g. aragonite, gypsum, halite) generally reacts as aquiclude - preventing direct drainage of the surrounding mountain freshwater aquifers. The high density differences between the hypersaline Dead Sea (1.24 g/cm3) and the approaching fresh water generates a flat dipping and stable Ghyben-Herzberg interface. However, a network of open fissures and cracks enables these freshwaters to regionally penetrate both, aquiclude and interface and to finally enter the Dead Sea on- and offshore. These offshore springs, also termed sublake groundwater discharge (SGD), are neither qualitatively nor quantitatively analysed yet. This is the reason why it is one of the most doubtful variables in existing balances of the lake's water budget and strongly requires improvement. To disclose pathways from the feeding mountain aquifers to the springs, intense hydrochemical and microbial investigations were carried out both, onshore and submarine. The waters have their origin in a variety of hard rock aquifers of Cretaceous age. After draining into the Dead Sea sediments, waters carry the easily soluble components (gypsum, halite) and the abundant organic matter, erodes and transports the hardly soluble minerals (clay and aragonite) and admix with briny pore water, respectively, which are all hosted in the sediment body. Diving campaigns allowed to map at least parts of the submarine spring cluster and to correlate their locations with neo-tectonic patterns. However, comprehensive mapping solely by divers is unfeasible due to the complexity and density of spring locations. The subsurface morphology is characterised by craters, walls, gullies and cones, occasionally nested and intensely anastomosed. To comprehensively understand reasons for specific discharge locations and their shapes, high-precision and high

  10. Development of a discharge-heated plasma tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Byung Heon; Jin, J. T.; Nam, S. M.; Lee, S. M.; Choi, H. L.; Ko, D. K.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, Y. B.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, J. M.; Lee, C. K.; Lee, H. G.; Lee, H. C.; Jung, S. M.; Kim, Y. J.; Choi, G. S.; Son, N. G

    1999-12-01

    A discharge-heated type plasma tube was designed and constructed. The structure of the laser plasma tube was designed to be easy in maintenance. The inside plasma tube was made of a high purity alumina and the thermal insulator tube was made of a porous alumina. The electrode made of tungsten was chosen for the endurance of high discharge voltage. AR coated windows were used as laser windows. A proto-type laser plasma tube was tested with a pulse modulator. An average laser output power was 32 W at the discharge voltage of 28 kV, the electric input power of 4.6 kW, and the pulse repetition rates of 10 kHz. (author)

  11. Research on the Optical Properties of Transformers Partial Discharge Based on Different Discharge Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Bengang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the different types of discharge in transformer were simulated based on the real transformer fault model. The optical partial discharge detection system was established based on optical sensors which were capturing partial discharge accompanied by optical effects. In this research, surface discharge and suspended discharge defect model was pressurized to generate partial discharge signal. The results showed that: Partial discharge optical signals could effectively respond the production and development process of transformer partial discharge. It was able to assess discharge level also. When the discharge phenomenon stabilized, the phase of surface discharge mainly between 60°~150°and 240°~330°, the phase of suspended discharge mainly between 260°~320°. According to the phase characteristic of discharge pattern, the creeping discharge and suspended discharge phenomenon of transformer can be distinguished. It laid the foundation for the application of transformer optical partial discharge detection technology.

  12. Discharge cell for ozone generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Suguru

    2000-01-01

    A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space therebetween, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt %.

  13. Conductive Bands Diminish Electrostatic Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Philip L.; Whittlesey, Albert

    1992-01-01

    Electrostatic discharges on surfaces covered with electrically insulating paints reduced by connecting edges of painted surfaces to electrical grounds with band of conductive material. Prevents charge build up on paint which eventually arcs to conductive surface, damaging structures and equipment.

  14. Surgery for pancreatic cancer -- discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000820.htm Surgery for pancreatic cancer - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. You had surgery to treat pancreatic cancer . Now that you're going home, follow instructions ...

  15. Spectrum of vaginal discharge in a tertiary care setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaranjini, R; Jaisankar, TJ; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Kumari, Rashmi; Chandrasekhar, Laxmisha; Malathi, M; Parija, SC; Habeebullah, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Vaginal discharge is one of the common reasons for gynecological consultation. Many of the causes of vaginitis have a disturbed vaginal microbial ecosystem associated with them. Effective treatment of vaginal discharge requires that the etiologic diagnosis be established and identifying the same offers a precious input to syndromic management and provides an additional strategy for human immunodeficiency virus prevention. The present study was thus carried out to determine the various causes of vaginal discharge in a tertiary care setting. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 women presenting with vaginal discharge of age between 20 and 50 years, irrespective of marital status were included in this study and women who had used antibiotics or vaginal medication in the previous 14 days and pregnant women were excluded. Results: Of the 400 women with vaginal discharge studied, a diagnosis was established in 303 women. Infectious causes of vaginal discharge were observed in 207 (51.75%) women. Among them, bacterial vaginosis was the most common cause seen in 105 (26.25%) women. The other infections observed were candidiasis alone (61, 15.25%), trichomoniasis alone (12, 3%), mixed infections (22, 5.5%) and mucopurulent cervicitis (7 of the 130 cases looked for, 8.46%). Among the non-infectious causes, 72 (18%) women had physiological vaginal discharge and 13 (3.3%) women had cervical in situ cancers/carcinoma cervix. Conclusion: The pattern of infectious causes of vaginal discharge observed in our study was comparable with the other studies in India. Our study emphasizes the need for including Papanicolaou smear in the algorithm for evaluation of vaginal discharge, as it helps establish the etiology of vaginal discharge reliably and provides a valuable opportunity to screen for cervical malignancies. PMID:24470998

  16. Discharge planning in nursing homes.

    OpenAIRE

    Murtaugh, C M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to identify nursing home residents who vary in their discharge planning needs. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. Administrative records from a database maintained by the National Health Corporation were the primary data source. The 3,883 persons studied were admitted in 1982 to one of 48 nursing homes located in Tennessee, other southern states, and Missouri. STUDY DESIGN. Residents were followed until discharge or for one year, whichever occurred first. ...

  17. Measuring health literate discharge practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innis, Jennifer; Barnsley, Jan; Berta, Whitney; Daniel, Imtiaz

    2017-02-13

    Purpose Health literate discharge practices meet patient and family health literacy needs in preparation for care transitions from hospital to home. The purpose of this paper is to measure health literate discharge practices in Ontario hospitals using a new organizational survey questionnaire tool and to perform psychometric testing of this new survey. Design/methodology/approach This survey was administered to hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability testing were performed. Findings The participation rate of hospitals was 46 percent. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that there were five factors. The survey, and each of the five factors, had moderate to high levels of reliability. Research limitations/implications There is a need to expand the focus of further research to examine the experiences of patients and families. Repeating this study with a larger sample would facilitate further survey development. Practical implications Measuring health literate discharge practices with an organizational survey will help hospital managers to understand their performance and will help direct quality improvement efforts to improve patient care at hospital discharge and to decrease hospital readmission. Originality/value There has been little research into how patients are discharged from hospital. This study is the first to use an organizational survey tool to measure health literate discharge practices.

  18. Thermal comfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available wider range of temperature limits, saving energy while still satisfying the majority of building occupants. It is also noted that thermal comfort varies significantly between individuals and it is generally not possible to provide a thermal environment...

  19. 33 CFR 154.545 - Discharge containment equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154... chapter may be utilized in the planning requirements of subpart F and subpart H of this part. ... material and equipment to contain any oil or hazardous material discharged on the water from operations at...

  20. Electrostatic Discharge Sensitivity and Electrical Conductivity of Composite Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Wani, M.K. Bansode, G.M. Gore, Primary explosives : Electrostatic discharge initiation , additive effect and its relation to thermal and explosive ...International, 2007. [32] S.K. Chan, R. Turcotte, Onset temperatures in hot wire ignition of AN-based emulsions , Propellants, Explosives , Pyrotechnics 34 (2009...energies as small as 0.082 nJ [2]. In fact, ESD is a large cause of ignition in powders such as dust [3], food [4], and textiles [5], as well as explosives

  1. Hydraulic assessment of the Buda Thermal Karst area and its vulnerability (Budapest, Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czauner, Brigitta; Erőss, Anita; Erhardt, Ildikó; Ötvös, Viktória; Simon, Szilvia; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2017-04-01

    Thermal and medicinal water resources of Budapest (Hungary), the "City of Spas", are provided by the Buda Thermal Karst area. Assessment of its vulnerability requires the understanding of the discharge phenomena and thus the groundwater flow conditions in the area. Accordingly, BTK has already been the objective of several hydrogeological investigations, including numerical simulations as well, which led to conceptual models. The aim of the present study was the hydraulic evaluation of the flow systems based on the complex analysis of real, i.e. measured, archival hydraulic data of wells in order to i) get acquainted with the real flow systems, and ii) hydraulically confirm or disprove the previous conceptual models, in particular the applicability of gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept and hydraulic continuity, separation of the natural discharge zones, and hypogenic karstification. Considering the data distribution, pressure vs. elevation profiles, tomographic fluid-potential maps, and hydraulic cross-sections were constructed for the first time in this area. As a result, gravitational flow systems and the modifying effects of aquitard units and faults were identified. Consequently, the differences in temperature, hydrochemistry, discharge distribution (one and two-components), and related cave forming processes between the Central (Rózsadomb) and Southern (Gellért Hill) natural discharge areas could be explained, as well as the hydraulic behaviour of the Northeastern Margin-fault of the Buda Hills could be determined. Regarding the on-going hypogenic karstification processes, regional upward flow conditions were confirmed along the main discharge zone of the Danube. Identification of gravity as the main fluid flow driving force, as well as the hydraulic effects of heterogeneities can significantly contribute to the recognition of the risk factors regarding the vulnerability of the Buda Thermal Karst area. The research was supported by the

  2. Evaluation of HWVP feed preparation chemistry for an NCAW simulant -- Fiscal Year 1991: Evaluation of offgas generation, reductant requirements and thermal stability: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Langowski, M.H.; Powell, M.R.; Larson, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed for the Department of Energy to immobilize pretreated radioactive high-level waste and transuranic waste as glass for permanent disposal. Laboratory studies were conducted to characterize HWVP slurry chemistry during selected processing steps, using pretreated Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW) simulant. Laboratory tests were designed to provide bases for determining the potential for hazardous gas generation, making chemical adjustments for glass redox control, and assessing the potential for rapid exothermic reactions of dried NCAW slurry. Offgas generation rates and the total moles of gas released as a function of selected pretreated NCAW components and process variables were measured. An emphasis was placed on identifying conditions that initiate significant H{sub 2} generation. Glass redox measurements, using Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe as an indicator of the glass oxidation state, were made to develop guidelines for HCOOH addition. Thermal analyses of dried NCAW simulant were conducted to assess the potential of a rapid uncontrollable exothermic reaction in the chemical processing cell tanks.

  3. Classification of electrical discharges in DC Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi, E-mail: sruban.stephens@gmail.com [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Deb, A.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Rajan, Rehim N. [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kishore, N.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2016-08-11

    Controlled electrical discharge aids in conditioning of the system while uncontrolled discharges damage its electronic components. DC Accelerator being a high voltage system is no exception. It is useful to classify electrical discharges according to the severity. Experimental prototypes of the accelerator discharges are developed. Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) are used to detect the signals from these discharges. Time and Frequency domain characteristics of the detected discharges are used to extract features. Machine Learning approaches like Fuzzy Logic, Neural Network and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) are employed to classify the discharges. This aids in detecting the severity of the discharges.

  4. Classification of electrical discharges in DC Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi; Deb, A. K.; Rajan, Rehim N.; Kishore, N. K.

    2016-08-01

    Controlled electrical discharge aids in conditioning of the system while uncontrolled discharges damage its electronic components. DC Accelerator being a high voltage system is no exception. It is useful to classify electrical discharges according to the severity. Experimental prototypes of the accelerator discharges are developed. Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) are used to detect the signals from these discharges. Time and Frequency domain characteristics of the detected discharges are used to extract features. Machine Learning approaches like Fuzzy Logic, Neural Network and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) are employed to classify the discharges. This aids in detecting the severity of the discharges.

  5. Thermal analysis of large-capacity LiFePO4 power batteries for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunjing; Xu, Sichuan; Li, Zhao; Li, Bin; Chang, Guofeng; Liu, Jinling

    2015-10-01

    Excellent design of a thermal management system requires good understanding of the thermal behaviors of power batteries. In this study, the electrochemical and heat performances of a prismatic 40 Ah C/LiFePO4 battery are investigated with a focus on the influence of temperature on cell capacity in a mixed charge-discharge cycle. In addition, the heat generation and energy efficiency of a battery are determined during charge and discharge at different current rates. The experimental results indicate that in certain temperature ranges, both the charging and discharging capacities increase significantly as the temperature increases. In addition, the energy efficiency reaches more than 95% when the battery runs at a current rate of 0.33 C-2 C and temperature of 25-45 °C. A thermal mathematical model based on experimentally obtained internal resistances and entropy coefficients is developed. Using this model, the increase in the battery temperature is simulated based on specific heat values that are measured experimentally and calculated theoretically. The results from the simulation indicate that the temperature increase agrees well with the experimental values, the measured specific heat provides better results than the calculated specific heat and the heat generated decreases as the temperature increases.

  6. Magnetism in Lithium–Oxygen Discharge Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jung, Hun-Ji [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lau, Kah Chun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhang, Zhengcheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schlueter, John A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Du, Peng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Assary, Rajeev S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Greeley, Jeffrey P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ferguson, Glen A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Hsien-Hau [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hassoun, Jusef [Univ. of Rome, Rome (Italy); Iddir, Hakim [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhou, Jigang [Canadian Light Sources, Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Zuin, Lucia [Canadian Light Sources, Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Hu, Yongfeng [Canadian Light Sources, Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Sun, Yang-Kook [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Scrosati, Bruno [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Univ. of Rome, Rome (Italy); Curtiss, Larry A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Rome, Rome (Italy); Amine, Khalil [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-05-13

    Nonaqueous lithium–oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium–oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium–oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium– oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  7. Magnetism in lithium-oxygen discharge product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S; Greeley, Jeffrey; Ferguson, Glen A; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Kahlil

    2013-07-01

    Nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium-oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium-oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium-oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Water purification by electrical discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif Malik, Muhammad; Ghaffar, Abdul; Akbar Malik, Salman

    2001-02-01

    There is a continuing need for the development of effective, cheap and environmentally friendly processes for the disinfection and degradation of organic pollutants from water. Ozonation processes are now replacing conventional chlorination processes because ozone is a stronger oxidizing agent and a more effective disinfectant without any side effects. However, the fact that the cost of ozonation processes is higher than chlorination processes is their main disadvantage. In this paper recent developments targeted to make ozonation processes cheaper by improving the efficiency of ozone generation, for example, by incorporation of catalytic packing in the ozone generator, better dispersion of ozone in water and faster conversion of dissolved ozone to free radicals are described. The synthesis of ozone in electrical discharges is discussed. Furthermore, the generation and plasma chemical reactions of several chemically active species, such as H2O2, Obullet, OHbullet, HO2bullet, O3*, N2*, e-, O2-, O-, O2+, etc, which are produced in the electrical discharges are described. Most of these species are stronger oxidizers than ozone. Therefore, water treatment by direct electrical discharges may provide a means to utilize these species in addition to ozone. Much research and development activity has been devoted to achieve these targets in the recent past. An overview of these techniques and important developments that have taken place in this area are discussed. In particular, pulsed corona discharge, dielectric barrier discharge and contact glow discharge electrolysis techniques are being studied for the purpose of cleaning water. The units based on electrical discharges in water or close to the water level are being tested at industrial-scale water treatment plants.}

  9. Paediatrician perceptions of patient referral and discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Gary L; Turbitt, Erin; Gafforini, Sarah; Kunin, Marina

    2017-10-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the factors involved in the decision of paediatric specialists to discharge patients back to their primary care provider following referral. Return of patients to primary care, when medically appropriate, is essential to provide efficient care to children given the limited workforce of paediatric subspecialists in Australia. Methods Data were compiled from a self-completed mail survey of all paediatricians in five specialties at two children's hospitals in Melbourne (n=81). Analysis involved frequency distributions and descriptive analyses, followed by bivariate analyses to determine the differences, if any, among respondents based on the demographic variables collected. Results The response rate was 91%. Most paediatricians (73%) believed that at least sometimes referrals were for a condition general practitioners (GPs) should be able to manage themselves. However, only 36% reported that they frequently or almost always provided the referring GP with information on how to care for the particular condition without a referral. Concerns regarding whether a patient would receive required care following discharge were felt to be important by most paediatricians. Further, many paediatricians reported that their discharge decision is affected by concerns it would be too complicated to arrange for a GP to take over the care of a patient. Conclusions Understanding the factors involved in the referral process and the decision to discharge patients from speciality care clinics to primary care is essential to develop strategies to address long waiting times. Ensuring appropriate referral of children involves the participation of GPs, parents and specialists. What is known about the topic? Most paediatric subspecialists practice in paediatric hospitals, where there is a sufficient volume of patients requiring their services. There have been reports across Australia of increased referrals to general and subspecialist

  10. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steelman, Ryan [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Clark, Billy [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Pantoya, Michelle L. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Heaps, Ronald J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Daniels, Michael A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  11. Early home-supported discharge after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorne, P.; Jepsen, Birgitte G.; Larsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This report is a brief practical problem-based guide to support clinical management in the implementation of early home-supported discharge as an integrated part of stroke care. However, it is clear that skilled members of a multidisciplinary team are needed and they need to work in a coordinated...... benefit most are likely to have moderate stroke severity and may be able to cooperate with rehabilitation in the home setting. Staffing requirements will vary according to several factors. These will include (a) the severity and complexity of stroke impairments, (b) the current level of community support...

  12. Thermal Runaway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Catherino, Henry A

    2005-01-01

    During battery discharge, the heat generated is the sum of the Joule (resistive) and enthalpic (chemical) heating effects. Conversely, during battery charging, the heat generated is the Joule minus the enthalpic heating...

  13. High Thermal Conductivity Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Subhash L

    2006-01-01

    Thermal management has become a ‘hot’ field in recent years due to a need to obtain high performance levels in many devices used in such diverse areas as space science, mainframe and desktop computers, optoelectronics and even Formula One racing cars! Thermal solutions require not just taking care of very high thermal flux, but also ‘hot spots’, where the flux densities can exceed 200 W/cm2. High thermal conductivity materials play an important role in addressing thermal management issues. This volume provides readers a basic understanding of the thermal conduction mechanisms in these materials and discusses how the thermal conductivity may be related to their crystal structures as well as microstructures developed as a result of their processing history. The techniques for accurate measurement of these properties on large as well as small scales have been reviewed. Detailed information on the thermal conductivity of diverse materials including aluminum nitride (AlN), silicon carbide (SiC), diamond, a...

  14. Evaluation on the Feasibility of Using Ultrasonic Testing of Reactor Pressure Vessel Welds for Assessing Flaw Density/Distribution per 10 CFR 50.61a, Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Edmund J.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2014-06-10

    This technical letter report provides the status of an assessment undertaken by PNNL at the request of the NRC to verify the capability of periodic ASME-required volumetric examinations of reactor vessels to characterize the density and distribution of flaws of interest for applying §50.61a on a plant-by-plant basis. The PTS rule, described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Section 50.61 (§50.61), "Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events," establishes screening criteria to ensure that the potential for a reactor vessel to fail due to a PTS event is deemed to be acceptably low. Recently, the NRC completed a research program that concluded that the risk of through-wall cracking due to a PTS event is much lower than previously estimated. The NRC subsequently developed and promulgated an alternate PTS rule, §50.61a, that can be implemented by PWR licensees. The §50.61a rule differs from §50.61 in that it requires licensees who choose to follow this alternate method to analyze the results from periodic volumetric examinations required by the ASME Code, Section XI, Rules for Inservice Inspection (ISI) of Nuclear Power Plants.

  15. Capillary Discharge XUV Radiation Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nevrkla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A device producing Z-pinching plasma as a source of XUV radiation is described. Here a ceramic capacitor bank pulse-charged up to 100 kV is discharged through a pre-ionized gas-filled ceramic tube 3.2 mm in diameter and 21 cm in length. The discharge current has amplitude of 20 kA and a rise-time of 65 ns. The apparatus will serve as experimental device for studying of capillary discharge plasma, for testing X-ray optics elements and for investigating the interaction of water-window radiation with biological samples. After optimization it will be able to produce 46.9 nm laser radiation with collision pumped Ne-like argon ions active medium. 

  16. Constricted glow discharge plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Andre; Anders, Simone; Dickinson, Michael; Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan

    2000-01-01

    A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

  17. Novel combined patient instruction and discharge summary tool improves timeliness of documentation and outpatient provider satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Meredith; Krein, Sarah L; Belanger, Karen; Fowler, Karen E; Dimcheff, Derek E; Solomon, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Incomplete or delayed access to discharge information by outpatient providers and patients contributes to discontinuity of care and poor outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a new electronic discharge summary tool on the timeliness of documentation and communication with outpatient providers. Methods: In June 2012, we implemented an electronic discharge summary tool at our 145-bed university-affiliated Veterans Affairs hospital. The tool facilitates completion of a comprehensive discharge summary note that is available for patients and outpatient medical providers at the time of hospital discharge. Discharge summary note availability, outpatient provider satisfaction, and time between the decision to discharge a patient and discharge note completion were all evaluated before and after implementation of the tool. Results: The percentage of discharge summary notes completed by the time of first post-discharge clinical contact improved from 43% in February 2012 to 100% in September 2012 and was maintained at 100% in 2014. A survey of 22 outpatient providers showed that 90% preferred the new summary and 86% found it comprehensive. Despite increasing required documentation, the time required to discharge a patient, from physician decision to discharge note completion, improved from 5.6 h in 2010 to 4.1 h in 2012 (p = 0.04), and to 2.8 h in 2015 (p discharge summary tool improved the timeliness and comprehensiveness of discharge information as needed for the delivery of appropriate, high-quality follow-up care, without adversely affecting the efficiency of the discharge process. PMID:28491308

  18. Thermalized axion inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ricardo Z.; Notari, Alessio

    2017-09-01

    We analyze the dynamics of inflationary models with a coupling of the inflaton phi to gauge fields of the form phi F tilde F/f, as in the case of axions. It is known that this leads to an instability, with exponential amplification of gauge fields, controlled by the parameter ξ= dot phi/(2fH), which can strongly affect the generation of cosmological perturbations and even the background. We show that scattering rates involving gauge fields can become larger than the expansion rate H, due to the very large occupation numbers, and create a thermal bath of particles of temperature T during inflation. In the thermal regime, energy is transferred to smaller scales, radically modifying the predictions of this scenario. We thus argue that previous constraints on ξ are alleviated. If the gauge fields have Standard Model interactions, which naturally provides reheating, they thermalize already at ξgtrsim2.9, before perturbativity constraints and also before backreaction takes place. In absence of SM interactions (i.e. for a dark photon), we find that gauge fields and inflaton perturbations thermalize if ξgtrsim3.4 however, observations require ξgtrsim6, which is above the perturbativity and backreaction bounds and so a dedicated study is required. After thermalization, though, the system should evolve non-trivially due to the competition between the instability and the gauge field thermal mass. If the thermal mass and the instabilities equilibrate, we expect an equilibrium temperature of Teq simeq ξ H/bar g where bar g is the effective gauge coupling. Finally, we estimate the spectrum of perturbations if phi is thermal and find that the tensor to scalar ratio is suppressed by H/(2T), if tensors do not thermalize.

  19. 33 CFR 323.3 - Discharges requiring permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limited to, the following: Projects where the pilings are so closely spaced that sedimentation rates would be increased; projects in which the pilings themselves effectively would replace the bottom of a waterbody; projects involving the placement of pilings that would reduce the reach or impair the flow or...

  20. Impact of Insurance Precertification on Discharge of Stroke Patients to Acute Rehabilitation or Skilled Nursing Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew L; Kulhari, Ashish; Wolfram, Julie A; Furlan, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if the common insurance practice of requiring precertification before a medically ready stroke patient can be discharged to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) or inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) causes a delay in discharge. Eliminating delays in discharge of stroke patients is important given the increasing demands for health-care efficiency after the passage of the Affordable Health Care Act. A retrospective chart review of 1007 patients who were admitted to our comprehensive stroke center with the primary diagnosis of stroke over a 12-month period was performed. Out of the patient pool, 289 patients met the inclusion criterion of a primary diagnosis of stroke that required discharge to a SNF or IRF. All 289 patients were medically cleared for discharge to a SNF or IRF by a board-certified vascular neurologist. Of the 289 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 118 required insurance precertification and 171 did not require precertification before being discharged to a SNF or IRF. All 118 patients who required precertification had private health insurance. The patients who required insurance precertification had an average delay of discharge (DOD) of 1.5 days, and those patients who did not require precertification had an average DOD of .8 days (P value insurance precertification leads to delay in discharge, increased LOS, and increased hospital costs for stroke patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Thermal Management and Thermal Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Aqib

    2016-01-01

    's rays directly impinging on the system. Heating rate of the lamps were calculated by knowing fraction of emitted energy in a wavelength interval and the filament temperature. This version of the model can be used to predict performance of the system under vacuum with extreme cold or hot conditions. Initial testing of the PTMS showed promise, and the thermal math model predicts even better performance in thermal vacuum testing. ii) Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are required for vehicles which enter earth's atmosphere to protect from aerodynamic heating caused by the friction between the vehicle and atmospheric gases. Orion's heat shield design has two aspects which needed to be analyzed thermally: i) a small excess of adhesive used to bond the outer AVCOAT layer to the inner composite structure tends to seep from under the AVCOAT and form a small bead in between two bricks of AVCOAT, ii) a silicone rubber with different thermophysical properties than AVCOAT fills the gap between two bricks of AVCOAT. I created a thermal model using TD to determine temperature differences that are caused by these two features. To prevent false results, all TD models must be verified against something known. In this case, the TD model was correlated to CHAR, an ablation modelling software used to analyze TPS. Analyzing a node far from the concerning features, we saw that the TD model data match CHAR data, verifying the TD model. Next, the temperature of the silicone rubber as well as the bead of adhesive were analyzed to determine if they exceeded allowable temperatures. It was determined that these two features do not have a significant effect on the max temperature of the heat shield. This model can be modified to check temperatures at various locations of the heat shield where the composite thickness varies.

  2. Catalog of thermal waters in New Mexico. Hydrologic report 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    Waters at 67 locations in New Mexico discharge at anomalous temperatures. Details on these thermal water resources such as the location, temperature, discharge rate, field pH, and specific conductance are presented in 29 tables and 47 figures. Included also are 244 chemical analyses of water from 38 areas.

  3. Efficient, high rep rate, large-bore kinetically enhanced copper vapor laser with low (thermal assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bijendra; Subramaniam, V V; Daultabad, S R; Chakraborty, Ashim

    2009-10-01

    Large-bore kinetically enhanced copper vapor laser (CVL) based on new thermal assembly consisting of different density zones of insulation material (alumina fiber) around the discharge tube is demonstrated for the first time with efficiency eta > or = 1% at extremely low specific input power (SIP) of insulation material, efficiency of approximately 1.2% was achieved at lowest SIP of approximately 0.75 kW/l. Net reduction in the input power of approximately 1 kW was observed on using this thermal assembly as compared to nonprofiled thermal assembly. These results show significant improvement (25%-30%) at low input requirements of the laser on using new thermal assembly around the discharge tube with overall electro-optical efficiency eta > or = 1%. Maximum laser power achieved from the laser was approximately 78 W at approximately 9.8 kHz rep rate with efficiency of approximately 1.4%. This large-bore CVL is also capable of operating efficiently (eta approximately 1%) at high rep rate of -17 kHz with maximum laser power of approximately 50 W. Performance of the laser under various operating conditions is also presented in this short paper.

  4. Requirements management and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Red

    1993-01-01

    The systems engineering process for thermal nuclear propulsion requirements and configuration definition is described in outline and graphic form. Functional analysis and mission attributes for a Mars exploration mission are also addressed.

  5. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; van Soestbergen, M.; Mani, A.

    2012-01-01

    . Salt depletion leads to a large electric field resulting in a local pH shift within the membrane with the effect that the membrane discharges and loses its ion selectivity. Since salt co-ions, H+ ions, and OH- ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counterion removal...

  6. Your Superintendent -- Recharge or Discharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Loyd L.

    This speech discusses criteria for hiring, evaluating, and rehiring or discharging superintendents by school boards. The presentation stresses that most board evaluation methods are weak and suggests a superintendent evaluation checklist such as the one used by the Fort Worth Board of Education as a workable remedy. (JF)

  7. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... becomes red or painful, or yellow or green discharge is draining from it. You have chest pain or shortness of breath that does not go away with rest. Your pulse feels irregular -- very slow (fewer than 60 beats), or very fast (over 100 to 120 beats) a minute. You ...

  8. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Marcus, Specht

    2014-01-01

    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense

  9. Electrostatic Discharge testing of propellants and primers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, R.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the results of testing of selected propellants and primers to Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) characteristic of the human body. It describes the tests and the fixturing built to accommodate loose material (propellants) and the packed energetic material of the primer. The results indicate that all powders passed and some primers, especially the electric primers, failed to pass established requirements which delineate insensitive energetic components. This report details the testing of components and materials to four ESD environments (Standard ESD, Severe ESD, Modified Standard ESD, and Modified Severe ESD). The purpose of this study was to collect data based on the customer requirements as defined in the Sandia Environmental Safety & Health (ES&H) Manual, Chapter 9, and to define static sensitive and insensitive propellants and primers.

  10. Thermal hyperbolic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Jacob, Zubin

    2013-06-17

    We explore the near-field radiative thermal energy transfer properties of hyperbolic metamaterials. The presence of unique electromagnetic states in a broad bandwidth leads to super-planckian thermal energy transfer between metamaterials separated by a nano-gap. We consider practical phonon-polaritonic metamaterials for thermal engineering in the mid-infrared range and show that the effect exists in spite of the losses, absorption and finite unit cell size. For thermophotovoltaic energy conversion applications requiring energy transfer in the near-infrared range we introduce high temperature hyperbolic metamaterials based on plasmonic materials with a high melting point. Our work paves the way for practical high temperature radiative thermal energy transfer applications of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  11. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  12. Seismic Tremor Reveals Subglacial Discharge at Tidewater Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaus, T. C.; Larsen, C. F.; O'Neel, S.; West, M. E.; Amundson, J. M.; Walter, J. I.; Catania, G. A.; Stearns, L. A.; Walker, R. T.; Sutherland, D.; Shroyer, E.; Nash, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Subglacial discharge from the termini of tidewater glaciers drives submarine terminus melting, influences fjord circulation, erodes and redeposits subglacial sediment, and is a central component of proglacial marine ecosystems. The timing and variability of subglacial discharge can also exert a strong influence on the upstream flow of tidewater glaciers through hydrology-mediated changes in basal motion. However, a lack of observations of subglacial discharge at the ice-ocean interface hinders progress in understanding these processes and contributes to some of the largest uncertainties in sea level rise projections. Here we demonstrate that passive seismic observations collected adjacent to glaciers can meet this observational need. At tidewater and lake-terminating glaciers in Alaska and Greenland, we observe hourly to seasonal variations in low-amplitude, background seismic noise, termed glacio-hydraulic tremor. Variations in tremor amplitude correlate with discharge during the drainage of a glacially-dammed lake and reveal increases in discharge efficiency over the course of the melt season. Recordings of glacio-hydraulic tremor across a range of settings suggest widespread utility for our method. Reliable prediction of future sea level rise requires observations of subglacial discharge that elicit physical insight and can validate models. Our findings provide a platform for new understanding of ice-ocean interactions and related oceanographic, geologic, and ecological disciplines.

  13. CO2 Dissociation by Low Current Gliding Discharge in the Reverse Vortex Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsol, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    If performed with high energy efficiency, plasma-chemical dissociation of carbon dioxide can be a way of converting and storing energy when there is an excess of electric energy, for example generated by solar elements of wind turbines. CO2 dissociation with efficiency of up to 90% was reported earlier for low pressure microwave discharge in supersonic flow. A new plasma-chemical system uses a low current gliding discharge in the reverse vortex flow of plasma gas. The system is a development of the Gliding Arc in Tornado reactor. The system was used to study dissociation of CO2 in wide ranges of the following experimental parameters: reactor pressure (15-150 kPa), discharge current (50-500 mA), gas flow rate (3-30 liters per minute), and electrode gap length (1-10 cm). Additionally, the effect of thermal energy recuperation on CO2 dissociation efficiency was tested. Plasma chemical efficiency of CO2 dissociation is very low (about 3%) in a short discharge at low pressures (about 15 kPa) when it is defined by electronic excitation. The highest efficiency (above 40%) was reached at pressures 50-70 kPa in a long discharge with thermal energy recuperation. It means that the process is controlled by thermal dissociation with subsequent effective quenching. Plasma chemical efficiency was determined from the data of chromatographic analysis and oscilloscope electric power integration, and also was checked calorimetrically by the thermal balance of the system.

  14. Suppression of a laminar separation by a spark discharge at a supersonic Mach number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivanov, P. A.; Sidorenko, A. A.; Maslov, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with control the shock wave / laminar boundary layer interaction (SWBLI) by a spark discharge. Incident shock wave generated by a wedge induced the separation of the boundary layer developed on the flat plate at M=1.43. The inflow boundary layer state was laminar. The quantitative measurements were performed by PIV. It was found that a turbulent spot generated by a spark discharge suppresses the separation zone. But the thermal spot increases the loss of total pressure in the boundary layer. The effect of the discharge power on the zone of SWBLI has been studied.

  15. Suppression of the separation zone by a spark discharge on laminar transonic airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivanov, P. A.; Sidorenko, A. A.; Maslov, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The effect of plasma actuators on Shock Wave / Laminar Boundary Layer Interaction (SWBLI) was studied experimentally on transonic laminar aerofoil. The steady and unsteady characteristics of the separation zone were measured for several flow regimes including the transonic buffet. Multi Sliding Spark Discharge was used for the flow control. Successful suppression of separated flow and laminar transonic buffet by plasma actuators` was demonstrated. An analysis of the discharge pulse energy effect on SWBLI was carried out. The perturbation and thermal spot evolution generated by the discharge was studied in the zone of SWBLI.

  16. Thermal imaging in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Ogorevc

    2015-12-01

    be widely used also in the field of medicine. Implementation of every new technology in a daily clinical practice requires large number of measurements with such equipment compared by reference method for the purpose of clinical validation. The knowledge of measurement problematics is crucial. Collaboration between physicians and engineers on multi- and interdisciplinary level is of high importance for thermal imaging to win confidence of physicians and to gain reliability as a clinical diagnostic tool.

  17. Discharge current distribution in stratified soil under impulse discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eniola Fajingbesi, Fawwaz; Shahida Midi, Nur; Elsheikh, Elsheikh M. A.; Hajar Yusoff, Siti

    2017-06-01

    The mobility of charge particles traversing a material defines its electrical properties. Soil (earth) have long been the universal grounding before and after the inception of active ground systems for electrical appliance purpose due to it semi-conductive properties. The soil can thus be modelled as a single material exhibiting semi-complex inductive-reactive impedance. Under impulse discharge such as lightning strikes to soil this property of soil could result in electric potential level fluctuation ranging from ground potential rise/fall to electromagnetic pulse coupling that could ultimately fail connected electrical appliance. In this work we have experimentally model the soil and lightning discharge using point to plane electrode setup to observe the current distribution characteristics at different soil conductivity [mS/m] range. The result presented from this research indicate above 5% shift in conductivity before and after discharge which is significant for consideration when dealing with grounding designs. The current distribution in soil have also be successfully observed and analysed from experimental result using mean current magnitude in relation to electrode distance and location, current density variation with depth all showing strong correlation with theoretical assumptions of a semi-complex impedance material.

  18. Estimating extreme river discharges in Europe through a Bayesian network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprotny, Dominik; Morales-Nápoles, Oswaldo

    2017-06-01

    Large-scale hydrological modelling of flood hazards requires adequate extreme discharge data. In practise, models based on physics are applied alongside those utilizing only statistical analysis. The former require enormous computational power, while the latter are mostly limited in accuracy and spatial coverage. In this paper we introduce an alternate, statistical approach based on Bayesian networks (BNs), a graphical model for dependent random variables. We use a non-parametric BN to describe the joint distribution of extreme discharges in European rivers and variables representing the geographical characteristics of their catchments. Annual maxima of daily discharges from more than 1800 river gauges (stations with catchment areas ranging from 1.4 to 807 000 km2) were collected, together with information on terrain, land use and local climate. The (conditional) correlations between the variables are modelled through copulas, with the dependency structure defined in the network. The results show that using this method, mean annual maxima and return periods of discharges could be estimated with an accuracy similar to existing studies using physical models for Europe and better than a comparable global statistical model. Performance of the model varies slightly between regions of Europe, but is consistent between different time periods, and remains the same in a split-sample validation. Though discharge prediction under climate change is not the main scope of this paper, the BN was applied to a large domain covering all sizes of rivers in the continent both for present and future climate, as an example. Results show substantial variation in the influence of climate change on river discharges. The model can be used to provide quick estimates of extreme discharges at any location for the purpose of obtaining input information for hydraulic modelling.

  19. Improving the Patient Discharge Planning Process through Knowledge Management by Using the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Kamalanathan, Nitya Ahilandam; EARDLEY, Alan; CHIBELUSHI, Caroline; Collins, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) is faced with problems of managing patient discharge and preventing the prob- lems that result from it such as frequent readmissions, delayed discharge, long waiting lists, bed blocking and other such consequences. The problem is exacerbated by the growth in size, complexity and the number of chronic diseases in the NHS. In addition, there is an increase in demand for high quality care, processes and planning. Effective Discharge Planning (DP) requires pra...

  20. Discharge of water containing waste emanating from land to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    international Conventions and treaties such as the London Convention, is committed to certain requirements pertaining to the ... ground rules and management framework that will be applied to the discharge of land-derived wastewater to the marine ..... the risks to the environment in the event of malfunctioning, both.

  1. Caracterização fenológica e requerimento térmico da cultivar moscato giallo sob cobertura plástica Phenological characterization and thermal requirement of moscato giallo cultivar under plastic cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Chavarria

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da cobertura plástica (CP sobre a fenologia e o requerimento térmico da Vitis vinifera L. 'Moscato Giallo' foram estudados em dois ciclos (2005/2006 e 2006/2007. Determinou-se a duração média dos principais períodos fenológicos por meio de avaliações semanais, desde a poda até a queda das folhas. O somatório térmico em graus-dia acumulados (GD foi calculado considerando-se a temperatura-base de 10ºC, e medidas da temperatura do ar máxima e mínima ao longo de todo o ciclo, nas áreas coberta e descoberta (testemunha. A cobertura plástica aumentou o somatório térmico e antecipou o início da brotação, reduzindo a duração das etapas fenológicas da poda até a mudança de cor das bagas. Entretanto, a redução da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (RFA proporcionada pela cobertura plástica atrasou, em média, 18 dias o processo de maturação das uvas da cultivar Moscato Giallo. A soma térmica acumulada (poda até colheita das áreas coberta e descoberta foi, respectivamente, 2.079 e 1.847 GD no primeiro ciclo, e 1.864 e 1.640 GD no segundo ciclo. A cobertura plástica exige uma alteração nas práticas culturais, como a necessidade de poda verde para reduzir os efeitos da restrição de RFA e o atraso na data de colheita, em relação ao cultivo convencional, em função da menor taxa de evolução da maturação sob a cobertura.The plastic overhead cover (POC effects on phenology and thermal requirement of grapevine Vitis vinifera L. 'Moscato Giallo' were evaluated in two seasons (2005/2006 and 2006/2007. The phenology was weekly determined since the winter pruning until the falling of the leaves. The thermal requirement as degree-days (GDºC was calculated in the same period using 10ºC as base temperature and measured of maximal and minimal air temperature throughout both cycles in covered and uncovered areas. POC increased the thermal sum and it anticipated the budburst and decreased the duration of

  2. Extreme ultraviolet capillary discharge lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah; West, Andrew; Tallents, Greg

    2017-10-01

    An extreme ultraviolet capillary discharge laser has recently been installed at the University of York. The laser produces EUV radiation of wavelength 46.9nm, with pulse durations of approximately 1.2ns and energies of up to 50 μJ. A population inversion is produced by a high voltage electrical discharge passing through an argon filled capillary tube. Within the capillary, radial pinching of the argon plasma through JxB force causes the pressure and temperature of the plasma to increase which causes amplification between 3p -3s (J = 0-1) transitions producing EUV radiation. Laser optimisation, calibration of detectors and designs for initial experiments to produce warm dense matter by focusing onto solid targets are presented. The plasmas formed by the EUV laser irradiation of solid targets can be shown to produce warm dense matter in a regime where the ionization equilibrium is dominated by radiative ionization.

  3. Ready for discharge? A Survey of Discharge Transition of Care Education and Evaluation in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona E. Gallahue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess current education and practices of emergency medicine (EM residents as perceived by EM program directors to determine if there are deficits in resident discharge handoff training. This survey study was guided by the Kern model for medical curriculum development. A six-member Council of EM Residency Directors (CORD Transitions of Care task force of EM physicians performed these steps and constructed a survey. The survey was distributed to program residency directors via the CORD listserve and/or direct contact. There were 119 responses to the survey, which were collected using an online survey tool. Over 71% of the 167 American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME accredited EM residency programs were represented. Of those responding, 42.9% of programs reported formal training regarding discharges during initial orientation and 5.9% reported structured curriculum outside of orientation. A majority (73.9% of programs reported that EM residents were not routinely evaluated on their discharge proficiency. Despite the ACGME requirements requiring formal handoff curriculum and evaluation, many programs do not provide formal curriculum on the discharge transition of care or evaluate EM residents on their discharge proficiency.

  4. Ready for Discharge? A Survey of Discharge Transition-of-Care Education and Evaluation in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallahue, Fiona E; Betz, Amy E; Druck, Jeffrey; Jones, Jonathan S; Burns, Boyd; Hern, Gene

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess current education and practices of emergency medicine (EM) residents as perceived by EM program directors to determine if there are deficits in resident discharge handoff training. This survey study was guided by the Kern model for medical curriculum development. A six-member Council of EM Residency Directors (CORD) Transitions of Care task force of EM physicians performed these steps and constructed a survey. The survey was distributed to program residency directors via the CORD listserve and/or direct contact. There were 119 responses to the survey, which were collected using an online survey tool. Over 71% of the 167 American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited EM residency programs were represented. Of those responding, 42.9% of programs reported formal training regarding discharges during initial orientation and 5.9% reported structured curriculum outside of orientation. A majority (73.9%) of programs reported that EM residents were not routinely evaluated on their discharge proficiency. Despite the ACGME requirements requiring formal handoff curriculum and evaluation, many programs do not provide formal curriculum on the discharge transition of care or evaluate EM residents on their discharge proficiency.

  5. Discharge-pumped XUV source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jiri; Kolacek, Karel; Straus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr

    2016-09-01

    We have built two experimental devices (CAPEX and CAPEX-U) working as XUV sources, which are based on the fast, pinching capillary discharge. On both these devices we have observed lasing at 46.9 nm (Ne-like Ar line). However, besides lasing at the above mentioned relatively long wavelength, they are also used for testing a possibility of amplification at the wavelengths below 20 nm that have more practical applications. Particularly, at present nitrogen-filled capillary (?4 mm x 90 mm) discharge is studied for the development of XUV (soft X-ray) laser based on recombination pumping scheme: the fully stripped nitrogen nuclei recombine to hydrogen-like atoms, where Balmer-alpha transition (wavelength 13.4 nm) is - according to theoretical predictions - capable of creating population inversion. The modified electrical parameters (peak current 60 kA with quarter period of 45 ns) meet the necessary theoretical conditions. The only question remains, if suitable pre-pulse can suppress the capillary-wall-ablation, which in all presently known cases has quashed the amplification. In this paper the recent results obtained from both these discharge systems (argon-, nitrogen-filled capillaries) will be presented. Acknowledgement: This work was performed under auspices and with the support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (Contract 14-29772S) and of the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic (INGO contract LG15013).

  6. Age and weight at final discharge from an early discharge programme for stable but tube-fed preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt, A M; Stanchev, H.; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Preterm birth is often associated with prolonged hospitalisation, complicating the parent-child relationship and breastfeeding rates. As a result, an early discharge programme was implemented in the department of neonatology at Rigshospitalet. The infants were stable, but required tube feeding...

  7. Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges for sterilization and surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, O. H.; Lai, C. K.; Choo, C. Y.; Wong, C. S.; Nor, R. M. [Plasma Technology Research Centre, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Thong, K. L. [Microbiology Division, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharges can be generated in different configurations for different applications. For sterilization, a parallel-plate electrode configuration with glass dielectric that discharges in air was used. Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus) were successfully inactivated using sinusoidal high voltage of ∼15 kVp-p at 8.5 kHz. In the surface treatment, a hemisphere and disc electrode arrangement that allowed a plasma jet to be extruded under controlled nitrogen gas flow (at 9.2 kHz, 20 kVp-p) was applied to enhance the wettability of PET (Mylar) film.

  8. Implosive Thermal Plasma Source for Energy Conversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šonský, Jiří; Tesař, Václav; Gruber, Jan; Mašláni, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2017), s. 87-90 ISSN 2336-2626 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : implosion * thermal plasma * detonation wave Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics https://ppt.fel.cvut.cz/ppt2017.html#number1

  9. Metadata - National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) is an annual probability survey that collects information on the characteristics of inpatients discharged from non-federal short-stay hospitals in the United States.

  10. National Hospital Discharge Survey: Annual summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Presents statistics on the utilization of non-Federal short-stay hospitals based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey from a national sample of the hospital records of discharged inpatients...

  11. EPA Region 1 No Discharge Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset details No Discharge Zones (NDZ) for New England. Boaters may not discharge waste into these areas. Boundaries were determined mostly by Federal...

  12. Generation of nanoparticles by spark discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabrizi, N.S.; Ullmann, M.; Vons, V.A.; Lafont, U.; Schmidt-Ott, A.

    2008-01-01

    The production of nanoparticles by microsecond spark discharge evaporation in inert gas is studied systematically applying transmission electron microscopy, mobility analysis and BET surface area measurement. The method of spark discharge is of special interest, because it is continuous, clean,

  13. Capacitor discharges, magnetohydrodynamics, X-rays, ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume 1: Capacitor Discharges - Magnetohydrodynamics - X-Rays - Ultrasonics deals with the theoretical and engineering problems that arise in the capacitor discharge technique.This book discusses the characteristics of dielectric material, symmetrical switch tubes with mercury filling, and compensation conductor forms. The transformed discharge for highest current peaks, ignition transformer for internal combustion engines, and X-ray irradiation of subjects in mechanical motion are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the transformed capacitor discharge in w

  14. Characterization and Experimental Investigation of NaNO3 : KNO3 as Solar Thermal Energy Storage for Potential Cooking Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Wagari Gabisa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Household cooking is a major energy intensive activity in most of the Ethiopian households. Replacing the existing inefficient cooking stoves and the polluting energy source with a renewable source of energy plays a paramount role in conserving the environment and reducing the indoor pollution. In this study an energy storage phase change material is proposed to store solar thermal energy for a potential household cooking application. The selected phase change material has a melting point range which is well fitted to the operating range of temperatures for most of the household cooking activities. The solar energy source is simulated with electrical heating for experimental investigation of the thermal characteristics. Also it is intended to study the thermal characteristics of the mixture using deferential scanning calorimeter to identify at which mass ratio the mixture shows better thermal characteristics. From the laboratory analysis it is found that the 60% NaNO3 and 40% KNO3 by mass have shown promising thermal characteristics. For applying the selected salt mixture for cooking application, an experiment was conducted on two Ethiopian local meals, shiro wet and potato meal, to know how much energy is required to cook them and what amount of the PCM is required to store the required energy. The result reveals that 2.38 kWh energy is required for cooking the two meals for five family members for lunch and dinner. To store the energy required 4 kg of the PCM was required. Experiments were conducted to see the charging and discharging time of 60% NaNO3 and 40% KNO3 by mass. From the experimental result for 1.4 kg of the PCM, charging time of 50 minutes up to 300°C and a discharging time of 4.5 hours (from 300°C to 100°C are required.

  15. Advanced Spacecraft Thermal Modeling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For spacecraft developers who spend millions to billions of dollars per unit and require 3 to 7 years to deploy, the LoadPath reduced-order (RO) modeling thermal...

  16. Fenologia e exigência térmica da videira 'Benitaka' cultivada no norte de Minas Gerais Phenology and thermal requirement of the vine 'Benitaka' grown in the north of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Pereira Ribeiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de índices biometeorológicos para a previsão dos estádios fenológicos tem sido amplamente utilizado no planejamento dos tratos culturais na viticultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e comparar entre dois ciclos consecutivos, a duração em dias e as exigências térmicas em graus-dia de doze estádios do ciclo fenológico da videira 'Benitaka'. O estudo foi conduzido num vinhedo comercial localizado no município de Janaúba, região semiárida de Minas Gerais. As plantas, enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 572 'Jales', foram conduzidas no sistema de latada e irrigadas por microaspersão. O acúmulo em dias e a exigência térmica (graus-dia foram determinados em duas safras consecutivas, da data da poda até a colheita, adotando-se a temperatura de 10°C como temperatura de base. O acúmulo em dias, da poda à colheita, foi de 120 para a poda realizada em janeiro e de 131 dias para a poda em julho. Na poda de janeiro, as plantas acumularam 1.914 graus-dias, enquanto na poda de julho o acúmulo foi de 1.930 graus- dia.The use of biometeorological indices for the prediction of phenological stages has been widely used in the planning of cultural practices in tropical vines. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the duration (in days and thermal requirements in degree-day of twelve stages of the phenological cycle of the vine 'Benitaka'. The study was carried out in the vineyard Santa Catarina, in the city of Janaúba, north of the state of Minas Gerais - Brazil. Grapevines grafted on the rootstock IAC 572 'Jales' were irrigated by microaspersion. The accumulation of days and thermal requirement were determined in the same plants on two consecutive pruning dates. The base temperature used for the study was 10° C. The total length of the cycle ranged from 120 days for the vines pruned in January to 131 days for those pruned in July. The total amount of degree days for the grape pruning in January

  17. Electric Vehicle Charging and Discharging Coordination on Distribution Network Using Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization and Fuzzy Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqi Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a optimal strategy for coordinated operation of electric vehicles (EVs charging and discharging with wind-thermal system. By aggregating a large number of EVs, the huge total battery capacity is sufficient to stabilize the disturbance of the transmission grid. Hence, a dynamic environmental dispatch model which coordinates a cluster of charging and discharging controllable EV units with wind farms and thermal plants is proposed. A multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO algorithm and a fuzzy decision maker are put forward for the simultaneous optimization of grid operating cost, CO2 emissions, wind curtailment, and EV users’ cost. Simulations are done in a 30 node system containing three traditional thermal plants, two carbon capture and storage (CCS thermal plants, two wind farms, and six EV aggregations. Contrast of strategies under different EV charging/discharging price is also discussed. The results are presented to prove the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  18. CMS proposes prioritizing patient preferences, linking patients to follow-up care in discharge planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Hospital providers voice concerns about a proposed rule by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) that would require providers to devote more resources to discharge planning. The rule would apply to inpatients as well as emergency patients requiring comprehensive discharge plans as opposed to discharge instructions. CMS states that the rule would ensure the prioritization of patient preferences and goals in the discharge planning process, and also would prevent avoidable complications and readmissions. However, hospital and emergency medicine leaders worry that community resources are not yet in place to facilitate the links and follow-up required in the proposed rule, and that the costs associated with implementation would be prohibitive. The proposed rule would apply to acute care hospitals, EDs, long-term care facilities, inpatient rehabilitation centers, and home health agencies. Regardless of the setting, though, CMS is driving home the message that patient preferences should be given more weight during the discharge planning process. Under the rule, hospitals or EDs would need to develop a patient-centered discharge plan within 24 hours of admission or registration, and complete the plan prior to discharge or transfer to another facility. Under the rule, emergency physicians would determine which patients require a comprehensive discharge plan. Both the American Hospital Association and the American College of Emergency Physicians worry that hospitals will have to take on more staff, invest in training, and make changes to their electronic medical record systems to implement the provisions in the proposed rule.

  19. 46 CFR 153.462 - Static discharges from inert gas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Static discharges from inert gas systems. 153.462... CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.462 Static discharges from inert...

  20. 75 FR 952 - Draft Marine Sanitation Device Discharge Regulations for the Florida Keys National Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 15 CFR Part 922 Draft Marine Sanitation Device Discharge... of biodegradable effluent incidental to vessel use and generated by marine sanitation devices, and to require marine sanitation devices be locked to prevent discharges into the sanctuary. DATES: Three...

  1. 32 CFR 724.117 - Discharge review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge review. 724.117 Section 724.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Definitions § 724.117 Discharge review. A nonadversary administrative reappraisal at the level of...

  2. Radio frequency discharge with dust particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chutov, Y. I.; W. J. Goedheer,; Kravchenko, O. Y.; Zuz, V. M.; Yan, M.; Martins, R.; Ferreira, I.; Fortunato, E.; Kroesen, G.

    2000-01-01

    A 1D PIC/MCC method has been developed for computer simulations of low-pressure RF discharges with dust particles using the method for dust-free discharges. A RF discharge in argon with dust particles distributed uniformly in the interelectrode gap is simulated at parameters providing a possibility

  3. Effective partnership working: a case study of hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, Melanie

    2006-09-01

    The process of discharging patients from hospital provides a critical indicator of the state of partnership working between health and social care agencies. In many ways, hospital discharge can be seen to epitomise the challenges which beset partnership working. For patients who have care needs which continue following their discharge from hospital, how well health and social care partners are able to coordinate their policies and practice is critical. Where arrangements work well, patients should experience a seamless transition; where things go wrong, patients are all too often caught in the middle of contested debate between health and social care authorities over who is responsible for what. In 2002, growing concerns over the numbers of mainly elderly people who were experiencing delays in being discharged from hospital led to the announcement that a system of 'cross-charging' would be introduced to target delayed discharges which were the responsibility of local authority social services departments. The government's proposals were widely criticised and were the focus of much antagonism. The intervention of the Change Agent Team (an agency with responsibility for providing practical support to tackle delayed discharges) marked a turning point in the presentation of the policy and in supporting local implementation efforts. This paper examines partnership working between health and social care by exploring the specific issues which this case study of hospital discharge provides. The analysis highlights the importance of understanding the dynamics of partnership working on the ground. It also underlines the need for a new relationship between central government and local agencies when old-style models of command and control are no longer fit for purpose. A new approach is required that addresses the complex and multiple relationships which characterise the new partnership agenda.

  4. Structured nursing intervention to geriatric patients discharged from Emergency Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, Elizabeth Emilie

    2010-01-01

    % of geriatric patients have complex and often unresolved caring needs. Objective: To investigate a structured nursing intervention’s impact on geriatric patients’ unresolved problems and their use of help from the community health centre. Method: We conducted a prospective descriptive study of selected...... the nurse made relevant referrals to geriatric outpatient clinic, community health centre, primary physician or arrangements with next-of-kin. Results: 150 geriatric patients participated, mean age 81.7 (70-99). At discharge they had in mean 2 (0-9) unresolved problems, after 1 month 0.8 (0-5), and after 6......Background: Geriatric patients recently discharged from hospital are at risk of unplanned readmissions and admission to nursing home. When discharged directly from Emergency Department (ED) the risk increases, as time pressure often requires focus on the presenting problem, although 80...

  5. Exigências térmicas e estimativa do número de gerações da broca-do-fruto Annona (Cerconota anonella Thermal requirements and estimate of the Annona fruit borer (Cerconota anonella generations number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Josene Barbosa Pereira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cerconota anonella é a principal praga das Annonaceae em toda região Neotropical. Os prejuízos causados pela lagarta, podem reduzir de 60 a 100% da produção de frutos. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar a biologia da broca-do-fruto Cerconota anonella em diferentes temperaturas, determinar suas exigências térmicas e estimar o número de gerações para os municípios produtores do estado de São Paulo. Para determinar a duração, viabilidade e exigências térmicas criaram-se insetos em frutos de pinha, em diferentes temperaturas (18, 21, 25, 28, 30 e 32°C, umidade relativa 90,0±5,0 % e fotoperíodo de 14 horas. A duração das fases de desenvolvimento e do ciclo biológico (ovo-adulto foi afetada pela temperatura, tendo sido maior nas temperaturas mais baixas; a viabilidade foi maior na faixa térmica de 21 a 30°C. O limiar térmico inferior de desenvolvimento (Tb e a constante térmica (K para as fases de ovo, lagarta, pupa e ciclo de vida foram de 10,20°C e 83,33GD; 11,72°C e de 249,71GD; 8,69°C e 161,33GD; 11,05°C e 478,14GD, respectivamente. Com base nas normais climáticas, o número de gerações anuais de C. anonella variou de 9 a 10 e de 7 a 8 se considerar apenas a época de frutificação. Esses resultados demonstram o alto potencial de infestação desta praga no campo.Cerconota anonella is the most important pest of the Annonaceae in the Neotropical region. Larval damage can result in 60 to 100% losses in fruit production. The objectives of this research were to study the biology of the Annona fruit borer C. anonella in different temperatures, to determine their thermal requirements and estimate the number of generations to the cities producers of Sao Paulo state. To determine the duration, viability and thermal requirements insects were reared in sugar apple, at different temperatures (18, 21, 25, 28, 30 and 32°C, relative humidity and 90.0±5.0 photoperiod of 14 hours. The duration of the stages development

  6. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  7. Surface discharge induced interactions of filaments in argon dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechen; Zhang, Panpan; Chu, Jingdi; Zhang, Qi; Lin, Xiaotong; Jia, Pengying; Dong, Lifang

    2017-10-01

    A needle-plate geometry is used to generate two barrier-discharge filaments composed of volume discharge and surface discharge in atmospheric pressure argon, interactions of which are investigated for the first time on the nanosecond timescale using an intensified charge-coupled device. The results indicate that the onset of volume discharges for the two filaments have a periodical discharge sequence, which implies interactions of the two filaments. Moreover, strong interactions of the two filaments are controlled through surface discharges, one of which is induced by that of the other filament during the positive discharge. Different from repulsive streamers, counter-propagating streamers are attractive between the two filaments.

  8. Molten salt thermal energy storage systems. Project 8981, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Dullea, J.F.; Kardas, A.; Paul, L.

    1978-03-01

    The feasibility of storing thermal energy at temperatures of 450/sup 0/ to 535/sup 0/C (850/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/F) in the form of latent heat of fusion has been examined for over 30 inorganic salts and salt mixtures. Alkali carbonate mixtures are attractive as phase-change storage materials in this temperature range because of their relatively high storage capacity and thermal conductivity, moderate cost, low volumetric expansion upon melting, low corrosivity, and good chemical stability. An equimolar mixture of Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, which melts at 505/sup 0/C with a latent heat of 148 Btu/lb, was chosen for experimental study. The cyclic charge/discharge behavior of laboratory- and engineering-scale systems was determined and compared with predictions based on a mathematical heat-transfer model that was developed during this program. The thermal performance of one engineering-scale unit remained very stable during 1400 hours of cyclic operation. Several means of improving heat conduction through the solid salt were explored. Areas requiring further investigation have been identified.

  9. Thermal effect of climate change on groundwater-fed ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick; Zhu, Yonghui; Zhan, Hongbin; Manga, Michael; Williams, Colin F.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Dunham, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater temperature changes will lag surface temperature changes from a changing climate. Steady state solutions of the heat-transport equations are used to identify key processes that control the long-term thermal response of springs and other groundwater discharge to climate change, in particular changes in (1) groundwater recharge rate and temperature and (2) land-surface temperature transmitted through the vadose zone. Transient solutions are developed to estimate the time required for new thermal signals to arrive at ecosystems. The solution is applied to the volcanic Medicine Lake highlands, California, USA, and associated springs complexes that host groundwater-dependent ecosystems. In this system, upper basin groundwater temperatures are strongly affected only by recharge conditions. However, as the vadose zone thins away from the highlands, changes in the average annual land-surface temperature also influence groundwater temperatures. Transient response to temperature change depends on both the conductive time scale and the rate at which recharge delivers heat. Most of the thermal response of groundwater at high elevations will occur within 20 years of a shift in recharge temperatures, but the large lower elevation springs will respond more slowly, with about half of the conductive response occurring within the first 20 years and about half of the advective response to higher recharge temperatures occurring in approximately 60 years.

  10. Thermal effect of climate change on groundwater-fed ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Zhu, Yonghui; Zhan, Hongbin; Manga, Michael; Williams, Colin F.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater temperature changes will lag surface temperature changes from a changing climate. Steady state solutions of the heat-transport equations are used to identify key processes that control the long-term thermal response of springs and other groundwater discharge to climate change, in particular changes in (1) groundwater recharge rate and temperature and (2) land-surface temperature transmitted through the vadose zone. Transient solutions are developed to estimate the time required for new thermal signals to arrive at ecosystems. The solution is applied to the volcanic Medicine Lake highlands, California, USA, and associated springs complexes that host groundwater-dependent ecosystems. In this system, upper basin groundwater temperatures are strongly affected only by recharge conditions. However, as the vadose zone thins away from the highlands, changes in the average annual land-surface temperature also influence groundwater temperatures. Transient response to temperature change depends on both the conductive time scale and the rate at which recharge delivers heat. Most of the thermal response of groundwater at high elevations will occur within 20 years of a shift in recharge temperatures, but the large lower elevation springs will respond more slowly, with about half of the conductive response occurring within the first 20 years and about half of the advective response to higher recharge temperatures occurring in approximately 60 years.

  11. Highly Thermal Conductive Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Ping (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Veca, Lucia Monica (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for forming carbon-based fillers as may be utilized in forming highly thermal conductive nanocomposite materials. Formation methods include treatment of an expanded graphite with an alcohol/water mixture followed by further exfoliation of the graphite to form extremely thin carbon nanosheets that are on the order of between about 2 and about 10 nanometers in thickness. Disclosed carbon nanosheets can be functionalized and/or can be incorporated in nanocomposites with extremely high thermal conductivities. Disclosed methods and materials can prove highly valuable in many technological applications including, for instance, in formation of heat management materials for protective clothing and as may be useful in space exploration or in others that require efficient yet light-weight and flexible thermal management solutions.

  12. Fire suppression as a thermal implosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2017-01-01

    The present paper discusses the possibility of the thermal implosion scenario. This process would be a reverse of the well known thermal explosion (autoignition) phenomenon. The mechanism for thermal implosion scenario is proposed which involves quick suppression of the turbulent diffusion flame. Classical concept of the thermal explosion is discussed first. Then a possible scenario for the reverse process (thermal implosion) is discussed and illustrated by a relevant mathematical model. Based on the arguments presented in the paper, thermal implosion may be observed as an unstable equilibrium point on the generalized Semenov diagram for turbulent flame, however this hypothesis requires ultimate experimental confirmation.

  13. 46 CFR 167.20-15 - Scupper, sanitary and similar discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Hull Requirements, Construction and Arrangement of Nautical School Ships... discharges which lead through the ship's hull shall be fitted with efficient means for preventing the ingress...

  14. Re-Engineering the Hospital Discharge: An Example of a Multifaceted Process Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anthony, David; Chetty, V. K; Kartha, Anand; McKenna, Kathleen; DePaoli, Maria R; Jack, Brian

    2005-01-01

    ..., and haphazard care that leads to errors and adverse events. The development of interventions to improve the discharge process requires a detailed evaluation of the process by a multidisciplinary team. Methods...

  15. Spacecraft Thermal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine, the China National Space Administration, and many other organizations representing spacefaring nations shall continue or newly implement robust space programs. Additionally, business corporations are pursuing commercialization of space for enabling space tourism and capital business ventures. Future space missions are likely to include orbiting satellites, orbiting platforms, space stations, interplanetary vehicles, planetary surface missions, and planetary research probes. Many of these missions will include humans to conduct research for scientific and terrestrial benefits and for space tourism, and this century will therefore establish a permanent human presence beyond Earth s confines. Other missions will not include humans, but will be autonomous (e.g., satellites, robotic exploration), and will also serve to support the goals of exploring space and providing benefits to Earth s populace. This section focuses on thermal management systems for human space exploration, although the guiding principles can be applied to unmanned space vehicles as well. All spacecraft require a thermal management system to maintain a tolerable thermal environment for the spacecraft crew and/or equipment. The requirements for human rating and the specified controlled temperature range (approximately 275 K - 310 K) for crewed spacecraft are unique, and key design criteria stem from overall vehicle and operational/programatic considerations. These criteria include high reliability, low mass, minimal power requirements, low development and operational costs, and high confidence for mission success and safety. This section describes the four major subsystems for crewed spacecraft thermal management systems, and design considerations for each. Additionally, some examples of specialized or advanced thermal system technologies are presented

  16. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.W. Swarzenski

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Estimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn, t1/2 = 56 s groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  17. What can Recycling in Thermal Reactors Accomplish?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson

    2007-09-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives.

  18. Thermal defoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The negative perception some consumers hold regarding agricultural chemicals has resulted in an increased demand for organic foods and fibers, and in increasing political pressure for the regulation of agricultural production practices. This has revived interest in thermal defoliation of cotton and ...

  19. Holographic thermalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Bernamonti, A.; de Boer, J.; Copland, N.; Craps, B.; Keski-Vakkuri, E.; Müller, B.; Schäfer, A.; Shigemori, M.; Staessens, W.

    2011-01-01

    Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we probe the scale-dependence of thermalization in strongly coupled field theories following a quench, via calculations of two-point functions, Wilson loops and entanglement entropy in d=2,3,4. In the saddlepoint approximation these probes are computed in AdS space

  20. Tutorial on underwater electrical discharges: main features and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Yakov

    2013-09-01

    Main features of underwater electrical discharge with short description of models (``bubble'', ``explosive emission'', ``ionization'' and ``thermal''), parameters of the discharge (threshold electric field versus polarity, time duration, frequency, pressure, interelectrode gap and area of electrodes, velocity of streamer propagation and density and temperature of the plasma, strong shock waves) and different electrical and optical diagnostics which were used in this research will be shortly reviewed. Such main applications of underwater electrical discharge as electro-hydraulic forming, destruction of rocks, low-inductance water spark gap switches, treatment of pollutants in water and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy will be discussed. Finally, results of application of underwater electrical explosion of single wires in nanosecond - microsecond timescales for research related to Equation of State of different materials at extreme conditions and underwater electrical explosion of wire arrays in cylindrical and spherical configurations for generation of converging strong shock waves using moderate high-power generators for research of compressed water at extreme conditions will be presented.

  1. REVIEW ARTICLE Fibre optic devices produced by arc discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, G.

    2010-11-01

    We present an overview of the applications of the electric arc technique related to optical fibre technology. The use of arc discharges ranges from the well-known fibre splicing, going through the fabrication of basic devices such as fibre tapers and microspheres, to tailoring the spectra of UV-induced gratings such as in the apodization of fibre Bragg gratings and also in the fabrication of phase-shifted and sampled fibre Bragg gratings. However, in the past decade a topic more intensively investigated was probably long-period fibre gratings. Therefore, some devices based on arc-induced gratings, namely, phase-shifted and step-changed gratings and bandpass filters are discussed. We also present an electrically insulated thermocouple assembled in situ using arc discharges. This sensor is very useful in the determination of the temperature attained by the fibre during an arc discharge, this property being fundamental for the discussion of the mechanisms of formation and for the understanding of the thermal properties of arc-induced devices.

  2. Hollow hexagonal pattern with surface discharges in a dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianyu; Dong, Lifang; Li, Caixia; Liu, Ying; Du, Tian; Hao, Fang

    2017-05-01

    The hollow hexagonal pattern involved in surface discharges is firstly investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge system. The spatiotemporal structures of the pattern are studied using an intensified charge-coupled device and photomultiplier. Instantaneous images taken by an intensified charge-coupled device and optical correlation measurements show that the surface discharges are induced by volume discharges. The optical signals indicate that the discharge filaments constituting the hexagonal frame discharge randomly at the first current pulse or the second pulse, once or twice. There is no interleaving of several sub-lattices, which indicates that the ‘memory’ effect is no longer in force due to surface discharges. By using the emission spectrum method, both the molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the surface discharges are larger than that of the volume discharges.

  3. Automatic Regulation of Wastewater Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolea Yolanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater plants, mainly with secondary treatments, discharge polluted water to environment that cannot be used in any human activity. When those dumps are in the sea it is expected that most of the biological pollutants die or almost disappear before water reaches human range. This natural withdrawal of bacteria, viruses and other pathogens is due to some conditions such as the salt water of the sea and the sun effect, and the dumps areas are calculated taking into account these conditions. However, under certain meteorological phenomena water arrives to the coast without the full disappearance of pollutant elements. In Mediterranean Sea there are some periods of adverse climatic conditions that pollute the coast near the wastewater dumping. In this paper, authors present an automatic control that prevents such pollution episodes using two mathematical models, one for the pollutant transportation and the other for the pollutant removal in wastewater spills.

  4. Thermal Hardware for the Thermal Analyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, David

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). NCTS 21070-1. Most Thermal analysts do not have a good background into the hardware which thermally controls the spacecraft they design. SINDA and Thermal Desktop models are nice, but knowing how this applies to the actual thermal hardware (heaters, thermostats, thermistors, MLI blanketing, optical coatings, etc...) is just as important. The course will delve into the thermal hardware and their application techniques on actual spacecraft. Knowledge of how thermal hardware is used and applied will make a thermal analyst a better engineer.

  5. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Dulai, H.; Kroeger, K.D.; Smith, C.G.; Dimova, N.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Prouty, N.G.; Gingerich, S.B.; Glenn, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Study regionThe study region encompasses the nearshore, coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii. Here abundant groundwater—that carries with it a strong land-based fingerprint—discharges into the coastal waters and over a coral reef.Study focusCoastal groundwater discharge is a ubiquitous hydrologic feature that has been shown to impact nearshore ecosystems and material budgets. A unique combined geochemical tracer and oceanographic time-series study addressed rates and oceanic forcings of submarine groundwater discharge at a submarine spring site off west Maui, Hawaii.New hydrological insights for the regionEstimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d) mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn,t1/2 = 56 s) groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  6. Slurry discharge management-beach profile prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, R.; Nawrot, J.R. [Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Mine tailings dams are embankments used by the mining industry to retain the tailings products after the mineral preparation process. Based on the acid-waste stereotype that all coal slurry is acid producing, current reclamation requires a four foot soil cover for inactive slurry disposal areas. Compliance with this requirement is both difficult and costly and in some case unnecessary, as not all the slurry, or portions of slurry impoundments are acid producing. Reduced costs and recent popularity of wetland development has prompted many operators to request reclamation variances for slurry impoundments. Waiting to address slurry reclamation until after the impoundment is full, limits the flexibility of reclamation opportunities. This paper outlines a general methodology to predict the formation of the beach profile for mine tailings dams, by the discharge volume and location of the slurry into the impoundment. The review is presented under the perspective of geotechnical engineering and waste disposal management emphasizing the importance of pre-planning slurry disposal land reclamation. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Thermal Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Philipp Andreas

    Accidental ignition of flammable gases is a critical safety concern in many industrial applications. Particularly in the aviation industry, the main areas of concern on an aircraft are the fuel tank and adjoining regions, where spilled fuel has a high likelihood of creating a flammable mixture. To this end, a fundamental understanding of the ignition phenomenon is necessary in order to develop more accurate test methods and standards as a means of designing safer air vehicles. The focus of this work is thermal ignition, particularly auto-ignition with emphasis on the effect of heating rate, hot surface ignition and flame propagation, and puffing flames. Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels is traditionally separated into slow reaction, cool flame, and ignition regimes based on pressure and temperature. Standard tests, such as the ASTM E659, are used to determine the lowest temperature required to ignite a specific fuel mixed with air at atmospheric pressure. It is expected that the initial pressure and the rate at which the mixture is heated also influences the limiting temperature and the type of combustion. This study investigates the effect of heating rate, between 4 and 15 K/min, and initial pressure, in the range of 25 to 100 kPa, on ignition of n-hexane air mixtures. Mixtures with equivalence ratio ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 were investigated. The problem is also modeled computationally using an extension of Semenov's classical auto-ignition theory with a detailed chemical mechanism. Experiments and simulations both show that in the same reactor either a slow reaction or an ignition event can take place depending on the heating rate. Analysis of the detailed chemistry demonstrates that a mixture which approaches the ignition region slowly undergoes a significant modification of its composition. This change in composition induces a progressive shift of the explosion limit until the mixture is no longer flammable. A mixture that approaches the ignition region

  8. Numerical modeling of partial discharges parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartalović Nenad M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent testing of the partial discharges or the use for the diagnosis of insulation condition of high voltage generators, transformers, cables and high voltage equipment develops rapidly. It is a result of the development of electronics, as well as, the development of knowledge about the processes of partial discharges. The aim of this paper is to contribute the better understanding of this phenomenon of partial discharges by consideration of the relevant physical processes in isolation materials and isolation systems. Prebreakdown considers specific processes, and development processes at the local level and their impact on specific isolation material. This approach to the phenomenon of partial discharges needed to allow better take into account relevant discharge parameters as well as better numerical model of partial discharges.

  9. Thermal and electrical properties of thermal-grease-insulated REBCO superconducting coils with respect to winding tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jung-Bin; Choi, Yoon Hyuck; Yang, Dong Gyu; Kim, Young-Gyun; Kim, Seong-Gyeom; Choi, Yeon Suk; Lee, Haigun

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the thermal and electrical characteristics of a silicon-based grease insulation (GI) GdBCO coil with respect to the winding tension through charge, sudden discharge, and over-current tests. Charge and sudden discharge test results demonstrate that the charging/discharging delay time increases as the winding tension increases; this is because the characteristic resistance of the coil decreases due to the reduced contact resistance. The over-current test results confirm that the thermal/electrical stabilities of the GI coil are considerably enhanced with an increased winding tension resulting from improved thermal contact and the decrease in the electrical contact resistance between the turn-to-turn layers of the coil. Thus, as the winding tension increases, the charging/discharging rates decrease whereas the thermal/electrical stabilities improve. Overall, selecting the appropriate winding tension for a GI coil is critical for achieving thermal/electrical stabilities, as well as ameliorating the charging/discharging delay phenomenon generally observed in a no-insulation coil.

  10. On the physical processes ruling an atmospheric pressure air glow discharge operating in an intermediate current regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevosto, L., E-mail: prevosto@waycom.com.ar; Mancinelli, B.; Chamorro, J. C.; Cejas, E. [Grupo de Descargas Eléctricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecánica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600), Santa Fe (Argentina); Kelly, H. [Grupo de Descargas Eléctricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecánica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600), Santa Fe (Argentina); Instituto de Física del Plasma (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (UBA) Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-02-15

    Low-frequency (100 Hz), intermediate-current (50 to 200 mA) glow discharges were experimentally investigated in atmospheric pressure air between blunt copper electrodes. Voltage–current characteristics and images of the discharge for different inter-electrode distances are reported. A cathode-fall voltage close to 360 V and a current density at the cathode surface of about 11 A/cm{sup 2}, both independent of the discharge current, were found. The visible emissive structure of the discharge resembles to that of a typical low-pressure glow, thus suggesting a glow-like electric field distribution in the discharge. A kinetic model for the discharge ionization processes is also presented with the aim of identifying the main physical processes ruling the discharge behavior. The numerical results indicate the presence of a non-equilibrium plasma with rather high gas temperature (above 4000 K) leading to the production of components such as NO, O, and N which are usually absent in low-current glows. Hence, the ionization by electron-impact is replaced by associative ionization, which is independent of the reduced electric field. This leads to a negative current-voltage characteristic curve, in spite of the glow-like features of the discharge. On the other hand, several estimations show that the discharge seems to be stabilized by heat conduction; being thermally stable due to its reduced size. All the quoted results indicate that although this discharge regime might be considered to be close to an arc, it is still a glow discharge as demonstrated by its overall properties, supported also by the presence of thermal non-equilibrium.

  11. Criteria Led Discharge - The Irish Journey

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Richard Patrick; Courtney, Garry; Fitzpatrick, Sinead

    2017-01-01

    Problem: Improving patient flow and patient experience, reducing Average Length of Stay and readmissions to hospital are key policy and service objectives of the HSE, the National Acute Medicine Programme, and the Department of Health. Criteria Led Discharge (CLD) is an inter-disciplinary tool to support patient engagement in care planning and to support planned discharge from hospital by competent members of the interdisciplinary team without consultant review on day of discharge. The tool i...

  12. Distribution Methods for Transferable Discharge Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eheart, J. Wayland; Joeres, Erhard F.; David, Martin H.

    1980-10-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to simulate the operation of a single-price auction of transferable discharge permits. Permits may be sold at auction by the control authority or may be given, free of charge, to the dischargers according to some agreed-upon formula and subsequently redistributed by a similar auction. The sales method and four alternative free allocation schemes are compared through the example case of phosphorus discharge from point sources in the Wisconsin-Lake Michigan watershed.

  13. Investigations into electrical discharges in gases

    CERN Document Server

    Klyarfel'D, B N

    2013-01-01

    Investigations into Electrical Discharges in Gases is a compilation of scientific articles that covers the advances in the investigation of the fundamental processes occurring in electrical discharges in gases and vapors. The book details the different aspects of the whole life cycle of an arc, which include the initiation of a discharge, its transition into an arc, the lateral spread of the arc column, and the recovery of electric strength after extinction of an arc. The text also discusses the methods for the dynamic measurement of vapor density in the vicinity of electrical discharges, alon

  14. Device for generation of pulsed corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsol, Alexander F [San Ramon, CA; Fridman, Alexander [Marlton, NJ; Blank, Kenneth [Philadelphia, PA; Korobtsev, Sergey [Moscow, RU; Shiryaevsky, Valery [Moscow, RU; Medvedev, Dmitry [Moscow, RU

    2012-05-08

    The invention is a method and system for the generation of high voltage, pulsed, periodic corona discharges capable of being used in the presence of conductive liquid droplets. The method and system can be used, for example, in different devices for cleaning of gaseous or liquid media using pulsed corona discharge. Specially designed electrodes and an inductor increase the efficiency of the system, permit the plasma chemical oxidation of detrimental impurities, and increase the range of stable discharge operations in the presence of droplets of water or other conductive liquids in the discharge chamber.

  15. Pelvic (between the hips) radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation treatment area on your body is large. Alternative Names Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical ...

  16. An initiative to improve patient discharge satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Sally; Bettin, Arlene

    2015-01-01

    To provide patients with knowledge needed to make a smoother transition from inpatient rehabilitation to the community or another level of care. The Journey to Discharge concept developed from efforts to clearly communicate the stages a patient travels through on the path to discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. The creation and implementation of this concept led to marked improvement in patient satisfaction scores as measured by Press Ganey Associates. Specifically, measures of discharge-specific questions increased from the 39th percentile in fiscal year (FY) 2009 to the 84th percentile in FY 2011 and gains were maintained through FY 2012 and into this year. The Journey to Discharge guides Marianjoy Rehabilitation Hospital associates in helping patients understand expectations for their inpatient rehabilitation stay. This patient-centered initiative demonstrates an innovate approach to better understanding of the rehabilitation process and to easing the patient's transition across the continuum of care (Brady, 2013). The concept includes a post discharge follow-up component designed to ensure patients are following instructions, thereby potentially lowering the incidence of readmission following discharge. Optimizing patient discharge preparation can lead to improvement in satisfaction scores. Discharging well-prepared patients, coupled with proactive post discharge follow-up has the potential to lower the incidence of readmissions. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  17. Next generation discharge control system for ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raupp, G.; Behler, K. [Association Euratom-Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Cole, R.; Lueddecke, K. [Unlimited Computer Systems, Neuried (Germany); Mertens, V.; Neu, G.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    Based on present achievements in tokamak control and considering requirements for reactor-oriented research, a next generation discharge control system is presented. Decomposition of control functions mapped onto dedicated controllers and diagnostics gives a distributed system integrated with a common real-time network to publish process and reference values. Basic mechanisms for cycle administration, data exchange and process management of the prototype system currently being implemented are shown. (orig.)

  18. Thermal Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Gateway Technologies, Inc. is marketing and developing textile insulation technology originally developed by Triangle Research and Development Corporation. The enhanced thermal insulation stems from Small Business Innovation Research contracts from NASA's Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Air Force. The effectiveness of the insulation comes from the microencapsulated phase-change materials originally made to keep astronauts gloved hands warm. The applications for the product range from outer wear, housing insulation, and blankets to protective firefighting gear and scuba diving suits. Gateway has developed and begun marketing thermal regulating products under the trademark, OUTLAST. Products made from OUTLAST are already on the market, including boot and shoe liners, winter headgear, hats and caps for hunting and other outdoor sports, and a variety of men's and women's ski gloves.

  19. Turbulent Thermalization

    CERN Document Server

    Micha, Raphael; Micha, Raphael; Tkachev, Igor I.

    2004-01-01

    We study, analytically and with lattice simulations, the decay of coherent field oscillations and the subsequent thermalization of the resulting stochastic classical wave-field. The problem of reheating of the Universe after inflation constitutes our prime motivation and application of the results. We identify three different stages of these processes. During the initial stage of ``parametric resonance'', only a small fraction of the initial inflaton energy is transferred to fluctuations in the physically relevant case of sufficiently large couplings. A major fraction is transfered in the prompt regime of driven turbulence. The subsequent long stage of thermalization classifies as free turbulence. During the turbulent stages, the evolution of particle distribution functions is self-similar. We show that wave kinetic theory successfully describes the late stages of our lattice calculation. Our analytical results are general and give estimates of reheating time and temperature in terms of coupling constants and...

  20. Observations of Precursor Breakdown Prior to Intracloud Lightning Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Thomas, R. J.; Brown, M. F.

    2009-12-01

    background noise levels are about a factor of ten lower than other LMA arrays. We have observed precursors with less sensitive LMAs. In particular, we observed numerous IC precursors in an inverted polarity storm during the Severe Thunderstorm Electrification/Precipitation Study (STEPS 2000) project in western Kansas and eastern Colorado. Inverted polarity storms during STEPS and in Oklahoma were often observed to produce steady streams of temporally- and spatially-isolated single point discharges similar to precursors at the higher altitudes of the upper negative charge, and at even higher altitudes (up to 17-18 km) during convective surges in the storms. These observations also indicate that short duration precursor-type breakdown is easier to initiate at higher altitudes. If IC precursors are initiated by the same process that initiates the IC discharges, the abundance of precursors argue against cosmic ray induced air showers as the initiation mechanism which requires cosmic rays with energies of at least 1016 eV. The flux of such high energy cosmic rays is too low to initiate several precursors near the lightning initiation location within a period of a few tens of seconds. We thank the WSMR Meteorology Branch for data used for this work.

  1. Development of Efficient Models of Corona Discharges Around Tall Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J.; Pasko, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    This work concerns with numerical modeling of glow corona and sreamer corona discharges that occur near tall ground structures under thunderstorm conditions. Glow corona can occur when ambient electric field reaches modest values on the order of 0.2 kV/cm and when the electric field near sharp points of ground structure rises above a geometry dependent critical field required for ionization of air. Air is continuously ionized in a small region close to the surface of the structure and ions diffuse out into the surrounding air forming a corona. A downward leader approaching from a thundercloud causes a further increase in the electric field at the ground level. If the electric field rises to the point where it can support formation of streamers in air surrounding the tall structure, a streamer corona flash, or series of streamer corona flashes can be formed significantly affecting the space charge configuration formed by the preceding glow corona. The streamer corona can heat the surrounding air enough to form a self-propagating thermalized leader that is launched upward from the tall structure. This leader travels upward towards the thundercloud and connects with the downward approaching leader thus causing a lightning flash. Accurate time-dependent modeling of charge configuration created by the glow and streamer corona discharges around tall structure is an important component for understanding of the sequence of events leading to lightning attachment to the tall structure. The present work builds on principal modeling ideas developed previously in [Aleksandrov et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 38, 1225, 2005; Bazelyan et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 17, 024015, 2008; Kowalski, E. J., Honors Thesis, Penn State Univ., University Park, PA, May 2008; Tucker and Pasko, NSF EE REU Penn State Annual Res. J., 10, 13, 2012]. The non-stationary glow and streamer coronas are modeled in spherical geometry up to the point of initiation of the upward leader. The model

  2. Large format lithium ion pouch cell full thermal characterisation for improved electric vehicle thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Thomas; Barai, Anup; Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Guo, Yue; McGordon, Andrew; Marco, James

    2017-08-01

    It is crucial to maintain temperature homogeneity in lithium ion batteries in order to prevent adverse voltage distributions and differential ageing within the cell. As such, the thermal behaviour of a large-format 20 Ah lithium iron phosphate pouch cell is investigated over a wide range of ambient temperatures and C rates during both charging and discharging. Whilst previous studies have only considered one surface, this article presents experimental results, which characterise both surfaces of the cell exposed to similar thermal media and boundary conditions, allowing for thermal gradients in-plane and perpendicular to the stack to be quantified. Temperature gradients, caused by self-heating, are found to increase with increasing C rate and decreasing temperature to such an extent that 13.4 ± 0.7% capacity can be extracted using a 10C discharge compared to a 0.5C discharge, both at -10 °C ambient temperature. The former condition causes an 18.8 ± 1.1 °C in plane gradient and a 19.7 ± 0.8 °C thermal gradient perpendicular to the stack, which results in large current density distributions and local state of charge differences within the cell. The implications of these thermal and electrical inhomogeneities on ageing and battery pack design for the automotive industry are discussed.

  3. Discharges in ventromedial frontal cortex during absence spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Don M; Brown, Micah; Luu, Phan; Holmes, Mark D

    2007-12-01

    Neural mechanisms of conscious attention require thalamic control of widespread cortical networks. Absence spells involve a momentary loss of voluntary control of attention, during which the person is inactive and unresponsive. The spike-wave seizure discharges of these spells rapidly engage both cerebral hemispheres in the classic sign of a "generalized" seizure. Animal evidence suggests that spike-wave seizures are caused by a disruption of thalamic circuitry, with extensive spread to cortex through thalamocortical propagation. We applied advanced methods of electrical source analysis to dense array (256-channel) electroencephalographic recordings of spike-wave discharges of absence spells. Neither the onset nor the spread of these seizures is generalized. Rather, the slow waves of the discharges are restricted to frontotemporal networks, and the spikes represent a highly localized and stereotyped progression of electrophysiological activity in ventromedial frontal networks. Given the current knowledge of the neurophysiology of absence seizures, this specificity of the frontal cortical discharges suggests the hypothesis that absence spells are associated with pathology in a circuit comprising ventromedial frontal cortex, rostral thalamic reticular nucleus, and limbic nuclei of the thalamus. Disrupted in absence, this circuit appears to regulate important aspects of the voluntary control of conscious attention.

  4. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes by arc discharge in open air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladugu, Mohan Chand; Maneesh, K; Nair, P Kesavan; Haridoss, Prathap

    2005-05-01

    In this work Carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by arc discharge in open air. A TIG welding ac/dc inverter was used as the power source for arc discharge. During each run of the arc discharge based synthesis, the anode was a low purity (approximately 85% C by weight) graphite rod. The effect of varying the atmosphere on the yield of soot of the carbon nanotube containing carbon soot has been studied. Various soots were produced, purified by oxidation and characterized to confirm formation of carbon nanotubes and their relative quality, using transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD. It was found that the yield of soot formed on the cathode is higher when synthesis is carried out in open air than when carried out in a flowing argon atmosphere. When synthesized in open air, using a 7.2-mm-diameter graphite rod as anode, the yield of soot was around 50% by weight of the graphite consumed. Current and voltage for arcing were at identical starting values in all the experiments. This modified method does not require a controlled atmosphere as in the case of a conventional arc discharge method of synthesis and hence the cost of production may be reduced.

  5. Towards remote sensing of river discharge from space (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. C.; Durand, M. T.; Andreadis, K.; Mersel, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    Consistent, spatially extensive measurements of water flux in rivers are essential for numerous scientific and pragmatic reasons, but such data are absent for many parts of the world. Satellite retrievals of river discharge, therefore, are a tantalizing prospect and stated science requirement of at least one proposed satellite mission (SWOT, the Surface Water Ocean Topography mission). While remote sensing will never achieve the continuous temporal sampling of permanent in situ river gauging stations, the dense synoptic sampling afforded from space provides a powerful compliment to in situ networks with strong potential to transform the science of land-surface hydrology in much the same way that radar altimeters have transformed the science of physical oceanography since 1978. In many parts of the world, satellite retrievals offer the only hope for obtaining any discharge proxies at all. However, an outstanding problem is that no remote sensing technology can measure river discharge directly. A variety of approaches ranging from in situ calibration to advanced data-assimilation modeling have been explored, but the field is highly immature. This poses both challenges and opportunities for the hydrologic science community, as it progresses toward developing effective remote-sensing algorithms to obtain synoptic, intercalibrated, and consistent measurements of discharge throughout entire river drainage networks.

  6. Pending Laboratory Tests and the Hospital Discharge Summary in Patients Discharged To Sub-Acute Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walz, Stacy E; Smith, Maureen; Cox, Elizabeth; Sattin, Justin; Kind, Amy J. H

    2011-01-01

    ...) tests at the time of hospital discharge for general medical patients. However, the prevalence and communication of pending labs within a high-risk population, specifically those patients discharged to sub-acute care (i.e...

  7. Thermal Characteristics of Urban Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    1998-01-01

    Although satellite data are very useful for analysis of the urban heat island effect at a coarse scale, they do not lend themselves to developing a better understanding of which surfaces across the city contribute or drive the development of the urban heat island effect. Analysis of thermal energy responses for specific or discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape (e.g., asphalt, building rooftops, vegetation) requires measurements at a very fine spatial scale (i.e., less than 15 m) to adequately resolve these surfaces and their attendant thermal energy regimes. Additionally, very fine scale spatial resolution thermal infrared data, such as that obtained from aircraft, are very useful for demonstrating to planning officials, policy makers, and the general populace the benefits of the urban forest. These benefits include mitigating the urban heat island effect, making cities more aesthetically pleasing and more habitable environments, and aid in overall cooling of the community. High spatial resolution thermal data are required to quantify how artificial surfaces within the city contribute to an increase in urban heating and the benefit of cool surfaces (e.g., surface coatings that reflect much of the incoming solar radiation as opposed to absorbing it thereby lowering urban temperatures). The TRN (thermal response number) is a technique using aircraft remotely sensed surface temperatures to quantify the thermal response of urban surfaces. The TRN was used to quantify the thermal response of various urban surface types ranging from completely vegetated surfaces to asphalt and concrete parking lots for Huntsville, AL.

  8. Contamination Control for Thermal Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rachel B.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). This course will cover the basics of Contamination Control, including contamination control related failures, the effects of contamination on Flight Hardware, what contamination requirements translate to, design methodology, and implementing contamination control into Integration, Testing and Launch.

  9. Thermal protection optimization for the space shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, F., Jr.; Fowler, W. T.

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses optimal entry trajectories for the space shuttle that minimize the weight of an entry thermal protection system. The analysis was made using mathematical models of two types of thermal protection systems that were under consideration for the space shuttle: a metallic thermal protection system, and a reusable surface insulation thermal protection system. Optimal entries were generated using maximum orbiter nose temperature as a parameter. Thermal protection system weights were computed for both fixed and variable angles of attack using three-dimensional entry trajectories. Results indicated that variable angle-of-attack entries require less thermal protection system weight than entries at a constant angle of attack (35 deg) for both systems considered. Results also showed that 95 to 99 per cent of the thermal protection system weight requirement resulted from flight regimes in which the flow was still laminar.

  10. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...... if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...

  11. Ciclo biológico, exigências térmicas e parasitismo de Muscidifurax uniraptor em pupas de mosca doméstica Life cycle, thermal requirements and parasitism of Muscidifurax uniraptor on house fly pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio José Thomazini

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Os parasitóides pupais estão entre os principais responsáveis pela redução populacional de mosca doméstica em aviários, e Muscidifurax uniraptor Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae é um dos principais parasitóides presentes nestes ambientes no Estado de São Paulo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a duração do ciclo biológico, as exigências térmicas e o parasitismo de M. uniraptor em pupas de Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae em temperaturas constantes. Os testes foram realizados em câmaras climatizadas nas temperaturas de 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 e 32 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% U.R. e 14 h de fotofase. Em cada câmara 200 pupas de mosca doméstica, com 24 a 48 h de idade, foram expostas a 40 parasitóides fêmeas partenogenéticas, com 0 a 24 h de idade, por 24 h. A temperatura influenciou o desenvolvimento e a reprodução de M. uniraptor. O menor valor do período de ovo a adulto foi a 30°C (17 dias e as porcentagens de parasitismo e de emergência de descendentes foram maiores a 28°C, com 87 e 63,5%, respectivamente. A temperatura base encontrada para fêmeas do parasitóide foi de 9,43°C, com uma constante térmica de 366,62 graus-dia (GD. A elevação da temperatura diminui a duração do período de ovo a adulto (entre 18 e 30°C e aumenta o parasitismo (entre 18 e 28°C de M. uniraptor. A faixa de temperatura entre 28 e 30°C é considerada a mais adequada para criação de M. uniraptor em pupas de mosca doméstica.The pupal parasitoids are among the most important organisms responsible for house fly population reduction in poultry farms. Muscidifurax uniraptor Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae is one of the main parasitoids that occur in poultry farms at São Paulo State, Brazil. The objective of this study was to determine the life cycle duration, the thermal requirements and the parasitism of M. uniraptor on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae pupae under constant temperatures. The experiment was

  12. Biologia e exigências térmicas do ácaro-vermelho (Tetranychus ludeni Zacher em folhas de algodoeiro Biology and thermal requirement of Tetranychus ludeni Zacher on cotton leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a biologia e as exigências térmicas de Tetranychus ludeni Zacher (Acari: Tetranychidae em folhas de algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium (Hutch. Foram utilizadas câmaras climatizadas, ajustadas nas temperaturas de 20, 23, 25, 28 e 30ºC, umidade relativa de 70% e fotófase de 12 horas. Os períodos de desenvolvimento de ovo a adulto variaram de 20,77 (20ºC a 8,50 dias (30ºC, em fêmeas, e de 18,83 (20ºC a 7,75 dias (30ºC, em machos. As temperaturasbase, estimadas pelo método da intersecção de X, para os períodos de desenvolvimento de ovoadulto, foram de 14,05ºC para fêmeas e 13,91ºC para machos, enquanto os valores da constante térmica estimados de acordo com a lei de Réamur foram de 138,34 grausdia, para fêmeas e 130,91 grausdia, para machos. Na temperatura de 30ºC foram observados os maiores valores de razão intrínseca de crescimento (0,418, número de ovos de fêmeas/dia (3,47, fecundidade (61,29 e taxa líquida de reprodução (48,00 e o menor valor para o tempo médio de uma geração (9,27.The objective of this work was to study the biology and thermal requirement of Tetranychus ludeni Zacher (Acari: Tetranychidae on leaves of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium (Hutch. Bioclimatic chambers at 20, 23, 25, 28 and 30ºC, relative humidity of 70±10%, and a 12 hours:12 hours (L:D photoperiod were utilized. Development period of eggadult, varied from 20.77 (20ºC to 8.50 days (30ºC, for males and from 18.83 (20ºC to 7.75 days (30ºC, for females. The threshold temperature of development, estimated by X intercession method for development period of eggadult were 14.05ºC, for females and 13.91ºC, for males. While those values of thermal constant estimated by Réamur law were 138.34 daydegrees for females and 130.91 daydegrees for males. At 30ºC of temperature, the highest values of the intrinsic rate of increase (0.418, number of eggs/females/day (3.47, fecundity

  13. Spacecraft thermal modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, J. H.; Panczak, T. D.; Fried, L.

    1992-09-01

    Thermal modeling of spacecraft requires approaches which can handle dominant radiative heat transfers and many special thermal control components. Present network-type thermal analyzers allow simulation, especially for components with rectangular geometries, but at the expense of considerable awkwardness and much error-prone manual input. The user interfaces for pre- and postprocessing for these analyzers are also very deficient. Finite element thermal analyzers solve some of the analytical difficulties, but are not widely used because they lack the flexibility to simulate special operations. The Galerkin finite element method (GFEM) distributes the contributions within an element to the element nodal points. The assembly of the contributions from all elements yields a system of energy balance equations for the nodal points of the system. Monte Carlo raytracing, in conjunction with a GFEM energy distribution to element nodal points, yields a procedure of consistent nonisothermal surface radiation exchange. This procedure reduces a source of simulation error caused by nonuniform element illumination and shading. Orbital heating, fluid flow and special analysis features are discussed. The main analysis program is interfaced to the preprocessing and postprocessing modules.

  14. Solar thermal financing guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

    1983-05-01

    This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

  15. CNC electrical discharge machining centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaggars, S.R.

    1991-10-01

    Computer numerical control (CNC) electrical discharge machining (EDM) centers were investigated to evaluate the application and cost effectiveness of establishing this capability at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). In line with this investigation, metal samples were designed, prepared, and machined on an existing 15-year-old EDM machine and on two current technology CNC EDM machining centers at outside vendors. The results were recorded and evaluated. The study revealed that CNC EDM centers are a capability that should be established at KCD. From the information gained, a machine specification was written and a shop was purchased and installed in the Engineering Shop. The older machine was exchanged for a new model. Additional machines were installed in the Tool Design and Fabrication and Precision Microfinishing departments. The Engineering Shop machine will be principally used for the following purposes: producing deep cavities in small corner radii, machining simulated casting models, machining difficult-to-machine materials, and polishing difficult-to-hand polish mold cavities. 2 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this ... need any special equipment or supplies, such as: Hospital bed Wheelchair Walker or cane Shower ... Checklist Your discharge planner will give you a ...

  17. Plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Gutsol, Alexander F.; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-22

    The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.

  18. Partial discharges and bulk dielectric field enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Johansson, Torben

    2000-01-01

    A consequence of partial discharge activity within a gaseous void is the production of a field enhancement in the solid dielectric in the proximity of the void. This situation arises due to the charge created by the partial discharges accumulating at the void wall. The influence of the spatial...

  19. 14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static discharge. 31.61 Section 31.61 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge. Unless shown not to be...

  20. Pulse volume discharges in high pressure gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamshchikov, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    New approach for suppression of plasma inhomogeneities and instabilities in the volume self-sustained discharge is offered. The physical model is offered and conditions of obtaining extremely homogeneous self-sustained discharge are defined (with full suppression of plasma inhomogeneity and instability). Results of calculations agree with experiments.

  1. THE DISCHARGING EAR: A PRACTICAL APPROACH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    The colour of the fluid can suggest the cause of the otorrhoea. A purulent dis- charge indicates the presence of infection, while a bloody discharge may follow trauma or occur with granulation tissue associated with chronic infection. The presence of a mucoid discharge indicates a perforation of the tympanic mem-.

  2. [Early postpartum hospital discharge in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendittelli, F; Boniol, M; Mamelle, N

    2005-09-01

    Early postpartum discharge is a recent practice in France and for which there are few national data. The Sentinel AUDIPOG network was used to describe the practice of postpartum early discharge (vaginal delivery and discharge were researched, in univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis, of the births of 2001-2002. Early postpartum discharges concerned 3% of the deliveries in 1997 and 7% in 2002. Eearly postpartum discharge was more frequent in the level II and III obstetric facilities, in non- university hospitals, in facilities with more than 1 500 deliveries a year, in urban hospitals and in Paris and the surrounding area. The women leaving early in the postpartum were more often multiparas, with no pregnancy pathology, with a single pregnancy, without postpartum hemorrhage, and a child > 2500 g without risk of infection. At present, 40% of vaginal delivery and 25% of caesarean section primiparas and 55% of vaginal delivery and 30% of caesarean section multiparas could be discharged early. The reduction of the postpartum hospital stay is inevitable but it is advisable to take care that the women who are discharged are medically fit for discharge.

  3. Silicon nanoparticles produced by spark discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vons, V.A.; De Smet, L.C.P.M.; Munao, D.; Evirgen, A.; Kelder, E.M.; Schmidt-Ott, A.

    2011-01-01

    On the example of silicon, the production of nanoparticles using spark discharge is shown to be feasible for semiconductors. The discharge circuit is modelled as a damped oscillator circuit. This analysis reveals that the electrode resistance should be kept low enough to limit energy loss by Joule

  4. Nursing Assessment and Intervention to Geriatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, Elizabeth Emilie; Poulsen, Ingrid; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    % of geriatric patients have complex and often unresolved caring needs. Objective: To investigate a structured nursing intervention’s impact on geriatric patients’ unresolved problems and their use of help from the community health centre. Method: We conducted a prospective descriptive study of selected......Background: Geriatric patients recently discharged from hospital are at risk of unplanned readmissions and admission to nursing home. When discharged directly from Emergency Department (ED) the risk increases, as time pressure often requires focus on the presenting problem, although 80...... geriatric patients with nursing intervention at discharge and 1 and 6 months follow-up. Included were geriatric patients 70+ years discharged to their home October 2006-June 2008. Intervention: After detecting the geriatric patients planned to be discharged, the geriatric nurse in the ED did a brief...

  5. A high-brightness repetitively pulsed UV radiation source using a linearly stabilized surface discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugrimov, S. N.; Kamrukov, A. S.; Kashnikov, G. N.; Kozlov, N. P.; Ovchinnikov, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    A method is proposed for initiating spark plasma discharges on a dielectric surface in the form of strictly rectilinear plasma channels. The method can be implemented using relatively modest (less than 25 kV) working and ignition voltages and does not require any 'hard' electrotechnical loops. Experiments were carried out in order to study the formation dynamics, energy, and spectral brightness characteristics of linearly stabilized surface discharges having linearly stabilized spark channel and the results are discussed. High-speed photographs of the discharges are presented and the spectrum of radiation from the discharges is illustrated in graphic form. It is shown that linearly stabilized discharges can be used to obtain high-power repetitively pulsed sources of CW ultraviolet radiation in the UV region having a brightness temperature of at least 40 K.

  6. 14 CFR 25.856 - Thermal/Acoustic insulation materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Thermal/Acoustic insulation materials. 25....856 Thermal/Acoustic insulation materials. (a) Thermal/acoustic insulation material installed in the... requirement does not apply to thermal/acoustic insulation installations that the FAA finds would not...

  7. Computing discharge using the index velocity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Victor A.; Oberg, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    Application of the index velocity method for computing continuous records of discharge has become increasingly common, especially since the introduction of low-cost acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) in 1997. Presently (2011), the index velocity method is being used to compute discharge records for approximately 470 gaging stations operated and maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to document and describe techniques for computing discharge records using the index velocity method. Computing discharge using the index velocity method differs from the traditional stage-discharge method by separating velocity and area into two ratings—the index velocity rating and the stage-area rating. The outputs from each of these ratings, mean channel velocity (V) and cross-sectional area (A), are then multiplied together to compute a discharge. For the index velocity method, V is a function of such parameters as streamwise velocity, stage, cross-stream velocity, and velocity head, and A is a function of stage and cross-section shape. The index velocity method can be used at locations where stage-discharge methods are used, but it is especially appropriate when more than one specific discharge can be measured for a specific stage. After the ADVM is selected, installed, and configured, the stage-area rating and the index velocity rating must be developed. A standard cross section is identified and surveyed in order to develop the stage-area rating. The standard cross section should be surveyed every year for the first 3 years of operation and thereafter at a lesser frequency, depending on the susceptibility of the cross section to change. Periodic measurements of discharge are used to calibrate and validate the index rating for the range of conditions experienced at the gaging station. Data from discharge measurements, ADVMs, and stage sensors are compiled for index-rating analysis. Index ratings are developed by means of regression

  8. The making of local hospital discharge arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burau, Viola; Bro, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Background Timely discharge is a key component of contemporary hospital governance and raises questions about how to move to more explicit discharge arrangements. Although associated organisational changes closely intersect with professional interests, there are relatively few studies...... in the literature on hospital discharge that explicitly examine the role of professional groups. Recent contributions to the literature on organisational studies of the professions help to specify how professional groups in hospitals contribute to the introduction and routinisation of discharge arrangements...... and involvement in the process of organisational change: whereas in the ‘add on’ model the professional groups remain at a distance, in the ‘embedded model’ they are closely engaged. Conclusions In terms of understanding the making of hospital discharge arrangements, the study contributes two sets of insights...

  9. Estimation of combined sewer overflow discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk

    2016-01-01

    weirs. It can, therefore, be a challenge to quantify the discharges from CSOs. Quantification of CSO discharges are important in relation to the increased environmental awareness of the receiving water bodies. Furthermore, CSO discharge quantification is essential for closing the rainfall-runoff mass......Combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures are constructed to effectively discharge excess water during heavy rainfall, to protect the urban drainage system from hydraulic overload. Consequently, most CSO structures are not constructed according to basic hydraulic principles for ideal measurement......-balance in combined sewer catchments. A closed mass-balance is an advantage for calibration of all urban drainage models based on mass-balance principles. This study presents three different software sensor concepts based on local water level sensors, which can be used to estimate CSO discharge volumes from hydraulic...

  10. Characterisation of pulsed discharge in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocik, Marek; Dors, Miroslaw; Podlinski, Janusz; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Kanazawa, Seiji; Ichiki, Ryuta; Sato, Takehiko

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, Schlieren photography technique has been applied for the visualization of the pressure field of a single-shot underwater pulsed discharge. A needle-to-plane electrode configuration submerged in distilled water was used. The detailed time- and space-resolved images of both streamers and pressure waves were captured. As a result, several phenomena, such as the phase change prior to the initiation of the discharge, primary and secondary streamers propagation, shock wave generation, and the bubble formation, were observed. From these observations, a scenario of multiple events from prebreakdown to post-discharge was proposed. The gas bubbles generated in discharge were used to visualize the electrohydrodynamic flow induced by the discharge. This work was presented on the occasion of the 13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII).

  11. Impact of Pharmacist Facilitated Discharge Medication Reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd M. Super

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Preventable adverse drug events occur frequently at transitions in care and are a problem for many patients following hospital discharge. Many of these problems can be attributed to poor medication reconciliation. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact that direct pharmacist involvement in the discharge medication reconciliation process had on medication discrepancies, patient outcomes, and satisfaction. A cohort study of 70 patients was designed to assess the impact of pharmacist facilitated discharge medication reconciliation at a 204-bed community hospital in Battle Creek, Michigan, USA. Discharge summaries were analyzed to compare patients who received standard discharge without pharmacist involvement to those having pharmacist involvement. The total number of discrepancies in the group without pharmacist involvement was significantly higher than that of the pharmacist facilitated group.

  12. Learning from the interplay between discharge and water temperature for signals of hydrologic and atmospheric change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefli, Bettina; Larsen, Joshua

    2017-04-01

    The interplay between river discharge and water temperature regimes determines the habitat quality of river ecosystems, and understanding their interplay is thus critical to assess future ecosystem health in the context of climate change and anthropogenic impacts. Beyond the evident practical importance for ecosystem management, understanding this water temperature-discharge interplay also has great potential to gain new insights into the dominant hydro-climatological processes occurring at the catchment scale. Central to this is the analysis of bivariate distributions between discharge and water temperature, in combination with simple thermal models, at different temporal scales and across many catchments. Potential insights to be gained include: i) the relative roles of rain, glacier, snow, and groundwater inputs, ii) the influence of atmospheric forcings, and iii) the mixing of the stream network. Using detailed records from Swiss catchments, we show the relative importance of these drivers, how they vary between catchments, as well as their susceptibility to change over time. This work provides a data-based, yet physical basis for understanding how the thermal regime of rivers is regulated by hydrologic and atmospheric processes, and thus provides a template to understand the thermal range of aquatic ecosystems. Such a physical understanding is critical in order to better interpret changing stream temperatures, and the thermal flux they provide to downstream lake and ocean environments.

  13. Rectenna thermal model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiramangalam, Murall; Alden, Adrian; Speyer, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    Deploying rectennas in space requires adapting existing designs developed for terrestrial applications to the space environment. One of the major issues in doing so is to understand the thermal performance of existing designs in the space environment. Toward that end, a 3D rectenna thermal model has been developed, which involves analyzing shorted rectenna elements and finite size rectenna element arrays. A shorted rectenna element is a single element whose ends are connected together by a material of negligible thermal resistance. A shorted element is a good approximation to a central element of a large array. This model has been applied to Brown's 2.45 GHz rectenna design. Results indicate that Brown's rectenna requires redesign or some means of enhancing the heat dissipation in order for the diode temperature to be maintained below 200 C above an output power density of 620 W/sq.m. The model developed in this paper is very general and can be used for the analysis and design of any type of rectenna design of any frequency.

  14. Carbon-14 as a tracer of groundwater discharge to streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Sarah; Harrington, Glenn; Cook, Peter; Post, Vincent; Dogramaci, Shawan

    2014-05-01

    The provenance of groundwater discharge to a stream can be determined by measuring the response of multiple groundwater age tracers within the stream across the discharge zone. The sampling interval required to detect groundwater discharge is limited by the rate of equilibration with the atmosphere downstream of the discharge zone, which is determined by the gas transfer velocity. Carbon-14 (14C) equilibration is driven by CO2 exchange, which is a small component of the dissolved inorganic carbon in most stream systems, and therefore the rate of equilibration is slower than for other gaseous age tracers. In this paper we use a step-wise approach to develop and demonstrate the use of 14C as a tracer in streams receiving groundwater discharge. Excess carbon dioxide (CO2) in the emerging groundwater degasses until equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 is reached; increasing pH and enriching the residual 14C by fractionation. In addition, the 14C gradient between groundwater and the atmosphere drives a slower process of isotopic equilibration. We have measured the rates of this chemical and isotopic equilibration experimentally by exposing 250 L of old groundwater to the atmosphere in an evaporation pan. Chemical equilibrium was achieved within 2 days, during which the 14C increased from 6 to 16 pMC. The influence of fractionation during the initial CO2 degassing on isotopic equilibrium rates was negligible. Isotopic equilibrium took over 2 months, with 14C in the evaporation pan increasing to 108 pMC over 71 days. This increase in 14C was simulated using a mass balance model with an effective 14C gas transfer velocity of 0.013 m d-1. Field testing of the method was conducted at two sites. Firstly, we measured the evolution of 14C in dewatering discharge as it flows along an ephemeral creek channel in the Pilbara, Western Australia. Measured 14C increased from 11 to 31 pMC along the 10km reach, which corresponds to a travel time of about 2 days. The measured increase was

  15. Thermal insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R.; Asada, Y.; Matsuo, Y.; Mikoda, M.

    1985-07-16

    A thermal insulator comprises an expanded resin body having embedded therein an evacuated powder insulation portion which consists of fine powder and a container of film-like plastics or a film-like composite of plastics and metal for enclosing the powder. The resin body has been expanded by a Freon gas as a blowing agent. Since a Freon gas has a larger molecular diameter than the constituent gases of air, it is less likely to permeate through the container than air. Thus present invention provides a novel composite insulator which fully utilizes the benefits of vacuum insulation without necessitating a strong and costly material for a vacuum container.

  16. Improving patient discharge and reducing hospital readmissions by using Intervention Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, Gijs; Zegers, Marieke; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Barach, Paul; Kalkman, Cor; Flink, Maria; Öhlen, Gunnar; Olsson, Mariann; Bergenbrant, Susanne; Orrego, Carola; Suñol, Rosa; Toccafondi, Giulio; Venneri, Francesco; Dudzik-Urbaniak, Ewa; Kutryba, Basia; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Wollersheim, Hub

    2014-09-13

    There is a growing impetus to reorganize the hospital discharge process to reduce avoidable readmissions and costs. The aim of this study was to provide insight into hospital discharge problems and underlying causes, and to give an overview of solutions that guide providers and policy-makers in improving hospital discharge. The Intervention Mapping framework was used. First, a problem analysis studying the scale, causes, and consequences of ineffective hospital discharge was carried out. The analysis was based on primary data from 26 focus group interviews and 321 individual interviews with patients and relatives, and involved hospital and community care providers. Second, improvements in terms of intervention outcomes, performance objectives and change objectives were specified. Third, 220 experts were consulted and a systematic review of effective discharge interventions was carried out to select theory-based methods and practical strategies required to achieve change and better performance. Ineffective discharge is related to factors at the level of the individual care provider, the patient, the relationship between providers, and the organisational and technical support for care providers. Providers can reduce hospital readmission rates and adverse events by focusing on high-quality discharge information, well-coordinated care, and direct and timely communication with their counterpart colleagues. Patients, or their carers, should participate in the discharge process and be well aware of their health status and treatment. Assessment by hospital care providers whether discharge information is accurate and understood by patients and their community counterparts, are important examples of overcoming identified barriers to effective discharge. Discharge templates, medication reconciliation, a liaison nurse or pharmacist, regular site visits and teach-back are identified as effective and promising strategies to achieve the desired behavioural and environmental

  17. Using the Red/Yellow/Green Discharge Tool to Improve the Timeliness of Hospital Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Kusum S.; Corso, Philip; Bacon, Sandra; Jenq, Grace Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background As part of Yale-New Haven Hospital (Connecticut)’s Safe Patient Flow Initiative, the physician leadership developed the Red/Yellow/Green (RYG) Discharge Tool, an electronic medical record–based prompt to identify likelihood of patients’ next-day discharge: green (very likely), yellow (possibly), and red (unlikely). The tool’s purpose was to enhance communication with nursing/care coordination and trigger earlier discharge steps for patients identified as “green” or “yellow”. Methods Data on discharge assignments, discharge dates/times, and team designation were collected for all adult medicine patients discharged from October – December 2009 (Study Period 1) and October – December 2011 (Study Period 2), between which the tool’s placement changed from the sign-out note to the daily progress note. Results In Study Period 1, 75.9% of the patients had discharge assignments, compared with 90.8% in Period 2 (p discharge rate improved from 10.4% to 21.2% from 2007 to 2011. “Green” patients were more likely to be discharged before 11 A.M. than “yellow” or “red” patients (p discharged by 11 A.M. had a lower length of stay than those without assignments and did not have an associated increased risk of readmission. Discharge prediction accuracy worsened after the change in placement, decreasing from 75.1% to 59.1% for “green” patients (p discharge predictions, suggesting that education and/or experience may contribute to discharge assignment. Conclusions The RYG Discharge Tool helped facilitate earlier discharges, but accuracy depends on placement in daily work flow and experience. PMID:25016672

  18. Smartphone for measuring river discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Haro, Salvador; Lüthi, Beat; Philippe, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Smartphones have become powerful and have extended their capacities including different types of sensors. These capabilities make them very interesting for its applications in water management. We have developed a new mobile device application for open-channel flow measurements. This app can be used to determine the flow in e.g. rivers, artificial channels, irrigation ditches, furrows, etc. The smartphone app computes the runoff by analysing a few seconds of a movie that is recorded using the smartphone camera. The runoff is calculated from the estimated water level, surface velocity and from prior knowledge on the channel geometry. The water level is determined by the separation line of image segments with and without optical flow. Via calibration of the smartphone camera position this separation line is mapped to a water level. The surface velocity is calculated using a modified method of the standard Particle Image Velocimetry method. Among the key characteristics of the method is the fact that no tracer particles are needed. There are two flavours of the app. In the first one, all the measurements are taken using the available sensors in the mobile device and all the calculations are made making only use of the device. Three results are given back: the water level, the average surface velocity and discharge. This information can be sent via SMS. In the second one, the movie is send to a central computer where more detailed calculations are made, like fine camera calibration, camera stabilization tuning, definition of the region of interest, the sub-windows for the velocity analysis can be changed, different algorithms can be chosen, etc. It also generates more detailed results. Using smartphones, measurements can be made at much lower cost, since there is no need of permanent installations, which also makes it possible to take measurements in any place.

  19. Ecologically based targets for bioavailable (reactive) nitrogen discharge from the drainage basins of the Wet Tropics region, Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Scott A; Brodie, Jon E; Kroon, Frederieke J; Turner, Ryan D R

    2015-08-15

    A modelling framework is developed for the Wet Tropics region of the Great Barrier Reef that links a quantitative river discharge parameter (viz. dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentration, DIN) with an eutrophication indicator within the marine environment (viz. chlorophyll-a concentration, chl-a). The model predicts catchment-specific levels of reduction (%) in end-of-river DIN concentrations (as a proxy for total potentially reactive nitrogen, PRN) needed to ensure compliance with chl-a 'trigger' guidelines for the ecologically distinct, but PRN-related issues of crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS) outbreaks, reef biodiversity loss, and thermal bleaching sensitivity. The results indicate that even for river basins dominated by agricultural land uses, quite modest reductions in end-of-river PRN concentrations (∼20-40%) may assist in mitigating the risk of primary COTS outbreaks from the mid-shelf reefs of the Wet Tropics. However, more significant reductions (∼60-80%) are required to halt and reverse declines in reef biodiversity, and loss of thermal bleaching resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermal Imagery of Groundwater Seeps: Possibilities and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Erin; Gleeson, Tom; Roberts, Mark; Baraer, Michel; McKenzie, Jeffrey M

    2017-03-01

    Quantifying groundwater flow at seepage faces is crucial because seepage faces influence the hydroecology and water budgets of watersheds, lakes, rivers and oceans, and because measuring groundwater fluxes directly in aquifers is extremely difficult. Seepage faces provide a direct and measurable groundwater flux but there is no existing method to quantitatively image groundwater processes at this boundary. Our objective is to determine the possibilities and limitations of thermal imagery in quantifying groundwater discharge from discrete seeps. We developed a conceptual model of temperature below discrete seeps, observed 20 seeps spectacularly exposed in three dimensions at an unused limestone quarry and conducted field experiments to examine the role of diurnal changes and rock face heterogeneity on thermal imagery. The conceptual model suggests that convective air-water heat exchange driven by temperature differences is the dominant heat transfer mechanism. Thermal imagery is effective at locating and characterizing the flux of groundwater seeps. Areas of active groundwater flow and ice growth can be identified from thermal images in the winter, and seepage rates can be differentiated in the summer. However, the application of thermal imagery is limited by diverse factors including technical issues of image acquisition, diurnal changes in radiation and temperature, and rock face heterogeneity. Groundwater discharge rates could not be directly quantified from thermal imagery using our observations but our conceptual model and experiments suggest that thermal imagery could quantify groundwater discharge when there are large temperature differences, simple cliff faces, non-freezing conditions, and no solar radiation. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  1. Capabilities of the dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator for multi-frequency excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benard, N; Moreau, E [Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques (LEA), Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, CNRS Bld Marie et Pierre Curie, Teleport 2, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France)

    2010-04-14

    Natural instability mechanisms are inherent in most laminar and turbulent flow configurations. Usually, these instabilities result in the formation of flow structures occurring at diverse spatial and time scales. An effective control requires an actuator able to bring momentum transfer over a wide range of frequencies to act on these instabilities. Promising results are expected for such control strategy because, according to stability theory, a small amplitude perturbation can be large enough to produce significant effects even at high Reynolds number. Moreover, simultaneous production of small perturbations at several frequencies can enhance or cancel non-linear interactions; this opens alternative methods for flow control. The focus of this study is to demonstrate the ability of plasma actuators to introduce flow perturbations at single and dual frequencies by simply adjusting the waveform of the voltage applied to the plasma actuator. The flows produced by a dielectric barrier discharge supplied by burst, superposition and ring modulations are described in temporal and frequential domains. The results confirm the potential of non-thermal plasma actuators to produce highly unsteady flows at single, double or multiple frequencies.

  2. An experimental study of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subedi, D. P. [Department of Natural Sciences, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel (Nepal); Tyata, R. B. [Department of Natural Sciences, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal and Department of Electrical, Khwopa College of Engineering, Libali-2, Bhaktapur (Nepal); Shrestha, R. [Department of Natural Sciences, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal and Department of Physics, Basu College, Kalighat, Byasi, Bhaktapur (Nepal); Wong, C. S. [Plasma Technology Research Centre, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-03-05

    In this paper, experimental results on atmospheric pressure argon dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) have been presented. The discharge was generated using a high voltage (0 to 20 kV) power supply operating at frequency of 10 to 30 kHz and was studied by means of electrical and optical measurements. A homogeneous and steady discharge was observed between the electrodes with gap spacing from 1 mm to 3 mm and with a dielectric barrier of thickness 1.5 mm while argon gas is fed at a controlled flow rate of 2liter per min. The electron temperature (T{sub e}) and electron density (n{sub e}) of the plasma have been determined by means of optical emission spectroscopy. Our results show that the electron density is of the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} while the electron temperature is estimated to be ∼ 1 eV. The homogeneity and non-thermal nature of the discharge were utilized in the investigation of the change in wettabilty of a polymer sample subjected to the treatment by the discharge. Contact angle analysis showed that the discharge was effective in improving the wettability of low density Polyethylene (LDPE) polymer sample after the treatment.

  3. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1987-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walling, R.C.; Heeb, C.M.; Purcell, W.L.

    1988-03-01

    The creation of five reactor-specific spent fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from U.S. commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water eactors (BWR), and one existing high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the U.S. reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Administration (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: No New Orders (assumes increasing burnup), No New Orders with No Increased Burnup, Upper Reference (assumes increasing burnup), Upper Reference with No Increased Burnup, and Lower Reference (assumes increasing burnup). Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel. 8 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections: 1986 to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeb, C.M.; Walling, R.C.; Purcell, W.L.

    1987-03-01

    The creation of five reactor-specific spent fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from US commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent-fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the US reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Agency (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: (1) No new orders with extended burnup, (2) No new orders with constant burnup, (3) Upper reference (which assumes extended burnup), (4) Upper reference with constant burnup, and (5) Lower reference (which assumes extended burnup). Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel. 6 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Thermal Characterization of the Overload Carbon Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Kostić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In many applications, the electronic component is not continuously but only intermittently overloaded (e.g., inrush current, short circuit, or discharging interference. With this paper, we provide insight into carbon resistors that have to hold out a rarely occurring transient overload. Using simple electrical circuit, the resistor is overheating with higher current than declared, and dissipation is observed by a thermal camera.

  6. Medication Discrepancies at Pediatric Hospital Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattari, Theresa B; Krieger, Lauren N; Hu, Hsou Mei; Mychaliska, Kerry P

    2015-08-01

    The pediatric hospital discharge process presents significant challenges, and medication discrepancies remain an unsolved problem. The purpose of this study was to determine the discrepancy rates at the time of discharge when multiple sources of medication documentation exist, and to characterize the medication discrepancies into error type, medication category, and discharge summary authorship. A prospective study was performed on pediatric patients admitted to a general inpatient floor for >24 hours. After discharge, medication lists were obtained from the patients' parent/guardian, discharge summary, and Patient Summary List, a medication list that is part of the electronic medical record. These 3 medication lists were then compared with the pharmacy record to identify discrepancies, defined as any difference in medication name, dose, route, or frequency. Medication discrepancies were analyzed in terms of error type (dosage or addition/omission), category of medication, and final signers of the discharge summary. Sixty-nine patient charts were analyzed, and 8% of medications contained a documentation discrepancy between sources. Overall, 26% (18 of 69) of the charts contained ≥1 discrepant medication; the Patient Summary List had the highest rate of discrepancy at 29%. Allergy (27%) and seizure medications (25%) were the categories with the highest rates of discrepancy. Addition/omission errors were much more common than dosage errors. Medication discrepancies exist in inpatient documentation at the time of pediatric hospital discharge when multiple sources of documentation exist. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. In-depth analysis of delays to patient discharge: a metropolitan teaching hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, P; Patel, J H; Kordbacheh, T; Laskar, N; Harbord, M

    2012-08-01

    Delayed patient discharge will likely exacerbate bed shortages. This study prospectively determined the frequency, causes and potential cost implications of delays for 83 consecutive patients, who were inpatients for a total of 888 days. 65% of patients experienced delay whilst awaiting a service. 48% of patients experienced delays that extended their discharge date. Discharge delays accounted for 21% of the cohort's inpatient stay, at an estimated cost of 565 sterling pounds per patient; 77% of these hold-ups resulted from delays in the provision of social and therapy requirements. Discharge delays are costly for hospitals and depressing for patients. Investment is required to enable health and social-care professionals to work more closely to improve the patient journey.

  8. Experience from ASDEX upgrade discharge control management for long pulse operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raupp, G.; Behler, K.; Neu, G.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany). EURATOM-IPP Association

    1999-01-01

    Preprogrammed discharge control method and static experiment scheduling traditionally used with short-pulse experiment operation cycles are not compatible with requirements aiming at (near) steady state operation. An event-driven discharge control method is needed to handle deviations from the experiment programme without terminating the discharge. A dynamic experiment scheduling method is required to insert or take away experiments in a running discharge. To support these methods to operate the machine, data acquisition needs a close integration into the control, supporting calculation and exchange of processed quantities and state information, and into the experiment operation, supporting self-monitoring and exchange of resource availability and configuration information. These functions must be performed in parallel with the concurrent execution of the data acquisitions front-end control, data sampling, data processing and reduction and archiving. (orig.) 6 refs.

  9. Submarine Groundwater Discharge at a Single Spot Location: Evaluation of Different Detection Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schubert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD into the ocean is of general interest because it acts as vehicle for the transport of dissolved contaminants and/or nutrients into the coastal sea and because it may be accompanied by the loss of significant volumes of freshwater. Due to the large-scale and long-term nature of the related hydrological processes, environmental tracers are required for SGD investigation. The water parameters of electrical conductivity and temperature, the naturally occurring radionuclides of radon and radium as well as the stable water isotopes 18O and 2H have proven in previous studies their general suitability for the detection and quantification of SGD. However, individual hydrogeological settings require a site-specific application of this “tool box”. This study evaluates and compares the applicability of the abovementioned tracers for investigating SGD from a distinct submarine source in a karst environment at Cabbé, southern France. The specific advantages and disadvantages of each individual parameter under the given hydrogeological conditions are discussed. Radon appeared to be the most suitable environmental tracer in the site specific context. The water temperature was less reliable due to the little temperature difference between seawater and groundwater and since the diurnal variation of the air temperature masks potential SGD signals. Radium isotopes are less applicable in the studied region due to the lack of a well-developed subterranean estuary. The stable water isotopes showed results consistent with the salinity and radon data; however, the significantly higher effort required for stable isotope analyses is disadvantageous. A multi-temporal thermal remote sensing approach proved to be a powerful tool for initial SGD surveying.

  10. Production of runaway electrons by negative streamer discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud; Neubert, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    and the conditions on the electric field for the acceleration of electrons into the runaway regime. We use particle codes to describe the process of stochastic acceleration and introduce a novel technique that improves the statistics of the relatively few electrons that reach high energies. The calculation......In this paper we estimate the probability that cold electrons can be accelerated by an ambient electric field into the runaway regime, and discuss the implications for negative streamer formation. The study is motivated by the discovery of ms duration bursts of γ-rays from the atmosphere above......V. Instead the relativistic runaway electron discharge has been proposed which requires a lower threshold electric field; however, seed electrons must be born with energies in the runaway regime. In this work we study the fundamental problem of electron acceleration in a conventional discharge...

  11. Analysis of the Parameter of the Electro-discharge Texturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Terpák

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with analysis of the electro discharge texturing (EDT parameter impact to micro-geometry of the cylinder surface. Micro-geometry of the cylinder surface results has significant influence to final quality of rolled metal plate used to different industry. Micro-geometry evaluate is based on measurement of the surface roughness average (Ra and peak count (Pc. In this paper is evaluated electro discharge texturing parameters and their impact to Ra and Pc. From the measured values follow that value of the texturing current, impulse on-time and impulse off-time most influence to Ra and Pc. In this paper is described design, realization and results of the model for estimation of the texturing current, impulse time and technological pause for Ra or Pc required value.

  12. Using the Eco-Map and Ecosystems Perspective to Guide Skilled Nursing Facility Discharge Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, V J; Fields, N L; Adorno, G; Smith-Osborne, A

    2017-01-01

    Growing numbers of seniors across the United States require skilled nursing facility care after an inpatient hospital stay. Previous studies indicate that roughly 20 percent of all hospitalized Medicare beneficiaries are admitted to a skilled nursing facility following a qualifying hospital stay. Social workers address psychosocial problems, social support, networks, and healthcare needs during transitions in care, particularly discharge planning. Ecosystems perspective and the eco-map as a discharge planning tool is presented. Social workers can use these tools to examine the patient with respect to their transactional relationships with systems. This will further will facilitate provision of wrap-around services upon discharge.

  13. Whiteboards and discharge traffic lights: visual management in acute care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Lauri; Bassham, Jane; Lewis, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    Flinders Medical Centre was experiencing issues with timely discharge and knowing the potential discharges and in-patient bed capacity for the next day. This case study describes the application of 'visual management' theory to discharge processes. The solutions developed were 'patient journey boards' and 'discharge traffic lights'. The implementation of these visual management systems has enabled the hospital to improve its discharge processes.

  14. Effects and Mechanism of Atmospheric-Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Cold Plasma on Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Zhang; Zimu Xu; Jie Shen; Xu Li; Lili Ding; Jie Ma; Yan Lan; Weidong Xia; Cheng Cheng; Qiang Sun; Zelong Zhang; Chu, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are carriers of biological functions and the effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasmas on proteins are important to applications such as sterilization and plasma-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Herein, we report our detailed investigation of the effects of helium-oxygen non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas on the inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme solutions. Circular dichroism (CD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) indicate that the los...

  15. Specific discharge variability in a boreal landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Steve W.; Nathanson, Marcus; Spans, André; Grabs, Thomas; Laudon, Hjalmar; Temnerud, Johan; Bishop, Kevin H.; Seibert, Jan

    2012-08-01

    Specific discharge variations within a mesoscale catchment were studied on the basis of three synoptic sampling campaigns. These were conducted during stable flow conditions within the Krycklan catchment study area in northern Sweden. During each campaign, about 80 individual locations were measured for discharge draining from catchment areas ranging between 0.12 and 67 km2. These discharge samplings allowed for the comparison between years within a given season (September 2005 versus September 2008) and between seasons within a given year (May 2008 versus September 2008) of specific discharge across this boreal landscape. There was considerable variability in specific discharge across this landscape. The ratio of the interquartile range (IQR) defined as the difference between the 75th and 25th percentiles of the specific discharges to the median of the specific discharges ranged from 37% to 43%. Factor analysis was used to explore potential relations between landscape characteristics and the specific discharge observed for 55 of the individual locations that were measured in all three synoptic sampling campaigns. Percentage wet area (i.e., wetlands, mires, and lakes) and elevation were found to be directly related to the specific discharge during the drier September 2008 sampling while potential annual evaporation was found to be inversely related. There was less of a relationship determined during the wetter post spring flood May 2008 sampling and the late summer rewetted September 2005 sampling. These results indicate the ability of forests to "dry out" parts of the catchment over the summer months while wetlands "keep wet" other parts. To demonstrate the biogeochemical implications of such spatiotemporal variations in specific discharge, we estimate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exports with available data for the May 2008 and September 2008 samplings using both the spatially variable observed specific discharges and the spatially constant catchment average

  16. Fine-Water-Mist Multiple-Orientation-Discharge Fire Extinguisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, James R.; Turchi, Craig S.; Kimball, Amanda; McKinnon, Thomas; Riedel, Edward

    2010-01-01

    A fine-water-mist fire-suppression device has been designed so that it can be discharged uniformly in any orientation via a high-pressure gas propellant. Standard fire extinguishers used while slightly tilted or on their side will not discharge all of their contents. Thanks to the new design, this extinguisher can be used in multiple environments such as aboard low-gravity spacecraft, airplanes, and aboard vehicles that may become overturned prior to or during a fire emergency. Research in recent years has shown that fine water mist can be an effective alternative to Halons now banned from manufacture. Currently, NASA uses carbon dioxide for fire suppression on the International Space Station (ISS) and Halon chemical extinguishers on the space shuttle. While each of these agents is effective, they have drawbacks. The toxicity of carbon dioxide requires that the crew don breathing apparatus when the extinguishers are deployed on the ISS, and Halon use in future spacecraft has been eliminated because of international protocols on substances that destroy atmospheric ozone. A major advantage to the new system on occupied spacecraft is that the discharged system is locally rechargeable. Since the only fluids used are water and nitrogen, the system can be recharged from stores of both carried aboard the ISS or spacecraft. The only support requirement would be a pump to fill the water and a compressor to pressurize the nitrogen propellant gas. This system uses a gaseous agent to pressurize the storage container as well as to assist in the generation of the fine water mist. The portable fire extinguisher hardware works like a standard fire extinguisher with a single storage container for the agents (water and nitrogen), a control valve assembly for manual actuation, and a discharge nozzle. The design implemented in the proof-of-concept experiment successfully extinguished both open fires and fires in baffled enclosures.

  17. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF REFRIGERATED VEHICLES IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF PERISHABLE FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio G.N. Novaes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of refrigerated products along the distribution process must be kept within close limits to ensure optimum food safety levels and high product quality. The variation of product temperature along the vehicle routing sequence is represented by non-linear functions. The temperature variability is also correlated with the time required for the refrigerated unit to recover after cargo unloading, due to the cargo discharging process. The vehicle routing optimization methods employed in traditional cargo distribution problems are generally based on the Travelling Salesman Problem with the objective of minimizing travelled distance or time. The thermal quality of routing alternatives is evaluated in this analysis with Process Capability Indices (PCI. Since temperature does not vary linearly with time, a Simulated Annealing algorithm was developed to get the optimal solution in which the minimum vehicle traveling distance is searched, but respecting the quality level expressed by a required minimum PCI value.

  18. Validating the Goldstein-Wehner Law for the Stratified Positive Column of DC Discharge in an Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisovskiy, V. A.; Koval, V. A.; Artushenko, E. P.; Yegorenkov, V. D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we suggest a simple technique for validating the Goldstein-Wehner law for a stratified positive column of dc glow discharge while studying the properties of gas discharges in an undergraduate laboratory. To accomplish this a simple device with a pre-vacuum mechanical pump, dc source and gas pressure gauge is required. Experiments may…

  19. Thermal biology of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Robert J; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2015-01-01

    The thermal environment is the most important ecological factor determining the growth, development, and productivity of domestic animals. Routes of energy exchange (sensible heat and latent heat) between animals and their environment are greatly influenced by body weight, fat deposition, hair-coat properties, functional activity, and number of sweat glands, as well as the presence or absence of anatomical respiratory countercurrent heat exchange capability. Differences in these anatomical features across species have led to specialization of heat exchange. Thermal plasticity and degree of acclimation are critical factors determining the ability of animals to respond to environmental change. Increases in productive capability of domestic animals can compromise thermal acclimation and plasticity, requiring greater investments in housing systems that reduce variability of the thermal environment. The combination of steadily increasing metabolic heat production as domestic animal productivity increases and a rising world temperature poses ongoing and future challenges to maintaining health and well-being of domestic animals.

  20. Hybrid Modeling of Plasma Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    or near-term future computational capabilities; this is why most kinetic solvers are limited to 2D- 2V or 2D-3V configurations and for a single or...near the X-point, as found in solar and geo-plasma or in high temperature field reversed configurations (FRC). The latter may require a dynamic...sinusoidal perturbation (see top-left panel in Figure 30). This allowed us to immediately trigger transverse instabilities, which developed into a

  1. Bench Testing Results for the Electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaClair, Tim J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gao, Zhiming [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-20

    Bench testing of the Electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) was completed at the Building Technologies Research and Integration Center (BTRIC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The ePATHS is a thermal energy storage device designed to reduce the energy required from the battery for cabin heating of electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). ORNL s testing of the ePATHS assessed three main aspects of operation of the device: 1.ePATHS charging evaluation: measure the time to charge and the energy input needed to fully charge the PCM for a range of different ambient conditions. 2.ePATHS Discharge Evaluations: measure the energy provided by the PCM HX, both during mode 1 and mode 2 operation, and confirm the cabin heating duration that can be provided by the ePATHS. This is the primary evaluation to validate the system performance, and an array of multiple ambient conditions and operating scenarios were tested. 3.Evaluation of Thermal Losses from the ePATHS during Cold Soak: this test will evaluate the performance of the insulation system for the ePATHS. The charged ePATHS undergoes a long-term soak in cold ambient temperature conditions, and the heat losses will be evaluated to validate that the performance meets the maximum energy loss requirement.

  2. Multifunctional Aerogel Thermal Protection Systems for Hypersonic Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The push to hypersonic flight regimes requires novel materials that are lightweight as well as thermally and structurally efficient for airframes and thermal...

  3. Thermally Conductive Tape Based on Carbon Nanotube Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA missions require thermal control systems that can accommodate large changes in ambient temperature. The two essential aspects of an effective thermal...

  4. Spin Injection in Thermally Assisted Magnetic Random Access Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deak, James G

    2005-01-01

    An integrated thermal, micromagnetic, spin-momentum-transfer (SMT) model was developed to study the effect of SMT on the programming current required for thermally assisted magnetic random access memory (MRAM...

  5. Stormwater pollution treatment BMP discharge structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Structural best management practices (BMPs) are used to capture and treat stormwater runoff. Most structural BMPs provide treatment by filtering : runoff through a filter media or collecting it in a detention basin and slowly discharging it over an e...

  6. Drug Overdose Surveillance Using Hospital Discharge Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Svetla Slavova; Terry L. Bunn; Jeffery Talbert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared three methods for identifying drug overdose cases in inpatient hospital discharge data on their ability to classify drug overdoses by intent and drug type(s) involved. Methods...

  7. On current termination in rotamak discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, N.; Euripides, P.; Jones, I.R.; Xu, S. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Physical Sciences

    1995-03-01

    A new series of rotamak experiments conducted in a 50 litre spherical pyrex discharge vessel is described. An analysis of the results, together with that of previous results from a smaller, 10 litre vessel, provides an explanation for the current termination phenomenon which is such a noteworthy and characteristic feature of all rotamak discharges studied to date. It is shown that the amplitude of the applied rotating magnetic field, B{sub {omega}}, has to be greater than a certain critical value, B{sub {omega}}{sup crit}, for the rotamak discharge to be maintained. Provided B{sub {omega}} {>=} B{sub {omega}}{sup crit}, the properties of the discharge are then determined by the behaviour of the circuit used to couple the RF generators to the plasma load. The conditions necessary for the production of a compact toroidal magnetic configuration are presented. (author).

  8. Improving discharge from the paediatric oncology unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higby, Charlotte; Pye, Kate

    2009-05-01

    Shared care service models are preferred in the management of children and young people with cancer so that specialist expertise is available when needed but children can be supported near to where they live. Care is co-ordinated by a primary treatment centre. Nurses in one centre were concerned about the poor quality of communication between their centre and the shared care hospitals where their patients were being supported. An action research approach was used to improve the process of discharging a child or young person with cancer. This involved clarifying the responsibilities of the nursing staff, mapping out a new discharge pathway, developing new forms to support the education and communication activities and sharing the results with partners in the discharge process. The project highlighted the importance of effective discharge for the child or young person with cancer and their family and the risks of not doing this correctly.

  9. Mobile electric vehicles online charging and discharging

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Miao; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book examines recent research on designing online charging and discharging strategies for mobile electric vehicles (EVs) in smart grid. First, the architecture and applications are provided. Then, the authors review the existing works on charging and discharging strategy design for EVs. Critical challenges and research problems are identified. Promising solutions are proposed to accommodate the issues of high EV mobility, vehicle range anxiety, and power systems overload. The authors investigate innovating charging and discharging potentials for mobile EVS based on real-time information collections (via VANETS and/or cellular networks) and offer the power system adjustable load management methods.  Several innovative charging/discharging strategy designs to address the challenging issues in smart grid, i.e., overload avoidance and range anxiety for individual EVs, are presented. This book presents an alternative and promising way to release the pressure of the power grid caused by peak-time EV charging ...

  10. Direct observation of laser guided corona discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tie-Jun; Wei, Yingxia; Liu, Yaoxiang; Chen, Na; Liu, Yonghong; Ju, Jingjing; Sun, Haiyi; Wang, Cheng; Lu, Haihe; Liu, Jiansheng; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-01-01

    Laser based lightning control holds a promising way to solve the problem of the long standing disaster of lightning strikes. But it is a challenging project due to insufficient understanding of the interaction between laser plasma channel and high voltage electric filed. In this work, a direct observation of laser guided corona discharge is reported. Laser filament guided streamer and leader types of corona discharges were observed. An enhanced ionization took place in the leader (filament) through the interaction with the high voltage discharging field. The fluorescence lifetime of laser filament guided corona discharge was measured to be several microseconds, which is 3 orders of magnitude longer than the fluorescence lifetime of laser filaments. This work could be advantageous towards a better understanding of laser assisted leader development in the atmosphere. PMID:26679271

  11. No Discharge Zone in EPA Region 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These are No Discharge Area (NDA) Areas (polygons) for New York and New Jersey. The actual NDA areas/polygons were primarily created using narrative description from...

  12. Scaling of a fast spherical discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsiferov, P. S.; Dorokhin, L. A.

    2017-02-01

    The influence of the discharge cavity dimensions on the properties of the spherical plasma formed in a fast discharge was studied experimentally. The passage of a current pulse with an amplitude of 30-40 kA and a rise rate of 1012 A/s (a fast discharge) through a spherical ceramic (Al2O3) cavity with an inner diameter of 11 mm filled with argon at a pressure of 80 Pa results in the formation of a 1- to 2-mm-diameter spherical plasma with an electron temperature of several tens of electronvolts and a density of 1018-1019 cm-3. It is shown that an increase in the inner diameter of the discharge cavity from 11 to 21 mm leads to the fourfold increase in the formation time of the spherical plasma and a decrease in the average ion charge. A decrease in the cavity diameter to 7 mm makes the spherical plasma unstable.

  13. Uniform dielectric barrier discharge with nanosecond pulse excitation for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayan, Halim

    For some period of time the use of plasma in medicine has been limited to thermal discharges for cauterization and dissection. The effects of thermal plasma on tissue are entirely related to local heating. Non-thermal plasma, on the other hand, can have many different modes of interaction with tissue. It has been recently demonstrated that direct treatment of smooth surfaces by non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in air is highly effective in killing pathogens. Moreover, DBD can create different sub-lethal and selective effects. These results hold significant promise for medical applications such as sterilization of wound surfaces. However, a typical DBD in air can be highly non-uniform, particularly on topographically non-uniform surfaces such as in most living tissues. This creates significant limitations for use of DBDs in wound care and other biomedical applications. In this thesis, a novel non-thermal plasma system, namely nanosecond-pulsed DBD, has been developed and investigated to address this important limitation. Nanosecond-pulsed DBD is shown to be uniform in air at atmospheric pressure and much more effective in killing bacteria than conventional DBDs, particularly on topographically non-uniform surfaces. Thus, this new plasma system is potentially convenient for in vivo and hospital sterilization cases.

  14. Performance of carbon arc-discharge nanotubes to hydrogen energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, S; Weinberger, B; Lamari, F D; Izouyar, T; Noe, L; Monthioux, M

    2007-10-01

    Adsorption properties of gram-scale samples of different kind of arc discharge nanotubes were studied, namely: (A) raw collaret collected on the cathode, (B) raw soots collected on the lateral reactor wall, (C) thermally treated soot, and (D) thermally then chemically treated soot. The morphology, structure, and composition of these materials were characterized by SEM, TEM, TGA, and BET. In addition, hydrogen adsorption isotherms were recorded experimentally for A, B, and D samples over the pressure range of 0 to 55 bar at ambient temperature. Our experiments indicated a maximum-yet weak-hydrogen storage at room temperature of approximately 0.13 H2 wt% for the purified product (D).

  15. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Programmatic Environmental Analysis--Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1980-01-01

    The programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization. It is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties. This volume contains these appendices: Appendix A -- Deployment Scenario; Appendix B -- OTEC Regional Characterization; and Appendix C -- Impact and Related Calculations.

  16. Thermal remote sensing for reservoir modelling and management

    OpenAIRE

    Martí-Cardona, B.; Arbat-Bofill, M; Prats-Rodríguez, J.; Pipia, L.

    2016-01-01

    ASTER and Landsat images were used for mapping the water surface temperature in the Sobrón, Mequinenza and Ribarroja reservoirs in the Ebro River, Spain. The spatially continuous information in these maps reveals the impact of the reservoir on the river natural thermal gradient in two different periods of the year. It also evidences the thermal impact intensity and extent of the refrigeration flow discharge from a nuclear power plant located on the river bank. The high spatial resolution i...

  17. Thermal remote sensing for reservoir modelling and management

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    ASTER and Landsat images were used for mapping the water surface temperature in the Sobrón, Mequinenza and Ribarroja reservoirs in the Ebro River, Spain. The spatially continuous information in these maps reveals the impact of the reservoir on the river natural thermal gradient in two different periods of the year. It also evidences the thermal impact intensity and extent of the refrigeration flow discharge from a nuclear power plant located on the river bank. The high spatial resolution imag...

  18. Thermal sensation: a mathematical model based on neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, B R M; Schellen, L; Frijns, A J H; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    2012-06-01

    Thermal sensation has a large influence on thermal comfort, which is an important parameter for building performance. Understanding of thermal sensation may benefit from incorporating the physiology of thermal reception. The main issue is that humans do not sense temperature directly; the information is coded into neural discharge rates. This manuscript describes the development of a mathematical model of thermal sensation based on the neurophysiology of thermal reception. Experimental data from two independent studies were used to develop and validate the model. In both studies, skin and core temperature were measured. Thermal sensation votes were asked on the seven-point ASHRAE thermal sensation scale. For the development dataset, young adult males (N=12, 0.04Clo) were exposed to transient conditions; Tair 30-20-35-30°C. For validation, young adult males (N=8, 1.0Clo) were exposed to transient conditions; Tair: 17-25-17°C. The neurophysiological model significantly predicted thermal sensation for the development dataset (r2=0.89, Pthermal sensation within acceptable range (root mean squared residual=0.38). The neurophysiological model captured the dynamics of thermal sensation. Therefore, the neurophysiological model of thermal sensation can be of great value in the design of high-performance buildings. The presented method, based on neurophysiology, can be highly beneficial for predicting thermal sensation under complex environments with respect to transient environments. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Pediatric primary care providers’ perspectives regarding hospital discharge communication: a mixed methods analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyenaar, JoAnna K.; Bergert, Lora; Mallory, Leah A.; Engel, Richard; Rassbach, Caroline; Shen, Mark; Woehrlen, Tess; Cooperberg, David; Coghlin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Effective communication between inpatient and outpatient providers may mitigate risks of adverse events associated with hospital discharge. However, there is an absence of pediatric literature defining effective discharge communication strategies at both freestanding children’s hospitals and general hospitals. The objectives of this study were to assess associations between pediatric primary care providers’ (PCPs) reported receipt of discharge communication and referral hospital type, and to describe PCPs’ perspectives regarding effective discharge communication and areas for improvement. Methods We administered a questionnaire to PCPs referring to sixteen pediatric hospital medicine programs nationally. Multivariable models were developed to assess associations between referral hospital type and receipt and completeness of discharge communication. Open-ended questions asked respondents to describe effective strategies and areas requiring improvement regarding discharge communication. Conventional qualitative content analysis was performed to identify emergent themes. Results Responses were received from 201 PCPs, representing a response rate of 63%. While there were no differences between referral hospital type and PCP-reported receipt of discharge communication (RR 1.61,95%CI 0.97–2.67), PCPs referring to general hospitals more frequently reported completeness of discharge communication relative to those referring to freestanding children’s hospitals (RR 1.78,95%CI 1.26–2.51). Analysis of free text responses yielded four major themes: (i) structured discharge communication; (ii) direct personal communication; (iii) reliability and timeliness of communication; and (iv) communication for effective post-discharge care. Conclusions This study highlights potential differences in the experiences of PCPs referring to general hospitals and freestanding children’s hospitals, and presents valuable contextual data for future quality improvement

  20. The timing of discharge from the intensive care unit and subsequent mortality. A prospective, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, John D; Duke, Graeme J; Pilcher, David V; Cooper, D James; Moran, John; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies suggested an association between after-hours intensive care unit (ICU) discharge and increased hospital mortality. Their retrospective design and lack of correction for patient factors present at the time of discharge make this association problematic. To determine factors independently associated with mortality after ICU discharge. This was a prospective, multicenter, binational observational study involving 40 ICUs in Australia and New Zealand. Participants were consecutive adult patients discharged alive from the ICU between September 2009 and February 2010. We studied 10,211 patients discharged alive from the ICU. Median age was 63 years (interquartile range, 49-74), 6,224 (61%) were male, 5,707 (56%) required mechanical ventilation, and their median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III risk of death was 9% (interquartile range, 3-25%). A total of 8,539 (83.6%) patients were discharged in-hours (06:00-18:00) and 1,672 (16.4%) after-hours (18:00-06:00). Of these, 408 (4.8%) and 124 (7.4%), respectively, subsequently died in hospital (P time of ICU discharge including limitations of medical therapy (LOMT) orders, the time of discharge was no longer a significant predictor of mortality. The presence of a LOMT order was the strongest predictor of death (odds ratio, 35.4; 95% confidence interval, 27.5-45.6). In this large, prospective, multicenter, binational observational study, we found that patient status at ICU discharge, particularly the presence of LOMT orders, was the chief predictor of hospital survival. In contrast to previous studies, the timing of discharge did not have an independent association with mortality.