Sample records for thermal control surfaces

  1. Control of surface thermal scratch of strip in tandem cold rolling (United States)

    Chen, Jinshan; Li, Changsheng


    The thermal scratch seriously affects the surface quality of the cold rolled stainless steel strip. Some researchers have carried out qualitative and theoretical studies in this field. However, there is currently a lack of research on effective forecast and control of thermal scratch defects in practical production, especially in tandem cold rolling. In order to establish precise mathematical model of oil film thickness in deformation zone, the lubrication in cold rolling process of SUS410L stainless steel strip is studied, and major factors affecting oil film thickness are also analyzed. According to the principle of statistics, mathematical model of critical oil film thickness in deformation zone for thermal scratch is built, with fitting and regression analytical method, and then based on temperature comparison method, the criterion for deciding thermal scratch defects is put forward. Storing and calling data through SQL Server 2010, a software on thermal scratch defects control is developed through Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 by MFC technique for stainless steel in tandem cold rolling, and then it is put into practical production. Statistics indicate that the hit rate of thermal scratch is as high as 92.38%, and the occurrence rate of thermal scratch is decreased by 89.13%. Owing to the application of the software, the rolling speed is increased by approximately 9.3%. The software developed provides an effective solution to the problem of thermal scratch defects in tandem cold rolling, and helps to promote products surface quality of stainless steel strips in practical production.

  2. Thermal Control System Development to Support the Crew Exploration Vehicle and Lunar Surface Access Module (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Westheimer, David


    All space vehicles or habitats require thermal management to maintain a safe and operational environment for both crew and hardware. Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) perform the functions of acquiring heat from both crew and hardware within a vehicle, transporting that heat throughout the vehicle, and finally rejecting that energy into space. Almost all of the energy used in a space vehicle eventually turns into heat, which must be rejected in order to maintain an energy balance and temperature control of the vehicle. For crewed vehicles, Active Thermal Control Systems are pumped fluid loops that are made up of components designed to perform these functions. NASA has recently evaluated all of the agency s technology development work and identified key areas that must be addressed to aid in the successful development of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and a Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). The technologies that have been selected and are currently under development include: fluids that enable single loop ATCS architectures, a gravity insensitive vapor compression cycle heat pump, a sublimator with reduced sensitivity to feedwater contamination, an evaporative heat sink that can operate in multiple ambient pressure environments, a compact spray evaporator, and lightweight radiators that take advantage of carbon composites and advanced optical coatings.

  3. Self-Healing Thermal Annealing: Surface Morphological Restructuring Control of GaN Nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Michele; Li, Haoning; Zubialevich, Vitaly Z.; Kusch, Gunnar; Schmidt, Michael; Collins, Timothy; Glynn, Colm; Martin, Robert W.; O’Dwyer, Colm; Morris, Michael D.; Holmes, Justin D.; Parbrook, Peter J.


    With advances in nanolithography and dry etching, top-down methods of nanostructuring have become a widely used tool for improving the efficiency of optoelectronics. These nano dimensions can offer various benefits to the device performance in terms of light extraction and efficiency, but often at the expense of emission color quality. Broadening of the target emission peak and unwanted yellow luminescence are characteristic defect-related effects due to the ion beam etching damage, particularly for III–N based materials. In this article we focus on GaN based nanorods, showing that through thermal annealing the surface roughness and deformities of the crystal structure can be “self-healed”. Correlative electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy show the change from spherical nanorods to faceted hexagonal structures, revealing the temperature-dependent surface morphology faceting evolution. The faceted nanorods were shown to be strain- and defect-free by cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging, micro-Raman, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In-situ TEM thermal annealing experiments allowed for real time observation of dislocation movements and surface restructuring observed in ex-situ annealing TEM sampling. This thermal annealing investigation gives new insight into the redistribution path of GaN material and dislocation movement post growth, allowing for improved understanding and in turn advances in optoelectronic device processing of compound semiconductors.

  4. Implications of Adhesion Studies for Dust Mitigation on Thermal Control Surfaces (United States)

    Gaier, James R.; Berkebile, Stephen P.


    Experiments measuring the adhesion forces under ultrahigh vacuum conditions (10 (exp -10) torr) between a synthetic volcanic glass and commonly used space exploration materials have recently been described. The glass has a chemistry and surface structure typical of the lunar regolith. It was found that Van der Waals forces between the glass and common spacecraft materials was negligible. Charge transfer between the materials was induced by mechanically striking the spacecraft material pin against the glass plate. No measurable adhesion occurred when striking the highly conducting materials, however, on striking insulating dielectric materials the adhesion increased dramatically. This indicates that electrostatic forces dominate over Van der Waals forces under these conditions. The presence of small amounts of surface contaminants was found to lower adhesive forces by at least two orders of magnitude, and perhaps more. Both particle and space exploration material surfaces will be cleaned by the interaction with the solar wind and other energetic processes and stay clean because of the extremely high vacuum (10 (exp -12) torr) so the atomically clean adhesion values are probably the relevant ones for the lunar surface environment. These results are used to interpret the results of dust mitigation technology experiments utilizing textured surfaces, work function matching surfaces and brushing. They have also been used to reinterpret the results of the Apollo 14 Thermal Degradation Samples experiment.

  5. Folding Elastic Thermal Surface - FETS (United States)

    Urquiza, Eugenio; Zhang, Burt X.; Thelen, Michael P.; Rodriquez, Jose I.; Pellegrino, Sergio


    the FETS is also self-locking so the panels stay in a rigid and extended configuration after deployment. This unexpected benefit makes the tape-spring hinge design of the FETS a light, simple, reliable, compact, non-outgassing hinge, spring, and latch. While tape-spring hinges are not novel, they have never been used to deploy passive unfolding thermal surfaces (radiator panels, covers, sun shades, or IR thermal shields). Furthermore, because this technology is compact, it has minimal impact on the launch envelope and mass specifications. FETS enhances the performance of hosted payload instruments where the science data is limited by dark noise. Incorporating FETS into a thermal control system increases radiator area, which lowers the optical detector temperature. This results in higher SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) and improved science data.

  6. Controlled growth of hexagonal gold nanostructures during thermally induced self-assembling on Ge(001) surface (United States)

    Jany, B. R.; Gauquelin, N.; Willhammar, T.; Nikiel, M.; van den Bos, K. H. W.; Janas, A.; Szajna, K.; Verbeeck, J.; van Aert, S.; van Tendeloo, G.; Krok, F.


    Nano-sized gold has become an important material in various fields of science and technology, where control over the size and crystallography is desired to tailor the functionality. Gold crystallizes in the face-centered cubic (fcc) phase, and its hexagonal closed packed (hcp) structure is a very unusual and rare phase. Stable Au hcp phase has been reported to form in nanoparticles at the tips of some Ge nanowires. It has also recently been synthesized in the form of thin graphene-supported sheets which are unstable under electron beam irradiation. Here, we show that stable hcp Au 3D nanostructures with well-defined crystallographic orientation and size can be systematically created in a process of thermally induced self-assembly of thin Au layer on Ge(001) monocrystal. The Au hcp crystallite is present in each Au nanostructure and has been characterized by different electron microscopy techniques. We report that a careful heat treatment above the eutectic melting temperature and a controlled cooling is required to form the hcp phase of Au on a Ge single crystal. This new method gives scientific prospects to obtain stable Au hcp phase for future applications in a rather simple manner as well as redefine the phase diagram of Gold with Germanium.

  7. An intuitive thermal-induced surface zwitterionization for versatile, well-controlled haemocompatible organic and inorganic materials. (United States)

    Sin, Mei-Chan; Lou, Pei-Tzu; Cho, Chia-He; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Chang, Yung


    In this study, a facile and effective strategy is presented for the preparation of a series of zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (pSBMA)-grafted organic and inorganic biomaterials with well-controlled haemocompatibility via intuitive thermal-induced graft polymerization. The research focused on the effects of zwitterionic surface packing density on human blood compatibility by varying the SBMA monomer concentration on the silanized silicon wafer substrates. A 0.2 M SBMA monomer solution was found to not only produce Si wafer surfaces with ideal zwitterionic surface packing density and uniform, evenly distributed pSBMA grafting coverage but also yield optimal hydrophilicity and haemocompatibility. SBMA monomer concentrations lower and greater than 0.2 M yielded a zwitterionic surface with low grafting coverage. This study also demonstrated that the same, intuitive thermal-induced graft polymerization strategy could be applied to a variety of organic polymeric, inorganic ceramic and metal oxide biomaterials to improve haemocompatibility. Among the tested organic and inorganic materials, however, it was found that inorganic biomaterials demonstrated greater resistance to protein and platelet adhesions. It was hypothesized that the ozone treatment, which generated an abundance of hydroxide groups on inorganic substrate interfaces, might have given the inorganic biomaterials a more stable silanized layer yielding a preferable reaction state and resulted in sturdier and more durable pSBMA grafting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Vesta surface thermal properties map (United States)

    Capria, Maria Teresa; Tosi, F.; De Santis, Maria Cristina; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Frigeri, A.; Zambon, F; Fonte, S.; Palomba, E.; Turrini, D.; Titus, T.N.; Schroder, S.E.; Toplis, M.J.; Liu, J.Y.; Combe, J.-P.; Raymond, C.A.; Russell, C.T.


    The first ever regional thermal properties map of Vesta has been derived from the temperatures retrieved by infrared data by the mission Dawn. The low average value of thermal inertia, 30 ± 10 J m−2 s−0.5 K−1, indicates a surface covered by a fine regolith. A range of thermal inertia values suggesting terrains with different physical properties has been determined. The lower thermal inertia of the regions north of the equator suggests that they are covered by an older, more processed surface. A few specific areas have higher than average thermal inertia values, indicative of a more compact material. The highest thermal inertia value has been determined on the Marcia crater, known for its pitted terrain and the presence of hydroxyl in the ejecta. Our results suggest that this type of terrain can be the result of soil compaction following the degassing of a local subsurface reservoir of volatiles.

  9. Understanding Groundwater and Surface Water Exchange Processes Along a Controlled Stream Using Thermal Remote Sensing and In-Situ Measurements (United States)

    Varli, D.; Yilmaz, K. K.


    Effective management of water resources requires understanding and quantification of interaction between groundwater and surface water bodies. Moreover, the exchange processes have recently received increasing attention due to important influences on biogeochemical and ecological status of watersheds. In this study we investigated the exchange processes between surface water and groundwater along Kirmir stream - a controlled stream nearby Kizilcahamam, Ankara, Turkey. At the first stage, potential stream reaches where the exchange processes could occur were pinpointed using geological and geomorphological information. Then, thermal remote sensing was utilized to further narrow down the potential locations in which interaction could occur at a smaller scale. Nested piezometers were installed at identified locations to observe the variations in vertical hydraulic gradient over time. Differential discharge measurements were performed to understand the gains and losses along the stream reach. Streambed temperature measurements were taken at two different depths for a period of time using temperature loggers to calculate the vertical fluid fluxes through the streambed at various locations. Basic water quality field parameters (temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid amount, dissolved oxygen, pH and oxidation - reduction potential) were measured along the stream reach, from surface water and the piezometers as wells as from the nearby springs and wells. Chloride mass balance was performed to find the contribution of groundwater and chloride concentrations were associated with the geology of the area. This hierarchical, multi-scale methodology provided an efficient and effective way to determine the locations and the direction of groundwater and surface water exchange processes within the study area.

  10. Lunar roving vehicle thermal control system. (United States)

    Elliott, R. G.; Paoletti, C. J.; Britt, M. A.


    A thermal control system was incorporated into the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) to maintain temperature sensitive components within appropriate temperature limits during the translunar transportation phase, lunar surface operation, and quiescent periods between lunar traverses. This paper describes the thermal control system and discusses its thermal characteristics during all phases of operation. The basic concept is a passive system which stores internally generated energy during operation with subsequent radiation to space. The external environments are regulated by selected radiative surface finishes. Multi-layer insulation blankets, space radiators, flexible thermal straps, and fusible mass heat sinks were designed to control the temperatures of the electronic components.

  11. Graphene surface plasmons mediated thermal radiation (United States)

    Li, Jiayu; Liu, Baoan; Shen, Sheng


    A graphene nanostructure can simultaneously serve as a plasmonic optical resonator and a thermal emitter when thermally heated up. The unique electronic and optical properties of graphene have rendered tremendous potential in the active manipulation of light and the microscopic energy transport in nanostructures. Here we show that the thermally pumped surface plasmonic modes along graphene nanoribbons could dramatically modulate their thermal emission spectra in both near- and far-fields. Based on the fluctuating surface current method implemented by the resistive boundary method, we directly calculate the thermal emission spectrum from single graphene ribbons and vertically paired graphene ribbons. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both the near- and far-field thermal emission from graphene nanostructures can be optimized by tuning the chemical potential of doped graphene. The general guideline to maximize the thermal emission is illustrated by the our recently developed theory on resonant thermal emitters modulated by quasi-normal modes.

  12. Performance of the Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop Rover Heat Rejection System Used for Thermal Control of the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover on the Surface of Mars (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Birur, Gajanana; Bame, David; Mastropietro, A. J.; Miller, Jennifer; Karlmann, Paul; Liu, Yuanming; Anderson, Kevin


    The challenging range of landing sites for which the Mars Science Laboratory Rover was designed, required a rover thermal management system that is capable of keeping temperatures controlled across a wide variety of environmental conditions. On the Martian surface where temperatures can be as cold as -123 C and as warm as 38 C, the Rover relies upon a Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop (MPFL) Rover Heat Rejection System (RHRS) and external radiators to maintain the temperature of sensitive electronics and science instruments within a -40 C to +50 C range. The RHRS harnesses some of the waste heat generated from the Rover power source, known as the Multi Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), for use as survival heat for the rover during cold conditions. The MMRTG produces 110 Watts of electrical power while generating waste heat equivalent to approximately 2000 Watts. Heat exchanger plates (hot plates) positioned close to the MMRTG pick up this survival heat from it by radiative heat transfer and supply it to the rover. This design is the first instance of use of a RHRS for thermal control of a rover or lander on the surface of a planet. After an extremely successful landing on Mars (August 5), the rover and the RHRS have performed flawlessly for close to an earth year (half the nominal mission life). This paper will share the performance of the RHRS on the Martian surface as well as compare it to its predictions.

  13. Optimal control in thermal engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Badescu, Viorel


    This book is the first major work covering applications in thermal engineering and offering a comprehensive introduction to optimal control theory, which has applications in mechanical engineering, particularly aircraft and missile trajectory optimization. The book is organized in three parts: The first part includes a brief presentation of function optimization and variational calculus, while the second part presents a summary of the optimal control theory. Lastly, the third part describes several applications of optimal control theory in solving various thermal engineering problems. These applications are grouped in four sections: heat transfer and thermal energy storage, solar thermal engineering, heat engines and lubrication.Clearly presented and easy-to-use, it is a valuable resource for thermal engineers and thermal-system designers as well as postgraduate students.

  14. Contamination Control for Thermal Engineers (United States)

    Rivera, Rachel B.


    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). This course will cover the basics of Contamination Control, including contamination control related failures, the effects of contamination on Flight Hardware, what contamination requirements translate to, design methodology, and implementing contamination control into Integration, Testing and Launch.

  15. Power Electronics Thermal Control (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S.


    Thermal management plays an important part in the cost of electric drives in terms of power electronics packaging. Very promising results have been obtained by using microporous coatings and skived surfaces in conjunction with single-phase and two-phase flows. Sintered materials and thermoplastics with embedded fibers show significant promise as thermal interface materials, or TIMs. Appropriate cooling technologies depend on the power electronics package application and reliability.

  16. Spacecraft thermal control coatings (United States)

    Guillaumon, Jean-Claude; Paillous, Alain


    The Experiment AO 138-6 was located on the trailing edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility as part of the French Cooperative Payload (FRECOPA) Experiment. It was purely passive in nature: material specimens 2 x 2 cm, independently mounted in sample-holders, with their surface in the same reference plane, were exposed to space. Thirty samples were set in a vacuum-tight canister which was opened in space a few days after LDEF deployment and closed while still in orbit ten months later; twenty-four samples were directly exposed to space for the total flight duration (preflight handling, shuttle bay environment, separation from shuttle, shuttle environment, LEO environment, docking, descent, transfer to KSC). Materials included paints (conductive or nonconductive), SSM's, polymeric films, surface coatings, composite materials, and metals. After sample retrieving, inspection and measurements were carried out in atmospheric laboratory conditions on each sample: observation with binocular lenses and scanning electron microscopy, spectral relectance and transmittance using an integrating sphere in the wavelength range 280-2300 nm, emissivity by the means of a Gier & Dunkle portable reflectometer, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis-x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA-XPS), and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) measurements on some selected samples. The results obtained from flight were compared to laboratory data obtained in UV-irradiation tests when these data were available. As a general statement a good spectral concordance is observed for all samples not in the canister so long as air recoveries are taken into account. For one material, the degradation is more important for the sample in the canister than for those of the same material mounted at the surface of the tray; for most samples in the canister the degradation is slightly higher than the one which can be predicted from laboratory standard irradiations. Contamination problems having


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Alan W.; Drube, Line, E-mail: [German Aerospace Center (DLR) Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)


    Knowledge of the surface thermal inertia of an asteroid can provide insight into its surface structure: porous material has a lower thermal inertia than rock. We develop a means to estimate thermal inertia values of asteroids and use it to show that thermal inertia appears to increase with spin period in the case of main-belt asteroids (MBAs). Similar behavior is found on the basis of thermophysical modeling for near-Earth objects (NEOs). We interpret our results in terms of rapidly increasing material density and thermal conductivity with depth, and provide evidence that thermal inertia increases by factors of 10 (MBAs) to 20 (NEOs) within a depth of just 10 cm. Our results are consistent with a very general picture of rapidly changing material properties in the topmost regolith layers of asteroids and have important implications for calculations of the Yarkovsky effect, including its perturbation of the orbits of potentially hazardous objects and those of asteroid family members after the break-up event. Evidence of a rapid increase of thermal inertia with depth is also an important result for studies of the ejecta-enhanced momentum transfer of impacting vehicles (“kinetic impactors”) in planetary defense.

  18. Microbial Characterization of Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Hardware Surfaces after Five Years of Operation in the International Space Station (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Weir, Natalee E.; Wilson, Mark E.; Pyle, Barry H.


    A flex hose assembly containing aqueous coolant from the International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) consisting of a 2 foot section of Teflon hose and quick disconnects (QDs) and a Special Performance Checkout Unit (SPCU) heat exchanger containing separate channels of IATCS coolant and iodinated water used to cool spacesuits and Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUS) were returned for destructive analyses on Shuttle return to flight mission STS-114. The original aqueous IATCS coolant used in Node 1, the Laboratory Module, and the Airlock consisted of water, borate (pH buffer), phosphate (corrosion control), and silver sulfate (microbiological control) at a pH of 9.5 +/- 0.5. Chemical changes occurred after on-orbit implementation including a decrease to pH 8.4 due to the diffusion of carbon dioxide through the Teflon hoses, an increase in nickel ions due to general corrosion of heat exchanger braze coatings, a decrease in phosphate concentration due to precipitation of nickel phosphate, and the rapid disappearance of silver ions due to deposition on hardware surfaces. Also associated with the coolant chemistry changes was an increase in planktonic microorganisms from less than 100 colony forming units (CFU) per 100 ml to approximately 1 million CFU per 100 ml. Attachment and growth of microorganisms to the system surfaces (biofilm) was suspected due to the levels of planktonic microorganisms in the coolant. Biofilms can reduce coolant flow, reduce heat transfer, amplify degradation of system materials initiated by chemical corrosion, and enhance mineral scale formation.

  19. Turbulent thermal convection over rough surfaces (United States)

    Stringano, G.; Verzicco, R.; Pascazio, G.


    Convective heat transport has important applications in engineering and meteorology and a better understanding of heat transport phenomena would lead to improvements in technological applications such as cooling of thermal machines and micro-electronic components or cooling during a metallurgical fusion. It would also improve the prediction of geophysical motions in oceans and atmosphere. The use of rough surfaces is a way to enhance the heat flux. The interaction between the main shear flow and the rough surface creates secondary vortices that enhance the detachment of thermal plumes from the tip of the rough elements. In this work numerical simulations are conducted in a cylindrical cell heated from below and cooled from above in presence of rough surfaces. A comparison of Rayleigh versus Nusselt number scaling between rough surfaces and smooth ones shows enhanced heat fluxes. The flow is solved using a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the three dimensional unsteady Navier Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and an immersed boundary approach is used for the treatment of rough surfaces.

  20. Spacecraft Thermal Control System Not Requiring Power Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The thermal management of spacecraft would be enhanced by dynamic control over surface emissivity in the mid-infrared. In this SBIR program, Triton Systems proposes...

  1. Thermal Control Working Group report (United States)

    Haslett, Robert; Mahefkey, E. Thomas


    The Thermal Control Working Group limited its evaluation to issues associated with Earth orbiting and planetary spacecraft with power levels up to 50 kW. It was concluded that the space station technology is a necessary precursor but does not meet S/C 2000 needs (life, high heat flux, long term cryogenics, and survivability). Additional basic and applied research are required (fluid/materials compatibility and two phase system modeling). Scaling, the key issue, must define accelerated life test criteria. The two phase systems require 0g to 1 g correlation. Additional ground test beds are required and combined space environment tests of materials.

  2. Thermal characterization of nanoporous 'black silicon' surfaces (United States)

    Nichols, Logan; Duan, Wenqi; Toor, Fatima


    In this work we characterize the thermal conductivity properties of nanoprous `black silicon' (bSi). We fabricate the nanoporous bSi using the metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) process utilizing silver (Ag) metal as the etch catalyst. The MACE process steps include (i) electroless deposition of Ag nanoparticles on the Si surface using silver nitrate (AgNO3) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), and (ii) a wet etch in a solution of HF and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The resulting porosity of bSi is dependent on the ratio of the concentration of HF to (HF + H2O2); the ratio is denoted as rho (ρ). We find that as etch time of bSi increases the thermal conductivity of Si increases as well. We also analyze the absorption of the bSi samples by measuring the transmission and reflection using IR spectroscopy. This study enables improved understanding of nanoporous bSi surfaces and how they affect the solar cell performance due to the porous structures' thermal properties.

  3. Transient thermal camouflage and heat signature control (United States)

    Yang, Tian-Zhi; Su, Yishu; Xu, Weikai; Yang, Xiao-Dong


    Thermal metamaterials have been proposed to manipulate heat flux as a new way to cloak or camouflage objects in the infrared world. To date, however, thermal metamaterials only operate in the steady-state and exhibit detectable, transient heat signatures. In this letter, the theoretical basis for a thermal camouflaging technique with controlled transient diffusion is presented. This technique renders an object invisible in real time. More importantly, the thermal camouflaging device instantaneously generates a pre-designed heat signature and behaves as a perfect thermal illusion device. A metamaterial coating with homogeneous and isotropic thermal conductivity, density, and volumetric heat capacity was fabricated and very good camouflaging performance was achieved.

  4. Thermal repellent properties of surface coating using silica (United States)

    Lee, Y. Y.; Halim, M. S.; Aminudin, E.; Guntor, N. A.


    Extensive land development in urban areas is completely altering the surface profile of human living environment. As cities growing rapidly, impervious building and paved surfaces are replacing the natural landscape. In the developing countries with tropical climate, large masses of building elements, such as brick wall and concrete members, absorb and store large amount of heat, which in turn radiate back to the surrounding air during the night time. This bubble of heat is known as urban heat island (UHI). The use of high albedo urban surfaces is an inexpensive measure that can reduce surrounded temperature. Thus, the main focus of this study is to investigate the ability of silica, SiO2, with high albedo value, to be used as a thermal-repelled surface coating for brick wall. Three different silica coatings were used, namely silicone resin, silicone wax and rain repellent and one exterior commercial paint (jota shield paint) that commercially available in the market were applied on small-scale brick wall models. An uncoated sample also had been fabricated as a control sample for comparison. These models were placed at the outdoor space for solar exposure. Outdoor environment measurement was carried out where the ambient temperature, surface temperature, relative humidity and UV reflectance were recorded. The effect of different type of surface coating on temperature variation of the surface brick wall and the thermal performance of coatings as potential of heat reduction for brick wall have been studied. Based on the results, model with silicone resin achieved the lowest surface temperature which indicated that SiO2 can be potentially used to reduce heat absorption on the brick wall and further retains indoor passive thermal comfortability.

  5. Autonomous Aerobraking: Thermal Analysis and Response Surface Development (United States)

    Dec, John A.; Thornblom, Mark N.


    A high-fidelity thermal model of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter was developed for use in an autonomous aerobraking simulation study. Response surface equations were derived from the high-fidelity thermal model and integrated into the autonomous aerobraking simulation software. The high-fidelity thermal model was developed using the Thermal Desktop software and used in all phases of the analysis. The use of Thermal Desktop exclusively, represented a change from previously developed aerobraking thermal analysis methodologies. Comparisons were made between the Thermal Desktop solutions and those developed for the previous aerobraking thermal analyses performed on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter during aerobraking operations. A variable sensitivity screening study was performed to reduce the number of variables carried in the response surface equations. Thermal analysis and response surface equation development were performed for autonomous aerobraking missions at Mars and Venus.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Huang


    Full Text Available The thermal contact resistance is common in aerospace industry, nuclear reactors and electronic equipments. The work addresses a new scheme for determining the thermal contact resistance between a smooth surface of a film and a rough surface of a metal specimen. The finite element method was used as a tool to explore the surface morphology effect on the thermal contact resistance while the temperature of the contact surface was determined by a regression method. According to the results developed, the temperature on the contact surfaces linearly drops with the increasing average height of surface roughness and nonlinearly drops with the increasing ratio between non-contact area and nominal contact area. On the other hand, the thermal contact resistance increases linearly with increases in the average height of the surface roughness. What's more, the thermal contact resistance increases in a non-linear manner as the ratio of the non-contact area to the nominal contact area is increasing.

  7. Thermal sensors to control polymer forming. Challenge and solutions (United States)

    Lemeunier, F.; Boyard, N.; Sarda, A.; Plot, C.; Lefèvre, N.; Petit, I.; Colomines, G.; Allanic, N.; Bailleul, J. L.


    Many thermal sensors are already used, for many years, to better understand and control material forming processes, especially polymer processing. Due to technical constraints (high pressure, sealing, sensor dimensions…) the thermal measurement is often performed in the tool or close its surface. Thus, it only gives partial and disturbed information. Having reliable information about the heat flux exchanges between the tool and the material during the process would be very helpful to improve the control of the process and to favor the development of new materials. In this work, we present several sensors developed in labs to study the molding steps in forming processes. The analysis of the obtained thermal measurements (temperature, heat flux) shows the required sensitivity threshold of sensitivity of thermal sensors to be able to detect on-line the rate of thermal reaction. Based on these data, we will present new sensor designs which have been patented.

  8. Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.


    Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage apparatus controller includes processing circuitry configured to access first information which is indicative of surpluses and deficiencies of electrical energy upon an electrical power system at a plurality of moments in time, access second information which is indicative of temperature of a thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time, and use the first and second information to control an amount of electrical energy which is utilized by a heating element to heat the thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time.

  9. Controlled interactions between silanol groups at the surface of sepiolite and an acrylate matrix: Consequences on the thermal and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volle, Nicolas, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condense, LPMC (UMR 7336), Universite Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Giulieri, Francoise, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condense, LPMC (UMR 7336), Universite Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Burr, Alain, E-mail: [Mines ParisTech, CEMEF (UMR 7635), BP 207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Pagnotta, Sophie, E-mail: [Centre Commun de Microscopie Appliquee, Universite Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Chaze, Anne Marie, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condense, LPMC (UMR 7336), Universite Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France)


    Graphical abstract: (a) Pure PHEA elastomer; sepiolite-PHEA nanocomposites with the sepiolite surface presenting (b) limited H-bonds. (c) H-bonds and (d) covalent-bonds. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupling of sepiolite silanols with an elastomeric matrix (PHEA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protection of sepiolite silanols against PHEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interface effect of sepiolite/PHEA on the nanocomposite reinforcement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Controlled reinforcement due to sepiolite/PHEA interactions. - Abstract: Elastomer filled with fibrous clay (sepiolite) was manufactured using a hydrophilic elastomer matrix, poly 2-hydroxyethylacrylate (PHEA). The surface silanol groups located onto the channel sides of the sepiolite were functionalized with both octyltrimethoxysilane (OTMS) and 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), which form covalent bonds with the mineral surface and modify their properties. After the grafting of OTMS, PHEA is in contact with a non-polar chain, which prevents matrix-filler interactions. After the grafting of MPTMS, covalent bonds are formed between the acrylate groups of PHEA and MPTMS, which increase the matrix-filler interactions. After functionalization, there is no change in the structural and zeolitic water of the sepiolite which conserves its hydrophilic character. So, an equivalent distribution of the pristine and modified sepiolite is detected in the elastomeric matrices on transmission electron microscopy views of ultramicrotome cuts. The elastomeric macroscopic behavior is therefore related to the PHEA-sepiolite interactions. We show that the stronger the host-matrix interactions, the more important is the reinforcement effect. A direct relation between the interaction strength and the improvement of the mechanical properties was established. The control of the nature, quantity, and localization of the molecules grafted on the sepiolite surface allows us to manage the mechanical

  10. Phase change thermal control materials, method and apparatus (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)


    An apparatus and method for metabolic cooling and insulation of a user in a cold environment. In its preferred embodiment the apparatus is a highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The apparatus can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The apparatus may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the apparatus also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  11. A thermal manikin with human thermoregulatory control: implementation and validation. (United States)

    Foda, Ehab; Sirén, Kai


    Tens of different sorts of thermal manikins are employed worldwide, mainly in the evaluation of clothing thermal insulation and thermal environments. They are regulated thermally using simplified control modes. This paper reports on the implementation and validation of a new thermoregulatory control mode for thermal manikins. The new control mode is based on a multi-segmental Pierce (MSP) model. In this study, the MSP control mode was implemented, using the LabVIEW platform, onto the control system of the thermal manikin 'Therminator'. The MSP mode was then used to estimate the segmental equivalent temperature (t(eq)) along with constant surface temperature (CST) mode under two asymmetric thermal conditions. Furthermore, subjective tests under the same two conditions were carried out using 17 human subjects. The estimated segmental t(eq) from the experiments with the two modes and from the subjective assessment were compared in order to validate the use of the MSP mode for the estimation of t(eq). The results showed that the t(eq) values estimated by the MSP mode were closer to the subjective mean votes under the two test conditions for most body segments and compared favourably with values estimated by the CST mode.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E.; Sonnett, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wright, E. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States)


    The rapid accumulation of thermal infrared observations and shape models of asteroids has led to increased interest in thermophysical modeling. Most of these infrared observations are unresolved. We consider what fraction of an asteroid’s surface area contributes the bulk of the emitted thermal flux for two model asteroids of different shapes over a range of thermal parameters. The resulting observed surface in the infrared is generally more fragmented than the area observed in visible wavelengths, indicating high sensitivity to shape. For objects with low values of the thermal parameter, small fractions of the surface contribute the majority of thermally emitted flux. Calculating observed areas could enable the production of spatially resolved thermal inertia maps from non-resolved observations of asteroids.

  13. Thermal control of the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (United States)

    Carlson, Ann B.; Roettker, William A.


    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) will employ lidar techniques to study the atmosphere from space. The LITE instrument will be flown in the Space Shuttle Payload Bay with an earth directed orientation. The experiment thermal control incorporates both active and passive techniques. The Laser Transmitter Module (LTM) and the system electronics will be actively cooled through the Shuttle pallet coolant loop. The receiver system and experiment platform will be passsively controlled through the use of insulation and component surface properties. This paper explains the thermal control techniques used and the analysis results, with primary focus on the receiver system.

  14. Laser pulse heating of surfaces and thermal stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir S; Al-Aqeeli, Nasser; Al-Qahtani, Hussain M


    This book introduces laser pulse heating and thermal stress analysis in materials surface. Analytical temperature treatments and stress developed in the surface region are also explored. The book will help the reader analyze the laser induced stress in the irradiated region and presents solutions for the stress field. Detailed thermal stress analysis in different laser pulse heating situations and different boundary conditions are also presented. Written for surface engineers.

  15. Thermal coupling within LTP dynamics control loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nofrarias, M; Garcia Marin, A F; Heinzel, G; Hewitson, M; Danzmann, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institut (AEI), Callinstrasse 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Lobo, A; Sanjuan, J [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (ICE-CSIC), Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ramos-Castro, J, E-mail: miquel.nofrarias@aei.mpg.d [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, UPC, Campus Nord, Edifici C4, Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)


    The Diagnostic Subsytem in the LISA Technology Package (LTP) on board the LISA Pathfinder mission (LPF) will characterise those external disturbances with a potential impact on the performance of the experiment coming from either thermal, magnetic or charged particles perturbations. A correct design of the experiments to measure these effects in flight requires a closed loop analysis that takes into account the dynamics of the test masses, the force applied by the controllers and those noisy terms (coming from sensing or force noise) that enters into the loop. We describe this analysis in the thermal case and we give a first numerical example of the instrument response to controlled thermal inputs.

  16. Variable Surface Area Thermal Radiator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Due to increased complexity of spacecraft and longer expected life, more sophisticated and complex thermal management schemes are needed that will be capable of...

  17. Performance of silvered Teflon (trademark) thermal control blankets on spacecraft (United States)

    Pippin, Gary; Stuckey, Wayne; Hemminger, Carol


    Silverized Teflon (Ag/FEP) is a widely used passive thermal control material for space applications. The material has a very low alpha/e ratio (less than 0.1) for low operating temperatures and is fabricated with various FEP thicknesses (as the Teflon thickness increases, the emittance increases). It is low outgassing and, because of its flexibility, can be applied around complex, curved shapes. Ag/FEP has achieved multiyear lifetimes under a variety of exposure conditions. This has been demonstrated by the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), Solar Max, Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes (SCATHA), and other flight experiments. Ag/FEP material has been held in place on spacecraft by a variety of methods: mechanical clamping, direct adhesive bonding of tapes and sheets, and by Velcro(TM) tape adhesively bonded to back surfaces. On LDEF, for example, 5-mil blankets held by Velcro(TM) and clamping were used for thermal control over 3- by 4-ft areas on each of 17 trays. Adhesively bonded 2- and 5-mil sheets were used on other LDEF experiments, both for thermal control and as tape to hold other thermal control blankets in place. Performance data over extended time periods are available from a number of flights. The observed effects on optical properties, mechanical properties, and surface chemistry will be summarized in this paper. This leads to a discussion of performance life estimates and other design lessons for Ag/FEP thermal control material.

  18. Corrosion control under thermal insulation and fireproofing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahunt, J.F.


    Corrosion occurring on carbon steel which is protected by thermal insulation (mineral wool, fiberglass, foam glass, calcium silicate, phenolics, and polyurethanes) or by fireproofing material (concrete or gunite) is discussed. Examples are given and illustrated of corrosion in refineries, petrochemical plants, and pipelines which have been thermally insulated or fireproofed. Four corrosion mechanisms have been identified and are discussed. The promoting action of chlorides as well as the pH effect or corrosion are described and it is concluded that the corrosion under thermal insulation follows two patterns. Further, organic cellular foams (polyurethanes and phenolics) are shown to accelerate corrosive action. Stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel under thermal insulation is described and the effect of improper design/application is stressed. Specific measures to control corrosion are discussed for concrete fireproofing and thermal insulation. (MJJ)

  19. Thermal control wall prototype and test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, M.; Ohshima, K.; Jitsukawa, H.


    This paper describes a heat exchanger prototype and test results. The heat exchanger, called a thermal control wall, functions as a skin wall and as a means to vary the exterior wall thermal resistance of a building. Test results confirm that the capacity of the TCW is influenced by solar radiation. Furthermore, this TCW capacity can be evaluated by an overall heat transmission coefficient defined using the same sol air temperature difference as for a conventional wall.

  20. Nucleation controlled surface oxidation epitaxy of thermally grown NiO on (0 0 1) Ni for coated conductor applications assisted by Mo or Mn microalloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kursumovic, A.; Huehne, R.; Tomov, R.; Holzapfel, B.; Glowacki, B.A.; Evetts, J.E


    High temperature oxidation of cube textured (1 0 0)Ni and (1 0 0)Ni-0.1wt%(Mo or Mn) was carried out in a wide temperature regime between 900 and 1400 deg. C in air. Special attention was paid to avoid pre-oxidation at lower temperatures, thus favouring nucleation controlled surface oxidation epitaxy (SOE) as opposed to SOE achieved by competitive grain growth. Consequently, cube textured epitaxial NiO layers, under 1 {mu}m in thickness, have been grown on pure Ni in a much wider working window than previously published. Furthermore, thin cube textured NiO layers have been grown on Ni-0.1%Mo tape in a still wider working window of {approx}200 deg. C between 1150 and 1350 deg. C. Preliminary results on Ni-0.1wt%Mn show a similar trend. An in-plane orientation of <5 deg. and out of plane orientation approaching 2 deg. was obtained. Single crystal like transparent NiO films were grown under optimal conditions.

  1. Reusable surface insulation thermal protection systems test evaluation status (United States)

    Strouhal, G.; Tillian, D. J.


    Changes in coating morphology of mullite, silica, and ceramic mullite fiber at two heating rates are described followed by a discussion of the changes in surface chemistry that occur during convective heating tests. Subsequently, the surface chemistry changes observed are compared to similar data obtained from radiantly heated coatings and the significance of the difference between the results is discussed. Finally, the changes in chemistry of the coatings in cross section before and after convectively heated cyclic testing are discussed and the significance of surface chemistry changes are described. Results indicate that the thermal conductivity of mullite surface insulation is higher than that of silica insulation, based on thermal response data. Acoustic excitation of cracked silica tiles does not lead to catastrophic failure such as spallation or tile loss. Cracks in mullite material after thermal exposure lead to fracturing of the coating and surface insulation material after acoustic excitation.

  2. Active shape control of composite structures under thermal loading (United States)

    Binette, P.; Dano, M.-L.; Gendron, G.


    Maintaining the shape of high-precision structures such as space antennas and optical mirrors is still a challenging issue for designers. These structures are subjected to varying temperature conditions which often introduce thermal distortions. The development of smart materials offers great potential to correct the shape and to minimize the surface error. In this study, shape control of a composite structure under thermal loading using piezocomposites is investigated. The composite structure is made of a foam core and two carbon-epoxy face sheets. Macro-fiber composite (MFC™) patches are bonded on one side of the structure. The structure is subjected to a through-the-thickness temperature gradient which induces thermal distortion, essentially in the form of bending. The objective is to apply electric potential to the MFC™ actuators such that the deflection can be minimized. Finite-element analyses are conducted using the commercial software ABAQUS. Experiments are performed to study thermally induced distortion, piezoelectric actuation, and compensation of thermal distortion using MFC™ actuators. Numerical and experimental results are compared. A control loop based on strain measurements is used to actively control the structure. The results show that MFC™ actuators can compensate thermal distortion at all times, and that this is an efficient methodology.

  3. Decorative Surfaces Obtained through Thermal Zyncking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Radu


    Full Text Available The surface morphology of the galvanized sheets is formed after the solidification of the melted metal, carried along the carrier strap during its extraction from the zinc bath. The surface layer quality depends on the fluidity of the melting, on its superficial tension and on the solidification characteristics, according to the chemical composition of the melting. The elements of micro-alloys can improve the surface of galvanized steel with qualities such as: uniformity, texture, luminosity. Depending on the combination elements of micro-alloying the surface can have different types of metallic layers with an important effect on the coating morphology. The research we made revealed the important effect it had for alloys with Al, Sn, Bi, Pb on the coating layer morphology.

  4. Electrically Conductive White Thermal-Control Paint (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsien; Forsberg, Gustaf A.; O'Donnell, Timothy P.


    Report describes development of white thermal-control paint intended for use on spacecraft. Paint required to exhibit combination of high emittance (equal to or greater than 0.90), low absorptance (equal to or less than 0.20), and electrical conductivity sufficient to prevent charging with static electricity to potentials beyond range of plus or minus 10 V.

  5. Surface modification of layered silicates. II. Factors affecting thermal stability (United States)

    Mittal, Vikas


    Different aluminosilicates, such as montmorillonite, vermiculite and mica, were surface-treated with a variety of organic modifiers to quantify factors affecting the thermal stability of the modified fillers. Montmorillonites with different cation exchange capacities were also used. Thermal characterisation was carried out via high resolution thermogravimetric analysis and the results were correlated with X-ray diffraction measurements. Modified substrates, such as montmorillonite, vermiculite and mica, differed in their thermal behaviour even when modified with the same surface modifiers. Phosphonium-based modifiers were the most thermally stable, compared to pyridinium and ammonium ions. Mixed brushes from the modifiers also influenced the thermal behaviour of the modified substrates. When further modified using physical adsorption or chemical reactions on the surface, the modified minerals also displayed alterations in the thermal behaviour of the fillers. The results can be used as a guide for the selection of surface modifiers in the nanocomposite synthesis process where compounding of the filler with the polymer at high temperature and shear is required.

  6. Multidisciplinary Analysis of a Microsystem Device for Thermal Control (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.


    A microelectromechanical (MEMS) device is under development that uses the Stirling cycle to provide cooling or heating directly to a thermally loaded surface. This MEMS cooler can be used strictly in the cooling mode, or switched between cooling and heating modes in milliseconds for precise temporal and spatial temperature control. Potential applications include cooling and thermal control of: microsystems, electronics, sensors, biomedical devices, and spacecraft components. A primary challenge for further development is the multidisciplinary analysis required to characterize and optimize its performance. This paper describes the first-order thermodynamic analysis performed on the MEMS cooler and the resulting ideal performance curves generated. The basis for additional coupled analyses such as fluid/gas dynamics, thermal, electrostatic, structural, dynamic, material, and processing is addressed. Scaling issues relevant to the device and the breakdown of continuum theory in the micro-domain is also examined.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Khodaei


    Full Text Available Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV. The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  8. Methods for estimating pressure and thermal loads induced by elevon deflections on hypersonic-vehicle surfaces with turbulent boundary layers (United States)

    Kaufman, L. G., II; Johnson, C. B.


    Empirical anaytic methods are presented for calculating thermal and pressure distributions in three-dimensional, shock-wave turbulent-boundary-layer, interaction-flow regions on the surface of controllable hypersonic aircraft and missiles. The methods, based on several experimental investigations, are useful and reliable for estimating both the extent and magnitude of the increased thermal and pressure loads on the vehicle surfaces.

  9. Proportional control valves integrated in silicon nitride surface channel technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Maarten; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Meutstege, Esken; Brookhuis, Robert Anton; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Lötters, Joost Conrad; Wiegerink, Remco J.


    We have designed and realized two types of proportional microcontrol valves in a silicon nitride surface channel technology process. This enables on-die integration of flow controllers with other surface channel devices, such as pressure sensors or thermal or Coriolis-based (mass) flow sensors, to

  10. Investigating effect of different reflective surfaces on solar thermal collector (United States)

    Chua, Yaw Long; Chin, Kiat Keong; Tay, Tee Tiong


    This paper reports on the experiments conducted to investigate the efficiency of different type of reflecting surfaces used on solar thermal collector. Three types of commonly available reflective surfaces coated with silver colour acrylic paint, reflective aluminium foil and blank compact disc are investigated. In this paper, the effect of different reflective surfaces on the water container and parabolic concentrator dish are investigated. In the first experiment, two types of surfaces, coated with silver colour acrylic paint and black colour acrylic paint on an aluminium container are compared. The other factors that might influence the experiment outcome like the material, focal point, and weather condition are kept constant. The experiment results proved that black colour surface is better in absorbing heat reflected by the parabolic dish. The second experiment focused on investigating the effect of different reflective surfaces on the parabolic concentrator dish itself. These surfaces are tested on a parabolic disc of a static solar thermal collector that reflects heat from the sun to a body of water stored in a black colour aluminium container. The temperature of the water is measured at a predetermined interval to measure the efficiency of the reflective surfaces used. It is found that the aluminium reflective surface performed the best compared to the other surfaces.

  11. Nano-Localized Thermal Analysis and Mapping of Surface and Sub-Surface Thermal Properties Using Scanning Thermal Microscopy (SThM). (United States)

    Pereira, Maria J; Amaral, Joao S; Silva, Nuno J O; Amaral, Vitor S


    Determining and acting on thermo-physical properties at the nanoscale is essential for understanding/managing heat distribution in micro/nanostructured materials and miniaturized devices. Adequate thermal nano-characterization techniques are required to address thermal issues compromising device performance. Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) is a probing and acting technique based on atomic force microscopy using a nano-probe designed to act as a thermometer and resistive heater, achieving high spatial resolution. Enabling direct observation and mapping of thermal properties such as thermal conductivity, SThM is becoming a powerful tool with a critical role in several fields, from material science to device thermal management. We present an overview of the different thermal probes, followed by the contribution of SThM in three currently significant research topics. First, in thermal conductivity contrast studies of graphene monolayers deposited on different substrates, SThM proves itself a reliable technique to clarify the intriguing thermal properties of graphene, which is considered an important contributor to improve the performance of downscaled devices and materials. Second, SThM's ability to perform sub-surface imaging is highlighted by thermal conductivity contrast analysis of polymeric composites. Finally, an approach to induce and study local structural transitions in ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni-Mn-Ga thin films using localized nano-thermal analysis is presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Petrova


    Full Text Available Article deals with the impact of workpiece surface quality on adhesive strength and durability of thermal barrier coating. The result revealed that the roughness of metal layer influences on the adhesion of ceramic coating and depends the thickness of ceramic crystals when using method of Electron beam deposition.

  13. Sea surface temperature mapping using a thermal infrared scanner

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Pandya, R.M.; Mathur, K.M.; Charyulu, R.J.K.; Rao, L.V.G.

    1 metre water column below the sea surface. A thermal infrared scanner developed by the Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad was operated on board R.V. Gaveshani in April/May 1984 for mapping SST over the eastern Arabian Sea. SST values...

  14. Modelling The Thermal Emission From Airless Planetary Surfaces And Sub-surfaces (United States)

    Leyrat, Cedric; Le Gall, A.; Stolzenbach, A.; Lellouch, E.


    Thermal emission from airless planetary bodies hold important clues on the thermo-physical and compositional characteristics of their surfaces. At short wavelengths, in the mid-infrared domain, thermal emission arises from the first layers of the regolith (a few microns). In contrast, radiometric measurements obtained at larger wavelengths can probe deeper below the surface as the material becomes more “transparent”. At such wavelengths thermal emission probes several tens of cm up to a few meters below the surface, depending on the absorbing properties of the body’s regolith. The radiometric data obtained by spacecraft can be used to constrain the electrical and thermal properties of surface bodies, thus providing clues on their physical state (roughness, porosity) and composition (dielectric constant). This will help identifying the geological endogenic or exogenic processes that have affected these bodies. Both the Cassini (NASA/ESA/ASI) and Rosetta (ESA) spacecrafts have onboard a radiometer operating at relatively large wavelengths, respectively in the microwave and sub-millimetric domains. At such wavelengths, these instruments sense the thermal emission not only from the surface but also from a section of the sub-surface of the targeted bodies. As a consequence, the interpretation of radiometric data collected over the airless icy satellites of Saturn by Cassini and over the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by the Rosetta orbiter requires a good knowledge of the temperature profile below the surface, down to several meters. We have developed a new thermal model of surfaces that takes into account for conductive heat transport, local variations of the insolation on both diurnal and seasonal timescales, multiple sources of heating, and geometry computations based on SPICE/NAIF kernels. This new thermal model could be used to interpret Cassini radar/radiometer data recorded over some of Saturn’s icy satellites and Miro/Rosetta future measurements of the

  15. Using the thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) to estimate surface thermal responses (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Holbo, H. R.


    A series of measurements was conducted over the H.J. Andrews, Oregon, experimental coniferous forest, using airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS). Flight lines overlapped, with a 28-min time difference between flight lines. Concurrent radiosonde measurements of atmospheric profiles of air temperature and moisture were used for atmospheric radiance corrections of the TIMS data. Surface temperature differences over time between flight lines were used to develop thermal response numbers (TRNs) which characterized the thermal response (in KJ/sq m/C, where K is the measured incoming solar radiation) of the different surface types. The surface types included a mature forest (canopy dominated by dense crowns of Pseudosuga menziesii, with a secondary canopy of dense Tsuga heterophylla, and also a tall shrub layer of Acer circinatum) and a two-year-old clear-cut. The temperature distribution, within TIMS thermal images was found to reflect the surface type examined. The clear-cut surface had the lowest TRN, while mature Douglas fir the highest.

  16. Safe, Non-Corrosive Dielectric Fluid for Stagnating Radiator Thermal Control System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Paragon proposes to develop a single-loop, non-toxic, stagnating active pumped loop thermal control design for NASA's Orion or Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM)...

  17. Control Optimization of Solar Thermally Driven Chillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Dalibard


    Full Text Available Many installed solar thermally driven cooling systems suffer from high auxiliary electric energy consumption which makes them not more efficient than conventional compression cooling systems. A main reason for this is the use of non-efficient controls with constant set points that do not allow a chiller power modulation at partial-load and therefore lead to unnecessary high power consumption of the parasitics. The aims of this paper are to present a method to control efficiently solar thermally driven chillers, to demonstrate experimentally its applicability and to quantify the benefits. It has been shown that the cooling capacity of a diffusion absorption chiller can be modulated very effectively by adjusting both the temperature and the flow rate of the cooling water. With the developed approach and the use of optimization algorithms, both the temperature and the flow rate can be controlled simultaneously in a way that the cooling load is matched and the electricity consumption is minimized. Depending on the weather and operating conditions, electricity savings between 20% and 60% can be achieved compared to other tested control approaches. The highest savings are obtained when the chiller is operated at partial load. The presented method is not restricted to solar cooling systems and can also be applied to other conventional heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC systems.

  18. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.


    The thermal effects associated with the emplacement of aged radioactive wastes in a geologic repository were studied, with emphasis on the following subjects: the waste characteristics, repository structure, and rock properties controlling the thermally induced effects; the current knowledge of the thermal, thermomechanical, and thermohydrologic impacts, determined mainly on the basis of previous studies that assume 10-year-old wastes; the thermal criteria used to determine the repository waste loading densities; and the technical advantages and disadvantages of surface cooling of the wastes prior to disposal as a means of mitigating the thermal impacts. The waste loading densities determined by repository designs for 10-year-old wastes are extended to older wastes using the near-field thermomechanical criteria based on room stability considerations. Also discussed are the effects of long surface cooling periods determined on the basis of far-field thermomechanical and thermohydrologic considerations. The extension of the surface cooling period from 10 years to longer periods can lower the near-field thermal impact but have only modest long-term effects for spent fuel. More significant long-term effects can be achieved by surface cooling of reprocessed high-level waste.

  19. Thermal control of solid breeder blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffray, A.R.; Ying, A.; Gorbis, Z.; Tillack, M.S.; Abdou, M.A.


    An assessment of the thermal control mechanisms applicable to solid breeder blanket designs under ITER-like operating conditions is presented in this paper. Four cases are considered: a helium gap; a sintered block Be region; a sintered block helium region with a metallic felt at the Be/clad interface; and a Be packed bed region. For these cases, typical operating are explored to determine the ranges of wall load which can be accommodated while maintaining the breeder within its allowable operating temperature window. The corresponding region thicknesses are calculated to help identify practicality and design tolerances.

  20. Thermal control of solid breeder blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffray, A.R.; Ying, A.; Gorbis, Z.; Tillack, M.S.; Abdou, M.A.


    An assessment of the thermal control mechanisms applicable to solid breeder blanket designs under ITER-like operating conditions is presented in this paper. Four cases are considered: a helium gap; a sintered block Be region; a sintered block helium region with a metallic felt at the Be/clad interface; and a Be packed bed region. For these cases, typical operating are explored to determine the ranges of wall load which can be accommodated while maintaining the breeder within its allowable operating temperature window. The corresponding region thicknesses are calculated to help identify practicality and design tolerances.

  1. Porcelain enamel passive thermal control coatings (United States)

    Leggett, H.; King, H. M.


    This paper discusses the development and evaluation of a highly adherent, low solar absorptance, porcelain enamel thermal control coating applied to 6061 and 1100 aluminum for space vehicle use. The coating consists of a low index of refraction, transparent host frit and a high volume fraction of titania as rutile, crystallized in-situ, as the scattering medium. Solar absorptance is 0.21 at a coating thickness of 0.013 cm. Hemispherical emittance is 0.88. The change in solar absorptance is 0.03, as measured in-situ, after an exposure of 1000 equivalent sun hours in vacuum.

  2. Semiconductor nanowires: Controlled growth and thermal properties (United States)

    Wu, Yiying

    This dissertation presents an experimental study of the controlled growth of semiconductor nanowires and their thermophysical properties. The synthesis of nanowires was based on the well-known Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism in which the growth of nanowire is initiated by a nanosized liquid droplet. The prepared nanowires are single-crystalline with certain preferred growth direction. Nanowires with different compositions have been synthesized, including Si, Ge, boron and MgB2. The control of nanowire composition, diameter and orientation has also been achieved. In addition, a Pulsed Laser Ablation-Chemical Vapor Deposition (PLA-CVD) hybrid process was developed to synthesize Si/SiGe longitudinally superlattice nanowires. The thermal conductivity of individual pure Si nanowire and Si/SiGe nanowire was measured using a microfabricated suspended device over a temperature range of 20--320 K. The thermal conductivities of individual 22, 37, 56, and 115 nm diameter single crystalline intrinsic Si nanowires were much lower than the bulk value due to the strong phonon boundary scattering. Except for the 22 nm diameter nanowire, theoretical predictions using a modified Callaway model fit the experimental data very well. The data for the 22 nm diameter wire suggest that changes in phonon dispersion due to confinement can cause additional thermal conductivity reduction. The Si/SiGe superlattice nanowires with diameters of 83 run and 58 nm were also measured. Their thermal conductivities are smaller than pure Si nanowire with similar diameter, as well as Si/SiGe superlattice thin film with comparable period. Both the alloying scattering and the boundary scattering are believed to contribute to this reduction. Size dependent melting-recrystallization study of the carbon-sheathed semiconductor Ge nanowires was carried out in in-situ high temperature transmission electron microscope (TEM). Significant depression in melting temperature with decreasing size of the nanowires as

  3. Thermal improvement of vision control windows renewable energy branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgen, E. (Univel Inc., Boucherville, PQ (Canada))


    Vision Control windows are automated venetian blind window systems containing horizontal pivoted louvers installed and sealed between 2 glass panes. The heat transfer by convection, conduction and radiation through the window system was studied theoretically and its thermal performance determined. The solution of the governing system of non-linear equations was carried out by using an iterative numerical method. As a result, a thermal model has been developed to use as as design tool in the study of improvements of the Vision Control windows. A theoretical study has been carried out to identify the possible improvement areas, followed by an experimental study using a variable temperature calorimeter to verify the theoretical results and the suggested improvements. It has been found that the Vision Control window system can be improved by using low emissivity coating at the inside surface of the inside glass and heat absorbing glass as the inside glass pane, depending on the requirements. A system study was carried out for a single one-zone building using typical summer and winter days and the optimum strategy determined for minimizing the auxiliary energy requirements by modulating the louver position at an optimum angle. The thermal performance of the system was compared to that of a similar system without the louvers and it was found that considerable energy economy in summer and winter is possible by an automatic control of the louver positions. 18 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Imaging Thermal He(+)in Geospace from the Lunar Surface (United States)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Adrian, Mark L.; Goldstein, Jerry; Jahn, Joerg-Micha; Spasojevic, Maria; Griffin, Brand


    By mass, thermal plasma dominates near-earth space and strongly influences the transport of energy and mass into the earth's atmosphere. It is proposed to play an important role in modifying the strength of space weather storms by its presence in regions of magnetic reconnection in the dayside magnetopause and in the near to mid-magnetotail. Ionospheric-origin thermal plasma also represents the most significant potential loss of atmospheric mass from our planet over geological time. Knowledge of the loss of convected thermal plasma into the solar wind versus its recirculation across high latitudes and through the magnetospheric flanks into the magnetospheric tail will enable determination of the mass balance for this mass-dominant component of the Geospace system and of its influence on global magnetospheric processes that are critical to space weather prediction and hence to the impact of space processes on human technology in space and on Earth. Our proposed concept addresses this basic issue of Geospace dynamics by imaging thermal He(+) ions in extreme ultraviolet light with an instrument on the lunar surface. The concept is derived from the highly successful Extreme Ultraviolet imager (EUV) flown on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft. From the lunar surface an advanced EUV imager is anticipated to have much higher sensitivity, lower background noise, and higher communication bandwidth back to Earth. From the near-magnetic equatorial location on the lunar surface, such an imager would be ideally located to follow thermal He(+) ions to high latitudes, into the magnetospheric flanks, and into the magnetotail.

  5. Improving Energy Efficiency In Thermal Oil Recovery Surface Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy Nadella, Narayana


    Thermal oil recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS), Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and In-situ Combustion are being used for recovering heavy oil and bitumen. These processes expend energy to recover oil. The process design of the surface facilities requires optimization to improve the efficiency of oil recovery by minimizing the energy consumption per barrel of oil produced. Optimization involves minimizing external energy use by heat integration. This paper discusses the unit processes and design methodology considering thermodynamic energy requirements and heat integration methods to improve energy efficiency in the surface facilities. A design case study is presented.

  6. Power Admission Control with Predictive Thermal Management in Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Jianguo; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Zhu, Guchuan


    This paper presents a control scheme for thermal management in smart buildings based on predictive power admission control. This approach combines model predictive control with budget-schedulability analysis in order to reduce peak power consumption as well as ensure thermal comfort. First...... appliances. The performance of the proposed control scheme is assessed by simulation based on the thermal dynamics of a real eight-room office building located at Danish Technical University....

  7. Process control of laser surface alloying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Meijer, J.; Olde Benneker, Jeroen


    In spite of the many advantages of laser surface treatment, such as high production rates and low induced thermal distortion, and its great potential for modifying the surface properties of a wide range of new and existing materials, industrial applications are still limited. This is not only

  8. Characterizing transient thermal interactions between lunar regolith and surface spacecraft (United States)

    Hager, P. B.; Klaus, D. M.; Walter, U.


    We present a new method, its development, implementation, and verification, for calculating the transient thermal interaction between lunar regolith and moving spacecraft travelling across the surface of the Moon. Regolith temperatures can be determined for lunar landscapes as defined by laser altimeter remote sensing data refined with local crater and boulder models. The purpose of this approach is to enable more detailed, dynamic thermal analyses of mobile systems on the lunar surface rather than relying on worst case, boundary condition design approaches typically used for spacecraft thermal engineering. This new simulation method is based on integrating models that represent small and large scale landscapes; reproduce regolith and boulder temperatures on the Moon; define the position of the Sun; and perform ray tracing to determine infrared and solar heat fluxes between passing objects and the surface. The thermal model of the lunar regolith enhances established models with a slope- and depth-dependent density. The simulation results were verified against remote sensing data obtained from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and from other sources cited in the literature. The verification results for isolated regolith surface patches showed a deviation from established models of about ±3-6 K (±1-6%) during lunar day, and lunar night. For real landscapes such as Crater Calippus and Crater Marius A, the deviation is less than ±15 K (±10%) compared to remote sensing data for the majority of measured data points. Only in regions with presumed different regolith material properties, such as steep slopes or depressions, or in regions with a low resolution on the topographic map, were the deviations up to 100 K (60%). From the results, empirical equations were derived, which can be used for worst case calculations or to calculate initial temperatures for more elaborate time marching numerical models. The proposed new

  9. A Numerical Proof of Concept for Thermal Flow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dragan


    Full Text Available In this paper computational fluid dynamics is used to provide a proof of concept for controlled flow separation using thermal wall interactions with the velocity boundary layer. A 3D case study is presented, using a transition modeling Shear Stress Transport turbulence model. The highly loaded single slot flap airfoil was chosen to be representative for a light aircraft and the flow conditions were modeled after a typical landing speed. In the baseline case, adiabatic walls were considered while in the separation control case, the top surface of the flaps was heated to 500 K. This heating lead to flow separation on the flaps and a significant alteration of the flow pattern across all the elements of the wing. The findings indicate that this control method has potential, with implications in both aeronautical as well as sports and civil engineering applications.

  10. Characteristics of Turbulent Airflow Deduced from Rapid Surface Thermal Fluctuations: An Infrared Surface Anemometer (United States)

    Aminzadeh, Milad; Breitenstein, Daniel; Or, Dani


    The intermittent nature of turbulent airflow interacting with the surface is readily observable in fluctuations of the surface temperature resulting from the thermal imprints of eddies sweeping the surface. Rapid infrared thermography has recently been used to quantify characteristics of the near-surface turbulent airflow interacting with the evaporating surfaces. We aim to extend this technique by using single-point rapid infrared measurements to quantify properties of a turbulent flow, including surface exchange processes, with a view towards the development of an infrared surface anemometer. The parameters for the surface-eddy renewal (α and β ) are inferred from infrared measurements of a single-point on the surface of a heat plate placed in a wind tunnel with prescribed wind speeds and constant mean temperatures of the surface. Thermally-deduced parameters are in agreement with values obtained from standard three-dimensional ultrasonic anemometer measurements close to the plate surface (e.g., α = 3 and β = 1/26 (ms)^{-1} for the infrared, and α = 3 and β = 1/19 (ms)^{-1} for the sonic-anemometer measurements). The infrared-based turbulence parameters provide new insights into the role of surface temperature and buoyancy on the inherent characteristics of interacting eddies. The link between the eddy-spectrum shape parameter α and the infrared window size representing the infrared field of view is investigated. The results resemble the effect of the sampling height above the ground in sonic anemometer measurements, which enables the detection of larger eddies with higher values of α . The physical basis and tests of the proposed method support the potential for remote quantification of the near-surface momentum field, as well as scalar-flux measurements in the immediate vicinity of the surface.

  11. Space shuttle heat pipe thermal control systems (United States)

    Alario, J.


    Heat pipe (HP) thermal control systems designed for possible space shuttle applications were built and tested under this program. They are: (1) a HP augmented cold rail, (2) a HP/phase change material (PCM) modular heat sink and (3) a HP radiating panel for compartment temperature control. The HP augmented cold rail is similar to a standard two-passage fluid cold rail except that it contains an integral, centrally located HP throughout its length. The central HP core helps to increase the local power density capability by spreading concentrated heat inputs over the entire rail. The HP/PCM modular heat sink system consists of a diode HP connected in series to a standard HP that has a PCM canister attached to its mid-section. It is designed to connect a heat source to a structural heat sink during normal operation, and to automatically decouple from it and sink to the PCM whenever structural temperatures are too high. The HP radiating panel is designed to conductively couple the panel feeder HPs directly to a fluid line that serves as a source of waste heat. It is a simple strap-on type of system that requires no internal or external line modifications to distribute the heat to a large radiating area.

  12. A dynamic tester to evaluate the thermal and moisture behaviour of the surface of textiles. (United States)

    Li, Wenbin; Xu, Weilin; Wang, Hao; Wang, Xin


    The thermal and moisture behaviour of the microclimate of textiles is crucial in determining the physiological comfort of apparel, but it has not been investigated sufficiently due to the lack of particular evaluation techniques. Based on sensing, temperature controlling and wireless communicating technology, a specially designed tester has been developed in this study to evaluate the thermal and moisture behaviour of the surface of textiles in moving status. A temperature acquisition system and a temperature controllable hotplate have been established to test temperature and simulate the heat of human body, respectively. Relative humidity of the surface of fabric in the dynamic process has been successfully tested through sensing. Meanwhile, wireless communication technology was applied to transport the acquired data of temperature and humidity to computer for further processing. Continuous power supply was achieved by intensive contact between an elastic copper plate and copper ring on the rotating shaft. This tester provides the platform to evaluate the thermal and moisture behaviour of textiles. It enables users to conduct a dynamic analysis on the temperature and humidity together with the thermal and moisture transport behaviour of the surface of fabric in moving condition. Development of this tester opens the door of investigation on the micro-climate of textiles in real time service, and eventually benefits the understanding of the sensation comfort and wellbeing of apparel wearers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of thermal control coatings for use on solar dynamic radiators in low earth orbit (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Rodriguez, Elvin; Slemp, Wayne S.; Stoyack, Joseph E.


    Thermal control coatings with high thermal emittance and low solar absorptance are needed for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic power module radiator (SDR) surfaces for efficient heat rejection. Additionally, these coatings must be durable to low earth orbital (LEO) environmental effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and deep thermal cycles which occur as a result of start-up and shut-down of the solar dynamic power system. Eleven candidate coatings were characterized for their solar absorptance and emittance before and after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (200 to 400 nm), vacuum UV (VUV) radiation (100 to 200 nm) and atomic oxygen. Results indicated that the most durable and best performing coatings were white paint thermal control coatings Z-93, zinc oxide pigment in potassium silicate binder, and YB-71, zinc orthotitanate pigment in potassium silicate binder. Optical micrographs of these materials exposed to the individual environmental effects of atomic oxygen and vacuum thermal cycling showed that no surface cracking occurred.

  14. The Conductive Thermal Control Material Systems for Space Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is submitted to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of processing the space environment stable, multifunctional thermal control material system...

  15. Thermal cycling tests on surface-mount assemblies (United States)

    Jennings, C. W.


    The capability of surface-mount (SM) solder joints to withstand various thermal cycle stresses was evaluated through electrical circuit resistance changes of a test pattern and by visual examination for cracks in the solder after exposure to thermal cycling. The joints connected different electrical components, primarily leadless-chip carriers (LCCs), and printed wiring-board (PWB) pads on different laminate substrates. Laminate compositions were epoxy-glass and polyimide-glass with and without copper/Invar/copper (CIC) inner layers, polyimide-quartz, epoxy-Kevlar, and polyimide-Kevlar. The most resistant joints were between small LCCs (24 and 48 pins) and polyimide-glass laminate with CIC inner layers. Processing in joint formation was found to be an important part of joint resistant. Thermal cycling was varied with respect to both time and temperature. A few resistors, capacitors, and inductors showed opens after 500 30-min cycles between -65 C and 125 C. Appreciable moisture contents were measured for laminate materials, especially those of polyimide-Kevlar after equilibration in 100 percent relative humidity at room temperature. If not removed or reduced, moisture can cause delamination in vapor-phase soldering.

  16. Thermal cycling tests on surface-mount assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, C.W.


    The capability of surface-mount (SM) solder joints to withstand various thermal cycle stresses was evaluated through electrical circuit resistance changes of a test pattern and by visual examination for cracks in the solder after exposure to thermal cycling. The joints connected different electrical components, primarily leadless-chip carriers (LCCs), and printed wiring-board (PWB) pads on different laminate substrates. Laminate compositions were epoxy-glass and polyimide-glass with and without copper/Invar/copper (CIC) inner layers, polyimide-quartz, epoxy-Kevlar, and polyimide-Kevlar. The most resistant joints were between small LCCs (24 and 48 pins) and polyimide-glass laminate with CIC inner layers. Processing in joint formation was found to be an important part of joint resistant. Thermal cycling was varied with respect to both time and temperature. A few resistors, capacitors, and inductors showed opens after 500 30-min cycles between -65/degree/C and 125/degree/C. Appreciable moisture contents were measured for laminate materials, especially those of polyimide-Kevlar after equilibration in 100/percent/ relative humidity at room temperature. If not removed or reduced, moisture can cause delamination in vapor-phase soldering. 17 refs, 12 figs.,10 tabs.

  17. Status of reusable surface insulation thermal protection system technology programs (United States)

    Greenshields, D. H.; Meyer, A. J.; Tillian, D. J.


    The development of three low-density rigidized insulation materials for the shuttle TPS application is reported. These materials consist of one high purity silica system and two systems based on mullite, an aluminum silicate. Both systems consist of fibers joined together with appropriate binders to obtain a rigidized insulation composite. Both material systems require the application of a glassy coating to provide a wear resistant, high emittance surface and to prevent the absorption of water by the fiber matrix. The technology program has addressed the development of water impervious coatings, methods of assembling the materials in design concepts while minimizing the thermal stress in the insulation, achieving compatibility between the RSI material and the structural system, and test evaluations to demonstrate the feasibility of the surface insulation concept.

  18. Film-Evaporation MEMS Tunable Array for Picosat Propulsion and Thermal Control (United States)

    Alexeenko, Alina; Cardiff, Eric; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew


    The Film-Evaporation MEMS Tunable Array (FEMTA) concept for propulsion and thermal control of picosats exploits microscale surface tension effect in conjunction with temperature- dependent vapor pressure to realize compact, tunable and low-power thermal valving system. The FEMTA is intended to be a self-contained propulsion unit requiring only a low-voltage DC power source to operate. The microfabricated thermal valving and very-high-integration level enables fast high-capacity cooling and high-resolution, low-power micropropulsion for picosats that is superior to existing smallsat micropropulsion and thermal management alternatives.

  19. Photo-controllable thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity driven by the orientation change of nematic liquid crystal with azo-dendrimers (United States)

    Ryu, Meguya; Takezoe, Hideo; Haba, Osamu; Yonetake, Koichiro; Morikawa, Junko


    We measured the temperature dependences of anisotropic thermal properties, i.e., thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity per unit volume, of a nematogen 4'-n-pentyloxybiphenyl-4-carbonitrile (5OCB) containing a small amount (0.02 wt. %) of dendritic azobenzene derivatives (azo-dendrimer), using a temperature wave method. The azo-dendrimers spontaneously adsorb on cell surfaces and act as a command surface, i.e., photo-induced planar/homeotropic alignment by ultraviolet/visible light illumination. By using this effect, we demonstrated thermal property changes except for the heat capacity by almost two times within a few tens of seconds. The phenomenon can be applied to a sheet with photo-controllable thermal diffusivity or thermal conductivity.

  20. Erbium hydride thermal desorption : controlling kinetics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew


    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report show that hydride film processing parameters directly impact thermal stability. Issues to be addressed include desorption kinetics for dihydrides and trihydrides, and the effect of film growth parameters, loading parameters, and substrate selection on desorption kinetics.

  1. Surface Thermal Insulation and Pipe Cooling of Spillways during Concrete Construction Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhenhong


    Full Text Available Given that spillways adopt a hydraulic thin concrete plate structure, this structure is difficult to protect from cracks. The mechanism of the cracks in spillways shows that temperature stress is the major reason for cracks. Therefore, an effective way of preventing cracks is a timely and reasonable temperature-control program. Studies show that one effective prevention method is surface thermal insulation combined with internal pipe cooling. The major factors influencing temperature control effects are the time of performing thermal insulation and the ways of internal pipe cooling. To solve this problem, a spillway is taken as an example and a three-dimensional finite element program and pipe cooling calculation method are adopted to conduct simulation calculation and analysis on the temperature fields and stress fields of concretes subject to different temperature-control programs. The temperature-control effects are then compared. Optimization results show that timely and reasonable surface thermal insulation and water-flowing mode can ensure good temperature-control and anticrack effects. The method has reference value for similar projects.

  2. Thermal control analysis of a primary mirror for large-aperture telescope (United States)

    Tan, Yufeng; Wang, Jihong; Ren, Ge; Xie, Zongliang; He, Bi


    Extraneous thermal loads on the primary mirror of a large-aperture telescope directly influence the optical performance of the telescope through temperature gradients within the mirror and thermal boundary layer at the face sheet. In this paper, we propose a new thermal control system consisting of a flushing and sucking system for eliminating the excessive heat of a primary mirror. First, a 2.8 m-aperture lightweighted primary mirror is fabricated. Second, a thermo-optic analysis using finite element analysis is conducted in natural and forced convection. Finally, the optical performance denoted by Zernike polynomials with and without our proposed thermal control system is evaluated and examined. The comparative results reveal that the image quality of the primary mirror in forced convection is significantly enhanced with obvious reduction of optical surface distortion, thereby demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed thermal control system.

  3. Tailorable Surface Morphology of 3D Scaffolds by Combining Additive Manufacturing with Thermally Induced Phase Separation. (United States)

    Di Luca, Andrea; de Wijn, Joost R; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Camarero-Espinosa, Sandra; Moroni, Lorenzo


    The functionalization of biomaterials substrates used for cell culture is gearing towards an increasing control over cell activity. Although a number of biomaterials have been successfully modified by different strategies to display tailored physical and chemical surface properties, it is still challenging to step from 2D substrates to 3D scaffolds with instructive surface properties for cell culture and tissue regeneration. In this study, additive manufacturing and thermally induced phase separation are combined to create 3D scaffolds with tunable surface morphology from polymer gels. Surface features vary depending on the gel concentration, the exchanging temperature, and the nonsolvent used. When preosteoblasts (MC-3T3 cells) are cultured on these scaffolds, a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity is measured for submicron surface topography, suggesting a potential role on early cell differentiation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshi Takenaka


    Full Text Available Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over −30 ppm K−1. Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining practical aspects, this review briefly summarizes materials and mechanisms of NTE as well as composites containing NTE materials, based mainly on activities of the last decade.

  5. Design of Ag nanorods for sensitivity and thermal stability of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (United States)

    Ma, Lingwei; Zhang, Zhengjun; Huang, Hanchen


    The technology of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has found many applications and may find more if it can possess both sensitivity and thermal stability. This paper reports a rational design of Ag nanorods to simultaneously achieve two competing goals: the sensitivity and the thermal stability of SERS substrates. The Ag nanorods are designed and synthesized using physical vapor deposition under the condition of glancing angle incidence. The working pressure of the vacuum chamber is controlled so the mean free path of depositing atoms is comparable to the dimension of the chamber, so as to grow Ag nanorods with small diameter, and small but clear separation for optimal SERS sensitivity. Such Ag nanorods are further capped with Al2O3 on their top surfaces to reduce the diffusion-induced coarsening at high temperatures, and thereby to improve the thermal stability for SERS detections. Meanwhile, since the side surfaces of Ag nanorods are not coated with oxides in this approach, the SERS sensitivity is largely preserved while good thermal stability is achieved.

  6. Thermally driven transverse transports and magnetic dynamics on a topological surface capped with a ferromagnet strip (United States)

    Deng, Ming-Xun; Zhong, Ming; Zheng, Shi-Han; Qiu, Jian-Ming; Yang, Mou; Wang, Rui-Qiang


    We theoretically study thermally driven transport of the Dirac fermions on the surface of a topological insulator capped with a ferromagnet strip. The generation and manipulation of anomalous Hall and Nernst effects are analyzed, in which the in-plane magnetization of the ferromagnet film is found to take a decisive role. This scenario is distinct from that modulated by Berry phase where the in-plane magnetization is independent. We further discuss the thermal spin-transfer torque as a backaction of the thermoelectric transports on the magnetization and calculate the dynamics of the anomalous Hall and Nernst effects self-consistently. It is found that the magnitude of the long-time steady Hall and Nernst conductance is determined by competition between the magnetic anisotropy and current-induced effective anisotropy. These results open up a possibility of magnetically controlling the transverse thermoelectric transports or thermally manipulating the magnet switching.

  7. Land surface emissivity retrieval from airborne hyperspectral scanner thermal infrared data over urban surfaces (United States)

    Gao, C. X.; Qian, Y. G.; Wang, N.; Ma, L. L.; Jiang, X. G.


    Land surface emissivity (LSE) is a key parameter for characterizing the land surface, and is vital for a wide variety of surface-atmosphere studies. This paper retrieved LSEs of land surfaces over the city of Madrid, Spain from airborne hyperspectral scanner (AHS) thermal infrared data using temperature emissivity separation (TES) method. Six different kinds of urban surfaces: asphalt, bare soil, granite, pavement, shrub and grass pavement, were selected to evaluate the performance of the TES method in urban areas. The results demonstrate that the TES method can be successfully applied to retrieve LSEs in urban area. The six urban surfaces have similar curve shape of emissivity spectra, with the lowest emissivity in band 73, and highest in band 78; the LSE for bare soil varies significantly with spectra, approximately from 0.90 in band 72 to 0.98 in band 78, whereas the LSE for grass has the smallest spectral variation, approximately from 0.965 in band 72 to 0.974 in band 78, and the shrub presents higher LSE than other surfaces in bands 72, 73, 75-77, but a little lower in bands 78 and 79. Furthermore, it is worth noting that band 73 is suitable for discriminating different urban surfaces because large LSE differences exist in this channel for different urban surfaces.

  8. Thermal control system for SSF sensor/electronics (United States)

    Akau, R. L.; Lee, D. E.


    A thermal control system was designed for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) sensor/electronics box (SSTACK). Multi-layer insulation and heaters are used to maintain the temperatures of the critical components within their operating and survival temperature limits. Detailed and simplified SSTACK thermal models were developed and temperatures were calculated for worst-case orbital conditions. A comparison between the two models showed very good agreement. Temperature predictions were also compared to measured temperatures from a thermal-vacuum test.

  9. Power Control and Monitoring Requirements for Thermal Vacuum/Thermal Balance Testing of the MAP Observatory (United States)

    Johnson, Chris; Hinkle, R. Kenneth (Technical Monitor)


    The specific heater control requirements for the thermal vacuum and thermal balance testing of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland are described. The testing was conducted in the 10m wide x 18.3m high Space Environment Simulator (SES) Thermal Vacuum Facility. The MAP thermal testing required accurate quantification of spacecraft and fixture power levels while minimizing heater electrical emissions. The special requirements of the MAP test necessitated construction of five (5) new heater racks.

  10. Photodetectors with passive thermal radiation control (United States)

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Dodson, Brian W.


    A new class of photodetectors which include means for passive shielding against undesired thermal radiation is disclosed. Such devices can substitute in applications currently requiring cooled optical sensors, such as IR detection and imaging. This description is included for purposes of searching, and is not intended to limit or otherwise influence the interpretation of the present invention.

  11. Thermal and microstructural effects of nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation on tooth root surface (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra B. B.; Arrastia-Jitosho, Anna-Marie A.; Grill, G.; Liaw, Lih-Huei L.; Berns, Michael W.


    Plaque, calculus and altered cementum removal by scaling and root planing is a fundamental procedure in periodontal treatment. However, the residual smear layer contains cytotoxic and inflammatory mediators which adversely affect healing. Chemical smear layer removal is also problematic. In previous investigations effective smear layer removal was achieved using long pulsed irradiation at 1.06 (mu) . However, laser irradiation was not adequate as an alternative to scaling and root planing procedures and concurrent temperature rises exceeded thermal thresholds for pulpal and periodontal safety. It was the aim of this study to determine whether nanosecond pulsed irradiation at 1.06 (mu) could be used as an alternative or an adjunct to scaling and root planing. Sixty freshly extracted teeth were divided as follows: 5 control, 5 root planed only, 25 irradiated only, 25 root planed and irradiated. Irradiation was performed at fluences of 0.5 - 2.7 J/cm2, total energy densities of 12 - 300 J/cm2, frequencies of 2 - 10 Hz using the Medlite (Continuum) laser. Irradiation-induced thermal events were recorded using a thermocouple within the root canal and a thermal camera to monitor surface temperatures. SEM demonstrated effective smear layer removal with minimal microstructural effects. Surface temperatures increased minimally (< 3 C) at all parameters, intrapulpal temperature rises remained below 4 C at 2 and 5 Hz, F < 0.5 J/cm2. Without prior scaling and root planing, laser effects did not provide an adequately clean root surface.

  12. Controlling Reaction Selectivity through the Surface Termination of Perovskite Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo-Garzon, Felipe [Chemical Sciences Division and Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Yang, Shi-Ze [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Fung, Victor [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside CA 92521 USA; Foo, Guo Shiou [Chemical Sciences Division and Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Bickel, Elizabeth E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville TN 38505 USA; Chisholm, Matthew F. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Jiang, De-en [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside CA 92521 USA; Wu, Zili [Chemical Sciences Division and Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA


    Although well known in the material science field, surface reconstruction of perovskites has not been implemented in heterogeneous catalysis. In this work, we employ multiple surface sensitive techniques to characterize the surface reconstruction of SrTiO3 (STO) after thermal pretreatment (Sr-enrichment) and chemical etching (Ti-enrichment). We show, using the conversion of 2-propanol as a probe reaction, that the surface reconstruction of STO can be controlled to greatly tune catalytic acid/base properties and consequently the reaction selectivities in a wide range, which are inaccessible using single metal oxides, either SrO or TiO2. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations well explain the selectivity tuning and reaction mechanism on differently reconstructed surfaces of STO. Similar catalytic tunability is also observed on BaZrO3, highlighting the generality of the finding from this work.

  13. CubeSat Form Factor Thermal Control Louvers Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal control of small spacecraft, including CubeSats, is a challenge for the next era of NASA spaceflight. Science objectives and components will still require...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main goal of spacecraft thermal control systems is to maintain internal and external temperature within acceptable boundaries while minimizing impact on vehicle...

  15. Automatic Thermal Control System with Temperature Difference or Derivation Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Matiskova


    Full Text Available Automatic thermal control systems seem to be non-linear systems with thermal inertias and time delay. A controller is also non-linear because its information and power signals are limited. The application of methods that are available to on-linear systems together with computer simulation and mathematical modelling creates a possibility to acquire important information about the researched system. This paper provides a new look at the heated system model and also designs the structure of the thermal system with temperature derivation feedback. The designed system was simulated by using a special software in Turbo Pascal. Time responses of this system are compared to responses of a conventional thermal system. The thermal system with temperature derivation feedback provides better transients, better quality of regulation and better dynamical properties.

  16. Active Thermal Control Experiments for LISA Ground Verification Testing (United States)

    Higuchi, Sei; DeBra, Daniel B.


    The primary mission goal of LISA is detecting gravitational waves. LISA uses laser metrology to measure the distance between proof masses in three identical spacecrafts. The total acceleration disturbance to each proof mass is required to be below 3 × 10-15 m/s2√Hz . Optical path length variations on each optical bench must be kept below 40 pm/√Hz over 1 Hz to 0.1 mHz. Thermal variations due to, for example, solar radiation or temperature gradients across the proof mass housing will distort the spacecraft causing changes in the mass attraction and sensor location. We have developed a thermal control system developed for the LISA gravitational reference sensor (GRS) ground verification testing which provides thermal stability better than 1 mK/√Hz to f control for the LISA spacecraft to compensate solar irradiation. Thermally stable environment is very demanded for LISA performance verification. In a lab environment specifications can be met with considerable amount of insulation and thermal mass. For spacecraft, the very limited thermal mass calls for an active control system which can meet disturbance rejection and stability requirements simultaneously in the presence of long time delay. A simple proportional plus integral control law presently provides approximately 1 mK/√Hz of thermal stability for over 80 hours. Continuing development of a model predictive feed-forward algorithm will extend performance to below 1 mK/√Hz at f < 1 mHz and lower.

  17. A novel method for biopolymer surface nanostructuring by platinum deposition and subsequent thermal annealing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slepička, Petr; Juřík, Petr; Kolská, Zdeňka; Malinský, Petr; Macková, Anna; Michaljaničová, Iva; Švorčík, Václav


    .... The surface properties of sputtered platinum layers on the biocompatible polymer poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) are presented. The influence of thermal treatment on surface morphology and electrical resistance and Pt distribution in ca...

  18. CFD Analysis of Thermal Control System Using NX Thermal and Flow (United States)

    Fortier, C. R.; Harris, M. F. (Editor); McConnell, S. (Editor)


    The Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) is a key part of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) for the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of this subsystem is to provide thermal control, mainly cooling, to the other APH subsystems. One of these subsystems, the Environmental Control Subsystem (ECS), controls the temperature and humidity of the growth chamber (GC) air to optimize the growth of plants in the habitat. The TCS provides thermal control to the ECS with three cold plates, which use Thermoelectric Coolers (TECs) to heat or cool water as needed to control the air temperature in the ECS system. In order to optimize the TCS design, pressure drop and heat transfer analyses were needed. The analysis for this system was performed in Siemens NX Thermal/Flow software (Version 8.5). NX Thermal/Flow has the ability to perform 1D or 3D flow solutions. The 1D flow solver can be used to represent simple geometries, such as pipes and tubes. The 1D flow method also has the ability to simulate either fluid only or fluid and wall regions. The 3D flow solver is similar to other Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software. TCS performance was analyzed using both the 1D and 3D solvers. Each method produced different results, which will be evaluated and discussed.

  19. Surface chemistry of methyl nitrite on Ag(111): thermal and non-thermal processes (United States)

    Pressley, L. A.; Pylant, E. D.; White, J. M.


    The thermal, electron and photon activation of methyl nitrite, CH 3ONO, adsorbed on Ag(111) has been examined. Thermally there is no dissociation, and monolayers, which are weakly held, desorb at 131 K. Dissociation occurs readily when adsorbed CH 3ONO is irradiated with either 50 eV electrons or photons with energies higher than 3.4 eV ( λ < 365 nm). X-ray irradiation initiates dissociation and loss of N 1s and O 1s intensity that is consistent with ejection of NO. The only product ejected during irradiation with ultraviolet photons is NO. The cross-section for disappearance of the CH 3ONO, as measured by its post-irradiation TPD peak area, is wavelength-dependent, generally rising with photon energy between 3.4 eV and the highest energy used here, 4.9 eV ( λ = 254 nm). The cross-section is 0.26 ± 0.04 × 10 -18cm 2 at 3.4 eV and 1.15 ± 0.1 × 10 -18cm 2 at 4.9 eV. For 50 eV electrons, NO is also dominant but is accompanied by small amounts of CH 3, CH 2O and CH 3OH. The initial cross-section for loss of CH 3ONO is 5 ± 1 × 10 -16cm 2. Heating to 500 K after irradiation with electrons, X-rays or UV photons, leaves a clean Ag(111) surface. Among the products desorbed after photon or electron irradiation, methane and formaldehyde have been identified.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Design Parameters for Hydronic Embedded Thermally Active Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcos-Meson, Victor; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; E. Poulsen, Søren


    This paper evaluates the principal design parameters affecting the thermal performance of embedded hydronic Thermally Active Surfaces (TAS), combining the Response Surface Method (RSM) with the Finite Elements Method (FEM). The study ranks the combined effects of the parameters on the heat flux i...

  1. Land Surface Temperature from Landsat 5 TM images: comparison of different methods using airborne thermal data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Giannini


    Full Text Available In this study, several methods to compute land surface temperatures (LST from Landsat TM5 data are compared. Two different approaches are considered. An image based approach that takes into account atmospherically corrected data by using a dark object subtraction model (DOS-1 and computes the emissivity as NDVI function. The emissivity of a surface is controlled by such factors as water content, chemical composition, structure and roughness; it can be determined as the contribution of the different components that belong to the pixels according to their proportions. NDVI method takes into account that vegetation and soils are the main surface cover for the terrestrial component. This emissivity is used to compute the LST by the inversion of Planck function. The other approach applies atmospheric correction to thermal infrared band and considers a constant emissivity of 0.95. Furthermore, the land surface temperature is computed by hybrid methods that result from the merger of the two initially considered approaches. These results are compared with the surface temperature measured by airborne Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS. The LST measured by MIVIS sensor can be considered closer to the real surface temperature because the data are acquired at an altitude of 1500 m and are not affected by significant atmospheric effects such as for satellite data, acquired at 705 km from the Earth’s surface. The best results are obtained by considering variable emissivity.

  2. Thermally aware, durable nanoengineered surfaces with high speed liquid impalement resistance (United States)

    Tiwari, Manish; Peng, Chaoyi; Chen, Zhuyang


    Highly hydrophobic nanoengineered surfaces delaying freezing down to -20 degrees Centigrade for a day, sustaining dropwise steam condensation under high rate steam shear for several days, sustaining mechanical abrasion and high strains have attracted strong interest recently. Particularly, anti-icing and dropwise condensation promotion require thermally conductive surfaces with careful nucleation control - of ice germs or droplets, respectively - using precise surface nanotexture. Scalability of surface manufacture is an additional challenge. In the current presentation, we will demonstrate a pathway to address these needs. Anodisation of metallic substrate is first used to obtain nanotextured surfaces with a precision of approx. 200 nm. Next, rationally formulated nanocomposites comprising solution processed fluorinated copolymers and nanoparticle dispersions were spray coated on the anodized metals. The resulting nanocomposite coatings were superhydrophobic with approx. 20 nm precision in surface texture. The surface durability is assessed using tape peel, sand abrasion, and droplet and water jet impact tests up to 30 m/s. High speed jet splashing is recorded at speeds >10 m/s to demonstrate the influence of jet diameter on splashing characteristics. This work was partly supported by EPSRC Grant EP/N006577/1.

  3. Investigation on the Temporal Surface Thermal Conditions for Thermal Comfort Researches Inside A Vehicle Cabin Under Summer Season Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wencan


    Full Text Available With the proposes of improving occupant's thermal comfort and reducing the air conditioning power consumption, the present research carried out a comprehensive study on the surface thermal conductions and their influence parameters. A numerical model was built considering the transient conduction, convective and radiation heat transfer inside a vehicle cabin. For more accurate simulation of the radiation heat transfer behaviors, the radiation was considered into two spectral bands (short wave and long wave radiation, and the solar radiation was calculated by two solar fluxes (beam and diffuse solar radiation. An experiment was conducted to validate the numerical approach, showing a good agreement with the surface temperature. The surface thermal conditions were numerically simulated. The results show that the solar radiation is the most important factor in determining the internal surface thermal conditions. Effects of the window glass properties and the car body surface conditions were investigated. The numerical calculation results indicate that reducing the transitivity of window glass can effectively reduce the internal surface temperature. And the reflectivity of the vehicle cabin also has an important influence on the surface temperature, however, it's not so obvious as comparison to the window glass.

  4. Attenuating the surface Urban Heat Island within the Local Thermal Zones through land surface modification. (United States)

    Wang, Jiong; Ouyang, Wanlu


    Inefficient mitigation of excessive heat is attributed to the discrepancy between the scope of climate research and conventional planning practice. This study approaches this problem at both domains. Generally, the study, on one hand, claims that the climate research of the temperature phenomenon should be at local scale, where implementation of planning and design strategies can be more feasible. On the other hand, the study suggests that the land surface factors should be organized into zones or patches, which conforms to the urban planning and design manner. Thus in each zone, the land surface composition of those excessively hot places can be compared to the zonal standard. The comparison gives guidance to the modification of the land surface factors at the target places. Specifically, this study concerns the Land Surface Temperature (LST) in Wuhan, China. The land surface is classified into Local Thermal Zones (LTZ). The specifications of temperature sensitive land surface factors are relative homogeneous in each zone and so is the variation of the LST. By extending the city scale analysis of Urban Heat Island into local scale, the Local Surface Urban Heat Islands (LSUHIs) are extracted. Those places in each zone that constantly maintain as LSUHI and exceed the homogenous LST variation are considered as target places or hotspots with higher mitigation or adaptation priority. The operation is equivalent to attenuate the abnormal LST variation in each zone. The framework is practical in the form of prioritization and zoning, and mitigation strategies are essentially operated locally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Controlling Thermal Expansion: A Metal–Organic Frameworks Route (United States)


    Controlling thermal expansion is an important, not yet resolved, and challenging problem in materials research. A conceptual design is introduced here, for the first time, for the use of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) as platforms for controlling thermal expansion devices that can operate in the negative, zero, and positive expansion regimes. A detailed computer simulation study, based on molecular dynamics, is presented to support the targeted application. MOF-5 has been selected as model material, along with three molecules of similar size and known differences in terms of the nature of host–guest interactions. It has been shown that adsorbate molecules can control, in a colligative way, the thermal expansion of the solid, so that changing the adsorbate molecules induces the solid to display positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion. We analyze in depth the distortion mechanisms, beyond the ligand metal junction, to cover the ligand distortions, and the energetic and entropic effect on the thermo-structural behavior. We provide an unprecedented atomistic insight on the effect of adsorbates on the thermal expansion of MOFs as a basic tool toward controlling the thermal expansion. PMID:28190918

  6. Controlling Thermal Expansion: A Metal-Organic Frameworks Route. (United States)

    Balestra, Salvador R G; Bueno-Perez, Rocio; Hamad, Said; Dubbeldam, David; Ruiz-Salvador, A Rabdel; Calero, Sofia


    Controlling thermal expansion is an important, not yet resolved, and challenging problem in materials research. A conceptual design is introduced here, for the first time, for the use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as platforms for controlling thermal expansion devices that can operate in the negative, zero, and positive expansion regimes. A detailed computer simulation study, based on molecular dynamics, is presented to support the targeted application. MOF-5 has been selected as model material, along with three molecules of similar size and known differences in terms of the nature of host-guest interactions. It has been shown that adsorbate molecules can control, in a colligative way, the thermal expansion of the solid, so that changing the adsorbate molecules induces the solid to display positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion. We analyze in depth the distortion mechanisms, beyond the ligand metal junction, to cover the ligand distortions, and the energetic and entropic effect on the thermo-structural behavior. We provide an unprecedented atomistic insight on the effect of adsorbates on the thermal expansion of MOFs as a basic tool toward controlling the thermal expansion.

  7. The Response of the Ocean Thermal Skin Layer to Air-Sea Surface Heat Fluxes (United States)

    Wong, Elizabeth Wing-See

    There is much evidence that the ocean is heating as a result of an increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere from human activities. GHGs absorb infrared radiation and re-emit infrared radiation back to the ocean's surface which is subsequently absorbed. However, the incoming infrared radiation is absorbed within the top micrometers of the ocean's surface which is where the thermal skin layer exists. Thus the incident infrared radiation does not directly heat the upper few meters of the ocean. We are therefore motivated to investigate the physical mechanism between the absorption of infrared radiation and its effect on heat transfer at the air-sea boundary. The hypothesis is that since heat lost through the air-sea interface is controlled by the thermal skin layer, which is directly influenced by the absorption and emission of infrared radiation, the heat flow through the thermal skin layer adjusts to maintain the surface heat loss, assuming the surface heat loss does not vary, and thus modulates the upper ocean heat content. This hypothesis is investigated through utilizing clouds to represent an increase in incoming longwave radiation and analyzing retrieved thermal skin layer vertical temperature profiles from a shipboard infrared spectrometer from two research cruises. The data are limited to night-time, no precipitation and low winds of less than 2 m/s to remove effects of solar radiation, wind-driven shear and possibilities of thermal skin layer disruption. The results show independence of the turbulent fluxes and emitted radiation on the incident radiative fluxes which rules out the immediate release of heat from the absorption of the cloud infrared irradiance back into the atmosphere through processes such as evaporation and increase infrared emission. Furthermore, independence was confirmed between the incoming and outgoing radiative flux which implies the heat sink for upward flowing heat at the air-sea interface is more

  8. Comparison of Observed Surface Temperatures of 4 Vesta to the KRC Thermal Model (United States)

    Titus, T. N.; Becker, K. J.; Anderson, J. A.; Capria, M. T.; Tosi, F.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Palomba, E.; Grassi, D.; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; hide


    In this work, we will compare ob-served temperatures of the surface of Vesta using data acquired by the Dawn [1] Visible and Infrared Map-ping Spectrometer (VIR-MS) [2] during the approach phase to model results from the KRC thermal model. High thermal inertia materials, such as bedrock, resist changes in temperature while temperatures of low thermal inertia material, such as dust, respond quickly to changes in solar insolation. The surface of Vesta is expected to have low to medium thermal inertia values, with the most commonly used value being extremely low at 15 TIU [4]. There are several parameters which affect observed temperatures in addition to thermal inertia: bond albedo, slope, and surface roughness. In addition to these parameters, real surfaces are rarely uniform monoliths that can be described by a single thermal inertia value. Real surfaces are often vertically layered or are mixtures of dust and rock. For Vesta's surface, with temperature extremes ranging from 50 K to 275 K and no atmosphere, even a uniform monolithic surface may have non-uniform thermal inertia due to temperature dependent thermal conductivity.

  9. Influence of fibre-surface treatment on structural, thermal and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    were prepared with treated and untreated jute fibre (15 wt%) reinforced unsaturated polyester (UPE). .... fibres whereas W2 was the weight of dry fibres after being .... 2.5e Thermal analysis of fibre: DSC measurements were performed using a (TA Instrument, USA, Model No. Q10) thermal analyser. A heating rate of 10 o.

  10. Modifying surface forces through control of surface potentials. (United States)

    Tivony, Ran; Klein, Jacob


    Combining direct surface force measurements with in situ regulation of surface potential provides an exceptional opportunity for investigating and manipulating interfacial phenomena. Recently, we studied the interaction between gold and mica surfaces in water with no added salt, while controlling the metal potential, and found that the surface charge at the metal may vary, and possibly even change its sign, as it progressively approaches the (constant-charge) mica surface [Langmuir, 2015, 31(47), 12845-12849]. Such a variation was found to directly affect the nature of the contact and adhesion between them due to exclusion of all mobile counterions from the intersurface gap. In this work, we extend this to examine the potential-dependent response of the adhesion and interaction between gold and mica to externally applied voltages and in electrolyte solution. Using a surface force balance (SFB) combined with a three-electrode electrochemical cell, we measured the normal interaction between gold and mica under surface potential regulation, revealing three interaction regimes - pure attraction, non-monotonic interaction from electrostatic repulsion to attraction (owing to charge inversion) and pure repulsion. Accordingly, the adhesion energy between the surfaces was found to vary both in no added salt water and, more strongly, in electrolyte solution. We justify this potential-dependent variation of adhesion energy in terms of the interplay between electrostatic energy and van der Waals (vdW) interaction at contact, and attribute the difference between the two cases to the weaker vdW interaction in electrolyte solution. Finally, we showed that through abruptly altering the gold surface potential from negative to positive and vice versa, the adhesion between gold and mica can be reversibly switched on and off. We surmise that the process of bringing the surface into contact is associated with the formation of a strong electric field O (10 8 V m -1 ) in the intersurface

  11. Statistical Design Model (SDM) of satellite thermal control subsystem (United States)

    Mirshams, Mehran; Zabihian, Ehsan; Aarabi Chamalishahi, Mahdi


    Satellites thermal control, is a satellite subsystem that its main task is keeping the satellite components at its own survival and activity temperatures. Ability of satellite thermal control plays a key role in satisfying satellite's operational requirements and designing this subsystem is a part of satellite design. In the other hand due to the lack of information provided by companies and designers still doesn't have a specific design process while it is one of the fundamental subsystems. The aim of this paper, is to identify and extract statistical design models of spacecraft thermal control subsystem by using SDM design method. This method analyses statistical data with a particular procedure. To implement SDM method, a complete database is required. Therefore, we first collect spacecraft data and create a database, and then we extract statistical graphs using Microsoft Excel, from which we further extract mathematical models. Inputs parameters of the method are mass, mission, and life time of the satellite. For this purpose at first thermal control subsystem has been introduced and hardware using in the this subsystem and its variants has been investigated. In the next part different statistical models has been mentioned and a brief compare will be between them. Finally, this paper particular statistical model is extracted from collected statistical data. Process of testing the accuracy and verifying the method use a case study. Which by the comparisons between the specifications of thermal control subsystem of a fabricated satellite and the analyses results, the methodology in this paper was proved to be effective. Key Words: Thermal control subsystem design, Statistical design model (SDM), Satellite conceptual design, Thermal hardware

  12. Effects of LDEF flight exposure on selected polymeric films and thermal control coatings (United States)

    Slemp, Wayne S.; Young, Philip R.; Shen, James Y.


    The characterization of polymeric films and thermal control coatings which were exposed for five years and ten months to the low-Earth environment is reported. Changes in solar absorptance, thermal emittance, and transmission are compared to laboratory control specimens. Sputter-deposited metallic coatings are shown to eliminate atomic oxygen erosion of resin matrix composite materials. The effects of long-term atomic oxygen exposure to metallized FEP Teflon film is characterized. Chemical characterization of polymeric films indicates that although surface erosion occurs, the molecular structure of the basic polymeric film has not changed significantly in response to this exposure.

  13. Variations and controls on crustal thermal regimes in Southeastern Australia (United States)

    Mather, Ben; McLaren, Sandra; Taylor, David; Roy, Sukanta; Moresi, Louis


    The surface heat flow field in Australia has for many years been poorly constrained compared to continental regions elsewhere. 182 recent heat flow determinations and 66 new heat production measurements for Southeastern Australia significantly increase our understanding of local and regional lithospheric thermal regimes and allow for detailed thermal modelling. The new data give a mean surface heat flow for Victoria of 71 ± 15 mW m- 2 which fits within the 61-77 mW m- 2 range reported for Phanerozoic-aged crust globally. These data reveal three new thermally and compositionally distinct heat flow sub-provinces within the previously defined Eastern Heat Flow Province: the Delamerian heat flow sub-province (average surface heat flow 60 ± 9 mW m- 2); the Lachlan heat flow sub-province (average surface heat flow 74 ± 13 mW m- 2); and the Newer Volcanics heat flow sub-province (average surface heat flow 72 ± 16 mW m- 2) which includes extreme values that locally exceed 100 mW m- 2. Inversions of reduced heat flow and crustal differentiation find that the Delamerian sub-province has experienced significant crustal reworking compared to the Lachlan and Newer Volcanics sub-provinces. The latter has experienced volcanism within the last 8 Ma and the degree of variability observed in surface heat flow points (up to 8 mW m- 2 per kilometre laterally) cannot be replicated with steady-state thermal models through this sub-province. In the absence of a strong palaeoclimate signal, aquifer disturbances, or highly enriched granites, we suggest that this high variability arises from localised transient perturbations to the upper crust associated with recent intraplate volcanism. This is supported by a strong spatial correlation of high surface heat flow and known eruption points within the Newer Volcanics heat flow sub-province.

  14. Thermal Storage Power Balancing with Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Madsen, Henrik


    The method described in this paper balances power production and consumption with a large number of thermal loads. Linear controllers are used for the loads to track a temperature set point, while Model Predictive Control (MPC) and model estimation of the load behavior are used for coordination...

  15. Kinetic Monte Carlo study on the evolution of silicon surface roughness under hydrogen thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Yu; Wang, Junzhuan; Pan, Lijia; Yu, Linwei; Zheng, Youdou; Shi, Yi, E-mail:


    Highlights: • The KMC method is adopted to investigate the relationships between surface evolution and hydrogen thermal treatment conditions. • The reduction in surface roughness is divided into two stages at relatively low temperatures, both exhibiting exponential dependence on the time. • The optimized surface structure can be obtained by precisely adjusting thermal treatment temperatures and hydrogen pressures. - Abstract: The evolution of a two-dimensional silicon surface under hydrogen thermal treatment is studied by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, focusing on the dependence of the migration behaviors of surface atoms on both the temperature and hydrogen pressure. We adopt different activation energies to analyze the influence of hydrogen pressure on the evolution of surface morphology at high temperatures. The reduction in surface roughness is divided into two stages, both exhibiting exponential dependence on the equilibrium time. Our results indicate that a high hydrogen pressure is conducive to obtaining optimized surfaces, as a strategy in the applications of three-dimensional devices.

  16. Disilicate Dental Ceramic Surface Preparation by 1070 nm Fiber Laser: Thermal and Ultrastructural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fornaini


    Full Text Available Lithium disilicate dental ceramic bonding, realized by using different resins, is strictly dependent on micro-mechanical retention and chemical adhesion. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the capability of a 1070 nm fiber laser for their surface treatment. Samples were irradiated by a pulsed fiber laser at 1070 nm with different parameters (peak power of 5, 7.5 and 10 kW, repetition rate (RR 20 kHz, speed of 10 and 50 mm/s, and total energy density from 1.3 to 27 kW/cm2 and the thermal elevation during the experiment was recorded by a fiber Bragg grating (FBG temperature sensor. Subsequently, the surface modifications were analyzed by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. With a peak power of 5 kW, RR of 20 kHz, and speed of 50 mm/s, the microscopic observation of the irradiated surface showed increased roughness with small areas of melting and carbonization. EDS analysis revealed that, with these parameters, there are no evident differences between laser-processed samples and controls. Thermal elevation during laser irradiation ranged between 5 °C and 9 °C. A 1070 nm fiber laser can be considered as a good device to increase the adhesion of lithium disilicate ceramics when optimum parameters are considered.

  17. Osteogenic potential of in situ TiO{sub 2} nanowire surfaces formed by thermal oxidation of titanium alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, A.W. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ismail, R.; Chua, K.H. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Malaysia, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ahmad, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Akbar, S.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pingguan-Murphy, B., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)


    Highlights: • In situ titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanowire surface structures were fabricated on Ti-6Al-4V substrate using thermal oxidation. • Initial cell adhesion, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell mineralization, and osteogenic related gene expression of primary human osteoblasts were examined on the TiO{sub 2} nanowire surfaces. • TiO{sub 2} nanowire surfaces showed enhanced osteogenic potential as compared to the planar surface. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanowire surface structures were fabricated in situ by a thermal oxidation process, and their ability to enhance the osteogenic potential of primary osteoblasts was investigated. Human osteoblasts were isolated from nasal bone and cultured on a TiO{sub 2} nanowires coated substrate to assess its in vitro cellular interaction. Bare featureless Ti-6Al-4V substrate was used as a control surface. Initial cell adhesion, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell mineralization, and osteogenic related gene expression were examined on the TiO{sub 2} nanowire surfaces as compared to the control surfaces after 2 weeks of culturing. Cell adhesion and cell proliferation were assayed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Alamar Blue reduction assay, respectively. The nanowire surfaces promoted better cell adhesion and spreading than the control surface, as well as leading to higher cell proliferation. Our results showed that osteoblasts grown onto the TiO{sub 2} nanowire surfaces displayed significantly higher production levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), extracellular (ECM) mineralization and genes expression of runt-related transcription factor (Runx2), bone sialoprotein (BSP), ostoepontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) compared to the control surfaces. This suggests the potential use of such surface modification on Ti-6Al-4V substrates as a promising means to improve the osteointegration of titanium based implants.

  18. Surface-Controlled Metal Oxide Resistive Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Ke, Jr-Jian


    To explore the surface effect on resistive random-access memory (ReRAM), the impact of surface roughness on the characteristics of ZnO ReRAM were studied. The thickness-independent resistance and the higher switching probability of ZnO ReRAM with rough surfaces indicate the importance of surface oxygen chemisorption on the switching process. Furthermore, the improvements in switching probability, switching voltage and resistance distribution observed for ReRAM with rough surfaces can be attributed to the stable oxygen adatoms under various ambience conditions. The findings validate the surface-controlled stability and uniformity of ReRAM and can serve as the guideline for developing practical device applications.

  19. Controllable Thermal Rectification Realized in Binary Phase Change Composites (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Cui, Yalong; Tian, He; Yao, Ruimin; Liu, Zhenpu; Shu, Yi; Li, Cheng; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tianling; Zhang, Gang; Zou, Ruqiang


    Phase transition is a natural phenomenon happened around our daily life, represented by the process from ice to water. While melting and solidifying at a certain temperature, a high heat of fusion is accompanied, classified as the latent heat. Phase change material (PCM) has been widely applied to store and release large amount of energy attributed to the distinctive thermal behavior. Here, with the help of nanoporous materials, we introduce a general strategy to achieve the binary eicosane/PEG4000 stuffed reduced graphene oxide aerogels, which has two ends with different melting points. It's successfully demonstrated this binary PCM composites exhibits thermal rectification characteristic. Partial phase transitions within porous networks instantaneously result in one end of the thermal conductivity saltation at a critical temperature, and therefore switch on or off the thermal rectification with the coefficient up to 1.23. This value can be further raised by adjusting the loading content of PCM. The uniqueness of this device lies in its performance as a normal thermal conductor at low temperature, only exhibiting rectification phenomenon when temperature is higher than a critical value. The stated technology has broad applications for thermal energy control in macroscopic scale such as energy-efficiency building or nanodevice thermal management.

  20. Environmental controls on the thermal structure of alpine glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Wilson


    Full Text Available Water entrapped in glacier accumulation zones represents a significant latent heat contribution to the development of thermal structure. It also provides a direct link between glacier environments and thermal regimes. We apply a two-dimensional mechanically-coupled model of heat flow to synthetic glacier geometries in order to explore the environmental controls on flowband thermal structure. We use this model to test the sensitivity of thermal structure to physical and environmental variables and to explore glacier thermal response to environmental changes. In different conditions consistent with a warming climate, mean glacier temperature and the volume of temperate ice may either increase or decrease, depending on the competing effects of elevated meltwater production, reduced accumulation zone extent and thinning firn. For two model reference states that exhibit commonly-observed thermal structures, the fraction of temperate ice is shown to decline with warming air temperatures. Mass balance and aquifer sensitivities play an important role in determining how the englacial thermal regimes of alpine glaciers will adjust in the future.

  1. Environmental Control Unit with Integral Thermal Storage (United States)


    Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I project, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) evaluated an Environmental Control Unit ( ECU ) that uses during the coolest part of the day, the PHX can reduce the power consumption of an ECU by up to 10% over a 24 hour period. The PHX was...Leveling 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 2 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT

  2. Precision Control of Thermal Transport in Cryogenic Single-Crystal Silicon Devices (United States)

    Rostem, K.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F. A.; Crowe, E. J.; Denis, K. L.; Lourie, N. P.; Moseley, S. H.; Stevenson, T. R.; Wollack, E. J.


    We report on the diffusive-ballistic thermal conductance of multi-moded single-crystal silicon beams measured below 1 K. It is shown that the phonon mean-free-path is a strong function of the surface roughness characteristics of the beams. This effect is enhanced in diffuse beams with lengths much larger than, even when the surface is fairly smooth, 510 nm rms, and the peak thermal wavelength is 0.6 microns. Resonant phonon scattering has been observed in beams with a pitted surface morphology and characteristic pit depth of 30 nm. Hence, if the surface roughness is not adequately controlled, the thermal conductance can vary significantly for diffuse beams fabricated across a wafer. In contrast, when the beam length is of order, the conductance is dominated by ballistic transport and is effectively set by the beam cross-sectional area. We have demonstrated a uniformity of +/-8% in fractional deviation for ballistic beams, and this deviation is largely set by the thermal conductance of diffuse beams that support the micro-electro-mechanical device and electrical leads. In addition, we have found no evidence for excess specific heat in single-crystal silicon membranes. This allows for the precise control of the device heat capacity with normal metal films. We discuss the results in the context of the design and fabrication of large-format arrays of far-infrared and millimeter wavelength cryogenic detectors.

  3. Mid-infrared thermal imaging for an effective mapping of surface materials and sub-surface detachments in mural paintings: integration of thermography and thermal quasi-reflectography (United States)

    Daffara, C.; Parisotto, S.; Mariotti, P. I.


    Cultural Heritage is discovering how precious is thermal analysis as a tool to improve the restoration, thanks to its ability to inspect hidden details. In this work a novel dual mode imaging approach, based on the integration of thermography and thermal quasi-reflectography (TQR) in the mid-IR is demonstrated for an effective mapping of surface materials and of sub-surface detachments in mural painting. The tool was validated through a unique application: the "Monocromo" by Leonardo da Vinci in Italy. The dual mode acquisition provided two spatially aligned dataset: the TQR image and the thermal sequence. Main steps of the workflow included: 1) TQR analysis to map surface features and 2) to estimate the emissivity; 3) projection of the TQR frame on reference orthophoto and TQR mosaicking; 4) thermography analysis to map detachments; 5) use TQR to solve spatial referencing and mosaicking for the thermal-processed frames. Referencing of thermal images in the visible is a difficult aspect of the thermography technique that the dual mode approach allows to solve in effective way. We finally obtained the TQR and the thermal maps spatially referenced to the mural painting, thus providing the restorer a valuable tool for the restoration of the detachments.

  4. Novel Thermal Control Concepts Using Micro Heat Pipes - Spacecraft Thermal Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peterson, G


    ...; Flexible polymer heat pipes have been fabricated and modeled; Theses polymer heat pipes offer a greater degree of flexibility and a potentially higher effective thermal conductivity than any previously developed...

  5. Automation and control of the MMT thermal system (United States)

    Gibson, J. D.; Porter, Dallan; Goble, William


    This study investigates the software automation and control framework for the MMT thermal system. Thermal-related effects on observing and telescope behavior have been considered during the entire software development process. Regression analysis of telescope and observatory subsystem data is used to characterize and model these thermal-related effects. The regression models help predict expected changes in focus and overall astronomical seeing that result from temperature variations within the telescope structure, within the primary mirror glass, and between the primary mirror glass and adjacent air (i.e., mirror seeing). This discussion is followed by a description of ongoing upgrades to the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system and the associated software controls. The improvements of the MMT thermal system have two objectives: 1) to provide air conditioning capabilities for the MMT facilities, and 2) to modernize and enhance the primary mirror (M1) ventilation system. The HVAC upgrade necessitates changes to the automation and control of the M1 ventilation system. The revised control system must factor in the additional requirements of the HVAC system, while still optimizing performance of the M1 ventilation system and the M1's optical behavior. An industry-standard HVAC communication and networking protocol, BACnet (Building Automation and Control network), has been adopted. Integration of the BACnet protocol into the existing software framework at the MMT is discussed. Performance of the existing automated system is evaluated and a preliminary upgraded automated control system is presented. Finally, user interfaces to the new HVAC system are discussed.

  6. Structure and method for controlling the thermal emissivity of a radiating object (United States)

    DeSteese, John G.; Antoniak, Zenen I.; White, Michael; Peters, Timothy J.


    A structure and method for changing or controlling the thermal emissivity of the surface of an object in situ, and thus, changing or controlling the radiative heat transfer between the object and its environment in situ, is disclosed. Changing or controlling the degree of blackbody behavior of the object is accomplished by changing or controlling certain physical characteristics of a cavity structure on the surface of the object. The cavity structure, defining a plurality of cavities, may be formed by selectively removing material(s) from the surface, selectively adding a material(s) to the surface, or adding an engineered article(s) to the surface to form a new radiative surface. The physical characteristics of the cavity structure that are changed or controlled include cavity area aspect ratio, cavity longitudinal axis orientation, and combinations thereof. Controlling the cavity area aspect ratio may be by controlling the size of the cavity surface area, the size of the cavity aperture area, or a combination thereof. The cavity structure may contain a gas, liquid, or solid that further enhances radiative heat transfer control and/or improves other properties of the object while in service.

  7. Joint excitation and reactive power control in thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragosavac Jasna


    Full Text Available The coordinated voltage and reactive power controller, designed for the thermal power plant, is presented in the paper. A brief explanation of the need for such device is given and justification for commissioning of such equipment is outlined. After short description of the theoretical background of the proposed control design, the achieved features of the commissioned equipment are fully given. Achieved performances are illustrated by recorded reactive power and bus voltage responses after commissioning of the described equipment into the largest thermal power plant in Serbia. As it can be seen in presented records, all design targets are met.

  8. Design and performance of Skylab thermal/environmental control system (United States)

    Hopson, G. D.; Littles, J. W.; Patterson, W. C.


    The function of the thermal/environmental control systems was to provide a comfortable thermal environment for the crew, to cool electronic components, to supply a controlled oxygen/nitrogen atmosphere, and to remove moisture, carbon dioxide, odors, and trace contaminants from the atmosphere. A separate refrigeration system was used to chill and freeze food and biomedical samples and to provide cold water for drinking. This paper describes system design and compares in-flight performance to preflight predictions. A discussion of in-flight anomalies and corrective actions is also included.

  9. Thermal Stress of Surface of Mold Cavities and Parting Line of Silicone Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajčičák Martin


    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the study of thermal stress of surface of mold cavities and parting line of silicone molds after pouring. The silicone mold White SD - THT was thermally stressed by pouring of ZnAl4Cu3 zinc alloy with pouring cycle 20, 30 and 40 seconds. The most thermally stressed part of surface at each pouring cycle is gating system and mold cavities. It could be further concluded that linear increase of the pouring cycle time leads to the exponential increasing of the maximum temperature of mold surface after its cooling. The elongated pouring cycle increases the temperature accumulated on the surface of cavities and the ability of silicone mold to conduct the heat on its surface decreases, because the low thermal conductivity of silicone molds enables the conduction of larger amount of heat into ambient environment.

  10. Thermal Stress of Surface of Mold Cavities and Parting Line of Silicone Molds (United States)

    Bajčičák, Martin; Šuba, Roland


    The paper is focused on the study of thermal stress of surface of mold cavities and parting line of silicone molds after pouring. The silicone mold White SD - THT was thermally stressed by pouring of ZnAl4Cu3 zinc alloy with pouring cycle 20, 30 and 40 seconds. The most thermally stressed part of surface at each pouring cycle is gating system and mold cavities. It could be further concluded that linear increase of the pouring cycle time leads to the exponential increasing of the maximum temperature of mold surface after its cooling. The elongated pouring cycle increases the temperature accumulated on the surface of cavities and the ability of silicone mold to conduct the heat on its surface decreases, because the low thermal conductivity of silicone molds enables the conduction of larger amount of heat into ambient environment.

  11. JCMT active surface control system: implementation (United States)

    Smith, Ian A.


    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii is a 15 meter sub-millimeter telescope which operates in the 350 microns to 2 millimeter region. The primary antenna surface consists of 276 panels, each of which is positioned by 3 stepper motors. In order to achieve the highest possible surface accuracy we are embarking upon a project to actively control the position of the panels adjuster system is based on a 6809 micro connected to the control computer by a GPIB interface. This system is slow and inflexible and it would prove difficult to build an active surface control system with it. Part of the upgrade project is to replace the existing micro with a 68060 VME micro. The poster paper will describe how the temperature of the antenna is monitored with the new system, how a Finite Element Analyses package transforms temperature changes into a series of panel adjuster moves, and how these moves are then applied to the surface. The FEA package will run on a high end Sun workstation. A series of DRAMA tasks distributed between the workstation and the Baja 68060 VxWorks Active Surface Control System micro will control the temperature monitoring, FEA and panel adjustment activities. Users can interact with the system via a Tcl/TK based GUI.

  12. Mapping Thermal Habitat of Ectotherms Based on Behavioral Thermoregulation in a Controlled Thermal Environment (United States)

    Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.; Liu, Y.


    Thermal environment is especially important to ectotherm because a lot of physiological functions rely on the body temperature such as thermoregulation. The so-called behavioural thermoregulation function made use of the heterogeneity of the thermal properties within an individual's habitat to sustain the animal's physiological processes. This function links the spatial utilization and distribution of individual ectotherm with the thermal properties of habitat (thermal habitat). In this study we modelled the relationship between the two by a spatial explicit model that simulates the movements of a lizard in a controlled environment. The model incorporates a lizard's transient body temperatures with a cellular automaton algorithm as a way to link the physiology knowledge of the animal with the spatial utilization of its microhabitat. On a larger spatial scale, 'thermal roughness' of the habitat was defined and used to predict the habitat occupancy of the target species. The results showed the habitat occupancy can be modelled by the cellular automaton based algorithm at a smaller scale, and can be modelled by the thermal roughness index at a larger scale.

  13. Temperature comparison of different reflective surfaces of a solar thermal collector (United States)

    Koh, Yit Yan; Chua, Yaw Long; Chin, Kiat Keong


    With the rapid depletion of fossil fuels, the search for application of alternative energy sources becomes more important than ever before. Solar energy has been identified as one of the major renewable energy that will contribute to power generation is years to come. There are two major categories of solar energy applications. Solar thermal collector is one of it. This paper presents an investigation on the effect of different reflecting surfaces on solar thermal collector. Three different reflective surfaces were applied on the surface of the solar thermal collector. Data was collected and analyzed. From the results, the aluminum mirror sheet performed best.

  14. Estimation of surface heat flux for ablation and charring of thermal protection material (United States)

    Qian, Wei-qi; He, Kai-feng; Zhou, Yu


    Ablation of the thermal protection material of the reentry hypersonic flight vehicle is a complex physical and chemical process. To estimate the surface heat flux from internal temperature measurement is much more complex than the conventional inverse heat conduction problem case. In the paper, by utilizing a two-layer pyrogeneration-plane ablation model to model the ablation and charring of the material, modifying the finite control volume method to suit for the numerical simulation of the heat conduction equation with variable-geometry, the CGM along with the associated adjoint problem is developed to estimate the surface heat flux. This estimation method is verified with a numerical example at first, the results show that the estimation method is feasible and robust. The larger is the measurement noise, the greater is the deviation of the estimated result from the exact value, and the measurement noise of ablated surface position has a significant and more direct influence on the estimated result of surface heat flux. Furthermore, the estimation method is used to analyze the experimental data of ablation of blunt Carbon-phenolic material Narmco4028 in an arc-heater. It is shown that the estimated surface heat flux agrees with the heating power value of the arc-heater, and the estimation method is basically effective and potential to treat the engineering heat conduction problem with ablation.

  15. TERRA Battery Thermal Control Anomaly - Simulation and Corrective Actions (United States)

    Grob, Eric W.


    The TERRA spacecraft was launched in December 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, becoming the flagship of NASA's Earth Observing System program to gather data on how the planet's processes create climate. Originally planned as a 5 year mission, it still provides valuable science data after nearly 10 years on orbit. On October 13th, 2009 at 16:23z following a routine inclination maneuver, TERRA experienced a battery cell failure and a simultaneous failure of several battery heater control circuits used to maintain cell temperatures and gradients within the battery. With several cells nearing the minimum survival temperature, preventing the electrolyte from freezing was the first priority. After several reset attempts and power cycling of the control electronics failed to reestablish control authority on the primary side of the controller, it was switched to the redundant side, but anomalous performance again prevented full heater control of the battery cells. As the investigation into the cause of the anomaly and corrective action continued, a battery thermal model was developed to be used in determining the control ability remaining and to simulate and assess corrective actions. Although no thermal model or detailed reference data of the battery was available, sufficient information was found to allow a simplified model to be constructed, correlated against pre-anomaly telemetry, and used to simulate the thermal behavior at several points after the anomaly. It was then used to simulate subsequent corrective actions to assess their impact on cell temperatures. This paper describes the rapid development of this thermal model, including correlation to flight data before and after the anomaly., along with a comparative assessment of the analysis results used to interpret the telemetry to determine the extent of damage to the thermal control hardware, with near-term corrective actions and long-term operations plan to overcome the anomaly.

  16. Heat and water transfer at the bare soil surface : aspects affecting thermal imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berge, ten H.F.M.


    Surface temperature as assessed by means of thermal infra red remote sensing is affected by a number of soil properties. The sensitivity of surface temperature and surface energy fluxes to variations in physical soil properties is studied by means of a numerical simulation

  17. Enhanced Thermal Transport of Surfaces with Superhydrophobic Coatings (United States)


    water droplets placed on the surface of the lotus leaf is 160°.1 Superhydrophobic surfaces have potential applications in self-cleaning surfaces,2...modified from a hydrophilic chemistry (oxide) to a hydrophobic surface using a fluorinated (or protonated) self-assembled monolayer (SAM). be less than 170°. In a separate experiment, a polished Cu pipe was treated with hydrochloric acid, silver nitrate, and fluorinated SAM as above

  18. Different Approaches to Control of TISO Thermal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava KRÁLOVÁ


    Full Text Available The contribution is aimed on problematic of multivariable control. Multivariable system can be controlled by multivariable controller or we can use decentralized control. Control of thermal system with two inputs and one output is shown in the paper. The goal of paper is to find what sort of results we can get by classical approaches and by more sophisticated strategies. Two discrete-time PID controllers are selected as a representative of classical approach and split-range with discrete-time PID controller is selected as a representative of more sophisticated strategy. Control strategies are compared in the view of control quality and costs, information and knowledge required by control design and application.

  19. Structural design aspects of reusable surface insulation thermal protection systems. (United States)

    Michalak, R. J.; Hess, T. E.; Gluck, R. L.


    Low density fiber ceramic materials coated with refractory ceramics meet the requirements of reusable low weight thermal protection systems. The structural characteristics of this class of material impose unique design and analysis requirements on the application to spacecraft structural elements. Finite element type stress analysis techniques are required to adequately predict the structural response of the system. Parametric analyses have been performed to determine the response of the system to variations in geometry, and to thermal and structural load conditions. Sensitivity of coating, insulation and attachment stresses are presented and critical failure modes are identified.

  20. Computer numeric control generation of toric surfaces (United States)

    Bradley, Norman D.; Ball, Gary A.; Keller, John R.


    Until recently, the manufacture of toric ophthalmic lenses relied largely upon expensive, manual techniques for generation and polishing. Recent gains in computer numeric control (CNC) technology and tooling enable lens designers to employ single- point diamond, fly-cutting methods in the production of torics. Fly-cutting methods continue to improve, significantly expanding lens design possibilities while lowering production costs. Advantages of CNC fly cutting include precise control of surface geometry, rapid production with high throughput, and high-quality lens surface finishes requiring minimal polishing. As accessibility and affordability increase within the ophthalmic market, torics promise to dramatically expand lens design choices available to consumers.

  1. Overview of the Altair Lunar Lander Thermal Control System Design and the Impacts of Global Access (United States)

    Stephan, Ryan A.


    NASA's Constellation Program (CxP) was developed to successfully return humans to the Lunar surface prior to 2020. The CxP included several different project offices including Altair, which was planned to be the next generation Lunar Lander. The Altair missions were architected to be quite different than the Lunar missions accomplished during the Apollo era. These differences resulted in a significantly dissimilar Thermal Control System (TCS) design. The current paper will summarize the Altair mission architecture and the various operational phases associated with the planned mission. In addition, the derived thermal requirements and the TCS designed to meet these unique and challenging thermal requirements will be presented. During the past year, the design team has focused on developing a vehicle architecture capable of accessing the entire Lunar surface. Due to the widely varying Lunar thermal environment, this global access requirement resulted in major changes to the thermal control system architecture. These changes, and the rationale behind the changes, will be detailed throughout the current paper.

  2. Surface Response of Brominated Carbon Media on Laser and Thermal Excitation: Optical and Thermal Analysis Study. (United States)

    Multian, Volodymyr V; Kinzerskyi, Fillip E; Vakaliuk, Anna V; Grishchenko, Liudmyla M; Diyuk, Vitaliy E; Boldyrieva, Olga Yu; Kozhanov, Vadim O; Mischanchuk, Oleksandr V; Lisnyak, Vladyslav V; Gayvoronsky, Volodymyr Ya


    The present study is objected to develop an analytical remote optical diagnostics of the functionalized carbons surface. Carbon composites with up to 1 mmol g-1 of irreversibly adsorbed bromine were produced by the room temperature plasma treatment of an activated carbon fabric (ACF) derived from polyacrylonitrile textile. The brominated ACF (BrACF) was studied by elastic optical scattering indicatrix analysis at wavelength 532 nm. The obtained data were interpreted within results of the thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry. The bromination dramatically reduces the microporosity producing practically non-porous material, while the incorporated into the micropores bromine induces the dielectric and structural impact on surface polarizability and conductivity due to the charging effect. We have found that the elastic optical scattering in proper solid angles in the forward and the backward hemispheres is sensitive to the kind of the bromine bonding, e.g., physical adsorption or chemisorption, and the bromination level, respectively, that can be utilized for the express remote fabrication control of the nanoscale carbons with given interfaces.

  3. Surface modification of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds by non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatment for improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yu-Ri [Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Orofacial Hard Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jae-Sung [Research Center for Orofacial Hard Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Doo-Hoon [Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Orofacial Hard Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Ha [Plasma Bioscience Research Center Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701, 447-1 Wokgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong-Keun [Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung-Nam [Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Orofacial Hard Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang-Mahn, E-mail: [Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Orofacial Hard Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)


    Surface modifications induced by non-thermal plasma have been used extensively in biomedical applications. The attachment and proliferation of osteoblast cells are important in bone tissue engineering using scaffolds. Hence the effect of non-thermal plasma on hydroxyapatite/β-tri-calcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) scaffolds in terms of improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation was investigated. Experimental groups were treated with non-thermal plasma for 10 min and 20 min and a control group was not treated with non-thermal plasma. For surface chemistry analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was carried out. The hydrophilicity was determined from contact angle measurement on the surface. Atomic force microscopy analysis (AFM) was used to test the change in surface roughness and cell attachment and proliferation were evaluated using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. XPS spectra revealed a decreased amount of carbon on the surface of the plasma-treated sample. The contact angle was also decreased following plasma treatment, indicating improved hydrophilicity of plasma-treated surfaces compared to the untreated disc. A significant increase in MC3T3E-1 cell attachment and proliferation was noted on plasma-treated samples as compared to untreated specimens. The results suggest that non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatments provide beneficial surface characteristics on HA/β-TCP scaffolds. - Highlights: ► Non-thermal plasma increased OH- and decreased C on biphasic scaffold. ► Non-thermal plasma had no effect on surface roughness. ► Non-thermal plasma resulted in hydrophilic surface. ► Non-thermal plasma resulted in better cell attachment and proliferation. ► Non-thermal plasma treatment on biphasic scaffold is useful for tissue engineering.

  4. Thermal Performance of Hollow Clay Brick with Low Emissivity Treatment in Surface Enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fioretti


    Full Text Available External walls made with hollow clay brick or block are widely used for their thermal, acoustic and structural properties. However, the performance of the bricks frequently does not conform with the minimum legal requirements or the values required for high efficiency buildings, and for this reason, they need to be integrated with layers of thermal insulation. In this paper, the thermal behavior of hollow clay block with low emissivity treatment on the internal cavity surfaces has been investigated. The purpose of this application is to obtain a reduction in the thermal conductivity of the block by lowering the radiative heat exchange in the enclosures. The aims of this paper are to indicate a methodology for evaluating the thermal performance of the brick and to provide information about the benefits that should be obtained. Theoretical evaluations are carried out on several bricks (12 geometries simulated with two different thermal conductivities of the clay, using a finite elements model. The heat exchange procedure is implemented in accordance with the standard, so as to obtain standardized values of the thermal characteristics of the block. Several values of emissivity are hypothesized, related to different kinds of coating. Finally, the values of the thermal transmittance of walls built with the evaluated blocks have been calculated and compared. The results show how coating the internal surface of the cavity provides a reduction in the thermal conductivity of the block, of between 26% and 45%, for a surface emissivity of 0.1.

  5. Thermal stability of porous sol-gel phosphosilicates and their surface area stabilisation by lanthanum addition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, Lorena; De Mendonca, Mariana Van Den Tempel; Mercadal, Juan J.; Zarubina, Valeriya; Melián-Cabrera, Ignacio


    The thermal stability of porous sol-gel phosphosilicates was studied by comparing the textural features upon calcination between 400 and 550 °C. A significant loss of surface area and pore volume were observed; the first is due to thermal coarsening of the nanoparticles, and the pore volume

  6. Role of surface thermal properties of HfB2 nanoparticles on heat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hafnium diboride nanoparticles; multi-walled carbon nanotube; phenolic composites; thermal management. ... heatthroughout the sample, thereby reducing thermal gradients, reducing the intensity of heating at the surface exposed to flame,and insulating the carbonaceous char with the network of HfO 2 /MWCNT/char.

  7. Inorganic Zn2TiO4 thermal control coatings (United States)

    Harada, Y.; Wilkes, D. R.


    Silicate-bonded zinc orthotitanate thermal control coatings for space applications have been developed. This paper discusses preparation of the pigment, paint formulation and application, and some properties of the coatings. Very high reflectance (low solar absorptance), high emittance, and good stability in an ultraviolet-vacuum environment are indicated for this paint.

  8. Electrically conductive, black thermal control coatings for spacecraft application. I - Silicate matrix formulation (United States)

    Bauer, J. L.; Odonnell, T. P.; Hribar, V. F.


    The formulation of the graphite silicate paints MH-11 and MH-11Z, which will serve as electrically conductive, heat-resistant thermal control coatings for the Galileo spacecraft's 400 Newton engine plume shield, 10 Newton thruster plume shields, and external shunt radiators, is described, and performance results for these paints are reported. The MH-11 is produced by combining a certain grade of graphite powder with a silicate base to produce a black, inorganic, electrically conductive, room temperature cure thermal control paint having high temperature capability. Zinc oxide is added to the MH-11 formulation to produce the blister resistant painta MH-11Z. The mechanical, chemical, thermal, optical, and radiation characteristics of the coatings are reported. The formulation, mixing, application, and surface preparation of the substrates are described, and a method of determining the electrical resistance of the coatings is demonstrated.

  9. Effect of urban albedo surfaces on thermal comfort | Mansouri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They have addressed this issue in order to identify the main causes that generate the warming of urban areas and therefore contribute to the degradation of the exterior and interior thermal comfort of the inhabitants. It turns out that the reflectivity of materials known as the albedo, plays a leading role in this degradation.

  10. Controllable wettability and morphology of electrodeposited surfaces on zinc substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Binyan; Lu, Shixiang, E-mail:; Xu, Wenguo, E-mail:; Cheng, Yuanyuan


    Graphical abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and annealing. Such superhydrophobic surfaces offer possibilities for chemical, biological, electronic and microfluidic applications. - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface was fabricated via electrodeposition of ZnO and annealing. • The ZnO hierarchical micro/nanostructures contribute to the surface superhydrophobicity. • Surface wettability and morphology can be controlled by varying process conditions. • The anti-icing properties and reversible wetting behaviors of the ZnO coatings were studied. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching in hydrochloric acid solution, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and subsequent thermal annealing. The optimal coatings were electrodeposited at −1.25 V for 900 s on the etched zinc substrates and then annealed at 200 °C for 60 min, which could achieve a maximum water contact angle of 170 ± 2° and an ultra-low sliding angle of approximately 0°. By conducting SEM and water CA analysis, we found that the morphology and wettability of prepared samples were controllable by the fabrication process. Interestingly, even without any additional modification, the samples prepared under different electrodeposition conditions (including Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} concentration from 5 mM to 40 mM and deposition time from 300 s to 1500 s) exhibited superhydrophobic character. The influences of the Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} concentration, deposition time, annealing temperature and annealing time on the wetting behaviors were also discussed in detail. Such superhydrophobic surfaces possess long-term stability, and good corrosion resistance as well as self-cleaning ability. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the ZnO films were investigated. These surfaces could be rapidly and

  11. Model predictive control of a solar-thermal reactor (United States)

    Saade Saade, Maria Elizabeth

    Solar-thermal reactors represent a promising alternative to fossil fuels because they can harvest solar energy and transform it into storable and transportable fuels. The operation of solar-thermal reactors is restricted by the available sunlight and its inherently transient behavior, which affects the performance of the reactors and limits their efficiency. Before solar-thermal reactors can become commercially viable, they need to be able to maintain a continuous high-performance operation, even in the presence of passing clouds. A well-designed control system can preserve product quality and maintain stable product compositions, resulting in a more efficient and cost-effective operation, which can ultimately lead to scale-up and commercialization of solar thermochemical technologies. In this work, we propose a model predictive control (MPC) system for a solar-thermal reactor for the steam-gasification of biomass. The proposed controller aims at rejecting the disturbances in solar irradiation caused by the presence of clouds. A first-principles dynamic model of the process was developed. The model was used to study the dynamic responses of the process variables and to identify a linear time-invariant model used in the MPC algorithm. To provide an estimation of the disturbances for the control algorithm, a one-minute-ahead direct normal irradiance (DNI) predictor was developed. The proposed predictor utilizes information obtained through the analysis of sky images, in combination with current atmospheric measurements, to produce the DNI forecast. In the end, a robust controller was designed capable of rejecting disturbances within the operating region. Extensive simulation experiments showed that the controller outperforms a finely-tuned multi-loop feedback control strategy. The results obtained suggest that our controller is suitable for practical implementation.

  12. Performance maps for the control of thermal energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finck, Christian; Li, Rongling; Zeiler, Wim


    Predictive control in building energy systems requires the integration of the building, building system, and component dynamics. The prediction accuracy of these dynamics is crucial for practical applications. This paper introduces performance maps for the control of water tanks, phase change...... material tanks, and thermochemical material tanks. The results show that these performance maps can fully account for the dynamics of thermal energy storage tanks....

  13. Osteogenic potential of in situ TiO2 nanowire surfaces formed by thermal oxidation of titanium alloy substrate (United States)

    Tan, A. W.; Ismail, R.; Chua, K. H.; Ahmad, R.; Akbar, S. A.; Pingguan-Murphy, B.


    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowire surface structures were fabricated in situ by a thermal oxidation process, and their ability to enhance the osteogenic potential of primary osteoblasts was investigated. Human osteoblasts were isolated from nasal bone and cultured on a TiO2 nanowires coated substrate to assess its in vitro cellular interaction. Bare featureless Ti-6Al-4V substrate was used as a control surface. Initial cell adhesion, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell mineralization, and osteogenic related gene expression were examined on the TiO2 nanowire surfaces as compared to the control surfaces after 2 weeks of culturing. Cell adhesion and cell proliferation were assayed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Alamar Blue reduction assay, respectively. The nanowire surfaces promoted better cell adhesion and spreading than the control surface, as well as leading to higher cell proliferation. Our results showed that osteoblasts grown onto the TiO2 nanowire surfaces displayed significantly higher production levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), extracellular (ECM) mineralization and genes expression of runt-related transcription factor (Runx2), bone sialoprotein (BSP), ostoepontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) compared to the control surfaces. This suggests the potential use of such surface modification on Ti-6Al-4V substrates as a promising means to improve the osteointegration of titanium based implants.

  14. The synthesis of flexible zeolite nanofibers by a polymer surface thermal etching process (United States)

    Ji, Sang Hyun; Cho, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Young Hun; Yun, Jon Do; Yun, Ji Sun


    Flexible zeolite nanofibers with high surface area were synthesized by an electrospinning method and a thermal surface partial etching process. The thermal surface partial etching temperature range for maintaining flexibility of zeolite nanofibers was investigated based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and the as-spun zeolite nanofibers were thermal etched at a temperature range from 250 °C to 450 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) images clearly showed that the polymer surface of the nanofibers was partially etched, and zeolite particles were exposed on the surface of the nanofibers. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that a phase change did not occur in the zeolite nanofibers with a thermal etching process. The specific surface area characteristics were analyzed by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, and the thermal surface etched zeolite nanofibers at 400 °C had a specific surface area of 816 m2/g similar to the value of zeolite powders.

  15. Plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, M.; Costanzo, L. [and others


    This report brings together all the contributions of EURATOM/CEA association to the 14. international conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices. 24 papers are presented and they deal mainly with the ergodic divertor and the first wall of Tore-supra tokamak.

  16. Symmetry Switching of Negative Thermal Expansion by Chemical Control. (United States)

    Senn, Mark S; Murray, Claire A; Luo, Xuan; Wang, Lihai; Huang, Fei-Ting; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Bombardi, Alessandro; Ablitt, Chris; Mostofi, Arash A; Bristowe, Nicholas C


    The layered perovskite Ca3-xSrxMn2O7 is shown to exhibit a switching from a material exhibiting uniaxial negative to positive thermal expansion as a function of x. The switching is shown to be related to two closely competing phases with different symmetries. The negative thermal expansion (NTE) effect is maximized when the solid solution is tuned closest to this region of phase space but is switched off suddenly on passing though the transition. Our results show for the first time that, by understanding the symmetry of the competing phases alone, one may achieve unprecedented chemical control of this unusual property.

  17. Load Frequency Control of AC Microgrid Interconnected Thermal Power System (United States)

    Lal, Deepak Kumar; Barisal, Ajit Kumar


    In this paper, a microgrid (MG) power generation system is interconnected with a single area reheat thermal power system for load frequency control study. A new meta-heuristic optimization algorithm i.e. Moth-Flame Optimization (MFO) algorithm is applied to evaluate optimal gains of the fuzzy based proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controllers. The system dynamic performance is studied by comparing the results with MFO optimized classical PI/PID controllers. Also the system performance is investigated with fuzzy PID controller optimized by recently developed grey wolf optimizer (GWO) algorithm, which has proven its superiority over other previously developed algorithm in many interconnected power systems.

  18. The dynamical control of subduction parameters on surface topography (United States)

    Crameri, F.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Tackley, P. J.


    The long-wavelength surface deflection of Earth's outermost rocky shell is mainly controlled by large-scale dynamic processes like isostasy or mantle flow. The largest topographic amplitudes are therefore observed at plate boundaries due to the presence of large thermal heterogeneities and strong tectonic forces. Distinct vertical surface deflections are particularly apparent at convergent plate boundaries mostly due to the convergence and asymmetric sinking of the plates. Having a mantle convection model with a free surface that is able to reproduce both realistic single-sided subduction and long-wavelength surface topography self-consistently, we are now able to better investigate this interaction. We separate the topographic signal into distinct features and quantify the individual topographic contribution of several controlling subduction parameters. Results are diagnosed by splitting the topographic signal into isostatic and residual components, and by considering various physical aspects like viscous dissipation during plate bending. Performing several systematic suites of experiments, we are then able to quantify the topographic impact of the buoyancy, rheology, and geometry of the subduction-zone system to each and every topographic feature at a subduction zone and to provide corresponding scaling laws. We identify slab dip and, slightly less importantly, slab buoyancy as the major agents controlling surface topography at subduction zones on Earth. Only the island-arc high and the back-arc depression extent are mainly controlled by plate strength. Overall, his modeling study sets the basis to better constrain deep-seated mantle structures and their physical properties via the observed surface topography on present-day Earth and back through time.

  19. Weld Nugget Temperature Control in Thermal Stir Welding (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)


    A control system for a thermal stir welding system is provided. The control system includes a sensor and a controller. The sensor is coupled to the welding system's containment plate assembly and generates signals indicative of temperature of a region adjacent and parallel to the welding system's stir rod. The controller is coupled to the sensor and generates at least one control signal using the sensor signals indicative of temperature. The controller is also coupled to the welding system such that at least one of rotational speed of the stir rod, heat supplied by the welding system's induction heater, and feed speed of the welding system's weld material feeder are controlled based on the control signal(s).

  20. Low thermal emissivity surfaces using AgNW thin films (United States)

    Pantoja, Elisa; Bhatt, Rajendra; Liu, Anping; Gupta, Mool C.


    The properties of silver nanowire (AgNW) films in the optical and infrared spectral regime offer an interesting opportunity for a broad range of applications that require low-emissivity coatings. This work reports a method to reduce the thermal emissivity of substrates by the formation of low-emissivity AgNW coating films from solution. The spectral emissivity was characterized by thermal imaging with an FLIR camera, followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In a combined experimental and simulation study, we provide fundamental data of the transmittance, reflectance, haze, and emissivity of AgNW thin films. Emissivity values were finely tuned by modifying the concentration of the metal nanowires in the films. The simulation models based on the transfer matrix method developed for the AgNW thin films provided optical values that show a good agreement with the measurements.

  1. Surfactant assisted surface morphology and thermal properties of polythiophene composites (United States)

    Vijeth, H.; Niranjana, M.; Yesappa, L.; Chapi, Sharanappa; Raghu, S.; Ashokkumar, S. P.; Devendrappa, H.


    Conducting polythiophene (PTH)/aluminium oxide (Al2O3) composites was prepared with camphor sulphonic acid (CSA) as s anionic surfactant by means of in situ chemical oxidation polymerization. The morphology and material phase of PTH/Al2O3 (PTHA) composites were investigated by Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The FESEM image shows alter the size of grain and EDX results consistent with the presence of Al2O3 and CSA chemical composition. Thermal stability of composites was characterized using TGA/DSC, the results indicate that the PTP/Al2O3 composites have higher thermal stability than that of PTP and decompose at higher temperatures due to addition of anionic surfactant.

  2. Thermal stress analysis of reusable surface insulation for shuttle (United States)

    Ojalvo, I. U.; Levy, A.; Austin, F.


    An iterative procedure for accurately determining tile stresses associated with static mechanical and thermally induced internal loads is presented. The necessary conditions for convergence of the method are derived. An user-oriented computer program based upon the present method of analysis was developed. The program is capable of analyzing multi-tiled panels and determining the associated stresses. Typical numerical results from this computer program are presented.

  3. Low-Cost Radiator for Fission Power Thermal Control (United States)

    Maxwell, Taylor; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William; Hartenstine, John; Stern, Theodore; Walmsley, Nicholas; Briggs, Maxwell


    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing fission power system technology for future Lunar surface power applications. The systems are envisioned in the 10 to 100kW(sub e) range and have an anticipated design life of 8 to 15 years with no maintenance. NASA GRC is currently setting up a 55 kW(sub e) non-nuclear system ground test in thermal-vacuum to validate technologies required to transfer reactor heat, convert the heat into electricity, reject waste heat, process the electrical output, and demonstrate overall system performance. Reducing the radiator mass, size, and cost is essential to the success of the program. To meet these goals, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) and Vanguard Space Technologies, Inc. (VST) are developing a single facesheet radiator with heat pipes directly bonded to the facesheet. The facesheet material is a graphite fiber reinforced composite (GFRC) and the heat pipes are titanium/water. By directly bonding a single facesheet to the heat pipes, several heavy and expensive components can be eliminated from the traditional radiator design such as, POC(TradeMark) foam saddles, aluminum honeycomb, and a second facesheet. A two-heat pipe radiator prototype, based on the single facesheet direct-bond concept, was fabricated and tested to verify the ability of the direct-bond joint to withstand coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) induced stresses during thermal cycling. The thermal gradients along the bonds were measured before and after thermal cycle tests to determine if the performance degraded. Overall, the results indicated that the initial uniformity of the adhesive was poor along one of the heat pipes. However, both direct bond joints showed no measureable amount of degradation after being thermally cycled at both moderate and aggressive conditions.

  4. Thermal Simulation of a Contactor with Feedback Controlled Magnet System (United States)

    Ji, Liang; Chen, Degui; Liu, Yingyi; Li, Xingwen

    Similarities and differences of the thermal analysis issues between the intelligent and general AC contactors are analyzed. Heat source model of the magnet system is established according to the unique control mode of the intelligent AC contactor. Linking with the features common of the two kinds of contactors, the extension of the thermal analysis method of the general AC contactor to the intelligent AC contactor is demonstrated. Consequently, a comprehensive thermal analysis model considering heat sources of both main circuit and magnet system is constructed for the intelligent AC contactor. With this model, the steady-state temperature rise of the intelligent AC contactor is calculated and compared with the measurements of an actual intelligent AC contactor.

  5. Thermal Stress of Surface of Mold Cavities and Parting Line of Silicone Molds


    Bajčičák Martin; Šuba Roland


    The paper is focused on the study of thermal stress of surface of mold cavities and parting line of silicone molds after pouring. The silicone mold White SD - THT was thermally stressed by pouring of ZnAl4Cu3 zinc alloy with pouring cycle 20, 30 and 40 seconds. The most thermally stressed part of surface at each pouring cycle is gating system and mold cavities. It could be further concluded that linear increase of the pouring cycle time leads to the exponential increasing of the maximum tempe...

  6. Effect of Periodic Surface Air Temperature Variations on Subsurface Thermal Structure with Vertical Fluid flow (United States)

    D, R. V.; Ravi, M.; Srivastava, K.


    The influence of climate change on near subsurface temperatures is an important research topic for global change impact assessment at the regional scale. The varying temperature of the air over the surface in long term will disturb subsurface thermal structure. Groundwater flow is another important process which perturbs the thermal distribution into the subsurface. To investigate the effect of periodic air temperature on nonisothermal subsurface, one dimensional transient heat conduction-advection equation is solved numerically using finite element method. Thermal response of subsurface for periodic variations in surface air temperature (SAT) with robin type boundary condition on the surface with vertical ground water flow are calculated and the amplitude attenuation of propagation of surface temperature information in the subsurface for different scenarios of advection and convective coefficient are discussed briefly. The results show the coupled response of trigonometric variation in air temperature with surface temperatures along with ground water velocity has significant implications for the effects of climate change.

  7. Hydrogeological controls of groundwater - land surface interactions (United States)

    Bresciani, Etienne; Batelaan, Okke; Goderniaux, Pascal


    Interaction of groundwater with the land surface impacts a wide range of climatic, hydrologic, ecologic and geomorphologic processes. Many site-specific studies have successfully focused on measuring and modelling groundwater-surface water interaction, but upscaling or estimation at catchment or regional scale appears to be challenging. The factors controlling the interaction at regional scale are still poorly understood. In this contribution, a new 2-D (cross-sectional) analytical groundwater flow solution is used to derive a dimensionless criterion that expresses the conditions under which the groundwater outcrops at the land surface (Bresciani et al., 2016). The criterion gives insights into the functional relationships between geology, topography, climate and the locations of groundwater discharge along river systems. This sheds light on the debate about the topographic control of groundwater flow and groundwater-surface water interaction, as effectively the topography only influences the interaction when the groundwater table reaches the land surface. The criterion provides a practical tool to predict locations of groundwater discharge if a limited number of geomorphological and hydrogeological parameters (recharge, hydraulic conductivity and depth to impervious base) are known, and conversely it can provide regional estimates of the ratio of recharge over hydraulic conductivity if locations of groundwater discharge are known. A case study with known groundwater discharge locations located in South-West Brittany, France shows the feasibility of regional estimates of the ratio of recharge over hydraulic conductivity. Bresciani, E., Goderniaux, P. and Batelaan, O., 2016, Hydrogeological controls of water table-land surface interactions. Geophysical Research Letters 43(18): 9653-9661.

  8. An automatic energy-saving and thermal monitoring/controlling system for a pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ching-Chien


    Full Text Available Because of low temperatures and oxygen in cold water, fish will die when cold currents arrive. This will cause tremendous loss of money. In order reduce the cooling of the pond, an automatic thermal detecting and cold-roofing system using a wind-proofing device, heaters, and thermal detectors is proposed. To reduce heat loss due to thermal convection above the pond surface, a motor-driven wind-proofing device automatically controlled by a PLC controller is adopted. Here, the wind-proofing device, thermal detectors, and heating system are connected to the PLC controller. The PLC will also be connected to the PC interface. The temperature thresholds used to trigger the heater and the wind proofing device can be set at the PC interface. Two options for manipulating the heating and the automatic heating can be selected. The related wind-proofing area and the number of heaters will be determined according to the current temperature. Moreover, the PLC can be wirelessly connected to the server PC in the control room. The pond keeper can monitor everything online and control the pond water's temperature. With this, the problem of fish dying in a cold wave can be solved. Consequently, to reduce the electrical exhaust when heating up the pond water, green energy, solar energy and wind energy, is used.

  9. Corrosion and biofouling on the non-heat-exchanger surfaces of an ocean thermal energy conversion power plant: a survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelli, V.J. (ed.)


    Of the many foreseeable problems confronting economical ocean thermal energy conversion operation, two major items are the deterioration of the structural and functional components, which prevents efficient operation, and the biofouling of the surfaces, which adds excess weight to the floating ocean platform. The techniques required for effective long-term control of deterioration and corrosion have been investigated actively for many years, and successful solutions for most situations have been developed. For the most part, these solutions can be directly transferred to the ocean thermal energy conversion plant. The majority of problems in these areas are expected to be associated with scale-up and will require some advanced development due to the immensity of the ocean thermal energy conversion platform. Current antifouling control systems are not effective for long-term fouling prevention. Commercially available antifouling coatings are limited to a 3-year service life in temperate waters, and even shorter in tropical waters. However, underwater cleaning techniques and some fouling-control systems presently being used by conventional power plants may find utility on an ocean thermal energy conversion plant. In addition, some recent major advances in long-term antifouling coatings sponsored by the Navy may be applicable to ocean thermal energy conversion. 132 references.

  10. 0-π phase-controllable thermal Josephson junction (United States)

    Fornieri, Antonio; Timossi, Giuliano; Virtanen, Pauli; Solinas, Paolo; Giazotto, Francesco


    Two superconductors coupled by a weak link support an equilibrium Josephson electrical current that depends on the phase difference ϕ between the superconducting condensates. Yet, when a temperature gradient is imposed across the junction, the Josephson effect manifests itself through a coherent component of the heat current that flows opposite to the thermal gradient for |ϕ| structures opened new possibilities for superconducting quantum logic and ultralow-power superconducting computers. Here, we report the first experimental realization of a thermal Josephson junction whose phase bias can be controlled from 0 to π. This is obtained thanks to a superconducting quantum interferometer that allows full control of the direction of the coherent energy transfer through the junction. This possibility, in conjunction with the completely superconducting nature of our system, provides temperature modulations with an unprecedented amplitude of ∼100 mK and transfer coefficients exceeding 1 K per flux quantum at 25 mK. Then, this quantum structure represents a fundamental step towards the realization of caloritronic logic components such as thermal transistors, switches and memory devices. These elements, combined with heat interferometers and diodes, would complete the thermal conversion of the most important phase-coherent electronic devices and benefit cryogenic microcircuits requiring energy management, such as quantum computing architectures and radiation sensors.

  11. Surface Tension Gradients Induced by Temperature: The Thermal Marangoni Effect (United States)

    Gugliotti, Marcos; Baptisto, Mauricio S.; Politi, Mario J.


    Surface tensions gradients were generated in a thin liquid film because of the local increase in temperature, for demonstration purposes. This is performed using a simple experiment and allows different alternatives for heat generation to be used.

  12. Thermal desorption of Au from W(001) surface

    CERN Document Server

    Blaszczyszyn, R; Godowski, P J


    Adsorption of Au on W(001) at 450 K up to multilayer structures was investigated. Temperature programmed desorption technique was used in determination of coverage dependent desorption energy (region up to one monolayer). Results were discussed in terms of competitive interactions of Au-Au and Au-W atoms. Simple procedure for prediction of faceting behavior on the interface, basing on the desorption data, was postulated. It was deduced that the Au/W(001) interface should not show faceting tendency after thermal treatment. (author)

  13. Thermal study of the unilluminated surface of the waning moon (United States)

    Raine, W. L.; Segewitz, M. W.; Fountain, W. F.; Fountain, J. A.; White, M. K.; Van Swearingen, J.


    A program of lunar infrared radiometry which uses large-area scanning is described. Procedures for atmospheric-attenuation correction and data reduction to temperature by relative radiometry are outlined. The scan data of the waning moon taken during ten evenings in the 10- to 12-micron window are presented as isothermal contour maps of the lunar disk. More than 160 areas of anomalous thermal emission have been found in the lunar dark-side data. These are tabulated and are also shown on an accompanying map. An error analysis, derived from accuracy estimates of the independent parameters, is included.

  14. Thermal plasmons controlled by different thermal-convolution paths in tunable extrinsic Dirac structures (United States)

    Iurov, Andrii; Gumbs, Godfrey; Huang, Danhong; Balakrishnan, Ganesh


    Analytic expressions for chemical potentials without any approximations are derived for all types of extrinsic (doped) gapped Dirac-cone materials including gapped graphene, silicene, germanene, and single-layer transition-metal dichalcogenides. In setting up our derivations, a reliable piecewise-linear model has been established for calculating the density of states in molybdenum disulfide, showing good agreement with previously obtained numerical results. For spin- and valley-resolved band structures, a decrease of chemical potential with increasing temperature is found as a result of enhanced thermal populations of an upper subband. Due to the broken symmetry with respect to electron and hole states in MoS2, the chemical potential is shown to cross a zero-energy point at sufficiently high temperatures. It is important to mention that the chemical potential at a fixed temperature can still be tuned by varying the doping density and band structure of a system with an external electric or strain field. Since a thermal-convolution path (or a chemical-potential-dependent response function for the thermal convolution of fermions) starting from zero temperature must be selected in advance before obtaining finite-temperature properties of any collective quantities, e.g., polarizability, plasmon modes, and damping, a control of their thermal dependence within a certain temperature range is expected for field-tunable extrinsic gapped Dirac-cone materials.

  15. Isentropic thermal instability in atomic surface layers of photodissociation regions (United States)

    Krasnobaev, K. V.; Tagirova, R. R.


    We consider the evolution of an isentropic thermal instability in the atomic zone of a photodissociation region (PDR). In this zone, gas heating and cooling are associated mainly with photoelectric emission from dust grains and fine-structure lines ([C II] 158, [O I] 63 and [O I] 146 μm), respectively. The instability criterion has a multi-parametric dependence on the conditions of the interstellar medium. We found that instability occurs when the intensity of the incident far-ultraviolet field G0 and gas density n are high. For example, we have 3 × 103 360 waves is L ˜ 10-3-5 × 10-2 pc. For objects that are older than tinst and have sizes of the atomic zone larger than L, we expect that instability influences the PDR structure significantly. The presence of multiple shock waves, turbulent velocities of several kilometres per second and inhomogeneities with higher density and temperature than the surrounding medium can characterize isentropic thermal instability in PDRs.

  16. the study of thermal effect on the surface properties of gamma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    temperature became gradual. The highest specific surface area value of the gamma-alumina was obtained at a calcination temperature of 875ºC. The increase in the surface area as the thermal energy increases could be attributed to the liberation of the. SO3 from the collapse structure of crystalline aluminum sulfate to yield ...

  17. Influence of soil moisture content on surface albedo and soil thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ture on the moraine of the Zongo glacier (Bolivia): Impli- cations for land surface modeling; Geophys. Res. Lett. 36. L02405, doi: 10.1029/2008GL036377. Guan X D, Huang J P, Guo N, Bi J R and Wang G Y. 2009 Variability of soil moisture and its relationship with surface albedo and soil thermal parameters over the Loess.

  18. Controlling spontaneous combustion in surface coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eroglu, N.


    The Witbank Coalfield in South Africa has historically been mined out using the bord-and-pillar method, with typically low coal-recovery ratios, leaving significant amounts of coal in pillars and as floor and roof coal. These pillars are being re-extracted by underground and surface mining methods. During surface mining, air enters through the cracks and bords into the old workings, causing spontaneous combustion of coal. Over the long term, air will also enter the old underground bord-and-pillar workings at shallow depth through sinkholes caused by bord collapse underground. The resulting environmental problems may necessitate future rehabilitation at great cost. Existing knowledge about spontaneous combustion in opencast collieries indicates that there is no typical fire and certainly no standard technique for preventing it from happening. However, with current measures it is possible to control the spontaneous combustion of coal in opencast collieries. A project supported by Coaltech 2020, a South African coal mining Collaborative Research Programme, has been completed to develop methods for minimising and controlling spontaneous combustion in old workings by surface mining methods and applications. However, the findings and recommendations of this study, which focused on the Witbank Coalfield, can be adapted to other surface coal mines. 11 figs.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Tosello, Guido

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This document...... contains a short description of each case story, 3-D roughness parameters analysis and relation with the product’s functionality....

  20. Electrostatic Control of Protein-Surface Interactions (United States)


    noncovalently -assembled superstructures from the controlled aggregation of β-strand peptides into fibrils and fibers. These structures are predicted to...interactions (such as hydrogen bonding ) with important small molecule nutrients This could be accomplished by synthesizing unnatural amino acids into Figure 3, which demonstrates how the noncovalent interaction of peptides with various functional groups on the surface will impact the adsorption

  1. Proportional and Integral Thermal Control System for Large Scale Heating Tests (United States)

    Fleischer, Van Tran


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) Flight Loads Laboratory is a unique national laboratory that supports thermal, mechanical, thermal/mechanical, and structural dynamics research and testing. A Proportional Integral thermal control system was designed and implemented to support thermal tests. A thermal control algorithm supporting a quartz lamp heater was developed based on the Proportional Integral control concept and a linearized heating process. The thermal control equations were derived and expressed in terms of power levels, integral gain, proportional gain, and differences between thermal setpoints and skin temperatures. Besides the derived equations, user's predefined thermal test information generated in the form of thermal maps was used to implement the thermal control system capabilities. Graphite heater closed-loop thermal control and graphite heater open-loop power level were added later to fulfill the demand for higher temperature tests. Verification and validation tests were performed to ensure that the thermal control system requirements were achieved. This thermal control system has successfully supported many milestone thermal and thermal/mechanical tests for almost a decade with temperatures ranging from 50 F to 3000 F and temperature rise rates from -10 F/s to 70 F/s for a variety of test articles having unique thermal profiles and test setups.

  2. Thermal protection for a self-sensing piezoelectric control system (United States)

    Simmers, Garnett E., Jr.; Sodano, Henry A.; Park, Gyuhae; Inman, Daniel J.


    Piezoelectric materials exhibit high electromechanical coupling that allows them to both generate an electrical signal when strained and, conversely, to produce a strain under an applied electric field. This coupling has led to the use of these materials for a variety of sensing and actuation purposes. One unique application of these materials is their use as self-sensing actuators where both the sensing and actuation functions are performed by a single patch of material. Since the actuation and sensing voltages both exist simultaneously in the piezoelectric material, a specially designed electric circuit, referred to as a bridge circuit, is required to realize the concept. Configuration of the material in this manner is advantageous for control systems due to the enhanced stability associated when collocated control is applied. While certain advantages result from this type of system, precise equilibrium of the bridge circuit is required to achieve stability. This equilibrium is easy to achieve in theory, but difficult in practice due to the thermal dependence of the piezoelectric material's dielectric constant. This study will investigate a novel method of accounting for these changes through the use of thermal switches to passively adjust the bridge circuit and maintain a balanced state. The proposed concept will be theoretically modeled and simulated in a vibration control application to identify the thermal range for stability with and without the array of switches. It will be shown that, through the use of nine thermal switches, the stable operating range can be increased by 95 °C while maintaining vibration control performance.

  3. Thermal dynamics of silver clusters grown on rippled silica surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Mukul, E-mail: [FCIPT, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India); Ranjan, Mukesh [FCIPT, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India); Jolley, Kenny; Lloyd, Adam; Smith, Roger [Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Mukherjee, Subroto [FCIPT, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India)


    Highlights: • Low energy oblique angle ion bombardment forms ripple pattern on silicon surface. • The ripple patterns have wavelengths between 20 and 45 nm and correspondingly low height. • Silver nanoparticles have been deposited at an angle of 70° on patterned silicon templates. • The as-deposited np are annealed in vacuo at temperature of 573 K for a time duration of 1 h. • MD simulation is used to model the process and compare the results to the experiment. • Results show that silver clusters grow preferentially along parallel to the rippled surface. • Mobility of silver atoms depends on the site to which they are bonded on this amorphous surface. • MD simulations show contour ordered coalescence which is dependent on ripple periodicity. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles have been deposited on silicon rippled patterned templates at an angle of incidence of 70° to the surface normal. The templates are produced by oblique incidence argon ion bombardment and as the fluence increases, the periods and heights of the structures increase. Structures with periods of 20 nm, 35 nm and 45 nm have been produced. Moderate temperature vacuum annealing shows the phenomenon of cluster coalescence following the contour of the more exposed faces of the ripple for the case of 35 nm and 45 nm but not at 20 nm where the silver aggregates into larger randomly distributed clusters. In order to understand this effect, the morphological changes of silver nanoparticles deposited on an asymmetric rippled silica surface are investigated through the use of molecular dynamics simulations for different deposition angles of incidence between 0° and 70° and annealing temperatures between 500 K and 900 K. Near to normal incidence, clusters are observed to migrate over the entire surface but for deposition at 70°, a similar patterning is observed as in the experiment. The random distribution of clusters for the periodicity ≈ of 20 nm is linked to the geometry of the silica

  4. Nanoscale Surface Plasmonics Sensor With Nanofluidic Control (United States)

    Wei, Jianjun; Singhal, Sameer; Waldeck, David H.; Kofke, Matthew


    Conventional quantitative protein assays of bodily fluids typically involve multiple steps to obtain desired measurements. Such methods are not well suited for fast and accurate assay measurements in austere environments such as spaceflight and in the aftermath of disasters. Consequently, there is a need for a protein assay technology capable of routinely monitoring proteins in austere environments. For example, there is an immediate need for a urine protein assay to assess astronaut renal health during spaceflight. The disclosed nanoscale surface plasmonics sensor provides a core detection method that can be integrated to a lab-on-chip device that satisfies the unmet need for such a protein assay technology. Assays based upon combinations of nanoholes, nanorings, and nanoslits with transmission surface plasmon resonance (SPR) are used for assays requiring extreme sensitivity, and are capable of detecting specific analytes at concentrations as low as picomole to femtomole level in well-controlled environments. The device operates in a transmission mode configuration in which light is directed at one planar surface of the array, which functions as an optical aperture. The incident light induces surface plasmon light transmission from the opposite surface of the array. The presence of a target analyte is detected by changes in the spectrum of light transmitted by the array when a target analyte induces a change in the refractive index of the fluid within the nanochannels. This occurs, for example, when a target analyte binds to a receptor fixed to the walls of the nanochannels in the array. Independent fluid handling capability for individual nanoarrays on a nanofluidic chip containing a plurality of nanochannel arrays allows each array to be used to sense a different target analyte and/or for paired arrays to analyze control and test samples simultaneously in parallel. The present invention incorporates transmission mode nanoplasmonics and nanofluidics into a single

  5. [Study on Hollow Brick Wall's Surface Temperature with Infrared Thermal Imaging Method]. (United States)

    Tang, Ming-fang; Yin, Yi-hua


    To address the characteristic of uneven surface temperature of hollow brick wall, the present research adopts soft wares of both ThermaCAM P20 and ThermaCAM Reporter to test the application of infrared thermal image technique in measuring surface temperature of hollow brick wall, and further analyzes the thermal characteristics of hollow brick wall, and building material's impact on surface temperature distribution including hollow brick, masonry mortar, and so on. The research selects the construction site of a three-story-high residential, carries out the heat transfer experiment, and further examines the exterior wall constructed by 3 different hollow bricks including sintering shale hollow brick, masonry mortar and brick masonry. Infrared thermal image maps are collected, including 3 kinds of sintering shale hollow brick walls under indoor heating in winter; and temperature data of wall surface, and uniformity and frequency distribution are also collected for comparative analysis between 2 hollow bricks and 2 kinds of mortar masonry. The results show that improving heat preservation of hollow brick aid masonry mortar can effectively improve inner wall surface temperature and indoor thermal environment; non-uniformity of surface temperature decreases from 0. 6 to 0. 4 °C , and surface temperature frequency distribution changes from the asymmetric distribution into a normal distribution under the condition that energy-saving sintering shale hollow brick wall is constructed by thermal mortar replacing cement mortar masonry; frequency of average temperature increases as uniformity of surface temperature increases. This research provides a certain basis for promotion and optimization of hollow brick wall's thermal function.

  6. Non thermal plasma surface cleaner and method of use

    KAUST Repository

    Neophytou, Marios


    Described herein are plasma generation devices and methods of use of the devices. The devices can be used for the cleaning of various surfaces and/or for inhibiting or preventing the accumulation of particulates, such as dust, or moisture on various surfaces. The devices can be used to remove dust and other particulate contaminants from solar panels and windows, or to avoid or minimize condensation on various surfaces. In an embodiment a plasma generation device is provided. The plasma generation device can comprise: a pair of electrodes (1,2) positioned in association with a surface of a dielectric substrate (3). The pair of electrodes (1,2) can comprise a first electrode (1) and a second electrode (2). The first electrode and second electrode can be of different sizes, one of the electrodes being smaller than the other of the electrodes. The first electrode and second electrode can be separated by a distance and electrically connected to a voltage source (4,5).

  7. Influence of fibre-surface treatment on structural, thermal and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This chemical treatment was also found to alter the characteristic of the fibre surface topography as seen by the SEM. From the ... E Sinha1 S K Rout2. Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, India; Department of Applied Physics, Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi 835 215, India ...

  8. Lithological and textural controls on radar and diurnal thermal signatures of weathered volcanic deposits, Lunar Crater region, Nevada (United States)

    Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Rivard, Benoit


    Radar backscatter intensity as measured by calibrated synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems is primarily controlled by three factors: local incidence angle, wavelength-scale roughness, and dielectric permittivity of surface materials. Radar observations may be of limited use for geological investigations of surface composition, unless the relationships between lithology and the above characteristics can be adequately understood. In arid terrains, such as the Southwest U.S., weathering signatures (e.g. soil development, fracturing, debris grain size and shape, and hill slope characteristics) are controlled to some extent by lithologic characteristics of the parent bedrock. These textural features of outcrops and their associated debris will affect radar backscatter to varying degrees, and the multiple-wavelength capability of the JPL Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) system allows sampling of textures at three distinct scales. Diurnal temperature excursions of geologic surfaces are controlled primarily by the thermal inertia of surface materials, which is a measure of the resistance of a material to a change in temperature. Other influences include albedo, surface slopes affecting insolation, local meteorological conditions and surface emissivity at the relevant thermal wavelengths. To first order, thermal inertia variations on arid terrain surfaces result from grain size distribution and porosity differences, at scales ranging from micrometers to tens of meters. Diurnal thermal emission observations, such as those made by the JPL Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) airborne instrument, are thus influenced by geometric surface characteristics at scales comparable to those controlling radar backscatter. A preliminary report on a project involving a combination of field, laboratory and remote sensing observations of weathered felsic-to basaltic volcanic rock units exposed in the southern part of the Lunar Crater Volcanic Field, in the Pancake Range of central Nevada is

  9. Effect of deformation on the thermal conductivity of granular porous media with rough grain surface (United States)

    Askari, Roohollah; Hejazi, S. Hossein; Sahimi, Muhammad


    Heat transfer in granular porous media is an important phenomenon that is relevant to a wide variety of problems, including geothermal reservoirs and enhanced oil recovery by thermal methods. Resistance to flow of heat in the contact area between the grains strongly influences the effective thermal conductivity of such porous media. Extensive experiments have indicated that the roughness of the grains' surface follows self-affine fractal stochastic functions, and thus, the contact resistance cannot be accounted for by models based on smooth surfaces. Despite the significance of rough contact area, the resistance has been accounted for by a fitting parameter in the models of heat transfer. In this Letter we report on a study of conduction in a packing of particles that contains a fluid of a given conductivity, with each grain having a rough self-affine surface, and is under an external compressive pressure. The deformation of the contact area depends on the fractal dimension that characterizes the grains' rough surface, as well as their Young's modulus. Excellent qualitative agreement is obtained with experimental data. Deformation of granular porous media with grains that have rough self-affine fractal surface is simulated. Thermal contact resistance between grains with rough surfaces is incorporated into the numerical simulation of heat conduction under compressive pressure. By increasing compressive pressure, thermal conductivity is enhanced more in the grains with smoother surfaces and lower Young's modulus. Excellent qualitative agreement is obtained with the experimental data.

  10. Thermal transport across a substrate-thin-film interface: effects of film thickness and surface roughness. (United States)

    Liang, Zhi; Sasikumar, Kiran; Keblinski, Pawel


    Using molecular dynamics simulations and a model AlN-GaN interface, we demonstrate that the interfacial thermal resistance R(K) (Kapitza resistance) between a substrate and thin film depends on the thickness of the film and the film surface roughness when the phonon mean free path is larger than film thickness. In particular, when the film (external) surface is atomistically smooth, phonons transmitted from the substrate can travel ballistically in the thin film, be scattered specularly at the surface, and return to the substrate without energy transfer. If the external surface scatters phonons diffusely, which is characteristic of rough surfaces, R(K) is independent of film thickness and is the same as R(K) that characterizes smooth surfaces in the limit of large film thickness. At interfaces where phonon transmission coefficients are low, the thickness dependence is greatly diminished regardless of the nature of surface scattering. The film thickness dependence of R(K) is analogous to the well-known fact of lateral thermal conductivity thickness dependence in thin films. The difference is that phonon-boundary scattering lowers the in-plane thermal transport in thin films, but it facilitates thermal transport from the substrate to the thin film.

  11. Long Duration Life Test of Propylene Glycol Water Based Thermal Fluid Within Thermal Control Loop (United States)

    Le, Hung; Hill, Charles; Stephan, Ryan A.


    Evaluations of thermal properties and resistance to microbial growth concluded that 50% Propylene Glycol (PG)-based fluid and 50% de-ionized water mixture was desirable for use as a fluid within a vehicle s thermal control loop. However, previous testing with a commercial mixture of PG and water containing phosphate corrosion inhibitors resulted in corrosion of aluminum within the test system and instability of the test fluid. This paper describes a follow-on long duration testing and analysis of 50% Propylene Glycol (PG)-based fluid and 50% de-ionized water mixture with inorganic corrosion inhibitors used in place of phosphates. The test evaluates the long-term fluid stability and resistance to microbial and chemical changes

  12. Tuning the Surface Composition, Spatial Arrangement, and Thermal Release Behavior of DNA-Gold Nanomaterials (United States)

    Diaz, Julian

    Combining multiple functions and controlling their relative organization on the surface, as well as controlling the release of payloads will be essential properties of nanomaterials for future medical applications. In this thesis we studied these properties using as a model DNA-gold nanoparticles, one of the most promising nanomaterials for medical purposes. First, we studied strategies to control the density and the ratio of combinations of labeled DNA on gold nanoparticles. Using two approaches, thiol self-assembly and DNA-directed assembly (hybridization) we found that thiol self-assembly leads to a higher density of labeled DNA per particle, but poor ratio control, while DNA-directed assembly is better at controlling the proportions of labeled DNA on the particle but the number of strands is lower than the thiol self-assembly approach. Second, to control the relative position of the labels on the particle we used DNA-doublers and Y-shaped DNA complexes to tune the distance between tags. Off particle experiments indicated that the spacing between labels can be controlled in the Angstrom-nanometer scale. On particle experiments showed the apparent formation of these constructs; however more experiments are needed to attain quantitative results. The aim of the last investigation was to achieve thermal stepwise release of DNA from DNA-gold nanoparticles. To do so, it is necessary to obtain sharp thermal dissociation, or melting, transitions as well as control over the melting temperature. Taking advantage of the cooperative properties of DNA, we found that sharpened melting can be achieved using branched DNA-doublers hybridized with complementary DNA bound to the nanoparticle. Tuning the melting temperature can be achieved by modifying the branches of the hybridized doublers with abasic groups. Using these two findings, we sequentially released two DNA-doublers from the same nanoparticle, in a very narrow temperature window, and with minimal overlapping. Current

  13. Thermal conductance of a surface phonon-polariton crystal made up of polar nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez-Miranda, Jose; Joulain, Karl; Ezzahri, Younes [Univ. de Poitiers, Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France). Inst. Pprime, CNRS


    We demonstrate that the energy transport of surface phonon-polaritons can be large enough to be observable in a crystal made up of a three-dimensional assembly of nanorods of silicon carbide. The ultralow phonon thermal conductivity of this nanostructure along with its high surface area-to-volume ratio allows the predominance of the polariton energy over that generated by phonons. The dispersion relation, propagation length, and thermal conductance of polaritons are numerically determined as functions of the radius and temperature of the nanorods. It is shown that the thermal conductance of a crystal with nanorods at 500 K and diameter (length) of 200 nm (20 μm) is 0.55 nW.K{sup -1}, which is comparable to the quantum of thermal conductance of polar nanowires.

  14. Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control for Generator Excitation Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiu-yu


    Full Text Available For the generator excitation control system which is equipped with static var compensator (SVC and unknown parameters, a novel adaptive dynamic surface control scheme is proposed based on neural network and tracking error transformed function with the following features: (1 the transformation of the excitation generator model to the linear systems is omitted; (2 the prespecified performance of the tracking error can be guaranteed by combining with the tracking error transformed function; (3 the computational burden is greatly reduced by estimating the norm of the weighted vector of neural network instead of the weighted vector itself; therefore, it is more suitable for the real time control; and (4 the explosion of complicity problem inherent in the backstepping control can be eliminated. It is proved that the new scheme can make the system semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results show the effectiveness of this control scheme.

  15. Effects of thermal cycling on surface roughness, hardness and flexural strength of polymethylmethacrylate and polyamide denture base resins. (United States)

    Ayaz, Elif Aydoğan; Bağış, Bora; Turgut, Sedanur


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of thermal cycling on the surface roughness, hardness and flexural strength of denture resins. Polyamide (PA; Deflex and Valplast) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA; QC-20 and Acron MC) denture materials were selected. A total of 180 specimens were fabricated and then divided into 3 groups. The first group (group 1) acted as a control and was not thermocycled. The second group (group 2) was subjected to thermocycling for 10,000 cycles in artificial saliva and 5,000 cycles in distilled water. The last group (group 3) was thermocycled for 20,000 cycles in artificial saliva and 10,000 cycles in distilled water. The surface roughness were measured with a profilometer. The hardness of the resins were measured with a Vickers Hardness Tester using a 100-gf load. The flexural strength test was performed using the universal test machine with a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Data were analyzed using statistical software. The results of the measurements in the 3 different tests were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test with Bonferroni correction. Multiple comparisons were made by Conover and Wilcoxon tests. There was a significant difference between the PMMA and PA groups in terms of surface roughness, hardness and transverse strength before and after thermal cycling (p<0.001). Thermal cycling did not change the surface roughness, hardness and flexural strength values of either the PMMA or PA group (p>0.001).

  16. Assessing thermal conductivity of composting reactor with attention on varying thermal resistance between compost and the inner surface. (United States)

    Wang, Yongjiang; Niu, Wenjuan; Ai, Ping


    Dynamic estimation of heat transfer through composting reactor wall was crucial for insulating design and maintaining a sanitary temperature. A model, incorporating conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer mechanisms, was developed in this paper to provide thermal resistance calculations for composting reactor wall. The mechanism of thermal transfer from compost to inner surface of structural layer, as a first step of heat loss, was important for improving insulation performance, which was divided into conduction and convection and discussed specifically in this study. It was found decreasing conductive resistance was responsible for the drop of insulation between compost and reactor wall. Increasing compost porosity or manufacturing a curved surface, decreasing the contact area of compost and the reactor wall, might improve the insulation performance. Upon modeling of heat transfers from compost to ambient environment, the study yielded a condensed and simplified model that could be used to conduct thermal resistance analysis for composting reactor. With theoretical derivations and a case application, the model was applicable for both dynamic estimation and typical composting scenario. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermal Analysis of Implant-Defined Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser Array (United States)

    Xun, Meng; Xu, Chen; Xie, Yi-Yang; Deng, Jun; Xu, Kun; Chen, Hong-Da


    A three-dimensional electrical-thermal coupling model based on the finite element method is applied to study thermal properties of implant-defined vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays. Several parameters including inter-element spacing, scales, injected current density and substrate temperature are considered. The actual temperatures obtained through experiment are in excellent agreement with the calculated results, which proves the accuracy of the model. Due to the serious thermal problem, it is essential to design arrays of low self-heating. The analysis can provide a foundation for designing VCSEL arrays in the future.

  18. Ground-based thermal imaging of stream surface temperatures: Technique and evaluation (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Petre, Sally J.


    We evaluated a ground-based handheld thermal imaging system for measuring water temperatures using data from eight southwestern USA streams and rivers. We found handheld thermal imagers could provide considerably more spatial information on water temperature (for our unit one image = 19,600 individual temperature measurements) than traditional methods could supply without a prohibitive amount of effort. Furthermore, they could provide measurements of stream surface temperature almost instantaneously compared with most traditional handheld thermometers (e.g., >20 s/reading). Spatial temperature analysis is important for measurement of subtle temperature differences across waterways, and identification of warm and cold groundwater inputs. Handheld thermal imaging is less expensive and equipment intensive than airborne thermal imaging methods and is useful under riparian canopies. Disadvantages of handheld thermal imagers include their current higher expense than thermometers, their susceptibility to interference when used incorrectly, and their slightly lower accuracy than traditional temperature measurement methods. Thermal imagers can only measure surface temperature, but this usually corresponds to subsurface temperatures in well-mixed streams and rivers. Using thermal imaging in select applications, such as where spatial investigations of water temperature are needed, or in conjunction with stationary temperature data loggers or handheld electronic or liquid-in-glass thermometers to characterize stream temperatures by both time and space, could provide valuable information on stream temperature dynamics. These tools will become increasingly important to fisheries biologists as costs continue to decline.

  19. MISSE Thermal Control Materials with Comparison to Previous Flight Experiments (United States)

    Finckenor, Miria; Pippin, H. Gary; Frey, George


    Many different passive thermal control materials were flown as part of the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), including inorganic coatings, anodized aluminum, and multi-layer insulation materials. These and other material samples were exposed to the low Earth orbital environment of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and hard vacuum, though atomic oxygen exposure was limited for some samples. Materials flown on MISSE-1 and MISSE-2 were exposed to the space environment for nearly four years. Materials flown on MISSE-3, MISSE-4, and MISSE-5 were exposed to the space environment for one year. Solar absorptance, infrared emittance, and mass measurements indicate the durability of these materials to withstand the space environment. Effects of short duration versus long duration exposure on ISS are explored, as well as comparable data from previous flight experiments, such as the Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA), Optical Properties Monitor (OPM), and Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF).

  20. Tuning the surface chemistry of lubricant-derived phosphate thermal films: The effect of boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadaro, F. [Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 5, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Rossi, A., E-mail: [Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 5, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, I-09100, Cagliari (Italy); Lainé, E.; Woodward, P. [Enabling Research, Infineum UK Ltd., Milton Hill, Steventon, Oxfordshire OX13 6BD (United Kingdom); Spencer, N.D., E-mail: [Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 5, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)


    Highlights: • The additives bulk interactions in “neat” blends at high temperatures is evaluated. • The competition among the different additives to react with air-oxidized steel surfaces under pure thermal condition is investigated. • Different thermal films are grown, their in depth-composition and thickness is determined by ARXPS. • A reaction mechanism is proposed for elucidating the composition of the thermals films. - Abstract: Understanding the interactions among the various additives in a lubricant is important because they can have a major influence on the performance of blends under tribological conditions. The present investigation is focused on the interactions occurring between ZnDTP and dispersant molecules in an oil formulation, and on their reactivity under purely thermal conditions in the presence of air-oxidized iron surfaces. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was performed on undiluted blends at different temperatures, while angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) was exploited to investigate the surface reactivity on oxidized iron surfaces. The results indicate that the dispersant, generally added to blends for preventing the deposition of sludge, varnish and soot on the surface, might also inhibit the reaction of all other additives with the steel surface.

  1. Characterising the dynamics of surface water-groundwater interactions in intermittent and ephemeral streams using streambed thermal signatures (United States)

    Rau, Gabriel C.; Halloran, Landon J. S.; Cuthbert, Mark O.; Andersen, Martin S.; Acworth, R. Ian; Tellam, John H.


    Ephemeral and intermittent flow in dryland stream channels infiltrates into sediments, replenishes groundwater resources and underpins riparian ecosystems. However, the spatiotemporal complexity of the transitory flow processes that occur beneath such stream channels are poorly observed and understood. We develop a new approach to characterise the dynamics of surface water-groundwater interactions in dryland streams using pairs of temperature records measured at different depths within the streambed. The approach exploits the fact that the downward propagation of the diel temperature fluctuation from the surface depends on the sediment thermal diffusivity. This is controlled by time-varying fractions of air and water contained in streambed sediments causing a contrast in thermal properties. We demonstrate the usefulness of this method with multi-level temperature and pressure records of a flow event acquired using 12 streambed arrays deployed along a ∼ 12 km dryland channel section. Thermal signatures clearly indicate the presence of water and characterise the vertical flow component as well as the occurrence of horizontal hyporheic flow. We jointly interpret thermal signatures as well as surface and groundwater levels to distinguish four different hydrological regimes: [A] dry channel, [B] surface run-off, [C] pool-riffle sequence, and [D] isolated pools. The occurrence and duration of the regimes depends on the rate at which the infiltrated water redistributes in the subsurface which, in turn, is controlled by the hydraulic properties of the variably saturated sediment. Our results have significant implications for understanding how transitory flows recharge alluvial sediments, influence water quality and underpin dryland ecosystems.

  2. Software for Automated Generation of Reduced Thermal Models for Spacecraft Thermal Control Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal analysis is increasingly used in thermal engineering of spacecrafts in every stage, including design, test, and ground-operation simulation. Current...

  3. Effects of Particle Surface Charge, Species, Concentration, and Dispersion Method on the Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Gowda


    Full Text Available The purpose of this experimental study is to evaluate the effects of particle species, surface charge, concentration, preparation technique, and base fluid on thermal transport capability of nanoparticle suspensions (nanofluids. The surface charge was varied by changing the pH value of the fluids. The alumina (Al2O3 and copper oxide (CuO nanoparticles were dispersed in deionized (DI water and ethylene glycol (EG, respectively. The nanofluids were prepared using both bath-type and probe sonicator under different power inputs. The experimental results were compared with the available experimental data as well as the predicted values obtained from Maxwell effective medium theory. It was found that ethylene glycol is more suitable for nanofluids applications than DI water in terms of thermal conductivity improvement and stability of nanofluids. Surface charge can effectively improve the dispersion of nanoparticles by reducing the (aggregated particle size in base fluids. A nanofluid with high surface charge (low pH has a higher thermal conductivity for a similar particle concentration. The sonication also has a significant impact on thermal conductivity enhancement. All these results suggest that the key to the improvement of thermal conductivity of nanofluids is a uniform and stable dispersion of nanoscale particles in a fluid.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pshembaev


    Full Text Available It is necessary to mention specially so-called thermal shock among various impacts on highway surface. Ice layer is formed on a concrete surface during the winter period of pavement surfacing operation. Sodium chloride which lowers temperature of water-ice transition temperature and causes ice thawing at negative temperature is usually used to remove ice from the pavement surface. Consequently, temperature in the concrete laying immediately under a thawing ice layer is coming down with a run that leads to significant stresses. Such phenomenon is known as a thermal shock with a meaning of local significant change in temperature. This process is under investigation, it has practical importance for an estimation of strength and longevity of a cement-concrete pavement surfacing and consequently it is considered as rather topical issue. The purpose of investigations is to develop a mathematical model and determination of shock blow permissible gradients for a cementconcrete road covering. Finite difference method has been used in order to determine stressed and deformed condition of the cement-concrete pavement surfacing of highways. A computer program has been compiled and it permits to carry out calculation of a road covering at various laws of temperature distribution in its depth. Regularities in distribution of deformation and stresses in the cement-concrete pavement surfacing of highways at thermal shock have been obtained in the paper. A permissible parameter of temperature distribution in pavement surfacing thickness has been determined in the paper. A strength criterion based on the process of micro-crack formation and development in concrete has been used for making calculations. It has been established that the thermal shock causes significant temperature gradients on the cement-concrete surfacing that lead to rather large normal stresses in the concrete surface layer. The possibility of micro-crack formation in a road covering is

  5. Observed variability of sea surface salinity and thermal inversions in the Lakshadweep Sea during contrast monsoons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Johnson, Z.; Salgaonkar, G.; Nisha, K.; Rajan, C.K.; Rao, R.R.

    variability of sea surface salinity and thermal inversions in the Lakshadweep Sea during contrast monsoons V. V. Gopalakrishna, 1 Z. Johnson, 2 G. Salgaonkar, 1 K. Nisha, 1 C. K. Rajan, 2 and R. R. Rao 3 Received 19 April 2005; revised 3 August 2005; accepted.... Rajan, and R. R. Rao (2005), Observed variability of sea surface salinity and thermal inversions in the Lakshadweep Sea during contrast monsoons, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L18605, doi:10.1029/2005GL023280. 1. Introduction [2] In the Lakshadweep Sea (LS: 8...

  6. Ride control of surface effect ships using distributed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgeir J. Sørensen


    Full Text Available A ride control system for active damping of heave and pitch accelerations of Surface Effect Ships (SES is presented. It is demonstrated that distributed effects that are due to a spatially varying pressure in the air cushion result in significant vertical vibrations in low and moderate sea states. In order to achieve a high quality human comfort and crew workability it is necessary to reduce these vibrations using a control system which accounts for distributed effects due to spatial pressure variations in the air cushion. A mathematical model of the process is presented, and collocated sensor and actuator pairs are used. The process stability is ensured using a controller with appropriate passivity properties. Sensor and actuator location is also discussed. The performance of the ride control system is shown by power spectra of the vertical accelerations obtained from full scale experiments with a 35 m SES.

  7. Thermal analysis of protruding surfaces in the JET divertor (United States)

    Corre, Y.; Bunting, P.; Coenen, J. W.; Gaspar, J.; Iglesias, D.; Matthews, G. F.; Balboa, I.; Coffey, I.; Dejarnac, R.; Firdaouss, M.; Gauthier, E.; Jachmich, S.; Krieger, K.; Pitts, R. A.; Rack, M.; Silburn, S. A.; Contributors, JET


    Tungsten (W) melting is a major concern for next step fusion devices. Two ELM induced tungsten melting experiments have been performed in JET by introducing two special target plate lamellae designed to receive excessively high ELM transient power loads. The first experiment was performed in JET in 2013 using a special lamella with a sharp leading edge gradually varying from h  =  0.25 mm to 2.5 mm in order to maximise the temperature rise by exposure to the full parallel heat flux. ELM-induced transient melting has been successively achieved allowing investigation of the melt motion. However, using the available IR viewing geometry from the top, it was not possible to directly discriminate between the top and leading edge power loads. To improve the experimental validation of heat load and melt motion modelling codes, a new protruding W lamella with a 15° slope facing the toroidal direction has been installed for the 2015-16 campaigns, allowing direct, spatially resolved observation of the top surface and reduced sensitivity of the analysis to the surface incidence angle of the magnetic field. This paper reports on the results of these more recent experiments, with specific focus on IR data analysis and heat flux calculations during L-mode discharges in order to investigate the behaviour of the W lamella with steady state heat load, which is a prerequisite for the more complex ELMing H-mode discharges (including both, steady and transient heat loads). It shows that, at least in L-mode, the assumption of optical heat flux projection is justified.

  8. Active Thermal Control by Controlled Shoot-through of Power Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soldati, Alessandro; Concari, Carlo; Barater, Davide


    Active Thermal Control (ATC) consists in driving power switches in a less efficient way when low load conditions are present. The resulting wasted power is used to self-heat the device, reducing amplitude and occurrence of thermal cycles and hence improving the reliability. This paper presents a ...... a novel way to control losses, and hence temperature, of both positive- and negative-current devices in half-bridge topologies at various load conditions. The goal is achieved by means of a controlled shoot-through of the half-bridge leg....

  9. The Influence of Laser Surface Alloying on the Thermal Fatigue Resistance of Hot Work Tool Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonda E.


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the effect of laser surface remelting and alloying by carbides powders of NbC, TaC, TiC, VC and WC on the structure and thermal fatigue resistance of the surface layer of hot work tool steels X40CrMoV5-1 and 32CrMoV12-28. The laser surface alloying and remelting treatments was performed using a high power diode laser (HPDL ROFIN SINAR DL 020. In order to investigate the effect of applied laser treatments and used alloying powders on the microstructure and thermal fatigue resistance of processed surface layer of hot work tool steels, the microstructure evaluation by light microscopy, hardness test, and dedicated thermal fatigue resistance test were performed. The best results regarding fatigue cracks inhibition was obtained when the surface of hot work tool steels was alloyed with TiC and VC carbides at the laser beam power of 2.0 and 2.3 kW. The grain refinement effect of laser remelting has a lower impact on the thermal crack inhibition, than a strong strengthening effect of matrix saturation in alloying elements and precipitation of fine carbides in the steel matrix.

  10. Modelling of photo-thermal control of biological cellular oscillators. (United States)

    Assanov, Gani S; Zhanabaev, Zeinulla Zh; Govorov, Alexander O; Neiman, Alexander B


    We study the transient dynamics of biological oscillators subjected to brief heat pulses. A prospective well-defined experimental system for thermal control of oscillators is the peripheral electroreceptors in paddlefish. Epithelial cells in these receptors show spontaneous voltage oscillations which are known to be temperature sensitive. We use a computational model to predict the effect of brief thermal pulses in this system. In our model thermal stimulation is realized through the light excitation of gold nanoparticles delivered in close proximity to epithelial cells and generating heat due to plasmon resonance. We use an ensemble of modified Morris-Lecar systems to model oscillatory epithelial cells. First, we validate that the model quantitatively reproduces the dynamics of epithelial oscillations in paddlefish electroreceptors, including responses to static and slow temperature changes. Second, we use the model to predict transient responses to short heat pulses generated by the light actuated gold nanoparticles. The model predicts that the epithelial oscillators can be partially synchronized by brief 5 - 15 ms light stimuli resulting in a large-amplitude oscillations of the mean field potential.

  11. Development of a heat pump thermal control system for spacecraft (United States)

    Ogushi, T.; Murakami, M.; Tanaka, N.; Koda, T.; Hirai, T.

    This paper describes a concept of a thermal control system that has three operating modes, i.e., heat pump operation, liquid-pumped two-phase fluid loop operation, and their combination. The system is controlled to maintain desired temperature levels of payloads in the presence of wide fluctuation of thermal loads. The way of system-control and the key elements, such as a cold plate, an accumulator, and a space-use compressor are investigated. Boiling heat transfer coefficient of two-phase flow going upward or downward in a vertical evaporator pipe is investigated experimentally for predicting the coefficient in the cold plate in reduced gravity. The empirical results indicate that annular flow is dominant flow regime in space and the heat transfer coefficient is predictable from the correlation by Chen. A prototype oil-free compressor for space use is constructed, and the performance and durability are experimentally investigated. Sufficient performance and more than 2500 hours of continuous operation was obtained.

  12. Arcjet Testing and Thermal Model Development for Multilayer Felt Reusable Surface Insulation (United States)

    Milos, Frank S.; Scott, Carl Douglas; Papa, Steven V.


    Felt Reusable Surface Insulation was used extensively on leeward external surfaces of the Shuttle Orbiter, where the material is reusable for temperatures up to 670 K. For application on leeward surfaces of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, where predicted temperatures reach 1620 K, the material functions as a pyrolyzing conformal ablator. An arcjet test series was conducted to assess the performance of multilayer Felt Reusable Surface Insulation at high temperatures, and a thermal-response, pyrolysis, and ablation model was developed. Model predictions compare favorably with the arcjet test data

  13. Surface Response of Brominated Carbon Media on Laser and Thermal Excitation: Optical and Thermal Analysis Study


    Volodymyr V. Multian; Kinzerskyi, Fillip E.; Anna V. Vakaliuk; Grishchenko, Liudmyla M.; Diyuk, Vitaliy E.; Boldyrieva, Olga Yu; Kozhanov, Vadim O.; Oleksandr V. Mischanchuk; Vladyslav V. Lisnyak; Gayvoronsky, Volodymyr Ya.


    The present study is objected to develop an analytical remote optical diagnostics of the functionalized carbons surface. Carbon composites with up to 1 mmol g?1 of irreversibly adsorbed bromine were produced by the room temperature plasma treatment of an activated carbon fabric (ACF) derived from polyacrylonitrile textile. The brominated ACF (BrACF) was studied by elastic optical scattering indicatrix analysis at wavelength 532 nm. The obtained data were interpreted within results of the ther...

  14. Study of the thermal effect on silicon surface induced by ion beam from plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Z., E-mail: [Scientific Service Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box: 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Ahmad, M. [IBA Laboratory, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box: 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box: 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Al-Hawat, Sh.; Akel, M. [Physics Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box: 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)


    Structural modifications in form of ripples and cracks are induced by nitrogen ions from plasma focus on silicon surface. The investigation of such structures reveals correlation between ripples and cracks formation in peripheral region of the melt spot. The reason of such correlation and structure formation is explained as result of thermal effect. Melting and resolidification of the center of irradiated area occur within one micro second of time. This is supported by a numerical simulation used to investigate the thermal effect induced by the plasma focus ion beams on the silicon surface. This simulation provides information about the temperature profile as well as the dynamic of the thermal propagation in depth and lateral directions. In accordance with the experimental observations, that ripples are formed in latter stage after the arrival of last ion, the simulation shows that the thermal relaxation takes place in few microseconds after the end of the ion beam arrival. Additionally, the dependency of thermal propagation and relaxation on the distance of the silicon surface from the anode is presented.

  15. The Wear behavior of UHMWPE against Surface Modified CP-Titanium by Thermal Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Prayoga


    Full Text Available The effects of thermal oxidation duration on hardness, roughness, and wettability of the CP-titanium surfaces were investigated in this paper. The thermal oxidation treatment was done at 700 oC for 12-36 hours in an air atmosphere. The wear behavior of the UHMWPE sliding against treated thermal oxidation of the CP-titanium was tested by a pin-on-plate tribometer under lubrication of the solution of 75 % distilled water and 25 % bovine serum. The results showed that the layer of the oxide titanium was formed on the surface after being treated by the thermal oxidation for 12-36 hours. The oxide titanium layer was dominated by rutile form of TiO2, that offers an improvement of hardness and wettability of the CP-titanium surfaces. The average wear factor of the UHMWPE reduced significantly when the sliding against of the CP-titanium was modified by the thermal oxidation, and the lowest average wear factor was reached when the sliding against the 12 hour oxidized CP-titanium counterfaces.

  16. Micro Surface Texturing for Friction Control (United States)

    Rashwan, Ola

    Recently, surface texturing has gained momentum as a way to control the friction which is involved in various applications and systems, such as components of internal combustion engines, dies and punches of the metal forming processes and Micro-electrical-mechanical Systems (MEMS). This dissertation demonstrates that under dry sliding, there is a specific significant surface texturing parameter at which the coefficient of friction should be at a minimum. This dissertation met this objective through an extensive study of the relevant literature on surface texturing and friction, analysing the friction mechanisms involved in dry sliding, and highlighting the key factors that control friction as the real area of contact and material properties. An analytical proof is derived demonstrating that a minimum friction force exists if the two components of the friction force, adhesion and mechanical deformation, are differentiated with respect to the real contact area. In addition, numerical simulations and experimental work were performed to test this hypothesis. In the two and three dimensional finite element models, normal and sliding contact between a rigid indenter and elastic-plastic surfaces, which are textured by circular and hexagonal dimples of different sizes and densities, are simulated and analysed. Circular craters of different sizes and densities, are fabricated using laser ablation on hardened tool steel samples, while the hexagonal dimples are fabricated using photo-lithography. The dimples are arranged in adjacent equilateral triangles layout. Coefficients of friction were measured using a scratch tester under dry sliding conditions and constant load. In addition, adhesion forces were estimated using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The adhesion force is found to be exponentially decreasing with the increase of the spatial texture density. The dimensionless quantity, spatial texture density (D/L) was identified as the most significant texturing parameter

  17. Thermal Advantages for Solar Heating Systems with a Glass Cover with Antireflection Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan


    Investigations elucidate how a glass cover with antireflection surfaces can improve the efficiency of a solar collector and the thermal performance of solar heating systems. The transmittances for two glass covers for a flat-plate solar collector were measured for different incidence angles...... was determined for different solar heating systems. Three systems were investigated: solar domestic hot water systems, solar heating systems for combined space heating demand and domestic hot water supply, and large solar heating plants. The yearly thermal performance of the systems was calculated by detailed...... simulation models with collectors with a normal glass cover and with a glass cover with antireflection surfaces. The calculations were carried out for different solar fractions and temperature levels of the solar heating systems. These parameters influence greatly the thermal performance associated...

  18. Thermal Characteristics of ThermoBrachytherapy Surface Applicators (TBSA) for Treating Chestwall Recurrence (United States)

    Arunachalam, K.; Maccarini, P. F.; Craciunescu, O. I.; Schlorff, J. L.; Stauffer, P. R.


    Purpose To study temperature and thermal dose distributions of ThermoBrachytherapy Surface Applicators (TBSA) developed for concurrent or sequential high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy and microwave hyperthermia treatment of chest wall recurrence and other superficial disease. Methods A steady state thermodynamics model coupled with the fluid dynamics of water bolus and electromagnetic radiation of hyperthermia applicator is used to characterize the temperature distributions achievable with TBSA applicators in an elliptical phantom model of the human torso. Power deposited by 915 MHz conformal microwave array (CMA) applicators is used to assess the specific absorption rate (SAR) distributions of rectangular (500 cm2) and L-shaped (875 cm2) TBSA. The SAR distribution in tissue and fluid flow distribution inside the Dual-Input Dual-Output (DIDO) water bolus are coupled to solve the steady state temperature and thermal dose distributions of rectangular TBSA (R-TBSA) for superficial tumor targets extending 10–15 mm beneath the skin surface. Thermal simulations are carried out for a range of bolus inlet temperature (Tb=38–43°C), water flow rate (Qb=2–4 L/min) and tumor blood perfusion (ωb=2–5 kg/m3/s) to characterize their influence on thermal dosimetry. Results Steady state SAR patterns of R- and L-TBSA demonstrate the ability to produce conformal and localized power deposition inside tumor target sparing surrounding normal tissues and nearby critical organs. Acceptably low variation in tissue surface cooling and surface temperature homogeneity was observed for the new DIDO bolus at 2 L/min water flow rate. Temperature depth profiles and thermal dose volume histograms indicate bolus inlet temperature (Tb) to be the most influential factor on thermal dosimetry. A 42 °C water bolus was observed to be the optimal choice for superficial tumors extending 10–15 mm from the surface even under significant blood perfusion. Lower bolus temperature may be chosen to

  19. Thermal characteristics of thermobrachytherapy surface applicators for treating chest wall recurrence (United States)

    Arunachalam, K.; Maccarini, P. F.; Craciunescu, O. I.; Schlorff, J. L.; Stauffer, P. R.


    The aim of this study was to investigate temperature and thermal dose distributions of thermobrachytherapy surface applicators (TBSAs) developed for concurrent or sequential high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy and microwave hyperthermia treatment of chest wall recurrence and other superficial diseases. A steady-state thermodynamics model coupled with the fluid dynamics of a water bolus and electromagnetic radiation of the hyperthermia applicator is used to characterize the temperature distributions achievable with TBSAs in an elliptical phantom model of the human torso. Power deposited by 915 MHz conformal microwave array (CMA) applicators is used to assess the specific absorption rate (SAR) distributions of rectangular (500 cm2) and L-shaped (875 cm2) TBSAs. The SAR distribution in tissue and fluid flow distribution inside the dual-input dual-output (DIDO) water bolus are coupled to solve the steady-state temperature and thermal dose distributions of the rectangular TBSA (R-TBSA) for superficial tumor targets extending 10-15 mm beneath the skin surface. Thermal simulations are carried out for a range of bolus inlet temperature (Tb = 38-43 °C), water flow rate (Qb = 2-4 L min-1) and tumor blood perfusion (ωb = 2-5 kg m-3 s-1) to characterize their influence on thermal dosimetry. Steady-state SAR patterns of the R- and L-TBSA demonstrate the ability to produce conformal and localized power deposition inside the tumor target sparing surrounding normal tissues and nearby critical organs. Acceptably low variation in tissue surface cooling and surface temperature homogeneity was observed for the new DIDO bolus at a 2 L min-1 water flow rate. Temperature depth profiles and thermal dose volume histograms indicate bolus inlet temperature (Tb) to be the most influential factor on thermal dosimetry. A 42 °C water bolus was observed to be the optimal choice for superficial tumors extending 10-15 mm from the surface even under significant blood perfusion. Lower bolus

  20. Temperature Mapping of Air Film-Cooled Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces Using Phosphor Thermometry (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.


    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness for jet engine components are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. Phosphor thermometry offers several advantages for mapping temperatures of air film cooled surfaces. While infrared thermography has been typically applied to study air film cooling effectiveness, temperature accuracy depends on knowing surface emissivity (which may change) and correcting for effects of reflected radiation. Because decay time-based full-field phosphor thermometry is relatively immune to these effects, it can be applied advantageously to temperature mapping of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces. In this presentation, an overview will be given of efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center to perform temperature mapping of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces in a burner rig test environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and the strengths and limitations of this method for studying air film cooling effectiveness are discussed.

  1. Influence of soil moisture content on surface albedo and soil thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 5. Influence of soil moisture content on surface albedo and soil thermal ... Department of Physics, Government College for Women, Thiruvananthapuram 695 014, Kerala, India. Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment, Sasthra ...

  2. Thermal simulation of surface micromachined polysilicon hot plates of low power consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumitrescu, Marius; Cobianu, Cornel; Lungu, Dan; Pascu, Adrian; Kolev, Spas; van den Berg, Albert


    A simple, IC compatible, surface micromachined polysilicon membrane was technologically designed and thermally simulated by 3D finite element ‘COSMOS' program in order to investigate its capability to work as a micro hot plate for a gas sensing test structure of low power consumption. For an

  3. Mapping surface flow in low gradient areas with thermal remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christian; Petersen, Rasmus Jes; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    Thermal infrared (TIR) imagery has long been used for mapping groundwater-surface water interactions and mainly for locating areas of groundwater seepage in lakes and shorelines (Rundquist et al. 1985, Banks et al. 1996). In this study, we used the method for locating discharge from tile drains i...

  4. Thermal Diffusion Processes in Metal-Tip-Surface Interactions: Contact Formation and Adatom Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Jonsson, Hannes


    We have carried out computer simulations to identify and characterize various thermally activated atomic scale processes that can play an important role in room temperature experiments where a metal tip is brought close to a metal surface. We find that contact formation between the tip and the su...

  5. Electrical and thermal control of magnetic exchange interactions. (United States)

    Fransson, Jonas; Ren, Jie; Zhu, Jian-Xin


    We investigate the far-from-equilibrium nature of magnetic anisotropy and exchange interactions between molecular magnets embedded in a tunnel junction. By mapping to an effective spin model, these magnetic interactions can be divided into three types: isotropic Heisenberg, anisotropic Ising, and anisotropic Dzyaloshinski-Moriya contributions, which are attributed to the background nonequilibrium electronic structures. We further demonstrate that both the magnetic self- and exchange interactions can be controlled either electrically by gating and tuning the voltage bias, or thermally by adjusting the temperature bias. We show that the Heisenberg and Ising interactions scale linearly, while the Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction scales quadratically, with the molecule-lead coupling strength. The interactions scale linearly with the effective spin polarizations of the leads and the molecular coherence. Our results pave a way for smart control of magnetic exchange interactions at atomic and molecular levels.

  6. Thermal and UV Hydrosilylation of Alcohol-Based Bifunctional Alkynes on Si (111) surfaces: How surface radicals influence surface bond formation (United States)

    Khung, Y. L.; Ngalim, S. H.; Scaccabarozi, A.; Narducci, D.


    Using two different hydrosilylation methods, low temperature thermal and UV initiation, silicon (111) hydrogenated surfaces were functionalized in presence of an OH-terminated alkyne, a CF3-terminated alkyne and a mixed equimolar ratio of the two alkynes. XPS studies revealed that in the absence of premeditated surface radical through low temperature hydrosilylation, the surface grafting proceeded to form a Si-O-C linkage via nucleophilic reaction through the OH group of the alkyne. This led to a small increase in surface roughness as well as an increase in hydrophobicity and this effect was attributed to the surficial etching of silicon to form nanosize pores (~1-3 nm) by residual water/oxygen as a result of changes to surface polarity from the grafting. Furthermore in the radical-free thermal environment, a mix in equimolar of these two short alkynes can achieve a high contact angle of ~102°, comparable to long alkyl chains grafting reported in literature although surface roughness was relatively mild (rms = ~1 nm). On the other hand, UV initiation on silicon totally reversed the chemical linkages to predominantly Si-C without further compromising the surface roughness, highlighting the importance of surface radicals determining the reactivity of the silicon surface to the selected alkynes.

  7. Thermal inertia and surface roughness of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 (United States)

    Davidsson, Björn J. R.; Gutiérrez, Pedro J.; Groussin, Olivier; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Farnham, Tony; Feaga, Lori M.; Kelley, Michael S.; Klaasen, Kenneth P.; Merlin, Frédéric; Protopapa, Silvia; Rickman, Hans; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Thomas, Peter C.


    Re-calibrated near-infrared spectroscopy of the resolved nucleus of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 acquired by the Deep Impact spacecraft has been analyzed by utilizing the post-Stardust-NExT nucleus shape model and spin pole solution, as well as a novel thermophysical model that explicitly accounts for small-scale surface roughness and thermal inertia. We find that the thermal inertia varies measurably across the surface, and that thermal emission from certain regions only can be reproduced satisfactory if surface roughness is accounted for. Particularly, a scarped/pitted terrain that experienced morning sunrise during the flyby is measurably rough (Hapke mean slope angle ˜45°) and has a thermal inertia of at most 50 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2, but probably much lower. However, thick layered terrain and thin layered terrain experiencing local noon during the flyby have a substantially larger thermal inertia, reaching 150 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 if the surface is as rough as the scarped/pitted terrain, but 200 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 if the terrain is considered locally flat. Furthermore, the reddening of the nucleus near-infrared 1.5-2.2 μm spectrum varies between morphological units, being reddest for thick layered terrain (median value 3.4% kÅ-1) and most neutral for the smooth terrain known to contain surface water ice (median value 3.1% kÅ-1). Thus, Comet 9P/Tempel 1 is heterogeneous in terms of both thermophysical and optical properties, due to formation conditions and/or post-formation processing.

  8. Optical Coating Performance and Thermal Structure Design for Heat Reflectors of JWST Electronic Control Unit (United States)

    Quijada, Manuel A.; Threat, Felix; Garrison, Matt; Perrygo, Chuck; Bousquet, Robert; Rashford, Robert


    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) consists of an infrared-optimized Optical Telescope Element (OTE) that is cooled down to 40 degrees Kelvin. A second adjacent component to the OTE is the Integrated Science Instrument Module, or ISIM. This module includes the electronic compartment, which provides the mounting surfaces and ambient thermally controlled environment for the instrument control electronics. Dissipating the 200 watts generated from the ISIM structure away from the OTE is of paramount importance so that the spacecraft's own heat does not interfere with the infrared light detected from distant cosmic sources. This technical challenge is overcome by a thermal subsystem unit that provides passive cooling to the ISIM control electronics. The proposed design of this thermal radiator consists of a lightweight structure made out of composite materials and low-emittance metal coatings. In this paper, we will present characterizations of the coating emittance, bidirectional reflectance, and mechanical structure design that will affect the performance of this passive cooling system.

  9. Thermal injury induces impaired function in polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes and reduced control of burn wound infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, H.; Moser, C.; Jensen, P. O.


    with infected burn wound. Furthermore, the oxidative burst and the phagocytic capacity of the PMNs were reduced in the group of mice with burn wound. Using this novel mouse model of thermal injury a decline of peripheral leucocytes was observed, whereas the increased local inflammatory response at the site......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6% third-degree burn...... injury was induced in mice with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. The mice were allocated into five groups: control, shave, burn, infection and burn infection group. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group...

  10. Preliminary control system design and analysis for the Space Station Furnace Facility thermal control system (United States)

    Jackson, M. E.


    This report presents the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) thermal control system (TCS) preliminary control system design and analysis. The SSFF provides the necessary core systems to operate various materials processing furnaces. The TCS is defined as one of the core systems, and its function is to collect excess heat from furnaces and to provide precise cold temperature control of components and of certain furnace zones. Physical interconnection of parallel thermal control subsystems through a common pump implies the description of the TCS by coupled nonlinear differential equations in pressure and flow. This report formulates the system equations and develops the controllers that cause the interconnected subsystems to satisfy flow rate tracking requirements. Extensive digital simulation results are presented to show the flow rate tracking performance.

  11. Internal Thermal Control System Hose Heat Transfer Fluid Thermal Expansion Evaluation Test Report (United States)

    Wieland, P. O.; Hawk, H. D.


    During assembly of the International Space Station, the Internal Thermal Control Systems in adjacent modules are connected by jumper hoses referred to as integrated hose assemblies (IHAs). A test of an IHA has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to determine whether the pressure in an IHA filled with heat transfer fluid would exceed the maximum design pressure when subjected to elevated temperatures (up to 60 C (140 F)) that may be experienced during storage or transportation. The results of the test show that the pressure in the IHA remains below 227 kPa (33 psia) (well below the 689 kPa (100 psia) maximum design pressure) even at a temperature of 71 C (160 F), with no indication of leakage or damage to the hose. Therefore, based on the results of this test, the IHA can safely be filled with coolant prior to launch. The test and results are documented in this Technical Memorandum.

  12. Combating Wear of ASTM A36 Steel by Surface Modification Using Thermally Sprayed Cermet Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Shibe


    Full Text Available Thermal spray coatings can be applied economically on machine parts to enhance their requisite surface properties like wear, corrosion, erosion resistance, and so forth. Detonation gun (D-Gun thermal spray coatings can be applied on the surface of carbon steels to improve their wear resistance. In the present study, alloy powder cermet coatings WC-12% Co and Cr3C2-25% NiCr have been deposited on ASTM A36 steel with D-Gun thermal spray technique. Sliding wear behavior of uncoated ASTM A36 steel and D-Gun sprayed WC-12% Co and Cr3C2-25% NiCr coatings on base material is observed on a Pin-On-Disc Wear Tester. Sliding wear performance of WC-12% Co coating is found to be better than the Cr3C2-25% NiCr coating. Wear performance of both these cermet coatings is found to be better than uncoated ASTM A36 steel. Thermally sprayed WC-12% Co and Cr3C2-25% NiCr cermet coatings using D-Gun thermal spray technique is found to be very useful in improving the sliding wear resistance of ASTM A36 steel.

  13. Thermal Molding of Organic Thin-Film Transistor Arrays on Curved Surfaces. (United States)

    Sakai, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Kento; Ishimine, Hiroto; Okada, Yugo; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Sadamitsu, Yuichi; Kudo, Kazuhiro


    In this work, a thermal molding technique is proposed for the fabrication of plastic electronics on curved surfaces, enabling the preparation of plastic films with freely designed shapes. The induced strain distribution observed in poly(ethylene naphthalate) films when planar sheets were deformed into hemispherical surfaces clearly indicated that natural thermal contraction played an important role in the formation of the curved surface. A fingertip-shaped organic thin-film transistor array molded from a real human finger was fabricated, and slight deformation induced by touching an object was detected from the drain current response. This type of device will lead to the development of robot fingers equipped with a sensitive tactile sense for precision work such as palpation or surgery.

  14. Thermal Molding of Organic Thin-Film Transistor Arrays on Curved Surfaces (United States)

    Sakai, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Kento; Ishimine, Hiroto; Okada, Yugo; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Sadamitsu, Yuichi; Kudo, Kazuhiro


    In this work, a thermal molding technique is proposed for the fabrication of plastic electronics on curved surfaces, enabling the preparation of plastic films with freely designed shapes. The induced strain distribution observed in poly(ethylene naphthalate) films when planar sheets were deformed into hemispherical surfaces clearly indicated that natural thermal contraction played an important role in the formation of the curved surface. A fingertip-shaped organic thin-film transistor array molded from a real human finger was fabricated, and slight deformation induced by touching an object was detected from the drain current response. This type of device will lead to the development of robot fingers equipped with a sensitive tactile sense for precision work such as palpation or surgery.

  15. Path integral molecular dynamics with surface hopping for thermal equilibrium sampling of nonadiabatic systems. (United States)

    Lu, Jianfeng; Zhou, Zhennan


    In this work, a novel ring polymer representation for a multi-level quantum system is proposed for thermal average calculations. The proposed representation keeps the discreteness of the electronic states: besides position and momentum, each bead in the ring polymer is also characterized by a surface index indicating the electronic energy surface. A path integral molecular dynamics with surface hopping (PIMD-SH) dynamics is also developed to sample the equilibrium distribution of the ring polymer configurational space. The PIMD-SH sampling method is validated theoretically and by numerical examples.

  16. Neuro-Fuzzy Computational Technique to Control Load Frequency in Hydro-Thermal Interconnected Power System (United States)

    Prakash, S.; Sinha, S. K.


    In this research work, two areas hydro-thermal power system connected through tie-lines is considered. The perturbation of frequencies at the areas and resulting tie line power flows arise due to unpredictable load variations that cause mismatch between the generated and demanded powers. Due to rising and falling power demand, the real and reactive power balance is harmed; hence frequency and voltage get deviated from nominal value. This necessitates designing of an accurate and fast controller to maintain the system parameters at nominal value. The main purpose of system generation control is to balance the system generation against the load and losses so that the desired frequency and power interchange between neighboring systems are maintained. The intelligent controllers like fuzzy logic, artificial neural network (ANN) and hybrid fuzzy neural network approaches are used for automatic generation control for the two area interconnected power systems. Area 1 consists of thermal reheat power plant whereas area 2 consists of hydro power plant with electric governor. Performance evaluation is carried out by using intelligent (ANFIS, ANN and fuzzy) control and conventional PI and PID control approaches. To enhance the performance of controller sliding surface i.e. variable structure control is included. The model of interconnected power system has been developed with all five types of said controllers and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The performance of the intelligent controllers has been compared with the conventional PI and PID controllers for the interconnected power system. A comparison of ANFIS, ANN, Fuzzy and PI, PID based approaches shows the superiority of proposed ANFIS over ANN, fuzzy and PI, PID. Thus the hybrid fuzzy neural network controller has better dynamic response i.e., quick in operation, reduced error magnitude and minimized frequency transients.

  17. Structural, thermal and surface characterization of thermoplastic polyurethanes based on poly(dimethylsiloxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pergal Marija V.


    Full Text Available In this study, the synthesis, structure and physical properties of two series of thermoplastic polyurethanes based on hydroxypropyl terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane (HP-PDMS or hydroxyethoxy propyl terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane (EO-PDMS as a soft segment, and 4,4’-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol as a hard segment were investigated. Each series is composed of samples prepared with a different soft segment. The polyurethanes were synthesized by two-step polyaddition in solution. The effects of the type and content of PDMS segments on the structure, thermal and surface properties of copolymers were studied by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and two-dimensional NMR (HMBC and ROESY spectroscopy, GPC, DSC, TGA, WAXS, SEM, water contact angle and water absorption measurements. Thermal properties investigated by DSC indicated that the presence of soft PDMS segments lowers the glass transition and melting temperatures of the hard phase as well as the degree of crystallinity. SEM analysis of copolymers with a lower soft segment content confirmed the presence of spherulite superstructures, which arise from the crystallization of the hard segments. When compared with polyurethanes prepared from HP-PDMS, copolymers synthesized from EO-PDMS with the same content of the soft segments have higher degree of crystallinity, better thermal stability and less hydrophobic surface. Our results show that the synthesized polyurethanes have good thermal and surface properties, which could be further modified by changing the type or content of the soft segments.

  18. Surface energy budget and thermal inertia at Gale Crater: Calculations from ground-based measurements (United States)

    Martínez, G. M.; Rennó, N.; Fischer, E.; Borlina, C. S.; Hallet, B.; Torre Juárez, M.; Vasavada, A. R.; Ramos, M.; Hamilton, V.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Haberle, R. M.


    The analysis of the surface energy budget (SEB) yields insights into soil-atmosphere interactions and local climates, while the analysis of the thermal inertia (I) of shallow subsurfaces provides context for evaluating geological features. Mars orbital data have been used to determine thermal inertias at horizontal scales of ~104 m2 to ~107 m2. Here we use measurements of ground temperature and atmospheric variables by Curiosity to calculate thermal inertias at Gale Crater at horizontal scales of ~102 m2. We analyze three sols representing distinct environmental conditions and soil properties, sol 82 at Rocknest (RCK), sol 112 at Point Lake (PL), and sol 139 at Yellowknife Bay (YKB). Our results indicate that the largest thermal inertia I = 452 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 (SI units used throughout this article) is found at YKB followed by PL with I = 306 and RCK with I = 295. These values are consistent with the expected thermal inertias for the types of terrain imaged by Mastcam and with previous satellite estimations at Gale Crater. We also calculate the SEB using data from measurements by Curiosity's Rover Environmental Monitoring Station and dust opacity values derived from measurements by Mastcam. The knowledge of the SEB and thermal inertia has the potential to enhance our understanding of the climate, the geology, and the habitability of Mars.

  19. Point, surface and volumetric heat sources in the thermal modelling of selective laser melting (United States)

    Yang, Yabin; Ayas, Can


    Selective laser melting (SLM) is a powder based additive manufacturing technique suitable for producing high precision metal parts. However, distortions and residual stresses within products arise during SLM because of the high temperature gradients created by the laser heating. Residual stresses limit the load resistance of the product and may even lead to fracture during the built process. It is therefore of paramount importance to predict the level of part distortion and residual stress as a function of SLM process parameters which requires a reliable thermal modelling of the SLM process. Consequently, a key question arises which is how to describe the laser source appropriately. Reasonable simplification of the laser representation is crucial for the computational efficiency of the thermal model of the SLM process. In this paper, first a semi-analytical thermal modelling approach is described. Subsequently, the laser heating is modelled using point, surface and volumetric sources, in order to compare the influence of different laser source geometries on the thermal history prediction of the thermal model. The present work provides guidelines on appropriate representation of the laser source in the thermal modelling of the SLM process.

  20. Gold nanoshell/polysaccharide nanofilm for controlled laser-assisted tissue thermal ablation. (United States)

    Redolfi Riva, Eugenio; Desii, Andrea; Sinibaldi, Edoardo; Ciofani, Gianni; Piazza, Vincenzo; Mazzolai, Barbara; Mattoli, Virgilio


    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a freestanding ultrathin, mucoadhesive gold nanoshell/polysaccharide multilayer nanocomposite (thermonanofilm, TNF), that can be used for controlled photothermal ablation of tissues through irradiation with near-infrared radiation (NIR) laser. The aim of this work is to provide a new strategy to precisely control particle concentration during photothermalization of cancerous lesions, since unpredictable and aspecific biodistributions still remains the central issue of inorganic nanoparticle-assisted photothermal ablation. Gold nanoshell encapsulation in polysaccharide matrix is achieved by drop casting deposition method combined with spin-assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. Submicrometric thickness of films ensures tissue adhesion. Basic laser-induced heating functionality has been demonstrated by in vitro TNF-mediated thermal ablation of human neuroblastoma cancer cells, evidenced by irreversible damage to cell membranes and nuclei. Ex vivo localized vaporization and carbonization of animal muscular tissue is also demonstrated by applying TNF onto tissue surface. Thermal distribution in the tissue reaches a steady state in a few seconds, with significant increases in temperature (ΔT > 50) occurring across an 1 mm span, ensuring control of local photothermalization and providing more safety and predictability with respect to traditional laser surgery. A steady-state model of tissue thermalization mediated by TNFs is also introduced, predicting the temperature distribution being known the absorbance of TNFs, the laser power, and the tissue thermal conductivity, thus providing useful guidelines in the development of TNFs. Thermonanofilms can find applications for local photothermal treatment of cancerous lesions and wherever high precision and control of heat treatment is required.

  1. Control of Several Emissions during Olive Pomace Thermal Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Miranda


    Full Text Available Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25–750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min−1. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene, sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide, 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor.

  2. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Controlling Thermal Cracks in Mass Concrete Foundation by Circulating Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Liu


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes an engineering experience of solving the problem of thermal cracking in mass concrete by using a large project, Zhongguancun No.1 (Beijing, China, as an example. A new method is presented for controlling temperature cracks in the mass concrete of a foundation. The method involves controlled cycles of water circulating between the surface of mass concrete foundation and the atmospheric environment. The temperature gradient between the surface and the core of the mass concrete is controlled at a relatively stable state. Water collected from the well-points used for dewatering and from rainfall is used as the source for circulating water. Mass concrete of a foundation slab is experimentally investigated through field temperature monitoring. Numerical analyses are performed by developing a finite element model of the foundation with and without water circulation. The calculation parameters are proposed based on the experiment, and finite element analysis software MIDAS/CIVIL is used to calculate the 3D temperature field of the mass concrete during the entire process of heat of hydration. The numerical results are in good agreement with the measured results. The proposed method provides an alternative practical basis for preventing thermal cracks in mass concrete.

  3. Surface Treatment And Modification Of Graphene Using Organosilane And Its Thermal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim D.-S.


    Full Text Available In this study, graphene was functionalized via acid oxidation in the presence of a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid. The oxidized graphene was silanized using the coupling agent, 3-aminopropyltriethoxsilane, resulting in functionalized graphene. The oxidized graphene and functionalized graphene were characterized by X-Ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, High-resolution micro Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and atomic force microscopy to confirm the presence of functional moieties on the graphene surface. Thermal studies also demonstrate that the functionalized material is thermally stable up to higher temperatures.

  4. 3D thermal model of laser surface glazing for H13 tool steel (United States)

    Kabir, I. R.; Yin, D.; Naher, S.


    In this work a three dimensional (3D) finite element model of laser surface glazing (LSG) process has been developed. The purpose of the 3D thermal model of LSG was to achieve maximum accuracy towards the predicted outcome for optimizing the process. A cylindrical geometry of 10mm diameter and 1mm length was used in ANSYS 15 software. Temperature distribution, depth of modified zone and cooling rates were analysed from the thermal model. Parametric study was carried out varying the laser power from 200W-300W with constant beam diameter and residence time which were 0.2mm and 0.15ms respectively. The maximum surface temperature 2554°K was obtained for power 300W and minimum surface temperature 1668°K for power 200W. Heating and cooling rates increased with increasing laser power. The depth of the laser modified zone attained for 300W power was 37.5µm and for 200W power was 30µm. No molten zone was observed at 200W power. Maximum surface temperatures obtained from 3D model increased 4% than 2D model presented in author's previous work. In order to verify simulation results an analytical solution of temperature distribution for laser surface modification was used. The surface temperature after heating was calculated for similar laser parameters which is 1689°K. The difference in maximum surface temperature is around 20.7°K between analytical and numerical analysis of LSG for power 200W.

  5. Surface modification of several dental substrates by non-thermal, atmospheric plasma brush (United States)

    Chen, Mingsheng; Zhang, Ying; Driver, M. Sky; Caruso, Anthony N.; Yu, Qingsong; Wang, Yong


    Objective The purpose of this study was to reveal the effectiveness of non-thermal atmospheric plasma brush in surface wettability and modification of four dental substrates. Methods Specimens of dental substrates including dentin, enamel, and two composites Filtek Z250, Filtek LS Silorane were prepared (~2 mm thick, ~10 mm diameter). The prepared surfaces were treated for 5–45 s with a non-thermal atmospheric plasma brush working at temperatures from 36 to 38 °C. The plasma-treatment effects on these surfaces were studied with contact-angle measurement, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results The non-thermal atmospheric argon plasma brush was very efficient in improving the surface hydrophilicity of four substrates studied. The results indicated that water contact angle values decreased considerably after only 5 s plasma treatment of all these substrates. After 30 s treatment, the values were further reduced to <5°, which was close to a value for super hydrophilic surfaces. XPS analysis indicated that the percent of elements associated with mineral in dentin/enamel or fillers in the composites increased. In addition, the percent of carbon (%C) decreased while %O increased for all four substrates. As a result, the O/C ratio increased dramatically, suggesting that new oxygen-containing polar moieties were formed on the surfaces after plasma treatment. SEM surface images indicated that no significant morphology change was induced on these dental substrates after exposure to plasmas. Significance Without affecting the bulk properties, a super-hydrophilic surface could be easily achieved by the plasma brush treatment regardless of original hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of dental substrates tested. PMID:23755823

  6. Estimation of subsurface thermal structure using sea surface height and sea surface temperature (United States)

    Kang, Yong Q. (Inventor); Jo, Young-Heon (Inventor); Yan, Xiao-Hai (Inventor)


    A method of determining a subsurface temperature in a body of water is disclosed. The method includes obtaining surface temperature anomaly data and surface height anomaly data of the body of water for a region of interest, and also obtaining subsurface temperature anomaly data for the region of interest at a plurality of depths. The method further includes regressing the obtained surface temperature anomaly data and surface height anomaly data for the region of interest with the obtained subsurface temperature anomaly data for the plurality of depths to generate regression coefficients, estimating a subsurface temperature at one or more other depths for the region of interest based on the generated regression coefficients and outputting the estimated subsurface temperature at the one or more other depths. Using the estimated subsurface temperature, signal propagation times and trajectories of marine life in the body of water are determined.

  7. Clinical effect of vitamin A palmitate eye gel on early ocular surface reconstruction after thermal or chemical injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Dui Zhang


    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the clinical effect of vitamin A palmitate eye gel on early ocular surface reconstruction after thermal or chemical injuries. METHODS: Seventy-eight cases with thermal or chemical injuries to eyes were selected and divided into two groups by randomized, double-blind, positive drug parallel controlled method: group A(40 cases were treated with vitamin A palmitate eye geland group B \\〖38 cases were treated with basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGF\\〗. The bFGF and vitamin A palmitate eye gel were used 4 times a day. The treatment course was 14d. Restoration of epithelial defect, Schirmer's test values, tear break-up time(BUT, and subjective assessment of symptoms and signs were observed on D1, D3, D5, D7, D10 and D14.RESULTS: In group A, 31 cases were cured, 5 cases were effective, with the cure rate of 76% and efficiency 90%. In group B, 32 cases were cured, 3 cases were effective, with the cure rate of 84% and efficiency 92%. There were no significant differences between the two groups(P>0.05. However, there were significant differences on the results of Schirmer's test and BUT(PPCONCLUSION: Vitamin A palmitate eye gel is valuable and safe on early ocular surface reconstruction of the eyes suffered from thermal or chemical injuries.

  8. Surface Temperature Mapping of the University of Northern Iowa Campus Using High Resolution Thermal Infrared Aerial Imageries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Sugumaran


    Full Text Available The goal of this project was to map the surface temperature of the University of Northern Iowa campus using high-resolution thermal infrared aerial imageries. A thermal camera with a spectral bandwidth of 3.0-5.0 μm was flown at the average altitude of 600 m, achieving ground resolution of 29 cm. Ground control data was used to construct the pixelto-temperature conversion model, which was later used to produce temperature maps of the entire campus and also for validation of the model. The temperature map then was used to assess the building rooftop conditions and steam line faults in the study area. Assessment of the temperature map revealed a number of building structures that may be subject to insulation improvement due to their high surface temperatures leaks. Several hot spots were also identified on the campus for steam pipelines faults. High-resolution thermal infrared imagery proved highly effective tool for precise heat anomaly detection on the campus, and it can be used by university facility services for effective future maintenance of buildings and grounds.

  9. Control of propagation characteristics of spin wave pulses via elastic and thermal effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Arista, Ivan [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico); Kolokoltsev, O., E-mail: [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico); Acevedo, A.; Qureshi, N. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico); Ordóñez-Romero, César L. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico)


    A study of the magnetoelastic (ME) and thermal effects governing the phase (φ) and amplitude of magnetostatic surface spin wave (MSSW) pulses propagating in Ga:YIG/GGG and permalloy magnonic waveguides is presented. The ME effects were studied in a flexural configuration, under punctual mechanical force (F). Thermally induced ME and demagnetization phenomena were controlled by optically injected thermal power P{sub th}. It was determined that in an unclamped Ga:YIG waveguide, the force F that induces the phase shift Δφ=π, decreases by a quadratic law in the range from 1 mN to nN, and the P{sub th} at which Δφ=π decreases linearly from mW to μW as the waveguide volume decreases from mm{sup 3} to nm{sup 3}. For nano-volume waveguides the ME control energy (E{sub me}) can be of order of aJ, and the thermal control energy (ΔE{sub th}) can be as small as 50 fJ. The response time of these effects lies in the ns time scale. Both the mechanical and the thermo-magnetic forces provide an effective control of MSSW pulse amplitude, in addition to its phase shift. The thermo-magnetic effect allows one to realize variable delays of a MSSW pulse. - Highlights: • The Magneto-elastic (ME) and optically induced thermal effects governing the phase and amplitude of magnetostatic surface spin wave (MSSW) pulses propagating in Ga:YIG/GGG and permalloy magnonic waveguides are presented. • A mechanical force that causes phase shift Δφ=π for spin waves in the waveguides decreases by a quadratic law in the range from 1 mN to nN, and the optical power that induces the phase shift Δφ=π, decreases linearly from mW to μW as the waveguide volume decreases from mm{sup 3} to nm{sup 3}. • The response time of these effects can lie in the ns time scale.

  10. External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems: Critical Parameters for Surface Hygrothermal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Barreira


    Full Text Available External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems (ETICS are often used in Europe. Despite its thermal advantages, low cost, and ease of application, this system has serious problems of biological growth causing the cladding defacement. Recent studies pointed that biological growth is due to high values of surface moisture content, which mostly results from the combined effect of exterior surface condensation, wind-driven rain, and drying process. Based on numerical simulation, this paper points the most critical parameters involved in hygrothermal behaviour of ETICS, considering the influence of thermal and hygric properties of the external rendering, the effect of the characteristics of the façade, and the consequences of the exterior and interior climate on exterior surface condensation, wind-driven rain, and drying process. The model used was previously validated by comparison with the results of an “in situ” campaign. The results of the sensitivity analyses show that relative humidity and temperature of the exterior air, atmospheric radiation, and emissivity of the exterior rendering are the parameters that most influence exterior surface condensation. Wind-driven rain depends mostly on horizontal rain, building’s height, wind velocity, and orientation. The drying capacity is influenced by short-wave absorbance, incident solar radiation, and orientation.

  11. A Multi-Channel Method for Retrieving Surface Temperature for High-Emissivity Surfaces from Hyperspectral Thermal Infrared Images. (United States)

    Zhong, Xinke; Labed, Jelila; Zhou, Guoqing; Shao, Kun; Li, Zhao-Liang


    The surface temperature (ST) of high-emissivity surfaces is an important parameter in climate systems. The empirical methods for retrieving ST for high-emissivity surfaces from hyperspectral thermal infrared (HypTIR) images require spectrally continuous channel data. This paper aims to develop a multi-channel method for retrieving ST for high-emissivity surfaces from space-borne HypTIR data. With an assumption of land surface emissivity (LSE) of 1, ST is proposed as a function of 10 brightness temperatures measured at the top of atmosphere by a radiometer having a spectral interval of 800-1200 cm(-1) and a spectral sampling frequency of 0.25 cm(-1). We have analyzed the sensitivity of the proposed method to spectral sampling frequency and instrumental noise, and evaluated the proposed method using satellite data. The results indicated that the parameters in the developed function are dependent on the spectral sampling frequency and that ST of high-emissivity surfaces can be accurately retrieved by the proposed method if appropriate values are used for each spectral sampling frequency. The results also showed that the accuracy of the retrieved ST is of the order of magnitude of the instrumental noise and that the root mean square error (RMSE) of the ST retrieved from satellite data is 0.43 K in comparison with the AVHRR SST product.

  12. Controlled synthesis and thermal stability of hydroxyapatite hierarchical microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ruixue [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Chen, Kezheng, E-mail: [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Liao, Zhongmiao; Meng, Nan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China)


    Highlights: ► Hydroxyapatite hierarchical microstructures have been synthesized by a facile method. ► The morphology and size of the building units of 3D structures can be controlled. ► The hydroxyapatite with 3D structure is morphologically and structurally stable up to 800 °C. - Abstract: Hydroxyapatite (HAp) hierarchical microstructures with novel 3D morphology were prepared through a template- and surfactant-free hydrothermal homogeneous precipitation method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the morphology and composition of the synthesized products. Interestingly, the obtained HAp with 3D structure is composed of one-dimensional (1D) nanorods or two-dimensional (2D) nanoribbons, and the length and morphology of these building blocks can be controlled through controlling the pH of the reaction. The building blocks are single crystalline and have different preferential orientation growth under different pH conditions. At low pH values, octacalcium phosphate (OCP) phase formed first and then transformed into HAp phase due to the increased pH value caused by the decomposition of urea. The investigation on the thermal stability reveals that the prepared HAp hierarchical microstructures are morphologically and structurally stable up to 800 °C.

  13. Surface roughness of Saturn's rings and ring particles inferred from thermal phase curves (United States)

    Morishima, Ryuji; Turner, Neal; Spilker, Linda


    We analyze thermal phase curves of all the main rings of Saturn (the A, B, C rings, and the Cassini division) measured by both the far-IR and mid-IR detectors of the Cassini Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS). All the rings show temperature increases toward zero phase angle, known as an opposition effect or thermal beaming. For the C ring and Cassini division, which have low optical depths, intra-particle shadowing is considered the dominant mechanism causing the effect. On the other hand, the phase curves of the optically thick B and A rings steepen significantly with decreasing absolute solar elevation angle from 21° to 14°, suggesting inter-particle shadowing plays an important role in these rings. We employ an analytic roughness model to estimate the degrees of surface roughness of the rings or ring particles. For optically thin rings, an isolated particle covered by spherical segment craters is employed while for the thick rings we approximate a packed particle layer as a slab covered by craters. The particles in the thin rings are found to have generally rough surfaces, except in the middle C ring. Across the C ring, the optical depth correlates with the degree of surface roughness. This may indicate that surface roughness comes mainly from particle clumping, while individual particles have rather smooth surfaces. For the optically thick rings, the surface roughness of the particle layer is found to be moderate. The modeled phase curves of optically thick rings are shallow if the phase angle change is primarily due to change of observer azimuthal angle. On the other hand, the phase curves are steep if the phase angle change is due to change of observer elevation angle, as inter-particle shadows become visible at higher observer elevation. In addition, the area of shadowed facets increases with decreasing solar elevation angle. These combined effects explain the large seasonal change of the phase curve steepness observed for the thick rings. The degrees

  14. TIR Emissivity Spectra of Thermally Processed Sulfates, Carbonates and Phyllosilicates as Analog Materials for Asteroid Surfaces (United States)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; D'Amore, M.; Ferrari, S.


    At the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Berlin we are building a database of spectral measurements of several meteorites and other analogs for asteroid surfaces. Bi-directional reflectance of samples in the 1 to 100 μm spectral range, are measured by using an evacuated (10-4 bar) Bruker Vertex 80V FTIR spectrometer and a Bruker A513 reflection unit, allowing phase angles between 26° and 170°. Emissivity in the 1 to 100 μm spectral range is measured with the same instrument coupled with an external emissivity chamber, for sample temperatures ranging from low (50° C) to very high (above 800° C). We present here new measurements on sulfates, carbonates, and phyllosilicates in various grain size ranges. The setup was configured to simulate the thermal history of surface minerals on the asteroid 2008 EV5 during its revolution around the Sun. This asteroid is the scientific target of the ESA Marco Polo-R mission. The samples in vacuum (< 0.8 mbar) are measured at surface temperature around 70° C, then the same samples are heated to 220° C, and maintained at this temperature for one hour. Slowly the sample temperature is reduced back again to 70° C and a second measurement is taken. Emissivity spectra before and after thermal processing of the samples are complemented with reflectance measurements on samples fresh and after thermal processing. This comparison show us that for some minerals no spectral/structural changes appear, while others show signs of dehydration and among them some species show structural changes. We conclude that a proper spectral library of emissivity spectra for asteroid analogue materials must include thermally processed samples, reproducing the thermal evolution for the asteroid that is target of the actual investigation.

  15. Sub-thermal to super-thermal light statistics from a disordered lattice via deterministic control of excitation symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kondakci, H E; Abouraddy, A F; Christodoulides, D N; Saleh, B E A


    Monochromatic coherent light traversing a disordered photonic medium evolves into a random field whose statistics are dictated by the disorder level. Here we demonstrate experimentally that light statistics can be deterministically tuned in certain disordered lattices, even when the disorder level is held fixed, by controllably breaking the excitation symmetry of the lattice modes. We exploit a lattice endowed with disorder-immune chiral symmetry in which the eigenmodes come in skew-symmetric pairs. If a single lattice site is excited, a "photonic thermalization gap" emerges: the realm of sub-thermal light statistics is inaccessible regardless of the disorder level. However, by exciting two sites with a variable relative phase, as in a traditional two-path interferometer, the chiral symmetry is judiciously broken and interferometric control over the light statistics is exercised, spanning sub-thermal and super-thermal regimes. These results may help develop novel incoherent lighting sources from coherent lase...

  16. Simple Nanoimprinted Polymer Nanostructures for Uncooled Thermal Detection by Direct Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging. (United States)

    Hong, Brandon; Vallini, Felipe; Fang, Cheng-Yi; Alasaad, Amr; Fainman, Yeshaiahu


    We experimentally demonstrate the uncooled detection of long wavelength infrared (IR) radiation by thermal surface plasmon sensing using an all optical readout format. Thermal infrared radiation absorbed by an IR-sensitive material with high thermo-optic coefficient coated on a metal grating creates a refractive index change detectable by the shift of the supported surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measured optically in the visible spectrum. The interface localization of SPR modes and optical readout allow for submicrometer thin film transducers and eliminate complex readout integrated circuits, respectively, reducing form factor, leveraging robust visible detectors, and enabling low-cost imaging cameras. We experimentally present the radiative heat induced thermo-optic action detectable by SPR shift through imaging of a thermal source onto a bulk metal grating substrate with IR-absorptive silicon nitride coating. Toward focal plane array integration, a route to facile fabrication of pixelated metal grating structures by nanoimprint lithography is developed, where a stable polymer, parylene-C, serves as an IR-absorptive layer with a high thermo-optic coefficient. Experimental detection of IR radiation from real thermal sources imaged at infinity is demonstrated by our nanoimprinted polymer-SPR pixels with an estimated noise equivalent temperature difference of 21.9 K.

  17. Determination of water surface temperature based on the use of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data (United States)

    Anderson, James E.


    A straightforward method for compensating Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for the influence of atmospheric path radiance and the attenuation of target energy by the atmosphere is presented. A band ratioing model useful for estimating water surface temperatures, which requires no ground truth measurements, is included. A study conducted to test the potential of the model and the magnitudes of the corrections for atmosphere encountered is presented. Results of the study, which was based on data collected during an engineering evaluation flight of TIMS, indicate errors in the estimate of the surface temperature of the water fall from +/- 1.0 C for uncorrected data to +/- 0.4 C when data have been corrected according to the model presented. This value approaches the noise-limited thermal resolution of the sensor at the time of the flight.

  18. Investigation of thermal effect on exterior wall surface of building material at urban city area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dzinun, Hazlini; Ponraj, M.; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Noor, Zainura Zainun [Institute of Environmental Water Resources and Management (IPASA), Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Remaz, Dilshah [Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Iwao, Kenzo [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)


    This paper describes the investigation of heat impact on the vertical surfaces of buildings based on their thermal behavior. The study was performed based on four building materials that is commonly used in Malaysia; brick, concrete, granite and white concrete tiles. The thermal performances on the building materials were investigated using a surface temperature sensor, data logging system and infrared thermography. Results showed that the brick had the capability to absorb and store heat greater than other materials during the investigation period. The normalized heat (total heat/solar radiation) of the brick was 0.093 and produces high heat (51% compared to granite), confirming a substantial amount of heat being released into the atmosphere through radiation and convection. The most sensitive material that absorbs and stores heat was in the following order: brick > concrete > granite > white concrete tiles. It was concluded that the type of exterior wall material used in buildings had significant impact to the environment.

  19. An airborne robotic platform for mapping thermal structure in surface water bodies (United States)

    Thompson, S. E.; Chung, M.; Detweiler, C.; Ore, J. P.


    The significance of thermal heterogeneities in small surface water bodies as drivers of mixing and for habitat provision is increasingly recognized, yet obtaining three-dimensionally resolved observations of the thermal structure of lakes and rivers remains challenging. For relatively shallow water bodies, observations of water temperature from aerial platforms are attractive: they do not require shoreline access, they can be quickly and easily deployed and redeployed, facilitating repeated sampling, and they can rapidly move between measurement locations, allowing multiple measurements to be made during single flights. However, they are also subject to well-known limitations including payload, flight duration and operability, and their effectiveness as a mobile platform for thermal sensing is still poorly characterized. In this talk, I will introduce an aerial thermal sensing platform that enables water temperature measurements to be made and spatially located throughout a water column, and present preliminary results from initial field experiments comparing in-situ temperature observations to those made from the UAS platform. The results highlight the potential scalability of the platform to provide high-resolution 3D thermal mapping of a ~1 ha lake in 2-3 flights (circa 1 hour), sufficient to resolve diurnal variations. Operability constraints and key needs for further development are also identified.

  20. Solvent free fabrication of micro and nanostructured drug coatings by thermal evaporation for controlled release and increased effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S Zarie

    Full Text Available Nanostructuring of drug delivery systems offers many promising applications like precise control of dissolution and release kinetics, enhanced activities, flexibility in terms of surface coatings, integration into implants, designing the appropriate scaffolds or even integrating into microelectronic chips etc. for different desired applications. In general such kind of structuring is difficult due to unintentional mixing of chemical solvents used during drug formulations. We demonstrate here the successful solvent-free fabrication of micro-nanostructured pharmaceutical molecules by simple thermal evaporation (TE. The evaporation of drug molecules and their emission to a specific surface under vacuum led to controlled assembling of the molecules from vapour phase to solid phase. The most important aspects of thermal evaporation technique are: solvent-free, precise control of size, possibility of fabricating multilayer/hybrid, and free choice of substrates. This could be shown for twenty eight pharmaceutical substances of different chemical structures which were evaporated on surfaces of titanium and glass discs. Structural investigations of different TE fabricated drugs were performed by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy which revealed that these drug substances preserve their structurality after evaporation. Titanium discs coated with antimicrobial substances by thermal evaporation were subjected to tests for antibacterial or antifungal activities, respectively. A significant increase in their antimicrobial activity was observed in zones of inhibition tests compared to controls of the diluted substances on the discs made of paper for filtration. With thermal evaporation, we have successfully synthesized solvent-free nanostructured drug delivery systems in form of multilayer structures and in hybrid drug complexes respectively. Analyses of these substances consolidated that thermal evaporation opens up

  1. Thermoelectric control of shape memory alloy microactuators: a thermal model (United States)

    Abadie, J.; Chaillet, Nicolas; Lexcellent, Christian; Bourjault, Alain


    Microtechnologies and microsystems engineering use new active materials. These materials are interesting to realize microactuators and microsensors. In this category of materials, Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) are good candidates for microactuation. SMA wires, or thin plates, can be used as active material in microfingers. These microstructures are able to provide very important forces, but have low dynamic response, especially for cooling, in confined environment. The control of the SMA phase transformations, and then the mechanical power generation, is made by the temperature. The Joule effect is an easy and efficiency way to heat the SMA wires, but cooling is not so easy. The dynamic response of the actuator depends on cooling capabilities. The thermal convection and conduction are the traditional ways to cool the SMA, but have limitations for microsystems. We are looking for a reversible way of heating and cooling SMA microactuators, based on the thermoelectric effects. Using Peltier effect, a positive or a negative electrical courant is able to pump or produce heat, in the SMA actuator. A physical model based on thermal exchanges between a Nickel/Titanium (NiTi) SMA, and Bismuth/Telluride (Te3Bi2) thermoelectric material has been developed. For simulation, we use a numerical resolution of our model, with finite elements, which takes into account the Peltier effect, the Joule effect, the convection, the conduction and the phase transformation of the SMA. We have also developed the corresponding experimental system, with two thermoelectric junctions, where the SMA actuator is one of the element of each junction. In this paper, the physical model and its numerical resolution are given, the experimental system used to validate the model is described, and experimental results are shown.

  2. Detection of Oil Product on the Water Surface with Thermal Infrared Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Pilžis


    Full Text Available From all existing remote detectors infrared sensors are the cheapest and most widely used. In this article described experiment was done to determine if it is possible to detected oil products on the water surface using thermal infrared camera. This hypothesis was confirmed – thickest layer of used oil product appeared hotter than water. Also, it was found that temperatures of oil product on the surface directly depend on the air temperature. However, clouds have a significant effect on efficiency of this remote sensing method.

  3. Thermal infrared remote sensing of surface features for renewable resource applications (United States)

    Welker, J. E.


    The subjects of infrared remote sensing of surface features for renewable resource applications is reviewed with respect to the basic physical concepts involved at the Earth's surface and up through the atmosphere, as well as the historical development of satellite systems which produce such data at increasingly greater spatial resolution. With this general background in hand, the growth of a variety of specific renewable resource applications using the developing thermal infrared technology are discussed, including data from HCMM investigators. Recommendations are made for continued growth in this field of applications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARAT, Adebayo-Aminu


    Full Text Available Urban centres continue to experience escalating average summer temperature over the last fifty years. Temperature in the urban core cites have been rising due to rapid growth of urbanization in the latter half of the twentieth century (Akbari et al., 1989. Outdoor experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of different movement of materials on the urban thermal environment. Meteorological conditions such as air temperature, pavement surface temperature, Relative humidity and wind velocity were recorded to determine temperature differences among Asphalt/concrete, interlocking bricks and grass surfaces.

  5. Modelling and control of laser surface treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina


    The results of laser surface treatment may vary significantly during laser surface processing. These variations arise from the sensitivity of the process to disturbances, such as varying absorptivity and the small dimensions of the work piece. To increase the reproducibility of the process, a

  6. Clarification of the different roles of surface anisotropy for thermal spin waves and FMR modes (United States)

    Rado, G. T.; Walker, J. C.


    Measurements by Mössbauer spectroscopy of the position dependence of the hyperfine field in monocrystalline iron films show that the fractional deviation of the spontaneous magnetization at temperature T from its value at T=0 K is larger by a factor of about two at a film surface than in the film's interior. This result agrees with an early theoretical prediction of a factor of exactly two which is based on the assumption that the surface anisotropy is zero. In contrast, the results of recent ferromagnetic resonance experiments on ultra-thin films of monocrystalline iron were shown to be dominated by a surface anistropy which is nonzero. This discrepancy is reconciled for measurements at T=300 K by making use of the general boundary condition which contains the exchange stiffness A and some component(s) of the surface anisotropy Ksurf. The crucial argument is that at 300 K the thermally excited spin wavelengths are so short that at the film surfaces the normal derivative 2A∂m↘/∂n of the oscillating magnetization m↘ is very much larger than Ksurfm↘. Thus Ksurfm↘ is neglible for thermal spin waves even though it is comparable to 2A∂m↘/∂n for the long decay distances (or wavelengths) occurring in ferromagnetic resonance.

  7. Surface modification of Raw and Frit glazes by non-thermal helium plasma jet (United States)

    Ghasemi, M.; Sohbatzadeh, F.; Mirzanejhad, S.


    In this study, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was utilized to improve the adhesion of Raw and Frit glazes. These glazes are widely used in industry to make chinaware, decorative dishes and tiles applied at wall and floor. As they should be painted before use, increasing their adhesive properties leads to a better paint durability. Electrical and optical characteristics of the plasma jet are investigated to optimize for efficient treatment. Contact angle measurement and surface energy calculation demonstrate a drastic increase after the plasma treatment indicating wettability and paintability enhancement. Moreover, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses were performed on the specimens to explore the influence of helium plasma jet on the physical and chemical properties of the glazes, microscopically. AFM analysis reveals surface etching resulted from the bombardment of the solid surfaces by the APPJ using helium fed gas. The process aims to enhance adhesive properties of glaze surfaces.

  8. An analogue study of the influence of solidification on the advance and surface thermal signature of lava flows (United States)

    Garel, F.; Kaminski, E.; Tait, S.; Limare, A.


    The prediction of lava flow advance and velocity is crucial during an effusive volcanic crisis. The effusion rate is a key control of lava dynamics, and proxies have been developed to estimate it in near real-time. The thermal proxy in predominant use links the satellite-measured thermal radiated power to the effusion rate. It lacks however a robust physical basis to allow time-dependent modeling. We investigate here through analogue experiments the coupling between the spreading of a solidifying flow and its surface thermal signal. We extract a first order behavior from experimental results obtained using polyethylene glycol (PEG) wax, that solidifies abruptly during cooling. We find that the flow advance is discontinuous, with relatively low supply rates yielding long stagnation phases and compound flows. Flows with higher supply rates are less sensitive to solidification and display a spreading behavior closer to that of purely viscous currents. The total power radiated from the upper surface also grows by stages, but the signal radiated by the hottest and liquid part of the flow reaches a quasi-steady state after some time. This plateau value scales around half of the theoretical prediction of a model developed previously for the spreading and cooling of isoviscous gravity currents. The corrected scaling yields satisfying estimates of the effusion rate from the total radiated power measured on a range of basaltic lava flows. We conclude that a gross estimate of the supply rate of solidifying flows can be retrieved from thermal remote-sensing, but the predictions of lava advance as a function of effusion rate appears a more difficult task due to chaotic emplacement of solidifying flows.

  9. Rectified Continuous Flow Loop for Thermal Control of Large Deployable Structures and Distributed Loads Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future instruments and platforms for NASA's Earth Science Enterprises will require increasingly sophisticated thermal control technology, and cryogenic applications...

  10. A Multi-Environment Thermal Control System With Freeze-Tolerant Radiator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future space exploration missions require advanced thermal control systems (TCS) to dissipate heat from spacecraft, rovers, or habitats to external environments. We...

  11. Advanced Durable Flexible Ultra Low Outgassing Thermal Control Coatings for NASA Science Missions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I program proposes to synthesize novel nanoengineered ultra low out gassing elastomers and formulate high temperature capable flexible thermal control...

  12. The control of indoor thermal comfort conditions: introducing a fuzzy adaptive controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvino, F.; Gennusa, M. La; Rizzo, G.; Scaccianoce, G. [Universita di Palermo (Italy). Dept. of Energy and Environmental Researches


    The control and the monitoring of indoor thermal conditions represents a pre-eminent task with the aim of ensuring suitable working and living spaces to people. Especially in industrialised countries, in fact, several rules and standards have been recently released in order of providing technicians with suitable design tools and effective indexes and parameters for the checking of the indoor microclimate. Among them, predicted mean vote (PMV) index is often adopted for assessing the thermal comfort conditions of thermal moderate environments. Unfortunately, the PMV index is characterised by non-linear features, which could determine some difficulties when monitoring and controlling HVAC equipment. In order of overcoming these problems, a fuzzy control for HVAC system is here described. It represents a new simple approach, focused on the application of an adaptive fuzzy controller that avoids the modelling of indoor and outdoor environments. After a brief description of the method, some simulation results are presented. A simplified application, referring to a room belonging to a university building, is finally reported. (author)

  13. Thermal Effects on Vibration and Control of Piezocomposite Kirchhoff Plate Modeled by Finite Elements Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanbi


    Full Text Available Theoretical and numerical results of the modeling of a smart plate are presented for optimal active vibration control. The smart plate consists of a rectangular aluminum piezocomposite plate modeled in cantilever configuration with surface bonded thermopiezoelectric patches. The patches are symmetrically bonded on top and bottom surfaces. A generic thermopiezoelastic theory for piezocomposite plate is derived, using linear thermopiezoelastic theory and Kirchhoff assumptions. Finite element equations for the thermopiezoelastic medium are obtained by using the linear constitutive equations in Hamilton’s principle together with the finite element approximations. The structure is modelled analytically and then numerically and the results of simulations are presented in order to visualize the states of their dynamics and the state of control. The optimal control LQG-Kalman filter is applied. By using this model, the study first gives the influences of the actuator/sensor pair placement and size on the response of the smart plate. Second, the effects of thermoelastic and pyroelectric couplings on the dynamics of the structure and on the control procedure are studied and discussed. It is shown that the effectiveness of the control is not affected by the applied thermal gradient and can be applied with or without this gradient at any time of plate vibrations.

  14. Effect of tooth brushing and thermal cycling on a surface change of ceromers finished with different methods. (United States)

    Cho, L-R; Yi, Y-J; Heo, S-J


    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of tooth brushing and thermal cycling on the surface lustre and surface roughness of three ceromer systems treated with different surface finishing methods. The ceromers studied were: (1). Artglass, (2). Targis, (3). Sculpture and (4). the control group, Z 100. Half of the Targis and Sculpture groups were polished and the rest were coated with staining and glazing solution, respectively. All specimens were subjected to thermocycling 10000 times. Tooth brushing abrasion tests were performed in a customized tooth-brushing machine with 500 g weight applied on a back-and-forth cycle for 20000 repetitions. The lustre determined by measuring the light reflection area and the average roughness was compared between groups and between pre- and post-test values. All materials showed a lower lustre and rougher surface after thermocycling and tooth brushing (P ceromer specimens, except glazed Sculpture, showed a higher lustre and similar roughness to the control group. The post-brushing results revealed that glazed Sculpture presented discretely fallen out glaze coatings and had maximum change. However, stained Targis showed minimum change (P < 0.05) and polished Targis presented more changes than that of the staining treatment. It is therefore concluded that the glaze coatings for Sculpture don't exhibit long-term durability, while stain coatings for Targis acted like a protective layer.

  15. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Liquid Hydrogen Pressure Control Testing (United States)

    Moore, J. D.; Otto, J. M.; Cody, J. C.; Hastings, L. J.; Bryant, C. B.; Gautney, T. T.


    High-energy cryogenic propellant is an essential element in future space exploration programs. Therefore, NASA and its industrial partners are committed to an advanced development/technology program that will broaden the experience base for the entire cryogenic fluid management community. Furthermore, the high cost of microgravity experiments has motivated NASA to establish government/aerospace industry teams to aggressively explore combinations of ground testing and analytical modeling to the greatest extent possible, thereby benefitting both industry and government entities. One such team consisting of ManTech SRS, Inc., Edwards Air Force Base, and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was formed to pursue a technology project designed to demonstrate technology readiness for an SRS liquid hydrogen (LH2) in-space propellant management concept. The subject testing was cooperatively performed June 21-30, 2000, through a partially reimbursable Space Act Agreement between SRS, MSFC, and the Air Force Research Laboratory. The joint statement of work used to guide the technical activity is presented in appendix A. The key elements of the SRS concept consisted of an LH2 storage and supply system that used all of the vented H2 for solar engine thrusting, accommodated pressure control without a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), and minimized or eliminated the need for a capillary liquid acquisition device (LAD). The strategy was to balance the LH2 storage tank pressure control requirements with the engine thrusting requirements to selectively provide either liquid or vapor H2 at a controlled rate to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity environment of space operations. The overall test objective was to verify that the proposed concept could enable simultaneous control of LH2 tank pressure and feed system flow to the thruster without necessitating a TVS and a capillary LAD. The primary program objectives were designed to demonstrate technology readiness of the SRS concept

  16. Investigation of conductive thermal control coatings by a contactless method in vacuo (United States)

    Viehmann, W.; Shai, C. M.; Sanford, E. L.


    A technique for determining the conductance per unit area of thermal control coatings for electrostatically clean spacecraft is described. In order to simulate orbital conditions more closely, current-density-voltage (j-V) curves are obtained by a contactless method in which the paint on an aluminum substrate is the anode of a vacuum diode configuration with a tungsten filament cathode. Conductances per unit area which satisfy the International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE) requirement were observed on black paints containing carbon and in white and green paints filled with zinc oxide which were fired in order to induce defect conductivity. Because of surface effects and the nonhomogeneous nature of paints, large discrepancies were found between measurements with the contactless method and measurements employing metallic contacts, particularly at low current densities. Therefore, measurements with metallic contacts are considered to be of questionable value in deciding the suitability of coatings for electrostatic charge control.

  17. Thermal stratification hinders gyrotactic micro-organism rising in free-surface turbulence (United States)

    Lovecchio, Salvatore; Zonta, Francesco; Marchioli, Cristian; Soldati, Alfredo


    Thermal stratification in water bodies influences the exchange of heat, momentum, and chemical species across the air-water interface by modifying the sub-surface turbulence characteristics. Turbulence modifications may in turn prevent small motile algae (phytoplankton, in particular) from reaching the heated surface. We examine how different regimes of stable thermal stratification affect the motion of these microscopic organisms (modelled as gyrotactic self-propelling cells) in a free-surface turbulent channel flow. This archetypal setup mimics an environmentally plausible situation that can be found in lakes and oceans. Results from direct numerical simulations of turbulence coupled with Lagrangian tracking reveal that rising of bottom-heavy self-propelling cells depends strongly on the strength of stratification, especially near the thermocline where high temperature and velocity gradients occur: Here hydrodynamic shear may disrupt directional cell motility and hamper near-surface accumulation. For all gyrotactic re-orientation times considered in this study (spanning two orders of magnitude), we observe a reduction of the cell rising speed and temporary confinement under the thermocline: If re-orientation is fast, cells eventually trespass the thermocline within the simulated time span; if re-orientation is slow, confinement lasts much longer because cells align in the streamwise direction and their vertical swimming is practically annihilated.

  18. Mechanical, Thermal Degradation, and Flammability Studies on Surface Modified Sisal Fiber Reinforced Recycled Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Gupta


    Full Text Available The effect of surface treated sisal fiber on the mechanical, thermal, flammability, and morphological properties of sisal fiber (SF reinforced recycled polypropylene (RPP composites was investigated. The surface of sisal fiber was modified with different chemical reagent such as silane, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA, and O-hydroxybenzene diazonium chloride (OBDC to improve the compatibility with the matrix polymer. The experimental results revealed an improvement in the tensile strength to 11%, 20%, and 31.36% and impact strength to 78.72%, 77%, and 81% for silane, GMA, and OBDC treated sisal fiber reinforced recycled Polypropylene (RPP/SF composites, respectively, as compared to RPP. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, and heat deflection temperature (HDT results revealed improved thermal stability as compared with RPP. The flammability behaviour of silane, GMA, and OBDC treated SF/RPP composites was studied by the horizontal burning rate by UL-94. The morphological analysis through scanning electron micrograph (SEM supports improves surface interaction between fiber surface and polymer matrix.

  19. Thermal inertia as an indicator of rockiness variegation on near-Earth asteroid surfaces (United States)

    Ali-Lagoa, Victor; Delbo, Marco; Hanus, Josef


    Determining key physical properties of asteroids such as sizes and albedos or reflectance spectra is crucial to understand their origins and the processes that they have undergone during their evolution. In particular, one of the aims of NEOShield-2 project, funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme, is to physically characterize small near Earth asteroids (NEA) in an effort to determine effective mitigation strategies in case of impact with our planet [Harris et al. 2013 2013AcAau,90,80H].We performed thermophysical modelling of NEAs, such as (1685) Toro, and potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs), such as (33342) 1998 WT24. In addition to size, thermophysical models (TPM) of asteroids can constrain the surface thermal inertia, which is related to the material composition and physical nature, namely its "rockiness" or typical size of the particles on its surface. These have observable effects on the surface temperature distribution as a function of time and thus on the thermal infrared fluxes we observe, to which we can fit our model.In the case of WT24, its thermal inertia has been previously constrained to be in the range 100-300 SI units [Harris et al. 2007, Icarus 188, 414H]. But this was based on a spherical shape model approximation since no shape model was available by the time. Such a low thermal inertia value seems in disagreement with a relatively high metal content of the enstatite chondrites, the meteorite type to which WT24, classified as an E-type [Lazzarin et al. 2004 A&A 425L, 25L], has been spectrally associated. Using a three-dimensional model and spin vector based on radar observations [Busch et al. 2008 Icarus 197, 375B], our TPM produces a higher best-fitting value of the thermal inertia. We also find the intriguing possibility that the hemisphere of WT24 dominated by concave terrains, possibly be the result of an impact crater, has a higher thermal inertia. This would be similar to the case of our Moon

  20. Ground Plane and Near-Surface Thermal Analysis for NASA's Constellation Program (United States)

    Gasbarre, Joseph F.; Amundsen, Ruth M.; Scola, Salvatore; Leahy, Frank F.; Sharp, John R.


    Most spacecraft thermal analysis tools assume that the spacecraft is in orbit around a planet and are designed to calculate solar and planetary fluxes, as well as radiation to space. On NASA Constellation projects, thermal analysts are also building models of vehicles in their pre-launch condition on the surface of a planet. This process entails making some modifications in the building and execution of a thermal model such that the radiation from the planet, both reflected albedo and infrared, is calculated correctly. Also important in the calculation of pre-launch vehicle temperatures are the natural environments at the vehicle site, including air and ground temperatures, sky radiative background temperature, solar flux, and optical properties of the ground around the vehicle. A group of Constellation projects have collaborated on developing a cohesive, integrated set of natural environments that accurately capture worst-case thermal scenarios for the pre-launch and launch phases of these vehicles. The paper will discuss the standardization of methods for local planet modeling across Constellation projects, as well as the collection and consolidation of natural environments for launch sites. Methods for Earth as well as lunar sites will be discussed.

  1. Synergistic effects of ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling and atomic oxygen on altered and coated Kapton surfaces (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Rodriguez, Elvin


    The photovoltaic (PV) power system for Space Station Freedom (SSF) uses solar array blankets which provide structural support for the solar cells and house the electrical interconnections. In the low earth orbital (LEO) environment where SSF will be located, surfaces will be exposed to potentially damaging environmental conditions including solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, and atomic oxygen. It is necessary to use ground based tests to determine how these environmental conditions would affect the mass loss and optical properties of candidate SSF blanket materials. Silicone containing, silicone coated, and SiO(x) coated polyimide film materials were exposed to simulated LEO environmental conditions to determine their durability and whether the environmental conditions of UV, thermal cycling and oxygen atoms act synergistically on these materials. A candidate PV blanket material called AOR Kapton, a polysiloxane polyimide cast from a solution mixture, shows an improvement in durability to oxygen atoms erosion after exposure to UV radiation or thermal cycling combined with UV radiation. This may indicate that the environmental conditions react synergistically with this material, and the damage predicted by exposure to atomic oxygen alone is more severe than that which would occur in LEO where atomic oxygen, thermal cycling and UV radiation are present together.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Using genetic techniques the contribution of surface loops to the thermal stability of Bacillus subtilis neutral protease (NP-sub) was studied. Mutations were designed to make the surface of NP-sub more similar to the surface of more thermostable neutral proteases such as thermolysin (TLN). The

  3. Software for Automated Generation of Reduced Thermal Models for Spacecraft Thermal Control Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal analysis is increasingly used in the engineering of spacecrafts at every stage, including design, test, and ground-operation simulation. Currently used...

  4. Loop Heat Pipe with Thermal Control Valve for Passive Variable Thermal Link Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future Lunar Landers and Rovers will require variable thermal links that can reject heat during daytime, and passively shut-off during lunar night. During the long...

  5. Loop Heat Pipe with Thermal Control Valve for Passive Variable Thermal Link Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Loop heat pipes (LHPs) can provide variable thermal conductance needed to maintain electronics and batteries on Lunar/Martian rovers/landers within desired...

  6. Iapetus' near surface thermal emission modeled and constrained using Cassini RADAR Radiometer microwave observations (United States)

    Le Gall, A.; Leyrat, C.; Janssen, M. A.; Keihm, S.; Wye, L. C.; West, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Tosi, F.


    Since its arrival at Saturn, the Cassini spacecraft has had only a few opportunities to observe Iapetus, Saturn's most distant regular satellite. These observations were all made from long ranges (>100,000 km) except on September 10, 2007, during Cassini orbit 49, when the spacecraft encountered the two-toned moon during its closest flyby so far. In this pass it collected spatially resolved data on the object's leading side, mainly over the equatorial dark terrains of Cassini Regio (CR). In this paper, we examine the radiometry data acquired by the Cassini RADAR during both this close-targeted flyby (referred to as IA49-3) and the distant Iapetus observations. In the RADAR's passive mode, the receiver functions as a radiometer to record the thermal emission from planetary surfaces at a wavelength of 2.2-cm. On the cold icy surfaces of Saturn's moons, the measured brightness temperatures depend both on the microwave emissivity and the physical temperature profile below the surface down to a depth that is likely to be tens of centimeters or even a few meters. Combined with the concurrent active data, passive measurements can shed light on the composition, structure and thermal properties of planetary regoliths and thus on the processes from which they have formed and evolved. The model we propose for Iapetus' microwave thermal emission is fitted to the IA49-3 observations and reveals that the thermal inertias sensed by the Cassini Radiometer over both CR and the bright mid-to-high latitude terrains, namely Ronceveaux Terra (RT) in the North and Saragossa Terra (ST) in the South, significantly exceed those measured by Cassini's CIRS (Composite Infrared Spectrometer), which is sensitive to much smaller depths, generally the first few millimeters of the surface. This implies that the subsurface of Iapetus sensed at 2.2-cm wavelength is more consolidated than the uppermost layers of the surface. In the case of CR, a thermal inertia of at least 50 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2, and

  7. Thermal, size and surface effects on the nonlinear pull-in of small-scale piezoelectric actuators (United States)

    SoltanRezaee, Masoud; Ghazavi, Mohammad-Reza


    Electrostatically actuated miniature wires/tubes have many operational applications in the high-tech industries. In this research, the nonlinear pull-in instability of piezoelectric thermal small-scale switches subjected to Coulomb and dissipative forces is analyzed using strain gradient and modified couple stress theories. The discretized governing equation is solved numerically by means of the step-by-step linearization method. The correctness of the formulated model and solution procedure is validated through comparison with experimental and several theoretical results. Herein, the length-scale, surface energy, van der Waals attraction and nonlinear curvature are considered in the present comprehensive model and the thermo-electro-mechanical behavior of cantilever piezo-beams are discussed in detail. It is found that the piezoelectric actuation can be used as a design parameter to control the pull-in phenomenon. The obtained results are applicable in stability analysis, practical design and control of actuated miniature intelligent devices.

  8. Calcium pyroxenes at Mercurian surface temperatures: investigation of in-situ emissivity spectra and thermal expansion (United States)

    Ferrari, S.; Nestola, F.; Helbert, J.; Maturilli, A.; D'Amore, M.; Alvaro, M.; Domeneghetti, M.; Massironi, M.; Hiesinger, H.


    The European Space Agency and Japan Aerospace Agency mission to Mercury, named BepiColombo, will carry on board the Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS) that will be able to provide surface Thermal Infra-Red (TIR) emissivity spectra from 7 to 14 μm. This range of wavelengths is very useful to identify the fine-scale structural properties of several silicates. For mineral families as pyroxenes, the emissivity peak positions are good indicators of the composition. A complication in the interpretation of MERTIS data could arise from the extreme daily surface temperature range of Mercury (70 to 725 K) that significantly affects the crystal structure and density of minerals and consequently should affect the TIR spectral signature of each single mineral present on the surface of the planet. In preparation for the MERTIS data analysis, we are extensively investigating at high temperatures conditions several mineral phases potentially detectable on the surface of Mercury. Two C2/c augitic pyroxenes, with constant calcium content and very different magnesium to iron ratio, were studied by in situ high-temperature thermal infrared spectroscopy (up to 750 K) and in situ high-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction (up to 770 K). The emissivity spectra of the two samples show similar band center shifts of the main three bands toward lower wavenumbers with increasing temperature. Our results indicate that the center position of bands 1 and 2 is strictly dependent on temperature, whereas the center position of band 3 is a strong function of the composition regardless the temperature. These data suggest that MERTIS spectra will be able to provide indications of C2/c augitic pyroxene with different magnesium contents and will allow a correct interpretation independently on the spectra acquisition temperature.

  9. Experimental Comparison of the Tribological Properties of Selected Surfaces Created by Thermal Spraying Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Tóth


    Full Text Available The scientific article titled “Experimental comparison of the tribological properties of selected surfaces created by thermal spraying technology” deals with the surface condition of selected pairs working within the mixed friction before and after experimental tests. Based on the chosen methodology, the experimental tests were performed on the Tribotestor M’06 testing machine. The ecological oil MOGUL HEES 46 (manufactured by Paramo was used as a lubricant. The tests were performed on selected material pairs. The first friction element was a shaft of steel 14 220. The second friction element was a steel plate of steel 11 373 with a friction surface created by two materials, i.e. CuSn10 and NP 40. The results are statistically elaborated and illustrated in figures and tables.

  10. Three-dimensional surface grid generation for calculation of thermal radiation shape factors (United States)

    Aly, Hany M.


    A technique is described to generate three dimensional surface grids suitable for calculating shape factors for thermal radiative heat transfer. The surface under consideration is approximated by finite triangular elements generated in a special manner. The grid is generated by dividing the surface into a two dimensional array of nodes. Each node is defined by its coordinates. Each set of four adjacent nodes is used to construct two triangular elements. Each triangular element is characterized by the vector representation of its vertices. Vector algebra is used to calculate all desired geometric properties of grid elements. The properties are used to determine the shape factor between the element and an area element in space. The grid generation can be graphically displayed using any software with three dimensional features. DISSPLA was used to view the grids.

  11. Experimental and economic study of a greenhouse thermal control system using aquifer water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, V.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 008, Punjab (India)]. E-mail:; Sharma, S.K. [Energy Research Centre, Punjab University, Chandigarh 160 017, Punjab (India)


    Underground aquifer water is used for thermal control (heating as well as cooling) of a greenhouse in which chilli and capsicum are grown. Year round performance of the designed system is experimentally evaluated and presented. The designed system utilizes the constant temperature aquifer water available on the ground surface at around 24 deg. C (year round) in the agricultural field through deep tubewell used for irrigation purposes for heating a greenhouse in winter nights and cooling in summer days. Experimental performance of the designed system is tested during a full winter as well as for summer conditions. To enhance the efficiency of the system and to improve relative humidity during extreme summer conditions, a simple evaporative cooling process is also added within the same designed system. The experimental results show that the average greenhouse room air temperature is maintained 7-9 deg. C above ambient during winter nights and 6-7 deg. C below ambient in summer days besides decreasing the daily temperature fluctuations inside the greenhouse. Improvement in the average relative humidity during extreme summer conditions is also observed. Technoeconomic analysis of the greenhouse integrated to the designed aquifer coupled cavity flow heat exchanger system (ACCFHES) is also conducted based on the yield of capsicum and chilli crops and compared with those of the greenhouse without any thermal control system and the open field condition yields. An economic comparison of the ACCFHES has also been made with other existing thermal control technologies such as the earth air heat exchanger system, ground air collector, evaporative cooling using foggers and a fan and pad system.

  12. Thermal Inertia Determination of C-type Asteroid Ryugu from in-situ Surface Brightness Temperature Measurements (United States)

    Hamm, Maximilian; Grott, Matthias; Knollenberg, Jörg; Kührt, Ekkehard; Pelivan, Ivanka


    The Japanese Hayabusa-2 mission is a sample-return mission currently on its way to the C-type asteroid Ryugu. Hayabusa-2 carries the small lander MASCOT (Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout), whose scientific payload includes the infrared radiometer MARA. The primary science goal of MARA is to determine Ryugu's surface brightness temperatures at the landing site for a full asteroid rotation, which will be measured using a long-pass filter, an 8 to 12 µm bandpass, as well as four narrow bandpasses centered at wavelengths between 5 and 15 µm. From these measurements, surface thermal inertia will be derived, but because MARA performs single pixel measurements, heterogeneity in the field of view cannot be resolved. Yet, the surface will likely exhibit different surface textures, and thermal inertia in the field of view could vary from 600 (small rocks) to 50 Jm-2s-0.5K-1 (fine regolith grains). Sub-pixel heterogeneity is a common problem when interpreting radiometer data, since the associated ambiguities cannot be resolved without additional information on surface texture. For MARA, this information will be provided by the MASCOT camera, and in the present paper we have investigated to what extent different thermal inertias can be retrieved from MARA data. To test the applied approach, we generated synthetic MARA data using a thermal model of Ryugu, assuming different thermal inertias for sections of the field of view. We find that sub-pixel heterogeneity systematically deforms the diurnal temperature curve so that it is not possible to fit the data using a single thermal inertia value. However, including the area fractions of the different surface sections enables us to reconstruct the different thermal inertias to within 10% assuming appropriate measurement noise. The presented approach will increase robustness of the Ryugu thermal inertia determination and results will serve as a ground truth for the global measurements performed by the thermal infrared mapper (TIR) on

  13. PID temperature controller in pig nursery: improvements in performance, thermal comfort, and electricity use. (United States)

    de Souza Granja Barros, Juliana; Rossi, Luiz Antonio; Sartor, Karina


    The use of smarter temperature control technologies in heating systems can optimize the use of electric power and performance of piglets. Two control technologies of a resistive heating system were assessed in a pig nursery: a PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) controller and a thermostat. The systems were evaluated regarding thermal environment, piglet performance, and use of electric power for 99 days. The heating system with PID controller improved the thermal environment conditions and was significantly (P PID-controlled heating system is more efficient in electricity use and provides better conditions for thermal comfort and animal performance than heating with thermostat.

  14. Thermal Stability of Metal Nanocrystals: An Investigation of the Surface and Bulk Reconstructions of Pd Concave Icosahedra. (United States)

    Gilroy, Kyle D; Elnabawy, Ahmed O; Yang, Tung-Han; Roling, Luke T; Howe, Jane; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan


    Despite the remarkable success in controlling the synthesis of metal nanocrystals, it still remains a grand challenge to stabilize and preserve the shapes or internal structures of metastable kinetic products. In this work, we address this issue by systematically investigating the surface and bulk reconstructions experienced by a Pd concave icosahedron when subjected to heating up to 600 °C in vacuum. We used in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to identify the equilibration pathways of this far-from-equilibrium structure. We were able to capture key structural transformations occurring during the thermal annealing process, which were mechanistically rationalized by implementing self-consistent plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Specifically, the concave icosahedron was found to evolve into a regular icosahedron via surface reconstruction in the range of 200-400 °C, and then transform into a pseudospherical crystalline structure through bulk reconstruction when further heated to 600 °C. The mechanistic understanding may lead to the development of strategies for enhancing the thermal stability of metal nanocrystals.

  15. An Improved Mono-Window Algorithm for Land Surface Temperature Retrieval from Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Fei; Qin, Zhihao; Song, Caiying; Tu, Lili; Karnieli, Arnon; Zhao, Shuhe


      The successful launch of the Landsat 8 satellite with two thermal infrared bands on February 11, 2013, for continuous Earth observation provided another opportunity for remote sensing of land surface temperature (LST...

  16. Understanding Thermal Convection Effects of Venus Surface Atmosphere on the Design and Performance of Venus Mission Hardware (United States)

    Pandey, S. P.


    Work focuses on transient effects of thermal convection in Venus surface atmosphere on exposed mission hardware. Review of accurate and efficient state equation options for CFD modeling is presented. Convective heat transfer experiment plan presented.

  17. Experimental investigation of thermal conductivity coefficient and heat exchange between fluidized bed and inclined exchange surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stojanovic


    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental research of thermal conductivity coefficients of the siliceous sand bed fluidized by air and an experimental investigation of the particle size influence on the heat transfer coefficient between fluidized bed and inclined exchange surfaces. The measurements were performed for the specific fluidization velocity and sand particle diameters d p=0.3, 0.5, 0.9 mm. The industrial use of fluidized beds has been increasing rapidly in the past 20 years owing to their useful characteristics. One of the outstanding characteristics of a fluidized bed is that it tends to maintain a uniform temperature even with nonuniform heat release. On the basis of experimental research, the influence of the process's operational parameters on the obtained values of the bed's thermal conductivity has been analyzed. The results show direct dependence of thermal conductivity on the intensity of mixing, the degree of fluidization, and the size of particles. In the axial direction, the coefficients that have been treated have values a whole order higher than in the radial direction. Comparison of experimental research results with experimental results of other authors shows good agreement and the same tendency of thermal conductivity change. It is well known in the literature that the value of the heat transfer coefficient is the highest in the horizontal and the smallest in the vertical position of the heat exchange surface. Variation of heat transfer, depending on inclination angle is not examined in detail. The difference between the values of the relative heat transfer coefficient between vertical and horizontal heater position for all particle sizes reduces by approximately 15% with the increase of fluidization rate.

  18. Functionalization of polymer surfaces by medium frequency non-thermal plasma (United States)

    Felix, T.; Trigueiro, J. S.; Bundaleski, N.; Teodoro, O. M. N. D.; Sério, S.; Debacher, N. A.


    This work addresses the surface modification of different polymers by argon dielectric barrier discharge, using bromoform vapours. Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy showed that plasma etching occurs in stages and may be related to the reach of the species generated and obviously the gap between the electrodes. In addition, the stages of flatten surface or homogeneity may be the result of the transient crosslinking promoted by the intense UV radiation generated by the non- thermal plasma. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy analysis showed that bromine was inserted on the polymer surface as Csbnd Br bonds and as adsorbed HBr. The obtained results demonstrate that the highest degree of bromofunctionalization was achieved on polypropylene surface, which contains about 8,5% of Br. After its derivatization in ammonia, Br disappeared and about 6% of nitrogen in the form of amine group was incorporated at the surface. This result can be considered as a clear fingerprint of the Br substitution by the amine group, thus illustrating the efficiency of the proposed method for functionalization of polymer surfaces.

  19. [Correlative analysis of the diversity patterns of regional surface water, NDVI and thermal environment]. (United States)

    Duan, Jin-Long; Zhang, Xue-Lei


    Taking Zhengzhou City, the capital of Henan Province in Central China, as the study area, and by using the theories and methodologies of diversity, a discreteness evaluation on the regional surface water, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and land surface temperature (LST) distribution was conducted in a 2 km x 2 km grid scale. Both the NDVI and the LST were divided into 4 levels, their spatial distribution diversity indices were calculated, and their connections were explored. The results showed that it was of operability and practical significance to use the theories and methodologies of diversity in the discreteness evaluation of the spatial distribution of regional thermal environment. There was a higher overlap of location between the distributions of surface water and the lowest temperature region, and the high vegetation coverage was often accompanied by low land surface temperature. In 1988-2009, the discreteness of the surface water distribution in the City had an obvious decreasing trend. The discreteness of the surface water distribution had a close correlation with the discreteness of the temperature region distribution, while the discreteness of the NDVI classification distribution had a more complicated correlation with the discreteness of the temperature region distribution. Therefore, more environmental factors were needed to be included for a better evaluation.

  20. A thermal monitoring sheet with low influence from adjacent waterbolus for tissue surface thermometry during clinical hyperthermia. (United States)

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo F; Stauffer, Paul R


    This paper presents a complete thermal analysis of a novel conformal surface thermometer design with directional sensitivity for real-time temperature monitoring during hyperthermia treatments of large superficial cancer. The thermal monitoring sheet (TMS) discussed in this paper consists of a 2-D array of fiberoptic sensors embedded between two layers of flexible, low-loss, and thermally conductive printed circuit board (PCB) film. Heat transfer across all interfaces from the tissue surface through multiple layers of insulating dielectrics surrounding the small buried temperature sensor and into an adjacent temperature-regulated water coupling bolus was studied using 3-D thermal simulation software. Theoretical analyses were carried out to identify the most effective differential TMS probe configuration possible with commercially available flexible PCB materials and to compare their thermal responses with omnidirectional probes commonly used in clinical hyperthermia. A TMS sensor design that employs 0.0508-mm Kapton MTB and 0.2032-mm Kapton HN flexible polyimide films is proposed for tissue surface thermometry with low influence from the adjacent waterbolus. Comparison of the thermal simulations with clinical probes indicates the new differential TMS probe design to outperform in terms of both transient response and steady-state accuracy in selectively reading the tissue surface temperature, while decreasing the overall thermal barrier of the probe between the coupling waterbolus and tissue surface.

  1. Surface and chemical properties of surface-modified UHMWPE powder and mechanical and thermal properties of its impregnated PMMA bone cement, IV: effect of MMA/accelerator on the surface modification of UHMWPE powder. (United States)

    Yang, Dae Hyeok; Ko, Jong Tae; Kim, Yong Sik; Kim, Moon Suk; Shin, Hyung Sik; Rhee, John M; Khang, Gilson; Lee, Hai Bang


    In our previous study, we manufactured a reinforced poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement with 3 wt% of the surface-modified ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powder to improve its poor mechanical and thermal properties resulting from unreacted methylmethacrylate (MMA), the generation of bubble and shrinkage, and high curing temperature. In the present study, the effect of ratios of MMA and N,N'-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT) solutions in redox polymerization system was investigated for the surface modification of UHMWPE powder. We characterized physical and chemical properties of surface-modified UHMWPE powder and reinforced bone cements by a scanning electron microscope, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and curing temperature (Tmax). It was found that UTSs (41.3-51.3 MPa) of the reinforced PMMA bone cements were similar to those (44.5 MPa) of conventional PMMA bone cement (control), as well as significantly higher (P redox polymerization system using MMA/DMPT solution was better than that of radical system using MMA/xylene solution. Also, Tmax of the reinforced PMMA bone cements decreased from 103 to 72-84 degrees C. From these results, we confirmed that the surface-modified UHMWPE powder can be used as reinforcing agent to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of conventional PMMA bone cement.

  2. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Griffiths

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance, white boxes (high reflectance, and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and

  3. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife. (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Rowland, Jessica A; Briscoe, Natalie J; Lentini, Pia E; Handasyde, Kathrine A; Lumsden, Linda F; Robert, Kylie A


    Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes) are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively) using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance) boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance), white boxes (high reflectance), and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and shade profiles (i

  4. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife (United States)

    Rowland, Jessica A.; Briscoe, Natalie J.; Lentini, Pia E.; Handasyde, Kathrine A.; Lumsden, Linda F.; Robert, Kylie A.


    Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes) are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively) using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance) boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance), white boxes (high reflectance), and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and shade profiles (i

  5. Electrochemical-Driven Fluid Pump for Spacecraft Thermal Control Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the increasing power demands and longer life spans of space vehicles, their thermal management becomes ever more critical. Accompanying this is an unprecedented...

  6. Integral Radiators for Next Generation Thermal Control Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integral radiators integrate the primary structural system and the thermal rejection system into a dual function subsystem allowing for reduced weight. The design of...

  7. Thermal stability of perfluorinated molecular monolayers immobilized on pulsed laser deposited amorphous carbon surfaces (United States)

    Godet, Christian; Sabbah, Hussein; Hervé, Marie; Ababou-Girard, Soraya; Députier, Stéphanie; Perrin, André; Guilloux-Viry, Maryline; Solal, Francine


    Amorphous carbon (a-C) films grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition were optimized to get smooth surfaces with sp3-rich hybridization, sp3/(sp2+sp3) = 0.45-0.65. Under UHV annealing conditions, some sp3-to-sp2 conversion mechanism becomes efficient above 350°C. Covalent immobilization of linear alkene molecular layers was performed by a thermally-assisted (160-300°C) process, using perfluorodecene (PFD) in the gas phase, with no physical or chemical surface preparation of a-C films. Quantitative XPS analysis indicates the immobilization of a dense molecular monolayer. Thermal stability of the grafted PFD monolayer is investigated by using UHV annealing steps to derive the desorption rate constant k(T) and the temperature corresponding to half initial coverage (T1/2 = 460°C). The slower desorption rate of perfluorodecene monolayers immobilized on a-C as compared with a-Si:H surfaces reveals the role of the covalent C-C interface bond in the robustness of the molecule / semiconductor assembly.

  8. Tunable wideband-directive thermal emission from SiC surface using bundled graphene sheets (United States)

    Inampudi, Sandeep; Mosallaei, Hossein


    Coherent thermal radiation emitters based on diffraction gratings inscribed on surface of a polar material, such as silicon carbide, always possess high angular dispersion resulting in wideband-dispersive or monochromatic-directive emission. In this paper, we identify roots of the high angular dispersion as the rapid surface phonon polariton (SPhP) resonance of the material surface and the misalignment of the dispersion curve of the diffraction orders of the grating with respect to light line. We minimize the rapid variation of SPhP resonance by compensating the material dispersion using bundled graphene sheets and mitigate the misalignment by a proper choice of the grating design. Utilizing a modified form of rigorous coupled wave analysis to simultaneously incorporate atomic-scale graphene sheets and bulk diffraction gratings, we accurately compute the emissivity profiles of the composite structure and demonstrate reduction in the angular dispersion of thermal emission from as high as 30∘ to as low as 4∘ in the SPhP dominant wavelength range of 11-12 μ m . In addition, we demonstrate that the graphene sheets via their tunable optical properties allow a fringe benefit of dynamical variation of the angular dispersion to a wide range.

  9. Non-Venting Thermal and Humidity Control for EVA Suits (United States)

    Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo; Bue, Grant


    Future EVA suits need processes and systems to control internal temperature and humidity without venting water to the environment. This paper describes an absorption-based cooling and dehumidification system as well as laboratory demonstrations of the key processes. There are two main components in the system: an evaporation cooling and dehumidification garment (ECDG) that removes both sensible heat and latent heat from the pressure garment, and an absorber radiator that absorbs moisture and rejects heat to space by thermal radiation. This paper discusses the overall design of both components, and presents recent data demonstrating their operation. We developed a design and fabrication approach to produce prototypical heat/water absorbing elements for the ECDG, and demonstrated by test that these elements could absorb heat and moisture at a high flux. Proof-of-concept tests showed that an ECDG prototype absorbs heat and moisture at a rate of 85 W/ft under conditions that simulate operation in an EVA suit. The heat absorption was primarily due to direct absorption of water vapor. It is possible to construct large, flexible, durable cooling patches that can be incorporated into a cooling garment with this system. The proof-of-concept test data was scaled to calculate area needed for full metabolic loads, thus showing that it is feasible to use this technology in an EVA suit. Full-scale, lightweight absorber/radiator modules have also been built and tested. They can reject heat at a flux of 33 W/ft while maintaining ECDG operation at conditions that will provide a cool and dry environment inside the EVA suit.

  10. Tungsten Incorporation into Gallium Oxide: Crystal Structure, Surface and Interface Chemistry, Thermal Stability and Interdiffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, E. J.; Mates, T. E.; Manandhar, S.; Nandasiri, M.; Shutthanandan, V.; Ramana, C. V.


    Tungsten (W) incorporated gallium oxide (Ga2O3) (GWO) thin films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron co-sputtering of W-metal and Ga2O3-ceramic targets. Films were produced by varying sputtering power applied to the W-target in order to achieve variable W-content (0-12 at%) into Ga2O3 while substrate temperature was kept constant at 500 °C. Chemical composition, chemical valence states, microstructure and crystal structure of as-deposited and annealed GWO films were evaluated as a function of W-content. The structural and chemical analyses indicate that the samples deposited without any W-incorporation are stoichiometric, nanocrystalline Ga2O3 films, which crystallize in β-phase monoclinic structure. While GWO films also crystallize in monoclinic β-Ga2O3 phase, W-incorporation induces surface amorphization as revealed by structural studies. The chemical valence state of Ga ions probed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analyses is characterized by the highest oxidation state i.e., Ga3+. No changes in Ga chemical state are noted for variable W-incorporation in the range of 0-12 at%. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) analyses indicate the uniform distribution of W-content in the GWO films. However, XPS analyses indicate the formation of mixed valence states for W ions, which may be responsible for surface amorphization in GWO films. GWO films were stable up to 900 oC, at which point thermally induced secondary phase (W-oxide) formation was observed. A transition to mesoporous structure coupled with W interdiffusion occurs due to thermal annealing as derived from the chemical analyses at the GWO films’ surface as well as depth-profiling towards the GWO-Si interface. A model has been formulated to account for the mechanism of W-incorporation, thermal stability and interdiffusion via pore formation in GWO films.

  11. Importance of initial buoyancy field on evolution of mantle thermal structure: Implications of surface boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Glišović


    Full Text Available Although there has been significant progress in the seismic imaging of mantle heterogeneity, the outstanding issue that remains to be resolved is the unknown distribution of mantle temperature anomalies in the distant geological past that give rise to the present-day anomalies inferred by global tomography models. To address this question, we present 3-D convection models in compressible and self-gravitating mantle initialised by different hypothetical temperature patterns. A notable feature of our forward convection modelling is the use of self-consistent coupling of the motion of surface tectonic plates to the underlying mantle flow, without imposing prescribed surface velocities (i.e., plate-like boundary condition. As an approximation for the surface mechanical conditions before plate tectonics began to operate we employ the no-slip (rigid boundary condition. A rigid boundary condition demonstrates that the initial thermally-dominated structure is preserved, and its geographical location is fixed during the evolution of mantle flow. Considering the impact of different assumed surface boundary conditions (rigid and plate-like on the evolution of thermal heterogeneity in the mantle we suggest that the intrinsic buoyancy of seven superplumes is most-likely resolved in the tomographic images of present-day mantle thermal structure. Our convection simulations with a plate-like boundary condition reveal that the evolution of an initial cold anomaly beneath the Java-Indonesian trench system yields a long-term, stable pattern of thermal heterogeneity in the lowermost mantle that resembles the present-day Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs, especially below the Pacific. The evolution of subduction zones may be, however, influenced by the mantle-wide flow driven by deeply-rooted and long-lived superplumes since Archean times. These convection models also detect the intrinsic buoyancy of the Perm Anomaly that has been identified as a unique

  12. Practical thermometry and thermalization at sub-1 K temperatures using commercial surface-mount components (United States)

    Beev, Nikolai; Kiviranta, Mikko


    Thermometry and heat sinking are important aspects of cryogenic engineering. We have carried out experiments to determine the usefulness of commercial surface-mount resistors, resistor arrays and capacitors as temperature sensors and electrically isolated heat conductors. Our investigations were motivated by the need for easy thermal diagnostics and management of heat dissipation in experimental setups operating at sub-kelvin temperatures in dilution refrigerators. In this work we also present a simple and robust resistance-to-voltage converter circuit with low excitation power.

  13. Systems and methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm (United States)

    Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.


    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  14. Wind-tunnel experiments of turbulent flow over a surface-mounted 2-D block in a thermally-stratified boundary layer (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Markfort, Corey; Porté-Agel, Fernando


    Turbulent flows over complex surface topography have been of great interest in the atmospheric science and wind engineering communities. The geometry of the topography, surface roughness and temperature characteristics as well as the atmospheric thermal stability play important roles in determining momentum and scalar flux distribution. Studies of turbulent flow over simplified topography models, under neutrally stratified boundary-layer conditions, have provided insights into fluid dynamics. However, atmospheric thermal stability has rarely been considered in laboratory experiments, e.g., wind-tunnel experiments. Series of wind-tunnel experiments of thermally-stratified boundary-layer flow over a surface-mounted 2-D block, in a well-controlled boundary-layer wind tunnel, will be presented. Measurements using high-resolution PIV, x-wire/cold-wire anemometry and surface heat flux sensors were conducted to quantify the turbulent flow properties, including the size of the recirculation zone, coherent vortex structures and the subsequent boundary layer recovery. Results will be shown to address thermal stability effects on momentum and scalar flux distribution in the wake, as well as dominant mechanism of turbulent kinetic energy generation and consumption. The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from the Swiss National Foundation (Grant 200021-132122), the National Science Foundation (Grant ATM-0854766) and NASA (Grant NNG06GE256).

  15. Ultrasound therapy applicators for controlled thermal modification of tissue (United States)

    Burdette, E. Clif; Lichtenstiger, Carol; Rund, Laurie; Keralapura, Mallika; Gossett, Chad; Stahlhut, Randy; Neubauer, Paul; Komadina, Bruce; Williams, Emery; Alix, Chris; Jensen, Tor; Schook, Lawrence; Diederich, Chris J.


    Heat therapy has long been used for treatments in dermatology and sports medicine. The use of laser, RF, microwave, and more recently, ultrasound treatment, for psoriasis, collagen reformation, and skin tightening has gained considerable interest over the past several years. Numerous studies and commercial devices have demonstrated the efficacy of these methods for treatment of skin disorders. Despite these promising results, current systems remain highly dependent on operator skill, and cannot effectively treat effectively because there is little or no control of the size, shape, and depth of the target zone. These limitations make it extremely difficult to obtain consistent treatment results. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility for using acoustic energy for controlled dose delivery sufficient to produce collagen modification for the treatment of skin tissue in the dermal and sub-dermal layers. We designed and evaluated a curvilinear focused ultrasound device for treating skin disorders such as psoriasis, stimulation of wound healing, tightening of skin through shrinkage of existing collagen and stimulation of new collagen formation, and skin cancer. Design parameters were examined using acoustic pattern simulations and thermal modeling. Acute studies were performed in 201 freshly-excised samples of young porcine underbelly skin tissue and 56 in-vivo treatment areas in 60- 80 kg pigs. These were treated with ultrasound (9-11MHz) focused in the deep dermis. Dose distribution was analyzed and gross pathology assessed. Tissue shrinkage was measured based on fiducial markers and video image registration and analyzed using NIH Image-J software. Comparisons were made between RF and focused ultrasound for five energy ranges. In each experimental series, therapeutic dose levels (60degC) were attained at 2-5mm depth. Localized collagen changes ranged from 1-3% for RF versus 8-15% for focused ultrasound. Therapeutic ultrasound applied at high

  16. Experimental Investigation of Surface Layer Properties of High Thermal Conductivity Tool Steel after Electrical Discharge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Świercz


    Full Text Available New materials require the use of advanced technology in manufacturing complex shape parts. One of the modern materials widely used in the tool industry for injection molds or hot stamping dies is high conductivity tool steel (HTCS 150. Due to its hardness (55 HRC and thermal conductivity at 66 W/mK, this material is difficult to machine by conventional treatment and is being increasingly manufactured by nonconventional technology such as electrical discharge machining (EDM. In the EDM process, material is removed from the workpiece by a series of electrical discharges that cause changes to the surface layers properties. The final state of the surface layer directly influences the durability of the produced elements. This paper presents the influence of EDM process parameters: discharge current Ic and the pulse time ton on surface layer properties. The experimental investigation was carried out with an experimental methodology design. Surface layers properties including roughness 3D parameters, the thickness of the white layer, heat affected zone, tempered layer and occurring micro cracks were investigated and described. The influence of the response surface methodology (RSM of discharge current Ic and the pulse time ton on the thickness of the white layer and roughness parameters Sa, Sds and Ssc were described and established.

  17. Direct observation of surface-state thermal oscillations in SmB6 oscillators (United States)

    Casas, Brian; Stern, Alex; Efimkin, Dmitry K.; Fisk, Zachary; Xia, Jing


    SmB6 is a mixed valence Kondo insulator that exhibits a sharp increase in resistance following an activated behavior that levels off and saturates below 4 K. This behavior can be explained by the proposal of SmB6 representing a new state of matter, a topological Kondo insulator, in which a Kondo gap is developed, and topologically protected surface conduction dominates low-temperature transport. Exploiting its nonlinear dynamics, a tunable SmB6 oscillator device was recently demonstrated, where a small dc current generates large oscillating voltages at frequencies from a few Hz to hundreds of MHz. This behavior was explained by a theoretical model describing the thermal and electronic dynamics of coupled surface and bulk states. However, a crucial aspect of this model, the predicted temperature oscillation in the surface state, has not been experimentally observed to date. This is largely due to the technical difficulty of detecting an oscillating temperature of the very thin surface state. Here we report direct measurements of the time-dependent surface-state temperature in SmB6 with a RuO2 microthermometer. Our results agree quantitatively with the theoretically simulated temperature waveform, and hence support the validity of the oscillator model, which will provide accurate theoretical guidance for developing future SmB6 oscillators at higher frequencies.

  18. Control over emissivity of zero-static-power thermal emitters based on phase changing material GST

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Kaikai; Lyu, Yanbiao; Ding, Jichao; Lu, Yue; Cheng, Zhiyuan; Qiu, Min


    Controlling the emissivity of a thermal emitter has attracted growing interest with a view towards a new generation of thermal emission devices. So far, all demonstrations have involved sustained external electric or thermal consumption to maintain a desired emissivity. Here control over the emissivity of a thermal emitter consisting of a phase changing material Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) film on top of a metal film is demonstrated. This thermal emitter shows broad wavelength-selective spectral emissivity in the mid-infrared. The peak emissivity approaches the ideal blackbody maximum and a maximum extinction ratio of above 10dB is attainable by switching GST between the crystalline and amorphous phases. By controlling the intermediate phases, the emissivity can be continuously tuned. This switchable, tunable, wavelength-selective and thermally stable thermal emitter will pave the way towards the ultimate control of thermal emissivity in the field of fundamental science as well as for energy-harvesting and thermal contro...

  19. Protein adsorption to graphene surfaces controlled by chemical modification of the substrate surfaces. (United States)

    Kamiya, Yasutaka; Yamazaki, Kenji; Ogino, Toshio


    We have investigated effects of the support substrate surfaces on properties of the attached graphene flakes by observing protein adsorption to the graphene surfaces on SiO2/Si substrates that are modified with self-assembled monolayers to control their hydrophilicity. Using atomic force microscopy operated in aqueous environment, we found that high-density clusters of agglomerated avidin molecules form on the graphene flakes in the areas supported by a hydrophobic substrate surface, whereas very low density of large avidin clusters form at the edge of graphene flakes in the area supported by a hydrophilic surface. These results demonstrate that hydrophilicity of the support surface affects hydrophilicity of the graphene surface also in aqueous environment and that surface modification of the support substrate is a useful technique to control protein adsorption phenomena on graphene surfaces for realization of high sensitive graphene biosensors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Control System Design for a Surface Cleaning Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Yuyi


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aims to study a control system for a surface cleaning robot and the focus of the study is the surface cleaning robot controller design. The structural framework of the propulsion control system of the surface robot is designed based on the principle of PWM speed control. The function of each module in the control system is divided and described in detail. A kind of thinking based on an AVR microprocessor and its software and hardware design proposals are presented. Through RS485 and PC communication according to the agreed protocol, the control system achieves robot forward, backward, turn and work operations by the use of a DC motor or stepper motor, and it can therefore more successfully realize the work of a surface cleaning robot.

  1. Local monitoring of atomic steps on GaAs(001) surface under oxidation, wet removal of oxides and thermal smoothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhundov, I.O.; Kazantsev, D.M. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Alperovich, V.L., E-mail: [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sheglov, D.V. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kozhukhov, A.S.; Latyshev, A.V. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: • Specific atomic steps are monitored on the structured GaAs surface by ex situ AFM. • Oxidation and wet oxide removal keep the position and shape of atomic steps intact. • Thermal surface smoothing is studied on the structured GaAs surface. • The deviation from equilibrium towards growth during smoothing is revealed. • The step length smoothing kinetics is described by Monte Carlo simulation. - Abstract: The GaAs(001) step-terraced surface relief is studied under oxidation, wet oxide removal and thermal smoothing by ex situ atomic force microscopy with local monitoring of specific atomic steps using lithographic marks for surface area localization. Oxidation in the air and wet oxide removal lead to the formation of monatomic dips on terraces, while atomic steps keep their position and shape. Monitoring step mean position under thermal smoothing allows us to determine the deviation from equilibrium. The experimental smoothing kinetics is well described by Monte Carlo simulation.

  2. Medium Access Control for Thermal Energy Harvesting in Advanced Metering Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vithanage, Madava D.; Fafoutis, Xenofon; Andersen, Claus Bo


    In this paper we investigate the feasibility of powering wireless metering devices, namely heat cost allocators, by thermal energy harvested from radiators. The goal is to take a first step toward the realization of Energy-Harvesting Advanced Metering Infrastructures (EH-AMIs). While traditional...... the potential energy that can be harvested from Low Surface Temperature (LST) radiators. The experiments are based on a developed Energy-Harvesting Heat Cost Allocator (EH-HCA) prototype. On the basis of this measured power budget, we model and analytically compare the currently used Medium Access Control (MAC......) scheme of an industrial case study (IMR+) to a MAC scheme specifically designed for energy harvesting systems (ODMAC). Our analytical comparison shows the efficiency of the latter, as well as its ability to adapt to harvested ambient energy....

  3. Biomimetic Bacterial Identification Platform Based on Thermal Wave Transport Analysis (TWTA) through Surface-Imprinted Polymers. (United States)

    Steen Redeker, Erik; Eersels, Kasper; Akkermans, Onno; Royakkers, Jeroen; Dyson, Simba; Nurekeyeva, Kunya; Ferrando, Beniamino; Cornelis, Peter; Peeters, Marloes; Wagner, Patrick; Diliën, Hanne; van Grinsven, Bart; Cleij, Thomas Jan


    This paper introduces a novel bacterial identification assay based on thermal wave analysis through surface-imprinted polymers (SIPs). Aluminum chips are coated with SIPs, serving as synthetic cell receptors that have been combined previously with the heat-transfer method (HTM) for the selective detection of bacteria. In this work, the concept of bacterial identification is extended toward the detection of nine different bacterial species. In addition, a novel sensing approach, thermal wave transport analysis (TWTA), is introduced, which analyzes the propagation of a thermal wave through a functional interface. The results presented here demonstrate that bacterial rebinding to the SIP layer resulted in a measurable phase shift in the propagated wave, which is most pronounced at a frequency of 0.03 Hz. In this way, the sensor is able to selectively distinguish between the different bacterial species used in this study. Furthermore, a dose-response curve was constructed to determine a limit of detection of 1 × 104 CFU mL-1, indicating that TWTA is advantageous over HTM in terms of sensitivity and response time. Additionally, the limit of selectivity of the sensor was tested in a mixed bacterial solution, containing the target species in the presence of a 99-fold excess of competitor species. Finally, a first application for the sensor in terms of infection diagnosis is presented, revealing that the platform is able to detect bacteria in clinically relevant concentrations as low as 3 × 104 CFU mL-1 in spiked urine samples.

  4. Influence of surface morphology and microstructure on performance of CVD tungsten coating under fusion transient thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Youyun, E-mail: [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Liu, Xiang; Wang, Jianbao; Feng, Fan [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Lv, Yanwei; Song, Jiupeng [China National R& D Center for Tungsten Technology, Xiamen Tungsten Co. Ltd, 361026 Xiamen (China); Chen, Jiming [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China)


    Highlights: • Thick CVD-W coatingswere deposited at a rapid growth rate. • The polished CVD-W coatings have highly textured structure and exhibited a very strong preferred orientation. • The polished CVD tungsten coatings show superior thermal shock resistance as compared with that of the as-deposited coatings. • The crack formation of the polished CVD-W was almost suppressed at an elevated temperature. - Abstract: Thick tungsten coatings have been deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at a rapid growth rate. A series of tungsten coatings with different thickness and surface morphology were prepared. The surface morphology, microstructure and preferred orientation of the CVD tungsten coatings were investigated. Thermal shock analyses were performed by using an electron beam facility to study the influence of the surface morphology and the microstructure on the thermal shock resistance of the CVD tungsten coatings. Repetitive (100 pulses) ELMs-like thermal shock loads were applied at various temperatures between room temperature and 600 °C with pulse duration of 1 ms and an absorbed power density of up to 1 GW/m{sup 2}. The results of the tests demonstrated that the specific surface morphology and columnar crystal structure of the CVD tungsten have significant influence on the surface cracking threshold and crack propagation of the materials. The CVD tungsten coatings with a polished surface show superior thermal shock resistance as compared with that of the as-deposited coatings with a rough surface.

  5. Thermal Analysis of Unusual Local-scale Features on the Surface of Vesta (United States)

    Tosi, F.; Capria, M. T.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Capaccioni, F.; Palomba, E.; Zambon, F.; Ammannito, E.; Blewett, D. T.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Denevi, B. W.; hide


    At 525 km in mean diameter, Vesta is the second-most massive object in the main asteroid belt of our Solar System. At all scales, pyroxene absorptions are the most prominent spectral features on Vesta and overall, Vesta mineralogy indicates a complex magmatic evolution that led to a differentiated crust and mantle [1]. The thermal behavior of areas of unusual albedo seen on the surface at the local scale can be related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. Dawn's Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) [2] hyperspectral images are routinely used, by means of temperature-retrieval algorithms, to compute surface temperatures along with spectral emissivities. Here we present temperature maps of several local-scale features of Vesta that were observed by Dawn under different illumination conditions and different local solar times.

  6. Crystalline silicon surface passivation by thermal ALD deposited Al doped ZnO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagannath Panigrahi


    Full Text Available The evidence of good quality silicon surface passivation using thermal ALD deposited Al doped zinc oxide (AZO thin films is demonstrated. AZO films are prepared by introducing aluminium precursor in between zinc and oxygen precursors during the deposition. The formation of AZO is confirmed by ellipsometry, XRD and Hall measurements. Effective minority carrier lifetime (τeff greater than 1.5ms at intermediate bulk injection levels is realized for symmetrically passivated p-type silicon surfaces under optimised annealing conditions of temperature and time in hydrogen ambient. The best results are realised at 450°C annealing for >15min. Such a layer may lead to implied open circuit voltage gain of 80mV.

  7. Thermal measurement of root surface temperatures during application of intracanal laser energy in vitro (United States)

    Goodis, Harold E.; White, Joel M.; Neev, Joseph


    The use of laser energy to clean, shape, and sterilize a root canal system space involves the generation of heat due to the thermal effect of the laser on the organic tissue contents and dentin walls of that space. If heat generation is above physiologic levels, irreparable damage may occur to the periodontal ligament and surrounding bone. This study measured temperature rise on the outer root surfaces of extracted teeth during intracanal laser exposure. Thirty single rooted, recently extracted teeth free of caries and restorations were accessed pulps extirpated and divided into three groups. Each root canal system was treated with a 1.06 micrometers pulsed Nd:YAG laser with quartz contact probes. Temperatures were recorded for all surfaces (mesial distal, buccal, lingual, apical) with infrared thermography utilizing a detector response time of 1 (mu) sec, sensitivity range (infrared) of 8 to 12 micrometers and a scan rate of 30 frames/sec.

  8. Nanofluid flow over an unsteady stretching surface in presence of thermal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalidas Das


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the unsteady boundary layer flow of a nanofluid over a heated stretching sheet with thermal radiation. The transport model employed includes the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The unsteadiness in the flow field is caused by the time-dependence of the stretching velocity, free stream velocity and the surface temperature. The unsteady boundary layer equations are transformed to a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations and solved numerically using a shooting method together with Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg scheme. The clear liquid results from this study are in agreement with the results reported in the literature. It is found that the heat transfer rate at the surface increases in the presence of Brownian motion but reverse effect occurs for thermophoresis.

  9. Thermal oxidation of cleft surface of InSe single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balitskii, O.A.; Lutsiv, R.V.; Savchyn, V.P.; Stakhira, J.M. [Ivan Franko State Univ., Lviv (Ukraine). Phys. Dept.


    The thermal oxidation processes of cleft surface of InSe single crystals in the temperature range from 200 to 615 C have been investigated. We used the cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction methods. We established that adsorption processes were activated and defect creation on the cleft InSe surface begun at the low temperatures. The formation of In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and In{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 3} phases took place at medium temperatures. In{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase was formed at high temperatures. Results are in good agreement with the In-Se-O phase diagram that generally includes the In{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 3} phase formation. (orig.) 33 refs.

  10. Comparison of thermal oxidation and plasma oxidation of 4H-SiC (0001) for surface flattening (United States)

    Deng, Hui; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Yamamura, Kazuya


    The thermal oxidation and water vapor plasma oxidation of 4H-SiC (0001) were investigated. The initial oxidation rate of helium-based atmospheric-pressure plasma oxidation was six times higher than that of thermal oxidation. The oxide-SiC interface generated by plasma oxidation became flatter with increasing thickness of the oxide, whereas the interface generated by thermal oxidation was atomically flat regardless of the oxide thickness. Many pits were generated on the thermally oxidized surface, whereas few pits were observed on the surface oxidized by plasma. After the oxide layer generated plasma oxidation was removed, an atomically flat and pit-free SiC surface was obtained.

  11. Life testing of reflowed and reworked advanced CCGA surface mount packages in harsh thermal environments (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni


    Life testing/qualification of reflowed (1st reflow) and reworked (1st reflow, 1st removal, and then 1st rework) advanced ceramic column grid array (CCGA) surface mount interconnect electronic packaging technologies for future flight projects has been studied to enhance the mission assurance of JPL-NASA projects. The reliability of reworked/reflowed surface mount technology (SMT) packages is very important for short-duration and long-duration deep space harsh extreme thermal environmental missions. The life testing of CCGA electronic packages under extreme thermal environments (for example: -185°C to +125°C) has been performed with reference to various JPL/NASA project requirements which encompass the temperature range studied. The test boards of reflowed and reworked CCGA packages (717 Xilinx package, 624, 1152, and 1272 column Actel Packages) were selected for the study to survive three times the total number of expected temperature cycles resulting from all environmental and operational exposures occurring over the life of the flight hardware including all relevant manufacturing, ground operations, and mission phases or cycles to failure to assess the life of the hardware. Qualification/life testing was performed by subjecting test boards to the environmental harsh temperature extremes and assessing any structural failures, mechanical failures or degradation in electrical performance solder-joint failures due to either overstress or thermal cycle fatigue. The large, high density, high input/output (I/O) electronic interconnect SMT packages such as CCGA have increased usage in avionics hardware of NASA projects during the last two decades. The test boards built with CCGA packages are expensive and often require a rework to replace a reflowed, reprogrammed, failed, redesigned, etc., CCGA packages. Theoretically speaking, a good rework process should have similar temperature-time profile as that used for the original manufacturing process of solder reflow. A

  12. Engineered Theranostic Magnetic Nanostructures: Role of Composition and Surface Coating on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast and Thermal Activation. (United States)

    Nandwana, Vikas; Ryoo, Soo-Ryoon; Kanthala, Shanthi; De, Mrinmoy; Chou, Stanley S; Prasad, Pottumarthi V; Dravid, Vinayak P


    Magnetic nanostructures (MNS) have emerged as promising functional probes for simultaneous diagnostics and therapeutics (theranostic) applications due to their ability to enhance localized contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and heat under external radio frequency (RF) field, respectively. We show that the "theranostic" potential of the MNS can be significantly enhanced by tuning their core composition and architecture of surface coating. Metal ferrite (e.g., MFe2O4) nanoparticles of ∼8 nm size and nitrodopamine conjugated polyethylene glycol (NDOPA-PEG) were used as the core and surface coating of the MNS, respectively. The composition was controlled by tuning the stoichiometry of MFe2O4 nanoparticles (M = Fe, Mn, Zn, ZnxMn1-x) while the architecture of surface coating was tuned by changing the molecular weight of PEG, such that larger weight is expected to result in longer length extended away from the MNS surface. Our results suggest that both core as well as surface coating are important factors to take into consideration during the design of MNS as theranostic agents which is illustrated by relaxivity and thermal activation plots of MNS with different core composition and surface coating thickness. After optimization of these parameters, the r2 relaxivity and specific absorption rate (SAR) up to 552 mM(-1) s(-1) and 385 W/g were obtained, respectively, which are among the highest values reported for MNS with core magnetic nanoparticles of size below 10 nm. In addition, NDOPA-PEG coated MFe2O4 nanostructures showed enhanced biocompatibility (up to [Fe] = 200 μg/mL) and reduced nonspecific uptake in macrophage cells in comparison to other well established FDA approved Fe based MR contrast agents.

  13. Specific Features of Chip Making and Work-piece Surface Layer Formation in Machining Thermal Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev


    Full Text Available A wide range of unique engineering structural and performance properties inherent in metallic composites characterizes wear- and erosion-resistant high-temperature coatings made by thermal spraying methods. This allows their use both in manufacturing processes to enhance the wear strength of products, which have to operate under the cyclic loading, high contact pressures, corrosion and high temperatures and in product renewal.Thermal coatings contribute to the qualitative improvement of the technical level of production and product restoration using the ceramic composite materials. However, the possibility to have a significantly increased product performance, reduce their factory labour hours and materials/output ratio in manufacturing and restoration is largely dependent on the degree of the surface layer quality of products at their finishing stage, which is usually provided by different kinds of machining.When machining the plasma-sprayed thermal coatings, a removing process of the cut-off layer material is determined by its distinctive features such as a layered structure, high internal stresses, low ductility material, high tendency to the surface layer strengthening and rehardening, porosity, high abrasive properties, etc. When coatings are machined these coating properties result in specific characteristics of chip formation and conditions for formation of the billet surface layer.The chip formation of plasma-sprayed coatings was studied at micro-velocities using an experimental tool-setting microscope-based setup, created in BMSTU. The setup allowed simultaneous recording both the individual stages (phases of the chip formation process and the operating force factors.It is found that formation of individual chip elements comes with the multiple micro-cracks that cause chipping-off the small particles of material. The emerging main crack in the cut-off layer of material leads to separation of the largest chip element. Then all the stages

  14. Unsteady flow of a Maxwell nanofluid over a stretching surface in the presence of magnetohydrodynamic and thermal radiation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macha Madhu


    Full Text Available The problem of unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian Maxwell nanofluid over a stretching surface with thermal radiation is considered. The Maxwell model is used to characterize the non-Newtonian fluid behaviour. An appropriate similarity transformation is employed to transform the governing partial differential equations of mass, momentum, energy and nanoparticle concentration into ordinary differential equations. The coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations are solved by using the variational finite element method. The flow features and the heat transfer characteristics and nanoparticle volume fraction are analyzed and discussed in detail for several sets of values of the governing flow parameters. The results for the skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number are presented in tables for various values of the flow controlling parameters.

  15. High-surface Thermally Stable Mesoporous Gallium Phosphates Constituted by Nanoparticles as Primary Building Blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V Parvulescu; V Parvulescu; D Ciuparu; C Hardacre; H Garcia


    In constant, search for micro/mesoporous materials, gallium phosphates, have attracted continued interest due to the large pore size reported for some of these solids in comparison with analogous aluminum phosphates. However up to now, the porosity of gallium phosphates collapsed upon template removal or exposure to the ambient moisture. In the present work, we describe high-surface thermally stable mesoporous gallium phosphates synthesized from gallium propoxide and PCl{sub 3} and different templating agents such as amines (dipropylamine, piperidine and aminopiperidine) and quaternary ammonium salts (C{sub 16}H{sub 33}(CH{sub 3})3NBr and C{sub 16}PyCl). These highly reactive precursors have so far not been used as gallium and phosphate sources for the synthesis of gallophosphates. Conceptually, our present synthetic procedure is based on the fast formation of gallium phosphate nanoparticles via the reaction of gallium propoxide with PCl{sub 3} and subsequent construction of the porous material with nanoparticles as building blocks. The organization of the gallophosphate nanoparticles in stable porous structures is effected by the templates. Different experimental procedures varying the molar composition of the sol-gel, pH and the pretreatment of gallium precursor were assayed, most of them leading to satisfactory materials in terms of thermal stability and porosity. In this way, a series of gallium phosphates with surface are above 200 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, and narrow pore size from 3 to 6 nm and remarkable thermal stability (up to 550 C) have been prepared. In some cases, the structure tends to show some periodicity and regularity as determined by XRD. The remarkable stability has allowed us to test the catalytic activity of gallophosphates for the aerobic oxidation of alkylaromatics with notable good results. Our report reopens the interest for gallophosphates in heterogeneous catalysis.

  16. Influence of ECR-RF plasma modification on surface and thermal properties of polyester copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fray Miroslawa El


    Full Text Available In this paper we report a study on influence of radio-frequency (RF plasma induced with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR on multiblock copolymer containing butylene terephthalate hard segments (PBT and butylene dilinoleate (BDLA soft segments. The changes in thermal properties were studied by DSC. The changes in wettability of PBT-BDLA surfaces were studied by water contact angle (WCA. We found that ECR-RF plasma surface treatment for 60 s led to decrease of WCA, while prolonged exposure of plasma led to increase of WCA after N2 and N2O2 treatment up to 70°–80°. The O2 reduced the WCA to 50°–56°. IR measurements confirmed that the N2O2 plasma led to formation of polar groups. SEM investigations showed that plasma treatment led to minor surfaces changes. Collectively, plasma treatment, especially O2, induced surface hydrophilicity what could be beneficial for increased cell adhesion in future biomedical applications of these materials.

  17. Modification of the cellulosic component of hemp fibers using sulfonic acid derivatives: Surface and thermal characterization. (United States)

    George, Michael; Mussone, Paolo G; Bressler, David C


    The aim of this study was to characterize the surface, morphological, and thermal properties of hemp fibers treated with two commercially available, inexpensive, and water soluble sulfonic acid derivatives. Specifically, the cellulosic component of the fibers were targeted, because cellulose is not easily removed during chemical treatment. These acids have the potential to selectively transform the surfaces of natural fibers for composite applications. The proposed method proceeds in the absence of conventional organic solvents and high reaction temperatures. Surface chemical composition and signature were measured using gravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). XPS data from the treated hemp fibers were characterized by measuring the reduction in O/C ratio and an increase in abundance of the C-C-O signature. FTIR confirmed the reaction with the emergence of peaks characteristic of disubstituted benzene and amino groups. Grafting of the sulfonic derivatives resulted in lower surface polarity. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that treated fibers were characterized by lower percent degradation between 200 and 300 °C, and a higher initial degradation temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Land surface temperature retrieved from airborne multispectral scanner mid-infrared and thermal-infrared data. (United States)

    Qian, Yong-Gang; Wang, Ning; Ma, Ling-Ling; Liu, Yao-Kai; Wu, Hua; Tang, Bo-Hui; Tang, Ling-Li; Li, Chuan-Rong


    Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the key parameters in the physics of land surface processes at local/global scales. In this paper, a LST retrieval method was proposed from airborne multispectral scanner data comparing one mid-infrared (MIR) channel and one thermal infrared (TIR) channel with the land surface emissivity given as a priori knowledge. To remove the influence of the direct solar radiance efficiently, a relationship between the direct solar radiance and water vapor content and the view zenith angle and solar zenith angle was established. Then, LST could be retrieved with a split-window algorithm from MIR/TIR data. Finally, the proposed algorithm was applied to the actual airborne flight data and validated with in situ measurements of land surface types in the Baotou site in China on 17 October 2014. The results demonstrate that the difference between the retrieved and in situ LST was less than 1.5 K. The bais, RMSE, and standard deviation of the retrieved LST were 0.156 K, 0.883 K, and 0.869 K, respectively, for samples.

  19. Relation between the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Impact Factors under Severe Surface Thermal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinhuan Ao


    Full Text Available This paper reported a comprehensive analysis on the diurnal variation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL in summer of Badain Jaran Desert and discussed deeply the effect of surface thermal to ABL, including the Difference in Surface-Air Temperature (DSAT, net radiation, and sensible heat, based on limited GPS radiosonde and surface observation data during two intense observation periods of experiments. The results showed that (1 affected by topography of the Tibetan Plateau, the climate provided favorable external conditions for the development of Convective Boundary Layer (CBL, (2 deep CBL showed a diurnal variation of three- to five-layer structure in clear days and five-layer ABL structure often occurred about sunset or sunrise, (3 the diurnal variation of DSAT influenced thickness of ABL through changes of turbulent heat flux, (4 integral value of sensible heat which rapidly converted by surface net radiation had a significant influence on the growth of CBL throughout daytime. The cumulative effect of thick RML dominated the role after CBL got through SBL in the development stage, especially in late summer, and (5 the development of CBL was promoted and accelerated by the variation of wind field and distribution of warm advection in high and low altitude.

  20. Thermal migration of deuterium implanted in graphite: Influence of free surface proximity and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guillou, M. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Moncoffre, N., E-mail: [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Toulhoat, N. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); CEA/DEN – Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Pipon, Y. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Institut Universitaire Technologique, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Ammar, M.R. [CNRS, CEMHTI UPR3079, Université Orléans, CS90055, F-45071 Orléans cedex 2 (France); Rouzaud, J.N.; Deldicque, D. [Laboratoire de Géologie de l’Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris, UMR CNRS ENS 8538, F-75231 Paris cedex 5 (France)


    This paper is a contribution to the study of the behavior of activation products produced in irradiated nuclear graphite, graphite being the moderator of the first French generation of CO{sub 2} cooled nuclear fission reactors. This paper is focused on the thermal release of Tritium, a major contributor to the initial activity, taking into account the role of the free surfaces (open pores and graphite surface). Two kinds of graphite were compared. On one hand, Highly Oriented Pyrolitic Graphite (HOPG), a model well graphitized graphite, and on the other hand, SLA2, a porous less graphitized nuclear graphite. Deuterium ion implantation at three different energies 70, 200 and 390 keV allows simulating the presence of Tritium at three different depths, corresponding respectively to projected ranges R{sub p} of 0.75, 1.7 and 3.2 μm. The D isotopic tracing is performed thanks to the D({sup 3}He,p){sup 4}He nuclear reaction. The graphite structure is studied by Raman microspectrometry. Thermal annealing is performed in the temperature range 200–1200 °C up to 300 h annealing time. As observed in a previous study, the results show that the D release occurs according to three kinetic regimes: a rapid permeation through open pores, a transient regime corresponding to detrapping and diffusion of D located at low energy sites correlated to the edges of crystallites and finally a saturation regime attributed to detrapping of interstitial D located at high energy sites inside the crystallites. Below 600 °C, D release is negligible whatever the implantation depth and the graphite type. The present paper clearly puts forward that above 600 °C, the D release decreases at deeper implantation depths and strongly depends on the graphite structure. In HOPG where high energy sites are more abundant, the D release is less dependent on the surface proximity compared to SLA2. In SLA2, in which the low energy sites prevail, the D release curves are clearly shifted towards lower

  1. Evaluation of the surface urban heat island effect in the city of Madrid by thermal remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobrino, J.; Oltra-Carrio, R; Jimenez-Munoz, J.C.; Franch, B.; Hidalgo, V.; Mattar, C.; Julien, Y.; Cuenca, J.; Romaguera Albentosa, M.R.; Gomez, J.A.; de Miguel, E.; Bianchi, R.; Paganini, M.


    The surface urban heat island (SUHI) effect is defined as the increased surface temperatures in urban areas in contrast to cooler surrounding rural areas. In this article, the evaluation of the SUHI effect in the city of Madrid (Spain) from thermal infrared (TIR) remote-sensing data is presented.

  2. An atlast of XBT thermal structures and TOPEX/POSEIDON sea surface heights in the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Ali, M.M.; Araligidad, N.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shum, C.K.; Yi, Y.

    the Indian XBT Program were used to plot the sub-surface thermal structures of the Indian Ocean for 1993 to 2003. Since these in situ measurements are just along the ship tracks, sea surface height observations from the TOPEX altimeter were also plotted over...

  3. Two-Dimension Sorting and Selection Algorithm featuring Thermal Balancing Control for Modular Multilevel Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Máthé, Lászlo; Teodorescu, Remus


    With the aim to solve the unbalanced thermal behavior in the modular multilevel converter, introduced by mismatch in the submodule parameters, a thermal balancing control strategy is proposed here. The proposed solution ensures a balanced junction temperature for the power devices, while the bala...

  4. Controlled effect of ultrasonic cavitation on hydrophobic/hydrophilic surfaces. (United States)

    Belova, Valentina; Gorin, Dmitry A; Shchukin, Dmitry G; Möhwald, Helmuth


    Controlling cavitation at the solid surface is of increasing interest, as it plays a major role in many physical and chemical processes related to the modification of solid surfaces and formation of multicomponent nanoparticles. Here, we show a selective control of ultrasonic cavitation on metal surfaces with different hydrophobicity. By applying a microcontact printing technique we successfully formed hydrophobic/hydrophilic alternating well-defined microstructures on aluminium surfaces. Fabrication of patterned surfaces provides the unique opportunity to verify a model of heterogeneous nucleation of cavitation bubbles near the solid/water interface by varying the wettability of the surface, temperature and ultrasonic power. At the initial stage of sonication (up to 30 min), microjets and shock waves resulting from the collapsing bubbles preferably impact the hydrophobic surface, whereas the hydrophilic areas of the patterned Al remain unchanged. Longer sonication periods affect both surfaces. These findings confirm the expectation that higher contact angle causes a lower energy barrier, thus cavitation dominates at the hydrophobic surfaces. Experimental results are in good agreement with expectations from nucleation theory. This paper illustrates a new approach to ultrasound induced modification of solid surfaces resulting in the formation of foam-structured metal surfaces.

  5. A Useful Tool for Atmospheric Correction and Surface Temperature Estimation of Landsat Infrared Thermal Data (United States)

    Rivalland, Vincent; Tardy, Benjamin; Huc, Mireille; Hagolle, Olivier; Marcq, Sébastien; Boulet, Gilles


    Land Surface temperature (LST) is a critical variable for studying the energy and water budgets at the Earth surface, and is a key component of many aspects of climate research and services. The Landsat program jointly carried out by NASA and USGS has been providing thermal infrared data for 40 years, but no associated LST product has been yet routinely proposed to community. To derive LST values, radiances measured at sensor-level need to be corrected for the atmospheric absorption, the atmospheric emission and the surface emissivity effect. Until now, existing LST products have been generated with multi channel methods such as the Temperature/Emissivity Separation (TES) adapted to ASTER data or the generalized split-window algorithm adapted to MODIS multispectral data. Those approaches are ill-adapted to the Landsat mono-window data specificity. The atmospheric correction methodology usually used for Landsat data requires detailed information about the state of the atmosphere. This information may be obtained from radio-sounding or model atmospheric reanalysis and is supplied to a radiative transfer model in order to estimate atmospheric parameters for a given coordinate. In this work, we present a new automatic tool dedicated to Landsat thermal data correction which improves the common atmospheric correction methodology by introducing the spatial dimension in the process. The python tool developed during this study, named LANDARTs for LANDsat Automatic Retrieval of surface Temperature, is fully automatic and provides atmospheric corrections for a whole Landsat tile. Vertical atmospheric conditions are downloaded from the ERA Interim dataset from ECMWF meteorological organization which provides them at 0.125 degrees resolution, at a global scale and with a 6-hour-time step. The atmospheric correction parameters are estimated on the atmospheric grid using the commercial software MODTRAN, then interpolated to 30m resolution. We detail the processing steps

  6. Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle Active Thermal Control and Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status (United States)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Boehm, Paul; Cross, Cynthia D.; Rains, George Edward


    The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. Orion is currently being developed to transport the crew safely beyond Earth orbit. This year, the vehicle focused on building the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1) vehicle to be launched in September of 2014. The development of the Orion Active Thermal Control (ATCS) and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System, focused on the integrating the components into the EFT1 vehicle and preparing them for launch. Work also has started on preliminary design reviews for the manned vehicle. Additional development work is underway to keep the remaining component progressing towards implementation on the flight tests of EM1 in 2017 and of EM2 in 2020. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2013 to April 2014

  7. A Software Tool for Atmospheric Correction and Surface Temperature Estimation of Landsat Infrared Thermal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Tardy


    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is an important variable involved in the Earth’s surface energy and water budgets and a key component in many aspects of environmental research. The Landsat program, jointly carried out by NASA and the USGS, has been recording thermal infrared data for the past 40 years. Nevertheless, LST data products for Landsat remain unavailable. The atmospheric correction (AC method commonly used for mono-window Landsat thermal data requires detailed information concerning the vertical structure (temperature, pressure and the composition (water vapor, ozone of the atmosphere. For a given coordinate, this information is generally obtained through either radio-sounding or atmospheric model simulations and is passed to the radiative transfer model (RTM to estimate the local atmospheric correction parameters. Although this approach yields accurate LST data, results are relevant only near this given coordinate. To meet the scientific community’s demand for high-resolution LST maps, we developed a new software tool dedicated to processing Landsat thermal data. The proposed tool improves on the commonly-used AC algorithm by incorporating spatial variations occurring in the Earth’s atmosphere composition. The ERA-Interim dataset (ECMWFmeteorological organization was used to retrieve vertical atmospheric conditions, which are available at a global scale with a resolution of 0.125 degrees and a temporal resolution of 6 h. A temporal and spatial linear interpolation of meteorological variables was performed to match the acquisition dates and coordinates of the Landsat images. The atmospheric correction parameters were then estimated on the basis of this reconstructed atmospheric grid using the commercial RTMsoftware MODTRAN. The needed surface emissivity was derived from the common vegetation index NDVI, obtained from the red and near-infrared (NIR bands of the same Landsat image. This permitted an estimation of LST for the entire

  8. A Near-Infrared and Thermal Imager for Mapping Titan's Surface Features (United States)

    Aslam, S.; Hewagma, T.; Jennings, D. E.; Nixon, C.


    Approximately 10% of the solar insolation reaches the surface of Titan through atmospheric spectral windows. We will discuss a filter based imaging system for a future Titan orbiter that will exploit these windows mapping surface features, cloud regions, polar storms. In the near-infrared (NIR), two filters (1.28 micrometer and 1.6 micrometer), strategically positioned between CH1 absorption bands, and InSb linear array pixels will explore the solar reflected radiation. We propose to map the mid, infrared (MIR) region with two filters: 9.76 micrometer and 5.88-to-6.06 micrometers with MCT linear arrays. The first will map MIR thermal emission variations due to surface albedo differences in the atmospheric window between gas phase CH3D and C2H4 opacity sources. The latter spans the crossover spectral region where observed radiation transitions from being dominated by thermal emission to solar reflected light component. The passively cooled linear arrays will be incorporated into the focal plane of a light-weight thin film stretched membrane 10 cm telescope. A rad-hard ASIC together with an FPGA will be used for detector pixel readout and detector linear array selection depending on if the field-of-view (FOV) is looking at the day- or night-side of Titan. The instantaneous FOV corresponds to 3.1, 15.6, and 31.2 mrad for the 1, 5, and 10 micrometer channels, respectively. For a 1500 km orbit, a 5 micrometer channel pixel represents a spatial resolution of 91 m, with a FOV that spans 23 kilometers, and Titan is mapped in a push-broom manner as determined by the orbital path. The system mass and power requirements are estimated to be 6 kg and 5 W, respectively. The package is proposed for a polar orbiter with a lifetime matching two Saturn seasons.

  9. Simultaneous inversion of multiple land surface parameters from MODIS optical-thermal observations (United States)

    Ma, Han; Liang, Shunlin; Xiao, Zhiqiang; Shi, Hanyu


    Land surface parameters from remote sensing observations are critical in monitoring and modeling of global climate change and biogeochemical cycles. Current methods for estimating land surface variables usually focus on individual parameters separately even from the same satellite observations, resulting in inconsistent products. Moreover, no efforts have been made to generate global products from integrated observations from the optical to Thermal InfraRed (TIR) spectrum. Particularly, Middle InfraRed (MIR) observations have received little attention due to the complexity of the radiometric signal, which contains both reflected and emitted radiation. In this paper, we propose a unified algorithm for simultaneously retrieving six land surface parameters - Leaf Area Index (LAI), Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR), land surface albedo, Land Surface Emissivity (LSE), Land Surface Temperature (LST), and Upwelling Longwave radiation (LWUP) by exploiting MODIS visible-to-TIR observations. We incorporate a unified physical radiative transfer model into a data assimilation framework. The MODIS visible-to-TIR time series datasets include the daily surface reflectance product and MIR-to-TIR surface radiance, which are atmospherically corrected from the MODIS data using the Moderate Resolution Transmittance program (MODTRAN, ver. 5.0). LAI was first estimated using a data assimilation method that combines MODIS daily reflectance data and a LAI phenology model, and then the LAI was input to the unified radiative transfer model to simulate spectral surface reflectance and surface emissivity for calculating surface broadband albedo and emissivity, and FAPAR. LST was estimated from the MIR-TIR surface radiance data and the simulated emissivity, using an iterative optimization procedure. Lastly, LWUP was estimated using the LST and surface emissivity. The retrieved six parameters were extensively validated across six representative sites with

  10. Piezoelectric composite morphing control surfaces for unmanned aerial vehicles (United States)

    Ohanian, Osgar J., III; Karni, Etan D.; Olien, Chris C.; Gustafson, Eric A.; Kochersberger, Kevin B.; Gelhausen, Paul A.; Brown, Bridget L.


    The authors have explored the use of morphing control surfaces to replace traditional servo-actuated control surfaces in UAV applications. The morphing actuation is accomplished using Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) piezoelectric actuators in a bimorph configuration to deflect the aft section of a control surface cross section. The resulting camber change produces forces and moments for vehicle control. The flexible piezoelectric actuators are damage tolerant and provide excellent bandwidth. The large amplitude morphing deflections attained in bench-top experiments demonstrate the potential for excellent control authority. Aerodynamic performance calculations using experimentally measured morphed geometries indicate changes in sectional lift coefficients that are superior to a servo-actuated hinged flap airfoil. This morphing flight control actuation technology could eliminate the need for servos and mechanical linkages in small UAVs and thereby increase reliability and reduce drag.

  11. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control


    Schurtenberger E; Heuberger M


    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under am...

  12. Turbulent Control Of The Ocean Surface Boundary Layer During The Onset Of Seasonal Stratification (United States)

    Palmer, M.; Hopkins, J.; Wihsgott, J. U.


    To provide accurate predictions of global carbon cycles we must first understand the mechanistic control of ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL) temperature and the timing and depth of ocean thermal stratification, which are critical controls on oceanic carbon sequestration via the solubility and biological pumps. Here we present an exciting new series of measurements of the fine-scale physical structure and dynamics of the OSBL that provide fresh insight into the turbulent control of upper ocean structure. This study was made in the centre of the Celtic Sea, a broad section of the NW European continental shelf, and represents one of only a handful of measurements of near-surface turbulence in our shelf seas. Data are provided by an ocean microstructure glider (OMG) that delivers estimates of turbulent dissipation rates and mixing from 100m depth to within 2-3m of the sea surface, approximately every 10 minutes and continually for 21 days during April 2015. The OMG successfully captures the onset of spring stratification as solar radiation finally overcomes the destabilising effects of turbulent surface processes. Using coincident meteorological and wave observations from a nearby mooring, and full water column current velocity data we are able to close the near surface energy budget and provide a valuable test for proposed parameterisations of OSBL turbulence based on wind, wave and buoyancy inputs. We verify recent hypotheses that even very subtle thermal stratification, below often assumed limits of 0.1°C, are sufficient to establish sustained stratification even during active surface forcing. We also find that while buoyant production (convection) is not an efficient mechanism for mixing beyond the base of the mixed layer it does play an important role in modification of surface structure, acting to precondition the OSBL for enhanced (deeper) impacts from wind and wave driven turbulence.

  13. Perfect reflection control for impenetrable surfaces using surface waves of orthogonal polarization (United States)

    Kwon, Do-Hoon; Tretyakov, Sergei A.


    For impenetrable electromagnetic surfaces, a metasurface design approach for perfect control of the reflection phenomena using gradient anisotropic tensor surface impedance is presented. It utilizes a set of orthogonally polarized auxiliary surface waves to create pointwise reactive impedance characteristics by channeling power along the tangential direction of the surface in the near zone in a carefully designed manner. The propagating incident and reflected fields do not interfere with the surface waves due to the polarization orthogonality. Design examples of an anomalous reflector and a power splitter for an incident plane wave are presented and numerically verified. Realization possibilities using an array of rotated metallic resonators on a thin grounded dielectric substrate are discussed.

  14. Thermal response simulation for tuning PID controllers in a 1016 mm guarded hot plate apparatus. (United States)

    Thomas, William C; Zarr, Robert R


    A mathematical model has been developed and used to simulate the controlled thermal performance of a large guarded hot-plate apparatus. This highly specialized apparatus comprises three interdependent components whose temperatures are closely controlled in order to measure the thermal conductivity of insulation materials. The simulation model was used to investigate control strategies and derive controller gain parameters that are directly transferable to the actual instrument. The simulations take orders-of-magnitude less time to carry out when compared to traditional tuning methods based on operating the actual apparatus. The control system consists primarily of a PC-based PID control algorithm that regulates the output voltage of programmable power amplifiers. Feedback parameters in the form of controller gains are required for the three heating circuits. An objective is to determine an improved set of gains that meet temperature control criteria for testing insulation materials of interest. The analytical model is based on aggregated thermal capacity representations of the primary components and includes the same control algorithm as used in the actual hot-plate apparatus. The model, accounting for both thermal characteristics and temperature control, was validated by comparisons with test data. The tuning methodology used with the simulation model is described and results are presented. The resulting control algorithm and gain parameters have been used in the actual apparatus without modification during several years of testing materials over wide ranges of thermal conductivity, thickness, and insulation resistance values. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of ISA.

  15. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel Petri net based approach for safe and flexible control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration...

  16. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel approach for flexible and safe control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration science rovers,...

  17. Morphing Flight Control Surface for Advanced Flight Performance Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a new Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) will be developed. The distinction of the research effort is that the SenAnTech team will employ...

  18. Optimal Control Surface Layout for an Aeroservoelastic Wingbox (United States)

    Stanford, Bret K.


    This paper demonstrates a technique for locating the optimal control surface layout of an aeroservoelastic Common Research Model wingbox, in the context of maneuver load alleviation and active utter suppression. The combinatorial actuator layout design is solved using ideas borrowed from topology optimization, where the effectiveness of a given control surface is tied to a layout design variable, which varies from zero (the actuator is removed) to one (the actuator is retained). These layout design variables are optimized concurrently with a large number of structural wingbox sizing variables and control surface actuation variables, in order to minimize the sum of structural weight and actuator weight. Results are presented that demonstrate interdependencies between structural sizing patterns and optimal control surface layouts, for both static and dynamic aeroelastic physics.

  19. Measuring surface temperature and grading pathological changes of airway tissue in a canine model of inhalational thermal injury. (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Di, La-na; Zhao, Xiao-zhuo; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Guo-an


    Airway tissue shows unexpected invulnerability to heated air. The mechanisms of this phenomenon are open to debate. This study was designed to measure the surface temperatures at different locations of the airway, and to explore the relationship between the tissue's surface temperature and injury severity. Twenty dogs were randomly divided into four groups, including three experimental groups (six dogs in each) to inhale heated air at 70-80 °C (group I), 150-160 °C (group II) and 310-320 °C (group III) and a control group (two dogs, only for histological observation). Injury time was 20 min. Mucosal surface temperatures of the epiglottis (point A), cricoid cartilage (point B) and lower trachea (point C) were measured. Dogs in group I-III were divided into three subgroups (two in each), to be assayed at 12, 24 and 36 h after injury, respectively. For each dog, four tissue parts (epiglottis, larynx, lower trachea and terminal bronchiole) were microscopically observed and graded according to an original pathological scoring system (score range: 0-27). Surface temperatures of the airway mucosa increased slowly to 40.60±3.29 °C, and the highest peak temperature was 48.3 °C (group III, point A). The pathological score of burned tissues was 4.12±4.94 (0.0-18.0), suggesting slight to moderate injuries. Air temperature and airway location both influenced mucosal temperature and pathological scores very significantly, and there was a very significant positive correlation between tissue temperature and injury severity. Compared to the inhalational air hyperthermia, airway surface temperature was much lower, but was still positively correlated with thermal injury severity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Formation control of marine surface craft: a Lagrangian approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Ivar-Andre F.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.


    This paper presents a method for formation control of marine surface craft inspired by Lagrangian mechanics. The desired formation configuration and response of the marine surface craft are given as a set of constraints in analytical mechanics. Thus, constraints forces arise and feedback from...

  1. Polyion multilayers with precise surface charge control for antifouling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.; Janczewski, D.; Guo, S.; Lee, S.S.C.; Parra-Velandia, F.J.; Teo, S.L-M.; He, T.; Puniredd, S.R.; Vancso, Gyula J.


    We report on a molecular fabrication approach to precisely control surface ζ potentials of polymeric thin layers constructed by electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly methods. The protocol established allows us to achieve surface isoelectric points (IEP) in the pH range of 6–10. Poly(acrylic

  2. James Webb Space Telescope Core 2 Test - Cryogenic Thermal Balance Test of the Observatorys Core Area Thermal Control Hardware (United States)

    Cleveland, Paul; Parrish, Keith; Thomson, Shaun; Marsh, James; Comber, Brian


    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, will be the largest astronomical telescope ever sent into space. To observe the very first light of the early universe, JWST requires a large deployed 6.5-meter primary mirror cryogenically cooled to less than 50 Kelvin. Three scientific instruments are further cooled via a large radiator system to less than 40 Kelvin. A fourth scientific instrument is cooled to less than 7 Kelvin using a combination pulse-tube Joule-Thomson mechanical cooler. Passive cryogenic cooling enables the large scale of the telescope which must be highly folded for launch on an Ariane 5 launch vehicle and deployed once on orbit during its journey to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. Passive cooling of the observatory is enabled by the deployment of a large tennis court sized five layer Sunshield combined with the use of a network of high efficiency radiators. A high purity aluminum heat strap system connects the three instrument's detector systems to the radiator systems to dissipate less than a single watt of parasitic and instrument dissipated heat. JWST's large scale features, while enabling passive cooling, also prevent the typical flight configuration fully-deployed thermal balance test that is the keystone of most space missions' thermal verification plans. This paper describes the JWST Core 2 Test, which is a cryogenic thermal balance test of a full size, high fidelity engineering model of the Observatory's 'Core' area thermal control hardware. The 'Core' area is the key mechanical and cryogenic interface area between all Observatory elements. The 'Core' area thermal control hardware allows for temperature transition of 300K to approximately 50 K by attenuating heat from the room temperature IEC (instrument electronics) and the Spacecraft Bus. Since the flight hardware is not available for test, the Core 2 test uses high fidelity and flight-like reproductions.

  3. Load frequency control of three area interconnected hydro-thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The performances of the controllers are simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. ... Automatic Generation Control (AGC) scheme in electric power systems. ..... The Application of ANN Technique to Load-frequency Control for Three- area.

  4. Anomalous Surface Wave Launching by Handedness Phase Control

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian


    Anomalous launch of a surface wave with different handedness phase control is achieved in a terahertz metasurface based on phase discontinuities. The polarity of the phase profile of the surface waves is found to be strongly correlated to the polarization handedness, promising polarization-controllable wavefront shaping, polarization sensing, and environmental refractive-index sensing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Assessing the Performance of Thermal Inertia and Hydrus Models to Estimate Surface Soil Water Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Negm


    Full Text Available The knowledge of soil water content (SWC dynamics in the upper soil layer is important for several hydrological processes. Due to the difficulty of assessing the spatial and temporal SWC dynamics in the field, some model-based approaches have been proposed during the last decade. The main objective of this work was to assess the performance of two approaches to estimate SWC in the upper soil layer under field conditions: the physically-based thermal inertia and the Hydrus model. Their validity was firstly assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. Thermal inertia was firstly validated in laboratory conditions using the transient line heat source (TLHS method. Then, it was applied in situ to analyze the dynamics of soil thermal properties under two extreme conditions of soil-water status (well-watered and air-dry, using proximity remote-sensed data. The model performance was assessed using sensor-based measurements of soil water content acquired through frequency (FDR and time domain reflectometry (TDR. During the laboratory experiment, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE was 0.02 m3 m−3 for the Hydrus model and 0.05 m3 m−3 for the TLHS model approach. On the other hand, during the in situ experiment, the temporal variability of SWCs simulated by the Hydrus model and the corresponding values measured by the TDR method evidenced good agreement (RMSE ranging between 0.01 and 0.005 m3 m−3. Similarly, the average of the SWCs derived from the thermal diffusion model was fairly close to those estimated by Hydrus (spatially averaged RMSE ranging between 0.03 and 0.02 m3 m−3.

  6. Constraining physical properties of compositionally-distinct Martian bedrock surfaces using overlapping THEMIS observations and the KRC thermal model (United States)

    Ahern, Alexandra; Deanne Rogers, A.


    The physical properties of Martian surface materials (e.g. grain size, cohesion, porosity, amount of induration, rock abundance, etc.) provide clues to the origins of, and processes involved (e.g. sedimentary, effusive volcanic, pyroclastic) in, forming rock outcrops on Mars. Many outcrop surfaces likely possess vertical heterogeneity in the near-surface (Mars Odyssey THEMIS surface temperature observations spanning multiple seasons and local times. We constrain top layer particle sizes from TES and CRISM spectral observations. Currently, we are focusing on chloride-bearing units in Terra Sirenum and Meridiani Planum and spectrally-distinct mafic and feldspathic bedrock units with uncertain origins and histories in Noachis Terra and Nili Fossae. The variations in apparent thermal inertia over local times and seasons suggests that most of these surfaces are consistent with low thermal inertia materials (~200 tiu) overlying moderately-high thermal inertia (600 tiu) surfaces. Work will be ongoing to further constrain top and lower layer thermal inertias for these areas and other spectrally and physically-distinctive outcrops over the surface of Mars.

  7. Microstructure control of macroscopic graphene paper by electrospray deposition and its effect on thermal and electrical conductivities (United States)

    Xin, Guoqing; Zhu, Weiguang; Yao, Tiankai; Scott, Spencer Michael; Lian, Jie


    Macroscopic graphene paper is fabricated by an electrospray deposition approach, and the microstructure can be controlled from highly porous to highly compact geometries by varying deposition parameters including graphene colloid concentration and deposition rate. Free-standing graphene films can be separated from substrates via a simple water exfoliation method in which the surface properties of graphene films and substrates control film exfoliation. Specifically, water exfoliation can be achieved when the contact angle of substrates is 64° or below. Thermal and electrical conductivities of the macroscopic graphene paper upon thermal annealing are measured, enabling the establishment of the process-microstructure-property correlation beneficial for further development and property manipulation of graphene-based materials.

  8. On the value of surface saturated area dynamics mapped with thermal infrared imagery for modeling the hillslope-riparian-stream continuum (United States)

    Glaser, Barbara; Klaus, Julian; Frei, Sven; Frentress, Jay; Pfister, Laurent; Hopp, Luisa


    The highly dynamic processes within a hillslope-riparian-stream (HRS) continuum are known to affect streamflow generation, but are yet not fully understood. Within this study, we simulated a headwater HRS continuum in western Luxembourg with an integrated hydrologic surface subsurface model (HydroGeoSphere). The model was setup with thorough consideration of catchment-specific attributes and we performed a multicriteria model evaluation (4 years) with special focus on the temporally varying spatial patterns of surface saturation. We used a portable thermal infrared (TIR) camera to map surface saturation with a high spatial resolution and collected 20 panoramic snapshots of the riparian zone (approx. 10 m × 20 m) under different hydrologic conditions. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of the processed TIR panoramas and the corresponding model output panoramas revealed a good agreement between spatiotemporal dynamic model and field surface saturation patterns. A double logarithmic linear relationship between surface saturation extent and discharge was similar for modeled and observed data. This provided confidence in the capability of an integrated hydrologic surface subsurface model to represent temporal and spatial water flux dynamics at small (HRS continuum) scales. However, model scenarios with different parameterizations of the riparian zone showed that discharge and surface saturation were controlled by different parameters and hardly influenced each other. Surface saturation only affected very fast runoff responses with a small volumetric contribution to stream discharge, indicating that the dynamic surface saturation in the riparian zone does not necessarily imply a major control on runoff generation.

  9. Fundamentals of spacecraft thermal design. (United States)

    Lucas, J. W.


    The papers deal with and are grouped according to four major issues. These are: surface radiation properties, including synthesis and measurement, space flight effect, and contamination effects; thermal analysis, including reentry vehicle analysis, radiant heat transfer between surfaces, and thermal contact conductance of surfaces; heat pipes, including possible applications, operating characteristics, and design, fabrication and testing of heat pipes; and thermal design, including radiative, ablative, and active cooling thermal protection of the leading edge of a space-shuttle wing, and space station environmental thermal control. Individual items were previously announced in issues 06 and 11, 1971.

  10. Hybrid Heat Pipes for High Heat Flux Spacecraft Thermal Control Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Grooved aluminum/ammonia Constant Conductance Heat Pipes (CCHPs) are the standard for thermal control in zero-gravity. Unfortunately, they are limited in terms of...

  11. Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption for CO2, Thermal and Humidity Control Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MTSA technology specifically addresses the thermal, CO2 and humidity control challenges faced by Portable Life Support Systems (PLSS) to be used in NASA's...

  12. Interior and exterior ballistics coupled optimization with constraints of attitude control and mechanical-thermal conditions (United States)

    Liang, Xin-xin; Zhang, Nai-min; Zhang, Yan


    For solid launch vehicle performance promotion, a modeling method of interior and exterior ballistics associated optimization with constraints of attitude control and mechanical-thermal condition is proposed. Firstly, the interior and external ballistic models of the solid launch vehicle are established, and the attitude control model of the high wind area and the stage of the separation is presented, and the load calculation model of the drag reduction device is presented, and thermal condition calculation model of flight is presented. Secondly, the optimization model is established to optimize the range, which has internal and external ballistic design parameters as variables selected by sensitivity analysis, and has attitude control and mechanical-thermal conditions as constraints. Finally, the method is applied to the optimal design of a three stage solid launch vehicle simulation with differential evolution algorithm. Simulation results are shown that range capability is improved by 10.8%, and both attitude control and mechanical-thermal conditions are satisfied.

  13. Demonstration of a Plug and Play Approach to Satellite Thermal Control System Development Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mainstream is proposing a methodology to reduce the development time and cost, and improve the reliability of future thermal control systems for the next decade of...

  14. Next Generation Advanced Binder Chemistries for High Performance, Environmentally DurableThermal Control Material Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative SBIR Phase II proposal will develop next generation products for Thermal Control Material Systems (TCMS) an adhesives based on the next generation...

  15. Robust Engineered Thermal Control Material Systems for Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Prometheus Needs Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — identified needs for the thermal control and ESD functions of the Prometheus Program's hardware for the heat rejection system for the planned nuclear system. These...

  16. Integrated GRASS GIS based techniques to identify thermal anomalies on water surface. Taranto case study. (United States)

    Massarelli, Carmine; Matarrese, Raffaella; Felice Uricchio, Vito


    In the last years, thermal images collected by airborne systems have made the detection of thermal anomalies possible. These images are an important tool to monitor natural inflows and legal or illegal dumping in coastal waters. By the way, the potential of these kinds of data is not well exploited by the Authorities who supervises the territory. The main reason is the processing of remote sensing data that requires very specialized operators and softwares which are usually expensive and complex. In this study, we adopt a simple methodology that uses GRASS, a free open-source GIS software, which has allowed us to map surface water thermal anomalies and, consequently, to identify and locate coastal inflows, as well as manmade or natural watershed drains or submarine springs (in italian citri) in the Taranto Sea (South of Italy). Taranto sea represents a coastal marine ecosystem that has been gradually modified by mankind. One of its inlet, the Mar Piccolo, is a part of the National Priority List site identified by the National Program of Environmental Remediation and Restoration because of the size and high presence of industrial activities, past and present, that have had and continue to seriously compromise the health status of the population and the environment. In order to detect thermal anomalies, two flights have been performed respectively on March 3rd and on April 7th, 2013. A total of 13 TABI images have been acquired to map the whole Mar Piccolo with 1m of spatial resolution. TABI-320 is an airborne thermal camera by ITRES, with a continuous spectral range between 8 and 12 microns. On July 15th, 2013, an in-situ survey was carried out along the banks to retrieve clear visible points of natural or artificial inflows, detecting up to 72 of discharges. GRASS GIS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System), is a free and open source Geographic Information System (GIS) software suite used for geospatial data management and analysis, image processing

  17. Microstructure and thermal stability of bulk nanocrystalline alloys produced by surface mechanical attrition treatment (United States)

    Liu, Wenbo; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Zhigang; Xia, Zhixin


    Bulk nanocrystalline has been produced in the surface of a tempered reduced activation ferrite/martensite (RAFM) steel by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT), the grain size decreases gradually from the strain-free matrix to the treated surface with the increase of deformation strains. Both XRD and SEM results indicate the dissolving or refinement of carbides during SMAT. The nanocrystalline has excellent thermal stability when annealing at 823 K; the average grain sizes calculated from statistical analysis of the TEM images after annealing for 5 min, 30 min, 120 min and 240 min are 67.6 nm, 87.1 nm, 93.8 nm and 109.6 nm, respectively. Because of the large volume fraction of grain boundaries (GBs) and enhanced diffusion rates in the nanocrystalline (NC) steels, fast grain growth and small precipitated carbides are observed after annealing for 5 min at 823 K, while the existence of numerous second-phase particles hinders grain growth after annealing for longer times.

  18. Surface thermal analysis of North Brabant cities and neighbourhoods during heat waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Echevarria Icaza


    Full Text Available The urban heat island effect is often associated with large metropolises. However, in the Netherlands even small cities will be affected by the phenomenon in the future (Hove et al., 2011, due to the dispersed or mosaic urbanisation patterns in particularly the southern part of the country: the province of North Brabant. This study analyses the average night time land surface temperature (LST of 21 North-Brabant urban areas through 22 satellite images retrieved by Modis 11A1 during the 2006 heat wave and uses Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper to map albedo and normalized difference temperature index (NDVI values. Albedo, NDVI and imperviousness are found to play the most relevant role in the increase of night-time LST. The surface cover cluster analysis of these three parameters reveals that the 12 “urban living environment” categories used in the region of North Brabant can actually be reduced to 7 categories, which simplifies the design guidelines to improve the surface thermal behaviour of the different neighbourhoods thus reducing the Urban Heat Island (UHI effect in existing medium size cities and future developments adjacent to those cities.

  19. High-quality AlN grown on a thermally decomposed sapphire surface (United States)

    Hagedorn, S.; Knauer, A.; Brunner, F.; Mogilatenko, A.; Zeimer, U.; Weyers, M.


    In this study we show how to realize a self-assembled nano-patterned sapphire surface on 2 inch diameter epi-ready wafer and the subsequent AlN overgrowth both in the same metal-organic vapor phase epitaxial process. For this purpose in-situ annealing in H2 environment was applied prior to AlN growth to thermally decompose the c-plane oriented sapphire surface. By proper AlN overgrowth management misoriented grains that start to grow on non c-plane oriented facets of the roughened sapphire surface could be overcome. We achieved crack-free, atomically flat AlN layers of 3.5 μm thickness. The layers show excellent material quality homogeneously over the whole wafer as proved by the full width at half maximum of X-ray measured ω-rocking curves of 120 arcsec to 160 arcsec for the 002 reflection and 440 arcsec to 550 arcsec for the 302 reflection. The threading dislocation density is 2 ∗ 109 cm-2 which shows that the annealing and overgrowth process investigated in this work leads to cost-efficient AlN templates for UV LED devices.

  20. Surface Pre-treatment for Thermally Sprayed ZnAl15 Coatings (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Knoch, M. A.


    Pre-treatment of substrates is an important step in thermal spraying. It is widely accepted that mechanical interlocking is the dominant adhesion mechanism for most substrate-coating combinations. To prevent premature failure, minimum coating adhesion strength, surface preparation grades, and roughness parameters are often specified. For corrosion-protection coatings for offshore wind turbines, an adhesion strength ≥ 5 MPa is commonly assumed to ensure adhesion over service lifetime. In order to fulfill this requirement, Rz > 80 µm and a preparation grade of Sa3 are common specifications. In this study, the necessity of these requirements is investigated using the widely used combination of twin-wire arc-sprayed ZnAl15 on S355J2 + N as a test case. By using different blasting media and parameters, the correlation between coating adhesion and roughness parameters is analyzed. The adhesion strength of these systems is measured using a test method allowing measurements on real parts. The results are compared to DIN EN 582:1993, the European equivalent of ASTM-C633. In another series of experiments, the influence of surface pre-treatment grades Sa2.5 and Sa3 is considered. By combining the results of these three sets of experiments, a guideline for surface pre-treatment and adhesion testing on real parts is proposed for the considered system.

  1. Impact of various surface covers on water and thermal regime of Technosol (United States)

    Kodešová, Radka; Fér, Miroslav; Klement, Aleš; Nikodem, Antonín; Teplá, Daniela; Neuberger, Pavel; Bureš, Petr


    Different soil covers influence water and thermal regimes in soils within urban areas. Knowledge of these regimes is needed, particularly when assessing effectiveness of energy gathering from soils using horizontal ground heat exchangers. The goal of this study was to calibrate the model HYDRUS-1D for simulating coupled water and thermal regime in Technosol type soils with grass cover, and to use this model for predicting water and thermal regimes under different materials covering the soil surface. For this purpose soil water contents were measured at depths of 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 100 cm at 4 locations and temperatures were measured at depths of 20, 40, 80, 120, 150 and 180 cm at three locations (all covered by grass) from June 2011 to December 2012. In addition sensors for simultaneous measuring soil water contents and temperatures were installed under different soil covers (grass, bark chips, sand, basalt gravel and concrete paving) at a depth of 7. The parameters of soil hydraulic properties were obtained on the 100-cm3 undisturbed soil samples using the multi-step outflow experiment and numerical inversion of the measured transient flow data using HYDRUS-1D. HYDRUS-1D was then used to simulated the water regime within the soil profile under the grass cover using climatic data from June 2011 to December 2012 and some of the soil hydraulic parameters were additionally numerically optimized using soil water contents measured at all depths. Water flow and heat transport were then simulated using these parameters, measured thermal properties and temperatures measured close to the surface applied as a top boundary condition. Simulated temperatures at all depths successfully approximated the measured data. Next, water and thermal regimes under another 4 different surface covers were simulated. Soil hydraulic properties of different materials were partly measured and partly optimized when simulating soil water regime from June 2011 to December 2012 using the soil

  2. Spectral Analysis of Surface Controlled Phonon Transport in Nanophononic Metamaterials (United States)

    Neogi, Sanghamitra; Donadio, Davide

    Phonon engineering in nanostructured semiconductors has shown promises to further advance the performance of energy applications beyond the state-of-the-art limit. In nanostructured materials, phonon transport is greatly affected by the surface nanoscale character. The concept of nanophononic metamaterial (NPM) was introduced recently to affect nanoscale thermal transport with the inclusion of local surface resonators. We carried out a systematic investigation of phonon transport in locally resonant silicon-based NPMs. We used classical equilibrium molecular dynamics and a Boltzmann transport equation approach with the relaxation time approximation to investigate the nature of phononic thermal transport in nanopatterned silicon membranes with thicknesses of the order of 10 nm and below. We find the presence of local surface resonators has a significant effect on the phonon dispersion and has a direct consequence of suppression of group velocities of phonons in the NPMs. We completed the investigation by relating nanoscale resonant character (geometry and material composition) with phonon scattering, and consequently, phonon transport in the locally resonant silicon membrane NPMs This project is funded by the program FP7-ENERGY-2012-1-2STAGE under Contract Number 309150.

  3. Energy efficient thermal comfort control for cyber-physical home system


    Cheng, Zhuo; Shein, Wai Wai; Tan, Yasuo; Lim, Azman Osman


    Technology advances allow us to design smart home system for the purpose to achieve high demands on occupants’comfort. In this research, we focus on the thermal comfort control (TCC) system to build an energy efficient thermal comfort control (EETCC) algorithm, which is based on the cyber-physical systems (CPS) approach. By optimizing the actuators; air-conditioner, window and curtain, our proposed algorithm can acquire the desired comfort level with high energy efficiency. Through the raw da...

  4. Performance evaluation of a conformal thermal monitoring sheet sensor array for measurement of surface temperature distributions during superficial hyperthermia treatments. (United States)

    Arunachalam, K; Maccarini, P; Juang, T; Gaeta, C; Stauffer, P R


    This paper presents a novel conformal thermal monitoring sheet (TMS) sensor array with differential thermal sensitivity for measuring temperature distributions over large surface areas. Performance of the sensor array is evaluated in terms of thermal accuracy, mechanical stability and conformity to contoured surfaces, probe self-heating under irradiation from microwave and ultrasound hyperthermia sources, and electromagnetic field perturbation. A prototype with 4 x 4 array of fiber-optic sensors embedded between two flexible and thermally conducting polyimide films was developed as an alternative to the standard 1-2 mm diameter plastic catheter-based probes used in clinical hyperthermia. Computed tomography images and bending tests were performed to evaluate the conformability and mechanical stability respectively. Irradiation and thermal barrier tests were conducted and thermal response of the prototype was compared with round cross-sectional clinical probes. Bending and conformity tests demonstrated higher flexibility, dimensional stability and close conformity to human torso. Minimal perturbation of microwave fields and low probe self-heating was observed when irradiated with 915 MHz microwave and 3.4 MHz ultrasound sources. The transient and steady state thermal responses of the TMS array were superior compared to the clinical probes. A conformal TMS sensor array with improved thermal sensitivity and dimensional stability was investigated for real-time skin temperature monitoring. This fixed-geometry, body-conforming array of thermal sensors allows fast and accurate characterization of two-dimensional temperature distributions over large surface areas. The prototype TMS demonstrates significant advantages over clinical probes for characterizing skin temperature distributions during hyperthermia treatments of superficial tissue disease.

  5. Design and verification of focal plane assembly thermal control system of one space-based astronomy telescope (United States)

    Yang, Wen-gang; Fan, Xue-wu; Wang, Chen-jie; Wang, Ying-hao; Feng, Liang-jie; Du, Yun-fei; Ren, Guo-rui; Wang, Wei; Li, Chuang; Gao, Wei


    One space-based astronomy telescope will observe astronomy objects whose brightness should be lower than 23th magnitude. To ensure the telescope performance, very low system noise requirements need extreme low CCD operating temperature (lower than -65°C). Because the satellite will be launched in a low earth orbit, inevitable space external heat fluxes will result in a high radiator sink temperature (higher than -65°C). Only passive measures can't meet the focal plane cooling specification and active cooling technologies must be utilized. Based on detailed analysis on thermal environment of the telescope and thermal characteristics of focal plane assembly (FPA), active cooling system which is based on thermo-electric cooler (TEC) and heat rejection system (HRS) which is based on flexible heat pipe and radiator have been designed. Power consumption of TECs is dependent on the heat pumped requirements and its hot side temperature. Heat rejection capability of HRS is mainly dependent on the radiator size and temperature. To compromise TEC power consumption and the radiator size requirement, thermal design of FPA must be optimized. Parasitic heat loads on the detector is minimized to reduce the heat pumped demands of TECs and its power consumption. Thermal resistance of heat rejection system is minimized to reject the heat dissipation of TECs from the hot side to the radiator efficiently. The size and surface coating of radiator are optimized to compromise heat reject ion requirements and system constraints. Based on above work, transient thermal analysis of FPA is performed. FPA prototype model has been developed and thermal vacuum/balance test has been accomplished. From the test, temperature of key parts and working parameters of TECs in extreme cases have been acquired. Test results show that CCD can be controlled below -65°C and all parts worked well during the test. All of these verified the thermal design of FPA and some lessons will be presented in this

  6. Femtosecond laser controlling underwater oil-adhesion of glass surface (United States)

    Yong, Jiale; Chen, Feng; Yang, Qing; Farooq, Umar; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Hou, Xun


    This paper presents a simple and effective method to fabricate underwater superoleophobic glass surfaces with extremely controllable oil-adhesion through the femtosecond laser microfabrication. The laser-irradiated surfaces show micro-/nanoscale hierarchical structures and similar underwater superoleophobicity. By adjusting the average distance of laser pulse focus, the oil-adhesion of the as-prepared underwater superoleophobic surfaces can be controlled from ultralow to ultrahigh. This controllability of oil-adhesion is ascribed to the different wetting states for the oil droplet on the surface that results from the change of the morphology and microstructure after femtosecond laser irradiation. The as-prepared superoleophobic surfaces with ultralow oil-adhesion have the anti-oil contamination ability in water. The ultrahigh oil-adhesive superoleophobic surfaces can be used as a "mechanical hand" to transfer small oil droplets without any volume loss in water environment, endowing the controllable oil-adhesive surfaces with important applications in the fusion of oil/organic microdroplets.

  7. Preliminary Design and Analysis of the ARES Atmospheric Flight Vehicle Thermal Control System (United States)

    Gasbarre, J. F.; Dillman, R. A.


    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a proposed 2007 Mars Scout Mission that will be the first mission to deploy an atmospheric flight vehicle (AFV) on another planet. This paper will describe the preliminary design and analysis of the AFV thermal control system for its flight through the Martian atmosphere and also present other analyses broadening the scope of that design to include other phases of the ARES mission. Initial analyses are discussed and results of trade studies are presented which detail the design process for AFV thermal control. Finally, results of the most recent AFV thermal analysis are shown and the plans for future work are discussed.

  8. Response Surface Methodology for Design of Porous Hollow Sphere Thermal Insulator (United States)

    Shohani, Nazanin; Pourmahdian, Saeed; Shirkavand Hadavand, Behzad


    In this study, response surface method is used for synthesizing polystyrene (PS) as sacrificial templates and optimizing the particle size. Three factors of initiator, stabilizer concentration and also stirring rate were selected as variable factors. Then, three different concentration of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) added to reaction media and core-shell structure with PS core and silica shell was developed. Finally, core-shell structure was changed to hollow silica sphere for using as thermal insulator. We observed that increased initiator concentration caused to larger PS particles, increase the stirring rate caused the smaller PS and also with increased the stabilizer concentration obtained that particle size decrease then after 2.5% began to increase. Also the optimum amount of TEOS was found.

  9. Low Cost Radiator for Fission Power Thermal Control Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing fission power system technology for future space transportation and surface power applications. The early systems are...

  10. An Active Thermal Control System for Extreme Environments Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Venus retains many secrets pertaining to its formation and evolution. NASA is interested in expanding its ability to explore the deep atmosphere and surface of Venus...

  11. Low Cost Radiator for Fission Power Thermal Control Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA GRC is developing fission power system technology for future space transportation and surface power applications. The early systems are envisioned in the 10 to...

  12. Thermal System Modeling for Lunar and Martian Surface Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems (United States)

    Gilligan, Ryan Patrick; Smith, Phillip James; Jakupca, Ian Joseph; Bennett, William Raymond; Guzik, Monica Christine; Fincannon, Homer J.


    The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) Project is investigating different power systems for various lunar and Martian mission concepts. The AMPS Fuel Cell (FC) team has created two system-level models to evaluate the performance of regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems employing different fuel cell chemistries. Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells PEMFCs contain a polymer electrolyte membrane that separates the hydrogen and oxygen cavities and conducts hydrogen cations (protons) across the cell. Solid Oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperatures, using a zirconia-based solid ceramic electrolyte to conduct oxygen anions across the cell. The purpose of the modeling effort is to down select one fuel cell chemistry for a more detailed design effort. Figures of merit include the system mass, volume, round trip efficiency, and electrolyzer charge power required. PEMFCs operate at around 60 degrees Celsius versus SOFCs which operate at temperatures greater than 700 degrees Celsius. Due to the drastically different operating temperatures of the two chemistries the thermal control systems (TCS) differ. The PEM TCS is less complex and is characterized by a single pump cooling loop that uses deionized water coolant and rejects heat generated by the system to the environment via a radiator. The solid oxide TCS has its own unique challenges including the requirement to reject high quality heat and to condense the steam produced in the reaction. This paper discusses the modeling of thermal control systems for an extraterrestrial RFC that utilizes either a PEM or solid oxide fuel cell.

  13. Microstructure design and control for improvement of thermal conductivity of SiCf/SiC composites (United States)

    Yoshida, Katsumi; Kajikawa, Satoshi; Yano, Toyohiko


    We focused on microstructure design and control of SiCf/SiC composite based on our fabrication process and the simple model of thermal conductivity of the SiCf/SiC composite, and the improvement of their thermal conductivity was investigated. Submicron-sized α-SiC with coarse α-SiC particles addition was used as the starting materials for SiC matrix layers between SiC fiber cloths because it showed higher thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of PCS-composite, EPD-composite and Untreated-composite was 18, 45 and 56 W/m K, respectively, and these values were much higher than that of the composites reported in our previous papers. Untreated composite is simply considered as a multilayered composite consisting of the SiC fiber layers with high thermal conductivity and the SiC matrix layers with high thermal conductivity. The experimental thermal conductivity of the Untreated composite well agreed with the theoretical thermal conductivity calculated by series model. Thermal conductivity of EPD-composite was lower than that of Untreated composite. In EPD-composite, the thermal conductivity of SiC fiber layers with the SiC matrix should be lower than that of SiC fibers themselves due to the SiC matrix with slightly lower thermal conductivity in SiC fiber cloths. The SiC matrix formed in SiC fiber cloths in PCS-composite was derived from PCS, and this matrix would show much lower thermal conductivity due to its low crystallinity. PCS-composite is considered as a multilayered composite consisting of the SiC fiber layers with very low thermal conductivity and the SiC matrix layers with high thermal conductivity, and thus the PCS-composite has low thermal conductivity. In this study, higher thermal conductivity of SiCf/SiC composite was successfully achieved by EPD process and using microstructure-controlled SiC matrix and polycrystalline SiC fibers.

  14. Surface functionalization on the thermal conductivity of graphene–polymer nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchao Wang


    Full Text Available Exploring thermal transport in graphene–polymer nanocomposite is significant to its applications with better thermal properties. Interfacial thermal conductance between graphene and polymer matrix plays a critical role in the improvement of thermal conductivity of graphene–polymer nanocomposite. Unfortunately, it is still challenging to understand the interfacial thermal transport between graphene nanofiller and polymer matrix at small material length scale. To this end, using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD simulations, we investigate the interfacial thermal conductance of graphene–polyethylene (PE nanocomposite. The influence of functionalization with hydrocarbon chains on the interfacial thermal conductance of graphene–polymer nanocomposites was studied, taking into account the effects of model size and thermal conductivity of graphene. An analytical model is also used to calculate the thermal conductivity of nanocomposite. The results are considered to contribute to the development of new graphene–polymer nanocomposites with tailored thermal properties.

  15. Exposure of Polymer Film Thermal Control Materials on the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) (United States)

    Dever, Joyce; Miller, Sharon; Messer, Russell; Sechkar, Edward; Tollis, Greg


    Seventy-nine samples of polymer film thermal control (PFTC) materials have been provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) for exposure to the low Earth orbit environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). MISSE is a materials flight experiment sponsored by the Air Force Research Lab/Materials Lab and NASA. This paper will describe background, objectives, and configurations for the GRC PFTC samples for MISSE. These samples include polyimides, fluorinated polyimides, and Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) with and without second-surface metallizing layers and/or surface coatings. Also included are polyphenylene benzobisoxazole (PBO) and a polyarylene ether benzimidazole (TOR-LM). On August 16, 2001, astronauts installed passive experiment carriers (PECs) on the exterior of the ISS in which were located twenty-eight of the GRC PFTC samples for 1-year space exposure. MISSE PECs for 3-year exposure, which will contain fifty-one GRC PFTC samples, will be installed on the ISS at a later date. Once returned from the ISS, MISSE GRC PFTC samples will be examined for changes in optical and mechanical properties and atomic oxygen (AO) erosion. Additional sapphire witness samples located on the AO exposed trays will be examined for deposition of contaminants.

  16. Surface Treatment of Polymeric Materials Controlling the Adhesion of Biomolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Zorzi


    Full Text Available This review describes different strategies of surface elaboration for a better control of biomolecule adsorption. After a brief description of the fundamental interactions between surfaces and biomolecules, various routes of surface elaboration are presented dealing with the attachment of functional groups mostly thanks to plasma techniques, with the grafting to and from methods, and with the adsorption of surfactants. The grafting of stimuli-responsive polymers is also pointed out. Then, the discussion is focused on the protein adsorption phenomena showing how their interactions with solid surfaces are complex. The adsorption mechanism is proved to be dependent on the solid surface physicochemical properties as well as on the surface and conformation properties of the proteins. Different behaviors are also reported for complex multiple protein solutions.

  17. Active Flow Control Strategies Using Surface Pressure Measurements (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Alvi, Farrukh S.


    Evaluate the efficacy of Microjets Can we eliminate/minimize flow separation? Is the flow unsteadiness reduced? Guidelines for an active control Search for an appropriate sensor. Examine for means to develop a flow model for identifying the state of flow over the surface Guidelines toward future development of a Simple and Robust control methodology

  18. Thermal control of electronic equipment by heat pipes; Controle thermique de composants electroniques par caloducs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, M.; Schneider, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme; Sartre, V.; Chaker Zaghdoudi, M.; Lallemand, M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Centre de Thermique de Lyon, Upresa CNRS


    In the frame of the BRITE-EURAM european programme (KHIEPCOOL project), a literature survey on the main beat pipe and micro heat pipe technologies developed for thermal control of electronic equipment has been carried out. The conventional heat pipes are cylindrical, flat or bellow tubes, using wicks or axial grooves as capillary structures. In the field of micro heat pipes, the component interconnection substrate. The best performances were achieved with Plesch`s axially grooved flat miniature heat pipe, which is able to transfer a heat flux of about 60{sup -2}. Theoretical models have shown that the performance of micro heat pipe arrays increase with increasing tube diameter, decreasing tube length and increasing heat pipe density. The heat pipe technologies are classified and compared according to their geometry and location in the system. A list of about 150 references, classified according to their subjects, is presented. (authors) 160 refs.

  19. Mars Thermal History: Core, Atmosphere, Mantle, Phobos and Surface (MaTH CAMPS) (United States)

    Wicks, J. K.; Weller, M. B.; Towles, N. J.; Thissen, C.; Knezek, N. R.; Johnston, S.; Hongsresawat, S.; Duncan, M. S.; Black, B. A.; Schmerr, N. C.; Panning, M. P.; Montesi, L.; Manga, M.; Lognonne, P. H.


    The death of the Martian dynamo ~4.1 Ga and sustained volcanism throughout Martian history place fundamental constraints on the thermal history of the planet. To explore the implications for mantle structure, we constructed holistic models of Mars that include the core, mantle, lithosphere/surface, atmosphere, and an atmospheric capture of Phobos in a collaborative effort begun at the CIDER 2014 summer program. For our thermal model of the core, we employ an iterative solver and parameterized phase diagram to compute pressure, density, and temperature in the core for a variety of initial accretion temperatures and bulk compositions. We use this model to constrain core-mantle boundary (CMB) temperature and heat flow. We couple this model for the evolution of the core with a one-dimensional parameterized convection model for the mantle. The upper boundary condition is set by the state of the Martian atmosphere. We consider the effect of a distinct compositional layer at the base of the mantle that may represent dense magma ocean crystallization products or a primitive layer untouched by magma ocean processes. We find successful models that allow sufficient CMB heat flow to power an early dynamo and the potential of melt generation through extended periods of Mars' history. In addition to dynamo and magmatism timing, other diagnostics allow us to compare model outputs to modern observables. The mass, moment of inertia, and tidal Love number of our model planet are compared directly to measured values. Additionally, deformation and stress on the lithosphere due to internal volume changes and changes in surface loading predicted by our thermal evolution models could be recorded in the Martian crust. Finally, coupling temperature-dependent tidal dissipation affects Phobos' orbital secular evolution and gives constraint on mantle temperatures. These constraints are discussed for the different scenarios of Phobos capture. We present a suite of models that satisfy the

  20. Optimization of an Aeroservoelastic Wing with Distributed Multiple Control Surfaces (United States)

    Stanford, Bret K.


    This paper considers the aeroelastic optimization of a subsonic transport wingbox under a variety of static and dynamic aeroelastic constraints. Three types of design variables are utilized: structural variables (skin thickness, stiffener details), the quasi-steady deflection scheduling of a series of control surfaces distributed along the trailing edge for maneuver load alleviation and trim attainment, and the design details of an LQR controller, which commands oscillatory hinge moments into those same control surfaces. Optimization problems are solved where a closed loop flutter constraint is forced to satisfy the required flight margin, and mass reduction benefits are realized by relaxing the open loop flutter requirements.

  1. MMOD Protection and Degradation Effects for Thermal Control Systems (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric


    Micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) environment overview Hypervelocity impact effects & MMOD shielding MMOD risk assessment process Requirements & protection techniques - ISS - Shuttle - Orion/Commercial Crew Vehicles MMOD effects on spacecraft systems & improving MMOD protection - Radiators Coatings - Thermal protection system (TPS) for atmospheric entry vehicles Coatings - Windows - Solar arrays - Solar array masts - EVA Handrails - Thermal Blankets Orbital Debris provided by JSC & is the predominate threat in low Earth orbit - ORDEM 3.0 is latest model (released December 2013) - - Man-made objects in orbit about Earth impacting up to 16 km/s average 9-10 km/s for ISS orbit - High-density debris (steel) is major issue Meteoroid model provided by MSFC - MEM-R2 is latest release - - Natural particles in orbit about sun Mg-silicates, Ni-Fe, others - Meteoroid environment (MEM): 11-72 km/s Average 22-23 km/s.

  2. Fabrication of Hydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces for Microfluidic Control. (United States)

    Morikawa, Kyojiro; Tsukahara, Takehiko


    In the field of micro- and nanofluidics, various kinds of novel devices have been developed. For such devices, not only fluidic control but also surface control of micro/nano channels is essential. Recently, fluidic control by hydrophobic nanostructured surfaces have attracted much attention. However, conventional fabrication methods of nanostructures require complicated steps, and integration of the nanostructures into micro/nano channels makes fabrication procedures even more difficult and complicated. In the present study, a simple and easy fabrication method of nanostructures integrated into microchannels was developed. Various sizes of nanostructures were successfully fabricated by changing the plasma etching time and etching with a basic solution. Furthermore, it proved possible to construct highly hydrophobic nanostructured surfaces that could effectively control the fluid in microchannels at designed pressures. We believe that the fabrication method developed here and the results obtained are valuable contributions towards further applications in the field of micro- and nanofluidics.

  3. FTOM-2D: a two-dimensional approach to model the detailed thermal behavior of nonplanar surfaces (United States)

    Bartos, B.; Stein, K.


    The Fraunhofer thermal object model (FTOM) predicts the temperature of an object as a function of the environmental conditions. The model has an outer layer exchanging radiation and heat with the environment and a stack of layers beyond modifying the thermal behavior. The innermost layer is at a constant or variable temperature called core temperature. The properties of the model (6 parameters) are fitted to minimize the difference between the prediction and a time series of measured temperatures. The model can be used for very different objects like backgrounds (e.g. meadow, forest, stone, or sand) or objects like vehicles. The two dimensional enhancement was developed to model more complex objects with non-planar surfaces and heat conduction between adjacent regions. In this model we call the small thermal homogenous interacting regions thermal pixels. For each thermal pixel the orientation and the identities of the adjacent pixels are stored in an array. In this version 7 parameters have to be fitted. The model is limited to a convex geometry to reduce the complexity of the heat exchange and allow for a higher number of thermal pixels. For the test of the model time series of thermal images of a test object (CUBI) were analyzed. The square sides of the cubes were modeled as 25 thermal pixels (5 × 5). In the time series of thermal images small areas in the size of the thermal pixels were analyzed to generate data files that can easily be read by the model. The program was developed with MATLAB and the final version in C++ using the OpenMP multiprocessor library. The differential equation for the heat transfer is the time consuming part in the computation and was programmed in C. The comparison show a good agreement of the fitted and not fitted thermal pixels with the measured temperatures. This indicates the ability of the model to predict the temperatures of the whole object.

  4. Simulation of thermal environment in a three-layer vinyl greenhouse by natural ventilation control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Tea-Hwan


    Full Text Available A high energy, efficient, harmonious, ecological greenhouse has been highlighted by advanced future agricultural technology recently. This greenhouse is essential for expanding the production cycle toward growth conditions through combined thermal environmental control. However, it has a negative effect on farming income via huge energy supply expenses. Because not only production income, but operating costs related to thermal load for thermal environment control is important in farming income, it needs studies such as a harmonious ecological greenhouse using natural ventilation control. This study is simulated for energy consumption and thermal environmental conditions in a three-layered greenhouse by natural ventilation using window opening. A virtual 3D model of a three-layered greenhouse was designed based on the real one in the Gangneung area. This 3D model was used to calculate a thermal environment state such as indoor temperature, relative humidity, and thermal load in the case of a window opening rate from 0 to 100%. There was also a heat exchange operated for heating or cooling controlled by various setting temperatures. The results show that the cooling load can be reduced by natural ventilation control in the summer season, and the heat exchange capacity for heating can also be simulated for growth conditions in the winter season.

  5. Simulation of thermal environment in a three-layer vinyl greenhouse by natural ventilation control (United States)

    Jin, Tea-Hwan; Shin, Ki-Yeol; Yoon, Si-Won; Im, Yong-Hoon; Chang, Ki-Chang


    A high energy, efficient, harmonious, ecological greenhouse has been highlighted by advanced future agricultural technology recently. This greenhouse is essential for expanding the production cycle toward growth conditions through combined thermal environmental control. However, it has a negative effect on farming income via huge energy supply expenses. Because not only production income, but operating costs related to thermal load for thermal environment control is important in farming income, it needs studies such as a harmonious ecological greenhouse using natural ventilation control. This study is simulated for energy consumption and thermal environmental conditions in a three-layered greenhouse by natural ventilation using window opening. A virtual 3D model of a three-layered greenhouse was designed based on the real one in the Gangneung area. This 3D model was used to calculate a thermal environment state such as indoor temperature, relative humidity, and thermal load in the case of a window opening rate from 0 to 100%. There was also a heat exchange operated for heating or cooling controlled by various setting temperatures. The results show that the cooling load can be reduced by natural ventilation control in the summer season, and the heat exchange capacity for heating can also be simulated for growth conditions in the winter season.

  6. Reversible Compositional Control of Oxide Surfaces by Electrochemical Potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Mutoro, Eva


    Perovskite oxides can exhibit a wide range of interesting characteristics such as being catalytically active and electronically/ionically conducting, and thus, they have been used in a number of solid-state devices such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and sensors. As the surface compositions of perovskites can greatly influence the catalytic properties, knowing and controlling their surface compositions is crucial to enhance device performance. In this study, we demonstrate that the surface strontium (Sr) and cobalt (Co) concentrations of perovskite-based thin films can be controlled reversibly at elevated temperatures by applying small electrical potential biases. The surface compositional changes of La 0.8Sr 0.2CoO 3-δ (LSC 113), (La 0.5Sr 0.5) 2CoO 4±δ (LSC 214), and LSC 214-decorated LSC 113 films (LSC 113/214) were investigated in situ by utilizing synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), where the largest changes of surface Sr were found for the LSC 113/214 surface. These findings offer the potential of reversibly controlling the surface functionality of perovskites. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. An Embedded Based Digital Controller for Thermal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lakshmi Sangeetha


    Full Text Available This paper describes a low cost virtual instrumentation (VI system to monitor and control the electrically heated water bath temperature. The PIC16F877 based digital microcontroller is used as thermostat which controls and monitors the temperature. The digital controller also allows the user to modify the sensor (PT100 calibration data values if necessary. The developed programmable on/off control function provides on-line display of measuring temperature, set point as well as the control function output plots through the parallel port. This bus interaction is realized in Visual Basic/Assembly Language and uses a 16 bit, 10 ms sampling analog-to-digital converter (ADS 7805 for monitoring and controlling the parameters of the temperature local digital controller.

  8. A 1-D Analytical Model for the Thermally Induced Stresses in the Mould Surface During Die Casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper; Hansen, Preben


    This paper presents an anlytically based method for predicting the normal stresses in a die mold surface exposed to a thermal load. A example of application of the method is the high-pressure di casting process where the surface stresses in critical cases lead to cracks. Expressions for the normal...... stresses as afunction of the thermal and mechanical properties have been developed for a casting both without and with a coating. Finally, the resulting relationships are derived and evaluated, with particular emphasis on the effect of the heat transfer coefficient between the casting and the mold....

  9. Surface Magnetism of Cobalt Nanoislands Controlled by Atomic Hydrogen. (United States)

    Park, Jewook; Park, Changwon; Yoon, Mina; Li, An-Ping


    Controlling the spin states of the surface and interface is key to spintronic applications of magnetic materials. Here, we report the evolution of surface magnetism of Co nanoislands on Cu(111) upon hydrogen adsorption and desorption with the hope of realizing reversible control of spin-dependent tunneling. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy reveals three types of hydrogen-induced surface superstructures, 1H-(2 × 2), 2H-(2 × 2), and 6H-(3 × 3), with increasing H coverage. The prominent magnetic surface states of Co, while being preserved at low H coverage, become suppressed as the H coverage level increases, which can then be recovered by H desorption. First-principles calculations reveal the origin of the observed magnetic surface states by capturing the asymmetry between the spin-polarized surface states and identify the role of hydrogen in controlling the magnetic states. Our study offers new insights into the chemical control of magnetism in low-dimensional systems.

  10. Spacecraft thermal control coatings (AO 138-6) (United States)

    Paillous, Alain; Guillaumon, Jean Claude


    The experiment A0 138-6 was located on the trailing edge of LDEF as part of the Experiment FRECOPA. Material specimens 2 x 2 cm, independently mounted in sample-holders with their surface in the same reference plane, were exposed to space. Materials include paints (conductive or not), SSMs, polymeric films, surface coatings, composite materials, and metals. The results show that for some materials the degradation was higher for samples in the canister than for those directly mounted on the tray; contamination problems were ruled out, the higher temperature experienced by the samples inside the canister probably explains this phenomenon.

  11. Ion irradiation of the native oxide/silicon surface increases the thermal boundary conductance across aluminum/silicon interfaces (United States)

    Gorham, Caroline S.; Hattar, Khalid; Cheaito, Ramez; Duda, John C.; Gaskins, John T.; Beechem, Thomas E.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Biedermann, Laura B.; Piekos, Edward S.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Hopkins, Patrick E.


    The thermal boundary conductance across solid-solid interfaces can be affected by the physical properties of the solid boundary. Atomic composition, disorder, and bonding between materials can result in large deviations in the phonon scattering mechanisms contributing to thermal boundary conductance. Theoretical and computational studies have suggested that the mixing of atoms around an interface can lead to an increase in thermal boundary conductance by creating a region with an average vibrational spectra of the two materials forming the interface. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate that ion irradiation and subsequent modification of atoms at solid surfaces can increase the thermal boundary conductance across solid interfaces due to a change in the acoustic impedance of the surface. We measure the thermal boundary conductance between thin aluminum films and silicon substrates with native silicon dioxide layers that have been subjected to proton irradiation and post-irradiation surface cleaning procedures. The thermal boundary conductance across the Al/native oxide/Si interfacial region increases with an increase in proton dose. Supported with statistical simulations, we hypothesize that ion beam mixing of the native oxide and silicon substrate within ˜2.2nm of the silicon surface results in the observed increase in thermal boundary conductance. This ion mixing leads to the spatial gradation of the silicon native oxide into the silicon substrate, which alters the acoustic impedance and vibrational characteristics at the interface of the aluminum film and native oxide/silicon substrate. We confirm this assertion with picosecond acoustic analyses. Our results demonstrate that under specific conditions, a "more disordered and defected" interfacial region can have a lower resistance than a more "perfect" interface.

  12. Absorptance measurements of transmissive optical components by the surface thermal lensing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R.; Taylor, J.R.; Wu, Z.L.; Han, Y.; Tian, L.Y.


    The surface thermal lensing technique (STL) successfully resolved and measured the absorptance of transmissive optical components: near- normal angle-of-incidence anti-reflectors and beam splatters. The STL system uses an Ar ion laser to pump the components at 514.5 mn. The absorptance-induced surface deformation diffracts the HeNe probe beam into a photo-detector. The signal intensity was calibrated with a sample of known absorptance. The optical components were designed to function in a copper vapor laser (CVL) transport system, and were previously tested for absorptance with a high power CVL system at 511 rtm. To assure proper absorptance data from the STL system, the pump laser power densities were set at the operational level of the coatings, absorptance time trends were monitored, and absorptance area scans were made. Both types of transmissive optics are more stable than the CVL high reflectors that were measured in another study. Parameter studies based on Fresnel diffraction theory were also performed to optimize experimental condition. The STL system was assessed to have 10 ppb sensitivity for absorption measurement given 2 W of pump power.

  13. Surface decontamination of eggshells by using non-thermal atmospheric plasma. (United States)

    Dasan, Beyhan Gunaydin; Yildirim, Tugba; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki


    In this study, the possibility of using an effective short time non-thermal plasma (NTP) treatment to inactivate Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on eggshell surface was investigated. The eggshells were artificially contaminated with S. Enteritidis at an initial concentration of 10 7 cfu/egg and then treated with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet by using air as process gas under different experimental settings with various frequencies (20-25kHz) and reference voltages (100-80%), exposure times (60-120s), distances from plasma jet (15 or 40mm) and gas flow rates (2000-3000L/h). The best result was obtained at maximum plasma power of 655W (25kHz-100% V), where S. Enteritidis concentration on egg surface was reduced below the detection limit (10 2 cfu/egg) after 120s of treatment. The temperature remained below 35°C after all plasma treatments in order to minimize the risk of egg quality alterations. Specific measurements demonstrated that there were no negative effects on egg quality after NTP treatment. The effect of plasma process on the egg cuticle was demonstrated by using scanning electron microscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermocouple Errors when Mounted on Cylindrical Surfaces in Abnormal Thermal Environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Suo-Anttila, Jill M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zepper, Ethan T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koenig, Jerry J [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Valdez, Vincent A. [ECI Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Mineral-insulated, metal-sheathed, Type-K thermocouples are used to measure the temperature of various items in high-temperature environments, often exceeding 1000degC (1273 K). The thermocouple wires (chromel and alumel) are protected from the harsh environments by an Inconel sheath and magnesium oxide (MgO) insulation. The sheath and insulation are required for reliable measurements. Due to the sheath and MgO insulation, the temperature registered by the thermocouple is not the temperature of the surface of interest. In some cases, the error incurred is large enough to be of concern because these data are used for model validation, and thus the uncertainties of the data need to be well documented. This report documents the error using 0.062" and 0.040" diameter Inconel sheathed, Type-K thermocouples mounted on cylindrical surfaces (inside of a shroud, outside and inside of a mock test unit). After an initial transient, the thermocouple bias errors typically range only about +-1-2% of the reading in K. After all of the uncertainty sources have been included, the total uncertainty to 95% confidence, for shroud or test unit TCs in abnormal thermal environments, is about +-2% of the reading in K, lower than the +-3% typically used for flat shrouds. Recommendations are provided in Section 6 to facilitate interpretation and use of the results. .

  15. Chemical Surface, Thermal and Electrical Characterization of Nafion Membranes Doped with IL-Cations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Valle Martínez de Yuso


    Full Text Available Surface and bulk changes in a Nafion membrane as a result of IL-cation doping (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate or BMIM+BF4 and phenyltrimethylammonium chloride or TMPA+Cl− were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, contact angle, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and impedance spectroscopy (IS measurements performed with dry samples after 24 h in contact with the IL-cations BMIM+ and TMPA+. IL-cations were selected due to their similar molecular weight and molar volume but different shape, which could facilitate/obstruct the cation incorporation in the Nafion membrane structure by proton/cation exchange mechanism. The surface coverage of the Nafion membrane by the IL-cations was confirmed by XPS analysis and contact angle, while the results obtained by the other two techniques (DSC and IS seem to indicate differences in thermal and electrical behaviour depending on the doping-cation, being less resistive the Nafion/BMIM+ membrane. For that reason, determination of the ion transport number was obtained for this membrane by measuring the membrane or concentration potential with the samples in contact with HCl solutions at different concentrations. The comparison of these results with those obtained for the original Nafion membrane provides information on the effect of IL-cation BMIM+ on the transport of H+ across wet Nafion/BMIM+ doped membranes.

  16. Controlled adsorption of cytochrome c to nanostructured gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Ines [Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica (Portugal); Feio, Maria J. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica (Portugal); Santos, Nuno C. [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Medicina Molecular (Portugal); Eaton, Peter [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica (Portugal); Serro, Ana Paula; Saramago, Benilde [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal); Pereira, Eulalia [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica (Portugal); Franco, Ricardo, E-mail: [Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica (Portugal)


    Controlled electrostatic physisorption of horse heart cytochrome c (Cyt c) onto nanostructured gold surfaces was investigated using Quartz-Crystal Microbalance measurements in planar gold surfaces with or without functionalization using a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of the alkanethiol mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA). MUA is a useful functionalization ligand for gold surfaces, shedding adsorbed biomolecules from the excessive electron density of the metal. A parallel analysis was conducted in the corresponding curved surfaces of 15 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), using zeta-potential and UV- visible spectroscopy. Atomic Force Microscopy of both types of functionalized gold surfaces with a MUA SAM, allowed for visualization of Cyt c deposits on the nanostructured gold surface. The amount of Cyt c adsorbed onto the gold surface could be controlled by the solution pH. For the assays conducted at pH 4.5, when MUA SAM- functionalized planar gold surfaces are positive or neutral, and Cyt c has a positive net charge, only 13 % of the planar gold surface area was coated with protein. In contrast, at pH 7.4, when MUA SAM-functionalized planar gold surfaces and Cyt c have opposite charges, a protein coverage of 28 % could be observed implying an adsorption process strongly governed by electrostatic forces. Cyt c adsorption on planar and curved gold surfaces are found to be greatly favored by the presence of a MUA-capping layer. In particular, on the AuNPs, the binding constant is three times larger than the binding constant obtained for the original citrate-capped AuNPs.

  17. Surface strategies for control of neuronal cell adhesion: A review (United States)

    Roach, P.; Parker, T.; Gadegaard, N.; Alexander, M. R.


    Material engineering methods have been used for many years to develop biomedical devices for use within the body to augment, repair or replace damaged tissues ranging from contact lenses to heart valves. Here we review the findings gathered from the wide and varied surface analytical approaches applied to study the interaction between biology and man-made materials. The key material characteristics identified to be important for biological recognition are surface chemistry, topography and compliance. Model surfaces with controlled chemistry and topography have provided insight into biological response to various types of topographical features over a wide range of length scales from nano to micrometres, along with 3D matrices that have been used as scaffolds to support cells for tissue formation. The cellular response to surfaces with localised areas of patterned chemistry and to those presenting gradually changing chemistry are discussed. Where previous reviews have been structured around specific classes of surface modification, e.g. self-assembly, or have broadly examined the response of various cells to numerous surfaces, we aim in this article to focus in particular on the tissues involved in the nervous system whilst providing a broad overview of key issues from the field of cell and protein surface interactions with surfaces. The goal of repair and treatment of diseases related to the central and peripheral nervous systems rely on understanding the local interfacial environment and controlling responses at the cellular level. The role of the protein layer deposited from serum containing media onto man-made surfaces is discussed. We highlight the particular problems associated with the repair of the nervous system, and review how neuronal attachment and axon guidance can be accomplished using various surface cues when cultured with single and multiple cell types. We include a brief glossary of techniques discussed in the body of this article aimed at the

  18. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.


    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  19. Effect of Personal Control over Thermal Environment in a Laboratorium Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulve, M. te; Boerstra, A. C.; Toftum, Jørn

    Field studies have demonstrated that personal control over the indoor climate may increase comfort and could reduce SBS symptoms. A laboratory study was performed to investigate if being in control over the thermal environment influences comfort, symptoms and performance. The central hypothesis...... does not directly influence human perception to the thermal environment, symptoms or performance. However, personal preferences for the air velocity of the fan differ a lot. This confirms the need for personal indoor climate systems to satisfy the need of individuals....... was that human responses to a thermal indoor environment depend on the availability of control opportunities. This was tested in a field lab where subjects had a personal desk fan with a stepless controller at their workplace. Two conditions were tested: one (the first) with individual control and one without...

  20. Controllable rectification of the axial expansion in the thermally driven artificial muscle (United States)

    Yue, Donghua; Zhang, Xingyi; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, You-He


    At present, the concept of artificial muscle twisted by polymers or fibers has become a hot issue in the field of intelligent material research according to its distinguishing advantages, e.g., high energy density, large-stroke, non-hysteresis, and inexpensive. The axial thermal expansion coefficient is an important parameter which can affect its demanding applications. In this letter, a device with high accuracy capacitive sensor is constructed to measure the axial thermal expansion coefficient of the twisted carbon fibers and yarns of Kevlar, and a theoretical model based on the thermal elasticity and the geometrical features of the twisted structure are also presented to predict the axial expansion coefficient. It is found that the calculated results take good agreements with the experimental data. According to the present experiment and analyses, a method to control the axial thermal expansion coefficient of artificial muscle is proposed. Moreover, the mechanism of this kind of thermally driven artificial muscle is discussed.

  1. Thermal measurements of dark and bright surface features on Vesta as derived from Dawn/VIR (United States)

    Tosi, Federico; Capria, Maria Teresa; De Sanctis, M.C.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Zambon, F.; Nathues, A.; Schröder, S.E.; Li, J.-Y.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Blewett, D.T.; Denevi, B.W.; Palmer, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Titus, Timothy N.; Mittlefehldt, D.W.; Sunshine, J.M.; Russell, C.T.; Raymond, C.A.; Dawn/VIR Team,


    Remote sensing data acquired during Dawn’s orbital mission at Vesta showed several local concentrations of high-albedo (bright) and low-albedo (dark) material units, in addition to spectrally distinct meteorite impact ejecta. The thermal behavior of such areas seen at local scale (1-10 km) is related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. We use Dawn’s Visible and InfraRed (VIR) mapping spectrometer hyperspectral data to retrieve surface temperatures and emissivities, with high accuracy as long as temperatures are greater than 220 K. Some of the dark and bright features were observed multiple times by VIR in the various mission phases at variable spatial resolution, illumination and observation angles, local solar time, and heliocentric distance. This work presents the first temperature maps and spectral emissivities of several kilometer-scale dark and bright material units on Vesta. Results retrieved from the infrared data acquired by VIR show that bright regions generally correspond to regions with lower temperature, while dark regions correspond to areas with higher temperature. During maximum daily insolation and in the range of heliocentric distances explored by Dawn, i.e. 2.23-2.54 AU, the warmest dark unit found on Vesta rises to a temperature of 273 K, while bright units observed under comparable conditions do not exceed 266 K. Similarly, dark units appear to have higher emissivity on average compared to bright units. Dark-material units show a weak anticorrelation between temperature and albedo, whereas the relation is stronger for bright material units observed under the same conditions. Individual features may show either evanescent or distinct margins in the thermal images, as a consequence of the cohesion of the surface material. Finally, for the two categories of dark and bright materials, we were able to highlight the influence of heliocentric distance on surface temperatures, and estimate an

  2. Application of numerical modelling in order to estimate the interaction between surface water and thermal groundwater use (United States)

    Goetzl, Gregor; Hoyer, Stefan; Bruestle, Anna Katharina


    In Vienna the thermal use of shallow groundwater usage for heating and cooling purposes is of increasing interest during the past years. In this context the focal areas are located in the vicinity of the Danube River, which intersects the urban area of Vienna. This is a consequence of excellent aquifers, which predominately consist of poorly consolidated gravels of Holocene age deposited by the Danube River. Of course these shallow aquifer systems are hydraulically connected to the Danube. In addition most of the focal areas in Vienna are affected by abandoned meanders and ponds, which correspond the groundwater and eventually to the Danube River. These wide spread ponds remain from abandoned gravel pits, which are directly alimented by the groundwater. Focusing on these abandoned meanders and ponds the intensity of hydraulic correspondence to groundwater variations is strongly governed by the degree of colmatation. As thermal groundwater utilization is influencing the local hydraulic regime by means of well fields, enforced interflow between surface- and ground water have to be expected at the nearby surrounding of abandoned rivers, abandoned meanders and groundwater ponds. This leads to an attenuation of the capacity of the thermal utilizations as surface water and ground water show different annual temperature variations. Depending on the total pumping rate of a geothermal well field as well as on the spatially varying colmatation of surface waters restricted zones for thermal groundwater use have to be defined in order to avoid inefficient utilizations. Based on two presented case studies in the city of Vienna we aim to show methods based on numerical modelling and empirical studies (observation of gauges) in order to estimate the degree of colmatation of surface waters and to predict the interaction between thermal groundwater use and surface waters. As the heat budget of shallow surface waters (e.g. small ponds or lentic meanders) is affected by various

  3. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Roberts, D.; Broderick, T. [ADA Technologies, Englewood, CO (United States)


    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates.

  4. Thermal Fluid-Dynamic Study for the thermal control of the new ALICE Central Detectors

    CERN Document Server


    The Inner Tracking System Detector of the ALICE Experiment at CERN laboratory will be replaced in 2020 with a new Detector. It will have to provide, among others, higher spatial resolution, higher tracking precision and faster data read-out. These goals will be attained thanks to new pixel sensors chips and new electronic components, which will have a high impact in terms of dissipated heat. Therefore, one of the critical aspects for the success of the Upgrade project is the design of the Detector cooling system. This thesis work has been developed at CERN in Geneva in close contact with the group responsible for the Mechanics and Cooling of the Detector. The aim of the thermal fluid dynamic study devised is to deliver to the group a reliable and accurate description of the air flow inside the New Inner Tracking System Detector. After a first part of problem definition and design study, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has been developed with the ANSYS Fluent software. The CFD model built in this ...

  5. Comparison analysis of wooden house thermal comfort in tropical coast and mountainous by using wall surface temperature difference (United States)

    Hendriani, Adinda Septi; Hermawan, Retyanto, Banar


    Passive thermal comfort can be analyzed through several ways including through analyzing thermal of building envelope. The wall is one of building envelope that affect the performance of the thermal buildings. Quantitative research aims to analyze the thermal comfort of the wooden house in the tropical coastal and mountains by using the surface temperature of the walls of the building. Data retrieval was done by measurement of the surface temperature of the outer and inner side of the wall using infrared thermometers at 5 am, 12 pm, 5 pm and 8 pm. The wall is measured the wall which bordering the spaces outside and exposed to the sun light. The measurement was done at 10 wooden house in a tropical coastal and 10 wooden house in tropical mountains. The surface temperature average of the outside wall of a tropical coastal house by 27.1°C, while the inner side wall has a surface temperature by 26.2°C. The difference between the average temperature of the outer surface and its inner surface by 0.9°C (lowering temperature). Tropical mountain residences have an average temperature of the outer side wall by 18.0°C and the average temperature inner side wall by 18.8°C. The difference between the average temperature of the outer surface and inner surface by 0.8 °C (raise the temperature). The nature of the wood is a storage temperature of the radiation so adjusting the temperature of the radiation that exist on a specific area. It can be concluded that the timber wall is more suitable for residential houses in the tropical coast than tropical mountains based on the difference in surface temperature.

  6. Dominant Albumin-Surface Interactions under Independent Control of Surface Charge and Wettability. (United States)

    Guo, Shanshan; Pranantyo, Dicky; Kang, En-Tang; Loh, Xian Jun; Zhu, Xiaoying; Jańczewski, Dominik; Neoh, Koon Gee


    Understanding protein adsorption behaviors on solid surfaces constitutes an important step toward development of efficacious and biocompatible medical devices. Both surface charge and wettability have been shown to influence protein adsorption attributes, including kinetics, quantities, deformation, and reversibility. However, determining the dominant interaction in these surface-induced phenomena is challenging because of the complexity of inter-related mechanisms at the liquid/solid interface. Herein, we reveal the dominant interfacial forces in these essential protein adsorption attributes under the influence of a combination of surface charge and wettability, using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and atomic force microscopy-based force spectroscopy on a series of model surfaces. These surfaces were fabricated via layer-by-layer assembly, which allowed two-dimensional control of surface charge and wettability with minimal cross-parameter dependency. We focused on a soft globular protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), which is prone to conformational changes during adsorption. The information obtained from the two techniques shows that both surface charge and hydrophobicity can increase the protein-surface interaction forces and the adsorbed amount. However, surface hydrophobicity triggered a greater extent of deformation in the adsorbed BSA molecules, leading to more dehydration, spreading, and resistance to elution by ionic strength changes regardless of the surface charge. The role played by the surface charge in the adsorbed protein conformation and extent of desorption induced by changes in the ionic strength is secondary to that of surface hydrophobicity. These findings advance the understanding of how surface chemistry and properties can be tailored for directing protein-substrate interactions.

  7. Radiation control coatings installed on rough-surfaced built-up roofs -- Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.


    The authors have tracked the solar reflectance and thermal performance of small samples of various radiation control coatings on smooth surfaces for several years on a roof test facility in East Tennessee. The focus is on white coatings because of their potential to weather, causing the solar reflectance to decrease as the coatings age. Support of the federal New Technology Demonstration Program allowed them to extend the study to more samples on smooth surfaces and entire rough-surfaced roofs at a federal facility in the Panhandle of Florida. Two rough-surfaced, moderately well-insulated, low solar reflectance built-up roofs (BURs) were spray-coated with a latex-based product with ceramic beads added to improve solar reflectance. In the first three months after installation, the fresh BUR coatings showed a significant decrease in both the outside-surface temperature and the heat flux through the roof insulation. Average sunlit values were generated to exclude nighttime data, data on cloudy days, and data when the uncoated patch on one roof was more strongly shaded in mid-afternoon on sunny days. The average power demand during occupied periods for the first month with the coating for the building with the thermally massive roof deck was 13% less than during the previous month without the coating. For the other buildings with a lightweight roof deck but high internal loads, there were no clear average power savings due to the coating. The authors are continuing to monitor electricity use in these all-electric buildings to calibrate a model for the peak power and annual energy use of the buildings. Modeling results to be given at the end of the two year project will address the effect of roof R-value, geographic location, and solar reflectance, including the effect of weathering, on the performance of coated roofs. The calibrated models should allow one to segregate site-specific effects such as shading and large thermal mass.

  8. Control and characterization of textured, hydrophobic ionomer surfaces (United States)

    Wang, Xueyuan

    Polymer thin films are of increasing interest in many industrial and technological applications. Superhydrophobic, self-cleaning surfaces have attracted a lot of attention for their application in self-cleaning, anti-sticking coatings, stain resistance, or anti-contamination surfaces in diverse technologies, including medical, transportation, textiles, electronics and paints. This thesis focuses on the preparation of nanometer to micrometer-size particle textured surfaces which are desirable for super water repellency. Textured surfaces consisting of nanometer to micrometer-sized lightly sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (SPS) particles were prepared by rapid evaporation of the solvent from a dilute polymer solution cast onto silica. The effect of the solvent used to spin coat the film, the molecular weight of the ionomer, and the rate of solvent evaporation were investigated. The nano-particle or micron-particle textured ionomer surfaces were prepared by either spin coating or solution casting ionomer solutions at controlled evaporation rates. The surface morphologies were consistent with a spinodal decomposition mechanism where the surface first existed as a percolated-like structure and then ripened into droplets if molecular mobility was retained for sufficient time. The SPS particles or particle aggregates were robust and resisted deformation even after annealing at 120°C for one week. The water contact angles on as-prepared surfaces were relatively low, ~ 90° since the polar groups in ionomer reduce the surface hydrophobicity. After chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane, the surface contact angles increased to ~ 109° on smooth surfaces and ~140° on the textured surfaces. Water droplets stuck to these surfaces even when tilted 90 degrees. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared by spraying coating ionomer solutions and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane onto textured surfaces. The

  9. Alternative surfacing materials for weed control at BC Hydro substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, T.C.; Shrimpton, G.M.


    A two year study was conducted by BC Hydro in which a variety of surfacing materials were tested for their suitability for use in substations. Ideally, surfacing materials should have the following characteristics: high electrical resistivity in both dry and wet conditions, resistance to invasion by weeds, good driveability, good drainage, non-flammable, reasonably priced, no dust to foul conductors, and be aesthetically pleasing. Trials at Vernon Koksilah, and Ingledow substations were conducted to test the materials. A qualitative estimate of the amount of weed control provided by each material was recorded. The trials were meant to provide operational recommendations and screening information to allow for future testing of promising materials or combination of materials. Results showed that no single material meets all the desired criteria. The surfaces that best combined good weed control, electrical resistance and surface stability was a 15 cm deep layer of crushed gravel, especially if underlain by a layer of geotextile. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  10. Real time thermal imaging for analysis and control of crystal growth by the Czochralski technique (United States)

    Wargo, M. J.; Witt, A. F.


    A real time thermal imaging system with temperature resolution better than +/- 0.5 C and spatial resolution of better than 0.5 mm has been developed. It has been applied to the analysis of melt surface thermal field distributions in both Czochralski and liquid encapsulated Czochralski growth configurations. The sensor can provide single/multiple point thermal information; a multi-pixel averaging algorithm has been developed which permits localized, low noise sensing and display of optical intensity variations at any location in the hot zone as a function of time. Temperature distributions are measured by extraction of data along a user selectable linear pixel array and are simultaneously displayed, as a graphic overlay, on the thermal image.

  11. Acid Aging Effects on Surfaces of PTFE Gaskets Investigated by Thermal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fragassa


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of a prolonged acid attack on the surface of PTFE by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. PTFE is very non-reactive, partly because of the strength of carbon–fluorine bonds and for its high crystallinity, and, as a consequence, it is often used in containers and pipework with reactive and corrosive chemicals. The PTFE under analysis is commercialized by two alternative producers in form of Teflon tapes. These tapes are adopted, as gaskets, in process plants where tires moulds are cleaned by acid solutions inside a multistage ultrasonic process. In this case, PTFE shows, in a relatively short operation time, inexplicably phenomena of surface degradation, which could be related, in general terms, to an acid attack. But, even considering the combined effect of ultrasonic waves, temperature, humidity and acid attack, the PTFE properties of resistance nominally exclude the risk of the extreme erosion phenomena as observed. The present experimental research aim at investigating this contradiction. A possible explanation could be related to the presence in the cleaning solution of unexpected fluorides, able to produce fluorinating agents and, thus, degrade carbon-fluorine bonds. Considering more the 300 chemical elements a tire compound consists in, it is really complex to preserve the original chemical composition of the cleaning solution. In this research PTFE samples have been treated with different mixtures of acids with the aim at investigating the different aging effects. The thermal analysis has permitted the experimental characterization of PTFE surface properties after acid attack, providing evidence of the degradation phenomena. In particular, the different acid treatments adopted for accelerating the aging of gaskets have highlighted the different behaviour of the PTFE matrix, but also differences between manufacturers.

  12. New spreading law of thin film liquids controlled by gravity and vdW forces under thermal fluctuations (United States)

    Nesic, Svetozar; Cuerno Rejado, Rodolfo; Moro Egido, Esteban


    It has been shown that, in the regime controlled by surface tension, the spreading dynamics of a thin viscous fluid droplet changes significantly when it is subjected to thermal fluctuations. Technically, this has been accomplished through the incorporation of appropriate stochastic terms into the standard lubrication equation. In practice, it leads to a modification of the classic Tanner's law for spreading, with implications for Micro and Nanofluidic systems. We have recently found a new law of spreading for the same kind of systems, but in the gravity-dominated regime. Moreover, in the deteministic case a finite contact angle is formed when a van der Waals attractive force is introduced to the system and we show that there is a slight change in contact angle when thermal fluctuations are taken into account. Ph.D student and a member of GISC (

  13. The Effect of Thermal Radiation on Entropy Generation Due to Micro-Polar Fluid Flow Along a Wavy Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Hao Chang


    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of thermal radiation on micro-polar fluid flow over a wavy surface is studied. The optically thick limit approximation for the radiation flux is assumed. Prandtl’s transposition theorem is used to stretch the ordinary coordinate system in certain directions. The wavy surface can be transferred into a calculable plane coordinate system. The governing equations of micro-polar fluid along a wavy surface are derived from the complete Navier-Stokes equations. A simple transformation is proposed to transform the governing equations into boundary layer equations so they can be solved numerically by the cubic spline collocation method. A modified form for the entropy generation equation is derived. Effects of thermal radiation on the temperature and the vortex viscosity parameter and the effects of the wavy surface on the velocity are all included in the modified entropy generation equation.

  14. Identification of controlled-complexity thermal therapy models derived from magnetic resonance thermometry images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Niu

    Full Text Available Medical imaging provides information valuable in diagnosis, planning, and control of therapies. In this paper, we develop a method that uses a specific type of imaging--the magnetic resonance thermometry--to identify accurate and computationally efficient site and patient-specific computer models for thermal therapies, such as focused ultrasound surgery, hyperthermia, and thermally triggered targeted drug delivery. The developed method uses a sequence of acquired MR thermometry images to identify a treatment model describing the deposition and dissipation of thermal energy in tissues. The proper orthogonal decomposition of thermal images is first used to identify a set of empirical eigenfunctions, which captures spatial correlations in the thermal response of tissues. Using the reduced subset of eigenfunction as a functional basis, low-dimensional thermal response and the ultrasound specific absorption rate models are then identified. Once identified, the treatment models can be used to plan, optimize, and control the treatment. The developed approach is validated experimentally using the results of MR thermal imaging of a tissue phantom during focused ultrasound sonication. The validation demonstrates that our approach produces accurate low-dimensional treatment models and provides a convenient tool for balancing the accuracy of model predictions and the computational complexity of the treatment models.

  15. Instrumentation and control systems for monitoring and data acquisition for thermal recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparicio, J.; Hernandez, E.; Perozo, H. [PDVSA Intevep, S.A. (Venezuela)


    Thermal recovery methods are often applied to enhance oil recovery in heavy oil reservoirs, one of its challenges is to control the displacement of the thermal front. Methods are thus implemented to obtain data on the temperatures in the wells at any given time and to monitor other variables so that the behaviour of the thermal front can be predicted. The aim of this paper is to present a new control and instrumentation scheme to measure all of the variables. A software was created using Labview a graphs-based programming language software and PostgreSQL, a database management system. Using this software, sensors can be added or removed at any time; trends can be immediately visualized; and quality of the information is ensured since there is no human intervention in the data collection or processing. This paper presented a software which improves monitoring of all of the variables affecting the behaviour of the thermal front.

  16. Modelling and Design of Active Thermal Controls for Power Electronics of Motor Drive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernica, Ionut; Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke


    of active thermal control methods for the power devices of a motor drive application. The motor drive system together with the thermal cycling of the power devices have been modelled, and adverse temperature swings could be noticed during the start-up and deceleration periods of the motor. Based......One of the major factors that affects the overall efficiency and reliability of power electronics systems is the dynamical variation of the thermal stress which occurs in the power semiconductor devices. Therefore, the main objective of this paper consists of designing and implementing a series...... on the electrical response of the system, the junction temperature of the semiconductor devices is estimated, and consequently three active thermal control methods are proposed and practically designed with respect to the following parameters: switching frequency, deceleration slope and modulation technique...

  17. Impact And Thermal Treatment Of Clays: Implications For The Surface Properties Of Mars (United States)

    Gavin, Patricia; Chevrier, V.


    CRISM has recently confirmed OMEGA's previous detection of clays on the surface of Mars, mainly in the Nili Fossae and Mawrth Vallis regions in the Noachian terrains. It has been proposed that transformations of clays through meteoritic impacts and thermal metamorphism may be responsible for Mars’ red color. We thermally treated several samples of nontronite (Fe-rich clay) and montmorillonite (Al-rich clay) in both air and in a CO2 atmosphere to various temperatures (from 500°C to 1100°C) for various durations (4 to 24 hrs) and impacted each clay sample at 2.5 km/s. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), ESEM, TEM, and magnetic properties analyses were performed on each sample. XRD of heated samples showed the formation of hematite, sillimanite, and cristobalite in high temperature samples. The same phases with corundum and quartz formed in the medium temperature samples. ESEM and EDX analyses confirmed these results. No secondary phase was observed on the XRD spectra of the impacted samples. Magnetic analyses showed properties of hematite at high temperature, spinel only in the CO2 atmosphere at 850°C and the systematic formation of a distinct unknown magnetic phase around 900-1000°C, also observed in TEM. FT-IR analysis in the MIR range showed the loss of interlayer water and a quartz/silica-forming phase. NIR spectra of the shocked samples were of particular interest because of the formation of a pair of unidentified peaks at 3.4 and 3.5 μm. These two peaks did not appear in any other spectrum, indicating they are the result of the shock treatment only. Such result, combined with XRD results, suggests potential amorphisation of the impacted clays. Such a specific feature could help determine if clays were affected by shock on Mars.

  18. Indirect thermal control for improved reliability of Modular Multilevel Converter by utilizing circulating current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammadkazem Bakhshizadeh; Ma, Ke; Loh, Poh Chiang


    Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) has recently become a popular multilevel topology for high-power applications, where the reliability performance is a crucial design consideration. In this paper the impacts of the circulating current in the MMC to the loss and thermal loading of power...... semiconductor devices are comprehensively investigated. Also a novel control strategy by utilizing the circulating current is proposed to enhance the reliability performance of MMC in order to limit the amplitude of thermal cycles. It is concluded that the circulating current may change the losses and thermal...

  19. The Feasibility Study on Thermal Loading Control of Wind Power Converters with a Flexible Switching Frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede


    of the IGBT modules, the power losses and thereby the thermal stresses can be controlled by varying the PWM switching frequency according to power loading conditions. This paper investigates the feasibility to apply this flexible modulation strategy in a 3 MW wind power converter application to reduce......Thermal loading of wind power converters is critical to their reliability performance. Especially for IGBT modules applied in a converter, both of the mean value and variation of the junction temperature have significant impact on the lifetime. Besides other strategies to reduce the thermal loading...

  20. Analysis and Design of Phase Change Thermal Control for Light Emitting Diode (LED) Spacesuit Helmet Lights (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Nguyen, Hiep X.; Keller, John R.


    LED Helmet Extravehicular Activity Helmet Interchangeable Portable (LEHIP) lights for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) have been built and tested and are currently being used on the International Space Station. A design is presented of the passive thermal control system consisting of a chamber filled with aluminum foam and wax. A thermal math model of LEHIP was built and correlated by test to show that the thermal design maintains electronic components within hot and cold limits for a 7 hour spacewalk in the most extreme EVA average environments, and do not pose a hazard to the crew or to components of the EMU.

  1. Thermal stress and topography control on the exfoliation of spheroidal granite boulders in Pricopan Ridge, Macin Mountains, Romania (United States)

    Vasile, Mirela; Vespremeanu-Stroe, Alfred


    Exfoliation is one of the most frequent processes of granite landforms shaping, its intensity being usually associated with the cumulated action of thermal stresses. Although exfoliation microforms are present on granite landforms in most of the warm-climates, the controlling factors of this process are not yet well defined. Within this study, we investigated the distribution pattern of the exfoliation microforms identified on the surface of 40 rounded granite boulders mapped on the western slope of Pricopan Ridge (Macin Mountains), in a semi-arid temperate environment (Northern Dobrogea, Romania). Continuous rock near-surface temperature measurement on a reference boulder over a four years period allowed us to evaluate the frequency and intensity of the rock thermal oscillations, taking into account (as control factors) (i) the fast temperature changes generated by convective summer rain events, (ii) the day-night temperature variations and (iii) the occurrence of freeze-thaw oscillations during winter. The relative rock strength at the rock surface was determined by Schmidt Hammer tests, which highlighted a reduced resistance of the boulder areas oriented towards South (mean rebound values of 27-33) compared to the North-exposed ones (mean rebound values of 43-50). Over a North-South profile of the boulders, the lowest resistance of the rock surface corresponds to their gently sloping southern faces (at slope values of 0-45 degrees (°)), which indicates a higher susceptibility of these sectors to be affected by weathering processes. These specific areas (gently-sloping faces of the rounded granite boulders) overlap the sector of high frequency and intensity of the investigated thermal-stress inducing processes, all three of them reaching the highest peak on the South-face of the boulders at slopes of 20°-30°. Correspondently, the exfoliation microforms mapped and morphometrically described in this study are developed most frequently in the area delimited by

  2. Fuzzy Approximate Model for Distributed Thermal Solar Collectors Control

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed


    This paper deals with the problem of controlling concentrated solar collectors where the objective consists of making the outlet temperature of the collector tracking a desired reference. The performance of the novel approximate model based on fuzzy theory, which has been introduced by the authors in [1], is evaluated comparing to other methods in the literature. The proposed approximation is a low order state representation derived from the physical distributed model. It reproduces the temperature transfer dynamics through the collectors accurately and allows the simplification of the control design. Simulation results show interesting performance of the proposed controller.

  3. Computer control of a scanning electron microscope for digital image processing of thermal-wave images (United States)

    Gilbert, Percy; Jones, Robert E.; Kramarchuk, Ihor; Williams, Wallace D.; Pouch, John J.


    Using a recently developed technology called thermal-wave microscopy, NASA Lewis Research Center has developed a computer controlled submicron thermal-wave microscope for the purpose of investigating III-V compound semiconductor devices and materials. This paper describes the system's design and configuration and discusses the hardware and software capabilities. Knowledge of the Concurrent 3200 series computers is needed for a complete understanding of the material presented. However, concepts and procedures are of general interest.

  4. The study of thermal processes in control systems of heat consumption of buildings (United States)

    Tsynaeva, E.; A, Tsynaeva


    The article discusses the main thermal processes in the automated control systems for heat consumption (ACSHC) of buildings, schematic diagrams of these systems, mathematical models used for description of thermal processes in ACSHC. Conducted verification represented by mathematical models. It was found that the efficiency of the operation of ACSHC depend from the external and internal factors. Numerical study of dynamic modes of operation of ACSHC.

  5. The thermal effects of some control logics used in GDHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuecueka, Serhan [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Dokuz Eyluel, 35100 Izmir (Turkey)


    The temperature of the water returning from the network affects greatly the efficiency of a geothermal district-heating system (GDHS). The temperature of the returning water depends on whether there is a heat exchanger between network flow and indoor circulation. The return temperature also depends on outdoor temperature and logic of the indoor temperature control system. In this paper, four control logics are defined depending on whether indoor circulation is separated from network circulation or not. Return temperature and circulation rate of network flow are calculated for these control logics. The results show that the flow rate of the network flow and annual consumption of the geothermal fluid could be decreased about 10% or over by using optimum control logic in district heating systems. (author)

  6. Ground surface thermal regime of rock glaciers in the High Tatra Mts., Slovakia (United States)

    Uxa, Tomáš; Mida, Peter


    Numerous lobate- or tongue-shaped debris accumulations, mostly interpreted as rock glaciers, have recently been recognized in the High Tatra Mts., Slovakia (49˚ 10' N, 20˚ 08' E). These prominent landforms arise due to creep of voluminous debris-ice mixtures, and as such they are excellent indicators of present or past permafrost existence. Hence rock glaciers are extensively utilized to model the distribution of permafrost in mountain areas. However, commonly applied rules of thumb may not be entirely indicative to discriminate particularly between the inactive (permafrost in disequilibrium with present climate) and relict (without permafrost) rock glaciers, which may substantially complicate permafrost modelling. Accordingly, the information about their thermal state is essential to calibrate and validate regional permafrost models. Limited ground temperature data have been, however, available from the High Tatra Mts. to date and therefore, we bring the updated and enhanced results from the thermal investigations of eleven rock glaciers located in the Slavkovská dolina and Veľká Studená dolina valleys at elevations between 1832 and 2090 m asl. Ground surface temperature (GST) has been continuously monitored at seven rock glaciers between October 2014 and September 2016 using nine Minikin Tie (EMS Brno Inc.) and iButton DS1922L (Maxim Integrated Inc.) loggers with an accuracy of ±0.2 and ±0.5 ˚ C, respectively. In addition, the bottom temperature of snow (BTS) was measured at 306 locations during spring of 2015 and 2016 to map potential permafrost occurrence within all the surveyed rock glaciers and in their immediate surroundings. Mean annual ground surface temperature (MAGST) of the rock glaciers ranged between -1.3 ˚ C and +2.6 ˚ C and averaged +1.0 ˚ C and +0.8 ˚ C in 2014-2015 and 2015-2016, respectively. Two sites continually showed negative MAGST and two other sites were below +0.5 ˚ C and +1.0 ˚ C, respectively. This strongly contrasts with

  7. Minimum scale controlled topology optimization and experimental test of a micro thermal actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heo, S.; Yoon, Gil Ho; Kim, Y.Y.


    This paper is concerned with the optimal topology design, fabrication and test of a micro thermal actuator. Because the minimum scale was controlled during the design optimization process, the production yield rate of the actuator was improved considerably; alternatively, the optimization design...... without scale control resulted in a very low yield rate. Using the minimum scale controlling topology design method developed earlier by the authors, micro thermal actuators were designed and fabricated through a MEMS process. Moreover, both their performance and production yield were experimentally...

  8. Heterogeneous ice nucleation controlled by the coupling of surface crystallinity and surface hydrophilicity

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Yuanfei; Li, Tianshu


    The microscopic mechanisms controlling heterogeneous ice nucleation are complex and remain poorly understood. Although good ice nucleators are generally believed to match ice lattice and to bind water, counter examples are often identified. Here we show, by advanced molecular simulations, that the heterogeneous nucleation of ice on graphitic surface is controlled by the coupling of surface crystallinity and surface hydrophilicity. Molecular level analysis reveals that the crystalline graphitic lattice with an appropriate hydrophilicity may indeed template ice basal plane by forming a strained ice layer, thus significantly enhancing its ice nucleation efficiency. Remarkably, the templating effect is found to transit from within the first contact layer of water to the second as the hydrophilicity increases, yielding an oscillating distinction between the crystalline and amorphous graphitic surfaces in their ice nucleation efficiencies. Our study sheds new light on the long-standing question of what constitutes ...

  9. Multiphase Flow Technology Impacts on Thermal Control Systems for Exploration (United States)

    McQuillen, John; Sankovic, John; Lekan, Jack


    The Two-Phase Flow Facility (TPHIFFy) Project focused on bridging the critical knowledge gap by developing and demonstrating critical multiphase fluid products for advanced life support, thermal management and power conversion systems that are required to enable the Vision for Space Exploration. Safety and reliability of future systems will be enhanced by addressing critical microgravity fluid physics issues associated with flow boiling, condensation, phase separation, and system stability. The project included concept development, normal gravity testing, and reduced gravity aircraft flight campaigns, in preparation for the development of a space flight experiment implementation. Data will be utilized to develop predictive models that could be used for system design and operation. A single fluid, two-phase closed thermodynamic loop test bed was designed, assembled and tested. The major components in this test bed include: a boiler, a condenser, a phase separator and a circulating pump. The test loop was instrumented with flow meters, thermocouples, pressure transducers and both high speed and normal speed video cameras. A low boiling point surrogate fluid, FC-72, was selected based on scaling analyses using preliminary designs for operational systems. Preliminary results are presented which include flow regime transitions and some observations regarding system stability.

  10. Thermal Inertia and Surface Roughness of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 Derived from Recalibrated Deep Impact NIR Spectroscopy (United States)

    Davidsson, B. J. R.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Groussin, O.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Farnham, T.; Feaga, L. M.; Kelley, M. S.; Klaasen, K.; Merlin, F.; Protopapa, S.; Rickman, H.; Sunshine, J. M.


    On July 4, 2005, the HRI-IR instrument onboard the Deep Impact spacecraft (NASA/Univ. of Maryland) acquired the first ever near-infrared spectra of a fully resolved comet nucleus, 9P/Tempel 1. Early attempts to estimate the thermal inertia of the surface material were inconclusive, due to negligence of small-scale surface roughness in the thermophysical models used to analyze the spectra. Following a substantial recalibration of the original dataset, we now reconsider the 9P/Tempel 1 spectra, using more realistic thermophysical models. In addition to largescale nucleus irregularity, these models now explicitly consider small-scale roughness and related phenomena such as shadowing and IR self heating. Furthermore, 3D heat conduction can be utilized when topographic features are similar in size to the thermal skin depth, or smaller. Estimates of the thermal inertia, degree of small-scale roughness and their levels of variation across the nucleus are presented.

  11. Casson fluid flow and heat transfer past an exponentially porous stretching surface in presence of thermal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pramanik


    Full Text Available The present paper aims at investigating the boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian fluid accompanied by heat transfer toward an exponentially stretching surface in presence of suction or blowing at the surface. Casson fluid model is used to characterize the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. Thermal radiation term is incorporated into the equation for the temperature field. With the help of similarity transformations, the governing partial differential equations corresponding to the momentum and heat transfer are reduced to a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions of these equations are then obtained. The effect of increasing values of the Casson parameter is seen to suppress the velocity field. But the temperature is enhanced with increasing Casson parameter. Thermal radiation enhances the effective thermal diffusivity and the temperature increases. It is found that the skin-friction coefficient increases with the increase in suction parameter.

  12. Influence of different treatments of the ceramic surface and thermal cycling on the bond strength of brackets to ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guerra SÁEZ

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate in vitro the effect of different treatments of the ceramic surface and thermal cycling on the shear bond strength (SBS of metallic brackets bonded to feldspathic ceramic. Material and method Ceramic cylinders were divided into four groups (n=4 according to the treatment of ceramic surface: G1-Clearfil Ceramic Primer silane and Transbond XT (CCPT; G2-etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid (HFA for 60 s, CCP and Transbond XT (ACCPT; G3-etched with 10% HFA for 60 s, Ambar Adhesive and Transbond XT (AAAT; and, G4 - etched with 10% HFA for 60 s, RelyX Ceramic Primer silane -RCP, adhesive primer Transbond and Transbond XT (ACPPT. Brackets were bonded to the cylinders with Transbond XT and light-activated for 40 s with LED Radii Plus. All specimens were stored in deionized water at 37 °C for 24 h, and two cylinders from each group were subject to 7,000 thermal cycles in a thermal cycler (5 °C/55 °C. After storage and thermal cycling, the SBS test was performed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test (α=0.05. Result The SBS of ACCPT was significantly higher than the other groups (p<0.05. The specimens submitted to thermal cycling showed significantly lower SBS than those without thermal cycling (p<0.05, regardless the ceramic surface treatment. The ARI showed predominance of score 0 for all groups. Conclusion Acid etching, CCP silane and Transbond XT method obtained the best results for bracket bonding. Thermal cycling reduced SBS for all groups. Score 0 was predominant for ARI in all groups.

  13. Multi-functional surfaces with controllable wettability and water adhesion (United States)

    Anastasiadis, Spiros H.; Frysali, Melani A.; Kenanakis, George; Kaklamani, Georgia; Papoutsakis, Lampros

    The design of multifunctional surfaces based on biomimetic structures has gained the interest of the scientific community. Novel multifunctional surfaces have been developed, able to alter their wetting properties in response to temperature and pH as well as light illumination, by combining proper chemistry and surface micro/nano-structuring using ultrafast (femtosecond) laser irradiation. The combination of the hierarchical surface with a ZnO and/or a responsive polymer coating results in efficient photo-active properties as well as reversible superhydrophobic / superhydrophilic surfaces in response to external stimuli. These surfaces can be optimized to exhibit high or zero water adhesion and/or controllable directionality as well. Moreover, they can be seeded with human fibroblasts to examine the cellular response on both surface roughness and surface chemistry. Acknowledgements: This research has been co-financed by the General Secretariat for Research and Technology (''ARISTEIA II'' Action, SMART-SURF) and the European Union (NFFA Europe -Grant agreement No. 654360).

  14. A control-oriented model for combined building climate comfort and aquifer thermal energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rostampour Samarin, V.; Bloemendal, J.M.; Jaxa-Rozen, M.; Keviczky, T.


    This paper presents a control-oriented model for combined building climate comfort and aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. In particular, we first provide a description of building operational systems together with control framework variables. We then focus on the derivation of an

  15. Role of nanoclay shape and surface characteristics on the morphology and thermal properties of polystyrene nanocomposites synthesized via emulsion polymerization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greesh, N


    Full Text Available This work evaluates the role of the surface properties and shape of clay type on the morphology, thermal, and thermo-mechanical properties of the polystyrene (PS)/clay nanocomposites prepared via free-radical emulsion polymerization. Attapulgite...

  16. Sensitivity analysis of radiative transfer for atmospheric remote sensing in thermal IR: atmospheric weighting functions and surface partials (United States)

    Ustinov, E. A.


    In this presentation, we apply the adjoint sensitivity analysis of radiative transfer in thermal IR to the general case of the analytic evaluation of the weighting functions of atmospheric parameters together with the partial derivatives for the surface parameters. Applications to remote sensing of atmospheres of Mars and Venus are discussed.

  17. Robust combined position and formation control for marine surface craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Ivar-Andre F.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.

    that affect each vessel and to disturbances that affect the inter-vessel relationships e.g. communication noise. Next, we prove ISS of a formation where at least one vessel is in closed loop with, a class of position control laws, in addition to the formation control law. This class encompass control laws......We consider the robustness properties of a formation control system for marine surface vessels. Intervessel constraint functions are stabilized to achieve the desired formation configuration. We show that the formation dynamics is Input-to-State Stable (ISS) to both environmental perturbations...... for point stabilization or path following. Hence, the designer can utilize previously developed controllers for single vessels in a formation control setting. A formation of three tugboats where one is in closed loop with a path following controller is simulated to verify the theoretical results....

  18. Surface roughness control by extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation (United States)

    Ahad, Inam Ul; Obeidi, Muhannad Ahmed; Budner, Bogusław; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Brabazon, Dermot


    Surface roughness control of polymeric materials is often desirable in various biomedical engineering applications related to biocompatibility control, separation science and surface wettability control. In this study, Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer films were irradiated with Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons in nitrogen environment and investigations were performed on surface roughness modification via EUV exposure. The samples were irradiated at 3 mm and 4 mm distance from the focal spot to investigate the effect of EUV fluence on topography. The topography of the EUV treated PET samples were studied by AFM. The detailed scanning was also performed on the sample irradiated at 3 mm. It was observed that the average surface roughness of PET samples was increased from 9 nm (pristine sample) to 280 nm and 253 nm for EUV irradiated samples. Detailed AFM studies confirmed the presence of 1.8 mm wide period U-shaped channels in EUV exposed PET samples. The walls of the channels were having FWHM of about 0.4 mm. The channels were created due to translatory movements of the sample in horizontal and transverse directions during the EUV exposure. The increased surface roughness is useful for many applications. The nanoscale channels fabricated by EUV exposure could be interesting for microfluidic applications based on lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices.

  19. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control. (United States)

    Schurtenberger, E; Heuberger, M


    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under ambient conditions. The surface separation is thus pre-adjusted to approximately ~3 μm before sliding the apparatus into the autoclave. Inside the autoclave, the surface separation can be further controlled with a magnetic drive at sub-Ångstrom precision over a 14 μm range. The autoclave pressure can then be set and maintained between 20 mbar and 170 bars with few mbar precision. The autoclave is connected to a specially designed pressurization system to precondition the fluids. The temperature can be controlled between -20 and 60 °C with few mK precision. We demonstrate the operation of the instrument in the case of gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide. Thanks to a consequent decoupling of the eSFA mechanical loop from the autoclave structure, the obtained measurement stability and reproducibility, at elevated pressures, is comparable to the one established for the conventional eSFA, operated under ambient conditions.

  20. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control (United States)

    Schurtenberger, E.; Heuberger, M.


    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under ambient conditions. The surface separation is thus pre-adjusted to approximately ˜3 μm before sliding the apparatus into the autoclave. Inside the autoclave, the surface separation can be further controlled with a magnetic drive at sub-Ångstrom precision over a 14 μm range. The autoclave pressure can then be set and maintained between 20 mbar and 170 bars with few mbar precision. The autoclave is connected to a specially designed pressurization system to precondition the fluids. The temperature can be controlled between -20 and 60 °C with few mK precision. We demonstrate the operation of the instrument in the case of gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide. Thanks to a consequent decoupling of the eSFA mechanical loop from the autoclave structure, the obtained measurement stability and reproducibility, at elevated pressures, is comparable to the one established for the conventional eSFA, operated under ambient conditions.

  1. Optimized load sharing control by means of thermal reliability management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesgaard, Carsten; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.


    With new applications for high-current low-output voltage power systems emerging nearly every day the need for new and cost-efficient power system designs is a matter of course. As output voltage levels continue to decrease an approach that seems more and more attractive is the implementation of ...... of the system’s potential load sharing control is a must....

  2. Mass transfer in fuel cells. [electron microscopy of components, thermal decomposition of Teflon, water transport, and surface tension of KOH solutions (United States)

    Walker, R. D., Jr.


    Results of experiments on electron microscopy of fuel cell components, thermal decomposition of Teflon by thermogravimetry, surface area and pore size distribution measurements, water transport in fuel cells, and surface tension of KOH solutions are described.

  3. Non-adiabatic effects within a single thermally averaged potential energy surface: thermal expansion and reaction rates of small molecules. (United States)

    Alonso, J L; Castro, A; Clemente-Gallardo, J; Echenique, P; Mazo, J J; Polo, V; Rubio, A; Zueco, D


    At non-zero temperature and when a system has low-lying excited electronic states, the ground-state Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down and the low-lying electronic states are involved in any chemical process. In this work, we use a temperature-dependent effective potential for the nuclei which can accommodate the influence of an arbitrary number of electronic states in a simple way, while at the same time producing the correct Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for the electronic part. With the help of this effective potential, we show that thermally activated low-lying electronic states can have a significant effect in molecular properties for which electronic excitations are oftentimes ignored. We study the thermal expansion of the Manganese dimer, Mn(2), where we find that the average bond length experiences a change larger than the present experimental accuracy upon the inclusion of the excited states into the picture. We also show that, when these states are taken into account, reaction-rate constants are modified. In particular, we study the opening of the ozone molecule, O(3), and show that in this case the rate is modified as much as a 20% with respect to the ground-state Born-Oppenheimer prediction.

  4. Preparation Of Control Space For Remeshing Of Polygonal Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Jurczyk


    Full Text Available The subject of the article concerns the issues of remeshing, transforming a polygonal mesh into a triangular mesh adapted to surface. From the initial polygonal mesh the curvature of surface and boundary is retrieved and used to calculate a metric tensor varying in three-dimensional space. In the proposed approach the curvature is computed using local approximation of surfaces and curves on the basis of vertices of the polygonal mesh. An essential part of the presented remeshing procedure is creation of a control space structure based on the retrieved discrete data. The subsequent process of remeshing is then supervised by the contents of this auxiliary structure. The article presents various aspects related to the procedure of initialization, creation and adjusting the control space structure.

  5. Flutter of wings involving a locally distributed flexible control surface (United States)

    Mozaffari-Jovin, S.; Firouz-Abadi, R. D.; Roshanian, J.


    This paper undertakes to facilitate appraisal of aeroelastic interaction of a locally distributed, flap-type control surface with aircraft wings operating in a subsonic potential flow field. The extended Hamilton's principle serves as a framework to ascertain the Euler-Lagrange equations for coupled bending-torsional-flap vibration. An analytical solution to this boundary-value problem is then accomplished by assumed modes and the extended Galerkin's method. The developed aeroelastic model considers both the inherent flexibility of the control surface displaced on the wing and the inertial coupling between these two flexible bodies. The structural deformations also obey the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, along with the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic constitutive law. Meanwhile, the unsteady thin-airfoil and strip theories are the tools of producing the three-dimensional airloads. The origin of aerodynamic instability undergoes analysis in light of the oscillatory loads as well as the loads owing to arbitrary motions. After successful verification of the model, a systematic flutter survey was conducted on the theoretical effects of various control surface parameters. The results obtained demonstrate that the flapping modes and parameters of the control surface can significantly impact the flutter characteristics of the wings, which leads to a series of pertinent conclusions.

  6. A uniform, quality controlled Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pfeil


    Full Text Available A well-documented, publicly available, global data set of surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2 parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC. Many additional CO2 data, not yet made public via the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC, were retrieved from data originators, public websites and other data centres. All data were put in a uniform format following a strict protocol. Quality control was carried out according to clearly defined criteria. Regional specialists performed the quality control, using state-of-the-art web-based tools, specially developed for accomplishing this global team effort. SOCAT version 1.5 was made public in September 2011 and holds 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data points from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968–2007. Three types of data products are available: individual cruise files, a merged complete data set and gridded products. With the rapid expansion of marine CO2 data collection and the importance of quantifying net global oceanic CO2 uptake and its changes, sustained data synthesis and data access are priorities.

  7. Automated Control Surface Design and Sizing for the Prandtl Plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ginneken, D.A.J.; Voskuijl, M.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; Frediani, A.


    This paper presents a methodology for the design of the primary flight control surfaces, in terms of size, number and location, for fixed wing aircraft (conventional or unconventional). As test case, the methodology is applied to a 300 passenger variant of the Prandtl Plane. This box wing aircraft

  8. Modeling Alaska boreal forests with a controlled trend surface approach (United States)

    Mo Zhou; Jingjing Liang


    An approach of Controlled Trend Surface was proposed to simultaneously take into consideration large-scale spatial trends and nonspatial effects. A geospatial model of the Alaska boreal forest was developed from 446 permanent sample plots, which addressed large-scale spatial trends in recruitment, diameter growth, and mortality. The model was tested on two sets of...

  9. Thermal, Electrical and Surface Hydrophobic Properties of Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers for Structural Health Monitoring. (United States)

    Alarifi, Ibrahim M; Alharbi, Abdulaziz; Khan, Waseem S; Swindle, Andrew; Asmatulu, Ramazan


    This paper presents an idea of using carbonized electrospun Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers as a sensor material in a structural health monitoring (SHM) system. The electrospun PAN fibers are lightweight, less costly and do not interfere with the functioning of infrastructure. This study deals with the fabrication of PAN-based nanofibers via electrospinning followed by stabilization and carbonization in order to remove all non-carbonaceous material and ensure pure carbon fibers as the resulting material. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the ionic conductivity of PAN fibers. The X-ray diffraction study showed that the repeated peaks near 42° on the activated nanofiber film were α and β phases, respectively, with crystalline forms. Contact angle, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were also employed to examine the surface, thermal and chemical properties of the carbonized electrospun PAN fibers. The test results indicated that the carbonized PAN nanofibers have superior physical properties, which may be useful for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications in different industries.

  10. Estimation of absolute water surface temperature based on atmospherically corrected thermal infrared multispectral scanner digital data (United States)

    Anderson, James E.


    Airborne remote sensing systems, as well as those on board Earth orbiting satellites, sample electromagnetic energy in discrete wavelength regions and convert the total energy sampled into data suitable for processing by digital computers. In general, however, the total amount of energy reaching a sensor system located at some distance from the target is composed not only of target related energy, but, in addition, contains a contribution originating from the atmosphere itself. Thus, some method must be devised for removing or at least minimizing the effects of the atmosphere. The LOWTRAN-6 Program was designed to estimate atmospheric transmittance and radiance for a given atmospheric path at moderate spectral resolution over an operational wavelength region from 0.25 to 28.5 microns. In order to compute the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital values which were recorded in the absence of the atmosphere, the parameters derived from LOWTRAN-6 are used in a correction equation. The TIMS data were collected at 1:00 a.m. local time on November 21, 1983, over a recirculating cooling pond for a power plant in southeastern Mississippi. The TIMS data were analyzed before and after atmospheric corrections were applied using a band ratioing model to compute the absolute surface temperature of various points on the power plant cooling pond. The summarized results clearly demonstrate the desirability of applying atmospheric corrections.

  11. Influence of Surface Modified MWCNTs on the Mechanical, Electrical and Thermal Properties of Polyimide Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Deepankar


    Full Text Available Abstract Polyamic acid, the precursor of polyimide, was used for the preparation of polyimide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs nanocomposite films by solvent casting technique. In order to enhance the chemical compatibility between polyimide matrix and MWCNTs, the latter was surface modified by incorporating acidic and amide groups by chemical treatment with nitric acid and octadecylamine (C18H39N, respectively. While the amide-MWCNT/polyimide composite shows higher mechanical properties at low loadings (<3 wt%, the acid-MWCNT/polyimide composites perform better at higher loadings (5 wt%. The tensile strength (TS and the Young’s modulus (YM values of the acid-MWCNT/polyimide composites at 5 wt% MWCNT loadings was 151 and 3360 MPa, respectively, an improvement of 54% in TS and 35% in YM over the neat polyimide film (TS = 98 MPa; YM = 2492 MPa. These MWCNT-reinforced composites show remarkable improvement in terms of thermal stability as compared to that for pure polyimide film. The electrical conductivity of 5 wt% acid modified MWCNTs/polyimide nanocomposites improved to 0.94 S cm −1(6.67 × 10 −18 S cm−1for pure polyimide the maximum achieved so far for MWCNT-polyimide composites.

  12. A study on changes in body surface temperature and thermal effect according to ultrasound mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sung Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsin Christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Soo [Dept. of Radiology, University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Recently, as the number of high-risk pregnancies increases, the use of new techniques such as Doppler, which have higher acoustic power than in the past, has been increasingly used in prenatal diagnosis and guidelines have been set up by various organizations to prevent excessive exposure. Therefore, in this study, we tried to investigate the temperature change of the body surface for each test mode according to the long time ultrasound examination and to examine the exposure time which is not influenced by the thermal effect. B mode, C mode, and PD mode according to time, and the temperature difference between exposed and unexposed sites were compared. As a result, the B mode showed a significant difference in the temperature change from 10 minutes, 50 minutes after exposed, 20 minutes from the C mode, and 30 minutes from the PD mode (p<0.01). In all three modes, the temperature difference was different(p<0.000), and PD mode was the most sensitive to temperature change. Also, it was found that the temperature rise time was shortened with the increase of the ultrasonic exposure time. Therefore, it is recommended that ultrasonography to observe the embryo or fetus should be used only for diagnostic purposes, avoiding excessive test time.

  13. Thermal green protein, an extremely stable, nonaggregating fluorescent protein created by structure-guided surface engineering. (United States)

    Close, Devin W; Paul, Craig Don; Langan, Patricia S; Wilce, Matthew C J; Traore, Daouda A K; Halfmann, Randal; Rocha, Reginaldo C; Waldo, Geoffery S; Payne, Riley J; Rucker, Joseph B; Prescott, Mark; Bradbury, Andrew R M


    In this article, we describe the engineering and X-ray crystal structure of Thermal Green Protein (TGP), an extremely stable, highly soluble, non-aggregating green fluorescent protein. TGP is a soluble variant of the fluorescent protein eCGP123, which despite being highly stable, has proven to be aggregation-prone. The X-ray crystal structure of eCGP123, also determined within the context of this paper, was used to carry out rational surface engineering to improve its solubility, leading to TGP. The approach involved simultaneously eliminating crystal lattice contacts while increasing the overall negative charge of the protein. Despite intentional disruption of lattice contacts and introduction of high entropy glutamate side chains, TGP crystallized readily in a number of different conditions and the X-ray crystal structure of TGP was determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structural reasons for the enhanced stability of TGP and eCGP123 are discussed. We demonstrate the utility of using TGP as a fusion partner in various assays and significantly, in amyloid assays in which the standard fluorescent protein, EGFP, is undesirable because of aberrant oligomerization. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Surface and Interface Control on Photochemically Initiated Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Li; Engelhard, Mark H.; Yan, Mingdi


    Surface and interface properties are important in controlling the yield and efficiency of the photochemically initiated immobilization. Using a silane-functionalized perfluorophenylazide (PFPA-silane) as the photoactive crosslinker, the immobilization of polymers was studied by adjusting the density of the surface azido groups. Dilution of the photolinker resulted in a gradual decrease in the density of surface azido groups as well as the thickness of the immobilized film. When a non-photoactive silane was added to PFPA-silane, the film thickness decreased more rapidly, indicating that the additive competed with PFPA-silane and effectively reduced the density of the surface azido groups. The effect of surface topography was studied by adding a non-photoactive silane with either a shorter (n-propyltrimethoxysilane (PTMS)) or a longer spacer (n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane (ODTMS)). In most cases the long chain ODTMS shielded the surface azido groups resulting in more rapid decrease in film thickness as compared to PTMS treated under the same conditions. As the density of the surface azido groups decreased, the immobilized polymer changed from smooth films to patched structures, and eventually single polymer molecules.

  15. Surface chemistry interventions to control boiler tube fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C.W.; Guzonas, D.A.; Klimas, S.J


    The adsorption of ammonia, morpholine, ethanolamine, and dimethylamine onto the surfaces of colloidal magnetite and hematite was measured at 25{sup o}C. The effect of the adsorption on the surface potential was quantified by measuring the resulting shift in the isoelectric point of the corrosion products and by the direct measurement of the surface interaction force between the corrosion products and Inconel 600. These measurements have served to support the hypothesis that adsorption of amine affects the magnetite deposition rate by lowering the force of repulsion between magnetite and the surface of Inconel 600. The deposition rate of hematite increased as the oxygen concentration increased. A mechanism to account for enhanced deposition rates at high mixture qualities (> 0.35) has been identified and shown to predict behaviour that is consistent with both experimental and plant data. As a result of this investigation, several criteria are proposed to reduce the extent of corrosion product deposition on the tube bundle. Low hematite deposition is favoured by a low concentration of dissolved oxygen, and low magnetite deposition is favoured by choosing an amine for pH control that has little tendency to adsorb onto the surface of magnetite. To minimize adsorption the amine should have a high base strength and a large 'footprint' on the surface of magnetite. To prevent enhanced deposition at high mixture qualities, it is proposed that a modified amine be used that will reduce the surface tension or the elasticity of the steam-water interface or both.

  16. Simplified Building Thermal Model Used for Optimal Control of Radiant Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei He


    Full Text Available MPC has the ability to optimize the system operation parameters for energy conservation. Recently, it has been used in HVAC systems for saving energy, but there are very few applications in radiant cooling systems. To implement MPC in buildings with radiant terminals, the predictions of cooling load and thermal environment are indispensable. In this paper, a simplified thermal model is proposed for predicting cooling load and thermal environment in buildings with radiant floor. In this thermal model, the black-box model is introduced to derive the incident solar radiation, while the genetic algorithm is utilized to identify the parameters of the thermal model. In order to further validate this simplified thermal model, simulated results from TRNSYS are compared with those from this model and the deviation is evaluated based on coefficient of variation of root mean square (CV. The results show that the simplified model can predict the operative temperature with a CV lower than 1% and predict cooling loads with a CV lower than 10%. For the purpose of supervisory control in HVAC systems, this simplified RC thermal model has an acceptable accuracy and can be used for further MPC in buildings with radiation terminals.

  17. Shape memory thermal conduction switch (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajan (Inventor); Krishnan, Vinu (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)


    A thermal conduction switch includes a thermally-conductive first member having a first thermal contacting structure for securing the first member as a stationary member to a thermally regulated body or a body requiring thermal regulation. A movable thermally-conductive second member has a second thermal contacting surface. A thermally conductive coupler is interposed between the first member and the second member for thermally coupling the first member to the second member. At least one control spring is coupled between the first member and the second member. The control spring includes a NiTiFe comprising shape memory (SM) material that provides a phase change temperature <273 K, a transformation range <40 K, and a hysteresis of <10 K. A bias spring is between the first member and the second member. At the phase change the switch provides a distance change (displacement) between first and second member by at least 1 mm, such as 2 to 4 mm.

  18. Analytical prediction of sub-surface thermal history in translucent tissue phantoms during plasmonic photo-thermotherapy (PPTT). (United States)

    Dhar, Purbarun; Paul, Anup; Narasimhan, Arunn; Das, Sarit K


    Knowledge of thermal history and/or distribution in biological tissues during laser based hyperthermia is essential to achieve necrosis of tumour/carcinoma cells. A semi-analytical model to predict sub-surface thermal distribution in translucent, soft, tissue mimics has been proposed. The model can accurately predict the spatio-temporal temperature variations along depth and the anomalous thermal behaviour in such media, viz. occurrence of sub-surface temperature peaks. Based on optical and thermal properties, the augmented temperature and shift of the peak positions in case of gold nanostructure mediated tissue phantom hyperthermia can be predicted. Employing inverse approach, the absorption coefficient of nano-graphene infused tissue mimics is determined from the peak temperature and found to provide appreciably accurate predictions along depth. Furthermore, a simplistic, dimensionally consistent correlation to theoretically determine the position of the peak in such media is proposed and found to be consistent with experiments and computations. The model shows promise in predicting thermal distribution induced by lasers in tissues and deduction of therapeutic hyperthermia parameters, thereby assisting clinical procedures by providing a priori estimates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermally assisted electric field control of magnetism in flexible multiferroic heterostructures. (United States)

    Liu, Yiwei; Zhan, Qingfeng; Dai, Guohong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Baomin; Liu, Gang; Zuo, Zhenghu; Rong, Xin; Yang, Huali; Zhu, Xiaojian; Xie, Yali; Chen, Bin; Li, Run-Wei


    Thermal and electrical control of magnetic anisotropy were investigated in flexible Fe81Ga19 (FeGa)/Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) multiferroic heterostructures. Due to the large anisotropic thermal deformation of PVDF (α1 = -13 × 10(-6) K(-1) and α2 = -145 × 10(-6) K(-1)), the in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) of FeGa can be reoriented 90° by changing the temperature across 295 K where the films are magnetically isotropic. Thus, the magnetization of FeGa can be reversed by the thermal cycling between 280 and 320 K under a constant magnetic field lower than coercivity. Moreover, under the assistance of thermal deformation with slightly heating the samples to the critical temperature, the electric field of ± 267 kV cm(-1) can well align the UMA along the two orthogonal directions. The new route of combining thermal and electrical control of magnetic properties realized in PVDF-based flexible multiferroic materials shows good prospects in application of flexible thermal spintronic devices and flexible microwave magnetic materials.

  20. Influence of deposition temperature of thermal ALD deposited Al2O3 films on silicon surface passivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Batra


    Full Text Available The effect of deposition temperature (Tdep and subsequent annealing time (tanl of atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide (Al2O3 films on silicon surface passivation (in terms of surface recombination velocity, SRV is investigated. The pristine samples (as-deposited show presence of positive fixed charges, QF. The interface defect density (Dit decreases with increase in Tdep which further decreases with tanl up to 100s. An effective surface passivation (SRV<8 cm/s is realized for Tdep ≥ 200 °C. The present investigation suggests that low thermal budget processing provides the same quality of passivation as realized by high thermal budget process (tanl between 10 to 30 min.

  1. A Hybrid Power Control Concept for PV Inverters with Reduced Thermal Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede


    This letter proposes a hybrid power control concept for grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) inverters. The control strategy is based on either a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control or a Constant Power Generation (CPG) control depending on the instantaneous available power from the PV panels....... The essence of the proposed concept lies in the selection of an appropriate power limit for the CPG control to achieve an improved thermal performance and an increased utilization factor of PV inverters,and thus to cater for a higher penetration level of PV systems with intermittent nature. A case study...... on a single-phase PV inverter under yearly operation is presented with analyses of the thermal loading, lifetime, and annual energy yield. It has revealed the trade-off factors to select the power limit and also verified the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed control concept....

  2. Controlled chemical and morphological surface modifications via pulsed plasma polymerizations: Synthesis of ultrahydrophobic surfaces (United States)

    Qiu, Haibo

    The RF plasma polymerization of saturated linear and cyclic perfluoroalkane monomers and vinyl acetic acid were studied in this dissertation. Film chemical compositions, deposition rates, surface wettabilities and morphologies were characterized as functions of various plasma processing conditions. Large progressive changes in chemical compositions with sequential variations in plasma duty cycle were demonstrated in polymerization of both perfluoroalkane and vinyl acetic acid monomers. As anticipated, polymer films obtained from the perfluorocarbon monomers exhibited a general trend towards more linear structures with decreasing plasma duty cycles. However, completely unexpectedly, ultrahydrophobic films were obtained from some of these monomers under restricted duty cycle and power input conditions. SEM and XPS characterizations revealed that a rough, fibrous-like surface morphology is responsible for this ultrahydrophobicity, as opposed to unusual chemical compositions. The growth of the fibrous surface is believed to arise from nucleation and hillock-like growth patterns on selectively activated sites of the growing polymer film. Surface mobility of plasma generated reactive species apparently plays an important role in the growth of the fibrous ultrahydrophobic surfaces, as shown by substrate temperature studies. Additionally, the present study revealed a number of interesting new observations of significant differences in the chemical compositions and deposition rates of polymer films obtained from the diverse range of perfluorocarbon monomers employed in this work. The ultrahydrophobic fluorocarbon films discovered in this investigation were evaluated for use in several biomaterial applications. The results obtained show excellent marine antifouling properties for these surfaces, as documented in ocean testing experiments. These surfaces have also been shown to be useful in controlling protein and peptide surface adsorptions, as well as in the inflammatory

  3. Microbiological Characterization and Concerns of the International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Wieland, Paul O.


    Since January 1999, the chemical the International Space Station Thermal Control System (IATCS) and microbial state of (ISS) Internal Active fluid has been monitored by analysis of samples returned to Earth. Key chemical parameters have changed over time, including a drop in pH from the specified 9.5 +/- 0.5 ta = 58.4, an increase in the level of total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved nickel (Ni) in the fluid, and a decrease in the phosphate (PO,) level. In addition, silver (AS) ion levels in the fluid decreased rapidly as Ag deposited on internal metallic surfaces of the system. The lack of available Ag ions coupled with changes in the fluid chemistry has resulted in a favorable environment for microbial growth. Counts of heterotrophic bacteria have increased from less than 10 colony-forming units (CFUs)/l00 mL to l0(exp 6) to l0(exp 7) CFUs/100 mL. The increase of the microbial population is of concern because uncontrolled microbiological growth in the IATCS can contribute to deterioration in the performance of critical components within the system and potentially impact human health if opportunistic pathogens become established and escape into the cabin atmosphere. Micro-organisms can potentially degrade the coolant chemistry; attach to surfaces and form biofilms; lead to biofouling of filters, tubing, and pumps; decrease flow rates; reduce heat transfer; initiate and accelerate corrosion; and enhance mineral scale formation. The micro- biological data from the ISS IATCS fluid, and approaches to addressing the concerns, are summarized in this paper.

  4. Cooling Effectiveness Measurements for Air Film Cooling of Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces in a Burner Rig Environment Using Phosphor Thermometry (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.


    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. In this investigation, surface temperature mapping was performed using recently developed Cr-doped GdAlO3 phosphor thermometry. Measurements were performed in the NASA GRC Mach 0.3 burner rig on a TBC-coated plate using a scaled up cooling hole geometry where both the mainstream hot gas temperature and the blowing ratio were varied. Procedures for surface temperature and cooling effectiveness mapping of the air film-cooled TBC-coated surface are described. Applications are also shown for an engine component in both the burner rig test environment as well as an engine afterburner environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  5. Diagrams for fast transient conduction in sphere and long cylinder subject to sudden and violent thermal effects on its surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bairi, Abderrahmane; Laraqi, Najib [Universite Paris-10, GTE Lab. d' Energetique et d' Economie d' Energie, Ville d' Avray, 92 (France)


    Analytical solutions for fast transient conduction in spherical and cylindrical geometries subject to sudden and violent thermal effects on its surface are presented in this paper. The numerical solutions are presented in the form of simple diagrams that can be easily and readily used in some engineering applications such as aeronautics, electronics, fire dynamics, tribology, metallurgy or food and agricultural technologies. These data are useful for the optimization of numerical codes in fluid mechanics in association with heat transfer and inverse methods for the determination of thermal characteristics of the surface phenomena in various cases. These diagrams are for specific ranges of Fo and Bi numbers corresponding to the fast transient problems characterized by weak Fourier numbers, associated with a large combination of dimensions of the body and values of thermal surface conductance (large range of Bi). These diagrams constitute a special implementation (violent and sudden thermal effects) of the well known Heisler's charts and are very useful for understanding and teaching transient heat transfer. A numerical solution is proposed. It overcomes the problems due to a too slow convergence. The main difficulty is encountered when solving characteristic equations based on a combination of the parameters involved in the particular equations of temperature and energy. That may take asymptotic values for the specific phenomenon addressed in this study. The results are successfully compared to those based on a different calculation procedure. (Author)

  6. Diagrams for fast transient conduction in sphere and long cylinder subject to sudden and violent thermal effects on its surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baieri, Abderrahmane; Laraqi, Najib


    Analytical solutions for fast transient conduction in spherical and cylindrical geometries subject to sudden and violent thermal effects on its surface are presented in this paper. The numerical solutions are presented in the form of simple diagrams that can be easily and readily used in some engineering applications such as aeronautics, electronics, fire dynamics, tribology, metallurgy or food and agricultural technologies. These data are useful for the optimization of numerical codes in fluid mechanics in association with heat transfer and inverse methods for the determination of thermal characteristics of the surface phenomena in various cases. These diagrams are for specific ranges of Fo and Bi numbers corresponding to the fast transient problems characterized by weak Fourier numbers, associated with a large combination of dimensions of the body and values of thermal surface conductance (large range of Bi). These diagrams constitute a special implementation (violent and sudden thermal effects) of the well known Heisler's charts and are very useful for understanding and teaching transient heat transfer. A numerical solution is proposed. It overcomes the problems due to a too slow convergence. The main difficulty is encountered when solving characteristic equations based on a combination of the parameters involved in the particular equations of temperature and energy. That may take asymptotic values for the specific phenomenon addressed in this study. The results are successfully compared to those based on a different calculation procedure.

  7. Analyzing Control Challenges for Thermal Energy Storage in Foodstuffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Skovrup, Morten Juel


    of refrigerated goods in a supermarket to shift the load of the system in time without deteriorating the quality of the foodstuffs. The analyses in this paper go before closing any control loops. In the first part, we introduce and validate a new model with which we can estimate the actual temperatures...... foodstuffs make them behave differently when exposed to changes in air temperature. We present a novel analysis based on Biot and Fourier numbers for the different foodstuffs. This provides a valuable tool for determining how different items can be utilized in load-shifting schemes on different timescales...

  8. Effect of thermal dissipation by adding graphene materials to surface coating of LED lighting module. (United States)

    Kim, S; Jeong, J Y; Han, S H; Kim, J H; Kwon, K T; Hwang, M K; Kim, I T; Cho, G S


    The effect of thermal dissipation by adding graphene nano-platelets to two different commercially available thermal dissipation coatings (ceramic coating and powder coating) was studied. Steady state temperatures of each points of LED modules was monitored in a closed system, with an integral photo detection sphere where there is no external air flow. Having eliminated the contributions of thermal conduction and air flow convection, the module with a conventional heat dissipation coatings showed 8-16% enhancement of thermal dissipation compared to that of non-coated LED module. The addition of graphene is shown to have about 3% additional enhancement. By analyzing thermal resistance of each component of the LED module, the improved thermal conductivity of the graphene added coatings contributes to the enhancement of slight improvement with heat dissipation.

  9. Modeling the Role of Bulk and Surface Characteristics of Carbon Fiber on Thermal Conductance across the Carbon-Fiber/Matrix Interface. (United States)

    Varshney, Vikas; Roy, Ajit K; Baur, Jeffery W


    The rapid heating of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites leads to complex thermophysical interactions which not only are dependent on the thermal properties of the constituents and microstructure but are also dependent on the thermal transport between the fiber and resin interfaces. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, the thermal conductance across the interface between a carbon-fiber near-surface region and bismaleimide monomer matrix is calculated as a function of the interface and bulk features of the carbon fiber. The surface of the carbon fiber is modeled as sheets of graphitic carbon with (a) varying degrees of surface functionality, (b) varying defect concentrations in the surface-carbon model (pure graphitic vs partially graphitic), (c) varying orientation of graphitic carbon at the interface, (d) varying interface saturation (dangling vs saturated bonds), (e) varying degrees of surface roughness, and (f) incorporating high conductive fillers (carbon nanotubes) at the interface. After combining separately equilibrated matrix system and different surface-carbon models, thermal energy exchange is investigated in terms of interface thermal conductance across the carbon fiber and the matrix. It is observed that modifications in the studied parameters (a-f) often lead to significant modulation of thermal conductance across the interface and, thus, showcases the role of interface tailoring and surface-carbon morphology toward thermal energy exchange. More importantly, the results provide key bounds and a realistic degree of variation to the interface thermal conductance values at fiber/matrix interfaces as a function of different surface-carbon features.

  10. Micrometeorological and thermal control of frost flower growth on young sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galley, R.J.; Else, B.G.T.; Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier


    Frost flowers are transient crystal structures that form on new and young sea ice surfaces. They have been implicated in a variety of biological, chemical and physical processes and interactions with the atmosphere at the sea ice surface. We describe the atmospheric and radiative conditions...... and the physical and thermal properties of the sea ice and atmosphere that form, decay and destroy frost flowers on young sea ice. Frost flower formation occurred during a high-pressure system that caused air temperatures to drop to -30°C, with relative humidity of 70% (an under saturated atmosphere), and very...... calm wind conditions. The sea ice surface temperature at the time of frost flower initiation was 10-13°C warmer than the air temperature. Frost flowers grew on nodules raised above the mean surface height by 5 mm, which were 4-6°C colder than the bare, brine-wetted, highly saline sea ice surface...

  11. Dentin surface treatment using a non-thermal argon plasma brush for interfacial bonding improvement in composite restoration (United States)

    Ritts, Andy Charles; Li, Hao; Yu, Qingsong; Xu, Changqi; Yao, Xiaomei; Hong, Liang; Wang, Yong


    The objective of this study is to investigate the treatment effects of non-thermal atmospheric gas plasmas on dentin surfaces for composite restoration. Extracted unerupted human third molars were used by removing the crowns and etching the exposed dentin surfaces with 35% phosphoric acid gel. The dentin surfaces were treated by using a non-thermal atmospheric argon plasma brush for various durations. The molecular changes of the dentin surfaces were analyzed using FTIR/ATR and an increase in carbonyl groups on dentin surfaces was detected with plasma treated dentin. Adper Single Bond Plus adhesive and Filtek Z250 dental composite were applied as directed. To evaluate the dentin/composite interfacial bonding, the teeth thus prepared were sectioned into micro-bars as the specimens for tensile test. Student Newman Keuls tests showed that the bonding strength of the composite restoration to peripheral dentin was significantly increased (by 64%) after 30 s plasma treatment. However, the bonding strength to plasma treated inner dentin did not show any improvement. It was found that plasma treatment of peripheral dentin surface up to 100 s gave an increase in interfacial bonding strength, while a prolong plasma treatment of dentin surfaces, e.g., 5 min treatments, showed a decrease in interfacial bonding strength. PMID:20831586

  12. Neuromechanical Control for Hexapedal Robot Walking on Challenging Surfaces and Surface Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Xiaofeng; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate


    agonist–antagonist muscle mechanisms (VAAMs). The controller allows for variable compliant leg motions of a hexapod robot, thereby leading to energy-efficient walking on different surfaces. Without any passive mechanisms or torque and position feedback at each joint, the variable compliant leg motions...

  13. Non-thermal processes on ice and liquid micro-jet surfaces (United States)

    Olanrewaju, Babajide O.

    The primary focus of this research is to investigate non-thermal processes occurring on ice surfaces and the photo-ejection of ions from liquid surfaces. Processes at the air-water/ice interface are known to play a very important role in the release of reactive halogen species with atmospheric aerosols serving as catalysts. The ability to make different types of ice with various morphologies, hence, different adsorption and surface properties in vacuum, provide a useful way to probe the catalytic effect of ice in atmospheric reactions. Also, the use of the liquid jet technique provides the rare opportunity to probe liquid samples at the interface; hitherto impossible to investigate with traditional surface science techniques. In Chapter 2, the effect of ice morphology on the release of reactive halogen species from photodissociation of adsorbed organic halides on ice will be presented. Quantum state resolved measurements of neutral atomic iodine from the photon irradiation of submonolayer coverages of methyl iodide adsorbed on low temperature water ice were conducted. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies of methyl iodide adsorbed on ice were performed to provide information on the effect of ice morphology on the adsorption of submonolayer methyl iodide. The interaction and autoionization of HCl on low-temperature (80{140 K) water ice surfaces has been studied using low-energy (5-250 eV) electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). A detailed ESD study of the interactions of low concentrations of HCl with low-temperature porous amorphous solid water (PASW), amorphous solid water (ASW) and crystalline ice (CI) surfaces will be presented in Chapter 3. The ESD cation yields from HCl adsorbed on ice, as well as the coverage dependence, kinetic energy distributions and TPD measurements were all monitored. Probing liquid surface using traditional surface science technique is usually difficult because of the problem of

  14. New techniques for measuring thermal properties and surface heat transfer applied to food freezing


    Brennvall, Jon Eirik


    This thesis presents two different works. The first part introduces a thermal multimeter which measures heat capacity, thermal conductivity and density. The instrument gives continuous measurement data within a temperature range. With some exceptions this also holds for the prototype of a thermal multimeter which is built and tested. The measuring method is constant heating of one side of a slab. The slab is insulated on all other sides. After some time there will be equilibrium where there i...

  15. A cell cycle and nutritional checkpoint controlling bacterial surface adhesion. (United States)

    Fiebig, Aretha; Herrou, Julien; Fumeaux, Coralie; Radhakrishnan, Sunish K; Viollier, Patrick H; Crosson, Sean


    In natural environments, bacteria often adhere to surfaces where they form complex multicellular communities. Surface adherence is determined by the biochemical composition of the cell envelope. We describe a novel regulatory mechanism by which the bacterium, Caulobacter crescentus, integrates cell cycle and nutritional signals to control development of an adhesive envelope structure known as the holdfast. Specifically, we have discovered a 68-residue protein inhibitor of holdfast development (HfiA) that directly targets a conserved glycolipid glycosyltransferase required for holdfast production (HfsJ). Multiple cell cycle regulators associate with the hfiA and hfsJ promoters and control their expression, temporally constraining holdfast development to the late stages of G1. HfiA further functions as part of a 'nutritional override' system that decouples holdfast development from the cell cycle in response to nutritional cues. This control mechanism can limit surface adhesion in nutritionally sub-optimal environments without affecting cell cycle progression. We conclude that post-translational regulation of cell envelope enzymes by small proteins like HfiA may provide a general means to modulate the surface properties of bacterial cells.

  16. Thiol-ene thermosets exploiting surface reactivity for layer-by-layer structures and control of penetration depth for selective surface reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Westh, Andreas; Pereira Rosinha Grundtvig, Ines

    Thiol-ene thermosets have been shown to be an efficient platform for preparation of functional polymer surfaces. Especially the effectiveness and versatility of the system has enabled a large variety of network properties to be obtained in a simple and straight-forward way. Due to its selectivity......, various thiols and allyl or other vinyl reactants can be used to obtain either soft and flexible1 or more rigid functional thermosets 2. The methodology permits use of etiher thermal or photochemical conditions both for matrix preparation as well as for surface functionalization. Due to excess reactive...... groups in thµe surface of thiol-ene thermosets, it is possible to prepare surface functional thermosets or to exploit the reactive groups for modular construction and subsequent chemical bonding. Here a different approach preparing monolithic layer-by-layer structures with controlled mechanical...

  17. Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis Tasks for ANAV NPPs in Support of Plant Operation and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Batet


    Full Text Available Thermal-hydraulic analysis tasks aimed at supporting plant operation and control of nuclear power plants are an important issue for the Asociación Nuclear Ascó-Vandellòs (ANAV. ANAV is the consortium that runs the Ascó power plants (2 units and the Vandellòs-II power plant. The reactors are Westinghouse-design, 3-loop PWRs with an approximate electrical power of 1000 MW. The Technical University of Catalonia (UPC thermal-hydraulic analysis team has jointly worked together with ANAV engineers at different levels in the analysis and improvement of these reactors. This article is an illustration of the usefulness of computational analysis for operational support. The contents presented were operational between 1985 and 2001 and subsequently changed slightly following various organizational adjustments. The paper has two different parts. In the first part, it describes the specific aspects of thermal-hydraulic analysis tasks related to operation and control and, in the second part, it briefly presents the results of three examples of analyses that were performed. All the presented examples are related to actual situations in which the scenarios were studied by analysts using thermal-hydraulic codes and prepared nodalizations. The paper also includes a qualitative evaluation of the benefits obtained by ANAV through thermal-hydraulic analyses aimed at supporting operation and plant control.

  18. Plasmonic Thermal Decomposition/Digestion of Proteins: A Rapid On-Surface Protein Digestion Technique for Mass Spectrometry Imaging. (United States)

    Zhou, Rong; Basile, Franco


    A method based on plasmon surface resonance absorption and heating was developed to perform a rapid on-surface protein thermal decomposition and digestion suitable for imaging mass spectrometry (MS) and/or profiling. This photothermal process or plasmonic thermal decomposition/digestion (plasmonic-TDD) method incorporates a continuous wave (CW) laser excitation and gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) to induce known thermal decomposition reactions that cleave peptides and proteins specifically at the C-terminus of aspartic acid and at the N-terminus of cysteine. These thermal decomposition reactions are induced by heating a solid protein sample to temperatures between 200 and 270 °C for a short period of time (10-50 s per 200 μm segment) and are reagentless and solventless, and thus are devoid of sample product delocalization. In the plasmonic-TDD setup the sample is coated with Au-NPs and irradiated with 532 nm laser radiation to induce thermoplasmonic heating and bring about site-specific thermal decomposition on solid peptide/protein samples. In this manner the Au-NPs act as nanoheaters that result in a highly localized thermal decomposition and digestion of the protein sample that is independent of the absorption properties of the protein, making the method universally applicable to all types of proteinaceous samples (e.g., tissues or protein arrays). Several experimental variables were optimized to maximize product yield, and they include heating time, laser intensity, size of Au-NPs, and surface coverage of Au-NPs. Using optimized parameters, proof-of-principle experiments confirmed the ability of the plasmonic-TDD method to induce both C-cleavage and D-cleavage on several peptide standards and the protein lysozyme by detecting their thermal decomposition products with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The high spatial specificity of the plasmonic-TDD method was demonstrated by using a mask to digest designated sections of

  19. Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre Surface Meteorological Data (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Funk, Barry; Strub, Richard


    The Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre (SFFCC) provided surface meteorological data to BOREAS from its archive. This data set contains hourly surface meteorological data from 18 of the Meteorological stations located across Saskatchewan. Included in these data are parameters of date, time, temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind speed, and precipitation. Temporally, the data cover the period of May through September of 1994 and 1995. The data are provided in comma-delimited ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  20. Quality Control system for a hot-rolled metal surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mazur


    Full Text Available The modern ideas about of quality of products are based on the principle of the absolute satisfaction of requirements of recommendations of the buyer. A presence of surface defects of steel-smelting and rolling origin is peculiar to the production of hot-rolling mill. The automatic surface inspection system (ASIS includes two digital line video cameras for the filming of the upper and lower surfaces of the flat bar, block of illumination of the upper and lower surfaces of the flat bar, computer equipment. A system that secures 100 % control of the surface of rolled metal (of the upper and lower side detects automatically and classifies the sheet defects in the real time mode was mounted in the domestic practice in the first time in 2003 on hot rolling mill 2000 JSC «Novolipetsk Iron & Steel Corporation» (NISC. The whole assortment of the mill 2000 was divided for the five groups by the outward appearance of the surface. The works on the identification of defects of hot-rolled metal and widening of data base of knowledge of ASIS were continued after the carrying out of guarantee tests. More than 10 thousand images of defects were added to the data base during the year.