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Sample records for thermal casimir effect

  1. Unparticle Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassino, Antonia M.; Nicolini, Piero; Panella, Orlando

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we present the un-Casimir effect, namely the study of the Casimir energy in the presence of an unparticle component in addition to the electromagnetic field contribution. The distinctive feature of the un-Casimir effect is a fractalization of metallic plates. This result emerges through a new dependence of the Casimir energy on the plate separation that scales with a continuous power controlled by the unparticle dimension. As long as the perfect conductor approximation is valid, we find bounds on the unparticle scale that are independent of the effective coupling constant between the scale invariant sector and ordinary matter. We find regions of the parameter space such that for plate distances around 5 μm and larger the un-Casimir bound wins over the other bounds.

  2. Advances in the Casimir Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Bordag, Michael; Mohideen, Umar; Mostepanenko, Vladimir Mikhaylovich

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this book is the Casimir effect, a manifestation of zero-point oscillations of the quantum vacuum resulting in forces acting between closely spaced bodies. For the benefit of the reader, the book assembles field-theoretical foundations of this phenomenon, applications of the general theory to real materials, and a comprehensive description of all recently performed measurements of the Casimir force with a comparison between experiment and theory. There is an urgentneed for a book of this type, given the increase of interest in forces originating from the quantum vacuum. Numerous

  3. Universal experimental test for the role of free charge carriers in the thermal Casimir effect within a micrometer separation range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimonte, G.; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a universal experiment to measure the differential Casimir force between a Au-coated sphere and two halves of a structured plate covered with a P-doped Si overlayer. The concentration of free charge carriers in the overlayer is chosen slightly below the critical one, for which the phase transition from dielectric to metal occurs. One half of the structured plate is insulating, while the second half is made of gold. For the former we consider two structures, one consisting of bulk high-resistivity Si and the other of a layer of SiO 2 followed by bulk high-resistivity Si. The differential Casimir force is computed within the Lifshitz theory using four approaches that have been proposed in the literature to account for the role of free charge carriers in metallic and dielectric materials interacting with quantum fluctuations. According to these approaches, Au at low frequencies is described by either the Drude or the plasma model, whereas the free charge carriers in dielectric materials at room temperature are either taken into account or disregarded. It is shown that the values of differential Casimir forces, computed in the micrometer separation range using these four approaches, are widely distinct from each other and can be easily discriminated experimentally. It is shown that for all approaches the thermal component of the differential Casimir force is sufficiently large for direct observation. The possible errors and uncertainties in the proposed experiment are estimated and its importance for the theory of quantum fluctuations is discussed.

  4. Dynamical Casimir effect in a Josephson metamaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Lahteenmaki, Pasi; Paraoanu, G. S.; Hassel, Juha; Hakonen, Pertti J.

    2013-01-01

    The zero-point energy stored in the modes of an electromagnetic cavity has experimentally detectable effects, giving rise to an attractive interaction between the opposite walls, the static Casimir effect. A dynamical version of this effect was predicted to occur when the vacuum energy is changed either by moving the walls of the cavity or by changing the index of refraction, resulting in the conversion of vacuum fluctuations into real photons. Here, we demonstrate the dynamical Casimir effec...

  5. Interplay between geometry and temperature in the Casimir effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Alexej

    2010-06-23

    In this thesis, we investigate the interplay between geometry and temperature in the Casimir effect for the inclined-plates, sphere-plate and cylinder-plate configurations. We use the worldline approach, which combines the string-inspired quantum field theoretical formalism with Monte Carlo techniques. The approach allows the precise computation of Casimir energies in arbitrary geometries. We analyze the dependence of the Casimir energy, force and torque on the separation parameter and temperature T, and find Casimir phenomena which are dominated by long-range fluctuations. We demonstrate that for open geometries, thermal energy densities are typically distributed on scales of thermal wavelengths. As an important consequence, approximation methods for thermal corrections based on local energy-density estimates, such as the proximity-force approximation, are found to become unreliable even at small surface-separations. Whereas the hightemperature behavior is always found to be linear in T, richer power-law behaviors at small temperatures emerge. In particular, thermal forces can develop a non-monotonic behavior. Many novel numerical as well as analytical results are presented. (orig.)

  6. Casimir-Lifshitz force out of thermal equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antezza, M.; Pitaevskii, L.P.; Stringari, S.; Svetovoy, Vitaly

    We study the Casimir-Lifshitz interaction out of thermal equilibrium, when the interacting objects are at different temperatures. The analysis is focused on the surface-surface, surface-rarefied body, and surface-atom configurations. A systematic investigation of the contributions to the force

  7. The repulsive Casimir effect in Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Justin; Allocca, Andrew; Galitski, Victor

    2015-03-01

    Weyl semimetals are a proposed topological material with broken time-reversal symmetry. Due to this, they experience a particular bulk Hall effect as well as a weak longitudinal conductance. In such a situation, one can see a repulsive Casimir effect between two Weyl semimetals (similar to what has been studied for topological insulators and quantum hall materials), and the effect can be tuned from attractive to repulsive with chemical potential or magnetic field. We consider, separately, a simplified bulk description and a thin film geometry taking into account the band structure. This work is supported by JQI-PFC.

  8. Dynamical Casimir effect for surface plasmon polaritons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hizhnyakov, V.; Loot, A., E-mail: ardi.loot@ut.ee; Azizabadi, S.Ch.

    2015-02-20

    The emission of photon pairs by a metal–dielectric interface placed between the mirrors of the resonator and excited by a plane wave is considered. The excitation causes oscillations in time of the optical length of surface plasmon polaritons in the interface. This leads to the dynamical Casimir effect – the generation of pairs of surface plasmon polariton quanta, which transfer to photons outside the interface. In the case of a properly chosen interface, the yield of two-photon emission may exceed that of the usual spontaneous parametric down-conversion. - Highlights: • The theory of dynamical Casimir effect (DCE) in the metal–dielectric interface excited by a monochromatic wave is proposed. • It is shown that the field enhancement associated with surface plasmon polaritons strongly enhances the yield of the DCE. • The numerical calculations of the enhancement factor are made. • The scheme of experimental setup to observe the DCE in the metal–dielectric interface is proposed. • Additional methods to enhance the DCE in the metal–dielectric interface are discussed.

  9. Noncommutative Complex Scalar Field and Casimir Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelili, Farid

    2012-06-01

    Using the noncommutative deformed canonical commutation relations proposed by Carmona et al. [J. M. Carmona, J. L. Cortés, J. Gamboa, and F. Mendez, J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 03 (2003) 058.10.1088/1126-6708/2003/03/058][J. Gamboa, J. Lopéz-Sarrion, and A. P. Polychronakos, Phys. Lett. B 634, 471 (2006).PYLBAJ0370-269310.1016/j.physletb.2006.02.014][J. M. Carmona, J. L. Cortés, Ashok Das, J. Gamboa, and F. Mendez, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 21, 883 (2006).MPLAEQ0217-732310.1142/S0217732306020111], a model describing the dynamics of the noncommutative complex scalar field is proposed. The noncommutative field equations are solved, and the vacuum energy is calculated to the second order in the parameter of noncommutativity. As an application to this model, the Casimir effect, due to the zero-point fluctuations of the noncommutative complex scalar field, is considered. It turns out that in spite of its smallness, the noncommutativity gives rise to a repulsive force at the microscopic level, leading to a modified Casimir potential with a minimum at the point amin⁡=(5)/(84)πθ.

  10. Tuning the Casimir-Polder interaction via magneto-optical effects in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysne, T.; Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Oliver, D.; Pinheiro, F. A.; Rosa, F. S. S.; Farina, C.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the dispersive Casimir-Polder interaction between a rubidium atom and a suspended graphene sheet subjected to an external magnetic field B . We demonstrate that this concrete physical system allows for an unprecedented control of dispersive interactions at micro- and nanoscales. Indeed, we show that the application of an external magnetic field can induce an 80 % reduction in the Casimir-Polder energy relative to its value without the field. We also show that sharp discontinuities emerge in the Casimir-Polder interaction energy for certain values of the applied magnetic field at low temperatures. Moreover, for sufficiently large distances, these discontinuities show up as a plateau-like pattern with a quantized Casimir-Polder interaction energy, in a phenomenon that can be explained in terms of the quantum Hall effect. In addition, we point out the importance of thermal effects in the Casimir-Polder interaction, which we show must be taken into account even for considerably short distances. In this case, the discontinuities in the atom-graphene dispersive interaction do not occur, which by no means prevents the tuning of the interaction in ˜50 % by the application of the external magnetic field.

  11. Thermal corrections to the Casimir energy in a general weak gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Borzoo

    2016-12-01

    We calculate finite temperature corrections to the energy of the Casimir effect of a two conducting parallel plates in a general weak gravitational field. After solving the Klein-Gordon equation inside the apparatus, mode frequencies inside the apparatus are obtained in terms of the parameters of the weak background. Using Matsubara’s approach to quantum statistical mechanics gravity-induced thermal corrections of the energy density are obtained. Well-known weak static and stationary gravitational fields are analyzed and it is found that in the low temperature limit the energy of the system increases compared to that in the zero temperature case.

  12. Speeding up the antidynamical Casimir effect with nonstationary qutrits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodonov, A. V.; Díaz-Guevara, J. J.; Napoli, A.; Militello, B.

    2017-09-01

    The antidynamical Casimir effect (ADCE) is a term coined to designate the coherent annihilation of excitations due to resonant external perturbation of system parameters, allowing for extraction of quantum work from nonvacuum states of some field. Originally proposed for a two-level atom (qubit) coupled to a single-cavity mode in the context of the nonstationary quantum Rabi model, it suffered from a very low transition rate and correspondingly narrow resonance linewidth. In this paper we show analytically and numerically that the ADCE rate can be increased by at least one order of magnitude by replacing the qubit by an artificial three-level atom (qutrit) in a properly chosen configuration. For the cavity thermal state we demonstrate that the dynamics of the average photon number and atomic excitation is completely different from the qubit's case, while the behavior of the total number of excitations is qualitatively similar yet significantly faster.

  13. Bose-Einstein condensation and the Casimir effect for an ideal Bose gas confined between two slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Shyamal [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2007-08-17

    We study the Casimir effect for a 3D system of ideal Bose gas in a slab geometry with a Dirichlet boundary condition. We calculate the temperature (T) dependence of the Casimir force below and above the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature (T{sub c}). At T {<=} T{sub c} the Casimir force vanishes as [T/T{sub c}]{sup 3/2}. For T {approx}> T{sub c} it weakly depends on temperature. For T >> T{sub c} it vanishes exponentially. At finite temperatures this force for thermalized photons in between two plates has a classical expression which is independent of {Dirac_h}. At finite temperatures the Casimir force for our system depends on {Dirac_h}.

  14. Is zero-point energy physical? A toy model for Casimir-like effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Hrvoje

    2017-08-01

    Zero-point energy is generally known to be unphysical. Casimir effect, however, is often presented as a counterexample, giving rise to a conceptual confusion. To resolve the confusion we study foundational aspects of Casimir effect at a qualitative level, but also at a quantitative level within a simple toy model with only 3 degrees of freedom. In particular, we point out that Casimir vacuum is not a state without photons, and not a ground state for a Hamiltonian that can describe Casimir force. Instead, Casimir vacuum can be related to the photon vacuum by a non-trivial Bogoliubov transformation, and it is a ground state only for an effective Hamiltonian describing Casimir plates at a fixed distance. At the fundamental microscopic level, Casimir force is best viewed as a manifestation of van der Waals forces.

  15. Thermal Casimir-Polder forces on a V-type three-level atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen-Ran; Xu, Jing-Ping; Al-amri, M.; Zhu, Cheng-Jie; Xie, Shuang-Yuan; Yang, Ya-Ping

    2017-09-01

    We study the thermal Casimir-Polder (CP) forces on a V-type three-level atom. The competition between the thermal effect and the quantum interference of the two transition dipoles on the force is investigated. To shed light onto the role of the quantum interference, we analyze two kinds of initial states of the atom, i.e., the superradiant state and the subradiant state. Considering the atom being in the thermal reservoir, the resonant CP force arising from the real photon emission dominates in the evolution of the CP force. Under the zero-temperature condition, the quantum interference can effectively modify the amplitude and the evolution of the force, leading to a long-time force or even the cancellation of the force. Our results reveal that in the finite-temperature case, the thermal photons can enhance the amplitude of all force elements, but have no influence on the net resonant CP force in the steady state, which means that the second law of thermodynamics still works. For the ideal degenerate V-type atom with parallel dipoles under the initial subradiant state, the robust destructive quantum interference overrides the thermal fluctuations, leading to the trapping of the atom in the subradiant state and the disappearance of the CP force. However, in terms of a realistic Zeeman atom, the thermal photons play a significant role during the evolution of the CP force. The thermal fluctuations can enhance the amplitude of the initial CP force by increasing the temperature, and weaken the influence of the quantum interference on the evolution of the CP force from the initial superradiant (subradiant) state to the steady state.

  16. PREFACE: International Workshop '60 Years of the Casimir Effect'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gabriel; Carugno, Giovanni; Dodonov, Victor; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-07-01

    In 1948 Hendrick Casimir published a short article predicting that (neutral) ideal metallic plates attract each other. This attraction is widely ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field (even though away from the limit of ideal metals it depends demonstrably on the physics of the charge carriers vanishing when they cease to carry). Casimir's remarkable discovery, nowadays called the Casimir effect, has charmed several generations of physicists. In the last decade alone, more than a thousand publications have addressed its many consequences, generalizations, and possible applications in different areas from particle physics to cosmology. Interest in the field is still growing driven by impressive progress in experimental skills and its importance for the recently opened-up area of micro- and nano-electromechanical systems: according to the Thompson ISI Web of Science database, in 2005 the number of papers related to the Casimir effect or to Casimir forces jumped to over 125, compared to approximately 60 in 2000 and 30 in 1995. The increase continues, with more than 170 papers in 2008. The International Workshop '60 Years of the Casimir Effect' took place on 23-27June 2008, in Brasilia (Brazil) organized by the International Center for Condensed Matter Physics (ICCMP). The purpose was to celebrate this anniversary of Casimir's pioneering paper by inviting the leading specialists in the area, both theorists and experimentalists, together with young researchers and post-graduate students interested in hearing about the most recent achievements in the field. The Workshop was attended by 65 participants from 14 countries, who presented 41 talks and 12 posters. These Proceedings contain extended versions of almost all the talks and some posters, plus several papers by authors who had planned to attend but for various reasons could not. The contributions are divided (with some inevitable arbitrariness) into four groups. The largest one

  17. The Casimir effect physical manifestations of zero-point energy

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, K A

    2001-01-01

    In its simplest manifestation, the Casimir effect is a quantum force of attraction between two parallel uncharged conducting plates. More generally, it refers to the interaction - which may be either attractive or repulsive - between material bodies due to quantum fluctuations in whatever fields are relevant. It is a local version of the van der Waals force between molecules. Its sweep ranges from perhaps its being the origin of the cosmological constant to its being responsible for the confinement of quarks. This monograph develops the theory of such forces, based primarily on physically tran

  18. Casimir effect for the Higgs field at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.

    2017-08-01

    In early 1970, it was postulated that there exists a zero spin quantum field, called Higgs field, that is present in all universe. The potential energy of the Higgs field is transferred to particles. Hence they acquire mass. These ideas were essential in fulfilling the basic need for a particle, called Higgs, with mass. These particles are called Higgs particles with spin zero with its mass to be ˜125 GeV. This raises the question as to its physical effects. If these particles are present, will they exhibit a Casimir effect and also obey the Stefan-Boltzmann Law? Assuming the dynamics of this field, will these effects change with temperature. The present calculation uses thermo field dynamics formalism to calculate temperature effects.

  19. Casimir Effect Under Quasi-Periodic Boundary Condition Inspired by Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou; Zhai, Xiang-Hua

    2014-01-01

    When one studies the Casimir effect, the periodic (anti-periodic) boundary condition is usually taken to mimic a periodic (anti-periodic) structure for a scalar field living in a flat space with a non-Euclidean topology. However, there could be an arbitrary phase difference between the value of the scalar field on one endpoint of the unit structure and that on the other endpoint, such as the structure of nanotubes. Then, in this paper, a periodic condition on the ends of the system with an additional phase factor, which is called the "quasi-periodic" condition, is imposed to investigate the corresponding Casimir effect. And an attractive or repulsive Casimir force is found, whose properties depend on the phase angle value. Especially, the Casimir effect disappears when the phase angle takes a particular value. High dimensional spacetime case is also investigated.

  20. Detecting Casimir torque with an optically levitated nanorod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhujing; Li, Tongcang

    2017-09-01

    The linear momentum and angular momentum of virtual photons of quantum vacuum fluctuations can induce the Casimir force and the Casimir torque, respectively. While the Casimir force has been measured extensively, the Casimir torque has not been observed experimentally though it was predicted over 40 years ago. Here we propose to detect the Casimir torque with an optically levitated nanorod near a birefringent plate in vacuum. The axis of the nanorod tends to align with the polarization direction of the linearly polarized optical tweezer. When its axis is not parallel or perpendicular to the optical axis of the birefringent crystal, it will experience a Casimir torque that shifts its orientation slightly. We calculate the Casimir torque and Casimir force acting on a levitated nanorod near a birefringent crystal. We also investigate the effects of thermal noise and photon recoils on the torque and force detection. We prove that a levitated nanorod in vacuum will be capable of detecting the Casimir torque under realistic conditions, and will be an important tool in precision measurements.

  1. Casimir effects for classical and quantum liquids in slab geometry: A brief review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Shyamal, E-mail: sbsp@uohyd.ac.in [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, C.R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad-500046 (India)

    2015-05-15

    We analytically explore Casimir effects for confinement of classical and quantum fluctuations in slab (film) geometry (i) for classical (critical) fluctuations over {sup 4}He liquid around the λ point, and (ii) for quantum (phonon) fluctuations of Bogoliubov excitations over an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. We also briefly review Casimir effects for confinement of quantum vacuum fluctuations confined to two plates of different geometries.

  2. Casimir effect in the rainbow Einstein's universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, V. B.; Mota, H. F.; Muniz, C. R.

    2017-10-01

    In the present paper we investigate the effects caused by the modification of the dispersion relation obtained by solving the Klein-Gordon equation in the closed Einstein's universe in the context of rainbow's gravity models. Thus, we analyse how the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the scalar field are modified when compared with the results obtained in the usual General Relativity scenario. The regularization, and consequently the renormalization, of the vacuum energy is performed adopting the Epstein-Hurwitz and Riemann's zeta functions.

  3. Scattering-matrix approach to Casimir-Lifshitz force and heat transfer out of thermal equilibrium between arbitrary bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messina, Riccardo [LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR 8630, UPMC, 61 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Antezza, Mauro [Universite Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier (France); CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier (France)

    2011-10-15

    We study the radiative heat transfer and the Casimir-Lifshitz force occurring between two bodies in a system out of thermal equilibrium. We consider bodies of arbitrary shape and dielectric properties, held at two different temperatures and immersed in environmental radiation at a third different temperature. We derive explicit closed-form analytic expressions for the correlations of the electromagnetic field and for the heat transfer and Casimir-Lifshitz force in terms of the bodies' scattering matrices. We then consider some particular cases which we investigate in detail: the atom-surface and the slab-slab configurations.

  4. Critical Casimir force in the superfluid phase: effect of fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Shyamal; Bhattacharjee, J K; Samanta, Himadri S.; Bhattacharyya, Saugata; Hu, Bambi

    2008-01-01

    We have considered the critical Casimir force on a $^4$He film below and above the bulk $\\lambda$ point. We have explored the role of fluctuations around the mean field theory in a perturbative manner, and have substantially improved the mean field result of Zandi et al [Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 76}, 030601(R) (2007)]. The Casimir scaling function obtained by us approaches a universal constant ($-\\frac{\\zeta(3)}{8\\pi}$) for $T\\lesssim 2.13~\\text{K}$.

  5. Effects of geometrical specification of microengineered surfaces to Casimir-Polder potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaidir, A. F.; Sabki, S. N.; Halif, M. N. A.

    2017-11-01

    Cold atoms can be trapped and guided using nanofabricated wires on microengineered surfaces, achieving the scales required by quantum information proposals on the consequences of Casimir-Polder (CP) force to its stability and lifetime. The atoms are found to be less attractive to the thin films compared to dielectric half plate, where the attractive potential drops even further when the thickness of the surface is lower than both thermal wavelength and the spacing length. Amiably, for the spherical surface, the CP potential decays even further as radial thickness decreases. We approximate the CP potential using the analytical expression obtained from the pairwise summation (PWS) calculated by taking a sum of single atom with the jumbled atoms inside the surface, treating them as two-bodies system as a whole. The means of PWS are to calculate the possibilities of geometrical effect: planar and curved surface on the CP potential.

  6. Effects of geometrical specification of microengineered surfaces to Casimir-Polder potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaidir A.F

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold atoms can be trapped and guided using nanofabricated wires on microengineered surfaces, achieving the scales required by quantum information proposals on the consequences of Casimir-Polder (CP force to its stability and lifetime. The atoms are found to be less attractive to the thin films compared to dielectric half plate, where the attractive potential drops even further when the thickness of the surface is lower than both thermal wavelength and the spacing length. Amiably, for the spherical surface, the CP potential decays even further as radial thickness decreases. We approximate the CP potential using the analytical expression obtained from the pairwise summation (PWS calculated by taking a sum of single atom with the jumbled atoms inside the surface, treating them as two-bodies system as a whole. The means of PWS are to calculate the possibilities of geometrical effect: planar and curved surface on the CP potential.

  7. Casimir effect in rugby-ball type flux compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, Emilio; Minamitsuji, Masato; Naylor, Wade

    2007-03-01

    As a continuation of the work by Minamitsuji, Naylor, and Sasaki [J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 12 (2006) 07910.1088/1126-6708/2006/12/079], we discuss the Casimir effect for a massless bulk scalar field in a 4D toy model of a 6D warped flux compactification model, to stabilize the volume modulus. The one-loop effective potential for the volume modulus has a form similar to the Coleman-Weinberg potential. The stability of the volume modulus against quantum corrections is related to an appropriate heat kernel coefficient. However, to make any physical predictions after volume stabilization, knowledge of the derivative of the zeta function, ζ'(0) (in a conformally related spacetime) is also required. By adding up the exact mass spectrum using zeta-function regularization, we present a revised analysis of the effective potential. Finally, we discuss some physical implications, especially concerning the degree of the hierarchy between the fundamental energy scales on the branes. For a larger degree of warping our new results are very similar to the ones given by Minamitsuji, Naylor, and Sasaki [J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 12 (2006) 07910.1088/1126-6708/2006/12/079] and imply a larger hierarchy. In the nonwarped (rugby ball) limit the ratio tends to converge to the same value, independently of the bulk dilaton coupling.

  8. A Toy Cosmology Using a Hubble-Scale Casimir Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. McCulloch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The visible mass of the observable universe agrees with that needed for a flat cosmos, and the reason for this is not known. It is shown that this can be explained by modelling the Hubble volume as a black hole that emits Hawking radiation inwards, disallowing wavelengths that do not fit exactly into the Hubble diameter, since partial waves would allow an inference of what lies outside the horizon. This model of “horizon wave censorship” is equivalent to a Hubble-scale Casimir effect. This incomplete toy model is presented to stimulate discussion. It predicts a minimum mass and acceleration for the observable universe which are in agreement with the observed mass and acceleration, and predicts that the observable universe gains mass as it expands and was hotter in the past. It also predicts a suppression of variation on the largest cosmic scales that agrees with the low-l cosmic microwave background anomaly seen by the Planck satellite.

  9. Nonperturbative Casimir effect and monopoles: Compact Abelian gauge theory in two spatial dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernodub, M. N.; Goy, V. A.; Molochkov, A. V.

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate that Casimir forces associated with zero-point fluctuations of quantum vacuum may be substantially affected by the presence of dynamical topological defects. In order to illustrate this nonperturbative effect we study the Casimir interactions between dielectric wires in a compact formulation of Abelian gauge theory in two spatial dimensions. The model possesses topological defects, instantonlike monopoles, which are known to be responsible for nonperturbative generation of a mass gap and for a linear confinement of electrically charged probes. Despite the fact the model has no matter fields, the Casimir energy depends on the value of the gauge coupling constant. We show, both analytically and numerically, that in the strong coupling regime the Abelian monopoles make the Casimir forces short ranged. Simultaneously, their presence increases the interaction strength between the wires at short distances for a certain range of values of the gauge coupling. The wires suppress monopole density in the space between them compared to the density outside the wires. In the weak coupling regime the monopoles become dilute and the Casimir potential reduces to a known theoretical result that does not depend on the gauge coupling.

  10. Effect of hydrogen-switchable mirrors on the Casimir force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannuzzi, D.; Lisanti, M.; Capasso, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present systematic measurements of the Casimir force between a gold-coated plate and a sphere coated with a hydrogen-switchable mirror. Hydrogen-switchable mirrors are shiny metals that can become transparent upon hydrogenation. Despite such a dramatic change of the optical properties of the

  11. The Casimir effect in rugby-ball type flux compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamitsuji, M.

    2008-04-01

    We discuss volume stabilization in a 6D braneworld model based on 6D supergravity theory. The internal space is compactified by magnetic flux and contains codimension two 3-branes (conical singularities) as its boundaries. In general the external 4D spacetime is warped and in the unwrapped limit the shape of the internal space looks like a 'rugby ball'. The size of the internal space is not fixed due to the scale invariance of the supergravity theory. We discuss the possibility of volume stabilization by the Casimir effect for a massless, minimally coupled bulk scalar field. The main obstacle in studying this case is that the brane (conical) part of the relevant heat kernel coefficient (a6) has not been formulated. Thus as a first step, we consider the 4D analog model with boundary codimension two 1-branes. The spacetime structure of the 4D model is very similar to that of the original 6D model, where now the relevant heat kernel coefficient is well known. We derive the one-loop effective potential induced by a scalar field in the bulk by employing zeta function regularization with heat kernel analysis. As a result, the volume is stabilized for most possible choices of the parameters. Especially, for a larger degree of warping, our results imply that a large hierarchy between the mass scales and a tiny amount of effective cosmological constant can be realized on the brane. In the non-warped limit the ratio tends to converge to the same value, independently of the bulk gauge coupling constant. Finally, we will analyze volume stabilization in the original model 6D by employing the same mode-sum technique.

  12. Thermal fluctuations and stability of a particle levitated by a repulsive Casimir force in a liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Norio; Goto, Kosuke

    2013-11-01

    We study the vertical Brownian motion of a gold particle levitated by a repulsive Casimir force to a silica plate immersed in bromobenzene. The time evolution of the particle distribution starting from an equilibrium position, where the Casimir force and gravitational force are balanced, is considered by solving the Langevin equation using the Monte Carlo method. When the gold particle is very close to the silica plate, the Casimir force changes from repulsive to attractive, and the particle eventually sticks to the surface. The escape rate from a metastable position is calculated by solving the Fokker-Plank equation; it agrees with the value obtained by Kramers' escape theory. The duration of levitation increases as the particle radius increases up to around 2.3 μm. As an example, we show that a 1-μm-diameter gold particle can be levitated for a significantly long time by the repulsive Casimir force at room temperature.

  13. On the static Casimir effect with parity-breaking mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosco, C.D. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Bariloche (Argentina); Remaggi, M.L. [Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2017-03-15

    We study the Casimir interaction energy due to the vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic (EM) field in the presence of two mirrors, described by 2+1-dimensional, generally nonlocal actions, which may contain both parity-conserving and parity-breaking terms. We compare the results with the ones corresponding to Chern-Simons boundary conditions and evaluate the interaction energy for several particular situations. (orig.)

  14. 9th Alexander Friedmann International Seminar on Gravitation and Cosmology and 3rd Satellite Symposium on the Casimir Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, V M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the meeting is to promote contacts between scientists working in the field of Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology and related fields. It is well known that the important role in Gravitation and Cosmology is played by the Casimir effect. To underline this, special Satellite Symposia devoted to this effect have been included in the Programs of the 7th and 8th Friedmann Seminars. The Casimir effect is a multidisciplinary subject. Its applications extend from gravitation and cosmology to the van der Waals forces, materials properties and nanotechnology. All these subjects are traditionally touched at the Satellite Simposia on the Casimir effect.

  15. Simulation of a Casimir-like effect in a granular pile with avalanches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisov, D.V.; Villanueva, Y. Y.; Wijngaarden, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Using a modified Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model for sand piles, we simulate a Casimir-like effect in a granular pile with avalanches. Results obtained in the simulation are in good agreement with results previously acquired experimentally: two parallel walls are attracted to each other at small

  16. Supersymmetric Casimir effect and quantum creation of the universe with nontrivial topology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, Yu.P.; Bytsenko, A.A.

    1985-10-17

    We estimate the probability of quantum creation of the universe, having the spatial topology (S )T, and filled with the fields of minimal N=1 supergravity, in the semiclassical approximation. After creation, inflation of the universe occurs due to the topological Casimir effect. Creation of the universe with an isotropic topology is found to be the most preferable. (orig.).

  17. Effect of surface roughness on van der Waals and Casimir-Polder/Casimir attraction energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeev, Maxim A.

    2017-09-01

    A theoretical model is devised to assess effects of surface roughness on dispersion interactions between macroscopic bodies, bounded by self-affine fractal surfaces and separated by a vacuum gap. The rough-surface profiles are described statistically by the saturation values of surface width and the correlation lengths; i.e., in terms of experimentally measurable quantities. The model devised takes into account the separation distance-dependent nature of dispersive interactions. The case of non-retarded van der Waals interactions, known to operate at smaller separation distances between the bodies, and that of retarded attractions, operative at larger separation length-scales, are treated separately in this work. Analytical formulae for the roughness corrections are deduced for the two aforementioned types of attractions. The model is employed to compute roughness corrections to interactions between an extended body, bounded by a self-affine surface, and: a) a point-like adherent; and b) a planar half-space. Furthermore, the roughness-induced corrections to dispersive interaction energies between half-spaces, both bounded by self-affine surfaces, are obtained under assumption that the corresponding surface profiles are not correlated. The predictions of the model are compared with some previously reported theoretical studies and available experimental data on the theme of dispersive adhesion between macroscopic bodies.

  18. Casimir force between two parallel semiconductor slabs: Magnetic field effects in the Voigt geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Serrano, R.; Palomino-Ovando, M. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Martinez, G.; Hernandez, P.H.; Cocoletzi, Gregorio H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-06-15

    We investigate the Casimir force F between two parallel semiconductor slabs taking into account magnetoplasmon effects. For our calculations we consider an external magnetic field applied in the Voigt geometry. Studies are carried out using the formula of F, which is written in terms of the reflectivities of the incident electromagnetic (EM) waves onto the surfaces of the semiconductor slabs, in the vacuum gap between slabs. Results show that the Casimir force depends strongly on the slab thickness as well as on the magnetic-field strength (or equivalently on the cyclotron frequency). At a constant cyclotron frequency and for small slab thickness F/F{sub 0} (F{sub 0} is the ideal force) displays a dip at small separation distances L between slabs. F/F{sub 0} increases with L up to saturation as the slab thickness increases. The curve with the strongest value of F/F{sub 0} corresponds to the semi-infinite medium geometry. For a constant slab thickness and small cyclotron frequency, F/F{sub 0} as a function of L shows a monotonic increase as L increases, and eventually reaches saturation. At high cyclotron frequency F/F{sub 0} displays a dip. The curve of F/F{sub 0} with no applied external field corresponds to the one with the strongest Casimir force. Therefore, magnetoplasmon effects, with an applied magnetic field in the Voigt geometry may inhibit the Casimir force. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Mode Summation Approach to Casimir Effect Between Two Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, L. P.

    2012-10-01

    In the last few years, several approaches have been developed to compute the exact Casimir interaction energy between two nonplanar objects, all lead to the same functional form, which is called the TGTG formula. In this paper, we explore the TGTG formula from the perspective of mode summation approach. Both scalar fields and electromagnetic fields are considered. In this approach, one has to first solve the equation of motion to find a wave basis for each object. The two T's in the TGTG formula are T-matrices representing the Lippmann-Schwinger T-operators, one for each of the objects. Each T-matrix can be found by matching the boundary conditions imposed on the object, and it is independent of the other object. However, it depends on whether the object is interacting with an object outside it, or an object inside it. The two G's in the TGTG formula are the translation matrices, relating the wave basis of an object to the wave basis of the other object. These translation matrices only depend on the wave basis chosen for each object, and they are independent of the boundary conditions on the objects. After discussing the general theory, we apply the prescription to derive the explicit formulas for the Casimir energies for the sphere-sphere, sphere-plane, cylinder-cylinder and cylinder-plane interactions. First the T-matrices for a plane, a sphere and a cylinder are derived for the following cases: the object is imposed with Dirichlet, Neumann or general Robin boundary conditions; the object is semitransparent; and the object is a magnetodielectric object immersed in a magnetodielectric media. Then the operator approach developed by R. C. Wittman [IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.36, 1078 (1988)] is used to derive the translation matrices. From these, the explicit TGTG formula for each of the scenarios can be written down. On the one hand, we have summarized all the TGTG formulas that have been derived so far for the sphere-sphere, cylinder-cylinder, sphere-plane and

  20. What the Casimir-Effect really is telling about Zero-Point Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gruendler, Gerold

    2013-01-01

    The attractive force between metallic surfaces, predicted by Casimir in 1948, seems to indicate the physical existence and measurability of the quantized electromagnetic field's zero-point energy. It is shown in this article, that Casimir's derivation depends essentially on a misleading idealization. When that idealization is replaced by a realistic assumption, Casimir's argument turns to the exact opposite: The observed Casimir force does positively prove, that the electromagnetic field's zero-point energy does not exert forces onto metallic surfaces.

  1. Theoretical modeling of the effect of Casimir attraction on the electrostatic instability of nanowire-fabricated actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, J.; Farrokhabadi, A.; Rach, R.; Abadyan, M.

    2015-04-01

    The presence of the quantum vacuum fluctuations, i.e. the Casimir attraction, can strongly affect the performance of ultra-small actuators. The strength of the Casimir force is significantly influenced by the geometries of interacting bodies. Previous research has exclusively studied the impact of the vacuum fluctuations on the instability of nanoactuators with planar geometries. However, no work has yet considered this phenomenon in actuators fabricated from nanowires/nanotubes with cylindrical geometries. In our present work, the influence of the Casimir attraction on the electrostatic stability of nanoactuators fabricated from cylindrical conductive nanowire/nanotube is investigated. The Dirichlet mode is considered and an asymptotic solution, based on scattering theory, is applied to consider the effect of vacuum fluctuations in the theoretical model. The size-dependent modified couple stress theory is employed to derive the constitutive equation of the actuator. The governing nonlinear equations are solved by two different approaches, i.e. the finite difference method and modified Adomian-Padé method. Various aspects of the problem, i.e. comparison with the van der Waals force regime, the variation of instability parameters, effect of geometry and coupling between the Casimir force and size dependency are discussed. This work is beneficial to determine the impact of Casimir force on nanowire/nanotube-fabricated actuators.

  2. The Casimir atomic pendulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razmi, H. [Department of Physics, University of Qom, Qom 37185-359 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: razmi@qom.ac.ir; Abdollahi, M. [Department of Physics, University of Qom, Qom 37185-359 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mah.abdollahi@gmail.com

    2008-11-10

    We want to introduce an atomic pendulum whose driving force (torque) is due to the quantum vacuum fluctuations. Applying the well-known Casimir-Polder effect to a special configuration (a combined structure of an atomic nanostring and a conducting plate), an atomic pendulum (Casimir atomic pendulum) is designed. Using practically acceptable data corresponding to the already known world of nanotechnology and based on reasonable/reliable numerical estimates, the period of oscillation for the pendulum is computed. This pendulum can be considered as both a new micro(nano)-electromechanical system and a new simple vacuum machine. Its design may be considered as a first step towards realizing the visualized vacuum (Casimir) clock{exclamation_point}.

  3. The Casimir atomic pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmi, H.; Abdollahi, M.

    2008-11-01

    We want to introduce an atomic pendulum whose driving force (torque) is due to the quantum vacuum fluctuations. Applying the well-known Casimir-Polder effect to a special configuration (a combined structure of an atomic nanostring and a conducting plate), an atomic pendulum (Casimir atomic pendulum) is designed. Using practically acceptable data corresponding to the already known world of nanotechnology and based on reasonable/reliable numerical estimates, the period of oscillation for the pendulum is computed. This pendulum can be considered as both a new micro(nano)-electromechanical system and a new simple vacuum machine. Its design may be considered as a first step towards realizing the visualized vacuum (Casimir) clock!

  4. Casimir effect at finite temperature for pure-photon sector of the minimal Standard Model Extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.F., E-mail: alesandroferreira@fisica.ufmt.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road Victoria, BC (Canada); Khanna, Faqir C., E-mail: khannaf@uvic.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    Dynamics between particles is governed by Lorentz and CPT symmetry. There is a violation of Parity (P) and CP symmetry at low levels. The unified theory, that includes particle physics and quantum gravity, may be expected to be covariant with Lorentz and CPT symmetry. At high enough energies, will the unified theory display violation of any symmetry? The Standard Model Extension (SME), with Lorentz and CPT violating terms, has been suggested to include particle dynamics. The minimal SME in the pure photon sector is considered in order to calculate the Casimir effect at finite temperature.

  5. Zeta Function Regularization in Casimir Effect Calculations and J. S. Dowker's Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, Emilio

    2012-07-01

    A summary of relevant contributions, ordered in time, to the subject of operator zeta functions and their application to physical issues is provided. The description ends with the seminal contributions of Stephen Hawking and Stuart Dowker and collaborators, considered by many authors as the actual starting point of the introduction of zeta function regularization methods in theoretical physics, in particular, for quantum vacuum fluctuation and Casimir effect calculations. After recalling a number of the strengths of this powerful and elegant method, some of its limitations are discussed. Finally, recent results of the so called operator regularization procedure are presented.

  6. Casimir effect at finite temperature for pure-photon sector of the minimal Standard Model Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.

    2016-12-01

    Dynamics between particles is governed by Lorentz and CPT symmetry. There is a violation of Parity (P) and CP symmetry at low levels. The unified theory, that includes particle physics and quantum gravity, may be expected to be covariant with Lorentz and CPT symmetry. At high enough energies, will the unified theory display violation of any symmetry? The Standard Model Extension (SME), with Lorentz and CPT violating terms, has been suggested to include particle dynamics. The minimal SME in the pure photon sector is considered in order to calculate the Casimir effect at finite temperature.

  7. Approximating the effect of the Casimir force on the instability of electrostatic nano-cantilevers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadyan, Mohamadreza [Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Ramsar Center, Ramsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Novinzadeh, Alireza [Aerospace Engineering Department, K N Toosi University of Technology, East Vafadar Street, PO Box 16765-3381, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, AsiehSadat [School of Physics and Center for Solid State Research, Damghan University of Basic Sciences, PO Box 367164-167, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: novinzadeh@kntu.ac.ir

    2010-01-15

    In this paper, the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is used to investigate the effect of the Casimir force on the pull-in instability of electrostatic actuators at nano-scale separations. The proposed HPM is employed to solve nonlinear constitutive equations of cantilever beam-type nanoactuators. An analytical solution is obtained in terms of convergent series with easily computable components. Basic design parameters such as critical cantilever tip deflection and pull-in voltage of the nano-cantilevers are computed. As special cases of this work, freestanding nanoactuators and electrostatic micro-actuators are investigated. The analytical HPM results agree well with numerical solutions and those from the literature.

  8. Casimir torque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Guzman, Jose C [Centro de Ciencias FIsicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Mochan, W Luis [Centro de Ciencias FIsicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-05-26

    We develop a formalism for the calculation of the flow of angular momentum carried by the fluctuating electromagnetic field within a cavity bounded by two flat anisotropic materials. By generalizing a procedure employed recently for the calculation of the Casimir force between arbitrary materials, we obtain an expression for the torque between anisotropic plates in terms of their reflection amplitude matrices. We evaluate the torque in 1D for ideal and dispersive model materials.

  9. Two schemes for characterization and detection of the squeezed light: dynamical Casimir effect and nonlinear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfipour, H.; Allameh, Z.; Roknizadeh, R.; Heydari, H.

    2016-03-01

    Using two different schemes, a non-classical-squeezed state of light is detected and characterized. In the first scheme, in a one-dimensional cavity with a moving mirror (non-stationary Casimir effect) in the principal mode, we study the photon generation rate for two modes (squeezed and coherent state) of a driving field. Since the cavity with the moving mirror (similar to an optomechanical system) can be considered an analogue to a Kerr-like medium, in the second scheme, the probability amplitude for multi-photon absorption in a nonlinear (Kerr) medium will be quantum mechanically calculated. It is shown that because of the presence of nonlinear effects, the responses of these two systems to the squeezed versus coherent state are considerably distinguishable. The drastic difference between the results of these two states of light can be viewed as a proposal for detecting non-classical states.

  10. Amplification of the parametric dynamical Casimir effect via optimal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeb, Fabian; Angaroni, Fabrizio; Zoller, Jonathan; Calarco, Tommaso; Strini, Giuliano; Montangero, Simone; Benenti, Giuliano

    2017-09-01

    We introduce different strategies to enhance photon generation in a cavity within the Rabi model in the ultrastrong coupling regime. We show that a bang-bang strategy allows one to enhance the effect up to 1 order of magnitude with respect to simply driving the system in resonance for a fixed time. Moreover, up to about another order of magnitude can be gained by exploiting quantum optimal control strategies. Finally, we show that such optimized protocols are robust with respect to systematic errors and noise, paving the way to future experimental implementations of such strategies.

  11. Casimir-Polder interaction in second quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefele, Juergen

    2011-03-21

    The Casimir-Polder interaction between a single neutral atom and a nearby surface, arising from the (quantum and thermal) fluctuations of the electromagnetic field, is a cornerstone of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED), and theoretically well established. Recently, Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of ultracold atoms have been used to test the predictions of cQED. The purpose of the present thesis is to upgrade single-atom cQED with the many-body theory needed to describe trapped atomic BECs. Tools and methods are developed in a second-quantized picture that treats atom and photon fields on the same footing. We formulate a diagrammatic expansion using correlation functions for both the electromagnetic field and the atomic system. The formalism is applied to investigate, for BECs trapped near surfaces, dispersion interactions of the van der Waals-Casimir-Polder type, and the Bosonic stimulation in spontaneous decay of excited atomic states. We also discuss a phononic Casimir effect, which arises from the quantum fluctuations in an interacting BEC. (orig.)

  12. Archimedes Force on Casimir Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    We address a problem of Casimir apparatus in dense medium and weak gravitational field. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, with proper account for contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general expression for the corresponding force in metric with cylindrical symmetry. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  13. An improved model for the cantilever NEMS actuator including the surface energy, fringing field and Casimir effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhabadi, Amin; Mohebshahedin, Abed; Rach, Randolph; Duan, Jun-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the surface energy on the instability of nano-structures under the electrostatic force has been investigated in recent years by different researchers. It appears that in all prior research, the response of all structures becomes softer due to the surface effects. In the present study, the pull-in instability of a NEMS device incorporating the electrostatic force and Casimir intermolecular attraction for different values of the surface parameter is investigated by the Duan-Rach method of determined coefficients (MDC) in order to identify the remarkable effect of the surface energy. Although the obtained results verify the behavior of such structures in presence of the fringing field and the Casimir attraction same as the previous investigations, however the incremental effects of the surface energy cause the aforementioned structures to behave more stiffly in contrast.

  14. Fermionic Casimir effect for parallel plates in the presence of compact dimensions with applications to nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, S

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the Casimir energy and force for a massive fermionic field in the geometry of two parallel plates on background of Minkowski spacetime with an arbitrary number of toroidally compactified spatial dimensions. The bag boundary conditions are imposed on the plates and periodicity conditions with arbitrary phases are considered along the compact dimensions. The Casimir energy is decomposed into purely topological, single plate and interaction parts. With independence of the lengths of the compact dimensions and the phases in the periodicity conditions, the interaction part of the Casimir energy is always negative. In order to obtain the resulting force, the contributions from both sides of the plates must be taken into account. Then, the forces coming from the topological parts of the vacuum energy cancel out and only the interaction term contributes to the Casimir force. Applications of the general formulae to Kaluza-Klein type models and carbon nanotubes are given. In particular, we show that for fin...

  15. The critical Casimir force in the superfluid phase: effect of fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Shyamal [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata-700 009 (India); Bhattacharjee, J K [SN Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Sector 3, JD Block, Salt Lake, Kolkata-700 098 (India); Samanta, Himadri S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Bhattacharyya, Saugata [Department of Physics, Vidyasagar College, 39 Sankar Ghosh Lane, Kolkata-700 006 (India); Hu, Bambi, E-mail: sbiswas.phys.cu@gmail.co [Centre for Nonlinear Studies, and BHKS Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2010-06-15

    We have considered the critical Casimir force on a {sup 4}He film below and above the bulk {lambda} point. We have explored the role of fluctuations around the mean field theory in a perturbative manner, and have substantially improved the mean field result of Zandi et al (2007 Phys. Rev. E 76 030601(R)). The Casimir scaling function obtained by us approaches a universal constant (-{zeta}(3)/8{pi}) for T{approx}<2.13 K.

  16. Oscillating Casimir force between two slabs in a Fermi sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Wei, Chen; Guo-Zhen, Su; Jin-Can, Chen

    2012-01-01

    The Casimir effect for two parallel slabs immersed in an ideal Fermi sea is investigated at both zero and nonzero temperatures. It is found that the Casimir effect in a Fermi gas is distinctly different from that in an electromagnetic field or a massive Bose gas. In contrast to the familiar result...... that the Casimir force decreases monotonically with the increase of the separation L between two slabs in an electromagnetic field and a massive Bose gas, the Casimir force in a Fermi gas oscillates as a function of L. The Casimir force can be either attractive or repulsive, depending sensitively on the magnitude...

  17. Influence of van-der-Waals like interactions on the thermodynamic Casimir effect; Einfluss van-der-Waals-artiger Wechselwirkungen auf den thermodynamischen Casimir-Effekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grueneberg, Daniel

    2008-02-15

    To study how the behavior of the thermodynamic Casimir force changes qualitatively and quantitatively due to the presence of such interactions - compared to systems with purely short-range interactions - is the aim of this work. Considering d-dimensional models belonging to the universality class of the O(n)-symmetrical systems, the thermodynamic Casimir force and its leading corrections are derived for temperatures at and above the transition temperature (T{>=}T{sub c,{infinity}}). The underlying pair potential is assumed to be isotropic and long-ranged, decaying asymptotically proportional to x{sup -(d+{sigma}}{sup )} for large separations x, where the value of the parameter {sigma} is restricted to the interval 2<{sigma}<4. By solving an appropriate spherical model in 2Casimir force and its leading corrections are obtained. To study the case n<{infinity}, which in 2Casimir force and its leading corrections are evaluated to two-loop order. It is shown that both in the spherical model and in the O(n)-symmetrical case with n<{infinity} to two-loop order, the thermodynamic Casimir force in the presence of the long-range interaction decays algebraically {proportional_to}L{sup -(d+{sigma}}{sup )} at fixed temperature T>T{sub c,{infinity}} on sufficiently large length scales. (orig.)

  18. Oscillating dipole layer facing a conducting plane: a classical analogue of the dynamical Casimir effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosco, César D. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, R8402AGP, Bariloche (Argentina); Lombardo, Fernando C., E-mail: lombardo@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Física Juan José Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA and IFIBA CONICET-UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-12-17

    We study the properties of the classical electromagnetic radiation produced by two physically different yet closely related systems, which may be regarded as classical analogues of the dynamical Casimir effect. They correspond to two flat, infinite, parallel planes, one of them static and imposing perfect-conductor boundary conditions, while the other performs a rigid oscillatory motion. The systems differ just in the electrical properties of the oscillating plane: one of them is just a planar dipole layer (representing, for instance, a small-width electret). The other, instead, has a dipole layer on the side which faces the static plane, but behaves as a conductor on the other side: this can be used as a representation of a conductor endowed with patch potentials (on the side which faces the conducting plane). We evaluate, in both cases, the dissipative flux of energy between the system and its environment, showing that, at least for small mechanical oscillation amplitudes, it can be written in terms of the dipole layer autocorrelation function. We show that there are resonances as a function of the frequency of the mechanical oscillation.

  19. Oscillating dipole layer facing a conducting plane: a classical analogue of the dynamical Casimir effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosco, Cesar D. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro, Bariloche (Argentina); Lombardo, Fernando C. [Ciudad Universitaria, Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA y IFIBA CONICET-UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-12-15

    We study the properties of the classical electromagnetic radiation produced by two physically different yet closely related systems, which may be regarded as classical analogues of the dynamical Casimir effect. They correspond to two flat, infinite, parallel planes, one of them static and imposing perfect-conductor boundary conditions, while the other performs a rigid oscillatory motion. The systems differ just in the electrical properties of the oscillating plane: one of them is just a planar dipole layer (representing, for instance, a small-width electret). The other, instead, has a dipole layer on the side which faces the static plane, but behaves as a conductor on the other side: this can be used as a representation of a conductor endowed with patch potentials (on the side which faces the conducting plane). We evaluate, in both cases, the dissipative flux of energy between the system and its environment, showing that, at least for small mechanical oscillation amplitudes, it can be written in terms of the dipole layer autocorrelation function. We show that there are resonances as a function of the frequency of the mechanical oscillation. (orig.)

  20. Uses of zeta regularization in QFT with boundary conditions: a cosmo-topological Casimir effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde, Emilio [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (CSIC) and Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC/CSIC) Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-Parell-2a planta E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-05-26

    Zeta regularization has proven to be a powerful and reliable tool for the regularization of the vacuum energy density in ideal situations. With the Hadamard complement, it has been shown to provide finite (and meaningful) answers too in more involved cases, as when imposing physical boundary conditions (BCs) in two- and higher-dimensional surfaces (being able to mimic, in a very convenient way, other ad hoc cut-offs, as non-zero depths). Recently, these techniques have been used in calculations of the contribution of the vacuum energy of the quantum fields pervading the universe to the cosmological constant (cc). Naive counting of the absolute contributions of the known fields lead to a value which is off by as much as 120 orders of magnitude, as compared with observational tests, what is known as the cosmological constant problem. This is very difficult to solve and we do not address that question directly. What we have considered-with relative success in several approaches of different nature-is the additional contribution to the cc coming from the non-trivial topology of space or from specific boundary conditions imposed on braneworld models (kind of cosmological Casimir effects). Assuming someone will be able to prove (some day) that the ground value of the cc is zero, as many had suspected until very recently, we will then be left with this incremental value coming from the topology or BCs. We show that this value can have the correct order of magnitude-corresponding to the one coming from the observed acceleration in the expansion of our universe-in a number of quite reasonable models involving small and large compactified scales and/or brane BCs, and supergravitons.

  1. The Casimir Effect from the Point of View of Algebraic Quantum Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.dappiaggi@unipv.it; Nosari, Gabriele [Università degli Studi di Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); Pinamonti, Nicola [Università di Genova, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    We consider a region of Minkowski spacetime bounded either by one or by two parallel, infinitely extended plates orthogonal to a spatial direction and a real Klein-Gordon field satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions. We quantize these two systems within the algebraic approach to quantum field theory using the so-called functional formalism. As a first step we construct a suitable unital ∗-algebra of observables whose generating functionals are characterized by a labelling space which is at the same time optimal and separating and fulfils the F-locality property. Subsequently we give a definition for these systems of Hadamard states and we investigate explicit examples. In the case of a single plate, it turns out that one can build algebraic states via a pull-back of those on the whole Minkowski spacetime, moreover inheriting from them the Hadamard property. When we consider instead two plates, algebraic states can be put in correspondence with those on flat spacetime via the so-called method of images, which we translate to the algebraic setting. For a massless scalar field we show that this procedure works perfectly for a large class of quasi-free states including the Poincaré vacuum and KMS states. Eventually Wick polynomials are introduced. Contrary to the Minkowski case, the extended algebras, built in globally hyperbolic subregions can be collected in a global counterpart only after a suitable deformation which is expressed locally in terms of a *-isomorphism. As a last step, we construct explicitly the two-point function and the regularized energy density, showing, moreover, that the outcome is consistent with the standard results of the Casimir effect.

  2. Casimir stress inside planar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griniasty, Itay; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2017-09-01

    The Casimir force between macroscopic bodies is well understood, but not the Casimir force inside bodies. Guided by a physically intuitive picture, we develop the macroscopic theory of the renormalized Casimir stress inside planar materials (where the electromagnetic properties vary in one direction). Our theory may be applied in predicting how inhomogeneous fluids respond to Casimir forces.

  3. A Generalization of Electromagnetic Fluctuation-Induced Casimir Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermolecular forces responsible for adhesion and cohesion can be classified according to their origins; interactions between charges, ions, random dipole—random dipole (Keesom, random dipole—induced dipole (Debye are due to electrostatic effects; covalent bonding, London dispersion forces between fluctuating dipoles, and Lewis acid-base interactions are due to quantum mechanical effects; pressure and osmotic forces are of entropic origin. Of all these interactions, the London dispersion interaction is universal and exists between all types of atoms as well as macroscopic objects. The dispersion force between macroscopic objects is called Casimir/van der Waals force. It results from alteration of the quantum and thermal fluctuations of the electrodynamic field due to the presence of interfaces and plays a significant role in the interaction between macroscopic objects at micrometer and nanometer length scales. This paper discusses how fluctuational electrodynamics can be used to determine the Casimir energy/pressure between planar multilayer objects. Though it is confirmation of the famous work of Dzyaloshinskii, Lifshitz, and Pitaevskii (DLP, we have solved the problem without having to use methods from quantum field theory that DLP resorted to. Because of this new approach, we have been able to clarify the contributions of propagating and evanescent waves to Casimir energy/pressure in dissipative media.

  4. Finite-temperature Casimir effect in the presence of nonlinear dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kheirandish, Fardin; Amooghorban, Ehsan; Soltani, Morteza

    2011-01-01

    Starting from a Lagrangian, the electromagnetic field in the presence of a nonlinear dielectric medium is quantized using path-integral techniques, and correlation functions of different fields are calculated. The susceptibilities of the nonlinear medium are obtained, and their relations to coupl......Starting from a Lagrangian, the electromagnetic field in the presence of a nonlinear dielectric medium is quantized using path-integral techniques, and correlation functions of different fields are calculated. The susceptibilities of the nonlinear medium are obtained, and their relations...... to coupling functions are determined. Finally, the Casimir energy and force in the presence of a nonlinear medium at finite temperature are calculated....

  5. The Casimir Effect in Biology: The Role of Molecular Quantum Electrodynamics in Linear Aggregations of Red Blood Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, K [Physics Department, Boston University, Boston MA (United States); Swain, J D; Widom, A; Srivastava, Y N, E-mail: john.swain@cern.c [Physics Department, Northeastern University, Boston MA (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Despite the fact that red blood cells carry negative charges, under certain conditions they form cylindrical stacks, or 'rouleaux'. It is shown here that a form of the Casimir effect, generalizing the more well-known van der Waals forces, can provide the necessary attractive force to balance the electrostatic repulsion. Erythrocytes in plasma are modelled as negatively charged dielectric disks in an ionic solution, allowing predictions to be made about the conditions under which rouleaux will form. The results show qualitative agreement with observations which suggest that the basic idea is worth further pursuit. In addition to revealing a mechanism which may be widespread in biology at the cellular level, it also suggest new experiments and further applications to other biological systems, colloid chemistry and nanotechnology.

  6. The Casimir Effect in Biology: The Role of Molecular Quantum Electrodynamics in Linear Aggregations of Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradonjić, K.; Swain, J. D.; Widom, A.; Srivastava, Y. N.

    2009-04-01

    Despite the fact that red blood cells carry negative charges, under certain conditions they form cylindrical stacks, or "rouleaux". It is shown here that a form of the Casimir effect, generalizing the more well-known van der Waals forces, can provide the necessary attractive force to balance the electrostatic repulsion. Erythrocytes in plasma are modelled as negatively charged dielectric disks in an ionic solution, allowing predictions to be made about the conditions under which rouleaux will form. The results show qualitative agreement with observations which suggest that the basic idea is worth further pursuit. In addition to revealing a mechanism which may be widespread in biology at the cellular level, it also suggest new experiments and further applications to other biological systems, colloid chemistry and nanotechnology.

  7. The Reality of Casimir Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimball A. Milton

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For more than 35 years theorists have studied quantum or Casimir friction, which occurs when two smooth bodies move transversely to each other, experiencing a frictional dissipative force due to quantum electromagnetic fluctuations, which break time-reversal symmetry. These forces are typically very small, unless the bodies are nearly touching, and consequently such effects have never been observed, although lateral Casimir forces have been seen for corrugated surfaces. Partly because of the lack of contact with observations, theoretical predictions for the frictional force between parallel plates, or between a polarizable atom and a metallic plate, have varied widely. Here, we review the history of these calculations, show that theoretical consensus is emerging, and offer some hope that it might be possible to experimentally confirm this phenomenon of dissipative quantum electrodynamics.

  8. Dispersion forces in micromechanics: Casimir and Casimir-Polder forces affected by geometry and non-zero temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingsen, Simen Andreas Aadnoey

    2011-01-15

    The present thesis focuses on several topics within three separate but related branches of the overall field of dispersion forces. The three branches are: temperature corrections to the Casimir force between real materials (Part 1), explicit calculation of Casimir energy in wedge geometries (Part 2), and Casimir-Polder forces on particles out of thermal equilibrium (Part 3). Part 1 deals primarily with analysis of a previously purported thermodynamic inconsistency in the Casimir-Lifshitz free energy of the interaction of two plane mirrors - violation of the third law of thermodynamics - when the latter's dielectric response is described with dissipative models. It is shown analytically and numerically that the Casimir entropy of the interaction between two metallic mirrors described by the Drude model does tend to zero at zero temperature, provided electronic relaxation does not vanish. The leading order terms at low temperature are found. A similar calculation is carried out for the interaction of semiconductors with small but non-zero DC conductivity. In a generalisation, it is shown that a violation of the third law can only occur for permittivities whose low-frequency behaviour is temperature dependent near zero temperature. A calculation using path integral methods shows that the low temperature behaviour of the interaction of fluctuating Foucault currents in two mirrors of Drude metal is identical to that of the full Casimir-Lifshitz free energy, reasserting a previous finding by Intravaia and Henkel that such fluctuating bulk currents are the physical reason for the anomalous entropy behaviour. In a related effort, an analysis of the frequency dependence of the Casimir force by Ford is generalised to imperfectly reflecting mirrors. A paradox is pointed out, in that the effects of a perturbation of the reflecting properties of the mirrors in a finite frequency window can be calculated in two ways giving different results. It is concluded that optimistic

  9. Casimir forces and quantum electrodynamical torques: Physics and nanomechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capasso, F.; Munday, J. N.; Iannuzzi, D.; Chan, H. B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses recent developments on quantum electrodynamical (QED) phenomena, such as the Casimir effect, and their use in nanomechanics and nanotechnology in general. Casimir forces and torques arise from quantum fluctuations of vacuum or, more generally, from the zero-point energy of

  10. Nonlinear (Anharmonic Casimir Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Razmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We want to study the dynamics of a simple linear harmonic micro spring which is under the influence of the quantum Casimir force/pressure and thus behaves as a (an nonlinear (anharmonic Casimir oscillator. Generally, the equation of motion of this nonlinear micromechanical Casimir oscillator has no exact solvable (analytical solution and the turning point(s of the system has (have no fixed position(s; however, for particular values of the stiffness of the micro spring and at appropriately well-chosen distance scales and conditions, there is (are approximately sinusoidal solution(s for the problem (the variable turning points are collected in a very small interval of positions. This, as a simple and elementary plan, may be useful in controlling the Casimir stiction problem in micromechanical devices.

  11. Optical switching of a graphene mechanical switch using the Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Norio

    2017-09-01

    We propose a method to control a graphene-based mechanical switch with light. By positioning a self-supporting graphene sheet parallel to a doped silicon membrane, irradiation of the membrane with light can bring the graphene into contact with the membrane. This operation is based on the enhancement of the Casimir force between the graphene sheet and a doped silicon membrane that results from photoionization; therefore, pull-in phenomena can occur even without applying any voltage. We theoretically investigated the dependence of the maximum displacement of a graphene sheet on the power of the irradiation light. Furthermore, the switching time is estimated by analyzing the time-evolution of the carrier density in a doped silicon membrane.

  12. Casimir effect for parallel plates in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra de Mello, E. R.; Saharian, A. A.; Setare, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    We evaluate the Hadamard function, the vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of the field squared and the energy-momentum tensor for a massive scalar field with a general curvature coupling parameter in the geometry of two parallel plates on a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background with a general scale factor. On the plates, the field operator obeys the Robin boundary conditions with the coefficients depending on the scale factor. In all the spatial regions, the VEVs are decomposed into the boundary-free and boundary-induced contributions. Unlike the problem with the Minkowski bulk, in the region between the plates, the normal stress is not homogeneous and does not vanish in the geometry of a single plate. Near the plates, it has different signs for accelerated and decelerated expansions of the Universe. The VEV of the energy-momentum tensor, in addition to the diagonal components, has a nonzero off-diagonal component describing an energy flux along the direction normal to the boundaries. Expressions are derived for the Casimir forces acting on the plates. Depending on the Robin coefficients and on the vacuum state, these forces can be either attractive or repulsive. An important difference from the corresponding result in the Minkowski bulk is that the forces on the separate plates, in general, are different if the corresponding Robin coefficients differ. We give the applications of general results for the class of α vacua in the de Sitter bulk. It is shown that, compared with the Bunch-Davies vacuum state, the Casimir forces for a given α vacuum may change the sign.

  13. On the Casimir effect. Energy density of the free Klein-Gordon-field in front of static classical backgrounds; Zum Casimir-Effekt. Energiedichte des freien Klein-Gordon-Feldes vor statischen klassischen Hintergruenden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.J.

    2008-01-15

    We study the Casimir energy density of the Klein-Gordon-field in the case of two static geometries. We model the effect by coupling the free quantum field to a static classical scalar field. We work out the dependence on the coupling {lambda}, including the limit {lambda}={infinity} (Dirichlet boundary condition). The chosen geometries are described by a {delta}-funktion ({sigma}(x)={delta}(x{sub 3})) and a step function of finite height ({sigma}(x)= (1)/(2{epsilon})1{sub [{epsilon},{epsilon}]}(x{sub 3})), respectively. In the area outside the support of the background the density energy converges; calculations for the distorted area lead to divergent surface terms. (orig.)

  14. Repulsive Casimir force between Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Justin H.; Allocca, Andrew A.; Galitski, Victor

    2015-06-01

    Weyl semimetals are a class of topological materials that exhibit a bulk Hall effect due to time-reversal symmetry breaking. We show that for the idealized semi-infinite case, the Casimir force between two identical Weyl semimetals is repulsive at short range and attractive at long range. Considering plates of finite thickness, we can reduce the size of the long-range attraction even making it repulsive for all distances when thin enough. In the thin-film limit, we study the appearance of an attractive Casimir force at shorter distances due to the longitudinal conductivity. Magnetic field, thickness, and chemical potential provide tunable nobs for this effect, controlling the Casimir force: whether it is attractive or repulsive, the magnitude of the effect, and the positions and existence of a trap and antitrap.

  15. Investigating the effect of Casimir and van der Waals attractions on the electrostatic pull-in instability of nano-actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soroush, R [Electronics Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan Branch, Lahijan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Koochi, A; Haddadpour, H [Department of Aerospace Engineering, and Center of Excellence in Aerospace Systems, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, PO Box 11165-8639, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, A S [School of Physics and Center for Solid State Research, Damghan University for Basic Sciences, PO Box 367164-167, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noghrehabadi, A [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, PO Box 613574-333, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abadyan, M, E-mail: A.R.Noghrehabadi@scu.ac.i, E-mail: Abadyan@yahoo.co [Mechanical Engineering Group, Islamic Azad University Ramsar Branch, Ramsar Center, Ramsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    This paper investigates the effect of dispersion (van der Waals and Casimir) forces on the pull-in instability of cantilever nano-actuators by considering their range of application. Adomian decomposition is introduced to obtain an analytical solution of the distributed parameter model. Dispersion forces decrease the pull-in deflection and voltage of a nano-actuator. However, the fringing field increases the pull-in deflection while decreasing the pull-in voltage of the actuator. The minimum initial gap and the detachment length of the actuator that does not stick to the substrate due to van der Waals and Casimir attractions were determined. Furthermore, the proposed approach is capable of determining the stress distribution of the actuator at the onset of instability. It is seen that Casimir and van der Waals attractions effectively reduce the maximum value of stress resultants at the onset of instability. The results indicate that Adomian decomposition is a reliable method for simulating nano-structures at submicrometer ranges.

  16. Adaptive numerical algorithms to simulate the dynamical Casimir effect in a closed cavity with different boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Paula I.; Soba, Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    We present an alternative numerical approach to compute the number of particles created inside a cavity due to time-dependent boundary conditions. The physical model consists of a rectangular cavity, where a wall always remains still while the other wall of the cavity presents a smooth movement in one direction. The method relies on the setting of the boundary conditions (Dirichlet and Neumann) and the following resolution of the corresponding equations of modes. By a further comparison between the ground state before and after the movement of the cavity wall, we finally compute the number of particles created. To demonstrate the method, we investigate the creation of particle production in vibrating cavities, confirming previously known results in the appropriate limits. Within this approach, the dynamical Casimir effect can be investigated, making it possible to study a variety of scenarios where no analytical results are known. Of special interest is, of course, the realistic case of the electromagnetic field in a three-dimensional cavity, with transverse electric (TE)-mode and transverse magnetic (TM)-mode photon production. Furthermore, with our approach we are able to calculate numerically the particle creation in a tuneable resonant superconducting cavity by the use of the generalized Robin boundary condition. We compare the numerical results with analytical predictions as well as a different numerical approach. Its extension to three dimensions is also straightforward.

  17. Casimir interactions for anisotropic magnetodielectric metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Rosa, Felipe S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dalvit, Diego A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Milonni, Peter W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We extend our previous work on the generalization of the Casimir-Lifshitz theory to treat anisotropic magnetodielectric media, focusing on the forces between metals and magnetodielectric metamaterials and on the possibility of inferring magnetic effects by measurements of these forces.

  18. Enhancing Casimir repulsion via topological insulator multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ran, E-mail: ranzeng@hotmail.com [School of Communication Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Liang; Nie, Wenjie [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Bi, Meihua [School of Communication Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Yang, Yaping [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Physics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhu, Shiyao [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-08-19

    We propose to observe the enhanced Casimir repulsion between two parallel multilayer walls made of alternating layers of a topological insulator (TI) and a normal insulator. Based on the transfer matrix method, the Fresnel coefficients matrix is generalized to apply to the TI multilayer structure. The Casimir repulsion under the influence of the magnetization orientation in the magnetic coatings on TI layer surfaces, the layer thicknesses, and the topological magnetoelectric polarizability, is investigated. We show that, for the multilayer structures with parallel magnetization on the TI layer surfaces, it is possible to enhance the repulsion by increasing the TI layer number, which is due to the accumulation of the contribution to the repulsion from the polarization rotation effect occurring on each TI layer surface. Generally, in the distance region where there is Casimir attraction between semi-infinite TIs, the force may turn into repulsion in TI multilayer structure, and in the region of repulsion for semi-infinite TI, the repulsive force can be enhanced in magnitude, the enhancement tends to a maximum while the structure contains sufficiently many layers. - Highlights: • Enhancement of Casimir repulsion for topological insulator (TI) multilayers is shown. • Fresnel coefficients matrix is generalized to apply to the TI multilayer structure. • Multilayer with parallel magnetization on TI surfaces is needed for the enhancement. • Enhancement is due to accumulation of polarization rotation effect on TI surfaces.

  19. Casimir energy and the possibility of higher dimensional manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Obousy, R. K.; Saharian, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the Casimir effect is an excellent candidate for the stabilization of the extra dimensions. It has also been suggested that the Casimir effect in higher dimensions may be the underlying phenomenon that is responsible for the dark energy which is currently driving the accelerated expansion of the universe. In this paper we suggest that, in principle, it may be possible to directly manipulate the size of an extra dimension locally using Standard Model fields in the next ge...

  20. Casimir force between topological insulator slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Wenjie; Zeng, Ran; Lan, Yueheng; Zhu, Shiyao

    2013-08-01

    The Casimir force between two finite-thick topological insulator slabs and its dependence on the gap size between the slabs are investigated in detail. Two typical substrate materials including semi-infinite vacuum and silicon are used in the study, in which the Casimir force can always change from attractive to repulsive when the gap size decreases. The gap width at transition is a function of the slab thickness and also depends strongly on the electric permittivity and topological magnetoelectric polarizability of the slabs. In particular, in the absence of a substrate, this width increases with decreasing slab thickness and for thin slabs with large internal and external topological magnetoelectric polarizability the Casimir force is always repulsive where the surface topological magnetoelectric effect of the slabs plays a dominant role. In the presence of a semi-infinite silicon substrate, however, the attractive role of the silicon substrate becomes increasingly important, and thus the transition gap decreases with decreasing thickness of the slab. The characteristic features of the Casimir force may be detected experimentally through exploring its gradient with a certain dynamical method.

  1. On the effects from the simultaneous occurrence of the critical Casimir and dispersion forces between conical colloid particle and a thick plate immersed in nonpolar critical fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valchev Galin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we study the interplay between the van der Waals (vdWF and critical Casimir forces (CCF, as well as the total force (TF between a conical colloid particle and a thick planar slab. We do that using general scaling arguments and mean-field type calculations utilizing the so-called “surface integration approach”, a generalization of the well known Derjaguin approximation. Its usage in the present research, requires knowledge on the forces between two parallel slabs, confining in between some fluctuating fluid medium characterized by its temperature T and chemical potential μ. The surfaces of the colloid particle and the slab are assumed coated by thin layers exerting strong preference to the liquid phase of a simple fluid, or one of the components of a binary mixture, modeled by strong adsorbing local surface potentials, ensuring the so-called (+,+ boundary conditions. On the other hand, the core region of the slab and the particle, influence the fluid by long-ranged competing dispersion potentials. We demonstrate that for a suitable set of colloid-fluid, slab-fluid, and fluid-fluid coupling parameters the competition between the effects due to the coatings and the core regions of the objects, result, when one changes T or μ, in sign change of the Casimir force (CF and the TF acting between the colloid and the slab. Such an effect can provide a strategy for solving problems with handling, feeding, trapping and fixing of microparts in nanotechnology.

  2. Casimir Energy, Extra Dimensions and Exotic Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obousy, R.; Saharian, A.

    It is well known that the Casimir effect is an excellent candidate for the stabilization of the extra dimensions. It has also been suggested that the Casimir effect in higher dimensions may be the underlying phenomenon that is responsible for the dark energy which is currently driving the accelerated expansion of the universe. In this paper we suggest that, in principle, it may be possible to directly manipulate the size of an extra dimension locally using Standard Model fields in the next generation of particle accelerators. This adjustment of the size of the higher dimension could serve as a technological mechanism to locally adjust the dark energy density and change the local expansion of spacetime. This idea holds tantalizing possibilities in the context of exotic spacecraft propulsion.

  3. Casimir interactions between graphene sheets and metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drosdoff, D.; Woods, Lilia M. [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The Casimir force between graphene sheets and metamaterials is studied. Theoretical results based on the Lifshitz theory for layered, planar, two-dimensional systems in media are presented. We consider graphene-graphene, graphene-metamaterial, and metal-graphene-metamaterial configurations. We find that quantum effects of the temperature-dependent force are not apparent until the submicron range. In contrast to results with bulk dielectric and bulk metallic materials, no Casimir repulsion is found when graphene is placed on top of a magnetically active metamaterial substrate, regardless of the strength of the low-frequency magnetic response. In the case of the metal-graphene-metamaterial setting, repulsion between the metamaterial and the metal-graphene system is possible only when the dielectric response from the metal contributes significantly.

  4. Enhancing Casimir repulsion via topological insulator multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ran; Chen, Liang; Nie, Wenjie; Bi, Meihua; Yang, Yaping; Zhu, Shiyao

    2016-08-01

    We propose to observe the enhanced Casimir repulsion between two parallel multilayer walls made of alternating layers of a topological insulator (TI) and a normal insulator. Based on the transfer matrix method, the Fresnel coefficients matrix is generalized to apply to the TI multilayer structure. The Casimir repulsion under the influence of the magnetization orientation in the magnetic coatings on TI layer surfaces, the layer thicknesses, and the topological magnetoelectric polarizability, is investigated. We show that, for the multilayer structures with parallel magnetization on the TI layer surfaces, it is possible to enhance the repulsion by increasing the TI layer number, which is due to the accumulation of the contribution to the repulsion from the polarization rotation effect occurring on each TI layer surface. Generally, in the distance region where there is Casimir attraction between semi-infinite TIs, the force may turn into repulsion in TI multilayer structure, and in the region of repulsion for semi-infinite TI, the repulsive force can be enhanced in magnitude, the enhancement tends to a maximum while the structure contains sufficiently many layers.

  5. Casimir interaction between spheres in ( D + 1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, L. P.

    2014-05-01

    We consider the Casimir interaction between two spheres in ( D + 1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime due to the vacuum fluctuations of scalar fields. We consider combinations of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The TGTG formula of the Casimir interaction energy is derived. The computations of the T matrices of the two spheres are straightforward. To compute the two G matrices, known as translation matrices, which relate the hyper-spherical waves in two spherical coordinate frames differ by a translation, we generalize the operator approach employed in [39]. The result is expressed in terms of an integral over Gegenbauer polynomials. In contrast to the D=3 case, we do not re-express the integral in terms of 3 j-symbols and hyper-spherical waves, which in principle, can be done but does not simplify the formula. Using our expression for the Casimir interaction energy, we derive the large separation and small separation asymptotic expansions of the Casimir interaction energy. In the large separation regime, we find that the Casimir interaction energy is of order L -2 D+3, L -2 D+1 and L -2 D-1 respectively for Dirichlet-Dirichlet, Dirichlet-Neumann and Neumann-Neumann boundary conditions, where L is the center-to-center distance of the two spheres. In the small separation regime, we confirm that the leading term of the Casimir interaction agrees with the proximity force approximation, which is of order , where d is the distance between the two spheres. Another main result of this work is the analytic computations of the next-to-leading order term in the small separation asymptotic expansion. This term is computed using careful order analysis as well as perturbation method. In the case the radius of one of the sphere goes to infinity, we find that the results agree with the one we derive for sphere-plate configuration. When D=3, we also recover previously known results. We find that when D is large, the ratio of the next-to-leading order term to the leading

  6. Supersymmetry Breaking Casimir Warp Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obousy, Richard K.; Cleaver, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    This paper utilizes a recent model which relates the cosmological constant to the Casimir energy of the extra dimensions in brane-world theories. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that, given some sufficiently advanced civilization with the ability to manipulate the radius of the extra dimension, a local adjustment of the cosmological constant could be created. This adjustment would facilitate an expansion/contraction of the spacetime around a spacecraft creating an exotic form of field-propulsion. This idea is analogous to the Alcubierre bubble, but differs entirely in the approach, utilizing the physics of higher dimensional quantum field theory, instead of general relativity.

  7. Tuning the Mass of Chameleon Fields in Casimir Force Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Ph; Davis, A C; Shaw, D J; Iannuzzi, D

    2010-01-01

    We have calculated the chameleon pressure between two parallel plates in the presence of an intervening medium that affects the mass of the chameleon field. As intuitively expected, the gas in the gap weakens the chameleon interaction mechanism with a screening effect that increases with the plate separation and with the density of the intervening medium. This phenomenon might open up new directions in the search of chameleon particles with future long range Casimir force experiments.

  8. Non-equilibrium Casimir force between vibrating plates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hanke

    Full Text Available We study the fluctuation-induced, time-dependent force between two plates confining a correlated fluid which is driven out of equilibrium mechanically by harmonic vibrations of one of the plates. For a purely relaxational dynamics of the fluid we calculate the fluctuation-induced force generated by the vibrating plate on the plate at rest. The time-dependence of this force is characterized by a positive lag time with respect to the driving. We obtain two distinctive contributions to the force, one generated by diffusion of stress in the fluid and another related to resonant dissipation in the cavity. The relation to the dynamic Casimir effect of the electromagnetic field and possible experiments to measure the time-dependent Casimir force are discussed.

  9. Tuning the effective coupling of an AFM lever to a thermal bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdan, G [Institut Neel CNRS Grenoble BP 166 38042, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Torricelli, G [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Chevrier, J [Institut Neel CNRS Grenoble BP 166 38042, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Comin, F [ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2007-11-28

    Fabrication of high quality nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) is nowadays extremely efficient. These NEMS will be used as sensors and actuators in integrated systems. Their use, however, raises questions about their interface (actuation, detection, read out) with external detection and control systems. Their operation implies many fundamental questions related to single particle effects such as Coulomb blockade, light matter interactions such as radiation pressure, thermal effects, Casimir forces and the coupling of nanosystems to the external world (thermal fluctuations, back action effect). Here we specifically present how the damping of an oscillating cantilever can be tuned in two radically different ways: (i) through an electromechanical coupling in the presence of a strong Johnson noise, (ii) through an external feedback control of thermal fluctuations which is the cold damping closely related to Maxwell's demon. This shows how the interplay between external control of micro-EMS (MEMS) or NEMS and their coupling to a thermal bath can lead to a wealth of effects that are nowadays extensively studied in different areas.

  10. Casimir free energy of dielectric films: classical limit, low-temperature behavior and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchitskaya, G L; Mostepanenko, V M

    2017-07-12

    The Casimir free energy of dielectric films, both free-standing in vacuum and deposited on metallic or dielectric plates, is investigated. It is shown that the values of the free energy depend considerably on whether the calculation approach used neglects or takes into account the dc conductivity of film material. We demonstrate that there are material-dependent and universal classical limits in the former and latter cases, respectively. The analytic behavior of the Casimir free energy and entropy for a free-standing dielectric film at low temperature is found. According to our results, the Casimir entropy goes to zero when the temperature vanishes if the calculation approach with neglected dc conductivity of a film is employed. If the dc conductivity is taken into account, the Casimir entropy takes the positive value at zero temperature, depending on the parameters of a film, i.e. the Nernst heat theorem is violated. By considering the Casimir free energy of SiO2 and Al2O3 films deposited on a Au plate in the framework of two calculation approaches, we argue that physically correct values are obtained by disregarding the role of dc conductivity. A comparison with the well known results for the configuration of two parallel plates is made. Finally, we compute the Casimir free energy of SiO2, Al2O3 and Ge films deposited on high-resistivity Si plates of different thicknesses and demonstrate that it can be positive, negative and equal to zero. The effect of illumination of a Si plate with laser light is considered. Possible applications of the obtained results to thin films used in microelectronics are discussed.

  11. Effects of water and sawdust additives on thermal effusivity, thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of water and sawdust additives on the thermal effusivity (e), thermal conductivity (λ), and durability of cement-stabilized laterites were investigated. The thermal effusivity (e) and conductivity(λ) have direct influ-ence on heat transfer and thermal insulation in buildings, and the parameters were determined by hot ...

  12. Thermal effects in supercapacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Guoping; Fisher, Timothy S

    2015-01-01

    This Brief reviews contemporary research conducted in university and industry laboratories on thermal management in electrochemical energy storage systems (capacitors and batteries) that have been widely used as power sources in many practical applications, such as automobiles, hybrid transport, renewable energy installations, power backup and electronic devices. Placing a particular emphasis on supercapacitors, the authors discuss how supercapacitors, or ultra capacitors, are complementing and  replacing, batteries because of their faster power delivery, longer life cycle and higher coulombic efficiency, while providing higher energy density than conventional electrolytic capacitors. Recent advances in both macro- and micro capacitor technologies are covered. The work facilitates systematic understanding of thermal transport in such devices that can help develop better power management systems.

  13. Resource Letter VWCPF-1: Van der Waals and Casimir-Polder forces

    OpenAIRE

    Milton, Kimball A.

    2011-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on van der Waals and Casimir-Polder forces. Journal articles, books, and other documents are cited on the following topics: van der Waals forces, retarded dispersion forces or Casimir-Polder forces between atoms or molecules, Casimir-Polder forces between a molecule and a dielectric or conducting body, the summation of Casimir-Polder forces as leading to the Casimir and Lifshitz forces between conducting and dielectric bodies, Casimir fr...

  14. Kinetic Roughening and Material Optical Properties Influence on Van der Waals/Casimir Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, P. J.; Palasantzas, G.

    Atomic force microscopy measurements and force theory calculations using the Lifshitz theory show that van der Waals/Casimir dispersive forces have a strong dependence on surface roughness and material optical properties. It is found that at separations below 100 nm the roughness effect is

  15. Modeling the influence of the Casimir force on the pull-in instability of nanowire-fabricated nanotweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhabadi, Amin; Mokhtari, Javad; Rach, Randolph; Abadyan, Mohamadreza

    2015-09-01

    The Casimir force can strongly interfere with the pull-in performance of ultra-small structures. The strength of the Casimir force is significantly affected by the geometries of interacting bodies. Previous investigators have exclusively studied the effect of the Casimir force on the electromechanical instability of nanostructures with planar geometries. However no work has yet considered this effect on the pull-in instability of systems with cylindrical geometries such as nanotweezers fabricated from nanotube/nanowires. In our present work, the influence of the Casimir attraction on the electrostatic response and pull-in instability of nanotweezers fabricated from cylindrical conductive nanowires/nanotubes is theoretically investigated. An asymptotic solution, based on scattering theory, is applied to consider the effect of vacuum fluctuations in the theoretical model. The Euler-Bernoulli beam model is employed, in conjunction with the size-dependent modified couple stress continuum theory, to derive the governing equation of the nanotweezers. The governing nonlinear equations are solved by two different approaches, i.e., the modified Adomian-Padé method (MAD-Padé) and a numerical solution. Various aspects of the problem, i.e., the variation of pull-in parameters, effect of geometry, coupling between the Casimir force and size dependency effects and comparison with the van der Waals force regime are discussed.

  16. A variational size-dependent model for electrostatically actuated NEMS incorporating nonlinearities and Casimir force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Binbin; Zhang, Long; Wang, Binglei; Zhou, Shenjie

    2015-07-01

    A size-dependent model for the electrostatically actuated Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS) incorporating nonlinearities and Casimir force is presented by using a variational method. The governing equation and boundary conditions are derived with the help of strain gradient elasticity theory and Hamilton principle. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method is employed to solve the problem numerically. The pull-in instability with Casimir force included is then studied. The results reveal that Casimir force, which is a spontaneous force between the two electrodes, can reduce the external applied voltage. With Casimir force incorporated, the pull-in instability occurs without voltage applied when the beam size is in nanoscale. The minimum gap and detachment length can be calculated from the present model for different beam size, which is important for NEMS design. Finally, discussions of size effect induced by the strain gradient terms reveal that the present model is more accurate since size effect play an important role when beam in nanoscale.

  17. Casimir force on an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Shyamal; Majumder, Dwipesh; Saha, Kush [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bhattacharjee, J K [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Sector 3, JD Block, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Chakravarty, Nabajit, E-mail: tpsb2@iacs.res.i [Positional Astronomy Centre, Block AQ, Plot 8, Sector 5, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700091 (India)

    2010-04-28

    We have presented an analytic theory for the Casimir force on a Bose-Einstein condensate which is confined between two parallel plates. We have considered Dirichlet boundary conditions for the condensate wavefunction as well as for the phonon field. We have shown that the condensate wavefunction (which obeys the Gross-Pitaevskii equation) is responsible for the mean field part of the Casimir force, which usually dominates over the quantum (fluctuations) part of the Casimir force.

  18. Casimir force on interacting Bose-Einstein condensate

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Shyamal; Bhattacharjee, J K; Majumder, Dwipesh; Saha, Kush; Chakravarty, Nabajit

    2009-01-01

    We have presented an analytic theory for the Casimir force on a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) which is confined between two parallel plates. We have considered Dirichlet boundary conditions for the condensate wave function as well as for the phonon field. We have shown that, the condensate wave function (which obeys the Gross-Pitaevskii equation) is responsible for the mean field part of Casimir force, which usually dominates over the quantum (fluctuations) part of the Casimir force.

  19. Comments on the Casimir energy in supersymmetric field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Jakob; Martelli, Dario

    2015-07-01

    We study the Casimir energy of four-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories in the context of the rigid limit of new minimal supergravity. Firstly, revisiting the computation of the localized partition function on S 1 × S 3, we recover the supersymmetric Casimir energy from its path integral definition. Secondly, we consider the same theories in the Hamiltonian formalism on , focussing on the free limit and including a one- parameter family of background gauge fields along . We compute the vacuum expectation value of the canonical Hamiltonian using zeta function regularization, and show that this interpolates between the supersymmetric Casimir energy and the ordinary Casimir energy of a supersymmetric free field theory.

  20. How to modify the van der Waals and Casimir forces without change of the dielectric permittivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchitskaya, G L; Mohideen, U; Mostepanenko, V M

    2012-10-24

    We propose a new experiment on the measurement of the Casimir force and its gradient between a Au-coated sphere and two different plates made of doped semiconductors. The concentrations of charge carriers in the plates are chosen slightly below and above the critical density at which the Mott-Anderson insulator-metal transition occurs. We calculate changes in the Casimir force and the Casimir pressure due to the insulator-metal transition using the standard Lifshitz theory and the phenomenological approach neglecting the contribution of free charge carriers in the dielectric permittivity of insulator materials (this approach was recently supported by the measurement data of several experiments). It is demonstrated that for the special selection of semiconductor materials (S- or Se-doped Si, B-doped diamond) the calculation results using the two theoretical approaches differ significantly and the predicted effects are easily detectable using the existing laboratory setups. In the case that the prediction of the phenomenological approach is confirmed, this would open opportunities to modify the van der Waals and Casimir forces with almost no change of room temperature dielectric permittivity.

  1. Lateral Casimir Force on a Rotating Particle near a Planar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjavacas, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Fortuño, Francisco J.; García de Abajo, F. Javier; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2017-03-01

    We study the lateral Casimir force experienced by a particle that rotates near a planar surface. The origin of this force lies in the symmetry breaking induced by the particle rotation in the vacuum and thermal fluctuations of its dipole moment, and therefore, in contrast to lateral Casimir forces previously described in the literature for corrugated surfaces, it exists despite the translational invariance of the planar surface. Working within the framework of fluctuational electrodynamics, we derive analytical expressions for the lateral force and analyze its dependence on the geometrical and material properties of the system. In particular, we show that the direction of the force can be controlled by adjusting the particle-surface distance, which may be exploited as a new mechanism to manipulate nanoscale objects.

  2. Tuning Patchy Bonds Induced by Critical Casimir Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truc A. Nguyen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental control of patchy interactions promises new routes for the assembly of complex colloidal structures, but remains challenging. Here, we investigate the role of patch width in the assembly of patchy colloidal particles assembled by critical Casimir forces. The particles are composed of a hydrophobic dumbbell with an equatorial hydrophilic polymer shell, and are synthesized to have well-defined patch-to-shell area ratios. Patch-to-patch binding is achieved in near-critical binary solvents, in which the particle interaction strength and range are controlled by the temperature-dependent solvent correlation length. Upon decreasing the patch-to-shell area ratio, we observe a pronounced change of the bonding morphology towards directed single-bonded configurations, as clearly reflected in the formation of chain-like structures. Computer simulations using an effective critical Casimir pair potential for the patches show that the morphology change results from the geometric exclusion of the increasingly thick hydrophilic particle shells. These results highlight the experimental control of patchy interactions through the engineering of the building blocks on the way towards rationally designed colloidal superstructures.

  3. Extended Analysis of the Casimir Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are several arguments for the conventional form of the Zero Point Energy fre- quency spectrum to be put in doubt. It has thus to be revised in to that of a self-consistent system in statistical equilibrium where the total energy de nsity and the equivalent pres- sure become finite. An extended form of the Casimir force is th ereby proposed to be used as a tool for determining the local magnitude of the same pressure. This can be done in terms of measurements on the force between a pair po lished plane plates consisting of different metals, the plates having very small or zero air gaps. T his corre- sponds to the largest possible Casimir force. Even then, the re may arise problems with other adhering forces, possibly to be clarified in further experiments.

  4. Casimir apparatuses in a weak gravitational field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bimonte, Giuseppe; Calloni, Enrico; Esposito, Giampiero

    2009-01-01

    We review and assess a part of the recent work on Casimir apparatuses in the weak gravitational field of the Earth. For a free, real massless scalar field subject to Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on the parallel plates, the resulting regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor...... is covariantly conserved, while the trace anomaly vanishes if the massless field is conformally coupled to gravity. Conformal coupling also ensures a finite Casimir energy and finite values of the pressure upon parallel plates. These results have been extended to an electromagnetic field subject to perfect...... conductor (hence idealized) boundary conditions on parallel plates, by various authors. The regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor has beene valuated up to second order in the gravity acceleration. In both the scalar and the electromagnetic case, studied to first order in the gravity...

  5. Curved Casimir Operators and the BGG Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Cap

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We prove that the Casimir operator acting on sections of a homogeneous vector bundle over a generalized flag manifold naturally extends to an invariant differential operator on arbitrary parabolic geometries. We study some properties of the resulting invariant operators and compute their action on various special types of natural bundles. As a first application, we give a very general construction of splitting operators for parabolic geometries. Then we discuss the curved Casimir operators on differential forms with values in a tractor bundle, which nicely relates to the machinery of BGG sequences. This also gives a nice interpretation of the resolution of a finite dimensional representation by (spaces of smooth vectors in principal series representations provided by a BGG sequence.

  6. Critical Casimir forces and anomalous wetting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laboratoire de Physique Statistique de l´Ecole Normale Supérieure, associé au CNRS et aux Universités Paris 6 et 7, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. E-mail: balibar@lps.ens.fr. Abstract. We present a review of critical Casimir forces in connection with successive experiments on wetting near the critical ...

  7. Improved constraints on the coupling constants of axion-like particles to nucleons from recent Casimir-less experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimchitskaya, G.L.; Mostepanenko, V.M. [Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Institute of Physics, Nanotechnology and Telecommunications, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-01

    We obtain improved constraints on the coupling constants of axion-like particles to nucleons from a recently performed Casimir-less experiment. For this purpose, the differential force between a Au-coated sphere and either the Au or the Si sector of a rotating disc, arising due to two-axion exchange, is calculated. Over a wide region of axion masses, from 1.7 x 10{sup -3} eV to 0.9 eV, the obtained constraints are up to a factor of 60 stronger than the previously known ones following from the Cavendish-type experiment and measurements of the effective Casimir pressure. (orig.)

  8. The Effect of Core Configuration on Thermal Barrier Thermal Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Bott, Robert H.; Druesedow, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal barriers and seals are integral components in the thermal protection systems (TPS) of nearly all aerospace vehicles. They are used to minimize heat transfer through interfaces and gaps and protect underlying temperature-sensitive components. The core insulation has a significant impact on both the thermal and mechanical properties of compliant thermal barriers. Proper selection of an appropriate core configuration to mitigate conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer through the thermal barrier is challenging. Additionally, optimization of the thermal barrier for thermal performance may have counteracting effects on mechanical performance. Experimental evaluations have been conducted to better understand the effect of insulation density on permeability and leakage performance, which can significantly impact the resistance to convective heat transfer. The effect of core density on mechanical performance was also previously investigated and will be reviewed. Simple thermal models were also developed to determine the impact of various core parameters on downstream temperatures. An extended understanding of these factors can improve the ability to design and implement these critical TPS components.

  9. Surface Roughness and Material Optical Properties Influence on Casimir/van der Waals and Capillary Surface Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwol, P.J. van; Palasantzas, G.

    2010-01-01

    Theory calculations using the Lifshitz theory and atomic force microscopy force measurements show that Casimir/van der Weals dispersive forces have a strong dependence on material optical properties and surface roughness. At separations below 100 nm the roughness effect is manifested through a

  10. Three-body critical Casimir forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, T G; Harnau, L; Dietrich, S

    2015-04-01

    Within mean-field theory we calculate universal scaling functions associated with critical Casimir forces for a system consisting of three parallel cylindrical colloids immersed in a near-critical binary liquid mixture. For several geometrical arrangements and boundary conditions at the surfaces of the colloids we study the force between two colloidal particles in the direction normal to their axes, analyzing the influence of the presence of a third particle on that force. Upon changing temperature or the relative positions of the particles we observe interesting features such as a change of sign of this force caused by the presence of the third particle. We determine the three-body component of the forces acting on one of the colloids by subtracting the pairwise forces from the total force. The three-body contribution to the total critical Casimir force turns out to be more pronounced for small surface-to-surface distances between the colloids as well as for temperatures close to criticality. Moreover, we compare our results with similar ones for other physical systems such as three atoms interacting via van der Waals forces.

  11. Casimir amplitudes in topological quantum phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, M. A.; Continentino, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Topological phase transitions constitute a new class of quantum critical phenomena. They cannot be described within the usual framework of the Landau theory since, in general, the different phases cannot be distinguished by an order parameter, neither can they be related to different symmetries. In most cases, however, one can identify a diverging length at these topological transitions. This allows us to describe them using a scaling approach and to introduce a set of critical exponents that characterize their universality class. Here we consider some relevant models of quantum topological transitions associated with well-defined critical exponents that are related by a quantum hyperscaling relation. We extend to these models a finite-size scaling approach based on techniques for calculating the Casimir force in electromagnetism. This procedure allows us to obtain universal Casimir amplitudes at their quantum critical points. Our results verify the validity of finite-size scaling in these systems and confirm the values of the critical exponents obtained previously.

  12. MHD Gauge Fields: Helicities and Casimirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Webb, G. M.; Zank, G. P.; Anco, S.

    2016-12-01

    Clebsch potential gauge field theory for magnetohydrodynamics is developed based in part on the theory of Calkin (1963). It is shown how the polarization vector P in Calkin's approach, naturally arises from the Lagrange multiplier constraint equation for Faraday's equation for the magnetic induction B, or alternatively from the magnetic vector potential form of Faraday's equation. Gauss's equation, (divergence of Bis zero), is incorporated in the variational principle by means of a Lagrange multiplier constraint. Noether's theorem, and gauge symmetries are used to derive the conservation laws for (a) magnetic helicity (b) cross helicity, (c) fluid helicity for non-magnetized fluids, and (d) a class of conservation laws associated with curl and divergence equations, which applies to Faraday's equation and Gauss's equation. The magnetic helicity conservation law is due to a gauge symmetry in MHD and not due to a fluid relabelling symmetry. The analysis is carried out for a non-barotropic gas. The cross helicity and fluid helicity conservation are nonlocal conservation laws, that reduce to local conservation laws for the case of a barotropic gas. The connections between gauge symmetries, Clebsch potentials and Casimirs are developed. It is shown that the gauge symmetry functionals in the work of Henyey (1982) satisfy the Casimir equations.

  13. Casimir stress in materials: Hard divergency at soft walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griniasty, Itay; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2017-11-01

    The Casimir force between macroscopic bodies is well understood, but not the Casimir stress inside bodies. Suppose empty space or a uniform medium meets a soft wall where the refractive index is continuous but its derivative jumps. For this situation we predict a characteristic power law for the stress inside the soft wall and close to its edges. Our result shows that such edges are not tolerated in the aggregation of liquids at surfaces, regardless whether the liquid is attracted or repelled.

  14. Conformal field theory of critical Casimir forces between surfaces with alternating boundary conditions in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubail, J.; Santachiara, R.; Emig, T.

    2017-03-01

    Systems as diverse as binary mixtures and inclusions in biological membranes, and many more, can be described effectively by interacting spins. When the critical fluctuations in these systems are constrained by boundary conditions, critical Casimir forces (CCF) emerge. Here we analyze CCF between boundaries with alternating boundary conditions in two dimensions, employing conformal field theory (CFT). After presenting the concept of boundary changing operators, we specifically consider two different boundary configurations for a strip of critical Ising spins: (I) alternating equi-sized domains of up and down spins on both sides of the strip, with a possible lateral shift, and (II) alternating domains of up and down spins of different size on one side and homogeneously fixed spins on the other side of the strip. Asymptotic results for the CCF at small and large distances are derived. We introduce a novel modified Szegö formula for determinants of real antisymmetric block Toeplitz matrices to obtain the exact CCF and the corresponding scaling functions at all distances. We demonstrate the existence of a surface renormalization group flow between universal force amplitudes of different magnitude and sign. The Casimir force can vanish at a stable equilibrium position that can be controlled by parameters of the boundary conditions. Lateral Casimir forces assume a universal simple cosine form at large separations.

  15. Numerical vs. Semiclassical Evaluation of Casimir Forces in Piston Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaden, Martin; Mateescu, Liviu

    2008-05-01

    Using a modified wordline approach[1] for a massless scalar field satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions, we numerically obtain the Casimir force on a piston in a cylindrical cavity with a cylinder head of different radius. There are no contributions from arbitrarily short paths and the Casimir force on the piston is finite for all systems considered. Our algorithm for Casimir forces in closed concave geometries is numerically stable, fast and accurate. For a hemispherical cylinder head, we analytically and numerically obtain an attractive contribution to the Casimir force that is inversely proportional to the elevation of the piston and does not depend on the radius of the cylinder. This attractive contribution to the Casimir energy cannot be distinguished from one due to the presence of a charge. It is of higher semiclassical order and was not observed in the leading description by periodic orbits [2]. By changing the radius of the cylinder head compared to that of the cylinder, we numerically verify the semiclassical estimate [2] that the Casimir force on the piston is drastically reduced by a hemispherical cylinder head. We also present preliminary numerical studies for a massless scalar field satisfying Neumann boundary conditions. [1] H. Gies, K. Langfeld and L. Moyaerts, JHEP 0306, 018 (2003); H. Gies and K. Klingmuller, Phys. Rev. D74, 045002 (2006). [2] L Mateescu and M. Schaden, [quant-ph/0705.3435].

  16. Towards a Casimir Force Measurement between Micromachined Parallel Plate Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco J. Wiegerink

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ever since its prediction, experimental investigation of the Casimir force has been of great scientific interest. Many research groups have successfully attempted quantifying the force with different device geometries; however, measurement of the Casimir force between parallel plates with sub-micron separation distance is still a challenging task, since it becomes extremely difficult to maintain sufficient parallelism between the plates. The Casimir force can significantly influence the operation of micro devices and to realize reliable and reproducible devices it is necessary to understand and experimentally verify the influence of the Casimir force at sub-micron scale. In this paper, we present the design principle, fabrication and characterization of micromachined parallel plate structures that could allow the measurement of the Casimir force with tunable separation distance in the range of 100 to 1000 nm. Initially, a gold coated parallel plate structure is explored to measure the Casimir force, but also other material combinations could be investigated. Using gold-silicon eutectic bonding, a reliable approach to bond chips with integrated suspended plates together with a well-defined separation distance in the order of 1–2 μm is developed.

  17. Theoretical modeling of the Casimir force-induced instability in freestanding nanowires with circular cross-section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhabadi, Amin; Abadian, Naeime; Rach, Randolph; Abadyan, Mohamadreza

    2014-09-01

    The Casimir force can induce instability and adhesion in freestanding nanostructures. Previous research efforts in this area have exclusively focused on modeling the instability in structures with planar or rectangular cross-section, while, to the best knowledge of the authors, no attention has been paid to investigate this phenomenon for nanowires with circular cross-section. In this study, effects of the Casimir force on the instability and adhesion of freestanding Cylinder-Plate and Cylinder-Cylinder geometries are investigated, which are commonly encountered in real nanodevices. To compute the Casimir force, two approaches, i.e. the proximity force approximation (PFA) for small separations and Dirichlet asymptotic approximation (scattering theory) for large separations, are considered. A continuum mechanics theory is employed, in conjunction with the Euler-beam model, to obtain constitutive equations of the systems. The governing nonlinear constitutive equations of the nanostructures are solved using two different approaches, i.e. the analytical modified Adomian decomposition (MAD) and the numerical finite difference method (FDM). The detachment length and minimum gap, both of which prevent the Casimir force-induced adhesion, are computed for both configurations.

  18. Casimir scaling and Yang-Mills glueballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Deog Ki; Lee, Jong-Wan; Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio; Vadacchino, Davide

    2017-12-01

    We conjecture that in Yang-Mills theories the ratio between the ground-state glueball mass squared and the string tension is proportional to the ratio of the eigenvalues of quadratic Casimir operators in the adjoint and the fundamental representations. The proportionality constant depends on the dimension of the space-time only, and is henceforth universal. We argue that this universality, which is supported by available lattice results, is a direct consequence of area-law confinement. In order to explain this universal behavior, we provide three analytical arguments, based respectively on a Bethe-Salpeter analysis, on the saturation of the scale anomaly by the lightest scalar glueball and on QCD sum rules, commenting on the underlying assumptions that they entail and on their physical implications.

  19. Giant thermal Hall effect in multiferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideue, T.; Kurumaji, T.; Ishiwata, S.; Tokura, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Multiferroics, in which dielectric and magnetic orders coexist and couple with each other, attract renewed interest for their cross-correlated phenomena, offering a fundamental platform for novel functionalities. Elementary excitations in such systems are strongly affected by the lattice-spin interaction, as exemplified by the electromagnons and the magneto-thermal transport. Here we report an unprecedented coupling between magnetism and phonons in multiferroics, namely, the giant thermal Hall effect. The thermal transport of insulating polar magnets (ZnxFe1-x)2Mo3O8 is dominated by phonons, yet extremely sensitive to the magnetic structure. In particular, large thermal Hall conductivities are observed in the ferrimagnetic phase, indicating unconventional lattice-spin interactions and a new mechanism for the Hall effect in insulators. Our results show that the thermal Hall effect in multiferroic materials can be an effective probe for strong lattice-spin interactions and provide a new tool for magnetic control of thermal currents.

  20. Effective thermal conductivity of condensed polymeric nanofluids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... scattering at matrix–particle boundaries. These two mechanisms are combined to arrive at an expression for their effective thermal conductivity. Analysis of the results reveals the possibility to tune the thermal conductivity of such nanosolids over a wide range using the right types of nanoparticles and right concentration.

  1. Tunable Casimir-Polder Forces and Spontaneous Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Felipe; Kort-Kamp, Wilton; Pinheiro, Felipe; Cysne, Tarik; Oliver, Diego; Farina, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the dispersive Casimir-Polder interaction between a Rubidium atom and a graphene sheet subjected to an external magnetic field B. We demonstrate that this concrete physical system allows for a high degree of control of dispersive interactions at micro and nanoscales. Indeed, we show that the application of an external magnetic field can induce a 80 % reduction of the Casimir-Polder energy relative to its value without the field. We also show that sharp discontinuities emerge in the Casimir-Polder interaction energy for certain values of the applied magnetic field at low temperatures. In addition, we also show that atomic spontaneous emission rates can be greatly modified by the action of the magnetic field, with an order of magnitude enhancement or suppression depending on the dipole's moment orientation.

  2. Casimir force phase transitions in the graphene family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Lopez, Pablo; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Woods, Lilia M.

    2017-03-01

    The Casimir force is a universal interaction induced by electromagnetic quantum fluctuations between any types of objects. The expansion of the graphene family by adding silicene, germanene and stanene (2D allotropes of Si, Ge, and Sn), lends itself as a platform to probe Dirac-like physics in honeycomb staggered systems in such a ubiquitous interaction. We discover Casimir force phase transitions between these staggered 2D materials induced by the complex interplay between Dirac physics, spin-orbit coupling and externally applied fields. In particular, we find that the interaction energy experiences different power law distance decays, magnitudes and dependences on characteristic physical constants. Furthermore, due to the topological properties of these materials, repulsive and quantized Casimir interactions become possible.

  3. Casimir Friction between Dense Polarizable Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan S. Høye

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper—a continuation of our recent series of papers on Casimir friction for a pair of particles at low relative particle velocity—extends the analysis, so as to include dense media. The situation becomes, in this case, more complex, due to induced dipolar correlations, both within planes and between planes. We show that the structure of the problem can be simplified by regarding the two half-planes as a generalized version of a pair of particles. It turns out that macroscopic parameters, such as permittivity, suffice to describe the friction, also in the finite density case. The expression for the friction force per unit surface area becomes mathematically well-defined and finite at finite temperature. We give numerical estimates and compare them with those obtained earlier by Pendry (1997 and by Volokitin and Persson (2007. We also show in an appendix how the statistical methods that we are using correspond to the field theoretical methods more commonly in use.

  4. Casimir forces in multilayer magnetodielectrics with both gain and loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amooghorban, Ehsan; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2011-01-01

    A path-integral approach to the quantization of the electromagnetic field in a linearly amplifying magnetodielectric medium is presented. Two continua of inverted harmonic oscillators are used to describe the polarizability and magnetizability of the amplifying medium. The causal susceptibilities...... and Casimir forces for a multilayer magnetodielectric medium with both gain and loss. We point out the essential differences with a purely passive layered medium. For a single layer, we find different bounds on the Casimir force for fully amplifying and for lossy media. The force is attractive in both cases...

  5. Thermal Bridge Effects in Walls Separating Rowhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report the thermal bridge effects at internal wall/roof junctions in rowhouses are evaluated. The analysis is performed using a numerical calculation programme, and different solutions are evaluated with respect to extra heat loss and internal surface temperatures.......In this report the thermal bridge effects at internal wall/roof junctions in rowhouses are evaluated. The analysis is performed using a numerical calculation programme, and different solutions are evaluated with respect to extra heat loss and internal surface temperatures....

  6. Thermal effects on PLATO point spread function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullieuszik, Marco; Magrin, Demetrio; Greggio, Davide; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Nascimbeni, Valerio; Bergomi, Maria; Biondi, Federico; Chinellato, Simonetta; Dima, Marco; Farinato, Jacopo; Marafatto, Luca; Viotto, Valentina; Munari, Matteo; Pagano, Isabella; Sicilia, Daniela; Basso, Stefano; Borsa, Francesco; Ghigo, Mauro; Spiga, Daniele; Bandy, Thimoty; Benz, Willy; Brändli, Mathias; Bruno, Giordano; De Roche, Thierry; Piazza, Daniele; Rieder, Martin; Brandeker, Alexis; Klebor, Maximilian; Mogulsky, Valery; Schweitzer, Mario; Wieser, Matthias; Erikson, Anders; Rauer, Heike

    2016-07-01

    Thermal effects in PLATO are analyzed in terms of uniform temperature variations, longitudinal and lateral temperature gradients. We characterize these effects by evaluating the PSF centroid shifts and the Enclosed Energy variations across the whole FoV. These patterns can then be used to gauge the thermal behavior of each individual telescope in order to improve the local photometric calibration across the PLATO field of view.

  7. Casimir effect in hemisphere capped tubes

    CERN Document Server

    de Mello, E R Bezerra

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the vacuum densities for a massive scalar field with general curvature coupling in background of a (2+1)-dimensional spacetime corresponding to a cylindrical tube with a hemispherical cap. A complete set of mode functions is constructed and the positive-frequency Wightman function is evaluated for both the cylindrical and hemispherical subspaces. On the base of this, the vacuum expectation values of the field squared and energy-momentum tensor are investigated. The mean field squared and the normal stress are finite on the boundary separating two subspaces, whereas the energy density and the parallel stress diverge as the inverse power of the distance from the boundary. For a conformally coupled field, the vacuum energy density is negative on the cylindrical part of the space. On the hemisphere, it is negative near the top and positive close to the boundary. In the case of minimal coupling the energy density on the cup is negative. On the tube it is positive near the boundary and ...

  8. Dynamical Casimir effect and loop corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedov, E. T.; Alexeev, S. O.

    2017-09-01

    We calculate quantum loop corrections to the stress-energy flux caused by moving mirrors. We consider massless, self-interacting, ϕ4, real scalar theory. In these calculations we encounter new and quite unexpected subtleties due to the absence of global hyperbolicity in the presence of mirrors. We attempt to clearly phrase as many hidden assumptions and complications as possible that appear while solving the problem in question. On top of that, we find that quantum loop corrections to the stress-energy flux grow with time and are not suppressed in comparison with the semiclassical contributions. Thus, we observe the breakdown of the perturbation theory, and we discuss its physical origin and ways to deal with such a situation. As a byproduct, we observe a similarity of the problem in question with that for the minimally coupled, massless scalar field in de Sitter space.

  9. Vacuum energy density fluctuations in Minkowski and Casimir states via smeared quantum fields and point separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nicholas G.; Hu, B. L.

    2000-10-01

    We present calculations of the variance of fluctuations and of the mean of the energy momentum tensor of a massless scalar field for the Minkowski and Casimir vacua as a function of an intrinsic scale defined by a smeared field or by point separation. We point out that, contrary to prior claims, the ratio of variance to mean-squared being of the order unity is not necessarily a good criterion for measuring the invalidity of semiclassical gravity. For the Casimir topology we obtain expressions for the variance to mean-squared ratio as a function of the intrinsic scale (defined by a smeared field) compared to the extrinsic scale (defined by the separation of the plates, or the periodicity of space). Our results make it possible to identify the spatial extent where negative energy density prevails which could be useful for studying quantum field effects in worm holes and baby universes, and for examining the design feasibility of real-life ``time machines.'' For the Minkowski vacuum we find that the ratio of the variance to the mean-squared, calculated from the coincidence limit, is identical to the value of the Casimir case at the same limit for spatial point separation while identical to the value of a hot flat space result with a temporal point separation. We analyze the origin of divergences in the fluctuations of the energy density and discuss choices in formulating a procedure for their removal, thus raising new questions about the uniqueness and even the very meaning of regularization of the energy momentum tensor for quantum fields in curved or even flat spacetimes when spacetime is viewed as having an extended structure.

  10. CASIMIR FORCE EXPERIMENTS IN AIR: TWO BIRDS WITH ONE STONE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Man, S.; Heeck, K.; Smith, K.; Wijngaarden, R. J.; Iannuzzi, D.

    2010-01-01

    We present a short overview of the recent efforts of our group in the design of high precision Casimir force setups. We first describe our Atomic Force Microscope based technique that allows one to simultaneously and continuously calibrate the instrument, compensate for a residual electrostatic

  11. Roughness correction to the Casimir force beyond perturbation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, Wijnand; Palasantzas, George; Knoester, Jasper; Svetovoy, Vitaly B.

    Up to now there has been no reliable method to calculate the Casimir force when surface roughness becomes comparable with the separation between bodies. Statistical analysis of rough Au films demonstrates rare peaks with heights considerably larger than the root-mean-square (rms) roughness. These

  12. Nonlocal impedances and the casimir entropy at low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svetovoy, Vitaly; Esquivel, R.

    2005-01-01

    The problem with the temperature dependence of the Casimir force is investigated. Specifically, the entropy behavior in the low temperature limit, which caused debates in the literature, is analyzed. It is stressed that the behavior of the relaxation frequency in the T0 limit does not play a

  13. Thermal Bridge Effects in Window Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report thermal bridge effects in window grooves are analyzed. The analysis is performed using different thicknesses of the window groove insulation, to evaluate what the optimal solution is.All analysis in the report is performed using both 2- and 3-dimensional numerical analysis....

  14. Microlevel thermal effects in metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herakovich, Carl T.

    1990-01-01

    A method for studying the influence of thermal effects on the inelastic response of metal matrix composites is reviewed. A micromechanics approach based upon the method of cells is shown to be quite versatile for studying a variety of materials response phenomena. Yielding and inelastic response of the composite are predicted as functions of thermal stresses, yielding of the matrix, and imperfect fiber/matrix bonding. Results are presented in the form of yield surfaces and nonlinear stress-strain curves for unidirectional and laminated boron/aluminum and silicon-carbide/titanium.

  15. Effects of radiant temperature on thermal comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmaca, Ibrahim; Kaynakli, Omer; Yigit, Abdulvahap [Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the local differences between body segments caused by high radiant temperature, and to analyze the interior surface temperatures for different wall and ceiling constructions with their effect on thermal comfort. For the segment-wise thermal interactions between human body and its surrounding, simulations have been conducted by appropriately modifying Gagge 2-node model to multi-segment case to demonstrate the local differences. Simulation results are found to be in good agreement with experimental and simulation results reported in the literature. To calculate the interior surface temperatures of the wall and ceiling, the sol-air temperature approach is used for convenience. It is shown in the paper that the body segments close the relatively hot surfaces are more affected than others and interior surface temperatures of un-insulated walls and ceilings exposed to a strong solar radiation reach high levels, all of which cause thermal discomfort for the occupants in buildings. (author)

  16. Measurement of the Casimir Force between Two Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Joseph L.; Somers, David A. T.; Munday, Jeremy N.

    2018-01-01

    Complex interaction geometries offer a unique opportunity to modify the strength and sign of the Casimir force. However, measurements have traditionally been limited to sphere-plate or plate-plate configurations. Prior attempts to extend measurements to different geometries relied on either nanofabrication techniques that are limited to only a few materials or slight modifications of the sphere-plate geometry due to alignment difficulties of more intricate configurations. Here, we overcome this obstacle to present measurements of the Casimir force between two gold spheres using an atomic force microscope. Force measurements are alternated with topographical scans in the x -y plane to maintain alignment of the two spheres to within approximately 400 nm (˜1 % of the sphere radii). Our experimental results are consistent with Lifshitz's theory using the proximity force approximation (PFA), and corrections to the PFA are bounded using nine sphere-sphere and three sphere-plate measurements with spheres of varying radii.

  17. Casimir scaling and Yang–Mills glueballs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deog Ki Hong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We conjecture that in Yang–Mills theories the ratio between the ground-state glueball mass squared and the string tension is proportional to the ratio of the eigenvalues of quadratic Casimir operators in the adjoint and the fundamental representations. The proportionality constant depends on the dimension of the space-time only, and is henceforth universal. We argue that this universality, which is supported by available lattice results, is a direct consequence of area-law confinement. In order to explain this universal behavior, we provide three analytical arguments, based respectively on a Bethe–Salpeter analysis, on the saturation of the scale anomaly by the lightest scalar glueball and on QCD sum rules, commenting on the underlying assumptions that they entail and on their physical implications. Keywords: Glueballs, Yang–Mills theories, Confinement, Casimir scaling

  18. Weak and Repulsive Casimir Force in Piston Geometries

    OpenAIRE

    Schaden, Martin; Mateescu, Liviu

    2007-01-01

    We study the Casimir force in piston-like geometries semiclassically. The force on the piston is finite and physical, but to leading semiclassical approximation depends strongly on the shape of the surrounding cavity. Whereas this force is attractive for pistons in a parallelepiped with flat cylinder head, for which the semiclassical approximation by periodic orbits is exact, this approximation to the force on the piston vanishes for a semi-cylindrical head and becomes repulsive for a cylinde...

  19. Casimir Forces at Tricritical Points: Theory and Possible Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Ritschel, Uwe; Gerwinski, Markus

    1997-01-01

    Using field-theoretical methods and exploiting conformal invariance, we study Casimir forces at tricritical points exerted by long-range fluctuations of the order-parameter field. Special attention is paid to the situation where the symmetry is broken by the boundary conditions (extraordinary transition). Besides the parallel-plate configuration, we also discuss the geometries of two separate spheres and a single sphere near a planar wall, which may serve as a model for colloidal particles im...

  20. Proof that Casimir force does not originate from vacuum energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Nikolić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple general proof that Casimir force cannot originate from the vacuum energy of electromagnetic (EM field. The full QED Hamiltonian consists of 3 terms: the pure electromagnetic term Hem, the pure matter term Hmatt and the interaction term Hint. The Hem-term commutes with all matter fields because it does not have any explicit dependence on matter fields. As a consequence, Hem cannot generate any forces on matter. Since it is precisely this term that generates the vacuum energy of EM field, it follows that the vacuum energy does not generate the forces. The misleading statements in the literature that vacuum energy generates Casimir force can be boiled down to the fact that Hem attains an implicit dependence on matter fields by the use of the equations of motion and to the illegitimate treatment of the implicit dependence as if it was explicit. The true origin of the Casimir force is van der Waals force generated by Hint.

  1. Scaling thermal effects in radial flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspeth, R. T.; Guenther, R. B.; Roley, K. L.; McDougal, W. G.

    To adequately evaluate the environmental impact of siting nuclear waste repositories in basalt aquicludes, it is essential to know the effects on parameter identification algorithms of thermal gradients that exist in these basaltic aquicludes. Temperatures of approximately 60°C and pressures of approximately 150 atm can be expected at potential repository sites located at depths of approximately 1000 m. The phenomenon of over-recovery has been observed in some pumping tests conducted at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation located in the Pasco Basin adjacent to the Columbia River in the state of Washington, USA. This over-recovery phenomenon may possibly be due to variations in the fluid density caused by thermal gradients. To assess the potential effects of these thermal gradients on indirect parameter identification algorithms, a systematic scaling of the governing field equations is required in order to obtain dimensionless equations based on the principle of similarity. The constitutive relationships for the specific weight of the fluid and for the porosity of the aquiclude are shown to be exponentially dependent on the pressure gradient. The dynamic pressure is converted to the piezometric head and the flow equation for the piezometric head is then scaled in radial coordinates. Order-of-magnitude estimates are made for all variables in unsteady flow for a typical well test in a basaltic aquiclude. Retaining all nonlinear terms, the parametric dependency of the flow equation on the classical dimensionless thermal and hydraulic parameters is demonstrated. These classical parameters include the Batchelor, Fourier, Froude, Grashof, and Reynolds Numbers associated with thermal flows. The flow equation is linearized from order-of-magnitude estimates based on these classical parameters for application in parameter identification algorithms.

  2. A verification of quantum field theory – measurement of Casimir force

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Here we review our work on measurement of the Casimir force between a large alu- minum coated a sphere and flat plate using an atomic force microscope. The average statistical pre- cision is 1% of the force measured at the closest separation. We have also shown nontrival boundary dependence of the Casimir ...

  3. Chaotic behavior in Casimir oscillators : A case study for phase-change materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tajik, Fatemeh; Sedighi, Mehdi; Khorrami, Mohammad; Masoudi, Amir Ali; Palasantzas, George

    2017-01-01

    Casimir forces between material surfaces at close proximity of less than 200 nm can lead to increased chaotic behavior of actuating devices depending on the strength of the Casimir interaction. We investigate these phenomena for phase-change materials in torsional oscillators, where the amorphous to

  4. Passivity based control of hydraulic robot arms using natural Casimir functions: Theory and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakai, S.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a new passivity based control of hydraulic arms based on a new model using “natural��? Casimir functions. Not only passivity but also Casimir functions are used in the modeling and control as a new structural property. First, we refer port-Hamiltonian systems and their properties.

  5. Effects of insular stimulation on thermal nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, D J; Marouf, R; Rainville, P; Bouthillier, A; Nguyen, D K

    2016-05-01

    Electrical stimulation used for brain mapping in the postero-superior insula can evoke pain. The effects of prolonged high frequency insular stimulation on pain thresholds are unknown. Prolonged high frequency insular stimulation, by virtue of its inhibitory properties on networks, could decrease thermal nociception. Epileptic subjects had electrodes implanted in the insular cortex for the purpose of epileptic focus resection. Thermal and pressure nociceptive thresholds were tested bilaterally on the forearm on two consecutive days. Randomly assigned double-blind high frequency (150 Hz) insular stimulation took place for 10 min before pain testing either on the first day or on the second day. Six subjects (three females; mean age of 35 years) were included. Insular stimulation increased heat pain threshold on the ipsilateral (p = 0.003; n = 6) and contralateral sides (p = 0.047; n = 6). Differences in cold pain threshold did not reach statistical significance (ipsilateral: p = 0.341, contralateral: p = 0.143; n = 6), but one subject had a profound decrease in both heat and cold pain responses. Pressure pain threshold was not modified by insular stimulation (ipsilateral: p = 0.1123; contralateral: p = 0.1192; n = 6). Two of the three subjects who had a postero-superior operculo-insulectomy developed central pain with contralateral thermal nociceptive deficit. High frequency inhibitory postero-superior insular stimulation may have the potential to decrease thermal nociception. Together with previous studies, our data support the notion that the integrity of this brain region is necessary for thermal but not pressure nociceptive processing. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  6. Thermal effects in microfluidics with thermal conductivity spatially modulated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Toro, Agustín.

    2014-05-01

    A heat transfer model on a microfluidic is resolved analytically. The model describes a fluid at rest between two parallel plates where each plate is maintained at a differentially specified temperature and the thermal conductivity of the microfluidic is spatially modulated. The heat transfer model in such micro-hydrostatic configuration is analytically resolved using the technique of the Laplace transform applying the Bromwich Integral and the Residue theorem. The temperature outline in the microfluidic is presented as an infinite series of Bessel functions. It is shown that the result for the thermal conductivity spatially modulated has as a particular case the solution when the thermal conductivity is spatially constant. All computations were performed using the computer algebra software Maple. It is claimed that the analytical obtained results are important for the design of nanoscale devices with applications in biotechnology. Furthermore, it is suggested some future research lines such as the study of the heat transfer model in a microfluidic resting between coaxial cylinders with radially modulated thermal conductivity in order to achieve future developments in this area.

  7. Thermal stress effects in intermetallic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, P. K.; Sensmeier, M. D.; Kupperman, D. S.; Wadley, H. N. G.

    1993-01-01

    Intermetallic matrix composites develop residual stresses from the large thermal expansion mismatch (delta-alpha) between the fibers and matrix. This work was undertaken to: establish improved techniques to measure these thermal stresses in IMC's; determine residual stresses in a variety of IMC systems by experiments and modeling; and, determine the effect of residual stresses on selected mechanical properties of an IMC. X ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction (ND), synchrotron XRD (SXRD), and ultrasonics (US) techniques for measuring thermal stresses in IMC were examined and ND was selected as the most promising technique. ND was demonstrated on a variety of IMC systems encompassing Ti- and Ni-base matrices, SiC, W, and Al2O3 fibers, and different fiber fractions (Vf). Experimental results on these systems agreed with predictions of a concentric cylinder model. In SiC/Ti-base systems, little yielding was found and stresses were controlled primarily by delta-alpha and Vf. In Ni-base matrix systems, yield strength of the matrix and Vf controlled stress levels. The longitudinal residual stresses in SCS-6/Ti-24Al-llNb composite were modified by thermomechanical processing. Increasing residual stress decreased ultimate tensile strength in agreement with model predictions. Fiber pushout strength showed an unexpected inverse correlation with residual stress. In-plane shear yield strength showed no dependence on residual stress. Higher levels of residual tension led to higher fatigue crack growth rates, as suggested by matrix mean stress effects.

  8. Artificial Retina Project: Electromagnetic and Thermal Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzi, Gianluca

    2014-08-29

    This award supported the investigation on electromagnetic and thermal effects associated with the artificial retina, designed in collaboration with national laboratories, universities, and private companies. Our work over the two years of support under this award has focused mainly on 1) Design of new telemetry coils for optimal power and data transfer between the implant and the external device while achieving a significant size reduction with respect to currently used coils; 2) feasibility study of the virtual electrode configuration 3) study the effect of pulse shape and duration on the stimulation efficacy.

  9. Effective thermal conductivity of a thin composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, P.E. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Niemann, R.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The thermal conductivity of a randomly oriented composite material is modeled using a probabilistic approach in order to determine if a size effect exists for the thermal conductivity at small composite thickness. The numerical scheme employs a random number generator to position the filler elements, which have a relatively high thermal conductivity, within a matrix having a relatively low thermal conductivity. Results indicate that, below some threshold thickness, the composite thermal conductivity increases with decreasing thickness, while above the threshold the thermal conductivity is independent of thickness. The threshold thickness increases for increasing filler fraction and increasing k{sub f}/k{sub m}, the ratio between filler and matrix thermal conductivities.

  10. Physical effects of thermal pollution in lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Râman Vinnâ, Love; Wüest, Alfred; Bouffard, Damien

    2017-05-01

    Anthropogenic heat emissions into inland waters influence water temperature and affect stratification, heat and nutrient fluxes, deep water renewal, and biota. Given the increased thermal stress on these systems by growing cooling demands of riparian/coastal infrastructures in combination with climate warming, the question arises on how to best monitor and manage these systems. In this study, we investigate local and system-wide physical effects on the medium-sized perialpine Lake Biel (Switzerland), influenced by point-source cooling water emission from an upstream nuclear power plant (heat emission ˜700 MW, ˜18 W m-2 lake wide). We use one-dimensional (SIMSTRAT) and three-dimensional (Delft3D-Flow) hydrodynamic numerical simulations and provide model resolution guidelines for future studies of thermal pollution. The effects on Lake Biel by the emitted excess heat are summarized as: (i) clear seasonal trend in temperature increase, locally up to 3.4°C and system-wide volume mean ˜0.3°C, which corresponds to one decade of regional surface water climate warming; (ii) the majority of supplied thermal pollution (˜60%) leaves this short residence time (˜58 days) system via the main outlet, whereas the remaining heat exits to the atmosphere; (iii) increased length of stratified period due to the stabilizing effects of additional heat; (iv) system-wide effects such as warmer temperature, prolonged stratified period, and river-caused epilimnion flushing are resolved by both models whereas local raised temperature and river short circuiting was only identifiable with the three-dimensional model approach. This model-based method provides an ideal tool to assess man-made impacts on lakes and their downstream outflows.

  11. Nanolevitation Phenomena in Real Plane-Parallel Systems Due to the Balance between Casimir and Gravity Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteso, Victoria; Carretero-Palacios, Sol; Míguez, Hernán

    2015-03-12

    We report on the theoretical analysis of equilibrium distances in real plane-parallel systems under the influence of Casimir and gravity forces at thermal equilibrium. Due to the balance between these forces, thin films of Teflon, silica, or polystyrene in a single-layer configuration and immersed in glycerol stand over a silicon substrate at certain stable or unstable positions depending on the material and the slab thickness. Hybrid systems containing silica and polystyrene, materials which display Casimir forces and equilibrium distances of opposite nature when considered individually, are analyzed in either bilayer arrangements or as composite systems made of a homogeneous matrix with small inclusions inside. For each configuration, equilibrium distances and their stability can be adjusted by fine-tuning of the volume occupied by each material. We find the specific conditions under which nanolevitation of realistic films should be observed. Our results indicate that thin films of real materials in plane-parallel configurations can be used to control suspension or stiction phenomena at the nanoscale.

  12. Sensitivity on materials optical properties of single beam torsional Casimir actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Fatemeh; Sedighi, Mehdi; Palasantzas, George

    2017-05-01

    Here, we investigate the dynamical sensitivity of electrostatic torsional type microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) on the optical properties of interacting materials. This is accomplished by considering the combined effect of mechanical Casimir and electrostatic torques to drive the device actuation. The bifurcation curves and the phase portraits of the actuation dynamics have been analyzed to compare the sensitivity of a single beam torsional device operating between materials with conductivities that differ by several orders of magnitude. It is shown that the range of stable operation of torsional MEMS against stiction instabilities can increase by decreasing the conductivity of interacting materials. Moreover, the introduction of controlled dissipation, corresponding to a finite quality factor, in an otherwise unstable torsional system, could alter an unstable motion towards stiction to dissipative stable motion.

  13. Numerical calculation of the force on some Generalized Casimir Pistons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaden, Martin

    2009-04-01

    In this talk I presented numerical calculations of the Casimir force due to a scalar field on a piston in a cylinder of radius τ with a spherical cap of radius R > τ. Geometrical subtractions give a finite interaction energy. Due to reflection positivity, the vacuum force on the piston by a scalar field satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions is attractive for these geometries, but the strength and short-distance behavior of the force depends strongly on the shape of the piston casing. For a cylindrical casing with a hemispherical head of large radius, the attractive force on the piston is inversely proportional to the square of the height of the piston.

  14. The Effect of Thermal Mass on Annual Heat Load and Thermal Comfort in Cold Climate Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Vanessa; Kotol, Martin; Grunau, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Thermal mass in building construction refers to a building material's ability to absorb and release heat based on changing environmental conditions. In building design, materials with high thermal mass used in climates with a diurnal temperature swing around the interior set-point temperature have...... been shown to reduce the annual heating demand. However, few studies exist regarding the effects of thermal mass in cold climates. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of high thermal mass on the annual heat demand and thermal comfort in a typical Alaskan residence using energy...... that while increased thermal mass does have advantages in all climates, such as a decrease in summer overheating, it is not an effective strategy for decreasing annual heat demand in typical residential buildings in Alaska. (C) 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers....

  15. Modulation of the Casimir force by laser pulses: Influence of oxide films on the silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Bukina, M. N.; Churkin, Yu. V.; Yurova, V. A.

    2010-10-01

    The possibility of modulating the Casimir force that acts in an air medium between a gold sphere and a silicon plate irradiated by laser pulses has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the oxide film that is formed on the silicon surface in air hardly affects the possibility of modulating the Casimir force when the distances between interacting bodies are of the order of 100 nm. With an increase in the distance, the modulation depth decreases; however, this region is of less practical interest, because the Casimir forces become too weak.

  16. Effects of Screening on the Thermal Resistivity And Compressibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Models for computing thermal resistivity, compressibility ratio, and screening parameter of metals was developed and used to study the effects of screening on the thermal resistivity and compressibility ratio of metals. The results obtained revealed that the thermal resistivity of metals increases with an increase in the electron ...

  17. An effective thermal circuit model for electro-thermal simulation of SOI analog circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-C.; Zhang, Kun

    2011-08-01

    A physics-based thermal circuit model is developed for electro-thermal simulation of SOI analog circuits. The circuit model integrates a non-isothermal device thermal circuit with interconnect thermal networks and is validated with high accuracy against finite element simulations in different layout structures. The non-isothermal circuit model is implemented in BSIMSOI to account for self-heating effect (SHE) in a Spice simulator, and applied to electro-thermal simulation of an SOI cascode current mirror constructed using different layouts. Effects of layout design on electric and thermal behaviors are investigated in detail. Influences of BOX thickness are also examined. It has been shown that the proposed non-isothermal approach is able to effectively account for influences of layout design, self-heating, high temperature gradients along the islands, interconnect temperature distributions, thermal coupling, and heat losses via BOX and interconnects, etc., in SOI current mirror structures. The model provides basic concepts and thermal circuits that can be extended to develop an effective model for electro-thermal simulation of SOI analog ICs.

  18. Numerical and semiclassical analysis of some generalized Casimir pistons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaden, M.

    2009-05-01

    The Casimir force due to a scalar field in a cylinder of radius r with a spherical cap of radius R>r is computed numerically in the world-line approach. A geometrical subtraction scheme gives the finite interaction energy that determines the Casimir force. The spectral function of convex domains is obtained from a probability measure on convex surfaces that is induced by the Wiener measure on Brownian bridges the convex surfaces are the hulls of. Due to reflection positivity, the vacuum force on the piston by a scalar field satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions is attractive in these geometries, but the strength and short-distance behavior of the force depend strongly on the shape of the piston casing. For a cylindrical casing with a hemispherical head, the force on the piston does not depend on the dimension of the casing at small piston elevation a≪R and numerically approaches Fcas(a≪R)=-0.00326(4)ℏc/a2 . Semiclassically this asymptotic force is due to short, closed, and nonperiodic trajectories that reflect just once off the piston near its periphery. A semiclassical estimate reproduces the numerical results for the small-distance behavior of the force within statistical errors, whereas the proximity force approximation is off by one order of magnitude when Rtilde r .

  19. Rectification of a Casimir Nanomachine with a Triangular Wave Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali moradian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the Casimir nano system composed of two quadrisected dielectric disks separated by a thin gap. Initially the two disks have the same surface dielectric distributions. We use scatting approach in the weak coupling limit and show that the top plate experiences a torque  if it rotates about its axes by an angle. Consequently, we will be able to calculate. Quite interesting, such a nanomachine may be used to examine the dielectric dependence of the Casimir torque. Our small system can be used to measure small torques. We assume that the top disk is mounted on an axle and part of the rotational friction in the system comes from the axial friction and an external load is mounted on it. For such a system with specified parameters, we can estimate inertia and axial friction. Therefor we can neglect the inertia term and use the over damped regime to describe the dynamics of our system. We show that our small system can rectify a periodic square-wave angular velocity and we obtain the average angular velocity of the top plate.

  20. Investigating the Role of Ferromagnetic Materials on the Casimir Force & Investigation of the Van Der Waals/Casimir Force with Graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohideen, Umar [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2015-04-14

    Duration of award was from 4/15/10-4/14/15. In this grant period our contributions to the field of VdW/Casimir forces are 24 refereed publications in journals such as Physical Review Letters (4) [1-4], Physical Review B (10) [5-14], Physical Review D (2) [15,16], Applied Physics Letters (1) [17], Review of Scientific Instruments (1) [18] and the International Journal of Modern Physics A (5) [19-23] and B(1) (invited review article [24]). We presented 2 plenary conference talks, 3 lectures at the Pan American School on Frontiers in Casimir Physics, 2 conferences, 1 colloquium and 11 APS talks. If publications are restricted to only those with direct connection to the aims proposed in the prior grant period, then it will be a total of 12: Physical Review Letters (3) [2-4], Physical Review B (6) [6-8,12,13,25], Review of Scientific Instruments (1) [18], International Journal of Modern Physics A (1) [19] and B(1) [169]. A brief aggregated description of the directly connected accomplishments is below. The following topics are detailed: dispersion force measurements with graphene, dispersion force from ferromagnetic metals, conclusion on role of electrostatic patches, UV radiation induced modification of the Casimir force, low temperature measurement of the Casimir force, and Casimir force from thin fluctuating membranes.

  1. On the Regularization independence of the Casimir energy for rectangular geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Luiz

    2011-04-01

    The Ramanujan sum of a divergent series is employed to investigate the regularization independence of the Casimir energy in d-dimensional rectangular geometries. As an specific application we consider the piston geometry for the scalar field.

  2. Effect of thermal state and thermal comfort on cycling performance in the heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulze, E.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Levels, K.; Casadio, J.R.; Plews, D.J.; Kliding, A.E.; Siegel, R.; Laursen, P.B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of thermal state and thermal comfort on cycling performance in the heat. Methods: Seven well-trained male triathletes completed 3 performance trials consisting of 60 min cycling at a fixed rating of perceived exertion (14) followed immediately by a 20-km time trial

  3. How to measure thermal effects of personal cooling systems : Human, thermal manikin and human simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, N.; Psikuta, A.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Rossi, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal effects, such as cooling power and thermophysiological responses initiated upon application of a personal cooling system, can be assessed with (i) humans, (ii) a thermal manikin and (iii) a thermophysiological human simulator. In order to compare these methods, a cooling shirt (mild cooling)

  4. Critical Steps in Data Analysis for Precision Casimir Force Measurements with Semiconducting Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banishev, A. A.; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Mohideen, U.

    2011-06-01

    Some experimental procedures and corresponding results of the precision measurement of the Casimir force between low doped Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) film and gold sphere are described. Measurements were performed using an Atomic Force Microscope in high vacuum. It is shown that the magnitude of the Casimir force decreases after prolonged UV treatment of the ITO film. Some critical data analysis steps such as the correction for the mechanical drift of the sphere-plate system and photodiodes are discussed.

  5. Casimir force in the Goedel space-time and its possible induced cosmological inhomogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodabakhshi, Sh. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shojai, A. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Foundations of Physics Group, School of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The Casimir force between two parallel plates in the Goedel universe is computed for a scalar field at finite temperature. It is observed that when the plates' separation is comparable with the scale given by the rotation of the space-time, the force becomes repulsive and then approaches zero. Since it has been shown previously that the universe may experience a Goedel phase for a small period of time, the induced inhomogeneities from the Casimir force are also studied. (orig.)

  6. Transient thermal effects in Alpine permafrost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Noetzli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In high mountain areas, permafrost is important because it influences the occurrence of natural hazards, because it has to be considered in construction practices, and because it is sensitive to climate change. The assessment of its distribution and evolution is challenging because of highly variable conditions at and below the surface, steep topography and varying climatic conditions. This paper presents a systematic investigation of effects of topography and climate variability that are important for subsurface temperatures in Alpine bedrock permafrost. We studied the effects of both, past and projected future ground surface temperature variations on the basis of numerical experimentation with simplified mountain topography in order to demonstrate the principal effects. The modeling approach applied combines a distributed surface energy balance model and a three-dimensional subsurface heat conduction scheme. Results show that the past climate variations that essentially influence present-day permafrost temperatures at depth of the idealized mountains are the last glacial period and the major fluctuations in the past millennium. Transient effects from projected future warming, however, are likely larger than those from past climate conditions because larger temperature changes at the surface occur in shorter time periods. We further demonstrate the accelerating influence of multi-lateral warming in steep and complex topography for a temperature signal entering the subsurface as compared to the situation in flat areas. The effects of varying and uncertain material properties (i.e., thermal properties, porosity, and freezing characteristics on the subsurface temperature field were examined in sensitivity studies. A considerable influence of latent heat due to water in low-porosity bedrock was only shown for simulations over time periods of decades to centuries. At the end, the model was applied to the topographic setting of the Matterhorn

  7. Thermal Radiation Effects on Thermal Explosion in Polydisperse Fuel Spray-Probabilistic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ophir Navea

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of thermal radiation on the dynamics of a thermal explosion of polydisperse fuel spray with a complete description of the chemistry via a single-step two-reactant model of general order. The polydisperse spray is modeled using a Probability Density Function (PDF. The thermal radiation energy exchange between the evaporation surface of the fuel droplets and the burning gas is described using the Marshak boundary conditions. An explicit expression of the critical condition for thermal explosion limit is derived analytically and represents a generalization of the critical parameter of the classical Semenov theory. Because we investigated the model in the range where the temperature is very high, the effect of the thermal radiation is significant.

  8. The coke drum thermal kinetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldescu, Maria M.; Romero, Sim; Larson, Mel [KBC Advanced Technologies plc, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The coke drum thermal kinetic dynamics fundamentally affect the coker unit yields as well as the coke product properties and unit reliability. In the drum the thermal cracking and polymerization or condensation reactions take place in a semi-batch environment. Understanding the fundamentals of the foaming kinetics that occur in the coke drums is key to avoiding a foam-over that could result in a unit shutdown for several months. Although the most dynamic changes with time occur during drum filling, other dynamics of the coker process will be discussed as well. KBC has contributed towards uncovering and modelling the complexities of heavy oil thermal dynamics. (author)

  9. The effect of leucite crystallization and thermal history on thermal expansion measurement of dental porcelains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajotia, Sharukh Soli

    1997-12-01

    Objectives. Measurement of thermal expansion in glassy materials is complicated by thermal history effects. The purpose of this research was to determine whether the occurrence of structural relaxation in glassy materials, such as dental porcelains, and changes in porcelain leucite content could interfere with the accurate measurement of the coefficient of thermal expansion during the thermal expansion measurement itself. Methods. In a randomized design, thermal expansion specimens were fabricated using six commercial body porcelains and the leucite-containing Component No. 1 frit (Weinstein et al. patent, 1962), and subjected to one of the following heat treatments: a single heating run at 3sp°C/min in a conventional dilatometer followed by air quenching; three successive low-rate heating and cooling thermal expansion runs at 3sp°C/min in a conventional dilatometer; or three successive high-rate heating and cooling thermal expansion runs at 600sp°C/min in a laser dilatometer. The remaining specimens were left untreated and served as controls. Potential changes in porcelain leucite content were monitored via quantitative X-ray diffraction. Thermal expansion data for each run over a temperature range of 25-500sp°C and the leucite content of all specimens were subjected to repeated measures analysis of variance. Results. The thermal expansion coefficient measured on first slow heating was significantly lower than the values for succeeding low-rate heating and cooling runs in all materials (p $ 0.05). No significant effect of dilatometer thermal treatments on leucite content (p >$ 0.05) was shown for all materials studied using both dilatometers. Significance. The crystallization of additional amounts of leucite during thermal expansion runs can be ruled out as a possible interference in the determination of the thermal expansion coefficient of dental porcelain. Conventional dilatometer measurements exhibited structural relaxation during the first heating run, as

  10. CASIMIR FORCE IN CRITICAL TERNARY POLYMER SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Ridouane

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider a mixture of two incompatible polymers A and B in a common good solvent, confined between two parallel plates separated by a finite distance L. We assume that these plates strongly attract one of the two polymers close to the consolute point (critical adsorption. The plates then experience an effective force resulting from strong fluctuations of the composition. To simplify, we suppose that either plates have the same preference to attract one component (symmetric plates or they have an opposed preference (asymmetric plates. The force is attractive for symmetric plates and repulsive for asymmetric ones. We first exactly compute the force using the blob model, and find that the attractive and repulsive forces decay similarly to L-4. To go beyond the blob model that is a mean-field theory, and in order to get a correct induced force, we apply the Renormalization-Group to a φ4-field theory (φ is the composition fluctuation, with two suitable boundary conditions at the surfaces. The main result is that the expected force is the sum of two contributions. The first one is the mean-field contribution decaying as L-4, and the second one is the force deviation originating from strong fluctuations of the composition that decreases rather as L-3. This implies the existence of some cross-over distance L* ~ aN φ1/2 (a is the monomer size, N is the polymerization degree of chains and φ is the monomer volumic fraction, which separates two distance-regimes. For small distances (LL* the fluctuation force is more important.

  11. Effect of thermal treatment on Zn nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro E., E-mail: pacunaa004@alumno.uaemex.mx; López, Roberto; Vigueras-Santiago, Enrique; Hernández-López, Susana; Camacho-López, Marco [Laboratorio de Investigación y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados (LIDMA). Facultad de Química de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México. Paseo Colón esquina Paseo Tollocan C.P. 50120, Toluca, Estado de México, México (Mexico); Ornelas-Gutierrez, Carlos; Antunez, Wilber [Centro de investigación en Materiales Avanzados S. C. (CIMAV). Miguel de Cervantes N° 120. C.P. 31109. Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México (Mexico)

    2015-06-15

    Metallic Zn nanodisks with hexagonal morphology were obtained onto glass substrate under vacuum thermal evaporation. A thermal characterization of Zn nanodiks showed a lower oxidation temperature than source powder Zn. Different thermal treatment on Zn nanodisks played an important role on the morphology, crystal size and surface vibrational modes of ZnO. The growth of ZnO nanoneedles started at the edge of metallic zinc hexagonal structures according with SEM images, the higher temperature the longer needles were grown. XRD diffractogram confirmed the wurtzite structure of ZnO with metallic nuclei. A wide band between 530 and 580 cm{sup −1} of Raman scattering corresponded at surface vibrational modes not observed at higher temperature.

  12. Time-dependent thermal effects in GRB afterglows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postnov, K.A.; Blinnikov, S.I.; Kosenko, D.I.; Sorokina, E.I

    2004-06-01

    Time-dependent thermal effects should accompany standard non-thermal afterglows of GRB when {gamma}-rays pass through inhomogeneous surroundings of the GRB site. Thermal relaxation of an optically thin plasma is calculated using time-dependent collisional ionization of the plasma ion species. X-ray emission lines are similar to those found in the fading X-ray afterglow of GRB 011211. Thermal relaxation of clouds or shells around the GRB site could also contribute to the varying late optical GRB afterglows, such as in GRB 021004 and GRB 030329.

  13. Pulsed pump: Thermal effects in solid state lasers under super ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 67; Issue 6. Pulsed ... Pulse pump; thermal effects; thermal lensing; phase shift; diode-pumped solid state laser; super-Gaussian pump profile. Abstract. Solid state laser (SSL) powers can be realistically scaled when pumped by a real, efficient and multimode pulse.

  14. Effect of normal processes on thermal conductivity of germanium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of normal scattering processes is considered to redistribute the phonon momentum in (a) the same phonon branch – KK-S model and (b) between different phonon branches – KK-H model. Simplified thermal conductivity relations are used to estimate the thermal conductivity of germanium, silicon and diamond ...

  15. Effect of normal processes on thermal conductivity of germanium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of normal scattering processes is considered to redistribute the phonon momentum in (a) the same phonon branch – KK-S model and (b) between differ- ent phonon branches – KK-H model. Simplified thermal conductivity relations are used to estimate the thermal conductivity of germanium, silicon and ...

  16. Effect of urbanization on the thermal structure in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Viskanta; R. O. Johnson; R. W., Jr. Bergstrom

    1977-01-01

    An unsteady two-dimensional transport model was used to study the short-term effects of urbanization and air pollution on the thermal structure in the urban atmosphere. A number of simulations for summer conditions representing the city of St. Louis were performed. The diurnal variation of the surface temperature and thermal structure are presented and the influences...

  17. Thermal dose requirement for tissue effect: experimental and clinical findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhirst, Mark; Viglianti, Benjamin L.; Lora-Michiels, Michael; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hanson, Margaret A.

    2003-06-01

    In this review we have summarized the basic principles that govern the relationships between thermal exposure (temperature and time of exposure) and thermal damage, with an emphasis on normal tissue effects. We have also attempted to identify specific thermal dose information (for safety and injury) for a variety of tissues in a variety of species. We address the use, accuracy and difficulty of conversion of an individual time and temperature (thermal dose) to a standardized value (eg equivalent minutes at 43degC) for comparison of thermal treatments. Although, the conversion algorithm appears to work well within a range of moderately elevated temperatures (2-15degC) above normal physiologic baseline (37-39degC) there is concern that conversion accuracy does not hold up for temperatures which are minimally or significantly above baseline. An extensive review of the literature suggests a comprehensive assessment of the "thermal dose-to-tissue effect" has not previously been assembled for most individual tissues and never been viewed in a semi-comprehensive (tissues and species) manner. Finally, we have addressed the relationship of thermal dose-to-effect vs. baseline temperature. This issues is important since much of the thermal dose-to-effect information has been accrued in animal models with baseline temperatures 1-2 deg higher than that of humans.

  18. Convection with local thermal non-equilibrium and microfluidic effects

    CERN Document Server

    Straughan, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This book is one of the first devoted to an account of theories of thermal convection which involve local thermal non-equilibrium effects, including a concentration on microfluidic effects. The text introduces convection with local thermal non-equilibrium effects in extraordinary detail, making it easy for readers newer to the subject area to understand. This book is unique in the fact that it addresses a large number of convection theories and provides many new results which are not available elsewhere. This book will be useful to researchers from engineering, fluid mechanics, and applied mathematics, particularly those interested in microfluidics and porous media.

  19. Thermal Arrest Memory Effect in Ni-Mn-Ga Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rudajevova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilatation characteristics were measured to investigate the thermal arrest memory effect in Ni53.6Mn27.1Ga19.3 and Ni54.2Mn29.4Ga16.4 alloys. Interruption of the martensite-austenite phase transformation is connected with the reduction of the sample length after thermal cycle. If a total phase transformation took place in the complete thermal cycle following the interruption, then the sample length would return to its original length. Analysis of these results has shown that the thermal arrest memory effect is a consequence of a stress-focusing effect and shape memory effect. The stress-focusing effect occurs when the phase transformation propagates radially in a cylindrical sample from the surface, inward to the center. Evolution and release of the thermoelastic deformations in both alloys during heating and cooling are analyzed.

  20. Unifying Microscopic and Continuum Treatments of van der Waals and Casimir Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataram, Prashanth S.; Hermann, Jan; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.

    2017-06-01

    We present an approach for computing long-range van der Waals (vdW) interactions between complex molecular systems and arbitrarily shaped macroscopic bodies, melding atomistic treatments of electronic fluctuations based on density functional theory in the former with continuum descriptions of strongly shape-dependent electromagnetic fields in the latter, thus capturing many-body and multiple scattering effects to all orders. Such a theory is especially important when considering vdW interactions at mesoscopic scales, i.e., between molecules and structured surfaces with features on the scale of molecular sizes, in which case the finite sizes, complex shapes, and resulting nonlocal electronic excitations of molecules are strongly influenced by electromagnetic retardation and wave effects that depend crucially on the shapes of surrounding macroscopic bodies. We show that these effects together can modify vdW interaction energies and forces, as well as molecular shapes deformed by vdW interactions, by orders of magnitude compared to previous treatments based on Casimir-Polder, nonretarded, or pairwise approximations, which are valid only at macroscopically large or atomic-scale separations or in dilute insulating media, respectively.

  1. Unifying Microscopic and Continuum Treatments of van der Waals and Casimir Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataram, Prashanth S; Hermann, Jan; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Rodriguez, Alejandro W

    2017-06-30

    We present an approach for computing long-range van der Waals (vdW) interactions between complex molecular systems and arbitrarily shaped macroscopic bodies, melding atomistic treatments of electronic fluctuations based on density functional theory in the former with continuum descriptions of strongly shape-dependent electromagnetic fields in the latter, thus capturing many-body and multiple scattering effects to all orders. Such a theory is especially important when considering vdW interactions at mesoscopic scales, i.e., between molecules and structured surfaces with features on the scale of molecular sizes, in which case the finite sizes, complex shapes, and resulting nonlocal electronic excitations of molecules are strongly influenced by electromagnetic retardation and wave effects that depend crucially on the shapes of surrounding macroscopic bodies. We show that these effects together can modify vdW interaction energies and forces, as well as molecular shapes deformed by vdW interactions, by orders of magnitude compared to previous treatments based on Casimir-Polder, nonretarded, or pairwise approximations, which are valid only at macroscopically large or atomic-scale separations or in dilute insulating media, respectively.

  2. Thermal Mass & Dynamic Effects Danish Building Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    will focus on three main aspects: ♦ Assess the robustness of the monthly calculation method by varying the input parameters (Part 3) ♦ Better take into consideration the thermal mass in the actual tool by updating the utilisation factors used for the calculation of cooling and heating (Part 3) ♦ Find...... a method to evaluate night-time ventilation in the monthly calculation (Part 4)...

  3. Modeling thermal effects in braking systems of railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Miloš S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of thermal effects has become increasingly important in product design in different transport means, road vehicles, airplanes, railway vehicles, and so forth. The thermal analysis is a very important stage in the study of braking systems, especially of railway vehicles, where it is necessary to brake huge masses, because the thermal load of a braked railway wheel prevails compared to other types of loads. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of railway wheels. Thus induced thermal loads determine thermomechanical behavior of the structure of railway wheels. In cases of thermal overloads, which mainly occur as a result of long-term braking on down-grade railroads, the generation of stresses and deformations occurs, whose consequences are the appearance of cracks on the rim of a wheel and the final total wheel defect. The importance to precisely determine the temperature distribution caused by the transfer process of the heat generated during braking due to the friction on contact surfaces of the braking system makes it a challenging research task. Therefore, the thermal analysis of a block-braked solid railway wheel of a 444 class locomotive of the national railway operator Serbian Railways is processed in detail in this paper, using analytical and numerical modeling of thermal effects during long-term braking for maintaining a constant speed on a down-grade railroad.

  4. Effects of thermal insulation on electrical connections and outlet boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausoliel, R. W.; Clifton, J. R.; Meese, W. J.

    1981-04-01

    When residential walls are retrofitted with foamed-in urea formaldehyde or blown-in cellulose thermal insulations, the insulation may enter electrical outlet and switch boxes. The effects of these thermal insulations on the durability of electrical components were studied. These studies were carried out at 44, 75, and 96 percent relative humidities with test periods between one and twelve months. Laboratory test methods were developed and tests performed to determine the electrical and corrosive effects of urea formaldehyde and cellulose thermal insulation contained in electrical outlet and switch boxes.

  5. Effect of thermal fluctuations on a charged dilatonic black Saturn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Pourhassan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will analyze the effect of thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of a charged dilatonic black Saturn. These thermal fluctuations will correct the thermodynamics of the charged dilatonic black Saturn. We will analyze the corrections to the thermodynamics of this system by first relating the fluctuations in the entropy to the fluctuations in the energy. Then, we will use the relation between entropy and a conformal field theory to analyze the fluctuations in the entropy. We will demonstrate that similar physical results are obtained from both these approaches. We will also study the effect of thermal fluctuations on the phase transition in this charged dilatonic black Saturn.

  6. Effect of thermal fluctuations on a charged dilatonic black Saturn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourhassan, Behnam, E-mail: b.pourhassan@du.ac.ir [School of Physics, Damghan University, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: f2mir@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 (Canada)

    2016-04-10

    In this paper, we will analyze the effect of thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of a charged dilatonic black Saturn. These thermal fluctuations will correct the thermodynamics of the charged dilatonic black Saturn. We will analyze the corrections to the thermodynamics of this system by first relating the fluctuations in the entropy to the fluctuations in the energy. Then, we will use the relation between entropy and a conformal field theory to analyze the fluctuations in the entropy. We will demonstrate that similar physical results are obtained from both these approaches. We will also study the effect of thermal fluctuations on the phase transition in this charged dilatonic black Saturn.

  7. Effect of Thermal Fluctuations on a Charged Dilatonic Black Saturn

    CERN Document Server

    Pourhassan, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will analyze the effect of thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of a charged dilatonic black Saturn. These thermal fluctuations will correct the thermodynamics of the charged dilatonic black Saturn. We will analyze the corrections to the thermodynamics of this system by first relating the fluctuations in the entropy to the fluctuations in the energy. Then, we will use the relation between entropy and a conformal field theory to analyze the fluctuations in the entropy. We will demonstrate that similar physical results are obtained from both these approaches. We will also study the effect of thermal fluctuations on the phase transition in this charged dilatonic black Saturn.

  8. Thermal /Soret/ diffusion effects on interfacial mass transport rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that thermal (Soret) diffusion significantly alters convective mass transport rates and important transition temperatures in highly nonisothermal flow systems involving the transport of 'heavy' species (vapors or particles). Introduction of the Soret transport term is shown to result in mass transfer effects similar to those of 'suction' and a homogeneous chemical 'sink'. It is pointed out that this analogy provides a simple method of correlating and predicting thermal diffusion effects in the abovementioned systems.

  9. EFFECTS OF SURFACE MORPHOLOGY ON THERMAL CONTACT RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal contact resistance is common in aerospace industry, nuclear reactors and electronic equipments. The work addresses a new scheme for determining the thermal contact resistance between a smooth surface of a film and a rough surface of a metal specimen. The finite element method was used as a tool to explore the surface morphology effect on the thermal contact resistance while the temperature of the contact surface was determined by a regression method. According to the results developed, the temperature on the contact surfaces linearly drops with the increasing average height of surface roughness and nonlinearly drops with the increasing ratio between non-contact area and nominal contact area. On the other hand, the thermal contact resistance increases linearly with increases in the average height of the surface roughness. What's more, the thermal contact resistance increases in a non-linear manner as the ratio of the non-contact area to the nominal contact area is increasing.

  10. Casimir-Lifshitz force for nonreciprocal media and applications to photonic topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sebastian; Lindel, Frieder; Krems, Roman V.; Hanson, George W.; Antezza, Mauro; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2017-12-01

    Based on the theory of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics, we generalize the expression of the Casimir force for nonreciprocal media. The essential ingredient of this result is the Green's tensor between two nonreciprocal semi-infinite slabs, including a reflexion matrix with four coefficients that mixes optical polarizations. This Green's tensor does not obey Lorentz's reciprocity and thus violates time-reversal symmetry. The general result for the Casimir force is analyzed in the retarded and nonretarded limits, concentrating on the influences arising from reflections with or without change of polarization. In a second step, we apply our general result to a photonic topological insulator whose nonreciprocity stems from an anisotropic permittivity tensor, namely InSb. We show that there is a regime for the distance between the slabs where the magnitude of the Casimir force is tunable by an external magnetic field. Furthermore, the strength of this tuning depends on the orientation of the magnetic field with respect to the slab surfaces.

  11. Exact results for the Casimir force in a model with Neumann-infinity boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djondjorov, P. A.; Dantchev, D. M.; Vassilev, V. M.

    2017-10-01

    The dependence of the critical Casimir force on two parameters (temperature and external ordering field) within the mean-field Ginzburg-Landau Ising type model is studied. Here, the case of a film geometry where one boundary of the film exhibits strong adsorption to one of the phases (components) of the system, whereas the first derivative of the order-parameter profile vanishes on the other one is studied. The results obtained herein are valid for both, simple fluids and binary liquid mixtures. In the present contribution, the order parameter profile and the Casimir force are presented in exact analytic form, expressed through the Weierstrass function. Using these results, the dependence of the critical Casimir force on the temperature and external ordering field are illustrated.

  12. Thermal transport in Si and Ge nanostructures in the `confinement' regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soonshin; Wingert, Matthew C.; Zheng, Jianlin; Xiang, Jie; Chen, Renkun

    2016-07-01

    Reducing semiconductor materials to sizes comparable to the characteristic lengths of phonons, such as the mean-free-path (MFP) and wavelength, has unveiled new physical phenomena and engineering capabilities for thermal energy management and conversion systems. These developments have been enabled by the increasing sophistication of chemical synthesis, microfabrication, and atomistic simulation techniques to understand the underlying mechanisms of phonon transport. Modifying thermal properties by scaling physical size is particularly effective for materials which have large phonon MFPs, such as crystalline Si and Ge. Through nanostructuring, materials that are traditionally good thermal conductors can become good candidates for applications requiring thermal insulation such as thermoelectrics. Precise understanding of nanoscale thermal transport in Si and Ge, the leading materials of the modern semiconductor industry, is increasingly important due to more stringent thermal conditions imposed by ever-increasing complexity and miniaturization of devices. Therefore this Minireview focuses on the recent theoretical and experimental developments related to reduced length effects on thermal transport of Si and Ge with varying size from hundreds to sub-10 nm ranges. Three thermal transport regimes - bulk-like, Casimir, and confinement - are emphasized to describe different governing mechanisms at corresponding length scales.

  13. Dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in coupled ring resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Huang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in a photonic system of two coupled ring resonators. A bus waveguide is used to couple light in and out of one of the coupled resonators. Based on the coupling from the bus to the resonator, the coupling between the resonators and the intrinsic loss of each individual resonator, the system transmission spectrum can be classified by three different categories: coupled-resonator-induced absorption, coupled-resonator-induced transparency and over coupled resonance splitting. Dynamic thermal optical effects due to linear absorption have been analyzed for each category as a function of the input power. The heat power in each resonator determines the thermal dynamics in this coupled resonator system. Multiple “shark fins” and power competition between resonators can be foreseen. Also, the nonlinear absorption induced thermal effects have been discussed.

  14. Test of Zero-point Energy Emission from Gases Flowing Through Casimir Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriyeva, Olga; Moddel, Garret

    A recently issued patent [1] describes a method by which vacuum energy is extracted from gas flowing through a Casimir cavity. According to stochastic electrodynamics, the electronic orbitals in atoms are supported by the ambient zero-point (ZP) field. When the gas atoms are pumped into a Casimir cavity, where long-wavelength ZP field modes are excluded, the electrons spin down into lower energy orbitals and release energy in the process. This energy is collected in a local absorber. When the electrons exit the Casimir cavity they are re-energized to their original orbitals by the ambient ZP fields. The process is repeated to produce continuous power. In this way, the device functions like a heat pump for ZP energy, extracting it globally from the electromagnetic quantum vacuum and collecting it in a local absorber. This energy can be used for heating, or converted to electric power. We carried out a series of experiments to test whether energy is, in fact, radiated from Casimir cavities when the appropriate gas flows through them. The Casimir cavity devices we tested were nanopore polycarbonate membranes with submicron pores having a density of 3x108pores/cm2. Gas was pumped through the membranes in a stainless steel vacuum system, and emitted energy was measured using a broadband pyroelectric detector and lock-in amplifier. Emission in the infrared was clearly observed. We analyzed the emission from different gases and cavities to determine its origin. None of the conventional thermodynamic models we applied to our data fully explain it, leaving open the possibility that it is due to Casimir-cavity-induced emission from ZP fields.

  15. Effect of interfacial treatment on the thermal properties of thermal conductive plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, ZnO, which is processed by different surface treatment approaches, is blended together with polypropylene to produce thermal conductive polymer composites. The composites are analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM to investigate the surface modification of filler, their distribution in the matrix and the condition of two-phase interface. Optimized content of filler surface modifier is investigated as well. The results showed that using low-molecular coupling agent produces positive effect to improve the interface adhesion between filler and matrix, and the thermal conductivity of the composite as well. Macro-molecular coupling agent can strongly improve two-phase interface, but it is not beneficial at obtaining a high thermal conductivity. The blend of ZnO without modification and polypropylene has many defects in the two-phase interface, and the thermal conductivity of the composite is between those of composites produced by previous two approaches. The surface treatment of the filler also allowed producing the composites with lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE. As for the content of low-molecular coupling agent, it obtains the best effect at 1.5 wt%.

  16. On the Casimir scaling violation in the cusp anomalous dimension at small angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozin, Andrey; Henn, Johannes; Stahlhofen, Maximilian

    2017-10-01

    We compute the four-loop n f contribution proportional to the quartic Casimir of the QCD cusp anomalous dimension as an expansion for small cusp angle ϕ. This piece is gauge invariant, violates Casimir scaling, and first appears at four loops. It requires the evaluation of genuine non-planar four-loop Feynman integrals. We present results up to O({φ}^4) . One motivation for our calculation is to probe a recent conjecture on the all-order structure of the cusp anomalous dimension. As a byproduct we obtain the four-loop HQET wave function anomalous dimension for this color structure.

  17. Casimir force in the Gödel space-time and its possible induced cosmological inhomogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi, Sh.; Shojai, A.

    2017-07-01

    The Casimir force between two parallel plates in the Gödel universe is computed for a scalar field at finite temperature. It is observed that when the plates' separation is comparable with the scale given by the rotation of the space-time, the force becomes repulsive and then approaches zero. Since it has been shown previously that the universe may experience a Gödel phase for a small period of time, the induced inhomogeneities from the Casimir force are also studied.

  18. Anisotropic atom-surface interactions in the Casimir-Polder regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillandier-Loize, T.; Baudon, J.; Dutier, G.; Perales, F.; Boustimi, M.; Ducloy, M.

    2014-05-01

    The distance dependence of the anisotropic atom-wall interaction is studied. The central result is the 1/z6 quadrupolar anisotropy decay in the retarded Casimir-Polder regime. Analysis of the transition region between nonretarded van der Waals regime (in 1/z3) and Casimir-Polder regime shows that the anisotropy crossover occurs at very short distances from the surface, on the order of 0.03λ, where λ is the atom characteristic wavelength. Possible experimental verifications of this distance dependence using surface-induced inelastic transitions are discussed.

  19. Anisotropic Atom-Surface Interactions in the Casimir-Polder Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Taillandier-Loize, T; Dutier, G; Perales, F; Boustimi, M; Ducloy, M

    2014-01-01

    The distance-dependence of the anisotropic atom-wall interaction is studied. The central result is the 1/z^6 quadrupolar anisotropy decay in the retarded Casimir-Polder regime. Analysis of the transition region between non-retarded van der Waals regime (in 1/z^3) and Casimir-Polder regime shows that the anisotropy cross-over occurs at very short distances from the surface, on the order of 0.03 Lambda, where Lambda is the atom characteristic wavelength. Possible experimental verifications of this distance dependence are discussed.

  20. Atomic-scale friction : thermal effects and capillary condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jinesh, Kochupurackal Balakrishna Pillai

    2006-01-01

    This work entitled as "Atomic-scale friction: thermal effects and capillary condensation" is a study on the fundamental aspects of the origin of friction from the atomic-scale. We study two realistic aspects of atomic-scale friction, namely the effect of temperature and the effect of relative

  1. Analysis of Thermal Radiation Effects on Temperatures in Turbine Engine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Robert; Spuckler, Charles M.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are important, and in some instances a necessity, for high temperature applications such as combustor liners, and turbine vanes and rotating blades for current and advanced turbine engines. Some of the insulating materials used for coatings, such as zirconia that currently has widespread use, are partially transparent to thermal radiation. A translucent coating permits energy to be transported internally by radiation, thereby increasing the total energy transfer and acting like an increase in thermal conductivity. This degrades the insulating ability of the coating. Because of the strong dependence of radiant emission on temperature, internal radiative transfer effects are increased as temperatures are raised. Hence evaluating the significance of internal radiation is of importance as temperatures are increased to obtain higher efficiencies in advanced engines.

  2. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Insulating Material made from Recycled Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Etsuro; Takahashi, Kaneko; Sato, Mitsuo; Ishii, Yukihiro

    In this paper, the experimental results are represented on the effective thermal conductivity of cellulose insulation powder which is made from recycled newspapers. This insulating material is useful for energy and resources saving. The steady state cylindrical absolute method is employed by considering the accuracy of measurement. The experimental results are compared with the ones measured previously by other methods. The main results obtained are as follows (1) The effective thermal conductivity of this insulating material increases with increasing temperature and effective specific density, respectively. But, these increasing rate is not so large. (2) The effective thermal conductivity is about 0.04-0.06[W/mK] at the range of the effective specific density less than 100 [kg/m3]. This value is comparable with other industrial insulating materials.

  3. Effects of non-thermal plasma on mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Kalghatgi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal plasmas and lasers have been widely used in medicine to cut, ablate and cauterize tissues through heating; in contrast, non-thermal plasma produces no heat, so its effects can be selective. In order to exploit the potential for clinical applications, including wound healing, sterilization, blood coagulation, and cancer treatment, a mechanistic understanding of the interaction of non-thermal plasma with living tissues is required. Using mammalian cells in culture, it is shown here that non-thermal plasma created by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD has dose-dependent effects that range from increasing cell proliferation to inducing apoptosis. It is also shown that these effects are primarily due to formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. We have utilized γ-H2AX to detect DNA damage induced by non-thermal plasma and found that it is initiated by production of active neutral species that most likely induce formation of organic peroxides in cell medium. Phosphorylation of H2AX following non-thermal plasma treatment is ATR dependent and ATM independent, suggesting that plasma treatment may lead to replication arrest or formation of single-stranded DNA breaks; however, plasma does not lead to formation of bulky adducts/thymine dimers.

  4. Effects of Building Design Elements on Residential Thermal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbao Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Residential thermal environment affects the life of residents in terms of their physical and mental health. Many studies have shown that building design elements affect the urban thermal environment. In this study, Nanjing City was used as the study area. A three-dimensional microclimate model was used to simulate and analyze the effects of four main factors, namely, building height, density, layout and green ratio, on thermal environment in residential areas. Results showed that 25% building density obtained a low average air temperature (ATa and average predicted mean vote (APMV during 24 h. Thus, a higher building height indicates a lower ATa and APMV and better outdoor comfort level. In addition, peripheral layout had the lowest ATa and APMV, followed by the determinant and point group layouts. The green ratio increased from 0% to 50% with a 10% step and the ATa and APMV decreased gradually. However, when the green ratio increased from 30% to 40%, ATa and APMV decreased most. The effects of building height, density and green ratio on the thermal environment in residential areas were interactive. The effects of building density, green ratio and layout on hourly air temperature and hourly predicted mean vote in daytime varied from these indicators during night time. How the four building design elements interact with thermal environment were probed from two aspects of air temperature and thermal comfort based on the validated ENVI-met, which is the element of novelty in this study. However, thermal comfort has rarely been considered in the past studies about urban outdoor thermal environment.

  5. Thermal Hydraulic Integral Effect Tests for Pressurized Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, W. P.; Song, C. H.; Kim, Y. S. and others

    2005-02-15

    The objectives of the project are to construct a thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility and to perform various integral effect tests for design, operation, and safety regulation of pressurized water reactors. During the first phase of this project (1997.8{approx}2002.3), the basic technology for thermal-hydraulic integral effect tests was established and the basic design of the test facility was accomplished: a full-height, 1/300-volume-scaled full pressure facility for APR1400, an evolutionary pressurized water reactor that was developed by Korean industry. Main objectives of the present phase (2002.4{approx}2005.2), was to optimize the facility design and to construct the experimental facility. We have performed following researches: 1) Optimization of the basic design of the thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility for PWRs - ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) - Reduced height design for APR1400 (+ specific design features of KSNP safety injection systems) - Thermal-hydraulic scaling based on three-level scaling methodology by Ishii et al. 2) Construction of the ATLAS facility - Detailed design of the test facility - Manufacturing and procurement of components - Installation of the facility 3) Development of supporting technology for integral effect tests - Development and application of advanced instrumentation technology - Preliminary analysis of test scenarios - Development of experimental procedures - Establishment and implementation of QA system/procedure.

  6. Analysis and Experimental on Aircraft Insulation Thermal Bridge Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIA Tian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of typical aircraft insulation structures were designed for the heat bridge in the metal ribs of aircraft insulation structures. In order to study the influence of heat bridge effect on thermal insulation performance, each configuration was analyzed by the transient heat transfer FEA, check point temperature was obtained in the hot surface temperature of 100 ℃, 200 ℃, 300 ℃, 424 ℃ respectively, and the validity of FEA was proved by insulation performance experiment. The result showed that the thermal bridge has a great influence to the insulation performance of insulation structure, and the thermal bridge influence should be considered adequately when the insulation structure designed. Additionally, the blocking method for thermal bridge is also put forward.

  7. Photon-induced thermal effects in superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; Zhou, Pinjia; Wei, Lianfu; Li, Haijie; Zhang, Beihong; Zhang, Miao; Wei, Qiang; Fang, Yurong; Cao, Chunhai

    2013-10-01

    We experimentally investigated the optical responses of a superconducting niobium resonator. It was found that, with increasing radiation power, the resonance frequency increases monotonically below around 500 mK, decreases monotonically above around 1 K, and exhibits a nonmonotonic behavior at around 700 mK. These observations show that one can operate the irradiated resonator in three temperature regimes, depending on whether two-level system (TLS) effects or kinetic inductance effects dominate. Furthermore, we found that the optical responses at ultra-low temperatures can be qualitatively regarded as a photon-induced thermalization effect of TLSs, which could be utilized to achieve thermal sensitive photon detections.

  8. Uma introdução aos métodos de cálculo da energia de Casimir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passos Sobrinho J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito Casimir é um dos aspectos mais intrigantes da física moderna. A previsão da existência de uma força macroscópica de origem quântica entre condutores neutros e sua posterior comprovação experimental é sem dúvida um dos triunfos da teoria quântica dos campos. Complementando uma introdução conceitual publicada recentemente nesta revista, apresentamos alguns métodos de cálculo da energia de Casimir, que é a grandeza fundamental que origina o efeito Casimir.

  9. Recent breakthrough and outlook in constraining the non-Newtonian gravity and axion-like particles from Casimir physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimchitskaya, G.L. [Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, Institute of Physics, Nanotechnology and Telecommunications, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    The strongest constraints on the Yukawa-type corrections to Newton's gravitational law and on the coupling constants of axion-like particles to nucleons, following from recently performed experiments of Casimir physics, are presented. Specifically, the constraints obtained from measurements of the lateral and normal Casimir forces between sinusoidally corrugated surfaces, and from the isoelectronic experiment are considered, and the ranges of their greatest strength are refined. Minor modifications in the experimental setups are proposed which allow for strengthening the resultant constraints up to an order of magnitude. The comparison with some weaker constraints derived in the Casimir regime is also made. (orig.)

  10. Theoretical investigation of some thermal effects in turbulence modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathelin, Lionel [LIMSI-CNRS, Orsay (France); Bataille, Francoise [PROMES-CNRS, Perpignan (France); Ye, Zhou [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Fluid compressibility effects arising from thermal rather than dynamical aspects are theoretically investigated in the framework of turbulent flows. The Mach number is considered low and not to induce significant compressibility effects which here occur due to a very high thermal gradient within the flowfield. With the use of the Two-Scale Direct Interaction Approximation approach, essential turbulent correlations are derived in a one-point one-time framework. In the low velocity gradient limit, they are shown to directly depend on the temperature gradient, assumed large. The impact of thermal effects onto the transport equations of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate is also investigated, together with the transport equation for both the density and the internal energy variance.

  11. Roughness correction to the Casimir force at short separations: Contact distance and extreme value statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, W.; Palasantzas, G.; Knoester, J.; Svetovoy, Vitaly

    2012-01-01

    So far there has been no reliable method to calculate the Casimir force at separations comparable to the root-mean square of the height fluctuations of the surfaces. Statistical analysis of rough gold samples has revealed the presence of peaks considerably higher than the root-mean-square roughness.

  12. Influence of random roughness on the Casimir force at small separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, P. J.; Palasantzas, G.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    The influence of random surface roughness of Au films on the Casimir force is explored with atomic force microscopy in the plate-sphere geometry. The experimental results are compared to theoretical predictions for separations ranging between 20 and 200 nm. The optical response and roughness of the

  13. Roughness correction to the Casimir force at short separations : Contact distance and extreme value statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, Wijnand; Palasantzas, George; Knoester, Jasper; Svetovoy, Vitaly B.

    2012-01-01

    So far there has been no reliable method to calculate the Casimir force at separations comparable to the root-mean square of the height fluctuations of the surfaces. Statistical analysis of rough gold samples has revealed the presence of peaks considerably higher than the root-mean-square roughness.

  14. Transition from Casimir to van der Waals force between macroscopic bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.; van Zwol, P. J.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2008-01-01

    The transition of van der Waals to Casimir forces between macroscopic gold surfaces is investigated by atomic force microscopy in the plane-sphere geometry. It was found that the transition appears to take place at separations similar to 10% the plasma wavelength lambda(p) for evaporated gold

  15. Optical properties and kinetic roughening influence on dispersive casimir and van der Waals forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.; Svetovoy, Vitaly; van Zwol, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Casimir and van der Waals dispersive forces between real material surfaces can be strongly influenced by surface roughness and the frequency dependent dielectric functions of the interacting materials. The Lifshitz theory allows calculations of these forces between two flat plates if the frequency

  16. Influence of dielectric properties on van der Waals/Casimir forces in solid-liquid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, P. J.; Palasantzas, G.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    In this paper, we present calculations of van der Waals/Casimir forces, described by Lifshitz theory, for the solid-liquid-solid system using measured dielectric functions of all involved materials for the wavelength range from millimeters down to subnanometers. It is shown that even if the

  17. Repulsive Casimir forces between solid materials with high-refractive-index intervening liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, P. J.; Palasantzas, G.

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore repulsive Casimir or van der Waals forces between solid materials with liquid as the intervening medium, we analyze dielectric data for a wide range of materials as, for example, (p) olytetrafluoroethylene, polystyrene, silica, and more than 20 liquids. Although significant

  18. Optical Properties and Kinetic Roughening Influence on Dispersive Casimir and van der Waals Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.; Svetovoy, V. B.; Van Zwol, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Casimir and van der Waals dispersive forces between real material surfaces can be strongly influenced by surface roughness and the frequency dependent dielectric functions of the interacting materials. The Lifshitz theory allows calculations of these forces between two flat plates if the frequency

  19. Characterization of optical properties and surface roughness profiles: The casimir force between real materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, P.J.; Svetovoy, Vitaly; Palasantzas, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Lifshitz theory provides a method to calculate the Casimir force between two flat plates if the frequency dependent dielectric function of the plates is known. In reality any plate is rough and its optical properties are known only to some degree. For high precision experiments the plates must

  20. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia (42-46°C, treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures.

  1. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ran, E-mail: jliubme@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliubme@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jia [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Hyperthermia (42-46°C), treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR) based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl) than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures.

  2. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Wang, Jia; Liu, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Hyperthermia (42-46°C), treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR) based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl) than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures.

  3. FY 2017 – Thermal Aging Effects on Advanced Structural Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meimei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, K [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Wei-Ying [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of the effect of thermal aging on tensile properties of existing laboratory-sized heats of Alloy 709 austenitic stainless steel and the completion of effort on the thermal aging effect on the tensile properties of optimized G92 ferritic-martensitic steel. The report is a Level 3 deliverable in FY17 (M3AT-17AN1602081), under the Work Package AT-17AN160208, “Advanced Alloy Testing - ANL” performed by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of the Advanced Reactor Technologies Program.

  4. Evidence of Space-Charge Effects in Thermal Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, X.; Arentoft, Jesper; Wong, D.

    1999-01-01

    The in situ thermal poling processes in germanosilicate fibers for positive and negative poling voltages are significantly different. Thermal poling of silica fibers consists of two processes: the faster linear process of charge migration and the subsequent single exponential process of charge...... ionization. Both the shielding electrical field due to charge migration and the ionization electrical field due to charge ionization are able to be frozen-in at room temperature acid lead to the residual linear electrooptic effects, The observations support that the mechanism of the induced electrooptic...... effects is based on space charge electrical fields instead of dipole/bond orientation....

  5. Nonreciprocal light transmission based on the thermal radiative effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Dong, Jianji; Ding, Yunhong

    2015-01-01

    Nonreciprocal light transmission is critical in building optical isolations and circulations in optical communication systems. Achieving high optical isolation and broad bandwidth with CMOS-compatibility are still difficult in silicon nano-photonics. Here we first experimentally demonstrate...... to the significant characteristics of the thermal radiative effect, which could cause a fiber displacement up to tens of microns. This powerful thermal radiative effect opens up a new opportunity for nonreciprocal light transmission which is promising to be used in complete on-chip nonreciprocal devices...

  6. Determination of BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Assembly Effective Thermal Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew D. Hinds

    2001-10-17

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide an effective thermal conductivity for use in predicting peak cladding temperatures in boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies with 7x7,8x8, and 9x9 rod arrays. The first objective of this calculation is to describe the development and application of a finite element representation that predicts peak spent nuclear fuel temperatures for BWR assemblies. The second objective is to use the discrete representation to develop a basis for determining an effective thermal conductivity (described later) for a BWR assembly with srneared/homogeneous properties and to investigate the thermal behavior of a spent fuel assembly. The scope of this calculation is limited to a steady-state two-dimensional representation of the waste package interior region. This calculation is subject to procedure AP-3.124, Calculations (Ref. 27) and guided by the applicable technical work plan (Ref. 14). While these evaluations were originally developed for the thermal analysis of conceptual waste package designs emplaced in the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, the methodology applies to storage and transportation thermal analyses as well. Note that the waste package sketch in Attachment V depicts a preliminary design, and should not be interpreted otherwise.

  7. A review on ergonomics of headgear: Thermal effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, C.P.; Aerts, J.M.; Annaheim, S.; Bröde, P.; Bruyne, G. de; Flouris, A.D.; Kuklane, K.; Sotto Mayor, T.; Rossi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal effects related to wearing headgear are complex and different studies have investigated single parts of this topic. This review aims at summarizing the different findings to give a complete overview on this topic as well as to suggest new perspectives. Headgear increases head insulation

  8. Thermal effects on parallel resonance energy of whistler mode wave

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this short communication, we have evaluated the effect of thermal velocity of the plasma particles on the energy of resonantly interacting energetic electrons with the propagating whistler mode waves as a function of wave frequency and L-value for the normal and disturbed magnetospheric conditions. During the ...

  9. Effective action for hard thermal loops in gravitational fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We examine, through a Boltzmann equation approach, the generating action of hard thermal loops in the background of gravitational fields. Using the gauge and Weyl invariance of the theory at high temperature, we derive an explicit closed-form expression for the effective action.

  10. Effect of high thermal expansion glass infiltration on mechanical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. This work studies the effect on the mechanical properties of alumina-10 wt% zirconia (3 mol% yttria stabilized) composite by infiltrating glass of a higher thermal expansion (soda lime glass) on the surface at high temperature. The glass improved the strength of composite at room temperature as well as at high.

  11. Differential effects of thermal and chemical stressors on tissue balls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coral cell aggregates (tissue balls) from four species (Acropora muricata, Fungia repanda, Pavona cactus and Pocillopora damicornis) were used as an indicator to investigate the effects on the corals of thermal stress and of chemical extracts from three sponges (Adocia sp., Haliclona sp. and Lissodendoryx sp.) and one ...

  12. Effect of high heating rate on thermal decomposition behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    but rely on the concentration of hydrogen. The model ... first-order rate law. Lehmhus and Rausch (2004) have annealed TiH2 pow- der in air and argon. In argon, the powder does not develop a surface layer and as a result, a small amount of hydro- gen is lost ... rate effect on the thermal decomposition behaviour of TiH2.

  13. Analytical model of transient thermal effect on convectional cooled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 81; Issue 4. Analytical model of transient thermal effect on convectional cooled end-pumped laser rod ... The transient analytical solutions of temperature distribution, stress, strain and optical path difference in convectional cooled end-pumped laser rod are derived.

  14. Infrared lens thermal effect: equivalent focal shift and calculating model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-shuo; Shi, Zelin; Feng, Bin; Xu, Bao-shu

    2014-11-01

    It's well-know that the focal shift of infrared lens is the major factor in degeneration of imaging quality when temperature change. In order to figure out the connection between temperature change and focal shift, partial differential equations of thermal effect on light path are obtained by raytrace method, to begin with. The approximately solution of the PDEs show that focal shift is proportional to temperature change. And a formula to compute the proportional factor is given. In order to understand infrared lens thermal effect deeply, we use defocus by image plane shift at constant temperature to equivalently represent thermal effect on infrared lens. So equivalent focal shift (EFS) is defined and its calculating model is proposed at last. In order to verify EFS and its calculating model, Physical experimental platform including a motorized linear stage with built-in controller, blackbody, target, collimator, IR detector, computer and other devices is developed. The experimental results indicate that EFS make the image plane shift at constant temperature have the same influence on infrared lens as thermal effect and its calculating model is correct.

  15. On the effect of temperature dependent thermal conductivity on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We consider the effect of temperature dependent thermal conductivity on temperature rise in biologic tissues during microwave heating. The method of asymptotic expansion is used for finding solution. An appropriate matching procedure was used in our method. Our result reveals the possibility of multiple solutions and it ...

  16. The effect of Acacia karroo supplementation and thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation and thermal preparation on consumer sensory scores of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goat breed. 18 castrated four-month-old Xhosa lop-eared kids were kept at the University of Fort Hare Farm until slaughter. Sample ...

  17. Thermal-vacuum effects on polymer matrix composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Mabson, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented on the thermal-vacuum response of a variety of fiber reinforced polymers matrix composites that comprised the UTIAS experiment on the LDEF satellite. Theoretical temperature-time predictions for this experiment are in excellent agreement with test data. Results also show quite clearly the effect of outgassing in the dimensional changes of these materials and the corresponding coefficients of thermal expansion. Finally, comparison with ground-based simulation tests are presented as well. Use of these data for design purposes are also given.

  18. Concrete containment analysis including thermal effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.; Marchertas, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    Pretest predictions were made by the staff of the Engineering Mechanics Program at ANL for the response of the 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment model that was tested to failure by liner tearing and leakage at the Sandia National Laboratories. Questions have been raised in regard to possible effects of temperature in combination with internal pressure on the behavior of the model. Specifically, if the containment had been subjected to elevated temperature as well as internal pressure, what differences in pressure capacity, failure mechanism and location would have been predicted when compared to the analysis of internal pressure alone. The purpose of this paper is to address these questions. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Evaluating the thermal reduction effect of plant layers on rooftops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Chih-Fang [Department of Landscape Design and Management, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, No. 35, Lane 215, Sec. 1, Jhongshan Road, Taiping City, Taichung County 411 (China)

    2008-07-01

    This study examines the thermal reduction effect of plant layers on rooftops through experiments performed in a controlled environment. The relevant parameters are coverage ratio (CR) and total leaf thickness (TLT). Both parameters are positively correlated with thermal reduction ratio (TRR). The TRR data of all experiments were plotted on a grid system with CR on the x-axis and TLT on the y-axis. A TRR map was then drawn using the curve fitting process. The applicability of the TRR map drawn for Codiaeum variegatum (1) was further confirmed by performing experiments with Cordyline terminalis (1) and Ixora duffii (1) and by results of experiments on C. variegatum (2), C. terminalis (2), Duranta repens, and I. duffii (2) in outdoor environments. The TRR map provides quantitative and straightforward guidance on thermal reduction planting arrangements for green roofs. (author)

  20. Aging effects on vertical graphene nanosheets and their thermal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Polaki, S. R.; Ajikumar, P. K.; Krishna, N. G.; Kamruddin, M.

    2017-10-01

    The present study investigates environmental aging effects and thermal stability of vertical graphene nanosheets (VGN). Self-organized VGN is synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and exposed to ambient conditions over 6-month period to examine its aging behavior. A systematic inspection is carried out on morphology, chemical structure, wettability and electrical property by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, water contact angle and four-probe resistivity measurements at regular intervals, respectively. Detailed microscopic and spectroscopic analysis substantiated the retention of graphitic quality and surface chemistry of VGN over the test period. An unchanged sheet resistance and hydrophobicity reveals its electrical and wetting stability over the time, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis ensures an excellent thermal stability of VGN up to 575 °C in ambient atmosphere. These findings of long-term morphological, structural, wetting, electrical and thermal stability of VGN validate their potential utilization for the next-generation device applications.

  1. Casimir effects for a flat plasma sheet: I. Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, G [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    We study a fluid model of an infinitesimally thin plasma sheet occupying the xy plane, loosely imitating a single base plane from graphite. In terms of the fluid charge e/a{sup 2} and mass m/a{sup 2} per unit area, the crucial parameters are q nsce 2{pi}e{sup 2}/mc{sup 2}a{sup 2}, a Debye-type cutoff K{identical_to}{radical}(4{pi})/a on surface-parallel normal-mode wavenumbers k, and X nsce K/q. The cohesive energy {beta} per unit area is determined from the zero-point energies of the exact normal modes of the plasma coupled to the Maxwell field, namely TE and TM photon modes, plus bound modes decaying exponentially with vertical bar zvertical bar. Odd-parity modes (with E{sub x,y}(z = 0) = 0) are unaffected by the sheet except for their overall phases, and are irrelevant to {beta}, although the following paper shows that they are essential to the fields (e.g. to their vacuum expectation values), and to the stresses on the sheet. Realistically one has X >> 1, the result {beta} {approx} {Dirac_h}cq{sup 1/2}K{sup 5/2} is nonrelativistic, and it comes from the surface modes. By contrast, X << 1 (nearing the limit of perfect reflection) would entail {beta} {approx} -{Dirac_h}cqK{sup 2}log(1/X): contrary to folklore, the surface energy of perfect reflectors is divergent rather than zero. An appendix spells out the relation, for given k, between bound modes and photon phase-shifts. It is very different from Levinson's theorem for 1D potential theory: cursory analogies between TM and potential scattering are apt to mislead.

  2. The trace identity and the planar Casimir effect

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The familiar trace identity associated with the scale transformation → ′ = - on the Lagrangian density for a noninteracting massive real scalar field in 2 + 1 dimensions is shown to be violated on a single plate on which the Dirichlet boundary condition (, 1, 2 = -) = 0 is imposed. It is however respected ...

  3. The trace identity and the planar Casimir effect

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The familiar trace identity associated with the scale transformation xµ → x µ = e−λxµ on the Lagrangian density for a noninteracting massive real scalar field in 2 + 1 dimensions is shown to be violated on a single plate on which the Dirichlet boundary condition φ(t, x1, x2 = −a) = 0 is imposed. It is however respected ...

  4. Thermal properties of soils: effect of biochar application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Lukowski, Mateusz; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2014-05-01

    Thermal properties (thermal conductivity, heat capacity and thermal diffusivity) have a significant effect on the soil surface energy partitioning and resulting in the temperature distribution. Thermal properties of soil depend on water content, bulk density and organic matter content. An important source of organic matter is biochar. Biochar as a material is defined as: "charcoal for application as a soil conditioner". Biochar is generally associated with co-produced end products of pyrolysis. Many different materials are used as biomass feedstock for biochar, including wood, crop residues and manures. Additional predictions were done for terra preta soil (also known as "Amazonian dark earth"), high in charcoal content, due to adding a mixture of charcoal, bone, and manure for thousands of years i.e. approximately 10-1,000 times longer than residence times of most soil organic matter. The effect of biochar obtained from the wood biomass and other organic amendments (peat, compost) on soil thermal properties is presented in this paper. The results were compared with wetland soils of different organic matter content. The measurements of the thermal properties at various water contents were performed after incubation, under laboratory conditions using KD2Pro, Decagon Devices. The measured data were compared with predictions made using Usowicz statistical-physical model (Usowicz et al., 2006) for biochar, mineral soil and soil with addition of biochar at various water contents and bulk densities. The model operates statistically by probability of occurrence of contacts between particular fractional compounds. It combines physical properties, specific to particular compounds, into one apparent conductance specific to the mixture. The results revealed that addition of the biochar and other organic amendments into the soil caused considerable reduction of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The mineral soil showed the highest thermal conductivity and diffusivity

  5. Prediction of the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Powder Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lingxue; Park, Jiho; Lee, Cheonkyu; Jeong, Sangkwon

    The powder insulation method is widely used in structural and cryogenic systems such as transportation and storage tanks of cryogenic fluids. The powder insulation layer is constructed by small particle powder with light weight and some residual gas with high porosity. So far, many experiments have been carried out to test the thermal performance of various kinds of powder, including expanded perlite, glass microspheres, expanded polystyrene (EPS). However, it is still difficult to predict the thermal performance of powder insulation by calculation due to the complicated geometries, including various particle shapes, wide powder diameter distribution, and various pore sizes. In this paper, the effective thermal conductivity of powder insulation has been predicted based on an effective thermal conductivity calculationmodel of porous packed beds. The calculation methodology was applied to the insulation system with expanded perlite, glass microspheres and EPS beads at cryogenic temperature and various vacuum pressures. The calculation results were compared with previous experimental data. Moreover, additional tests were carried out at cryogenic temperature in this research. The fitting equations of the deformation factor of the area-contact model are presented for various powders. The calculation results show agood agreement with the experimental results.

  6. Effective Thermal Expansion Property of Consolidated Granular Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Gülşad; Gonzalez, Marcial; Cuitiño, Alberto M

    2017-11-09

    Thermally-assisted compaction of granular materials is of keen interest in many engineering applications. A proper estimation of the material behavior of compacted granular materials is contingent upon the knowledge of microstructure formation, which is highly dependent on the bulk material properties and processing conditions, during the deformation stage. Originating from the pair interactions between particles, the macroscopic properties are obtained using various homogenization techniques and postulating continuum constitutive laws. While pioneers in this field have laid fundamental groundwork regarding effective medium descriptions, there exists a discrepancy between discrete and continuum level solutions. In our previous work, we elaborated a Particle Mechanics Approach (PMA) that integrates thermal contact and Hertzian deformation models to understand the thermo-mechanically-coupled consolidation problem. We also considered the analogous problem from the perspective of the conventional Continuum Mechanics Approach (CMA). In this study, following the multi-scale modeling framework, we propose an effective thermal expansion coefficient for the thermally-assisted compaction of granular materials.

  7. The effect of allometric scaling in coral thermal microenvironments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H Ong

    Full Text Available A long-standing interest in marine science is in the degree to which environmental conditions of flow and irradiance, combined with optical, thermal and morphological characteristics of individual coral colonies, affects their sensitivity of thermal microenvironments and susceptibility to stress-induced bleaching within and/or among colonies. The physiological processes in Scleractinian corals tend to scale allometrically as a result of physical and geometric constraints on body size and shape. There is a direct relationship between scaling to thermal stress, thus, the relationship between allometric scaling and rates of heating and cooling in coral microenvironments is a subject of great interest. The primary aim of this study was to develop an approximation that predicts coral thermal microenvironments as a function of colony morphology (shape and size, light or irradiance, and flow velocity or regime. To do so, we provided intuitive interpretation of their energy budgets for both massive and branching colonies, and then quantified the heat-size exponent (b* and allometric constant (m using logarithmic linear regression. The data demonstrated a positive relationship between thermal rates and changes in irradiance, A/V ratio, and flow, with an interaction where turbulent regime had less influence on overall stress which may serve to ameliorate the effects of temperature rise compared to the laminar regime. These findings indicated that smaller corals have disproportionately higher stress, however they can reach thermal equilibrium quicker. Moreover, excellent agreements between the predicted and simulated microscale temperature values with no significant bias were observed for both the massive and branching colonies, indicating that the numerical approximation should be within the accuracy with which they could be measured. This study may assist in estimating the coral microscale temperature under known conditions of water flow and irradiance

  8. Instability threshold of rippled carbon nanotube nanotweezers in the low vacuum gas flow incorporating Dirichlet and Neumann modes of Casimir energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Jamal; Shateri, Alireza

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this research work is to address the influences of dispersion forces and rippled configuration on the instability threshold of carbon nanotube (CNT) based nanotweezers. To this end, the Dirichlet and Neumann modes of Casimir force arisen from the electric and magnetic energies is developed for cylinder-cylinder geometry. Moreover, the CNTs rippling deformation which experimentally revealed is included in the Euler-Bernoulli beam model to modify the governing equations. The differential quadrature method (DQM) in conjunction with the 4th-order Runge-Kutta algorithm is employed to numerically simulate the non-linear partial differential equations. It is interestingly demonstrated that these phenomena remarkably affect the electromechanical behavior of nanotweezers fabricated from CNTs. By taking the rippling configuration and Casimir attraction between tubes into account, the pull-in voltage decreases. On the other hand, when the gas damping effect due to low vacuum environment is taken into consideration, the pull-in value increases. The accuracy of the present modeling is compared with those experimentally published in the literature, giving excellent results.

  9. Electrical stimulation vs thermal effects in a complex electromagnetic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Jesús M; Rufo, Montaña; Jiménez, Antonio; Antolín, Alicia; Sánchez, Miguel

    2009-08-01

    Studies linking exposure to low levels of radiofrequencies with adverse health effects, notwithstanding their present apparent inconsistency, have contributed to a steady improvement in the quality of evaluating that exposure. In complex electromagnetic environments, with a multitude of emissions of different frequencies acting simultaneously, knowledge of the spectral content is fundamental to evaluating human exposure to non-ionizing radiation. In the present work, we quantify the most significant spectral components in the frequency band 0.5-2200 MHz in an urban area. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyzer and monopole, biconical, and log-periodic antennas. Power density levels were calculated separately for the medium wave, short wave, and frequency modulation radio broadcasting bands, and for the television and GSM, DCS, and UMTS mobile telephony bands. The measured levels were compared with the ICNIRP reference levels for exposure to multiple frequency sources for thermal effects and electrical stimulation. The results showed the criterion limiting exposure on the basis of preventing electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves and muscles to be stricter (exposure quotient 24.7 10(-4)) than that based on thermal considerations (exposure quotient 0.16 10(-4)). The bands that contribute most to the latter are short wave, with 46.2%, and mobile telephony with 32.6% of the total exposure. In a complex electromagnetic environment, knowledge of the radiofrequency spectrum is essential in order to quantify the contribution of each type of emission to the public's exposure. It is also necessary to evaluate the electrical effects as well as the thermal effects because the criterion to limit exposure on the basis of the effect of the electrical stimulation of tissues is stricter than that based on thermal effects.

  10. Electrical stimulation vs thermal effects in a complex electromagnetic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paniagua, Jesus M., E-mail: paniagua@unex.es [Department of Applied Physics, Polytechnic School, University of Extremadura. Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain); Rufo, Montana; Jimenez, Antonio; Antolin, Alicia; Sanchez, Miguel [Department of Applied Physics, Polytechnic School, University of Extremadura. Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2009-08-01

    Studies linking exposure to low levels of radiofrequencies with adverse health effects, notwithstanding their present apparent inconsistency, have contributed to a steady improvement in the quality of evaluating that exposure. In complex electromagnetic environments, with a multitude of emissions of different frequencies acting simultaneously, knowledge of the spectral content is fundamental to evaluating human exposure to non-ionizing radiation. In the present work, we quantify the most significant spectral components in the frequency band 0.5-2200 MHz in an urban area. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyzer and monopole, biconical, and log-periodic antennas. Power density levels were calculated separately for the medium wave, short wave, and frequency modulation radio broadcasting bands, and for the television and GSM, DCS, and UMTS mobile telephony bands. The measured levels were compared with the ICNIRP reference levels for exposure to multiple frequency sources for thermal effects and electrical stimulation. The results showed the criterion limiting exposure on the basis of preventing electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves and muscles to be stricter (exposure quotient 24.7 10{sup -4}) than that based on thermal considerations (exposure quotient 0.16 10{sup -4}). The bands that contribute most to the latter are short wave, with 46.2%, and mobile telephony with 32.6% of the total exposure. In a complex electromagnetic environment, knowledge of the radiofrequency spectrum is essential in order to quantify the contribution of each type of emission to the public's exposure. It is also necessary to evaluate the electrical effects as well as the thermal effects because the criterion to limit exposure on the basis of the effect of the electrical stimulation of tissues is stricter than that based on thermal effects.

  11. Effects of thermal environment on sleep and circadian rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto-Mizuno Kazue

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The thermal environment is one of the most important factors that can affect human sleep. The stereotypical effects of heat or cold exposure are increased wakefulness and decreased rapid eye movement sleep and slow wave sleep. These effects of the thermal environment on sleep stages are strongly linked to thermoregulation, which affects the mechanism regulating sleep. The effects on sleep stages also differ depending on the use of bedding and/or clothing. In semi-nude subjects, sleep stages are more affected by cold exposure than heat exposure. In real-life situations where bedding and clothing are used, heat exposure increases wakefulness and decreases slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. Humid heat exposure further increases thermal load during sleep and affects sleep stages and thermoregulation. On the other hand, cold exposure does not affect sleep stages, though the use of beddings and clothing during sleep is critical in supporting thermoregulation and sleep in cold exposure. However, cold exposure affects cardiac autonomic response during sleep without affecting sleep stages and subjective sensations. These results indicate that the impact of cold exposure may be greater than that of heat exposure in real-life situations; thus, further studies are warranted that consider the effect of cold exposure on sleep and other physiological parameters.

  12. Effects of Thermal Tension Transients on the Muscle Crossbridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Peter R.

    2016-09-01

    The transverse thermal fluctuations of the myosin molecule are significant. This paper explores the contribution of lateral myosin bending to the developed crossbridge force and power stroke. The equipartition theorem is used to calculate the mode amplitudes for myosin bending. Crossbridge axial force Fx and power stroke Δx are developed by transverse in-plane fluctuations along the y- and z-axes. Practical applications include the effects of temperature on the flexibility of the myosin molecule stiffness and tension, relevant to man-made fabrication of synthetic muscle using micromachines and nanowires. Scaling laws for the S2 bending amplitude depend on filament length, mode number, and stiffness, as n-2,L2, and (EI)-1. This paper quantifies the effects of thermal motion on the mechanics of miniature molecular motors, including the muscle crossbridge.

  13. Pressure Effects on the Thermal De-NOx Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Karsten; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1996-01-01

    The effect of pressure on the thermal de-NOx process has been investigated in flow reactor experiments. The experiments were performed at pressures from 1 to 10 bar and temperatures ranging from 925 to 1375 K. The inlet O-2 level was varied from 1000 ppm to 10%, while NH3 and NO were maintained...... effect of the pressure but also cause a slight decrease in the NO reduction potential. The results are consistent with recent atmospheric pressure experiments of thermal de-NOx covering a wide range of reactant partial pressures. Comparisons of the experimental data with the recent chemical kinetic model...... at 1000 and 500 ppm, respectively At the highest pressure, CO was added to shift the regime for NO reduction to lower temperatures. The results show that the pressure affects the location and the width of the temperature window for NO reduction. As the pressure is increased, both the lower and the higher...

  14. Ordered Pinning Arrays with Tunable Geometry via Thermal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trastoy, Juan; Bernard, Rozenn; Briatico, Javier; Villegas, Javier E.; Malnou, Maxime; Bergeal, Nicolas; Lesueur, Jerome; Ulysse, Christian; Faini, Giancarlo

    2015-03-01

    We have used geometrically frustrated pinning arrays to create artificial vortex-ice. The pinning arrays are fabricated via ion irradiation of high-Tc superconducting films. These arrays present a very unique characteristic: the frustration can be reversibly switched on/off using temperature as a control knob, which allows stabilizing either a vortex-ice or a square vortex lattice. We have further investigated the thermal switching mechanism by studying the matching of the flux lattice to arrays that are incrementally deformed upon fabrication by introducing minute variations of the distance between pins. The array deformation exacerbates the thermal effects, leading to dramatic variations of the vortex distribution as a function of temperature. These results illustrate the strength of the temperature-induced reconfiguration effects, which may constitute a novel knob in fluxtronic devices based on vortex manipulation. Work supported by the French ANR MASTHER, the COST Action NanoSC, the Ville de Paris and the Galician Fundacion Barrie.

  15. Influence of thermal effects on stability of nanoscale films and filaments on thermally conductive substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seric, Ivana; Afkhami, Shahriar; Kondic, Lou

    2018-01-01

    We consider fluid films and filaments of nanoscale thickness on thermally conductive substrates exposed to external heating and discuss the influence of the variation of material parameters with temperature on film stability. Particular focus is on metal films exposed to laser irradiation. Due to the short length scales involved, the absorption of heat in the metal is directly coupled to the film evolution, since the absorption length and the film thickness are comparable. Such a setup requires self-consistent consideration of fluid mechanical and thermal effects. We approach the problem via volume-of-fluid-based simulations that include destabilizing liquid metal-solid substrate interaction potentials. These simulations couple fluid dynamics directly with the spatio-temporal evolution of the temperature field both in the fluid and in the substrate. We focus on the influence of the temperature variation of material parameters, in particular of surface tension and viscosity. Regarding variation of surface tension with temperature, the main finding is that while the Marangoni effect may not play a significant role in the considered setting, the temporal variation of surface tension (modifying normal stress balance) is significant and could lead to complex evolution including oscillatory evolution of the liquid metal-air interface. Temperature variation of film viscosity is also found to be relevant. Therefore, the variations of surface tensions and viscosity could both influence the emerging wavelengths in experiments. By contrast, the filament geometry is found to be much less sensitive to a variation of material parameters with temperature.

  16. Tuning the Casimir force via modification of interface properties of three-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. C.; Jalil, M. B. A.

    2013-05-01

    The axion coupling in topological insulators (TI), which couples electric polarization (magnetization) with the magnetic (electric) field, is known to support a small-distance Casimir repulsion and a large-distance Casimir attraction with a zero-force stable equilibrium between TI plates. By enhancing the reflection properties of the TI interface through mirrors that introduce multiple reflections, we show that it is possible to maintain these trends while tuning the position of the zero-force point and its binding energy: the former by an order of magnitude and latter by over four orders. Moreover, surface charge on the TI allows for intermediate tuning of the zero-force point between coarse settings determined by the axion coupling.

  17. A review on ergonomics of headgear: Thermal effects

    OpenAIRE

    Bogerd, C.P.; Aerts, J.M.; Annaheim, S.; Bröde, P.; Bruyne, G. de; Flouris, A.D.; Kuklane, K.; Sotto Mayor, T.; Rossi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal effects related to wearing headgear are complex and different studies have investigated single parts of this topic. This review aims at summarizing the different findings to give a complete overview on this topic as well as to suggest new perspectives. Headgear increases head insulation and therefore is mainly problematic under warm conditions, which is the focus of this review. Helmets do not affect physiological parameters other than the local skin temperature and sweat rate. Ho...

  18. Tuning the thermal conductance of molecular junctions with interference effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöckner, J. C.; Cuevas, J. C.; Pauly, F.

    2017-12-01

    We present an ab initio study of the role of interference effects in the thermal conductance of single-molecule junctions. To be precise, using a first-principles transport method based on density functional theory, we analyze the coherent phonon transport in single-molecule junctions made of several benzene and oligo(phenylene ethynylene) derivatives. We show that the thermal conductance of these junctions can be tuned via the inclusion of substituents, which induces destructive interference effects and results in a decrease of the thermal conductance with respect to the unmodified molecules. In particular, we demonstrate that these interference effects manifest as antiresonances in the phonon transmission, whose energy positions can be tuned by varying the mass of the substituents. Our work provides clear strategies for the heat management in molecular junctions and, more generally, in nanostructured metal-organic hybrid systems, which are important to determine how these systems can function as efficient energy-conversion devices such as thermoelectric generators and refrigerators.

  19. Topological thermal Hall effect in frustrated kagome antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    In frustrated magnets the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction (DMI) arising from spin-orbit coupling can induce a magnetic long-range order. Here, we report a theoretical prediction of the thermal Hall effect in frustrated kagome magnets such as KCr3(OH) 6(SO4) 2 and KFe3(OH) 6(SO4)2 . The thermal Hall effects in these materials are induced by scalar spin chirality as opposed to DMI in previous studies. The scalar spin chirality originates from the magnetic-field-induced chiral spin configuration due to noncoplanar spin textures, but in general it can be spontaneously developed as a macroscopic order parameter in chiral quantum spin liquids. Therefore, we infer that there is a possibility of the thermal Hall effect in frustrated kagome magnets such as herbertsmithite ZnCu3(OH) 6Cl2 and the chromium compound Ca10Cr7O28 , although they also show evidence of magnetic long-range order in the presence of applied magnetic field or pressure.

  20. Imaging laser-induced thermal fields and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaasdonck, Rudolf M.

    1995-05-01

    Laser light interaction with biological tissues is a combination of optical, thermal and mechanical effects depending on the energy applied per unit of volume per unit of time. Visualization of the phenomena with a high temporal and spatial resolution, contributes to a better understanding of the mechanism of action, especially when pulsed lasers are involved. For this goal, setups were developed based on Schlieren techniques to image the interaction of pulsed (CO2, Holmium and Excimer) and CW (CO2, Nd:YAG, Cu-vapor) lasers with physiological media and biological tissues. In a 'fast' Schlieren setup, images of shock waves and fast expanding and imploding vapor bubbles were captured using very short light flashes (10 ns-10 microseconds). These recordings suggest that these explosive vapor bubbles seem to be the main dynamism for tissue ablation. In a 'color' Schlieren setup, very small changes in optical density of the media induced by temperature gradients, were color coded. Calibration of the color images to absolute temperatures were performed by using calculated temperature distributions and by thermocouple measurements. Cameras with high speed shutters (0.1-50 ms) enabled the recording of dynamic images of the thermal relaxation and heat diffusion in tissues during variation of pulse length and repetition rate. Despite pulse lengths Schlieren techniques were applied to study the thermal characteristics of laser probes, e.g. for the treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). In combination with thermal modeling an optimal therapy might be predicted. Schlieren techniques, generating high-speed and 'thermal' images, can provide a good understanding of the ablation mechanism and the thermo-dynamics during laser-tissue interaction with continuous wave and pulse lasers.

  1. Casimir friction and near-field radiative heat transfer in graphene structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volokitin, A.I. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Peter Gruenberg Inst.; Samara State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation). Physical Dept.

    2017-05-01

    The dependence of the Casimir friction force between a graphene sheet and a (amorphous) SiO{sub 2} substrate on the drift velocity of the electrons in the graphene sheet is studied. It is shown that the Casimir friction is strongly enhanced for the drift velocity above the threshold velocity when the friction is determined by the resonant excitation of the surface phonon-polaritons in the SiO{sub 2} substrate and the electron-hole pairs in graphene. The theory agrees well with the experimental data for the current-voltage dependence for unsuspended graphene on the SiO{sub 2} substrate. The theories of the Casimir friction and the near-field radiative energy transfer are used to study the heat generation and dissipation in graphene due to the interaction with phonon-polaritons in the (amorphous) SiO{sub 2} substrate and acoustic phonons in graphene. For suspended graphene, the energy transfer coefficient at nanoscale gap is ∝ three orders of magnitude larger than the radiative heat transfer coefficient of the blackbody radiation limit.

  2. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Graphite Materials with Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestchaanyi, S. E.; Landman, I. S.

    The dependence of effective thermal diffusivity on temperature caused by volumetric cracks is modelled for macroscopic graphite samples using the three-dimensional thermomechanics code Pegasus-3D. At high off-normal heat loads typical of the divertor armour, thermostress due to the anisotropy of graphite grains is much larger than that due to the temperature gradient. Numerical simulation demonstrated that the volumetric crack density both in fine grain graphites and in the CFC matrix depends mainly on the local sample temperature, not on the temperature gradient. This allows to define an effective thermal diffusivity for graphite with cracks. The results obtained are used to explain intense cracking and particle release from carbon based materials under electron beam heat load. Decrease of graphite thermal diffusivity with increase of the crack density explains particle release mechanism in the experiments with CFC where a clear energy threshold for the onset of particle release has been observed in J. Linke et al. Fusion Eng. Design, in press, Bazyler et al., these proceedings. Surface temperature measurement is necessary to calibrate the Pegasus-3D code for simulation of ITER divertor armour brittle destruction.

  3. Thermal Stress Effect on Density Changes of Hemp Hurds Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzova, Ivana; Cigasova, Julia; Stevulova, Nadezda

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this article is to study the behavior of prepared biocomposites based on hemp hurds as a filling agent in composite system. In addition to the filler and water, an alternative binder, called MgO-cement was used. For this objective were prepared three types of samples; samples based on untreated hemp hurds as a referential material and samples based on chemically (with NaOH solution) and physically (by ultrasonic procedure) treated hemp hurds. The thermal stress effect on bulk density changes of hemp hurds composites was monitored. Gradual increase in temperature led to composites density reduction of 30-40 %. This process is connected with mass loss of the adsorbed moisture and physically bound water and also with degradation of organic compounds present in hemp hurds aggregates such as pectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose. Therefore the changes in the chemical composition of treated hemp hurds in comparison to original sample and its thermal decomposition were also studied.

  4. Thermal effects in high average power optical parametric amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhardt, Jan; Demmler, Stefan; Hädrich, Steffen; Peschel, Thomas; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) have the reputation of being average power scalable due to the instantaneous nature of the parametric process (zero quantum defect). This Letter reveals serious challenges originating from thermal load in the nonlinear crystal caused by absorption. We investigate these thermal effects in high average power OPAs based on beta barium borate. Absorption of both pump and idler waves is identified to contribute significantly to heating of the nonlinear crystal. A temperature increase of up to 148 K with respect to the environment is observed and mechanical tensile stress up to 40 MPa is found, indicating a high risk of crystal fracture under such conditions. By restricting the idler to a wavelength range far from absorption bands and removing the crystal coating we reduce the peak temperature and the resulting temperature gradient significantly. Guidelines for further power scaling of OPAs and other nonlinear devices are given.

  5. Effect of thermal power plant emissions on Catharanthus roseus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.M.; Pandey, V.; Shukla, J.; Singh, N.; Yunus, M.; Singh, S.N.; Ahmad, K.J. (National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India))

    1990-06-01

    Most of the industrialized nations depend largely on the combustion of fossil fuels for their energy requirements. During the past few years in India quite a few thermal power plants have been commissioned to cater to the increasing energy requirements. As most of the power plants are coal-fired, a complex mixture of several pollutants is released in the atmosphere on the combustion of coal. Leaves by virtue of their unique position on plants and their functions, experience the maximum brunt of exposure and undergo certain changes in form, structure and function with the changes in surrounding environs, and such modifications are likely to serve as markers of environmental pollution. The present paper deals with the long term exposure effects of thermal power plant emissions on Catharanthus roseus L. - a common perennial shrub, with glossy leaves and white, mauve or pink colored flowers and of great medicinal value is grown as an ornamental plant all over the country.

  6. Effective permittivity of saline ice under thermal variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.; Gow, A. J.; Arcone, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    A model for calculating the effective permittivity of saline ice under thermal variation is presented. The model includes multiphase inhomogeneities with multiple species characterized by orientation, size and shape distributions. The model is used to derive the effective permittivity as a function of temperature under the strong fluctuation theory which is extended to account for the complexity. The results calculated from the model are compared with experimental data at 4.8 GHz for saline ice grown at the US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL). The comparison between measured and calculated complex permittivities is good for the imaginary part, and the difference is within 10 percent for the real part.

  7. Thermal processing of EVA encapsulants and effects of formulation additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pern, F.J.; Glick, S.H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The authors investigated the in-situ processing temperatures and effects of various formulation additives on the formation of ultraviolet (UV) excitable chromophores, in the thermal lamination and curing of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulants. A programmable, microprocessor-controlled, double-bag vacuum laminator was used to study two commercial as formulated EVA films, A9918P and 15295P, and solution-cast films of Elvaxrm (EVX) impregnated with various curing agents and antioxidants. The results show that the actual measured temperatures of EVA lagged significantly behind the programmed profiles for the heating elements and were affected by the total thermal mass loaded inside the laminator chamber. The antioxidant Naugard P{trademark}, used in the two commercial EVA formulations, greatly enhances the formation of UV-excitable, short chromophores upon curing, whereas other tested antioxidants show little effect. A new curing agent chosen specifically for the EVA formulation modification produces little or no effect on chromophore formation, no bubbling problems in the glass/EVX/glass laminates, and a gel content of {approximately}80% when cured at programmed 155{degrees}C for 4 min. Also demonstrated is the greater discoloring effect with higher concentrations of curing-generated chromophores.

  8. Finite-temperature effective boundary theory of the quantized thermal Hall effect

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, Ryota; Ryu, Shinsei; Nomura, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    A finite-temperature effective free energy of the boundary of a quantized thermal Hall system is derived microscopically from the bulk two-dimensional Dirac fermion coupled with a gravitational field. In two spatial dimensions, the thermal Hall conductivity of fully gapped insulators and superconductors is quantized and given by the bulk Chern number, in analogy to the quantized electric Hall conductivity in quantum Hall systems. From the perspective of effective action functionals, two disti...

  9. Nonlinear model for thermal effects in free-electron lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Eduardo Alcides; Endler, Antônio; Rizzato, Felipe Barbedo

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we extend results of a previous paper [Peter et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 12 3104 (2013)] and develop a semi-analytical model to account for thermal effects on the nonlinear dynamics of the electron beam in free-electron lasers. We relax the condition of a cold electron beam but still use the concept of compressibility, now associated with a warm beam model, to evaluate the time scale for saturation and the peak laser intensity in high-gain regimes. Although vanishing compre...

  10. Thermal enhancement of interference effects in quantum point contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbout, Adel; Lemarié, Gabriel; Pichard, Jean-Louis

    2011-04-15

    We study an electron interferometer formed with a quantum point contact and a scanning probe tip in a two-dimensional electron gas. The images giving the conductance as a function of the tip position exhibit fringes spaced by half the Fermi wavelength. For a contact opened at the edges of a quantized conductance plateau, the fringes are enhanced as the temperature T increases and can persist beyond the thermal length l(T). This unusual effect is explained by assuming a simplified model: The fringes are mainly given by a contribution which vanishes when T→0 and has a decay characterized by a T-independent scale.

  11. Thermal Enhancement of Interference Effects in Quantum Point Contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Abbout, Adel; Lemarié, Gabriel; Pichard, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    We study an electron interferometer formed with a quantum point contact and a scanning probe tip in a two-dimensional electron gas. The images giving the conductance as a function of the tip position exhibit fringes spaced by half the Fermi wavelength. For a contact opened at the edges of a quantized conductance plateau, the fringes are enhanced as the temperature T increases and can persist beyond the thermal length l_T. This unusual effect is explained assuming a simplified model: The fring...

  12. Electro-optical characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) films: effect of thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, D.V.; Salehi, A.; Aliyu, Y.H.; Bunce, R.W. [University of Wales College of Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Electrical, Electronics and System Engineering

    1996-02-01

    The effect of thermal annealing on the electrical and optical characteristics of ITO films prepared by reactive sputtering and thermal evaporation have been studied. The effect of the thermal annealing is to improve the conductivity and the optical transmission in the shorter wavelength region. The conductivity of the films increases with annealing temperature, this behaviour is associated with grain growth in the film. (author)

  13. Evaluation of different measurements for effective thermal conductivity of fibrous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ming-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective thermal conductivity is generally recognized as the intrinsic factor to reveal the thermal responses of fibrous materials. Here, two typical measurements, the step-wise transient method and the guarded hot plate method, were utilized to identify their feasibility for the effective thermal conductivity of fibrous materials (non-woven fabric and twill fabric with different stacking layers.

  14. Effect of composition on thermal conductivity of silica insulation media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung; Kwon, Young-Pil; Kwon, Hyuk-Chon; Lee, Hae-Weon; Lee, Jae Chun

    2008-10-01

    Nano-sized fumed silica-based insulation media were prepared by adding TiO2 powders and ceramic fibers as opacifiers and structural integrity improvers, respectively. The high temperature thermal conductivities of the fumed silica-based insulation media were investigated using different types of TiO2 opacifier and by varying its content. The opacifying effects of nanostructured TiO2 powders produced by homogeneous precipitation process at low temperatures (HPPLT) were compared with those of commercial TiO2 powder. The nanostructured HPPLT TiO2 powder with a mean particle size of 1.8 microm was more effective to reduce radiative heat transfer than the commercial one with a similar mean particle size. The insulation samples with the HPPLT TiO2 powder showed about 46% lower thermal conductivity at temperatures of about 820 degrees C than those with the commercial one. This interesting result might be due to the more effective radiation scattering efficiency of the nanostructured HPPLT TiO2 powder which has better gap filling and coating capability in nano-sized composite compacts.

  15. Ion thermal and dispersion effects in Farley-Buneman instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litt, S. K., E-mail: sandeep.litt@usask.ca; Smolyakov, A. I., E-mail: andrei.smolyakov@usask.ca [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada); Hassan, E., E-mail: ehab@utexas.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Horton, W., E-mail: wendell.horton@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Applied Research Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Farley-Buneman modes are an example of the collisional instability, which is thought to be the dominant mechanism for the irregularities in low ionosphere region. Despite high collisionality due to electron-neutral and ion-neutral collisions, the kinetic effects associated with finite temperature are important for determination of the mode frequencies and growth rate. This is especially important for ion component that is largely unmagnetized due to low ion cyclotron frequency. The ion thermal effects are strongly pronounced for shorter wavelengths and are crucial for the growth rate cut-off at high wavenumbers. We develop an extended fluid model for ion dynamics to incorporate the effects of ion thermal motion. The model is based on the extended MHD model that includes the evolution equations for higher order moments such as ion viscosity and ion heat flux. We also develop the generalized Chapman-Enskog closure model that provides exact linear closures based on the linearized kinetic equation. The results of these models are compared and tested against the linear kinetic model. The dispersion of Farley-Buneman modes and growth rate behavior are investigated in the short wavelength region.

  16. Rotating Casimir systems: Magnetic-field-enhanced perpetual motion, possible realization in doped nanotubes, and laws of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernodub, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that for a certain class of Casimir-type systems (“devices”) the energy of zero-point vacuum fluctuations reaches its global minimum when the device rotates about a certain axis rather than remains static. This rotational vacuum effect may lead to the emergence of permanently rotating objects provided the negative rotational energy of zero-point fluctuations cancels the positive rotational energy of the device itself. In this paper, we show that for massless electrically charged particles the rotational vacuum effect should be drastically (astronomically) enhanced in the presence of a magnetic field. As an illustration, we show that in a background of experimentally available magnetic fields the zero-point energy of massless excitations in rotating torus-shaped doped carbon nanotubes may indeed overwhelm the classical energy of rotation for certain angular frequencies so that the permanently rotating state is energetically favored. The suggested “zero-point-driven” devices—which have no internally moving parts—correspond to a perpetuum mobile of a new, fourth kind: They do not produce any work despite the fact that their equilibrium (ground) state corresponds to a permanent rotation even in the presence of an external environment. We show that our proposal is consistent with the laws of thermodynamics.

  17. Thermal gradients in Southwestern United States and the effect on bridge bearing loads : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Thermal gradients became a component of bridge design after soffit cracking in prestressed concrete bridges was attributed to nonlinear temperature distribution through the depth of the bridge. While the effect of thermal gradient on stress distribut...

  18. Effective thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance of gas diffusion layers in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Part 2: Hysteresis effect under cyclic compressive load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, E. [Dept. Mechanical Eng., and Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC (Canada); Mechatronic Systems Engineering, School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, BC (Canada); Djilali, N. [Dept. Mechanical Eng., and Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC (Canada); Bahrami, M. [Mechatronic Systems Engineering, School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Heat transfer through the gas diffusion layer (GDL) is a key process in the design and operation of a PEM fuel cell. The analysis of this process requires the determination of the effective thermal conductivity as well as the thermal contact resistance between the GDL and adjacent surfaces/layers. The Part 1 companion paper describes an experimental procedure and a test bed devised to allow separation of the effective thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance, and presents measurements under a range of static compressive loads. In practice, during operation of a fuel cell stack, the compressive load on the GDL changes. In the present study, experiments are performed on Toray carbon papers with 78% porosity and 5% PTFE under a cyclic compressive load. Results show a significant hysteresis in the loading and unloading cycle data for total thermal resistance, thermal contact resistance (TCR), effective thermal conductivity, thickness, and porosity. It is found that after 5 loading-unloading cycles, the geometrical, mechanical, and thermal parameters reach a ''steady-state'' condition and remain unchanged. A key finding of this study is that the TCR is the dominant component of the GDL total thermal resistance with a significant hysteresis resulting in up to a 34% difference between the loading and unloading cycle data. This work aims to clarify the impact of unsteady/cyclic compression on the thermal and structural properties of GDLs and provides new insights on the importance of TCR which is a critical interfacial transport phenomenon. (author)

  19. Investigating effect of different reflective surfaces on solar thermal collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Yaw Long; Chin, Kiat Keong; Tay, Tee Tiong

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports on the experiments conducted to investigate the efficiency of different type of reflecting surfaces used on solar thermal collector. Three types of commonly available reflective surfaces coated with silver colour acrylic paint, reflective aluminium foil and blank compact disc are investigated. In this paper, the effect of different reflective surfaces on the water container and parabolic concentrator dish are investigated. In the first experiment, two types of surfaces, coated with silver colour acrylic paint and black colour acrylic paint on an aluminium container are compared. The other factors that might influence the experiment outcome like the material, focal point, and weather condition are kept constant. The experiment results proved that black colour surface is better in absorbing heat reflected by the parabolic dish. The second experiment focused on investigating the effect of different reflective surfaces on the parabolic concentrator dish itself. These surfaces are tested on a parabolic disc of a static solar thermal collector that reflects heat from the sun to a body of water stored in a black colour aluminium container. The temperature of the water is measured at a predetermined interval to measure the efficiency of the reflective surfaces used. It is found that the aluminium reflective surface performed the best compared to the other surfaces.

  20. Effects of thermal treatments on donkey milk nutritional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, Paolo; Vincenzetti, Silvia

    2013-12-01

    Human breast milk is the best nutritional support to ensure right development and influence immune status of the newborn infant. However, when it is not possible to breast feed it may be necessary to use commercial infant formulas that mimic, where possible, the levels and types of nutrients present in human milk. Despite this, some formula-fed infants develop allergy and/or atopic disease compared to breast-fed infants. Most infants with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) develop symptoms before 1 month of age, often within 1 week after introduction of cow's milk-based formula. Donkey milk may be considered a good substitute for cow's milk in feeding children with CMPA since its composition is very similar to human milk. An in-depth analysis of the donkey milk protein profile has been performed in this study. The interest was focused on the milk proteins considered safe for the prevention and treatment of various disorders in human. Since donkey milk supply is related to its seasonal availability during the year, in this study were evaluated the effects of different thermal treatments on the protein fractions of donkey milk. The results obtained in fresh, frozen, powdered and lyophilized donkey milk showed different values in total proteins, caseins, whey proteins and lysozyme content. This study demonstrated the possibility of using lyophilization in order to maintain the nutritional characteristics of donkey milk. The article presents some promising patents on the effects of thermal treatments on donkey milk nutritional characteristics.

  1. MMOD Protection and Degradation Effects for Thermal Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) environment overview Hypervelocity impact effects & MMOD shielding MMOD risk assessment process Requirements & protection techniques - ISS - Shuttle - Orion/Commercial Crew Vehicles MMOD effects on spacecraft systems & improving MMOD protection - Radiators Coatings - Thermal protection system (TPS) for atmospheric entry vehicles Coatings - Windows - Solar arrays - Solar array masts - EVA Handrails - Thermal Blankets Orbital Debris provided by JSC & is the predominate threat in low Earth orbit - ORDEM 3.0 is latest model (released December 2013) - http://orbitaldebris.jsc.nasa.gov/ - Man-made objects in orbit about Earth impacting up to 16 km/s average 9-10 km/s for ISS orbit - High-density debris (steel) is major issue Meteoroid model provided by MSFC - MEM-R2 is latest release - http://www.nasa.gov/offices/meo/home/index.html - Natural particles in orbit about sun Mg-silicates, Ni-Fe, others - Meteoroid environment (MEM): 11-72 km/s Average 22-23 km/s.

  2. Rigorous analysis of Casimir and van der Waals forces on a silicon nano-optomechanical device actuated by optical forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Janderson R; Gusso, Andre; Rosa, Felipe S S; Almeida, Vilson R

    2018-02-09

    Nano-optomechanical devices have enabled a lot of interesting scientific and technological applications. However, due to their nanoscale dimensions, they are vulnerable to the action of Casimir and van der Waals (dispersion) forces. This work presents a rigorous analysis of the dispersion forces on a nano-optomechanical device based on a silicon waveguide and a silicon dioxide substrate, surrounded by air and driven by optical forces. The dispersion forces are calculated using a modified Lifshitz theory with experimental optical data and validated by means of a rigorous 3D FDTD simulation. The mechanical nonlinearity of the nanowaveguide is taken into account and validated using a 3D FEM simulation. The results show that it is possible to attain a no pull-in critical point due to only the optical forces; however, the dispersion forces usually impose a pull-in critical point to the device and establish a minimal initial gap between the waveguide and the substrate. Furthermore, it is shown that the geometric nonlinearity effect may be exploited in order to avoid or minimize the pull-in and, therefore, the device collapse.

  3. Effective thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance of gas diffusion layers in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Part 1: Effect of compressive load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, E. [Dept. Mechanical Eng., and Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC (Canada); Mechatronic Systems Engineering, School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, BC (Canada); Djilali, N. [Dept. Mechanical Eng., and Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC (Canada); Bahrami, M. [Mechatronic Systems Engineering, School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2011-01-01

    Heat transfer through the gas diffusion layer (GDL) is a key process in the design and operation of a PEM fuel cell. The analysis of this process requires determination of the effective thermal conductivity as well as the thermal contact resistance associated with the interface between the GDL and adjacent surfaces/layers. In the present study, a custom-made test bed that allows the separation of effective thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance in GDLs under vacuum and ambient conditions is described. Measurements under varying compressive loads are performed using Toray carbon paper samples with a porosity of 78% for a range of thicknesses. The measurements are complemented by compact analytical models that achieve good agreement with experimental data. A key finding is that thermal contact resistance is the dominant component of the total thermal resistance; neglecting this phenomenon may result in significant errors in evaluating heat transfer rates and temperature distributions. (author)

  4. Thermally and Electrically Conductive Nanopapers from Reduced Graphene Oxide: Effect of Nanoflakes Thermal Annealing on the Film Structure and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mar Bernal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report a novel strategy to prepare graphene nanopapers from direct vacuum filtration. Instead of the conventional method, i.e., thermal annealing nanopapers at extremely high temperatures prepared from graphene oxide (GO or partially reduced GO, we fabricate our graphene nanopapers directly from suspensions of fully reduced graphene oxide (RGO, obtained after RGO and thermal annealing at 1700 °C in vacuum. By using this approach, we studied the effect of thermal annealing on the physical properties of the macroscopic graphene-based papers. Indeed, we demonstrated that the enhancement of the thermal and electrical properties of graphene nanopapers prepared from annealed RGO is strongly influenced by the absence of oxygen functionalities and the morphology of the nanoflakes. Hence, our methodology can be considered as a valid alternative to the classical approach.

  5. Bactericidal effects of reactive thermal plasma synthesized titanium dioxide photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijay, M [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Ananthapadmanabhan, P V; Sreekumar, K P [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Stengl, Vaclav [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Bondioli, Federica [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905 - 41100 Modena (Italy); Selvarajan, V, E-mail: vselvrjn47@rediffmail.co

    2010-02-01

    Nanocrystalline titanium oxide powder has been synthesized by reactive plasma processing. The precursor powder of TiH{sub 2} was oxidized 'in-flight' in a thermal plasma reactor to effect complete conversion of TiH{sub 2} to nano-sized TiO{sub 2} powder. Characterization of the powder by various analytical tools indicated that the powder consisted of nano-sized titanium dioxide particles consisting predominantly of the anatase phase. Bactericidal action of illuminated TiO{sub 2} on pure culture of Escherichia coli was studied. The plasma synthesized TiO{sub 2}nano powder catalyst was found to be highly effective for the killing of Escherichia coli. The efficiency of photocatalytic disinfection, used to inactivate Escherischia coli as function of time is discussed.

  6. Thermal, Squeezing and Compressibility Effects in Lubrication of Asymmetric Rollers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Prasad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamically heavily loaded rigid cylindrical rollers, lubricated by a thin compressible fluid film, are investigated for normal squeezing motion and cavitations. The lubricant is assumed to follow the non-Newtonian power-law fluid model where consistency and density of the lubricant vary with one dimensional pressure and temperature. The modified Reynolds pressure equation and thermal energy equation are derived and solved simultaneously by R-K Fehlberg method. Secant method is also applied in order to enforce the boundary condition at the outlet. It is observed that temperature has significant effects on consistency and density both. It is also to be noted that compressibility effect is even more significant when squeezing is taken into account.

  7. Effect of the environmental stimuli upon the human body in winter outdoor thermal environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin

    2013-01-01

    the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses...... of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation....... The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect...

  8. Thermal resistances of air in cavity walls and their effect upon the thermal insulation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkouche, S.M.A.; Cherier, M.K.; Hamdani, M.; Benamrane, N. [Application of Renewable Energies in Arid and Semi Arid Environments /Applied Research Unit on Renewable Energies/ EPST Development Center of Renewable Energies, URAER and B.P. 88, ZI, Gart Taam Ghardaia (Algeria); Benouaz, T. [University of Tlemcen, BP. 119, Tlemcen R.p. 13000 (Algeria); Yaiche, M.R. [Development Center of Renewable Energies, CDER and B.P 62, 16340, Route de l' Observatoire, Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria)

    2013-07-01

    The optimum thickness in cavity walls in buildings is determined under steady conditions; the heat transfer has been calculated according to ISO 15099:2003. Two forms of masonry units are investigated to conclude the advantage of high thermal emissivity. The paper presents also some results from a study of the thermal insulation performance of air cavities bounded by thin reflective material layer 'eta = 0.05'. The results show that the most economical cavity configuration depends on the thermal emissivity and the insulation material used.

  9. Electric field effects in combustion with non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Tiernan Albert

    Chemically reacting zones such as flames act as sources of charged species and can thus be considered as weakly-ionized plasmas. As such, the action of an externally applied electric field has the potential to affect the dynamics of reaction zones by enhancing transport, altering the local chemical composition, activating reaction pathways, and by providing additional thermal energy through the interaction of electrons with neutral molecules. To investigate these effects, one-dimensional simulations of reacting flows are performed including the treatment of charged species transport and non-thermal electron chemistry using a modified reacting fluid solver. A particular area of interest is that of plasma assisted ignition, which is investigated in a canonical one-dimensional configuration. An incipient ignition kernel, formed by localized energy deposition into a lean mixture of methane and air at atmospheric pressure, is subjected to sub-breakdown electric fields by applied voltages across the domain, resulting in non-thermal behavior of the electron sub-fluid formed during the discharge. Strong electric fields cause charged species to be rapidly transported from the ignition zone across the domain in opposite directions as charge fronts, augmenting the magnitude of the electric field in the fresh gas during the pulse through a dynamic-electrode effect. This phenomenon results in an increase in the energy of the electrons in the fresh mixture with increasing time, accelerating electron impact dissociation processes. A semi-analytic model to represent this dynamic electrode effect is constructed to highlight the relative simplicity of the electrodynamic problem admitted by the far more detailed chemistry and transport. Enhanced fuel and oxidizer decomposition due to electron impact dissociation and interaction with excited neutrals generate a pool of radicals, mostly O and H, in the fresh gas ahead of the flame's preheat zone. The effect of nanosecond pulses are to

  10. Effect of microstructure of graphite on the nonreductive thermal ion emission in thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H Z; Jiang, S Y; Xiao, Y K

    2010-02-25

    The emission behavior of polyatomic ions in the ionization source of thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) was investigated. The results suggest that the presence of a graphite promoter plays a key role for the formation and stable emission of polyatomic ions, such as M(2)X(+), M(2)BO(2)(+), Cs(2)NO(2)(+), and Cs(2)CNO(+). Our data further implied that the intensity of M(2)X(+) and M(2)BO(2)(+) increases and the emission temperature decreases with increasing cationic and anionic radius. During the boron isotopic measurement using the Cs(2)BO(2)(+)-graphite-PTIMS method, the isobaric interference ion Cs(2)CNO(+) cannot be transformed from nitrate or organic compounds containing an amide group but can be induced by the existence of trace amounts of boron because of its special electron-deficiency property (B(3+)). Characterization on the planar crystalline structure of various graphite samples with SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the relationship of the emission capacity of polyatomic ions and the crystal microstructure of graphite and provides direct evidence that graphite with a perfect parallel and equidistant layer orientation shows a beneficial effect on the emission of polyatomic ions in TIMS. The mechanism study on the formation of polyatomic ions opens the possibility to establish high precision methods for isotopic composition analysis of more nonmetal elements with the TIMS technique.

  11. Thermal Stress Effect on Density Changes of Hemp Hurds Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzova Ivana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the behavior of prepared biocomposites based on hemp hurds as a filling agent in composite system. In addition to the filler and water, an alternative binder, called MgO-cement was used. For this objective were prepared three types of samples; samples based on untreated hemp hurds as a referential material and samples based on chemically (with NaOH solution and physically (by ultrasonic procedure treated hemp hurds. The thermal stress effect on bulk density changes of hemp hurds composites was monitored. Gradual increase in temperature led to composites density reduction of 30-40 %. This process is connected with mass loss of the adsorbed moisture and physically bound water and also with degradation of organic compounds present in hemp hurds aggregates such as pectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose. Therefore the changes in the chemical composition of treated hemp hurds in comparison to original sample and its thermal decomposition were also studied.

  12. Thermal stability of the krypton Hall effect thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szelecka Agnieszka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Krypton Large IMpulse Thruster (KLIMT ESA/PECS project, which has been implemented in the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM and now is approaching its final phase, was aimed at incremental development of a ~500 W class Hall effect thruster (HET. Xenon, predominantly used as a propellant in the state-of-the-art HETs, is extremely expensive. Krypton has been considered as a cheaper alternative since more than fifteen years; however, to the best knowledge of the authors, there has not been a HET model especially designed for this noble gas. To address this issue, KLIMT has been geared towards operation primarily with krypton. During the project, three subsequent prototype versions of the thruster were designed, manufactured and tested, aimed at gradual improvement of each next exemplar. In the current paper, the heat loads in new engine have been discussed. It has been shown that thermal equilibrium of the thruster is gained within the safety limits of the materials used. Extensive testing with both gases was performed to compare KLIMT’s thermal behaviour when supplied with krypton and xenon propellants.

  13. Investigation of thermal effects in through-silicon vias using scanning thermal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgoszewski, Grzegorz; Jóźwiak, Grzegorz; Babij, Michał; Baraniecki, Tomasz; Geer, Robert; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2014-11-01

    Results of quantitative investigations of copper through-silicon vias (TSVs) are presented. The experiments were performed using scanning thermal microscopy (SThM), enabling highly localized imaging of thermal contrast between the copper TSVs and the surrounding material. Both dc and ac active-mode SThM was used and differences between these variants are shown. SThM investigations of TSVs may provide information on copper quality in TSV, as well as may lead to quantitative investigation of thermal boundaries in micro- and nanoelectronic structures. A proposal for heat flow analysis in a TSV, which includes the influence of the boundary region between the TSV and the silicon substrate, is presented; estimation of contact resistance and boundary thermal conductance is also given. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modifying the Casimir force between indium tin oxide film and Au sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banishev, A. A.; Chang, C.-C.; Castillo-Garza, R.; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.; Mohideen, U.

    2012-01-01

    We present complete results of the experiment on measuring the Casimir force between an Au-coated sphere and an untreated or, alternatively, UV-treated indium tin oxide (ITO) film deposited on a quartz substrate. Measurements were performed using an atomic force microscope in a high vacuum chamber. The measurement system was calibrated electrostatically. Special analysis of the systematic deviations is performed, and respective corrections in the calibration parameters are introduced. The corrected parameters are free from anomalies discussed in the literature. The experimental data for the Casimir force from two measurement sets for both untreated and UV-treated samples are presented. The random, systematic, and total experimental errors are determined at a 95% confidence level. It is demonstrated that the UV treatment of an ITO plate results in a significant decrease in the magnitude of the Casimir force (from 21% to 35% depending on separation). However, ellipsometry measurements of the imaginary parts of dielectric permittivities of the untreated and UV-treated samples did not reveal any significant differences. The experimental data are compared with computations in the framework of the Lifshitz theory. It is found that the data for the untreated sample are in a very good agreement with theoretical results taking into account the free charge carriers in an ITO film. For the UV-treated sample the data exclude the theoretical results obtained with account of free charge carriers. These data are in very good agreement with computations disregarding the contribution of free carriers in the dielectric permittivity. According to the hypothetical explanation provided, this is caused by the phase transition of the ITO film from metallic to dielectric state caused by the UV treatment. Possible applications of the discovered phenomenon in nanotechnology are discussed.

  15. Experimental and modeling study of forest fire effect on soil thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen M. Smits; Elizabeth Kirby; William J. Massman; Scott Baggett

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of soil thermal conductivity after a wildfire or controlled burn is important to land management and post-fire recovery efforts. Although soil thermal conductivity has been well studied for non-fire heated soils, comprehensive data that evaluate the long-term effect of extreme heating from a fire on the soil thermal conductivity are limited....

  16. Stable levitation and alignment of compact objects by Casimir spring forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Sahand Jamal; Zaheer, Saad

    2010-02-19

    We investigate a stable Casimir force configuration consisting of an object contained inside a spherical or spheroidal cavity filled with a dielectric medium. The spring constant for displacements from the center of the cavity and the dependence of the energy on the relative orientations of the inner object and the cavity walls are computed. We find that the stability of the force equilibrium-unlike the direction of the torque-can be predicted based on the sign of the force between two slabs of the same material.

  17. NOUR. Daylighting and thermal effects of windows in desert houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouahrani, Djamel

    1999-07-01

    This study is on a combined effect of window, the daylighting and the thermal effects, in desert houses. It is comprised of two complementary studies. In the introduction a historical review on the development of using daylight has been carried out in order to place the case study in a historical perspective. The first study is comprehensive and contains two main parts. In the first part a study was carried out on the people and history of the town of Ghardaia in Southern Algeria. This was done in order to understand the architectural form of that region. The second part is experimental and consists of two field studies carried out in Ghardaia. Their aim was to investigate the influence of daylight and temperature on the use of residential houses. This investigation included both traditional and 'modern' houses, the modern having relatively large windows similar to those of the northern part of Algeria, the traditional ones having small or no windows. The second study is also experimental consisting of computer parametric studies on window design from two standpoints, namely daylighting level and thermal effects of windows in desert houses. A typical traditional house is described as it was observed. Then the recorded light values are presented and commented upon. In the second part, three types of modern houses observed in the field studies are presented and compared to the traditional archetype. The comparison especially dwells on the relative effectiveness of the two systems of daylighting. In the third part, focusing on various issues of lighting, the results of interviews with the inhabitants are presented. The historical studies indicate that the process of housing development, in several respects, has reached a certain quality (social, technology, and adaptation to climate) appropriate to the local original context, but that development has slowed down. The results of the lighting study indicate that the use of more windows in modern houses

  18. Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

  19. Thermal and viscous effects on sound waves: revised classical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anthony M J; Brenner, Howard

    2012-11-01

    In this paper the recently developed, bi-velocity model of fluid mechanics based on the principles of linear irreversible thermodynamics (LIT) is applied to sound propagation in gases taking account of first-order thermal and viscous dissipation effects. The results are compared and contrasted with the classical Navier-Stokes-Fourier results of Pierce for this same situation cited in his textbook. Comparisons are also made with the recent analyses of Dadzie and Reese, whose molecularly based sound propagation calculations furnish results virtually identical with the purely macroscopic LIT-based bi-velocity results below, as well as being well-supported by experimental data. Illustrative dissipative sound propagation examples involving application of the bi-velocity model to several elementary situations are also provided, showing the disjoint entropy mode and the additional, evanescent viscous mode.

  20. Radiation and thermal effects on cobalt retention by Mexican aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila-Rangel, J.I. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico 11801, D. F. (Mexico); Unidad Academica Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cipres 10, Frac. La Penuela, Zacatecas, Zacatecas 98068 (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Instituto Literario No. 100 Col. Centro C. P. 50000, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Solache-Rios, M. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico 11801, D. F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: msr@nuclear.inin.mx; Nunez-Monreal, J.E. [Unidad Academica de Ciencias Quimicas, Programa de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Km. 0.5 Carr. a Cd. Cuauhtemoc., Guadalupe, Zacatecas 98600 (Mexico)

    2007-05-15

    Thermal and radiation effects on the leaching of cobalt from two cobalt exchanged zeolites and one clay were determined. The cobalt exchanged aluminosilicates were heated at different temperatures (500, 700, 900 and 1100 deg. C), and the materials were then treated with NaCl (1 and 5 M) and HNO{sub 3} (0.001 and 1 M) solutions to determine the leaching behavior of cobalt from the materials. Cobalt showed greater stability when the materials were heated at the highest temperature. The unheated samples and those heated at 1100 deg. C were gamma irradiated, and it was found that cobalt leaching from gamma irradiated aluminosilicates was higher than that for non-irradiated materials.

  1. Isotope Effect on the Thermal Conductivity of Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengji Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal conductivity (TC of isolated graphene with different concentrations of isotope (C13 is studied with equilibrium molecular dynamics method at 300 K. In the limit of pure C12 or C13 graphene, TC of graphene in zigzag and armchair directions are ~630 W/mK and ~1000W/mK, respectively. We find that the TC of graphene can be maximally reduced by ~80%, in both armchair and zigzag directions, when a random distribution of C12 and C13 is assumed at different doping concentrations. Therefore, our simulation results suggest an effective way to tune the TC of graphene without changing its atomic and electronic structure, thus yielding a promising application for nanoelectronics and thermoelectricity of graphene-based nano device.

  2. Determination of Thermal Conductivity of Silicate Matrix for Applications in Effective Media Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Lukáš; Jerman, Miloš; Reiterman, Pavel; Černý, Robert

    2018-02-01

    Silicate materials have an irreplaceable role in the construction industry. They are mainly represented by cement-based- or lime-based materials, such as concrete, cement mortar, or lime plaster, and consist of three phases: the solid matrix and air and water present in the pores. Therefore, their effective thermal conductivity depends on thermal conductivities of the involved phases. Due to the time-consuming experimental determination of the effective thermal conductivity, its calculation by means of homogenization techniques presents a reasonable alternative. In the homogenization theory, both volumetric content and particular property of each phase need to be identified. For porous materials the most problematic part is to accurately identify thermal conductivity of the solid matrix. Due to the complex composition of silicate materials, the thermal conductivity of the matrix can be determined only approximately, based on the knowledge of thermal conductivities of its major compounds. In this paper, the thermal conductivity of silicate matrix is determined using the measurement of a sufficiently large set of experimental data. Cement pastes with different open porosities are prepared, dried, and their effective thermal conductivity is determined using a transient heat-pulse method. The thermal conductivity of the matrix is calculated by means of extrapolation of the effective thermal conductivity versus porosity functions to zero porosity. Its practical applicability is demonstrated by calculating the effective thermal conductivity of a three-phase silicate material and comparing it with experimental data.

  3. Evidence of Non-local Chemical, Thermal and Gravitational Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu H.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum entanglement is ubiquitous in the microscopic world and manifests itself macroscopically under some circumstances. But common belief is that it alone cannot be used to transmit information nor could it be used to produce macroscopic non- local effects. Yet we have recently found evidence of non-local effects of chemical substances on the brain produced through it. While our reported results are under independent verifications by other groups, we report here our experimental findings of non-local chemical, thermal and gravitational effects in simple physical systems such as reservoirs of water quantum-entangled with water being manipulated in a remote reservoir. With the aids of high-precision instruments, we have found that the pH value, temperature and gravity of water in the detecting reservoirs can be non-locally affected through manipulating water in the remote reservoir. In particular, the pH value changes in the same direction as that being manipulated; the temperature can change against that of local environment; and the gravity apparently can also change against local gravity. These non-local effects are all reproducible and can be used for non-local signalling and many other purposes. We suggest that they are mediated by quantum entanglement between nuclear and/or electron spins in treated water and discuss the implications of these results.

  4. Thermal Transport in Supported Graphene: Substrate Effects on Collective Excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    France-Lanord, Arthur; Soukiassian, Patrick; Glattli, Christian; Wimmer, Erich

    2017-03-01

    A detailed computational analysis of thermal transport in supported graphene reveals the possibility of tuning its thermal conductivity by targeted chemical modifications of the substrate's surface. Based on classical molecular dynamics with an accurate charge-optimized bond-order force field and a time-domain normal-mode analysis, our approach allows us to distinguish collective from single-phonon excitations. The computations reveal a disproportional reduction of the thermal conductivity, due to the two different excitations, when graphene interacts with a substrate. Deposition of graphene on a bare silica surface leads to a dramatic reduction of the thermal conductivity and a change in the heat transport mechanism. Remarkably, partial hydroxylation of the silica surface almost doubles the thermal conductivity of the collective excitations. Thus, specific surface terminations allow for control of the thermal conductivity of graphene.

  5. The effect of the thermal inertia on the thermal transfer in building wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahcene, Lahcene; Cheknane, Ali; Bekkouche, SMA.; Sahel, Djemal

    2017-11-01

    In a hot and dry climate, the design and construction of buildings involve the adoption of combination between shape of building envelope and construction materials. The objective of this work is to study the thermal behavior of a multilayer wall submitted to varying climatic conditions. We have proposed four configurations of an element of an outer wall. A numerical simulation was used to understand the phenomenon of thermal inertia, especially its influence on the resulting temperatures. The study is based on the modeling of heat transfer in a 2D unsteady-state using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The comparison of numerical results was affected with an available experimental data and shows a satisfactory agreement. In addition, this work highlights the importance of the study of the thermal inertia of the wall in order to ensure a comfortable indoor climate of building located in hot and dry climate.

  6. Pull-in voltage of microswitch rough plates in the presence of electromagnetic and acoustic Casimir forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, George

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the combined influence of electromagnetic and acoustic Casimir forces on the pull-in voltage of microswitches with self-affine rough plates. It is shown that for plate separations within the micron range the acoustic term arising from pressure fluctuations can influence

  7. Piezoelectric effect on the thermal conductivity of monolayer gallium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin

    2018-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations, in this work, we find that the heat transport property of the monolayer gallium nitride (GaN) can be efficiently tailored by external electric field due to its unique piezoelectric characteristic. As the monolayer GaN possesses different piezoelectric properties in armchair and zigzag directions, different effects of the external electric field on thermal conductivity are observed when it is applied in the armchair and zigzag directions. Our further study reveals that due to the elastoelectric effect in the monolayer GaN, the external electric field changes the Young's modulus and therefore changes the phonon group velocity. Also, due to the inverse piezoelectric effect, the applied electric field induces in-plane stress in the monolayer GaN subject to a length constraint, which results in the change in the lattice anharmonicity and therefore affects the phonon mean free path. Furthermore, for relatively long GaN monolayers, the in-plane stress may trigger the buckling instability, which can significantly reduce the phonon mean free path.

  8. Ballistic phonon and thermal radiation transport across a minute vacuum gap in between aluminum and silicon thin films: Effect of laser repetitive pulses on transport characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B.S., E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa; Ali, H.

    2016-08-15

    Short-pulse laser heating of aluminum and silicon thin films pair with presence of a minute vacuum gap in between them is considered and energy transfer across the thin films pair is predicted. The frequency dependent Boltzmann equation is used to predict the phonon intensity distribution along the films pair for three cycles of the repetitive short-pulse laser irradiation on the aluminum film surface. Since the gap size considered is within the Casimir limit, thermal radiation and ballistic phonon contributions to energy transfer across the vacuum gap is incorporated. The laser irradiated field is formulated in line with the Lambert's Beer law and it is considered as the volumetric source in the governing equations of energy transport. In order to assess the phonon intensity distribution in the films pair, equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced. It is demonstrated that thermal separation of electron and lattice sub-systems in the aluminum film, due to the short-pulse laser irradiation, takes place and electron temperature remains high in the aluminum film while equivalent equilibrium temperature for phonons decays sharply in the close region of the aluminum film interface. This behavior is attributed to the phonon boundary scattering at the interface and the ballistic phonon transfer to the silicon film across the vacuum gap. Energy transfer due to the ballistic phonon contribution is significantly higher than that of the thermal radiation across the vacuum gap.

  9. Translationally symmetric extended MHD via Hamiltonian reduction: Energy-Casimir equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltsas, D. A.; Throumoulopoulos, G. N.; Morrison, P. J.

    2017-09-01

    The Hamiltonian structure of ideal translationally symmetric extended MHD (XMHD) is obtained by employing a method of Hamiltonian reduction on the three-dimensional noncanonical Poisson bracket of XMHD. The existence of the continuous spatial translation symmetry allows the introduction of Clebsch-like forms for the magnetic and velocity fields. Upon employing the chain rule for functional derivatives, the 3D Poisson bracket is reduced to its symmetric counterpart. The sets of symmetric Hall, Inertial, and extended MHD Casimir invariants are identified, and used to obtain energy-Casimir variational principles for generalized XMHD equilibrium equations with arbitrary macroscopic flows. The obtained set of generalized equations is cast into Grad-Shafranov-Bernoulli (GSB) type, and special cases are investigated: static plasmas, equilibria with longitudinal flows only, and Hall MHD equilibria, where the electron inertia is neglected. The barotropic Hall MHD equilibrium equations are derived as a limiting case of the XMHD GSB system, and a numerically computed equilibrium configuration is presented that shows the separation of ion-flow from electro-magnetic surfaces.

  10. Critical and near-critical phase behavior and interplay between the thermodynamic Casimir and van der Waals forces in a confined nonpolar fluid medium with competing surface and substrate potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valchev, Galin; Dantchev, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    We study, using general scaling arguments and mean-field type calculations, the behavior of the critical Casimir force and its interplay with the van der Waals force acting between two parallel slabs separated at a distance L from each other, confining some fluctuating fluid medium, say a nonpolar one-component fluid or a binary liquid mixture. The surfaces of the slabs are coated by thin layers exerting strong preference to the liquid phase of the fluid, or one of the components of the mixture, modeled by strong adsorbing local surface potentials ensuring the so-called (+,+) boundary conditions. The slabs, on the other hand, influence the fluid by long-range competing dispersion potentials, which represent irrelevant interactions in renormalization-group sense. Under such conditions, one usually expects attractive Casimir force governed by universal scaling function, pertinent to the extraordinary surface universality class of Ising type systems, to which the dispersion potentials provide only corrections to scaling. We demonstrate, however, that below a given threshold thickness of the system L(crit) for a suitable set of slabs-fluid and fluid-fluid coupling parameters the competition between the effects due to the coatings and the slabs can result in sign change of the Casimir force acting between the surfaces confining the fluid when one changes the temperature T, the chemical potential of the fluid μ, or L. The last implies that by choosing specific materials for the slabs, coatings, and the fluid for L≲L(crit) one can realize repulsive Casimir force with nonuniversal behavior which, upon increasing L, gradually turns into an attractive one described by a universal scaling function, depending only on the relevant scaling fields related to the temperature and the excess chemical potential, for L≫L(crit). We present arguments and relevant data for specific substances in support of the experimental feasibility of the predicted behavior of the force. It can

  11. THERMAL INSULATION EFFECTS ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF BUILDING STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    M. Cvetkovska; Knezevic, M.; Rogac, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the use of Finite Element Method for heat transfer analysis. Connections wall-beam-floor structures with different positions of the thermal insulation have been analyzed and conclusions about energy efficiency and energy loss are made. Keywords: heat transfer, numerical analysis, finite elements, thermal insulation, energy efficiency.

  12. Effect of organic modification on the thermal transformations of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis techniques were used to study the thermal transforma- tions of raw (Maghnia bentonite) and modified bentonite (algae extract (ulvans) within clay). XRD data showed that the basal spacing (d001) was gradually decreased from ∼12.80 Å (6.90◦ (2θ)) at room temperature ...

  13. Effect of thermal processing methods on the proximate composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritive value of raw and thermal processed castor oil seed (Ricinus communis) was investigated using the following parameters; proximate composition, gross energy, mineral constituents and ricin content. Three thermal processing methods; toasting, boiling and soaking-and-boiling were used in the processing of the ...

  14. Nonlinear dynamical effects on reaction rates in thermally fluctuating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Shinnosuke; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2010-07-21

    A framework to calculate the rate constants of condensed phase chemical reactions of manybody systems is presented without relying on the concept of transition state. The theory is based on a framework we developed recently adopting a multidimensional underdamped Langevin equation in the region of a rank-one saddle. The theory provides a reaction coordinate expressed as an analytical nonlinear functional of the position coordinates and velocities of the system (solute), the friction constants, and the random force of the environment (solvent). Up to moderately high temperature, the sign of the reaction coordinate can determine the final destination of the reaction in a thermally fluctuating media, irrespective of what values the other (nonreactive) coordinates may take. In this paper, it is shown that the reaction probability is analytically derived as the probability of the reaction coordinate being positive, and that the integration with the Boltzmann distribution of the initial conditions leads to the exact reaction rate constant when the local equilibrium holds and the quantum effect is negligible. Because of analytical nature of the theory taking into account all nonlinear effects and their combination with fluctuation and dissipation, the theory naturally provides us with the firm mathematical foundation of the origin of the reactivity of the reaction in a fluctuating media.

  15. Effect of the Environmental Stimuli upon the Human Body in Winter Outdoor Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin; Sakoi, Tomonori; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2013-01-01

    In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach. PMID:23861691

  16. Effect of the Environmental Stimuli upon the Human Body in Winter Outdoor Thermal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihito Kurazumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach.

  17. Competition between the Thermal Gradient and the Bimorph Effect in Locally Heated MEMS Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Claus; Mølhave, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of thermal gradient effects in inhomogeneously heated MEMS/NEMS. The actuation perturbations caused by thermal gradients have been studied through static optothermal actuation experiments of a bi-material polymer based cantilever and supported by finite element...... modeling. As a result, bidirectional bending has been experimentally observed and interpreted as the competition between bimorph and thermal gradient effects. The competition has illustrated the importance of including the thermal gradient effect in the behavior analysis of bimorph driven MEMS/NEMS devices....

  18. Doppler broadening effect on collision cross section functions - Deconvolution of the thermal averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The surprising feature of the Doppler problem in threshold determination is the 'amplification effect' of the target's thermal energy spread. The small thermal energy spread of the target molecules results in a large dispersion in relative kinetic energy. The Doppler broadening effect in connection with thermal energy beam experiments is discussed, and a procedure is recommended for the deconvolution of molecular scattering cross-section functions whose dominant dependence upon relative velocity is approximately that of the standard low-energy form.

  19. Effective Thermal Conductivity of an Aluminum Foam + Water Two Phase System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskito, John

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the effect of volume fraction and pore size on the effective thermal conductivity of an aluminum foam and water system. Nine specimens of aluminum foam representing a matrix of three volume fractions (4-8% by vol.) and three pore sizes (2-4 mm) were tested with water to determine relationships to the effective thermal conductivity. It was determined that increases in volume fraction of the aluminum phase were correlated to increases in the effective thermal conductivity. It was not statistically possible to prove that changes in pore size of the aluminum foam correlated to changes in the effective thermal conductivity. However, interaction effects between the volume fraction and pore size of the foam were statistically significant. Ten theoretical models were selected from the published literature to compare against the experimental data. Models by Asaad, Hadley, and de Vries provided effective thermal conductivity predictions within a 95% confidence interval.

  20. Effect of surrogate aggregates on the thermal conductivity of concrete at ambient and elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Tae Sup; Jeong, Yeon Jong; Youm, Kwang-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The accurate assessment of the thermal conductivity of concretes is an important part of building design in terms of thermal efficiency and thermal performance of materials at various temperatures. We present an experimental assessment of the thermal conductivity of five thermally insulated concrete specimens made using lightweight aggregates and glass bubbles in place of normal aggregates. Four different measurement methods are used to assess the reliability of the thermal data and to evaluate the effects of the various sensor types. The concrete specimens are also assessed at every 100 °C during heating to ~800 °C. Normal concrete is shown to have a thermal conductivity of ~2.25 W m(-1) K(-1). The surrogate aggregates effectively reduce the conductivity to ~1.25 W m(-1) K(-1) at room temperature. The aggregate size is shown not to affect thermal conduction: fine and coarse aggregates each lead to similar results. Surface contact methods of assessment tend to underestimate thermal conductivity, presumably owing to high thermal resistance between the transducers and the specimens. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that the stages of mass loss of the cement paste correspond to the evolution of thermal conductivity upon heating.

  1. Effect of Surrogate Aggregates on the Thermal Conductivity of Concrete at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Sup Yun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate assessment of the thermal conductivity of concretes is an important part of building design in terms of thermal efficiency and thermal performance of materials at various temperatures. We present an experimental assessment of the thermal conductivity of five thermally insulated concrete specimens made using lightweight aggregates and glass bubbles in place of normal aggregates. Four different measurement methods are used to assess the reliability of the thermal data and to evaluate the effects of the various sensor types. The concrete specimens are also assessed at every 100°C during heating to ~800°C. Normal concrete is shown to have a thermal conductivity of ~2.25 W m−1 K−1. The surrogate aggregates effectively reduce the conductivity to ~1.25 W m−1 K−1 at room temperature. The aggregate size is shown not to affect thermal conduction: fine and coarse aggregates each lead to similar results. Surface contact methods of assessment tend to underestimate thermal conductivity, presumably owing to high thermal resistance between the transducers and the specimens. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that the stages of mass loss of the cement paste correspond to the evolution of thermal conductivity upon heating.

  2. effect of pre effect of pre-ageing thermal conditions on the corrosion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: Al-Si-Mg alloy, thermal ageing, polarization, eutectics, interdendritic spacing. 1. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. Corrosion of aluminium alloys lead to impairment of its operation and progressive weakening of that structure. The consequences of corrosion are many, and its effects on safety, ...

  3. Aging Effects and Estimating Degradation Mechanisms of Thermally Upgraded Paper in Mineral Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Katsunori; Oe, Etsuo; Yamagata, Naoki

    The life of a transformer is limited to the deterioration of its solid insulation. Winding conductors and other solid insulation materials in oil-immersed transformers have been insulated using cellulose products. For many years, manufacturers have met the needs of special applications by designing transformers using thermally upgraded materials to achieve lighter weight, higher power density and increased life. Recently, the effect of thermally upgraded insulation on diagnostic techniques such as gas-in oil analysis, and their indication of insulation degradation have been reviewed. This paper describes evaluations of the thermal degradation characteristics and decomposition reactions in mineral transformer oil of amine-impregnated thermally upgraded paper insulation. The thermal resistance of the thermally upgraded paper is evaluated by comparison with Kraft paper insulation. Further, aging degradation mechanisms of decompositional degradation of the thermally upgraded paper due to aging in mineral transformer oil are proposed.

  4. The InSight Mars Lander and Its Effect on the Subsurface Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Matthew A.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Grott, Matthias; Piqueux, Sylvain; Mueller, Nils; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Spohn, Tilman

    2017-10-01

    The 2018 InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) Mission has the mission goal of providing insitu data for the first measurement of the geothermal heat flow of Mars. The Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3) will take thermal conductivity and thermal gradient measurements to approximately 5 m depth. By necessity, this measurement will be made within a few meters of the lander. This means that thermal perturbations from the lander will modify local surface and subsurface temperature measurements. For HP3's sensitive thermal gradient measurements, this spacecraft influence will be important to model and parameterize. Here we present a basic 3D model of thermal effects of the lander on its surroundings. Though lander perturbations significantly alter subsurface temperatures, a successful thermal gradient measurement will be possible in all thermal conditions by proper (>3 m depth) placement of the heat flow probe.

  5. Thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic: Effects of finite cooling rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihe Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a semi-analytical model to explore the effects of cooling rate on the thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic (FGC plate with a periodic array of edge cracks. The FGC is assumed to be a thermally heterogeneous material with constant elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio. The cooling rate applied at the FGC surface is modeled using a linear ramp function. An integral equation method and a closed form asymptotic temperature solution are employed to compute the thermal stress intensity factor (TSIF. The thermal shock residual strength and critical thermal shock of the FGC plate are obtained using the SIF criterion. Thermal shock simulations for an Al2O3/Si3N4 FGC indicate that a finite cooling rate leads to a significantly higher critical thermal shock than that under the sudden cooling condition. The residual strength, however, is relatively insensitive to the cooling rate.

  6. Cosmological phases of the string thermal effective potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourliot, F., E-mail: Francois.Bourliot@cpht.polytechnique.f [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau cedex (France); Estes, J., E-mail: John.Estes@cpth.polytechnique.f [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau cedex (France); Kounnas, C., E-mail: Costas.Kounnas@lpt.ens.f [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Partouche, H., E-mail: Herve.Partouche@cpht.polytechnique.f [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau cedex (France)

    2010-05-01

    In a superstring framework, the free energy density F can be determined unambiguously at the full string level once supersymmetry is spontaneously broken via geometrical fluxes. We show explicitly that only the moduli associated to the supersymmetry breaking may give relevant contributions. All other spectator moduli mu{sub I} give exponentially suppressed contributions for relatively small (as compared to the string scale) temperature T and supersymmetry breaking scale M. More concisely, for mu{sub I}>T and M, F takes the form F(T,M;mu{sub I})=F(T,M)+O[exp(-(mu{sub I})/T ),exp(-(mu{sub I})/M )]. We study the cosmological regime where T and M are below the Hagedorn temperature scale T{sub H}. In this regime, F remains finite for any values of the spectator moduli mu{sub I}. We investigate extensively the case of one spectator modulus mu{sub d} corresponding to R{sub d}, the radius-modulus field of an internal compactified dimension. We show that its thermal effective potential V(T,M;mu)=F(T,M;mu) admits five phases, each of which can be described by a distinct but different effective field theory. For late cosmological times, the Universe is attracted to a 'Radiation-like evolution' with M(t)propor toT(t)propor to1/a(t)propor tot{sup -2/d}. The spectator modulus mu(t) is stabilized either to the stringy enhanced symmetry point where R{sub d}=1, or fixed at an arbitrary constant mu{sub 0}>T,M. For arbitrary boundary conditions at some initial time, t{sub E}, mu(t) may pass through more than one effective field theory phase before its final attraction.

  7. The effects of deep water cycling on planetary thermal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Constantin; Lenardic, Adrian; McGovern, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    We use a parameterized convection model to investigate the effects of deep water cycling on the thermal evolution of an Earth-like planet. The model incorporates two water reservoirs, a surface and an interior mantle reservoir. Exchange between the two is calculated using a mantle convection parameterization that allows for temperature- and water-dependent mantle viscosity together with internally self-consistent degassing and regassing parameterizations. The balance between degassing and regassing depends on the average spreading rate of tectonic plates, the amount of water partitioned into melt, the thickness of a mantle melt zone, and of a hydrated layer at the top of subducting plates. Degassing scales with melt zone thickness such that an early period of extensive melting would create a drier and more viscous mantle, shifting the solidus line in a direction that would reduce the melt zone thickness and the rate of mantle heat loss. Coupling a hydrated zone thickness-dependent regassing factor to the model, to mimic water delivery to the mantle via a serpentinized layer, allows for the potential of a reversing point where the overall water flow direction switches from degassing to regassing as the mantle cools. The water effect on viscosity creates a negative feedback that tends to regulate the final amount of water in the mantle so it is not strongly dependent on the initial amount of planetary water. The final amount of water in the surface reservoir is then determined by this feedback effect together with the initial water budget of the entire planet. This implies that if the initial water budget of a planet can be estimated, from planetary formation models, then the volume of surface water can be used to estimate the volume of water in the mantle of an Earth-like planet. Applying this methodology to the Earth leads to predictions for water concentration in the Earth's mantle that are in line with geochemical and petrological constraints.

  8. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Lin Wang

    Full Text Available To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced different durations of high temperature acclimatization were established. Upper thermal limits, oxygen consumption and levels of heat shock protein mRNA of juveniles was determined to compare thermal tolerance of individuals from different groups. Juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced high temperature could acquire high thermal resistance. With the increase of parental exposure duration to high temperature, offspring became less sensitive to high temperature, as indicated by higher upper thermal limits (LT50, less seasonal variations of oxygen consumption, and stable oxygen consumption rates between chronic and acute thermal stress. The relatively high levels of constitutive expression of heat-shock proteins should contribute to the high thermal tolerance. Together, these results indicated that the existence of a parental effect of long acclimatization would increase thermal tolerance of juveniles and change the thermal sensitivity of sea cucumber to future climate change.

  9. A Study of the Effects of Altitude on Thermal Ice Protection System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Gene; Oleskiw, Myron; Broeren, Andy P.; Orchard, David

    2013-01-01

    Thermal ice protection systems use heat energy to prevent a dangerous buildup of ice on an aircraft. As aircraft become more efficient, less heat energy is available to operate a thermal ice protections system. This requires that thermal ice protection systems be designed to more exacting standards so as to more efficiently prevent a dangerous ice buildup without adversely affecting aircraft safety. While the effects of altitude have always beeing taked into account in the design of thermal ice protection systems, a better understanding of these effects is needed so as to enable more exact design, testing, and evaluation of these systems.

  10. Fermions on the low-buckled honey-comb structured lattice plane and classical Casimir-Polder force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Partha

    2016-05-01

    We start with the well-known expression for the vacuum polarization and suitably modify it for 2+1-dimensional spin-orbit coupled (SOC) fermions on the low-buckled honey-comb structured lattice plane described by the low-energy Liu-Yao-Feng-Ezawa (LYFE) model Hamiltonian involving the Dirac matrices in the chiral representation obeying the Clifford algebra. The silicene and germanene fit this description suitably. They have the Dirac cones similar to those of graphene and SOC is much stronger. The system could be normal or ferromagnetic in nature. The silicene turns into the latter type if there is exchange field arising due to the proximity coupling to a ferromagnet (FM) such as depositing Fe atoms to the silicene surface. For the silicene, we find that the many-body effects considerably change the bare Coulomb potential by way of the dependence of the Coulomb propagator on the real-spin, iso-spin and the potential due to an electric field applied perpendicular to the silicene plane. The computation aspect of the Casimir-Polder force (CPF) needs to be investigated in this paper. An important quantity in this process is the dielectric response function (DRF) of the material. The plasmon branch was obtained by finding the zeros of DRF in the long-wavelength limit. This leads to the plasmon frequencies. We find that the collective charge excitations at zero doping, i.e., intrinsic plasmons, in this system, are absent in the Dirac limit. The valley-spin-split intrinsic plasmons, however, come into being in the case of the massive Dirac particles with characteristic frequency close to 10 THz. Our scheme to calculate the Casimir-Polder interaction (CPI) of a micro-particle with a sheet involves replacing the dielectric constant of the sample in the CPI expression obtained on the basis of the Lifshitz theory by the static DRF obtained using the expressions for the polarization function we started with. Though the approach replaces a macroscopic constant by a microscopic

  11. Investigation of the Effective Thermal Conductivity in Containment Wall of OPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Hyung Gyun [Pohang University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Hwi; Kang, Hie Chan [Kunsan National University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Many computational codes used for analyzing pressure of containment was developed such as CAP (Containment Analysis Package). These computational codes consider concrete conductivity instead of thermal conductivity of containment wall which have special geometry as heat sink. For precise analysis, effective thermal conductivity of containment wall has to be measured in individual NPPs. Thermal properties of concrete such as thermal conductivity have been investigated as function of chemical composition and temperature. Generally, containment of OPR1000 is constructed by Prestressed (PS) concrete-a composite material. Containment wall of OPR1000 is made up of steel liner, tendon, rebar and concrete as shown in Figure 1. Role of steel liner protects release of radioactive materials so called leak tightness. The effective thermal conductivity of containment wall in OPR1000 is analyzed by numerical tool (CFD) and compared with thermal conductivity models in composite solids. The effective thermal conductivity of containment wall of OPR1000 is investigated by numerical analysis (CFD). The thermal conductivity of reinforced concrete is 18.6% higher than that of concrete only. Several models were compared with CFD results. Rayleigh-Parallel liner model agrees well with CFD results. Experiment results will be compared with CFD result and models. CFD result was calculated in low steel volume fraction (0.0809) than that of OPR1000 (0.1043). The effective thermal conductivity in OPR1000 has slightly higher than CFD result because of different volume fraction.

  12. Effect of Material Composition and Environmental Condition on Thermal Characteristics of Conductive Asphalt Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pan; Wu, Shaopeng; Hu, Xiaodi; Liu, Gang; Li, Bo

    2017-02-23

    Conductive asphalt concrete with high thermal conductivity has been proposed to improve the solar energy collection and snow melting efficiencies of asphalt solar collector (ASC). This paper aims to provide some insight into choosing the basic materials for preparation of conductive asphalt concrete, as well as determining the evolution of thermal characteristics affected by environmental factors. The thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete were studied by the Thermal Constants Analyzer. Experimental results showed that aggregate and conductive filler have a significant effect on the thermal properties of asphalt concrete, while the effect of asphalt binder was not evident due to its low proportion. Utilization of mineral aggregate and conductive filler with higher thermal conductivity is an efficient method to prepare conductive asphalt concrete. Moreover, change in thermal properties of asphalt concrete under different temperature and moisture conditions should be taken into account to determine the actual thermal properties of asphalt concrete. There was no noticeable difference in thermal properties of asphalt concrete before and after aging. Furthermore, freezing-thawing cycles strongly affect the thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete, due to volume expansion and bonding degradation.

  13. Effect of Material Composition and Environmental Condition on Thermal Characteristics of Conductive Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Pan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive asphalt concrete with high thermal conductivity has been proposed to improve the solar energy collection and snow melting efficiencies of asphalt solar collector (ASC. This paper aims to provide some insight into choosing the basic materials for preparation of conductive asphalt concrete, as well as determining the evolution of thermal characteristics affected by environmental factors. The thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete were studied by the Thermal Constants Analyzer. Experimental results showed that aggregate and conductive filler have a significant effect on the thermal properties of asphalt concrete, while the effect of asphalt binder was not evident due to its low proportion. Utilization of mineral aggregate and conductive filler with higher thermal conductivity is an efficient method to prepare conductive asphalt concrete. Moreover, change in thermal properties of asphalt concrete under different temperature and moisture conditions should be taken into account to determine the actual thermal properties of asphalt concrete. There was no noticeable difference in thermal properties of asphalt concrete before and after aging. Furthermore, freezing–thawing cycles strongly affect the thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete, due to volume expansion and bonding degradation.

  14. Effect of particle size on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing metallic nanoparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warrier, Pramod; Teja, Amyn

    2011-01-01

    .... Although literature data could be correlated well using the model, the effect of the size of the particles on the effective thermal conductivity of the nanofluid could not be elucidated from these data...

  15. Effect of highly reflective roofing sheet on building thermal loads for a school in Osaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jihui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, urban heat island (UHI phenomenon and building energy consumptions are becoming serious. Strategies to mitigate UHI and reduce building energy consumptions are implemented worldwide. In Japan, as an effective means of mitigating UHI and saving energy of buildings, highly reflective (HR and green roofs are increasingly used. In order to evaluate the effect of roofs with high reflection and thermal insulation on the energy conservation of buildings, we investigated the roof solar reflectivity of the subject school in Osaka, in which the HR roofing sheet was installed on the roof from 2010. Thermal loads, including cooling and heating loads of the top floor of school, were calculated using the thermal load calculation software, New HASP/ACLD-β. Comparing the thermal loads after HR roofing sheet installation to previous, the annual thermal load decreased about 25 MJ/m2-year and the cooling load decreased about 112 MJ/m2-year. However, the heating load increased about 87 MJ/m2-year in winter. To minimize the annual thermal load, thermal insulation of the roof was also considered be used together with HR roofing sheet in this study. The results showed that the combination of HR roofing sheet and high thermal insulation is more effective to reduce the annual thermal load.

  16. Dynamics of the Vacuum and Casimir Analogs to the Hydrogen Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold; Vera, Jerry; Bailey, Paul; March, Paul; Lawrence, Tim; Sylvester, Andre; Brady, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss the current viewpoint of the vacuum state and explore the idea of a "natural" vacuum as opposed to immutable, non-degradable vacuum. This concept will be explored for all primary quantum numbers to show consistency with observation at the level of Bohr theory. A comparison with the Casimir force per unit area will be made, and an explicit function for the spatial variation of the vacuum density around the atomic nucleus will be derived. This explicit function will be numerically modeled using the industry multi-physics tool, COMSOL(trademark), and the eigenfrequencies for the n = 1 to n = 7 states will be found and compared to expectation.

  17. Casimir self-entropy of a spherical electromagnetic δ -function shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Kimball A.; Kalauni, Pushpa; Parashar, Prachi; Li, Yang

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we continue our program of computing Casimir self-entropies of idealized electrical bodies. Here we consider an electromagnetic δ -function sphere ("semitransparent sphere") whose electric susceptibility has a transverse polarization with arbitrary strength. Dispersion is incorporated by a plasma-like model. In the strong-coupling limit, a perfectly conducting spherical shell is realized. We compute the entropy for both low and high temperatures. The transverse electric self-entropy is negative as expected, but the transverse magnetic self-entropy requires ultraviolet and infrared renormalization (subtraction), and, surprisingly, is only positive for sufficiently strong coupling. Results are robust under different regularization schemes. These rather surprising findings require further investigation.

  18. Effects of basal-plane thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance on the hot spot temperature in graphene electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, David; Poudel, Nirakar; Cronin, Stephen B.; Shi, Li

    2017-02-01

    Electrostatic force microscopy and scanning thermal microscopy are employed to investigate the electric transport and localized heating around defects introduced during transfer of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition to an oxidized Si substrate. Numerical and analytical models are developed to explain the results based on the reported basal-plane thermal conductivity, κ, and interfacial thermal conductance, G, of graphene and to investigate their effects on the peak temperature. Irrespective of the κ values, increasing G beyond 4 × 107 W m-2 K-1 can reduce the peak temperature effectively for graphene devices made on sub-10 nm thick gate dielectric, but not for the measured device made on 300-nm-thick oxide dielectric, which yields a cross-plane thermal conductance (Gox) much smaller than the typical G of graphene. In contrast, for typical G values reported for graphene, increasing κ from 300 W m-1 K-1 toward 3000 W m-1 K-1 is effective in reducing the hot spot temperature for the 300-nm-thick oxide devices but not for the sub-10 nm gate dielectric case, because the heat spreading length (l) can be appreciably increased relative to the micron-scale localized heat generation spot size (r0) only when the oxide layer is sufficiently thick. As such, enhancement of κ increases the vertical heat transfer area above the gate dielectric only for the thick oxide case. In all cases considered, the hot spot temperature is sensitive to varying G and κ only when the G/Gox ratio and r0/l ratio are below about 5, respectively.

  19. Effects of high thermal neutron fluences on Type 6061 aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, J.R.; Czajkowski, C.J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Farrell, K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The control rod drive follower tubes of the High Flux Beam Reactor are contructed from precipitation-hardened 6061-T6 aluminum alloy and they operate in the high thermal neutron flux regions of the core. It is shown that large thermal neutron fluences up to {approximately}4 {times} 10{sup 23} n/cm{sup 2} at 333K cause large increases in tensile strength and relatively modest decreases in tensile elongation while significantly reducing the notch impact toughness at room temperature. These changes are attributed to the development of a fine distribution of precipitates of amorphous silicon of which about 8% is produced radiogenically. A proposed role of thermal-to-fast flux ratio is discussed.

  20. Effects of high thermal neutron fluences on Type 6061 aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, J.R.; Czajkowski, C.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Farrell, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-09-01

    The control rod drive follower tubes of the High Flux Beam Reactor are contructed from precipitation-hardened 6061-T6 aluminum alloy and they operate in the high thermal neutron flux regions of the core. It is shown that large thermal neutron fluences up to {approximately}4 {times} 10{sup 23} n/cm{sup 2} at 333K cause large increases in tensile strength and relatively modest decreases in tensile elongation while significantly reducing the notch impact toughness at room temperature. These changes are attributed to the development of a fine distribution of precipitates of amorphous silicon of which about 8% is produced radiogenically. A proposed role of thermal-to-fast flux ratio is discussed.

  1. The effect of Y2O3 addition on thermal shock behavior of magnesium aluminate spinel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pošarac Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of yttria additive on the thermal shock behavior of magnesium aluminate spinel has been investigated. As a starting material we used spinel (MgAl2O4 obtained by the modified glycine nitrate procedure (MGNP. Sintered products were characterized in terms of phase analysis, densities, thermal shock, monitoring the damaged surface area in the refractory specimen during thermal shock and ultrasonic determination of the Dynamic Young modulus of elasticity. It was found that a new phase between yttria and alumina is formed, which improved thermal shock properties of the spinel refractories. Also densification of samples is enhanced by yttria addition.

  2. Spectral phonon scattering effects on the thermal conductivity of nano-grained barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Brian F.; Foley, Brian M.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Maria, Jon-Paul; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2014-08-01

    We study the effect of grain size on thermal conductivity of thin film barium titanate over temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 K. We show that the thermal conductivity of Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) decreases with decreasing grain size as a result of increased phonon scattering from grain boundaries. We analyze our results with a model for thermal conductivity that incorporates a spectrum of mean free paths in BaTiO3. In contrast to the common gray mean free path assumption, our findings suggest that the thermal conductivity of complex oxide perovskites is driven by a spectrum of phonons with varying mean free paths.

  3. Effects of thermal drying on phosphorus availability from iron-precipitated sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Camilla; Scheutz, Charlotte; Bruun, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Thermal drying of sewage sludge implies sanitation and improves practical handling options of the sludge prior to land application. However, it may also affect its value as a fertilizer. The objective of this study was to assess whether thermal drying of sewage sludge, as well as drying temperature...... experiments, thermal drying reduced P availability, as shown by 37 and 23% lower DGT and WEP values, respectively, and a 16% lower P uptake by barley in the pot experiment. The specific drying temperature did not appear to have much effect. Overall, our results suggest that thermal drying of iron...

  4. Thermal Hall Effect in a Phonon-Glass Ba3 CuSb2 O9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugii, K.; Shimozawa, M.; Watanabe, D.; Suzuki, Y.; Halim, M.; Kimata, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Nakatsuji, S.; Yamashita, M.

    2017-04-01

    A distinct thermal Hall signal is observed in a quantum spin liquid candidate Ba3 CuSb2 O9 . The transverse thermal conductivity shows a power-law temperature dependence below 50 K, where a spin gap opens. We suggest that because of the very low longitudinal thermal conductivity and the thermal Hall signals, a phonon Hall effect is induced by strong phonon scattering of orphan Cu2 + spins formed in the random domains of the Cu2 + -Sb5 + dumbbells in Ba3 CuSb2 O9 .

  5. Casimir theory of the relativistic composite string revisited, and a formally related problem in scalar QFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Iver

    2012-09-01

    The main part of this paper is to present an updated review of the Casimir energy at zero and finite temperature for the transverse oscillations of a piecewise uniform closed string. We make use of three different regularizations: the cutoff method, the complex contour integration method and the zeta-function method. The string model is relativistic, in the sense that the velocity of sound is for each string piece set equal to the velocity of light. In this sense the theory is analogous to the electromagnetic theory in a dielectric medium in which the product of permittivity and permeability is equal to unity (an isorefractive medium). We demonstrate how the formalism works for a two-piece string, and for a 2N-piece string, and show how in the latter case a compact recursion relation serves to facilitate the formalism considerably. The Casimir energy turns out to be negative, and the more so the larger the number of pieces in the string. The two-piece string is quantized in D-dimensional spacetime, in the limit when the ratio between the two tensions is very small. We calculate the free energy and other thermodynamic quantities, demonstrate scaling properties, and comment finally on the meaning of the Hagedorn critical temperature for the two-piece string. Thereafter, as a novel development we present a scalar field theory for a real field in three-dimensional space in a potential rising linearly with a longitudinal coordinate z in the interval 0 article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.

  6. Effects of ageing and moisture content on thermal properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean thermal conductivity ranged from 0.4770 to 0.5654, 0.4804 to 0.5530 and 0.4302 to 0.6102 W/mK at these ages respectively. The thermal diffusivity also ranged from 1.588 to 2.426, 1.614 to 0.1972 and 1.610 to 2.020m2/s while the specific heat capacity ranged from 2.3626 to 3.1495, 2.4900 to 3.7538 and 3.4222 ...

  7. Effect of tuber skin on the thermal properties of whole tubers of potato and sweet potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwo, A. A.; Khan, R. M.; Salami, M. J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature-dependent thermal coefficients of mathematical models of the postharvest storage process play an important role in determining the models accuracy. Thermal properties of tubers under storage available in literature are generally of those in semi processed form (skinless) such as those having undergone peeling, dicing and cutting actions. This study investigates the effect of tuber skin on the thermal properties of whole tubers of potato and sweet potato. A direct approach was used to measure the tubers' density and thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity by the transient heat transfer method. Indirect approach was used to measure the tubers' specific heat. Experimental data were used to develop empirical models of the thermal coefficients as a function of temperature. Results of the study should find great use in the modeling of potato and sweet potato storage process.

  8. Effect of thermal dissipation by adding graphene materials to surface coating of LED lighting module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Jeong, J Y; Han, S H; Kim, J H; Kwon, K T; Hwang, M K; Kim, I T; Cho, G S

    2013-05-01

    The effect of thermal dissipation by adding graphene nano-platelets to two different commercially available thermal dissipation coatings (ceramic coating and powder coating) was studied. Steady state temperatures of each points of LED modules was monitored in a closed system, with an integral photo detection sphere where there is no external air flow. Having eliminated the contributions of thermal conduction and air flow convection, the module with a conventional heat dissipation coatings showed 8-16% enhancement of thermal dissipation compared to that of non-coated LED module. The addition of graphene is shown to have about 3% additional enhancement. By analyzing thermal resistance of each component of the LED module, the improved thermal conductivity of the graphene added coatings contributes to the enhancement of slight improvement with heat dissipation.

  9. Effect of hydrophobic nano-silica on the thermal insulation of fibrous silica compacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng-Wen Lian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The particle’s surface property plays an important role on controlling the thermal insulation performance of fibrous silica compacts. In the present study, the effect of addition of hydrophobic silica on the thermal conductivity of the fibrous silica compacts is investigated. The measurement was conducted using laser flash method and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC method. The thermal conductivity of fibrous silica compacts is only 0.042 W/m K. The addition of 5% hydrophobic silica further reduces the thermal conductivity of fibrous silica compacts to 0.033 W/m K. The thermal conductivity reaches a constant value with higher hydrophobic silica content. The flexural strength decreases with the increase of hydrophobic silica content. A compromise between the thermal insulation and strength is needed. The performance of fibrous silica compacts shows strong dependence on the surface structure of glass fibers.

  10. Absence of the Thermal Hall Effect in Anomalous Nernst and Spin Seebeck Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Jia; Huang, Ssu-Yen

    2016-12-09

    The anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) and the spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in spin caloritronics are two of the most important mechanisms to manipulate the spin-polarized current and pure spin current by thermal excitation. While the ANE in ferromagnetic metals and the SSE in magnetic insulators have been extensively studied, a recent theoretical work suggests that the signals from the thermal Hall effect (THE) have field dependences indistinguishable from, and may even overwhelm, those of the ANE and SSE. Therefore, it is vital to investigate the contribution of the THE in the ANE and SSE. In this work, we systematically study the THE in a ferromagnetic metal, Permalloy (Py), and magnetic insulator, an yttrium iron garnet (YIG), by using different Seebeck coefficients between electrodes and contact wires. Our results demonstrate that the contribution of the THE by the thermal couple effect in the Py and YIG is negligibly small if one includes the thickness dependence of the Seebeck coefficient. Thus, the spin-polarized current in the ANE and the pure spin current in the SSE remain indispensable for exploring spin caloritronics phenomena.

  11. Assessment of effective thermal conductivity in U–Mo metallic fuels with distributed gas bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shenyang; Casella, Andrew M.; Lavender, Curt A.; Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas E.

    2015-07-15

    This work presents a numerical method to assess the relative impact of various microstructural features including grain sizes, nanometer scale intragranular gas bubbles, and larger intergranular gas bubbles in irradiated U–Mo metallic fuels on the effective thermal conductivity. A phase-field model was employed to construct a three-dimensional polycrystalline U–Mo fuel alloy with a given crystal morphology and gas bubble microstructures. An effective thermal conductivity “concept” was taken to capture the effect of polycrystalline structures and gas bubble microstructures with significant size differences on the thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of inhomogeneous materials was calculated by solving the heat transport equation. The obtained results are in reasonably good agreement with experimental measurements made on irradiated U–Mo fuel samples containing similar microstructural features. The developed method can be used to predict the thermal conductivity degradation in operating nuclear fuels if the evolution of microstructures is known during operation of the fuel.

  12. Thermal Impedance Model of High Power IGBT Modules Considering Heat Coupling Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Thermal loading of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules is important for the reliability performance of power electronic systems, thus the thermal information of critical points inside module like junction temperature must be accurately modeled and predicted. Usually in the existing...... thermal models, only the self-heating effects of the chips are taken into account, while the thermal coupling effects among chips are less considered. This could result in inaccurate temperature estimation, especially in the high power IGBT modules where the chips are allocated closely to each other...... with large amount of heat generated. In this paper, both the self-heating and heat-coupling effects in the of IGBT module are investigated based on Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation, a new thermal impedance model is thereby proposed to better describe the temperature distribution inside IGBT modules...

  13. The effect of different transitional spaces on thermal comfort and energy consumption of residential buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taleghani, M.; Tenpierik, M.J.; Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose- This paper focuses on the effect of courtyards, atria and sunspaces on indoor thermal comfort and energy consumption for heating and cooling. One of the most important purposes is to understand if certain transitional spaces can reduce the energy consumption of and improve thermal comfort

  14. Effect of urea additive on the thermal decomposition kinetics of flame retardant greige cotton nonwoven fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunghyun Nam; Brian D. Condon; Robert H. White; Qi Zhao; Fei Yao; Michael Santiago Cintrón

    2012-01-01

    Urea is well known to have a synergistic action with phosphorus-based flame retardants (FRs) in enhancing the FR performance of cellulosic materials, but the effect of urea on the thermal decomposition kinetics has not been thoroughly studied. In this study, the activation energy (Ea) for the thermal decomposition of greige...

  15. Electrochemical study of the thermal treatment effects on Cusub(x)S thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duo, R.; Fatas, E.; Arjona, F.; Camarero, E.G.

    1983-03-01

    The effects of thermal treatments on the stoichiometry and photovoltaic properties of Cusub(x)S thin films have been studied. It has been observed that the evaporation of a thin copper films on Cusub(x)S, followed by thermal treatment in vacuum, improves the Cusub(x)S/CdS heterojunctions due to a rire in the stoichiometry and fill factor.

  16. Lateral-drag Casimir forces induced by anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Nefedov, Igor S

    2016-01-01

    We predict the existence of lateral drag forces near the flat surface of an absorbing slab of an anisotropic material. The forces originate from the fluctuations of the electromagnetic field, when the anisotropy axis of the material forms a certain angle with the surface. In this situation, the spatial spectra of the fluctuating electromagnetic fields becomes asymmetric, different for positive and negative transverse wave vectors components. Differently from the case of van der Waals interactions in which the forward-backward symmetry is broken due to the particle movement or in quantum noncontact friction where it is caused by the mutual motion of the bodies, in our case the lateral motion results merely from the anisotropy of the slab. This new effect, of particular significance in hyperbolic materials, could be used for the manipulation of nanoparticles.

  17. On the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Frost Considering Mass Diffusion and Eddy Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Max

    2010-01-01

    A physical model for the effective thermal conductivity of water frost is proposed for application to the full range of frost density. The proposed model builds on the Zehner-Schlunder one-dimensional formulation for porous media appropriate for solid-to-fluid thermal conductivity ratios less than about 1000. By superposing the effects of mass diffusion and eddy convection on stagnant conduction in the fluid, the total effective thermal conductivity of frost is shown to be satisfactorily described. It is shown that the effects of vapor diffusion and eddy convection on the frost conductivity are of the same order. The results also point out that idealization of the frost structure by cylindrical inclusions offers a better representation of the effective conductivity of frost as compared to spherical inclusions. Satisfactory agreement between the theory and the measurements for the effective thermal conductivity of frost is demonstrated for a wide range of frost density and frost temperature.

  18. Metallic nanowire networks: effects of thermal annealing on electrical resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, D. P.; Lagrange, M.; Giusti, G.; Jiménez, C.; Bréchet, Y.; Nguyen, N. D.; Bellet, D.

    2014-10-01

    Metallic nanowire networks have huge potential in devices requiring transparent electrodes. This article describes how the electrical resistance of metal nanowire networks evolve under thermal annealing. Understanding the behavior of such films is crucial for the optimization of transparent electrodes which find many applications. An in-depth investigation of silver nanowire networks under different annealing conditions provides a case study demonstrating that several mechanisms, namely local sintering and desorption of organic residues, are responsible for the reduction of the systems electrical resistance. Optimization of the annealing led to specimens with transmittance of 90% (at 550 nm) and sheet resistance of 9.5 Ω sq-1. Quantized steps in resistance were observed and a model is proposed which provides good agreement with the experimental results. In terms of thermal behavior, we demonstrate that there is a maximum thermal budget that these electrodes can tolerate due to spheroidization of the nanowires. This budget is determined by two main factors: the thermal loading and the wire diameter. This result enables the fabrication and optimization of transparent metal nanowire electrodes for solar cells, organic electronics and flexible displays.

  19. Effects of nanoscale size dependent parameters on lattice thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Throughout the method of trial and error, using the MATHCAD. 12 program, the values of P,Nimp and γ were adjusted such that the best fit for calculated lattice thermal conductivity to the experimental curves were obtained as shown in figure 3. The diameter dependence of the fitting parameters Nimp,P and γ (L, T ) and γ ...

  20. Effects of reduction time on the structural, electrical and thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    catalyst support in direct methanol fuel cell. Therefore, in this paper, the RGO nanosheets were prepared via highly efficient chemical reduction reaction of exfoliated GO nanosheets using sodium oxalate (Na2C2O4) as the reduc- ing agent. Extensive characterizations have been conducted in terms of structural, thermal ...

  1. Effect of urban albedo surfaces on thermal comfort | Mansouri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They have addressed this issue in order to identify the main causes that generate the warming of urban areas and therefore contribute to the degradation of the exterior and interior thermal comfort of the inhabitants. It turns out that the reflectivity of materials known as the albedo, plays a leading role in this degradation.

  2. Thermal effects on cognition: a new quantitative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, José Ignacio; Hancock, P A

    2017-07-05

    There is little doubt that increases in thermal load beyond the thermo-neutral state prove progressively stressful to all living organisms. Increasing temperatures across the globe represent in some locales, and especially for outdoors workers, a significant source of such chronic load increase. However, increases in thermal load affect cognition as well as physical work activities. Such human cognition has perennially been viewed as the primary conduit through which to solve many of the iatrogenic challenges we now face. Yet, thermal stress degrades the power to think. Here, we advance and refine the isothermal description of such cognitive decrements, founded upon a synthesis of extant empirical evidence. We report a series of mathematical functions which describe task-specific patterns of performance deterioration, linking such degrees of decrement to the time/temperature conditions in which they occur. Further, we provide a simple, free software tool to support such calculations so that adverse thermal loads can be monitored, assessed and (where possible) mitigated to preserve healthy cognitive functioning.

  3. Effective thermal conductivity of real two-phase systems using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An effort is made to correlate it in terms of the ratio of thermal conductivities of the constituents and the physical porosity. Theoretical expression so obtained has been tested on a large number of samples cited in the literature and found that the values predicted are quite close to the experimental results. Comparison of our ...

  4. Effective thermal conductivity of real two-phase systems using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    non-uniform shape of the particles and non-linear flow of heat flux lines in real systems, incorporating an empirical correction factor in place of physical porosity modifies an expression for ETC. An effort is made to correlate it in terms of the ratio of thermal conductivities of the constituents and the physical porosity. Theo-.

  5. Thermal Expansion and Aging Effects in Neuromorphic Signal Processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zjajo, A.; van Leuken, T.G.R.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an efficient methodology based on a real-time estimator and predictor-corrector scheme for accurate thermal expansion profile and aging evaluation of a neuromorphic signal processor circuit components. As the experimental results indicate, for comparable mesh size, the

  6. Thermal boundary effects on a GT liner structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvatore, M.; Laget, H.; Vanderhaegen, E.; Altunlu, A.C.; Tufano, S.; Daumantas, Ciplys

    2012-01-01

    GT combustor liners are subjected to mechanical and thermal loads that damage the structure and reduce their operational life. Among those, the thermo-acoustic instabilities develop, generating pressure oscillations because of the interaction between heat release, acoustic waves and structure

  7. The effect of Acacia Karroo supplementation and thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bathesh

    2012-08-14

    Aug 14, 2012 ... thermal preparation on consumer sensory scores of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goat breed. 18 castrated four-month-old ... (Muchenje et al., 2008b; 2009a, b), age (Simela, 2005), ageing, fatness and ..... fresh Sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) with or without polyethylene glycol or concentrate.

  8. The Effect of Thermal Processing on Apple Puree's Structuring Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.E. Polischuk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of temperature and duration of heat processing on the structural ability of apple puree was studied. It was proved, that apple puree reveals the thixotropic and rheopexic character when its structure is restored, depending on the conditions of thermal processing.

  9. Determination of thermally induced effects and design guidelines of optomechanical accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qianbo; Bai, Jian; Wang, Kaiwei; Jiao, Xufen; Han, Dandan; Chen, Peiwen; Liu, Dong; Yang, Yongying; Yang, Guoguang

    2017-11-01

    Thermal effects, including thermally induced deformation and warm up time, are ubiquitous problems for sensors, especially for inertial measurement units such as accelerometers. Optomechanical accelerometers, which contain light sources that can be regarded as heat sources, involve a different thermal phenomenon in terms of their specific optical readout, and the phenomenon has not been investigated systematically. This paper proposes a model to evaluate the temperature difference, rise time and thermally induced deformation of optomechanical accelerometers, and then constructs design guidelines which can diminish these thermal effects without compromising other mechanical performances, based on the analysis of the interplay of thermal and mechanical performances. In the model, the irradiation of the micromachined structure of a laser source is considered a dominant factor. The experimental data obtained using a prototype of an optomechanical accelerometer approximately confirm the validity of the model for the rise time and response tendency. Moreover, design guidelines that adopt suspensions with a flat cross-section and a short length are demonstrated with reference to the analysis. The guidelines can reduce the thermally induced deformation and rise time or achieve higher mechanical performances with similar thermal effects, which paves the way for the design of temperature-tolerant and robust, high-performance devices.

  10. The movement of molecules and nanoparticles in potential field with the Casimir force in nano volumes with different optical boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarova, L. A.; Babarin, S. S.

    2014-09-01

    This work is devoted to the problem of dynamics of molecules and nanoparticles in fields in following potentials: the Casimir force, the van der Waals interactions, the Coulomb potential for charged particles, the potential energies for bonds, and the electric potential. In the general case, molecules or nanoparticles move in nano volumes with walls of different optical properties. In particular, the matter at boundary can be with zero refracted index (Vesseur E J R et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 013902; Uvarova L A 2005 AIP congress). Current model can be used to investigate dynamical and configuration properties of particle systems, and to determine influences of molecules interactions with the walls. It is accepted that the Casimir force affects the velocity distribution function, the total energy, and equilibrium properties that produce rise of temperature, pressure and energy deviations. In many-atom molecules or nanoparticles interactions with the Casimir force are more complex, but they give opportunity to control admixtures and modification of system under the influence of electromagnetic waves.

  11. Effective strategies for development of thermal heavy oil field facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ken; Lehnert-Thiel, Gunter [IMV Projects (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In thermal heavy oil, a significant part of the capital has to be invested in field facilities and therefore strategies have to be implemented to optimize these costs. Field facilities consist of pipelines, earthworks and production pads whose purpose is to connect an oilsands reservoir to a central processing facility. This paper, presented by IMV Projects, a leading company in the thermal heavy oil field, highlights strategies to manage field facility lifecycle cost. Upfront planning should be done and the development of field facilities should be thought of as a long term infrastructure program rather than a stand-alone project. In addition, templates should be developed to save money and repeatability should be implemented to obtain a better prediction of the program's costs. The strategies presented herein allow major savings over the program's life by implementing an improved schedule and allowing refinements all along the program's course.

  12. Thermal Effect of Ceramic Nanofiller Aluminium Nitride on Polyethylene Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Bin Sohail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene polymerization was done to form polyethylene nano-composite with nanoaluminum nitride using zirconocene catalysts. Results show that the catalytic activity is maximum at a filler loading of 15 mg nanoaluminum nitride. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and X-ray diffraction (XRD results show that percentage crystallinity was also marginally higher at this amount of filler. Thermal behavior of polyethylene nanocomposites (0, 15, 30, and 45 mg was studied by DSC and thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA. Morphology of the component with 15 mg aluminium nitride is more fibrous as compared to 0 mg aluminium nitride and higher filler loading as shown by SEM images. In order to understand combustibility behavior, tests were performed on microcalorimeter. Its results showed decrease in combustibility in polyethylene nanocomposites as the filler loading increases.

  13. Energy Consumption of Insulated Material Using Thermal Effect Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fadzil M. A.; Norliyati M. A.; Hilmi M. A.; Ridzuan A. R.; Wan Ibrahim M. H.; Assrul R. Z.

    2017-01-01

    Wall is one of the structures elements that resist direct heat from the atmosphere. Modification on several structures is relevance to reduce filtrate thermal movement on wall. Insulation material seems to be suitable to be implemented since its purpose meets the heat resistance requirement. Insulation material applied as to generate positive impact in energy saving through reduction in total building energy consumption. Fiberglass is one of the insulation materials that can be used to insula...

  14. Effect of Some Thermal Processing Methods on the Caffeine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh kola nuts (Cola nitida) were thermally processed (blanched, boiled and roasted) for different periods of time (5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes respectively) at different temperatures (65, 75, 85 and 95oC). Boiling was done at 80oC while roasting was at 108.5oC, and steam blanching duration was 5, 7.5, 15 and 20 seconds ...

  15. Effects of Porosity and Thermal Treatment on Hydration of Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Ekaraj; Boom, R.M.; Sman, van der, R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, hydration of mushroom as a porous food material has been studied considering their biphasic character. It consists of a solid phase that consists of intertwined hyphae and having cell walls with a swellable polymeric matrix and a pore phase made up by the space in between the hyphae. We have investigated the hydration of mushrooms as a function of initial porosity and thermal treatment. Variation in porosity is induced by the natural variation in the growth of mushroom. Porosit...

  16. Thermal effect of climate change on groundwater-fed ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick; Zhu, Yonghui; Zhan, Hongbin; Manga, Michael; Williams, Colin F.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Dunham, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater temperature changes will lag surface temperature changes from a changing climate. Steady state solutions of the heat-transport equations are used to identify key processes that control the long-term thermal response of springs and other groundwater discharge to climate change, in particular changes in (1) groundwater recharge rate and temperature and (2) land-surface temperature transmitted through the vadose zone. Transient solutions are developed to estimate the time required for new thermal signals to arrive at ecosystems. The solution is applied to the volcanic Medicine Lake highlands, California, USA, and associated springs complexes that host groundwater-dependent ecosystems. In this system, upper basin groundwater temperatures are strongly affected only by recharge conditions. However, as the vadose zone thins away from the highlands, changes in the average annual land-surface temperature also influence groundwater temperatures. Transient response to temperature change depends on both the conductive time scale and the rate at which recharge delivers heat. Most of the thermal response of groundwater at high elevations will occur within 20 years of a shift in recharge temperatures, but the large lower elevation springs will respond more slowly, with about half of the conductive response occurring within the first 20 years and about half of the advective response to higher recharge temperatures occurring in approximately 60 years.

  17. Thermal effect of climate change on groundwater-fed ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Zhu, Yonghui; Zhan, Hongbin; Manga, Michael; Williams, Colin F.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater temperature changes will lag surface temperature changes from a changing climate. Steady state solutions of the heat-transport equations are used to identify key processes that control the long-term thermal response of springs and other groundwater discharge to climate change, in particular changes in (1) groundwater recharge rate and temperature and (2) land-surface temperature transmitted through the vadose zone. Transient solutions are developed to estimate the time required for new thermal signals to arrive at ecosystems. The solution is applied to the volcanic Medicine Lake highlands, California, USA, and associated springs complexes that host groundwater-dependent ecosystems. In this system, upper basin groundwater temperatures are strongly affected only by recharge conditions. However, as the vadose zone thins away from the highlands, changes in the average annual land-surface temperature also influence groundwater temperatures. Transient response to temperature change depends on both the conductive time scale and the rate at which recharge delivers heat. Most of the thermal response of groundwater at high elevations will occur within 20 years of a shift in recharge temperatures, but the large lower elevation springs will respond more slowly, with about half of the conductive response occurring within the first 20 years and about half of the advective response to higher recharge temperatures occurring in approximately 60 years.

  18. Experimental study of thermal effects on the mechanical behaviour of a clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekerevac, Cane; Laloui, Lyesse

    2004-03-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of thermal effects on the mechanical behaviour of a saturated clay. The study was performed on CM clay (Kaolin) using a temperature-controlled triaxial apparatus. Applied temperatures were between 22 and 90°C. A comprehensive experimental program was carried out, including: (i) triaxial shear tests at ambient and high temperatures for different initial overconsolidation ratios; (ii) consolidation tests at ambient and high temperatures; and (iii) drained thermal heating for different initial overconsolidation ratios. The obtained results provide observations concerning a wide scope of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of clays. Test results obtained at 90°C were compared with tests performed at ambient temperature. Based on these comparisons, thermal effects on a variety of features of behaviour are presented and discussed. Focus is made on: (i) induced thermal volume change during drained heating; (ii) experimental evidence of temperature influence on preconsolidation pressure and on compressibility index; (iii) thermal effects on shear strength and critical state; and (iv) thermal effects on elastic modulus. Thermal yielding is discussed and yield limit evolution with temperature is presented. The directions of the induced plastic strains are also discussed. Several remarks on the difference in the mechanical behaviour at ambient and high temperatures conclude the paper. Copyright

  19. Cellulose nanowhiskers from coconut husk fibers: effect of preparation conditions on their thermal and morphological behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulose nanowhiskers were prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis from coconut husk fibers which had previously been submitted to a delignification process. The effects of preparation conditions on the thermal and morphological behavior of the nanocrystals were investigated. Cellulose nanowhisker sus...

  20. Dynamical thermal effects in InGaAsP microtubes at telecom wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhaobing; Bianucci, Pablo; Roche, Philip J R; Dastjerdi, M Hadi Tavakoli; Mi, Zetian; Poole, Philip J; Kirk, Andrew G; Plant, David V

    2012-07-01

    We report on the observation of a dynamical thermal effect in InGaAsP microtubes at telecom wavelengths. The microtubes are fabricated by releasing a strained semiconductor bilayer and are picked up by abruptly tapered optical fibers for subsequent coupling with adiabatically tapered optical fibers. As a result of absorption by InAs quantum dots embedded in the tube structure, these microtubes show dynamical thermal effects at wavelengths around 1525 nm and 1578 nm, while they are passive at longer wavelengths near 1634 nm. The photon absorption induced thermal effect is visualized by generating a pair of microbottles. The dynamical thermal effect can be avoided or exploited for passive or active applications by utilizing appropriate resonance wavelengths.

  1. Effective thermal conductivity method for predicting spent nuclear fuel cladding temperatures in a dry fill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahney, Robert

    1997-12-19

    This paper summarizes the development of a reliable methodology for the prediction of peak spent nuclear fuel cladding temperature within the waste disposal package. The effective thermal conductivity method replaces other older methodologies.

  2. Sterilization effect of atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma on dental instruments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sung, Su-Jin; Huh, Jung-Bo; Yun, Mi-Jung; Chang, Brian Myung W; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Jeon, Young-Chan

    2013-01-01

    .... To develop a dental sterilizer which can sterilize most materials, such as metals, rubbers, and plastics, the sterilization effect of an atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma device was evaluated...

  3. Thermal effects on aquatic organisms. Annotated bibliography of the 1975 literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutant, C.C.; Talmage, S.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Collier, B.N.; Dailey, N.S. (comps.)

    1976-10-01

    Abstracts are presented of 716 papers published during 1975 concerning thermal effects on aquatic organisms. Indexes are included for author, subject category, geographic location, toxon, title, and keywords. (CH)

  4. Effects of heating with radiofrequency power on myocardial impulse conduction: is radiofrequency ablation exclusively thermally mediated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simmers, T. A.; de Bakker, J. M.; Wittkampf, F. H.; Hauer, R. N.

    1996-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that radiofrequency (RF) ablation causes exclusively thermally mediated effects, it has never been proved. In a previous report, temperatures required to induce conduction block in superfused canine epicardial ventricular myocardium were identified by exposure to

  5. Registry Effect on the Thermal Conductivity of Few-Layer Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Jin-Wu

    2014-01-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to study the registry effect on the thermal conductivity of few-layer graphene. The interlayer interaction is described by either the Lennard-Jones potential or the registry-dependent potential. Our calculations show that the thermal conductivity in few-layer graphene from both potentials are close to each other, i.e the registry effect is essentially not important. It is because the thermal transport in few-layer graphene is mainly limited by the int...

  6. Mathematical Modeling and Numerical Analysis of Thermal Distribution in Arch Dams considering Solar Radiation Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzabozorg, H.; Hariri-Ardebili, M. A.; Shirkhan, M.; Seyed-Kolbadi, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of solar radiation on thermal distribution in thin high arch dams is investigated. The differential equation governing thermal behavior of mass concrete in three-dimensional space is solved applying appropriate boundary conditions. Solar radiation is implemented considering the dam face direction relative to the sun, the slop relative to horizon, the region cloud cover, and the surrounding topography. It has been observed that solar radiation changes the surface temperature drastically and leads to nonuniform temperature distribution. Solar radiation effects should be considered in thermal transient analysis of thin arch dams. PMID:24695817

  7. Analysis of thermal effects in endoscopic nanocarriers-based photodynamic therapy applied to esophageal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-García, I.; Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Ortega-Quijano, N.; Wilfert, O.; Hudcova, L.; Poliak, J.; Barcik, P.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2014-02-01

    In this work we propose a predictive model that allows the study of thermal effects produced when the optical radiation interacts with an esophageal or stomach disease with gold nanoparticles embedded. The model takes into account light distribution in the tumor tissue by means of a Monte Carlo method. Mie theory is used to obtain the gold nanoparticles optical properties and the thermal model employed is based on the bio-heat equation. The complete model was applied to two types of tumoral tissue (squamous cell carcinoma located in the esophagus and adenocarcinoma in the stomach) in order to study the thermal effects induced by the inclusion of gold nanoparticles.

  8. Effects of torsion on the thermal conductivity of multi-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Chao; Lu, Gui; Cao, Bing-Yang; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Fan, Zhen; Feng, Zhi-Hai

    2017-05-01

    This work employs the equilibrium molecular dynamics method to study the effects of torsion on the thermal conductivity of multi-layer graphene. Thermal conductivities of twisted 10-layer 433.91 × 99.68 Å2 graphene with torsion angles of 0°, 11.25°, 22.5°, 33.75°, 45°, 67.5°, 90°, 112.5°, and 135° are calculated. The corresponding radial distribution functions and nearest atomic distances are calculated to reveal the effects of torsion on lattice structures. The spectral energy density (SED) method is utilized to analyze the phonon transport properties. It is very interesting that the thermal conductivity of multi-layer graphene decreases slightly at first and then increases with the increasing torsion angle, and the valley is located at θG = 22.5° with the lowest thermal conductivity of 4692.40 W m-1 K-1. The torsion effect can be considered as a combination of the compression effect and the dislocation effect. Further SED analysis confirms that the effect of dislocation on thermal conductivities can be negligible, while the compression effect decreases the phonon lifetimes of flexural out-of-plane acoustic (ZA) branches and increases the ZA group velocities and the phonon specific heat. The decrease becomes dominated when the torsion angle is small, whereas the increase becomes more and more dominated when the torsion angle becomes larger, which are responsible for the reported variation of thermal conductivities.

  9. Measurement of the effective thermal cross section of {sup 134}Cs by triple neutron capture reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Shoji; Harada, Hideo; Katoh, Toshio [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Hata, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Motoishi, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu

    1998-03-01

    The effective thermal cross section ({sigma}{sub eff}) of the {sup 134}Cs(n,{gamma}){sup 135}Cs reaction was measured by the activation method and the {gamma}-ray spectroscopic method in order to obtain fundamental data for research on the transmutation of nuclear wastes. The effective thermal cross section of the reaction {sup 134}Cs(n,{gamma}){sup 135}Cs was found to be 140.6{+-}8.5 barns. (author)

  10. Non-adiabatic effects within a single thermally averaged potential energy surface: thermal expansion and reaction rates of small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, J L; Castro, A; Clemente-Gallardo, J; Echenique, P; Mazo, J J; Polo, V; Rubio, A; Zueco, D

    2012-12-14

    At non-zero temperature and when a system has low-lying excited electronic states, the ground-state Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down and the low-lying electronic states are involved in any chemical process. In this work, we use a temperature-dependent effective potential for the nuclei which can accommodate the influence of an arbitrary number of electronic states in a simple way, while at the same time producing the correct Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for the electronic part. With the help of this effective potential, we show that thermally activated low-lying electronic states can have a significant effect in molecular properties for which electronic excitations are oftentimes ignored. We study the thermal expansion of the Manganese dimer, Mn(2), where we find that the average bond length experiences a change larger than the present experimental accuracy upon the inclusion of the excited states into the picture. We also show that, when these states are taken into account, reaction-rate constants are modified. In particular, we study the opening of the ozone molecule, O(3), and show that in this case the rate is modified as much as a 20% with respect to the ground-state Born-Oppenheimer prediction.

  11. Effect of Moisture Content on Thermal Properties of Porous Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, Václav; Vejmelková, Eva; Čáchová, Monika; Koňáková, Dana; Keppert, Martin; Maděra, Jiří; Černý, Robert

    2017-02-01

    The thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of characteristic types of porous building materials are determined in the whole range of moisture content from dry to fully water-saturated state. A transient pulse technique is used in the experiments, in order to avoid the influence of moisture transport on measured data. The investigated specimens include cement composites, ceramics, plasters, and thermal insulation boards. The effect of moisture-induced changes in thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity on the energy performance of selected building envelopes containing the studied materials is then analyzed using computational modeling of coupled heat and moisture transport. The results show an increased moisture content as a substantial negative factor affecting both thermal properties of materials and energy balance of envelopes, which underlines the necessity to use moisture-dependent thermal parameters of building materials in energy-related calculations.

  12. Multiscale Modeling of Carbon/Phenolic Composite Thermal Protection Materials: Atomistic to Effective Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Murthy, Pappu L.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Lawson, John W.; Monk, Joshua D.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Next generation ablative thermal protection systems are expected to consist of 3D woven composite architectures. It is well known that composites can be tailored to achieve desired mechanical and thermal properties in various directions and thus can be made fit-for-purpose if the proper combination of constituent materials and microstructures can be realized. In the present work, the first, multiscale, atomistically-informed, computational analysis of mechanical and thermal properties of a present day - Carbon/Phenolic composite Thermal Protection System (TPS) material is conducted. Model results are compared to measured in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical and thermal properties to validate the computational approach. Results indicate that given sufficient microstructural fidelity, along with lowerscale, constituent properties derived from molecular dynamics simulations, accurate composite level (effective) thermo-elastic properties can be obtained. This suggests that next generation TPS properties can be accurately estimated via atomistically informed multiscale analysis.

  13. Mechanistic evaluation of the effect of thermal-treating on Eudragit RS matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarmi, Shirzad; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Löbenberg, Raimar; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2005-01-01

    Thermal treatment of acrylic matrices was recently introduced as a tool for prolonging the release of drug. Thermal treatment at temperatures above the T(g) of the polymer can decrease drug release rate. In this research we studied the mechanism of the effect of thermal treatment on Eudragit RS matrices. Indomethacin was used as model drug. The results showed that polymer chain movement and redistribution of the polymer in the tablet matrix structure after thermal-treating is the possible mechanism of drug release prolongation. The melting and resolidification of the polymer, due to the thermal treatment has apparently resulted in a redistribution of the polymer throughout the matrix and a change in the porosity of the tablet. FTIR results did not show any drug-polymer interaction due to heat-treatment. DSC and PXD studies ruled out the occurrence of solid solution and polymorphic change of the drug.

  14. Identifying possible non-thermal effects of radio frequency energy on inactivating food microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiaoxi; Li, Rui; Hou, Lixia; Zhang, Lihui; Wang, Shaojin

    2018-02-01

    Radio frequency (RF) heating has been successfully used for inactivating microorganisms in agricultural and food products. Athermal (non-thermal) effects of RF energy on microorganisms have been frequently proposed in the literature, resulting in difficulties for developing effective thermal treatment protocols. The purpose of this study was to identify if the athermal inactivation of microorganisms existed during RF treatments. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in apple juice and mashed potato were exposed to both RF and conventional thermal energies to compare their inactivation populations. A thermal death time (TDT) heating block system was used as conventional thermal energy source to simulate the same heating treatment conditions, involving heating temperature, heating rate and uniformity, of a RF treatment at a frequency of 27.12 MHz. Results showed that a similar and uniform temperature distribution in tested samples was achieved in both heating systems, so that the central sample temperature could be used as representative one for evaluating thermal inactivation of microorganisms. The survival patterns of two target microorganisms in two food samples were similar both for RF and heating block treatments since their absolute difference of survival populations was  0.05) in inactivating bacteria between the RF and the heating block treatments at each set of temperatures. The solid temperature and microbial inactivation data demonstrated that only thermal effect of RF energy at 27.12 MHz was observed on inactivating microorganisms in foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of functionalized silver nanoparticles over the thermal conductivity of base fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Seyhan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivities of nanofluids are expected to be higher than common heat transfer fluids. The use of metal nanoparticles has not been intensely investigated for heat transfer applications due to lack of stability. Here we present an experimental study on the effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs which are stabilized with surfactants, on the thermal conductivity of water, ethylene glycol and hexane. Hydrophilic Ag NPs were synthesized in aqueous medium with using gum arabic as surfactant and oleic acid/oleylamine were used to stabilize Ag NPs in the organic phase. The enhancement up to 10 per cent in effective thermal conductivity of hexane and ethylene glycol was achieved with addition of Ag NPs at considerably low concentrations (i.e. 2 and 1 per cent, by weight, for hexane and ethylene glycol respectively. However, almost 10 per cent of deterioration was recorded at effective thermal conductivity of water when Ag NPs were added at 1 per cent (by wt. Considerable amount of Gum Arabic in the medium is shown to be the major contributor to this fall, causing lowering of thermal conductivity of water. Same particles performed much better in ethylene glycol where the stabilizer does not lower the thermal conductivity of the base fluid. Also thermal conductivity of nanofluids was found to be temperature independent except water based Ag nanofluids above a threshold concentration. This temperature dependency is suggested to be due to inhibition of hydrogen bonding among water molecules in the presence of high amounts of gum arabic.

  16. The effect of functionalized silver nanoparticles over the thermal conductivity of base fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyhan, Merve; Altan, Cem Levent; Gurten, Berna; Bucak, Seyda

    2017-04-01

    Thermal conductivities of nanofluids are expected to be higher than common heat transfer fluids. The use of metal nanoparticles has not been intensely investigated for heat transfer applications due to lack of stability. Here we present an experimental study on the effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) which are stabilized with surfactants, on the thermal conductivity of water, ethylene glycol and hexane. Hydrophilic Ag NPs were synthesized in aqueous medium with using gum arabic as surfactant and oleic acid/oleylamine were used to stabilize Ag NPs in the organic phase. The enhancement up to 10 per cent in effective thermal conductivity of hexane and ethylene glycol was achieved with addition of Ag NPs at considerably low concentrations (i.e. 2 and 1 per cent, by weight, for hexane and ethylene glycol respectively). However, almost 10 per cent of deterioration was recorded at effective thermal conductivity of water when Ag NPs were added at 1 per cent (by wt). Considerable amount of Gum Arabic in the medium is shown to be the major contributor to this fall, causing lowering of thermal conductivity of water. Same particles performed much better in ethylene glycol where the stabilizer does not lower the thermal conductivity of the base fluid. Also thermal conductivity of nanofluids was found to be temperature independent except water based Ag nanofluids above a threshold concentration. This temperature dependency is suggested to be due to inhibition of hydrogen bonding among water molecules in the presence of high amounts of gum arabic.

  17. Effect of amantadine on oxymorphone-induced thermal antinociception in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siao, K T; Pypendop, B H; Escobar, A; Stanley, S D; Ilkiw, J E

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the effect of amantadine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, on the thermal antinociceptive effect of oxymorphone in cats. Six adult healthy cats were used. After baseline thermal threshold determinations, oxymorphone was administered intravenously to maintain plasma oxymorphone concentrations of 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ng/mL. In addition, amantadine, or an equivalent volume of saline, was administered intravenously to maintain a plasma amantadine concentration of 1100 ng/mL. Thermal threshold and plasma oxymorphone and amantadine concentrations were determined at each target plasma oxymorphone concentration. Effect maximum models were fitted to the oxymorphone concentration-thermal threshold data, after transformation in % maximum response. Oxymorphone increased skin temperature, thermal threshold, and thermal excursion (i.e., the difference between thermal threshold and skin temperature) in a concentration-dependent manner. No significant difference was found between the amantadine and saline treatments. Mean ± SE oxymorphone EC(50) were 14.2 ± 1.2 and 24.2 ± 7.4 ng/mL in the amantadine and saline groups, respectively. These values were not significantly different. Large differences in oxymorphone EC(50) in the saline and amantadine treatment groups were observed in two cats. These results suggest that amantadine may decrease the antinociceptive dose of oxymorphone in some, but not all, cats. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Auto-correcting for atmospherical effects in thermal hyperspectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Joris; Buitrago-Acevedo, Maria; Verhoef, Wout

    2017-04-01

    Correct estimation of soil and vegetation thermal emissivity's has been of huge importance in remote sensing studies. Field measurements of the leaf/soil and canopy emissivity can lead to estimations of water content. Consequently several studies have been performed with the objective of identifying the spectral behavior of the emissivity. However such measurements provide additional challenges before any retrieval can successfully be performed. While in laboratory the influence of the atmospheric conditions can be controlled in field experiments this cannot be done. In most cases such atmospheric correction however requires detailed knowledge of the atmospheric constituents at the time of the measurements. The objective of this research was to create an auto-atmospherically correct thermal hyperspectral emissivity measurements for retrieving canopy water content. For this hyperspectral thermal measurements were obtained during ESAs REFLEX campaign in 2012 using a MIDAC FTIR radiometer. MODTRAN simulations were used to construct a simple quadratic radiative transfer model that couples atmospheric transmissivities to the different gas constituents. This model was afterwards used to estimate the concentrations of H20 (g) and CO2 (g). The radiative measurements were afterwards corrected for these gas absorptions. Finally a temperature emissivity separation was applied to estimate the emissivities of the different land surface components. Gas concentrations were validated against measurements of a LICOR 7500 taken in parallel to the MIDAC measurements. It is observed that in general the relative errors are around 25% of the LICOR measurements, which are in the same range as the instrumental errors of the eddy-covariance system (15-30%). The correction of the absorption features proved however more difficult and resulted in overestimations of the correction-terms; 1) because spectral collocation of the simulations with the observations proved troublesome, and 2 because

  19. Effects of rim structure formation on the thermal conductivity of UO{sub 2} pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, Masaki; Hirai, Mutsumi [Global Nuclear Fuel - Japan Co., Ltd., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kaino, Masaru; Hattori, Toshiitsu [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Thermal diffusivities of UO{sub 2} pellets irradiated in a test reactor were measured by using a laser flash method. The maximum burnups of the samples were about 85 GWd/t and some of the samples contained rim structures. Thermal diffusivities of irradiated decreased compared with those of unirradiated and simulated soluble fission products-doped UO{sub 2} pellets. Hysteresis phenomena in the thermal diffusivity of irradiated fuel, which had been reported before, were not clearly observed in UO{sub 2} pellets in which the rim structures had formed. The thermal conductivities for irradiated UO{sub 2} pellets were evaluated from measured thermal diffusivities, specific heat capacities of unirradiated UO{sub 2} pellets and measured sample densities. The thermal conductivities of irradiated UO{sub 2} were compared to those of unirradiated UO{sub 2} pellets. The relative thermal conductivities were normalized to those of 96.5% TD (Theoretical Density). These normalized thermal conductivities of irradiated UO{sub 2} pellets in which significant rim structures had formed tended to be slightly higher than those of irradiated UO{sub 2} pellets in which no rim structure had formed. This may be caused by an effect of recrystallization in rim structures. (author)

  20. Crystallite Size Effect on Thermal Conductive Properties of Nonwoven Nanocellulose Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetani, Kojiro; Okada, Takumi; Oyama, Hideko T

    2015-07-13

    The thermal conductive properties, including the thermal diffusivity and resultant thermal conductivity, of nonwoven nanocellulose sheets were investigated by separately measuring the thermal diffusivity of the sheets in the in-plane and thickness directions with a periodic heating method. The cross-sectional area (or width) of the cellulose crystallites was the main determinant of the thermal conductive properties. Thus, the results strongly indicate that there is a crystallite size effect on phonon conduction within the nanocellulose sheets. The results also indicated that there is a large interfacial thermal resistance between the nanocellulose surfaces. The phonon propagation velocity (i.e., the sound velocity) within the nanocellulose sheets was estimated to be ∼800 m/s based on the relationship between the thermal diffusivities and crystallite widths. The resulting in-plane thermal conductivity of the tunicate nanocellulose sheet was calculated to be ∼2.5 W/mK, markedly higher than other plastic films available for flexible electronic devices.

  1. Effects of thermal cycling on aluminum metallization of power diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Mads; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; Kristensen, Peter Kjær

    2015-01-01

    Reconstruction of aluminum metallization on top of power electronic chips is a well-known wear out phenomenon under power cycling conditions. However, the origins of reconstruction are still under discussion. In the current study, a method for carrying out passive thermal cycling of power diodes...... is controlled and the device is not subjected to a current load the observed degradation of metallization and corresponding increase of resistance is purely induced by thermo-mechanical stress. A correlation between number of cycles, micro-structural evolution, and sheet resistance is found and conclusions...

  2. Thermal effects of dams in the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2010-01-01

    where the annual maximum temperature typically occurred in September or October. Without-dam temperatures also tended to have more daily variation than with-dam temperatures. Examination of the without-dam temperature estimates indicated that dam sites could be grouped according to the amount of streamflow derived from high-elevation, spring-fed, and snowmelt-driven areas high in the Cascade Mountains (Cougar, Big Cliff/Detroit, River Mill, and Hills Creek Dams: Group A), as opposed to flow primarily derived from lower-elevation rainfall-driven drainages (Group B). Annual maximum temperatures for Group A ranged from 15 to 20 degree(s)C, expressed as the 7-day average of the daily maximum (7dADM), whereas annual maximum 7dADM temperatures for Group B ranged from 21 to 25 degrees C. Because summertime stream temperature is at least somewhat dependent on the upstream water source, it was important when estimating without-dam temperatures to use correlations to sites with similar upstream characteristics. For that reason, it also is important to maintain long-term, year-round temperature measurement stations at representative sites in each of the Willamette River basin's physiographic regions. Streamflow and temperature estimates downstream of the major dam sites and throughout the Willamette River were generated using existing CE-QUAL-W2 flow and temperature models. These models, originally developed for the Willamette River water-temperature Total Maximum Daily Load process, required only a few modifications to allow them to run under the greatly reduced without-dam flow conditions. Model scenarios both with and without upstream dams were run. Results showed that Willamette River streamflow without upstream dams was reduced to levels much closer to historical pre-dam conditions, with annual minimum streamflows approximately one-half or less of dam-augmented levels. Thermal effects of the dams varied according to the time of year, from cooling in mid-summer to warm

  3. A Laboratory to Demonstrate the Effect of Thermal History on Semicrystalline Polymers Using Rapid Scanning Rate Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrinarayanan, Prashanth; Kessler, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the effect of thermal history on the thermal properties of semicrystalline polymers is essential for materials scientists and engineers. In this article, we describe a materials science laboratory to demonstrate the effect of parameters such as heating rate and isothermal annealing conditions on the thermal behavior of…

  4. Modelling of segmented high-performance thermoelectric generators with effects of thermal radiation, electrical and thermal contact resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Zhongliang; Li, Dawen

    2016-04-07

    In this study, segmented thermoelectric generators (TEGs) have been simulated with various state-of-the-art TE materials spanning a wide temperature range, from 300 K up to 1000 K. The results reveal that by combining the current best p-type TE materials, BiSbTe, MgAgSb, K-doped PbTeS and SnSe with the strongest n-type TE materials, Cu-Doped BiTeSe, AgPbSbTe and SiGe to build segmented legs, TE modules could achieve efficiencies of up to 17.0% and 20.9% at ΔT = 500 K and ΔT = 700 K, respectively, and a high output power densities of over 2.1 Watt cm(-2) at the temperature difference of 700 K. Moreover, we demonstrate that successful segmentation requires a smooth change of compatibility factor s from one end of the TEG leg to the other, even if s values of two ends differ by more than a factor of 2. The influence of the thermal radiation, electrical and thermal contact effects have also been studied. Although considered potentially detrimental to the TEG performance, these effects, if well-regulated, do not prevent segmentation of the current best TE materials from being a prospective way to construct high performance TEGs with greatly enhanced efficiency and output power density.

  5. Influence of gas pressure on the effective thermal conductivity of ceramic breeder pebble beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Weijing [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Pupeschi, Simone [Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Hanaor, Dorian [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Institute for Materials Science and Technologies, Technical University of Berlin (Germany); Gan, Yixiang, E-mail: yixiang.gan@sydney.edu.au [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • This study explicitly demonstrates the influence of the gas pressure on the effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds. • The gas pressure influence is shown to correlated to the pebble size. • The effective thermal conductivity is linked to thermal-mechanical properties of pebbles and packing structure. - Abstract: Lithium ceramics have been considered as tritium breeder materials in many proposed designs of fusion breeding blankets. Heat generated in breeder pebble beds due to nuclear breeding reaction must be removed by means of actively cooled plates while generated tritiums is recovered by purge gas slowly flowing through beds. Therefore, the effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds that is one of the governing parameters determining heat transport phenomenon needs to be addressed with respect to mechanical status of beds and purge gas pressure. In this study, a numerical framework combining finite element simulation and a semi-empirical correlation of gas gap conduction is proposed to predict the effective thermal conductivity. The purge gas pressure is found to vary the effective thermal conductivity, in particular with the presence of various sized gaps in pebble beds. Random packing of pebble beds is taken into account by an approximated correlation considering the packing factor and coordination number of pebble beds. The model prediction is compared with experimental observation from different sources showing a quantitative agreement with the measurement.

  6. Analysis on the effect of hypersonic vehicle's optical window on infrared thermal imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liquan; Han, Ying; Kong, Lingqin; Liu, Ming; Zhao, Yuejin; Zhang, Li; Li, Yanhong; Tian, Yi; Sa, Renna

    2015-08-01

    According to the aero-thermal effects and aero-thermal radiation effects of the optical window, the thermo-optic effect, the elasto-optical effect and the thermal deformation of the optical window are analyzed using finite element analysis method. Also, the peak value and its location of the point spread function, which is caused by the thermo-optic effect and the dome thermal deformation, are calculated with the variance of time. Furthermore, the temperature gradient influence to the transmission of optical window, the variation trend of transmission as well as optical window radiation with time are studied based on temperature distribution analysis. The simulations results show that: When the incident light is perpendicular to the optical window, image shift is mainly caused by its thermal deformation, and the value of image shift is very small. Image shift is determined only by the angle of the incident light. With a certain incident angle, image shift is not affected by the gradient refractive index change. The optical window transmission is mainly affected by temperature gradient and thus not neglectable to image quality. Therefore, the selection of window cooling methods, needs not only consider the window temperature but try to eliminate the temperature gradient. When calculating the thermal radiation, the optical window should be regarded as volume radiation source instead of surface radiator. The results provide the basis for the optical window design, material selection and the later image processing.

  7. Thermal effects and beam parameter variations in electron guns

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V; Stepin, D L

    2001-01-01

    The paper described results of research on influence of electrode temperatures and manufacturing tolerance of an electron gun on parameters of an output beam. The Pierce's gun that provides an electron beam with a current of 1.2 A and energy of 25 keV for the S-band technological linac is considered as an example. Numerically calculated parameters of the beam and the temperature distribution in electrodes are presented.It is shown that the acceptable error in a position of electrodes is +- 0.1 mm. This value does not fall outside the limit of thermal deformations and technical abilities for manufacturing guns in a laboratory. The scaling to the area of injectors for compact X-band linacs leads to the tolerance of +-0.01 mm that requires introducing fixing and adjustment elements reducing a thermal insulation of the cathode. However, the calculation and experiment showed that such reducing is negligible even for the modern low temperature thermionic cathodes due to a dominant role of the radiation in the heat ...

  8. Effect of pore size and shape on the thermal conductivity of metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Hasan; McGaughey, Alan J H; Wilmer, Christopher E

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effect of pore size and shape on the thermal conductivity of a series of idealized metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) containing adsorbed gas using molecular simulations. With no gas present, the thermal conductivity decreases with increasing pore size. In the presence of adsorbed gas, MOFs with smaller pores experience reduced thermal conductivity due to phonon scattering introduced by gas-crystal interactions. In contrast, for larger pores (>1.7 nm), the adsorbed gas does not significantly affect thermal conductivity. This difference is due to the decreased probability of gas-crystal collisions in larger pore structures. In contrast to MOFs with simple cubic pores, the thermal conductivity in structures with triangular and hexagonal pore channels exhibits significant anisotropy. For different pore geometries at the same atomic density, hexagonal channel MOFs have both the highest and lowest thermal conductivities, along and across the channel direction, respectively. In the triangular and hexagonal channeled structures, the presence of gas molecules has different effects on thermal conductivity along different crystallographic directions.

  9. The Effect of Thermal Annealing Processes on Structural and Photoluminescence of Zinc Oxide Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Shan Chin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used radio frequency sputtering at room temperature to prepare a zinc oxide (ZnO thin film. After deposition, the thin film was placed in a high-temperature furnace to undergo thermal annealing at different temperatures (300, 400, 500, and 600°C and for different dwelling times (15, 30, 45, and 60 min. The objective was to explore the effects that the described process had on the thin film’s internal structure and luminescence properties. A scanning electron microscope topographic image showed that the size of the ZnO crystals grew with increases in either the thermal annealing temperature or the dwelling time. However, significant differences in the levels of influence caused by increasing the thermal annealing temperature or dwelling time existed; the thermal annealing temperature had a greater effect on crystal growth when compared to the dwelling time. Furthermore, the crystallization directions of ZnO (002, (101, (102, and (103 can be clearly observed through an X-ray diffraction analysis, and crystallization strength increased with an increase in the thermal annealing temperature. The photoluminescence measurement spectra showed that ultraviolet (UV emission intensity increased with increases in thermal annealing temperature and dwelling time. However, when the thermal annealing temperature reached 600°C or when the dwelling time reached 60 min, even exhibited a weak green light emission peak.

  10. Effect of the Kapitza temperature jump on thermal processes in nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novopashin Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two analytical solutions describing thermal processes in a nanofluid based on spherical nanoparticles taking into account the Kapitza temperature jump on a particle-fluid boundary were found. In the first solution the thermal conductivity of nanofluids was found with the help of Maxwell approach. The second solution describes stationary heat exchange between a spherical particle and fluid in two different conditions. A dimensionless criterion characterizing the effect of the Kapitza temperature jump on thermal processes in nanofluids has been obtained in both solutions.

  11. Isotopic effect on thermal physical properties of isotopically modified boron single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Quanli [Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Noda, Tetsuji; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Araki, Hiroshi; Numazawa, Takenori; Hirano, Toshiyuki [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nogi, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Satoru [University of Tokyo, Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The measurement of specific heat and thermal conductivity at low temperature for isotopically modified boron single crystals was performed between 0.5 and 100K using relaxation method and steady heat flow method, respectively. The results indicate that the specific heat has obvious divergences at T<5K. At 40K, the thermal conductivity of {sup 10}B-enriched crystal is about 570 W/m{center_dot}K, which is 40% larger than that of natural boron crystal. The influence of lattice vibration modes and the isotopic effect on specific heat and thermal conductivity for isotopically modified boron are discussed. (author)

  12. Effect of Filler Concentration on Thermal Stability of Vinyl Copolymer Elastomer (VCE) Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hubbard, Kevin Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Devlin, David James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henderson, Kevin C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pacheco, Robin Montoya [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-06

    To study the thermal stability of vinyl copolymer elastomer (VCE) in its composite form, systematic TGA characterizations were conducted in both nonisothermal and isothermal modes. The effects of filler concentration on the aging behaviors of the VCE/filler composites were investigated under nitroplasticizer (NP) environment. FTIR characterization was used to probe the structural changes in the VCE polymer before and after the thermal treatments. This study suggests that the filler concentration significantly deteriorates the thermal stability of NP at a moderate temperature (< 70 °C). The degradation of NP, in turn, accelerates the aging process of the VCE polymer in its composite form.

  13. Moisture dependent thermal properties of hydrophilic mineral wool: application of the effective media theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Antepara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of mineral wool based materials appear to be of particular importance for their practical applications because the majority of them is used in the form of thermal insulation boards. Every catalogue list of any material producer of mineral wool contains thermal conductivity, sometimes also specific heat capacity, but they give only single characteristic values for dry state of material mostly. Exposure to outside climate or any other environment containing moisture can negatively affect the thermal insulation properties of mineral wool. Nevertheless, the mineral wool materials due to their climatic loading and their environmental exposure contain moisture that can negatively affect their thermal insulation properties. Because the presence of water in mineral wool material is undesirable for the majority of applications, many products are provided with hydrophobic substances. Hydrophilic additives are seldom used in mineral wool products. However, this kind of materials has a good potential for application for instance in interior thermal insulation systems, masonry desalination, green roofs, etc. For these materials, certain moisture content must be estimated and thus their thermal properties will be different than for the dry state. On this account, moisture dependent thermal properties of hydrophilic mineral wool (HMW are studied in a wide range of moisture content using a pulse technique. The experimentally determined thermal conductivity data is analysed using several homogenization formulas based on the effective media theory. In terms of homogenization, a porous material is considered as a mixture of two or three phases. In case of dry state, material consists from solid and gaseous phase. When moistened, liquid phase is also present. Mineral wool consists of the solid phase represented by basalt fibers, the liquid phase by water and the gaseous phase by air. At first, the homogenization techniques are applied for the

  14. Effect of metallic nanoparticle fillers on the thermal conductivity of diatomaceous earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, Mouhamad S. [Department of Liberal Arts, Des Moines Area Community College, Des Moines, IA 50314 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Srinivasan, Srilok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chang, Boyce [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Ghosh, Suvojit [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S4L8 (Canada); Balasubramanian, Ganesh, E-mail: bganesh@iastate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2016-10-23

    Thermal conductivity of solid nanoparticles (aluminum) in a nanoporous solid matrix (diatomaceous earth) is examined to understand the effect of conductive fillers on the thermal properties of a porous material. We find that thermal conductivity is strongly dependent on load applied to prepare the mixture compacts, while porosity is influenced by the composition of the mixture. The addition of nanoparticles contributes to limited increases in thermal conductivity of the mixture by (1) increasing contact area between the mixture constituents and (2) reduction of porosity that leads to enhanced solid–gas coupling contribution. Thermal conductivity increases exponentially with external gas pressures due to the coupling effect between the solid particles and the entrapped air. - Highlights: • Thermal conductivity k of DE/AlNP mixture is more dependent on compaction than on Al concentration. • Nanoparticles affect k of DE by increase in solid contact area rather than by its effect on porosity. • When air content in mixture rises, k increases with gas pressures due to solid–gas coupling effect.

  15. Thermal Bridge Effect of Aerated Concrete Block Wall in Cold Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baochang; Guo, Lirong; Li, Yubao; Zhang, Tiantian; Tan, Yufei

    2018-01-01

    As a self-insulating building material which can meet the 65 percent energy-efficiency requirements in cold region of China, aerated concrete blocks often go moldy, frost heaving, or cause plaster layer hollowing at thermal bridge parts in the extremely cold regions due to the restrictions of environmental climate and construction technique. L-shaped part and T-shaped part of aerated concrete walls are the most easily influenced parts by thermal bridge effect. In this paper, a field test is performed to investigate the scope of the thermal bridge effect. Moreover, a heat transfer calculation model for L-shaped wall and T-shaped wall is developed. According to the simulation results, the temperature fields of the thermal bridge affected regions are simulated and analyzed. The research outputs can provide theoretical basis for the application of aerated concrete wall in extremely cold regions.

  16. The effect of interphase on residual thermal stresses. 2. Unidirectional fiber composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnevsky, V.; Bledzki, A. K.

    1997-03-01

    In real composite materials an additional phase may exist between the fiber and the matrix. This phase, commonly known as the interphase, is a local region that results from the matrix bonds with the fiber surface or the fiber sizing. The differing thermal expansions or contractions of the fiber and matrix cause thermally induced stresses in composite materials. In the present study, a four-cylinder model is proposed for the determination of residual thermal stresses in unidirectional composite materials. The elastic modulus of the interphase is a function of the interphase radius and thickness. The governing equations in terms of displacements are solved in the form of expansion into a series [1]. The effective elastic characteristics are obtained using the finite element approach. The effect of the interphase thickness and different distributions of the interphase Young's modulus on the thermal residual stress field in unidirectional composite materials is investigated.

  17. Effect of Thermal Cycling on the Tensile Behavior of CF/AL Fiber Metal Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farhan Noor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work was to estimate the effect of thermal cycling on the tensile behavior of CARALL composites. Fiber metal laminates (FMLs, based on 2D woven carbon fabric and 2024-T3 Alclad aluminum alloy sheet, was manufactured by pressure molding technique followed by hand layup method. Before fabrication, aluminum sheets were anodized with phosphoric acid to produce micro porous alumina layer on surface. This micro-porous layer is beneficial to produce strong bonding between metal and fiber surfaces in FMLs. The effect of thermal cycling (-65 to +70ºC on the tensile behavior of Cf/Al based FML was studied. Tensile strength was increased after 10 thermal cycles, but it was slightly decreased to some extent after 30, and 50 thermal cycles. Tensile modulus also shown the similar behavior as that of tensile strength.

  18. AC Losses and Their Thermal Effect in High-Temperature Superconducting Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Zou, Shengnan

    2016-01-01

    In transient operations or fault conditions, hightemperature superconducting (HTS) machines suffer ac losses, which have an influence on the thermal stability of superconducting windings. In this paper, a method to calculate ac losses and their thermal effect in HTS machines is presented....... The method consists of three submodels that are coupled only in one direction. The magnetic field distribution is first solved in a machine model, assuming a uniform current distribution in HTS windings. The magnetic fields on the boundaries are then used as inputs for an ac loss model that has a homogeneous...... approximation and solves the H formulation. Afterward, the computed ac losses are considered as the heat source in a thermal model to study the temperature profile in HTS windings. The method proposed is able to evaluate ac losses and their thermal effect, thus providing a reference to design an HTS machine...

  19. Thermal Load Effect on Print Quality of Ink Jet Printined Textile Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Grujić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Printed textile materials are often exposed to certain external impacts. One of the most common impact, these materials are subjected to, is thermal load. This effect causes certain changes in textile fibers as well as changes of ink colour reproduction printed on these materials. In this paper is presented an investigation of the series of thermal loads effects on print quality parameters of digitally produced impressions on textile substrates. The research includes basic print quality attributes: colour reproduction, macro non-uniformity and quality of line reproduction. Investigation results indicate that by increasing number of thermal loads, bigger changes in colour reproduction occur. Also, the influence of the series of thermal loads on mottle and line reproduction variations is confirmed, as well as the influence of printing substrate characteristics on print quality.

  20. A Network Model for the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Rigid Fibrous Refractory Insulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Jochen; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A procedure is described for computing the effective thermal conductivity of a rigid fibrous refractory insulation. The insulation is modeled as a 3-dimensional Cartesian network of thermal conductance. The values and volume distributions of the conductance are assigned to reflect the physical properties of the insulation, its constituent fibers, and any permeating gas. The effective thermal conductivity is computed by considering the simultaneous energy transport by solid conduction, gas conduction and radiation through a cubic volume of model insulation; thus the coupling between heat transfer modes is retained (within the simplifications inherent to the model), rather than suppressed by treating these heat transfer modes as independent. The model takes into account insulation composition, density and fiber anisotropy, as well as the geometric and material properties of the constituent fibers. A relatively good agreement, between calculated and experimentally derived thermal conductivity values, is obtained for a variety of rigid fibrous insulations.

  1. Thermal effect on the morphology and performance of organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Eisuke; Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi

    2016-09-29

    The morphology of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is a significant factor in improving performance, and establishing a method for controlling morphology is necessary. In this study, we propose a device-size simulation model, combining reptation and the dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) algorithm, to investigate the relationship between the manufacturing process, morphology, and OPV performance. The reptation reproduces morphologies under thermal annealing, and DMC showed morphology-dependence of performance: not only short-circuit current density but also open-circuit voltage had optimal interfacial areas due to competition between exciton dissociation and charge collection. Besides, we performed transient absorption spectroscopy of various BHJ morphologies under realistic conditions, which revealed prompt and delayed dynamics of charge generation-the majority of the charges were from excitons that were generated on interfaces and dissociated within a few picoseconds, and the others from excitons that migrated to interfaces and dissociated on the order of sub-nanoseconds.

  2. Study of thermal effects of silicate-containing hydroxyapatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Zaits, A. V.; Berdinskaya, N. V.; Mylnikova, T. S.

    2016-02-01

    The possibility of modifications of hydroxyapatite silicate ions, from the extracellular fluid prototype solution under near-physiological conditions has been studied. Formation of silicon-structured hydroxyapatite with different extent of substitution of phosphate groups in the silicate group has been established through chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The results obtained are in agreement and suggest the possibility of substitution of phosphate groups for silicate groups in the hydroxyapatite structure when introducing different sources of silica, tetraethoxysilane and sodium silicate, in the reaction mixture. Growth in the amount of silicon in Si-HA results in the increase in the thermal stability of the samples. The greatest mass loss occurs at temperatures in the range of 25-400 0C that is caused by the removal of the crystallization and adsorption water and volatile impurities. It is shown that the modified apatites are of imperfect structure and crystallize in a nanocrystalline state.

  3. Thermal effects of carbonated hydroxyapatite modified by glycine and albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerk, S. A.; Golovanova, O. A.; Kuimova, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    In this work calcium phosphate powders were obtained by precipitation method from simulated solutions of synovial fluid containing glycine and albumin. X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy determined that all samples are single-phase and are presented by carbonate containing hydroxyapatite (CHA). The thermograms of solid phases of CHA were obtained and analyzed; five stages of transformation in the temperature range of 25-1000°C were marked. It is shown that in this temperature range dehydration, decarboxylation and thermal degradation of amino acid and protein connected to the surface of solid phase occur. The tendency of temperature lowering of the decomposition of powders synthesized from a medium containing organic substances was determined. Results demonstrate a direct dependence between the concentration of the amino acid in a model solution and its content in the solid phase.

  4. Effects of additives on thermal stability of Li ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Daniel H.; Roth, E. Peter; Crafts, Chris C.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Henriksen, Gary; Amine, Khalil

    Li ion cells are being developed for high-power applications in hybrid electric vehicles, because these cells offer superior combination of power and energy density over current cell chemistries. Cells using this chemistry are proposed for battery systems in both internal combustion engine and fuel cell-powered hybrid electric vehicles. However, the safety of these cells needs to be understood and improved for eventual widespread commercial applications. The thermal-abuse response of Li ion cells has been improved by the incorporation of more stable anode carbons and electrolyte additives. Electrolyte solutions containing vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tris(trifluoroethyl)phosphate (TFP) as well as some proprietary flame-retardant additives were evaluated. Test cells in the 18,650 configuration were built at Sandia National Laboratories using new stable electrode materials and electrolyte additives. A special test fixture was designed to allow determination of self-generated cell heating during a thermal ramp profile. The flammability of vented gas and expelled electrolyte was studied using a novel arrangement of a spark generator placed near the cell to ignite vent gas if a flammable gas mixture was present. Flammability of vent gas was somewhat reduced by the presence of certain additives. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was also used to characterize 18,650-size test cell heat and gas generation. Gas composition was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and was found to consist of CO 2, H 2, CO, methane, ethane, ethylene and small amounts of C1-C4 organic molecules.

  5. Quantum thermal machines driven by vacuum forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terças, Hugo; Ribeiro, Sofia; Pezzutto, Marco; Omar, Yasser

    2017-02-01

    We propose a quantum thermal machine composed of two nanomechanical resonators (two membranes suspended over a trench in a substrate) placed a few μ m from each other. The quantum thermodynamical cycle is powered by the Casimir interaction between the resonators and the working fluid is the polariton resulting from the mixture of the flexural (out-of-plane) vibrations. With the help of piezoelectric cells, we select and sweep the polariton frequency cyclically. We calculate the performance of the proposed quantum thermal machines and show that high efficiencies are achieved thanks to (i) the strong coupling between the resonators and (ii) the large difference between the membrane stiffnesses. Our findings can be of particular importance for applications in nanomechanical technologies where a sensitive control of temperature is needed.

  6. Thermal Ablative Therapies and Immune Checkpoint Modulation: Can Locoregional Approaches Effect a Systemic Response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous image-guided ablation is an increasingly common treatment for a multitude of solid organ malignancies. While historically these techniques have been restricted to the management of small, unresectable tumors, there is an expanding appreciation for the systemic effects these locoregional interventions can cause. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of action for the most common thermal ablation modalities and highlight the key advances in knowledge regarding the interactions between thermal ablation and the immune system.

  7. Effect of plastic deformation on the low-temperature minimum of the thermal emf of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlov, V. N.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of plastic deformation on the thermal emf and electrical resistance of polycrystalline copper is studied at low temperatures. Primary attention is devoted to the minimum in the thermal emf near 15 K and the changes in it during plastic deformation on the order of and less than 100%. These studies offer the prospect of deeper understanding of the mechanisms of electron scattering in metals with defects.

  8. Investigation of Thermal Acoustic Effects on SRF Cavities within CM1 at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, Mike [Fermilab; Harms, Elvin [Fermilab; Klebaner, Arkadiy [Fermilab; Leibfritz, Jerry [Fermilab; Martinez, Alex [Fermilab; Pischalnikov, Yuriy [Fermilab; Schappert, Warren [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    Two TESLA-style 8-cavity cryomodules have been operated at Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST), formerly the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Accelerator Test Facility. Operational instabilities were revealed during Radio Frequency (RF) power studies. These observations were complemented by the characterization of thermal acoustic effects on cavity microphonics manifested by apparent noisy boiling of helium involving vapor bubble and liquid vibration. The thermal acoustic measurements also consider pressure and temperature spikes which drive the phenomenon at low and high frequencies.

  9. Thermal effects on aquatic organisms: an annotated bibliography of the 1976 literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, S.S. (comp.)

    1978-05-01

    This bibliography, containing 784 annotated references on the effects of temperature on aquatic organisms, is part of an assessment of the literature on the effects of thermal power plants on the environment. The effects of thermal discharges at power plant sites are emphasized. Laboratory and field studies on temperature tolerance and the effects of temperature changes on reproduction, development, growth, distribution, physiology, and sensitivity to other stresses are included. Indexes are provided for author, keywords, subject category, geographic location of the study, taxon, and title (alphabetical listing of keywords-in-context of nontrivial words in the title).

  10. Thermal behavior of latent thermal energy storage unit using two phase change materials: Effects of HTF inlet temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouzi Benmoussa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a numerical study of the thermal behavior of shell-and-tube latent thermal energy storage (LTES unit using two phase change materials (PCMs. The heat transfer fluid (HTF flow through the inner tube and transfer the heat to PCMs. First, a mathematical model is developed based on the enthalpy formulation and solved through the governing equations. Second, the effects of HTF inlet temperature on the unsteady temperature evolution of PCMs, the total energy stored evolution as well as the total melting time is studied. Numerical results show that for all HTF inlet temperature, melting rate of PCM1 is the fastest and that of PCM2 is the slowest; increasing the HTF inlet temperature considerably increases the temperature evolution of PCMs. The maximum energy stored is observed in PCM2 with high melting temperature and high specific heat; heat storage capacity is large for high HTF inlet temperature. When the HTF inlet temperature increases from 338 K to 353 K, decreasing degree of melting time of PCM2 is the biggest from 1870 s to 490 s, which reduces about 73.8%; decreasing degree of melting time of PCM1 is the smallest from 530 s to 270 s, which reduces about 49.1%.

  11. Laser-enhanced thermal effect of moderate intensity focused ultrasound on bio-tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, JinYu; Zhang, ShuYi; Shui, XiuJi; Fan, Li

    2017-09-01

    For avoiding extra-damage to healthy tissues surrounding the focal point during high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment in medical therapy, to reduce the ultrasonic intensity outside the focal point is expected. Thus, the heating processes induced by moderate intensity focused ultrasound (MIFU) and enhanced by combined irradiation of laser pulses for bio-tissues are studied in details. For fresh bio-tissues, the enhanced thermal effects by pulsed laser combined with MIFU irradiation are observed experimentally. To explore the mechanisms of these effects, several tissue-mimicking materials composed of agar mixed with graphite powders are prepared and studied for comparison, but the laser-enhanced thermal effects in these mimicking materials are much less than that in the fresh bio-tissues. Therefore, it is suggested that the laser-enhanced thermal effects may be mainly attributed to bio-activities and related photo-bio-chemical effects of fresh tissues.

  12. The Effect of Particle Size on Thermal Conduction in Granular Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghwoon; Yun, Tae Sup; Choi, Sung-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Shredded rubber tire is a geomaterial that is potentially useful in environmental and engineering projects. Here, we study the effect of particle size ratio on the thermal conductivity of granular mixtures containing rubber tire particles. Glass beads were mixed at various volume fractions with rubber particles of varying size. The 3D network model analysis using synthetic packed assemblies was used to determine the dominant factors influencing the thermal conduction of the mixtures. Results present that mixtures with varying size ratios exhibit different nonlinear evolutions of thermal conductivity values with mixture fractions. In particular, mixtures with large insulating materials (e.g., rubber particles) have higher thermal conduction that those with small ones. This is because the larger insulating particles allow better interconnectivity among the conductive particles, thereby avoiding the interruption of the thermal conduction of the conductive particles. Similar tests conducted with natural sand corroborate the significant effect of the relative size of the insulating particles. The 3D network model identifies the heterogeneity of local and effective thermal conductivity and the influence of connectivity among conductive particles. A supplementary examination of electrical conductivity highlights the significance of local and long-range connectivity on conduction paths in granular mixtures. PMID:28793419

  13. Longitudinal Heat Conduction Effects on a Conjugate Thermal Creep Flow in a Microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Ian; Lizardi, José J.; Méndez, Federico

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we use asymptotic and numerical techniques to analyze the conjugate heat transfer between a rarified gas flow and the lower wall of a thin horizontal microchannel exposed to a uniform heat flux, when the laminar motion of the gas is only caused by the thermal creep or transpiration effect on the lower wall of the microchannel. Usually, it is enough to impose a linear temperature profile as a boundary condition to produce the thermal creep effect. However, we prefer to avoid this arbitrary simplification taking into account that for real cases, the temperature profile at the lower wall can be unknown. We can assume then that the lower face of this heat sink with finite thermal conductivity and thickness is exposed to a uniform heat flux, while the upper wall of the microchannel is subject to a well-known prescribed thermal boundary condition. The resulting governing equations are written in dimensionless form, assuming that the Reynolds number associated with the characteristic velocity of the thermal creep and the aspect ratio of the microchannel, are both very small. Thermal creep effect depends strongly on a dimensionless conjugate parameter that represents the competition between the heat driven by the gas and the heat that longitudinally conducts the lower wall.

  14. Effects of hypoxia and ocean acidification on the upper thermal niche boundaries of coral reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, Rasmus; Johansen, Jacob L; Rummer, Jodie L; Esbaugh, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    Rising ocean temperatures are predicted to cause a poleward shift in the distribution of marine fishes occupying the extent of latitudes tolerable within their thermal range boundaries. A prevailing theory suggests that the upper thermal limits of fishes are constrained by hypoxia and ocean acidification. However, some eurythermal fish species do not conform to this theory, and maintain their upper thermal limits in hypoxia. Here we determine if the same is true for stenothermal species. In three coral reef fish species we tested the effect of hypoxia on upper thermal limits, measured as critical thermal maximum (CT max ). In one of these species we also quantified the effect of hypoxia on oxygen supply capacity, measured as aerobic scope (AS). In this species we also tested the effect of elevated CO 2 (simulated ocean acidification) on the hypoxia sensitivity of CT max We found that CT max was unaffected by progressive hypoxia down to approximately 35 mmHg, despite a substantial hypoxia-induced reduction in AS. Below approximately 35 mmHg, CT max declined sharply with water oxygen tension ( P w O 2 ). Furthermore, the hypoxia sensitivity of CT max was unaffected by elevated CO 2 Our findings show that moderate hypoxia and ocean acidification do not constrain the upper thermal limits of these tropical, stenothermal fishes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. The Effect of Particle Size on Thermal Conduction in Granular Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghwoon Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Shredded rubber tire is a geomaterial that is potentially useful in environmental and engineering projects. Here, we study the effect of particle size ratio on the thermal conductivity of granular mixtures containing rubber tire particles. Glass beads were mixed at various volume fractions with rubber particles of varying size. The 3D network model analysis using synthetic packed assemblies was used to determine the dominant factors influencing the thermal conduction of the mixtures. Results present that mixtures with varying size ratios exhibit different nonlinear evolutions of thermal conductivity values with mixture fractions. In particular, mixtures with large insulating materials (e.g., rubber particles have higher thermal conduction that those with small ones. This is because the larger insulating particles allow better interconnectivity among the conductive particles, thereby avoiding the interruption of the thermal conduction of the conductive particles. Similar tests conducted with natural sand corroborate the significant effect of the relative size of the insulating particles. The 3D network model identifies the heterogeneity of local and effective thermal conductivity and the influence of connectivity among conductive particles. A supplementary examination of electrical conductivity highlights the significance of local and long-range connectivity on conduction paths in granular mixtures.

  16. Effect of oral dietary supplement for chicks subjected to thermal oscillation on performance and intestinal morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanir Inês Müller Fernandes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nutritional formulation based on amino acids and vitamins supplemented in the drinking water for chicks in the first week of life subjected to thermal oscillation on performance, organ development and intestinal morphometry from 1 to 21 days. 640-male broiler chicks were distributed in a 2x2 factorial completely randomized design (with or without dietary supplementation and at comfort temperature or thermal oscillation. Chicks subjected to thermal oscillation presented worse performance (p < 0.05 than those under thermal comfort of 1 to 7, 1 to 14 and 1 to 21 days. Nutritional supplementation did not alter the performance (p < 0.05 of the birds, but resulted in a higher body weight (p < 0.05 regardless of the environmental thermal condition. At 7 days, chicks under thermal comfort had better intestinal morphometric parameters (p < 0.05, in relation to birds under thermal oscillation. In conclusion, the temperature oscillations caused negative consequences to the productive performance and the intestinal morphology of chicks for which dietary supplementation was not enough to mitigate the effects of the environmental challenge during the first week of life of the birds.

  17. Modelling and Characterization of Effective Thermal Conductivity of Single Hollow Glass Microsphere and Its Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Wang, Hui; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2018-01-14

    Tiny hollow glass microsphere (HGM) can be applied for designing new light-weighted and thermal-insulated composites as high strength core, owing to its hollow structure. However, little work has been found for studying its own overall thermal conductivity independent of any matrix, which generally cannot be measured or evaluated directly. In this study, the overall thermal conductivity of HGM is investigated experimentally and numerically. The experimental investigation of thermal conductivity of HGM powder is performed by the transient plane source (TPS) technique to provide a reference to numerical results, which are obtained by a developed three-dimensional two-step hierarchical computational method. In the present method, three heterogeneous HGM stacking elements representing different distributions of HGMs in the powder are assumed. Each stacking element and its equivalent homogeneous solid counterpart are, respectively, embedded into a fictitious matrix material as fillers to form two equivalent composite systems at different levels, and then the overall thermal conductivity of each stacking element can be numerically determined through the equivalence of the two systems. The comparison of experimental and computational results indicates the present computational modeling can be used for effectively predicting the overall thermal conductivity of single HGM and its powder in a flexible way. Besides, it is necessary to note that the influence of thermal interfacial resistance cannot be removed from the experimental results in the TPS measurement.

  18. De vette jaren: de Commissie-Casimir en het Nederlandse wetenschapsbeleid 1957-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baneke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Years of Abundance: the Casimir Committee and Dutch Science Policy 1957–1970 In October 1958, a committee of six prominent Dutch scientists and industrial managers presented a brief report in which they requested a major increase of the science budget. This report has been described as a turning point in the history of science in the Netherlands, signaling the beginning of a decade of rapid growth of funding for ‘pure’ research. Surprisingly little is known about the backgrounds of this report, however. In this paper, I analyze its origin, its relation to contemporary higher education policy, and its consequences. As it turns out, the report was less revolutionary than is usually assumed: it mostly reinforced developments that had already begun earlier. Furthermore, Sputnik and the Cold War were not as important as is often claimed. This paper also suggests a reinterpretation of the justification of the government spending on academic research after the Second World War. Producing skilled researchers for industry was at least as important as produc- ing new knowledge.

  19. Casimir meets Poisson: improved quark/gluon discrimination with counting observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Christopher; Larkoski, Andrew J.; Thaler, Jesse; Zhou, Kevin

    2017-09-01

    Charged track multiplicity is among the most powerful observables for discriminating quark- from gluon-initiated jets. Despite its utility, it is not infrared and collinear (IRC) safe, so perturbative calculations are limited to studying the energy evolution of multiplicity moments. While IRC-safe observables, like jet mass, are perturbatively calculable, their distributions often exhibit Casimir scaling, such that their quark/gluon discrimination power is limited by the ratio of quark to gluon color factors. In this paper, we introduce new IRC-safe counting observables whose discrimination performance exceeds that of jet mass and approaches that of track multiplicity. The key observation is that track multiplicity is approximately Poisson distributed, with more suppressed tails than the Sudakov peak structure from jet mass. By using an iterated version of the soft drop jet grooming algorithm, we can define a "soft drop multiplicity" which is Poisson distributed at leading-logarithmic accuracy. In addition, we calculate the next-to-leading-logarithmic corrections to this Poisson structure. If we allow the soft drop groomer to proceed to the end of the jet branching history, we can define a collinear-unsafe (but still infrared-safe) counting observable. Exploiting the universality of the collinear limit, we define generalized fragmentation functions to study the perturbative energy evolution of collinear-unsafe multiplicity.

  20. Simplified Transient Hot-Wire Method for Effective Thermal Conductivity Measurement in Geo Materials: Microstructure and Saturation Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merckx

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal conductivity measurement by a simplified transient hot-wire technique is applied to geomaterials in order to show the relationships which can exist between effective thermal conductivity, texture, and moisture of the materials. After a validation of the used “one hot-wire” technique in water, toluene, and glass-bead assemblages, the investigations were performed (1 in glass-bead assemblages of different diameters in dried, water, and acetone-saturated states in order to observe the role of grain sizes and saturation on the effective thermal conductivity, (2 in a compacted earth brick at different moisture states, and (3 in a lime-hemp concrete during 110 days following its manufacture. The lime-hemp concrete allows the measurements during the setting, desiccation and carbonation steps. The recorded Δ/ln( diagrams allow the calculation of one effective thermal conductivity in the continuous and homogeneous fluids and two effective thermal conductivities in the heterogeneous solids. The first one measured in the short time acquisitions (<1 s mainly depends on the contact between the wire and grains and thus microtexture and hydrated state of the material. The second one, measured for longer time acquisitions, characterizes the mean effective thermal conductivity of the material.

  1. Analysis of effective radiant temperatures in a Pacific Northwest forest using Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data collected over H. J. Andrews experimental forest in western Oregon indicated that aspect and slope gradient had a greater effect on the thermal emission of younger reforested clearcuts than of older stands. Older forest stands (older than 25 years) with greater amounts of green biomass and closed canopies, had lower effective radiant temperatures than younger, less dense stands. Aspect and slope had little effect on the effective radiant temperature of these older stands. Canopy temperature recorded at approximately 1:30 pm local time July 29, 1983 were nearly equal to maximum daily air temperature recorded at eight reference stands. The investigation provided some insights into the utility of the thermal sensor for detecting surface temperature differences related to forest composition and green biomass amounts in mountain terrain.

  2. Thermal Effects on the Single-Mode Regime of Distributed Modal Filtering Rod Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coscelli, Enrico; Poli, Federica; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2012-01-01

    Power scaling of fiber laser systems requires the development of innovative active fibers, capable of providing high pump absorption, ultralarge effective area, high-order mode suppression, and resilience to thermal effects. Thermally induced refractive index change has been recently appointed...... as one major limitation to the achievable power, causing degradation of the modal properties and preventing to obtain stable diffraction-limited output beam. In this paper, the effects of thermally induced refractive index change on the guiding properties of a double-cladding distributed modal filtering...... rod-type photonic crystal fiber, which exploits resonant coupling with high-index elements to suppress high-order modes, are thoroughly investigated. A computationally efficient model has been developed to calculate the refractive index change due to the thermo-optical effect, and it has been...

  3. A study of phonon anisotropic scattering effect on silicon thermal conductivity at nanoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bong, Victor N-S; Wong, Basil T. [Swinburne Sarawak Research Centre for Sustainable Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, Computing & Science, Swinburne University of Technology Sarawak Campus, 93350 Kuching, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    Previous studies have shown that anisotropy in phonon transport exist because of the difference in phonon dispersion relation due to different lattice direction, as observed by a difference in in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivity. The directional preference (such as forward or backward scattering) in phonon propagation however, remains a relatively unexplored frontier. Our current work adopts a simple scattering probability in radiative transfer, which is called Henyey and Greenstein probability density function, and incorporates it into the phonon Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the effect of directional scattering in phonon transport. In this work, the effect of applying the anisotropy scattering is discussed, as well as its impact on the simulated thermal conductivity of silicon thin films. While the forward and backward scattering will increase and decrease thermal conductivity respectively, the extent of the effect is non-linear such that forward scattering has a more obvious effect than backward scattering.

  4. Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects after intramuscular administration of buprenorphine hydrochloride to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceulemans, Susanne M; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Olsen, Glenn H; Beaufrère, Hugues; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and duration of action of buprenorphine hydrochloride after IM administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius). 12 healthy 3-year-old American kestrels. Buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg) and a control treatment (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) were administered IM in a randomized crossover experimental design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 1 hour before (baseline) and 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after treatment administration. Agitation-sedation scores were determined 3 to 5 minutes before each thermal stimulus. Adverse effects were monitored for 6 hours after treatment administration. Buprenorphine hydrochloride at 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg, IM, increased thermal threshold for 6 hours, compared with the response for the control treatment. There were no significant differences among buprenorphine treatments. A mild sedative effect was detected at a dose of 0.6 mg of buprenorphine/kg. At the doses tested, buprenorphine hydrochloride resulted in thermal antinociception in American kestrels for at least 6 hours, which suggested that buprenorphine has analgesic effects in this species. Further studies with longer evaluation periods and additional forms of noxious stimuli, formulations, dosages, and routes of administration are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of buprenorphine in American kestrels.

  5. Effect of thermal processing on the flavonols rutin and quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Nadja; Krumbein, Angelika; Rohn, Sascha; Kroh, Lothar W

    2006-01-01

    The current research involves the study of the thermal treatment of quercetin and rutin in an aqueous model system (cooking). These substances were heated and their degradation was followed by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode-array detection (HPLC/DAD). The influence of pH and the involvement of oxygen in the degradation were studied. HPLC/electrospray ionization multi-stage mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) was used for the structural characterization of the compounds produced. The influence of the degradation of the phenolic compounds on their antioxidant properties was elucidated by a electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry study of the reaction samples mixed with the stabilized radical, Fremy's salt. Strong degradation of the model substances took place under weak basic and oxidative conditions. Quercetin showed the most intense degradation. Protocatechuic acid could be identified as a cleavage reaction product by analyzing its retention time and molar mass during the degradation of quercetin. The structure of a second cleavage product could be identified on the basis of ESI-MS(n) fragmentation data. Also, several structures for reaction products of oxidized quercetin are suggested. The ESR analysis showed a decrease in the antioxidant activity of the reaction samples after heat treatment in aqueous solution. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Energy Consumption of Insulated Material Using Thermal Effect Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzil M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wall is one of the structures elements that resist direct heat from the atmosphere. Modification on several structures is relevance to reduce filtrate thermal movement on wall. Insulation material seems to be suitable to be implemented since its purpose meets the heat resistance requirement. Insulation material applied as to generate positive impact in energy saving through reduction in total building energy consumption. Fiberglass is one of the insulation materials that can be used to insulate a space from heat and sound. Fiberglass is flammable insulation material with R Value rated of R-2.9 to R-3.8 which meets the requirement in minimizing heat transfer. Finite element software, ABAQUS v6.13 employed for analyze non insulated wall and other insulated wall with different wall thicknesses. The several calculations related to overall heat movement, total energy consumption per unit area of wall, life cycle cost analysis and determination of optimal insulation thickness is calculated due to show the potential of the implementation in minimize heat transfer and generate potential energy saving in building operation. It is hoped that the study can contribute to better understanding on the potential building wall retrofitting works in increasing building serviceability and creating potential benefits for building owner.

  7. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a thermal hygienization reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Borski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For reasons of limiting the spread of serious transmissible diseases, with regard to the requirement for reducing landfill of biodegradable waste (which may or contains animal by-products and thus presents a potential risk to human and animal health and with a focus on supporting its separate collection, there has been created a legal framework for processing and hygienization of materials containing animal by-products. For the above reasons new technologies are being developed and implemented. These technologies are able to ensure the processing of biological waste containing animal by-products. As a practical result of the effort to ensure the hygienization of biowaste, a hygienization unit of own design, which uses the thermal way of hygienization, is presented in this work. The general part of the work defines a legislative framework for the assignment and gives technical parameters and minimum requirements for conversion that hygienization unit should be able to perform, including the limits for digestion residues and compost.In the experimental section there are described operational tests which document the technological process of hygienization depending on the aeration of the contents of the reactor. Experiment III outlines the validation process which uses contamination by indicator organisms, including subsequent checking of their occurrence as well as processing of the results of experiments and evaluation of the process of hygienization.

  8. Effect of Residence Time of Graphitisation on Thermal Conductivity of Molded Graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedy Artsanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of residence time of graphitisation on thermal conductivity of molded graphite has been examined. The examination has been conducted by varying residence time of graphitisation of molded carbon with petroleum coke as raw material and coal tar pitch. Graphitisation has been conducted by heating molded graphite at 2500 °C in argon atmosphere with residention time of 10, 30 and 90 minutes. Graphitisation degree, density, shrinking mass and porosity of molded graphite were examined and so was its thermal conductivity. The result showed that the decrease of porosity and the increase of graphitisation degree due to the increasing of residention time of graphitisation will increase the thermal conductivity of graphite. Molded graphite graphitisized with residence time for 90 minutes residention time gave thermal conductivity of 2.134 Watt/mK and graphitization degree 0.718.

  9. Effect of thermal modification on the physical properties of juvenile and mature woods of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Willians Calonego

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment on the physical properties of juvenile and mature woods of Eucalyptus grandis. Boards were taken from 30-year-old E. grandis trees. The boards were thermally modified at 180 °C in the Laboratory of Wood Drying and Preservation at UNESP, Botucatu, Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The results showed that thermal modification caused: (1 decrease of 6.8% in the density at 0% equilibrium moisture content of mature wood; (2 significant decreases of 14.7% and 35.6% in the maximum volumetric swellings of juvenile and mature woods, respectively; (3 significant decreases of 13.7% and 21.3% in the equilibrium moisture content of juvenile and mature woods, respectively. The influence of thermal modification in juvenile wood was lower than in mature wood and caused greater uniformity in the physical variations between these types of wood in E. grandis.

  10. Numerical modelling of effective thermal conductivity for modified geomaterial using lattice element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Zarghaam Haider; Shrestha, Dinesh; Sattari, Amir S.; Wuttke, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Macroscopic parameters such as effective thermal conductivity (ETC) is an important parameter which is affected by micro and meso level behaviour of particulate materials, and has been extensively examined in the past decades. In this paper, a new lattice based numerical model is developed to predict the ETC of sand and modified high thermal backfill material for energy transportation used for underground power cables. 2D and 3D simulations are performed to analyse and detect differences resulting from model simplification. The thermal conductivity of the granular mixture is determined numerically considering the volume and the shape of the each constituting portion. The new numerical method is validated with transient needle measurements and the existing theoretical and semi empirical models for thermal conductivity prediction sand and the modified backfill material for dry condition. The numerical prediction and the measured values are in agreement to a large extent.

  11. A review of the combined effects of thermal and noise conditions on human performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso, Richard A.; Wang, Lily M.; Musser, Amy

    2004-05-01

    Human perception and annoyance due to background noise has been the subject of much research. A great deal of work has also been done to identify conditions that produce an acceptable thermal environment for building occupants. The experience of occupants in indoor environments, however, is much more complex than can be represented by thermal comfort or the acoustic environment in isolation. Occupants normally experience a mix of thermal, auditory, visual, and olfactory stimuli that combines to form an impression of the environment. This paper is specifically interested in how building occupants trade off between acoustic and thermal comfort. Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems in buildings are often adjusted by building users to arrive at a more comfortable temperature, but this change may also produce more noise. Previous studies on the interaction effects between temperature and noise on human performance are reviewed in this presentation, followed by a discussion of the authors' current work in this area.

  12. Feasibility of fiber-optic radiation sensor using Cerenkov effect for detecting thermal neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyoung Won; Yagi, Takahiro; Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Yoo, Wook Jae; Shin, Sang Hun; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Lee, Bongsoo

    2013-06-17

    In this research, we propose a novel method for detecting thermal neutrons with a fiber-optic radiation sensor using the Cerenkov effect. We fabricate a fiber-optic radiation sensor that detects thermal neutrons with a Gd-foil, a rutile crystal, and a plastic optical fiber. The relationship between the fluxes of electrons inducing Cerenkov radiation in the sensor probe of the fiber-optic radiation sensor and thermal neutron fluxes is determined using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code simulations. To evaluate the fiber-optic radiation sensor, the Cerenkov radiation generated in the fiber-optic radiation sensor by irradiation of pure thermal neutron beams is measured according to the depths of polyethylene.

  13. Peculiarities of determining the effective thermal conductivity of multilayer nanostructures under unsteady heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvesyuk, V. I.; Chirkov, A. Yu

    2017-11-01

    Some features of pulse heating method are considered to study the main regularities of changes in the temperature of thin films in application to flash method. Heat exchange with the surrounding space is taken into account. The characteristic parameters of laser heating system are specified. The mathematical model of the heating process is based on the heat equation with effective heat conductivity. Such an analysis allows to estimate effective thermal diffusivity and thermal conductance including Kapitza conductance. For multi-layer nano-films Kapitza conductance can be estimated as its contribution to effective conductance is significant.

  14. Modification of electromagnetic fields and plasma resistance by thermal effects in helicon plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M.; Niknam, A. R.

    2017-05-01

    The effects of the thermal motion of charged particles on physical characteristics of collisional helicon plasmas are investigated. First, the dielectric permittivity tensor of a helicon plasma is obtained by considering the thermal and collisional effects in the kinetic theory. Then, the electromagnetic wave and plasma resistance equations are presented and solved in a helicon plasma source with a Nagoya type III antenna. It is shown that by increasing the temperature of plasma electrons, the effective collision frequency is increased, and consequently, the peaks of resistance profiles are lowered and broadened.

  15. Effecat of Porou Diameter on Effective Thermal Conductivity and Permeability of Porous Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Toshiyoshi; Ichimiya, Koichi

    Effective thermal conductivity and permeability of a porous medium were examined as a function of porous diameter at constant porosity. If the porous diameter increases at constant porosity, the number of pore should reduce and as the result the contact area to solid material also decreases. Effect of solid material becomes large and effective thermal conductivity increases. This tendency was experimentally confirmed by using three kinds of ceramic material (porous diameter df=1.3mm, 2.0mm and 4.2 mm, porosity &epsilon = 87%). In addition, permeability was determined experimentally for various porous diameters by using Ergun's equation including viscous term and kinetic term.

  16. Effects of Absorber Emissivity on Thermal Performance of a Solar Cavity Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabin Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar cavity receiver is a key component to realize the light-heat conversion in tower-type solar power system. It usually has an aperture for concentrated sunlight coming in, and the heat loss is unavoidable because of this aperture. Generally, in order to improve the thermal efficiency, a layer of coating having high absorptivity for sunlight would be covered on the surface of the absorber tubes inside the cavity receiver. As a result, it is necessary to investigate the effects of the emissivity of absorber tubes on the thermal performance of the receiver. In the present work, the thermal performances of the receiver with different absorber emissivity were numerically simulated. The results showed that the thermal efficiency increases and the total heat loss decreases with increasing emissivity of absorber tubes. However, the thermal efficiency increases by only 1.6% when the emissivity of tubes varies from 0.2 to 0.8. Therefore, the change of absorber emissivity has slight effect on the thermal performance of the receiver. The reason for variation tendency of performance curves was also carefully analyzed. It was found that the temperature reduction of the cavity walls causes the decrease of the radiative heat loss and the convective heat loss.

  17. Effects of osmolytes on Pelodiscus sinensis creatine kinase: a study on thermal denaturation and aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lee, Jinhyuk; Jin, Qin-Xin; Fang, Nai-Yun; Si, Yue-Xiu; Yin, Shang-Jun; Qian, Guo-Ying; Park, Yong-Doo

    2013-09-01

    The protective effect of osmolytes on the thermal denaturation and aggregation of Pelodiscus sinensis muscle creatine kinase (PSCK) was investigated by a combination of spectroscopic methods and thermodynamic analysis. Our results demonstrated that the addition of osmolytes, such as glycine and proline, could prevent thermal denaturation and aggregation of PSCK in a concentration-dependent manner. When the concentration of glycine and proline increased in the denatured system, the relative activation was significantly enhanced; meanwhile, the aggregation of PSCK during thermal denaturation was decreased. Spectrofluorometer results showed that glycine and proline significantly decreased the tertiary structural changes of PSCK and that thermal denaturation directly induced PSCK aggregation. In addition, we also built the 3D structure of PSCK and osmolytes by homology models. The results of computational docking simulations showed that the docking energy was relatively low and that the clustering groups were spread to the surface of PSCK, indicating that osmolytes directly protect the surface of the protein. P. sinensis are poikilothermic and quite sensitive to the change of ambient temperature; however, there were few studies on the thermal denaturation of reptile CK. Our study provides important insight into the protective effects of osmolytes on thermal denaturation and aggregation of PSCK. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Using thermal analysis to evaluate the fire effects on organic matter content of Andisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Neris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic compounds play a relevant role in aggregate stability and thus, in the susceptibility of soils to erosion. Thermal analysis (N2 and air and chemical oxidation techniques (dichromate and permanganate oxidation were used to evaluate the effects of a forest fire on the organic matter of Andisols. Both thermal analysis and chemical methods showed a decrease in the organic matter content and an increase in the recalcitrance of the remaining organic compounds in the burned zones. Thermal analysis indicated an increase in the thermal stability of the organic compounds of fire-affected soils and a lower content of both labile and recalcitrant pools as a consequence of the fire. However, this decrease was relatively higher in the labile pool and lower in the recalcitrant one, indicative of an increase in the recalcitrance of the remaining organic compounds. Apparently, black carbon did not burn under our experimental conditions. Under N2, the results showed a lower labile and a higher recalcitrant and refractory contents in burned and some unburned soils, possibly due to the lower decomposition rate under N2 flux. Thermal analysis using O2 and the chemical techniques showed a positive relation, but noticeable differences in the total amount of the labile pool. Thermal analysis methods provide direct quantitative information useful to characterize the soil organic matter quality and to evaluate the effects of fire on soils.

  19. Hydrological response and thermal effect of karst springs linked to aquifer geometry and recharge processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingming; Chen, Zhihua; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Liang; Han, Zhaofeng

    2017-09-01

    To be better understand the hydrological and thermal behavior of karst systems in South China, seasonal variations in flow, hydrochemistry and stable isotope ratios of five karst springs were used to delineate flow paths and recharge processes, and to interpret their thermal response. Isotopic data suggest that mean recharge elevations are 200-820 m above spring outlets. Springs that originate from high elevations have lower NO3 - concentrations than those originating from lower areas that have more agricultural activity. Measured Sr2+ concentrations reflect the strontium contents of the host carbonate aquifer and help delineate the spring catchment's saturated zone. Seasonal variations of NO3 - and Sr2+ concentrations are inversely correlated, because the former correlates with event water and the latter with baseflow. The mean annual water temperatures of springs were only slightly lower than the local mean annual surface temperature at the outlet elevations. These mean spring temperatures suggest a vertical gradient of 6 °C/vertical km, which resembles the adiabatic lapse rate of the Earth's stable atmosphere. Seasonal temperature variations in the springs are in phase with surface air temperatures, except for Heilongquan (HLQ) spring. Event-scale variations of thermal response are dramatically controlled by the circulation depth of karst systems, which determines the effectiveness of heat exchange. HLQ spring undergoes the deepest circulation depth of 820 m, and its thermal responses are determined by the thermally effective regulation processes at higher elevations and the mixing processes associated with thermally ineffective responses at lower elevations.

  20. Changes in Effective Thermal Conductivity During the Carbothermic Reduction of Magnetite Using Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiamehr, Saeed; Ahmed, Hesham; Viswanathan, Nurni; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge of the effective thermal diffusivity changes of systems undergoing reactions where heat transfer plays an important role in the reaction kinetics is essential for process understanding and control. Carbothermic reduction process of magnetite containing composites is a typical example of such systems. The reduction process in this case is highly endothermic and hence, the overall rate of the reaction is greatly influenced by the heat transfer through composite compact. Using Laser-Flash method, the change of effective thermal diffusivity of magnetite-graphite composite pellet was monitored in the dynamic mode over a pre-defined thermal cycle (heating at the rate of 7 K/min to 1423 K (1150 °C), holding the sample for 270 minutes at this temperature and then cooling it down to the room temperature at the same rate as heating). These measurements were supplemented by Thermogravimetric Analysis under comparable experimental conditions as well as quenching tests of the samples in order to combine the impact of various factors such as sample dilatations and changes in apparent density on the progress of the reaction. The present results show that monitoring thermal diffusivity changes during the course of reduction would be a very useful tool in a total understanding of the underlying physicochemical phenomena. At the end, effort is made to estimate the apparent thermal conductivity values based on the measured thermal diffusivity and dilatations.

  1. Analysis of the thermal effect in diode end-pumped Er:YAG lasers by using Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujia; Wang, Qing; Na, QuanXin; Zhang, Yixuan; Gao, Mingwei; Zhang, Meng

    2018-01-01

    A new method for combining Finite Element Method (FEM) thermal analysis and thermo-mechanical coupling method for calculating the thermal lensing values in diode end-pumped Er:YAG lasers is proposed. A finite-element model is used to simulate the thermal effects in different Er:YAG crystals with pumping scenarios. The influences of pump powers, crystal absorption coefficients and crystal sizes on the Er:YAG thermal effects are discussed, and the relationship between the thermal effects and thermal lensing effects is analysed. A thermo-mechanical coupling model is also constituted for finite-element analysis based on the above results, and the focal length of the Er:YAG crystal with different pump powers are obtained by using this thermo-mechanical coupling model. The predicted thermal lensing values are compared with experimental results, which agree well with the simulated results.

  2. Thermal insulation of steep roofs. Heat insulating effects of different systems; Daemmung in Steildaechern. Die waermeschutztechnischen Wirkung unterschiedlicher Systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, Gerd [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl Bauphysik; Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik, Stuttgart, Holzkirchen, Kassel (Germany); Schade, Almuth; Sinnesbichler, Herbert [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik, Holzkirchen (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Fassadenkonzepte

    2009-06-29

    For thermal insulation of steep roofs, so-called infrared reflecting thermal insulation materials are now available in France and also in Germany in addition to traditional thermal insulation systems. The insulating effect of these systems results primarily from the IR-reflecting surface of foils spaced at short intervals. For a comparison of the two thermal insulation systems, the Fraunhofer Institute of Constructional Physics of Holzkirchen carried out field tests and analyzed them. (orig.)

  3. Study of the solution thermal conductivity effect on nonlinear refraction of colloidal gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkhosh, L.; Mansour, N.

    2015-06-01

    In nanoparticle colloidal systems, the thermal nonlinearity is affected by the thermal parameters of the surrounding solution. Having a low temperature gradient rate solution may be a key factor in producing high thermal nonlinear properties in colloids. In this manuscript, the effect of the thermal conductivity of the surrounding liquid environment on the thermal nonlinear refraction of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesized by laser ablation of a gold target in different solutions is investigated. Gold nanoparticles colloids have been fabricated by the nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of a pure gold plate in different liquid environments with a thermal conductivity range of 0.14-0.60 W mK-1 including cyclohexanone, castor oil, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol, glycerin and water. The AuNPs colloids exhibit a UV-Vis absorption spectrum with a surface plasmon absorption peak at about 540  ±  20 nm. The thermal nonlinear optical responses of the gold colloids are measured using the Z-scan technique under low power CW laser irradiation at 532 nm near the surface plasmon peak of the nanoparticles. Our results show that the nonlinear refractive index of the nanoparticle colloids is considerably affected by the thermal conductivity of liquid medium. The largest nonlinear refractive index of -3.1  ×  10-7 cm2 W-1 is obtained for AuNP in cyclohexanone with the lowest thermal conductivity of 0.14 W mK-1 whereas the lowest one of -0.1  ×  10-7 cm2 W-1 is obtained for AuNP in water with the highest thermal conductivity of 0.60 W mK-1. This study shows that the nonlinear refractive index value of colloids can be controlled by the thermal conductivity of the used liquid’s environment. This allows us to design low threshold optical limiters by choosing a solution with low thermal conductivity for colloidal nanoparticles.

  4. The effects of solar radiation and black body re-radiation on thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Simon; Parsons, Ken

    2008-04-01

    When the sun shines on people in enclosed spaces, such as in buildings or vehicles, it directly affects thermal comfort. There is also an indirect effect as surrounding surfaces are heated exposing a person to re-radiation. This laboratory study investigated the effects of long wave re-radiation on thermal comfort, individually and when combined with direct solar radiation. Nine male participants (26.0 +/- 4.7 years) took part in three experimental sessions where they were exposed to radiation from a hot black panel heated to 100 degrees C; direct simulated solar radiation of 600 Wm(-2) and the combined simulated solar radiation and black panel radiation. Exposures were for 30 min, during which subjective responses and mean skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that, at a surface temperature of 100 degrees C (close to maximum in practice), radiation from the flat black panel provided thermal discomfort but that this was relatively small when compared with the effects of direct solar radiation. It was concluded that re-radiation, from a dashboard in a vehicle, for example, will not have a major direct influence on thermal comfort and that existing models of thermal comfort do not require a specific modification. These results showed that, for the conditions investigated, the addition of re-radiation from internal components has an effect on thermal sensation when combined with direct solar radiation. However, it is not considered that it will be a major factor in a real world situation. This is because, in practice, dashboards are unlikely to maintain very high surface temperatures in vehicles without an unacceptably high air temperature. This study quantifies the contribution of short- and long-wave radiation to thermal comfort. The results will aid vehicle designers to have a better understanding of the complex radiation environment. These include direct radiation from the sun as well as re-radiation from the dashboard and other internal surfaces.

  5. The Third Way of Thermal-Electric Conversion beyond Seebeck and Pyroelectric Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Jie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-02-14

    Thermal-electric conversion is crucial for smart energy control and harvesting, such as thermal sensing and waste heat recovering. So far, people are aware of only two ways of direct thermal-electric conversion, Seebeck and pyroelectric effects, each with distinct working conditions and limitations. Here, we report the third way of thermal-electric conversion beyond Seebeck and pyroelectric effects. In contrast to Seebeck effect that requires spatial temperature difference, the-third-way converts the time-dependent ambient temperature fluctuation into electricity, similar to the behavior of pyroelectricity. However, the-third-way is also distinct from pyroelectric effect in the sense that it does not require polar materials but applies to general conducting systems. We demonstrate that the-third-way results from the temperature-fluctuation-induced dynamical charge redistribution. It is a consequence of the fundamental nonequilibrium thermodynamics and has a deep connection to the topological phase in quantum mechanics. Our findings expand our knowledge and provide new means of thermal-electric energy harvesting.

  6. Thermal effect induced wafer deformation in high-energy e-beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. S.; Wang, W. C.; Lin, S. J.

    2015-03-01

    The incident surface power density in Massive Electron-beam Direct Write (MEBDW) during exposure is ~105 W/cm2, much higher than ~8 W/cm2 ArF scanners and 2.4 W/cm2 EUV. In addition, the wafer's exposure in vacuum environment makes energy dissipation even harder. This thermal effect can cause mechanical distortion of the wafer during exposure and have has a direct influence on pattern placement error and image blur. In this paper, the thermo mechanical distortions caused by wafer heating for MEB system of different electron acceleration voltages have been simulated with finite element method (FEM). The global thermal effect affected by the friction force between the wafer and the wafer chuck as well as different thermal conductivities of the chuck material are simulated. Furthermore, the thermal effects of different lithography systems such as EUV scanners and conventional optical scanners are compared. The thermal effects of MEBDW systems are shown to be acceptable.

  7. Measurement of effective thermal conductivity of compacted granular media by the transient plane source technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Weijing; Gan, Yixiang

    2017-06-01

    To successfully realise industrial applications handling granular media, especially those involving heating and cooling processes, the temperature fields must be properly evaluated according to the accurate thermal properties of the media. The knowledge the effective thermal conductivity is regarded as one of the fundamental aspects. However, due to the complicated relations between the effective thermal conductivity and the heterogeneity and complexity in the structures and composition of the granular media, the quantitative prediction of the conductivity is challenging. Therefore, experimental investigation of the effective thermal conductivity becomes desired and this can provide first-hand data for industrial reference and serve as the benchmark for the theoretical analysis. In this study, the transient plane source technique is employed to investigate the effective thermal conductivity of compacted granular beds by the application of the commercially available Hot Disk system. The granular beds of different particle size ranges are characterised under different mechanical loading conditions by different sensors. Experimental results are discussed and suggestion to achieve reliable experimental designs is provided.

  8. Effects of thermal energy harvesting on the human – clothing – environment microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, A. C.; Jur, J. S.

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this work is to perform an in depth investigation of garment-based thermal energy harvesting. The effect of human and environmental factors on the working efficiency of a thermal energy harvesting devices, or a thermoelectric generator (TEG), placed on the body is explored.. Variables that strongly effect the response of the TEG are as follows: skin temperature, human motion or speed, body location, environmental conditions, and the textile properties surrounding the TEG. In this study, the use of textiles for managing thermal comfort of wearable technology and energy harvesting are defined. By varying the stitch length and/or knit structure, one can manipulate the thermal conductivity of the garment in a specific location. Another method of improving TEG efficiency is through the use of a heat spreader, which increases the effective collection area of heat on the TEG hot side. Here we show the effect of a TEG on the thermal properties of a garment with regard to two knit stitches, jersey and 1 × 1 rib.

  9. Effective thermal penetration depth in photo-irradiated ex vivo human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolik, Suren; Delgado, José Alberto; Anasagasti, Lorenzo; Pérez, Arllene Mariana

    2011-10-01

    In this work, a model of bioheat distribution is discussed for ex vivo human tissue samples, and the thermal penetration depth measurements performed on several tissues are presented. Optical radiation is widely applied in the treatment and diagnosis of different pathologies. A power density of incident light at 100 mW/cm(2) is sufficiently high enough to induce a temperature increase of >5°C in irradiated human tissue. In this case, knowledge of the thermal properties of the tissue is needed to achieve a better understanding of the therapeutic effects. The application of the diffusion approximation of the radiative transfer equation for the distribution of optical radiation, the experimental setup, and the results thereof are presented and discussed. The effective thermal penetration depth in the studied tissues has been determined to be in the range of 4.3-7.0 mm. The effective thermal penetration depth has been defined, and this could be useful for developing models to describe the thermal effects with a separate analysis of the tissue itself and the blood that irrigates it.

  10. The Effects of Thermal and Cold Therapies on the Flexibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative effects of the application of heating and cooling modalities on the muscles prior to the performance of flexibility exercises have not been extensively studied. This study was therefore designed to determine and compare the effects of thermal (heat) and cold (ice) therapies on the flexibility of the hamstring muscle ...

  11. Fractal analysis of the effect of particle aggregation distribution on thermal conductivity of nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Wei, E-mail: weiw2015@gmail.com [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Cai, Jianchao, E-mail: caijc@cug.edu.cn [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hu, Xiangyun, E-mail: xyhu@cug.edu.cn [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Han, Qi, E-mail: hanqi426@gmail.com [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Shuang, E-mail: lius@cug.edu.cn [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhou, Yingfang, E-mail: yingfang.zhou@abdn.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Aberdeen, FN 264, King' s College, Aberdeen, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-26

    A theoretical effective thermal conductivity model for nanofluids is derived based on fractal distribution characteristics of nanoparticle aggregation. Considering two different mechanisms of heat conduction including particle aggregation and convention, the model is expressed as a function of the fractal dimension and concentration. In the model, the change of fractal dimension is related to the variation of aggregation shape. The theoretical computations of the developed model provide a good agreement with the experimental results, which may serve as an effective approach for quantitatively estimating the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids. - Highlights: • A thermal conductivity model is derived based on fractal aggregation distribution. • The relationship between aggregation shape and fractal dimension is analyzed. • Predictions of the proposed model show good agreement with experimental data.

  12. Study on Unit Cell Models and the Effective Thermal Conductivities of Silica Aerogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Li, Zeng-Yao; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, two modified unit cell models, truncated octahedron and cubic array of intersecting square rods with 45-degree rotation, are developed in consideration of the tortuous path of heat conduction in solid skeleton of silica aerogel. The heat conduction is analyzed for each model and the expressions of effective thermal conductivity of the modified unit cell models are derived. Considering the random microstructure of silica aerogel, the probability model is presented. We also discuss the effect of the thermal conductivity of aerogel backbone. The effective thermal conductivities calculated by the proposed probability model are in good agreement with available experimental data when the density of the aerogel is 110 kg/m3.

  13. Autosolvent effect of bitumen in thermal cracking; Netsubunkai hanno ni okeru bitumen no jiko yobai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuni, M.; Sato, M.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Nagaishi, H.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Tar sand bitumen is petroleum-based ultra-heavy oil, and has a great amount of reserve like coal. However, there are still a lot of problems for its highly effective utilization. This paper discusses whether the light components in bitumen show independent behavior during the thermal cracking of heavy components, or not. Solvent effect and reaction mechanism during the thermal cracking are also derived from the change of their chemical structures. Athabasca tar sand bitumen was separated into light and heavy fractions by vacuum distillation based on D-1660 of ASTM. Mixtures of the both fractions at various ratios were used as samples. Negative effect of the light fraction on cracking of the heavy fraction was observed with dealkylation and paraffin formation Polymerization of the dealkylated light fraction to the heavy fraction was suggested due to lack of hydrogen in the thermal cracking under nitrogen atmosphere, which resulted in the formation of polymer. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Non-thermal effects of mobile phone radiation on brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Babalyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a review of major experimental studies devoted to the effect of mobile phone electromagnetic emission on brain. The most relevant and fundamental studies were reviewed. Both positive and negative results were analyzed to give a straight answer, if mobile phone emission effects brain electrophysiology, cognitive function, subjective symptoms and blood-brain barrier permeability.

  15. Effect of pulse repetition rate on the perception of thermal sensation with pulsed shortwave diathermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C C; Kitchen, S

    2000-01-01

    Pulsed shortwave diathermy (PSWD) is a form of therapy commonly used to enhance tissue repair and reduce pain. It is normally considered to be an athermal form of treatment; however, there is some evidence to suggest that thermal effects can arise with adequate dosage. The purpose of this study was to determine the pulse repetition rate (PRR) required to generate a 'possible' and 'definite' thermal sensation when PSWD was applied to the thigh. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to placebo or treatment groups. The treatment group was exposed to PSWD at a constant setting of pulse duration (400 microseconds) and pulse power (190 W) while the PRR was increased from 26 Hz to 400 Hz in 10 increments. Each dose was applied for a period of two minutes. At the end of each application, subjects were asked if they felt a (1) 'possible' or (2) 'definite' thermal sensation. Skin temperature was measured immediately after each application. Placebo subjects were exposed to PSWD at its lowest settings throughout the experiment (pulse power = 5 W; pulse duration = 65 microseconds and PRR = 26 Hz). The results showed a significant correlation (p < 0.048) between PRR at 'definite' thermal sensation and skin temperature post-treatment and PRR at 'possible' thermal sensation (p < 0.001). Mean skin temperature increased significantly as PRR was increased, from 28.69 (+/- 0.75) degrees C pre-treatment to 31.14 (+/- 1.04) degrees C post-treatment, a mean difference of 2.34 degrees C. These results suggest that PSWD at adequate dosages can generate thermal effects, and that there is a relationship between these thermal effects and the PRR used. These results may have significant implications for the safe use of PSWD in the clinical arena.

  16. Geometrical effects on the concentrated behavior of heat flux in metamaterials thermal harvesting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoqiang; Zhang, Haochun; Xie, Ming; Jin, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Thermal harvesting devices based on transformation optics, which can manipulate the heat flux concentration significantly through rational arrangements of the conductivities, have attracted considerable interest owing to several great potential applications of the technique for high-efficiency thermal conversion and collection. However, quantitative studies on the geometrical effects, particularly wedge angles, on the harvesting behaviors are rare. In this paper, we adopt wedge structure-based thermal harvesting schemes, and focus on the effects of the geometrical parameters including the radii ratios and wedge angles on the harvesting performance. The temperature deformations at the boundaries of the compressional region and temperature gradients for the different schemes with varying design parameters are investigated. Moreover, a concept for temperature stabilization was derived to evaluate the fluctuation in the energy distributions. In addition, the effects of interface thermal resistances have been investigated. Considering the changes in the radii ratios and wedge angles, we proposed a modification of the harvesting efficiency to quantitatively assess the concentration performance, which was verified through random tests and previously fabricated devices. In general, this study indicates that a smaller radii ratio contributes to a better harvesting behavior, but causes larger perturbations in the thermal profiles owing to a larger heat loss. We also find that a smaller wedge angle is beneficial to ensuring a higher concentration efficiency with less energy perturbations. These findings can be used to guide the improvement of a thermal concentrator with a high efficiency in reference to its potential applications as novel heat storage, thermal sensors, solar cells, and thermoelectric devices.

  17. Effect of graphene nanoplatelets on coefficient of thermal expansion of polyetherimide composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huang, E-mail: huang.wu.84@gmail.com [Composite Materials and Structures Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864 (United States); Drzal, Lawrence T. [Composite Materials and Structures Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Thermal expansion is one of the major concerns for polymer composites. In this research, graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were added to polyetherimide (PEId) thermoplastic polymer in order to reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the injection molded composite. First, the coefficient of linear thermal expansion (LTE) was measured in three directions in the anisotropic coupon: 0°, 90° and the out of plane Z direction. It is found that the GNP particles are very effective in terms of reducing the LTE in 0° direction due to high degree of alignment. After annealing above glass transition temperature, significant increase of 0° LTE and decrease of Z° LTE were observed. The bulk CTE was calculated by adding up the LTEs in all three directions and is found to be independent of annealing. Second, several models were applied to predict both CTE and LTE. It is found that Schapery's lower limit model fits the experimental CTE very well. Chow's model was applied for LTEs in three directions. The behavior of GNP-5/PEId composites is explained by the combination of Chow's model and morphology obtained by scanning electron microscope (SEM). - Highlights: • Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of polymer composite is characterized. • Reduction of linear thermal expansion depends on filler orientation. • Filler orientation is characterized based on the location of the specimen. • Filler orientation is changed by annealing, causing subsequent change in CTE. • CTE and linear thermal expansion coefficient are modeled.

  18. Revisiting the effects of organic solvents on the thermal reduction of graphite oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso-Bujans, Fabienne, E-mail: fbarroso@ehu.es [Centro de Fisica de Materiales-Material Physics Center (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Paseo Manuel Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Fierro, Jose Luis G. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC. Marie Curie, 2, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Alegria, Angel [Centro de Fisica de Materiales-Material Physics Center (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Paseo Manuel Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU) Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Colmenero, Juan [Centro de Fisica de Materiales-Material Physics Center (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Paseo Manuel Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU) Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center, Paseo Manuel Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2011-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Retention of organic solvent on graphite oxide interlayer space. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreasing exfoliation temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Close link between structure and thermal behavior of solvent treated graphite oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Restacking inhibition of thermally reduced graphite oxide sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Changes in kinetic mechanisms of thermal reduction. - Abstract: Treatment of graphite oxide (GO) with organic solvents via sorption from either liquid or gas phase, and subsequent desorption, induces profound changes in the layered GO structure: loss of stacking order, retention of trace amounts of solvents and decreasing decomposition temperature. This study presents new evidences of the effect of organic solvents on the thermal reduction of GO by means of thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results reveal a relative higher decrease of the oxygen amounts in solvent-treated GO as compared to untreated GO and the restacking inhibition of the thermally reduced GO sheets upon slow heating. The kinetic experiments evidence changes occurring in the reduction mechanisms of the solvent-treated GO, which support the close link between GO structure and thermal properties.

  19. Storage effects on anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant activity of thermally processed conventional and organic blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamaladevi, Roopesh M; Andrews, Preston K; Davies, Neal M; Walters, Thomas; Sablani, Shyam S

    2012-03-15

    Consumer demand for products rich in phytochemicals is increasing as a result of greater awareness of their potential health benefits. However, processed products are stored for long-term and the phytochemicals are susceptible to degradation during storage. The objective of this study was to assess the storage effects on phytochemicals in thermally processed blueberries. Thermally processed canned berries and juice/puree were analysed for phytochemicals during their long-term storage. The phytochemical retention of thermally processed blueberries during storage was not influenced by production system (conventional versus organic). During 13 months of storage, total anthocyanins, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity in canned blueberry solids decreased by up to 86, 69 and 52% respectively. In canned blueberry syrup, total anthocyanins and total antioxidant activity decreased by up to 68 and 15% respectively, while total phenolic content increased by up to 117%. Similar trends in phytochemical content were observed in juice/puree stored for 4 months. The extent of changes in phytochemicals of thermally processed blueberries during storage was significantly influenced by blanching. Long-term storage of thermally processed blueberries had varying degrees of influence on degradation of total anthocyanins, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity. Blanching before thermal processing helped to preserve the phytochemicals during storage of blueberries. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effects of Melatonin on Adrenal Cortical Functions of Indian Goats under Thermal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerasamy Sejian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted with the primary objective to establish the influence of melatonin on adrenocortical functions to ameliorate thermal stress in goats. Endocrine secretions and several other blood biochemical parameters reflecting the animals adrenocortical stress response were determined over a one-week period after goats had been exposed to 40C∘ and 60%RH for 10 days. The study was conducted for a period of 17 days in psychrometric chamber. The animals served as self-controls prior to start of the experiment. Blood samples were drawn on day 10 to establish effect of thermal stress. Chemical adrenalectomy was achieved using metyrapone followed by exogenous melatonin treatment. 40C∘ of thermal stress which is quite normal in tropical zone significantly (P≤.05 influenced all parameters except plasma insulin. Metyrapone treatment significantly (P≤.05 affected plasma levels of glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, cortisol, and aldosterone. Metyrapone aggravated thermal stress by decreasing cortisol level in goats. Melatonin treatment at 11:00 AM significantly (P≤.05 influenced plasma levels of glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, cortisol, aldosterone and insulin. Metyrapone treatment aggravated thermal stress although administration of melatonin could ameliorate the condition. This establishes the role of melatonin in relieving thermal stress in goats.

  1. Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Copper Nanofluids: The Effect of Filler Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanushali, Sushrut; Jason, Naveen Noah; Ghosh, Prakash; Ganesh, Anuradda; Simon, George P; Cheng, Wenlong

    2017-06-07

    Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions that exhibit enhanced thermal conductivity at low filler loadings and thus have been proposed for heat transfer applications. Here, we systematically investigate how particle shape determines the thermal conductivity of low-cost copper nanofluids using a range of distinct filler particle shapes: nanospheres, nanocubes, short nanowires, and long nanowires. To exclude the potential effects of surface capping ligands, all the filler particles are kept with uniform surface chemistry. We find that copper nanowires enhanced the thermal conductivity up to 40% at 0.25 vol % loadings; while the thermal conductivity was only 9.3% and 4.2% for the nanosphere- and nanocube-based nanofluids, respectively, at the same filler loading. This is consistent with a percolation mechanism in which a higher aspect ratio is beneficial for thermal conductivity enhancement. To overcome the surface oxidation of the copper nanomaterials and maintain the dispersion stability, we employed polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a dispersant and ascorbic acid as an antioxidant in the nanofluid formulations. The thermal performance of the optimized fluid formulations could be sustained for multiple heating-cooling cycles while retaining stability over 1000 h.

  2. Effect of cooking time on the physical, chemical and thermal properties of acha seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem O. Raji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Acha is a less utilized cereal grain in Africa. Scaling up of the processing technology of acha seeds is desirable if accurate information on effect of processing on its properties is available. This study investigated the effect of cooking duration on the chemical and physical properties of acha seeds. Cooking times (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 minutes at 100oC were used. The volume, length, breadth, thickness, porosity, density, sphericity, aspect ratio, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, moisture, protein, fat, ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate were determined using standard methods. Data were analysed using ANOVA at p = 0.05. The results obtained revealed that varietal difference had a significant effect on volume, length, breadth, thickness, true density, bulk density, porosity, sphericity and aspect ratio. The moisture content, ash, protein, crude fibre, fat, carbohydrate, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity varied from 8.80 - 56.17 %, 0.32 - 1.87%, 1.92 - 11.50%, 0.29 - 1.58%, 0.32 - 2.81%, 40.94 - 76.26%, 1.66 -2.97 kJkg-1K-1, 0.26 -0.43 Wm-1K-1 and 0.85 x 10-7 - 1.17 x 10-7 ms-2 respectively, as significantly influenced by cooking time. Cooking for 7.5 minutes was appropriate using the moisture uptakes and thermal properties as criteria. 

  3. Effects of Particle Surface Charge, Species, Concentration, and Dispersion Method on the Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Gowda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experimental study is to evaluate the effects of particle species, surface charge, concentration, preparation technique, and base fluid on thermal transport capability of nanoparticle suspensions (nanofluids. The surface charge was varied by changing the pH value of the fluids. The alumina (Al2O3 and copper oxide (CuO nanoparticles were dispersed in deionized (DI water and ethylene glycol (EG, respectively. The nanofluids were prepared using both bath-type and probe sonicator under different power inputs. The experimental results were compared with the available experimental data as well as the predicted values obtained from Maxwell effective medium theory. It was found that ethylene glycol is more suitable for nanofluids applications than DI water in terms of thermal conductivity improvement and stability of nanofluids. Surface charge can effectively improve the dispersion of nanoparticles by reducing the (aggregated particle size in base fluids. A nanofluid with high surface charge (low pH has a higher thermal conductivity for a similar particle concentration. The sonication also has a significant impact on thermal conductivity enhancement. All these results suggest that the key to the improvement of thermal conductivity of nanofluids is a uniform and stable dispersion of nanoscale particles in a fluid.

  4. Effects of simultaneous climate change and geomorphic evolution on thermal characteristics of a shallow Alaskan lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.

    2011-01-01

    We used a hydrodynamics model to assess the consequences of climate warming and contemporary geomorphic evolution for thermal conditions in a large, shallow Alaskan lake. We evaluated the effects of both known climate and landscape change, including rapid outlet erosion and migration of the principal inlet stream, over the past 50 yr as well as future scenarios of geomorphic restoration. Compared to effects of air temperature during the past 50 yr, lake thermal properties showed little sensitivity to substantial (~60%) loss of lake volume, as the lake maximum depth declined from 6 m to 4 m driven by outlet erosion. The direction and magnitude of future lake thermal responses will be driven largely by the extent of inlet stream migration when it occurs simultaneously with outlet erosion. Maintaining connectivity with inlet streams had substantial effects on buffering lake thermal responses to warming climate. Failing to account for changing rates and types of geomorphic processes under continuing climate change may misidentify the primary drivers of lake thermal responses and reduce our ability to understand the consequences for aquatic organisms.

  5. Thermal effects investigation on electrical properties of silicon solar cells treated by laser irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pourakbar Saffar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we were investigated electrical properties of monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon solar cells due to laser irradiation with 650 nm wavelength in two states, proximate irradiation and via optics setup. Thermal effect on the cell surface due to laser irradiation was investigated on electrical properties too. Electrical parameters investigation of solar cells illustrates cell excitement via laser irradiation and efficiency decreases due to cell surface temperature increase. Monocrystalline parameters change with uniform shape due to thermal effect and laser irradiation toward polycrystalline cells.

  6. Experimental investigation of the effect of graphene nanofluids on heat pipe thermal performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Mehrali, Mohammad; Rosen, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to examine the thermal, performance of a sintered wick heat pipe using aqueous graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) nanofluids. The study focuses on changes in the effects of GNP concentration, heat pipe inclination angle and input heating power. The max......An experimental investigation has been carried out to examine the thermal, performance of a sintered wick heat pipe using aqueous graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) nanofluids. The study focuses on changes in the effects of GNP concentration, heat pipe inclination angle and input heating power...

  7. Effects of coherent ferroelastic domain walls on the thermal conductivity and Kapitza conductance in bismuth ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Patrick E.; Adamo, Carolina; Ye, Linghan; Huey, Bryan D.; Lee, Stephen R.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.

    2013-03-01

    Ferroelectric and ferroelastic domain structure has a profound effect on the piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and dielectric responses of ferroelectric materials. However, domain walls and strain field effects on thermal properties are unknown. We measured the thermal conductance from 100-400 K of epitaxially grown BiFeO3 thin films with different domain variants, each separated primarily by 71° domain walls. We determined the Kapitza conductance across the domain walls, which is driven by the strain field induced by the domain variants. This domain wall Kapitza conductance is lower than the Kapitza conductance associated with grain boundaries in all previously measured materials.

  8. Effects of thermal conduction and convection on temperature profile in a water calorimeter for proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargioni, E.; Manfredotti, C. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Laitano, R.F.; Guerra, A.S. [Ist. Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, ENEA, Roma (Italy)

    1997-09-01

    In water calorimetry, in addition to the temperature increase due to beam energy deposition in water, unwanted thermal effects occur during and after calorimeter irradiation. This should be accounted for by applying proper corrections to the experimental results. In order to determine such corrections heat flow calculations were performed using the `finite element` method. This method applies even to complex 3D geometries with not necessarily symmetric conditions. Some preliminary results of these calculations are presented together with a description of the analytical method for the evaluation of the correction factors that should be applied to the experimental results to account for the above thermal effects. (orig.)

  9. RF tumour ablation: computer simulation and mathematical modelling of the effects of electrical and thermal conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, S M; Liu, Z-J; Yu, N C; Humphries, S; Ahmed, M; Cosman, E R; Lenkinski, R E; Goldberg, W; Goldberg, S N

    2005-05-01

    This study determined the effects of thermal conductivity on RF ablation tissue heating using mathematical modelling and computer simulations of RF heating coupled to thermal transport. Computer simulation of the Bio-Heat equation coupled with temperature-dependent solutions for RF electric fields (ETherm) was used to generate temperature profiles 2 cm away from a 3 cm internally-cooled electrode. Multiple conditions of clinically relevant electrical conductivities (0.07-12 S m-1) and 'tumour' radius (5-30 mm) at a given background electrical conductivity (0.12 S m-1) were studied. Temperature response surfaces were plotted for six thermal conductivities, ranging from 0.3-2 W m-1 degrees C (the range of anticipated clinical and experimental systems). A temperature response surface was obtained for each thermal conductivity at 25 electrical conductivities and 17 radii (n=425 temperature data points). The simulated temperature response was fit to a mathematical model derived from prior phantom data. This mathematical model is of the form (T=a+bRc exp(dR) s(f) exp(g)(s)) for RF generator-energy dependent situations and (T=h+k exp(mR)+n?exp(p)(s)) for RF generator-current limited situations, where T is the temperature (degrees C) 2 cm from the electrode and a, b, c, d, f, g, h, k, m, n and p are fitting parameters. For each of the thermal conductivity temperature profiles generated, the mathematical model fit the response surface to an r2 of 0.97-0.99. Parameters a, b, c, d, f, k and m were highly correlated to thermal conductivity (r2=0.96-0.99). The monotonic progression of fitting parameters permitted their mathematical expression using simple functions. Additionally, the effect of thermal conductivity simplified the above equation to the extent that g, h, n and p were found to be invariant. Thus, representation of the temperature response surface could be accurately expressed as a function of electrical conductivity, radius and thermal conductivity. As a result

  10. Effect of thermal-treatment sequence on sound absorbing and mechanical properties of porous sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chen-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent rapid commercial and industrial development, mechanical equipment is supplemented massively in the factory and thus mechanical operation causes noise which distresses living at home. In livelihood, neighborhood, transportation equipment, jobsite construction noises impact on quality of life not only factory noise. This study aims to preparation technique and property evaluation of porous sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites. Hollow three-dimensional crimp PET fibers blended with low-melting PET fibers were fabricated into hollow PET/low-melting PET nonwoven after opening, blending, carding, lapping and needle-bonding process. Then, hollow PET/low-melting PET nonwovens were laminated into sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites by changing sequence of needle-bonding and thermal-treatment. The optimal thermal-treated sequence was found by tensile strength, tearing strength, sound-absorbing coefficient and thermal conductivity coefficient tests of porous composites.

  11. Effect of Periodic Surface Air Temperature Variations on Subsurface Thermal Structure with Vertical Fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    D, R. V.; Ravi, M.; Srivastava, K.

    2016-12-01

    The influence of climate change on near subsurface temperatures is an important research topic for global change impact assessment at the regional scale. The varying temperature of the air over the surface in long term will disturb subsurface thermal structure. Groundwater flow is another important process which perturbs the thermal distribution into the subsurface. To investigate the effect of periodic air temperature on nonisothermal subsurface, one dimensional transient heat conduction-advection equation is solved numerically using finite element method. Thermal response of subsurface for periodic variations in surface air temperature (SAT) with robin type boundary condition on the surface with vertical ground water flow are calculated and the amplitude attenuation of propagation of surface temperature information in the subsurface for different scenarios of advection and convective coefficient are discussed briefly. The results show the coupled response of trigonometric variation in air temperature with surface temperatures along with ground water velocity has significant implications for the effects of climate change.

  12. The effect of thermal pre-treatment on the hydrometallurgical purification of large silicon particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon-Soo; Lee, Jin-Seok; Jang, Bo-Yun; Ahn, Young-Soo [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The most desirable approach to the hydrometallurgical process consists in using larger silicon particles by exposing the metallic impurities contained in the silicon to its surface via a thermally activated elution prior to chemical treatment. The present study reports experimental findings concerning the effect of a thermal pre-treatment using a mixture of 5-wt% nitric acid and 2.5-wt% hydrofluoric acid for the purification of metallurgical-grade silicon particles of different sizes on the hydrometallurgical process. The extraction rates of metallic impurities from inside the silicon were in inverse proportion to the size of the silicon particle. However, the effect of the thermal pre-treatment on the extraction rate became greater with increasing particle size.

  13. Unique effects of thermal and pressure histories on glass hardness: Structural and topological origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Bauchy, Mathieu; Mauro, John C.; Rzoska, Sylwester J.; Bockowski, Michal

    2015-10-01

    The properties of glass are determined not only by temperature, pressure, and composition, but also by their complete thermal and pressure histories. Here, we show that glasses of identical composition produced through thermal annealing and through quenching from elevated pressure can result in samples with identical density and mean interatomic distances, yet different bond angle distributions, medium-range structures, and, thus, macroscopic properties. We demonstrate that hardness is higher when the density increase is obtained through thermal annealing rather than through pressure-quenching. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that this arises because pressure-quenching has a larger effect on medium-range order, while annealing has a larger effect on short-range structures (sharper bond angle distribution), which ultimately determine hardness according to bond constraint theory. Our work could open a new avenue towards industrially useful glasses that are identical in terms of composition and density, but with differences in thermodynamic, mechanical, and rheological properties due to unique structural characteristics.

  14. Temperature Effects on the Wind Direction Measurement of 2D Solid Thermal Wind Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bei; Zhu, Yan-Qing; Yi, Zhenxiang; Qin, Ming; Huang, Qing-An

    2015-01-01

    For a two-dimensional solid silicon thermal wind sensor with symmetrical structure, the wind speed and direction information can be derived from the output voltages in two orthogonal directions, i.e., the north-south and east-west. However, the output voltages in these two directions will vary linearly with the ambient temperature. Therefore, in this paper, a temperature model to study the temperature effect on the wind direction measurement has been developed. A theoretical analysis has been presented first, and then Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations have been performed. It is found that due to symmetrical structure of the thermal wind sensor, the temperature effects on the output signals in the north-south and east-west directions are highly similar. As a result, the wind direction measurement of the thermal wind sensor is approximately independent of the ambient temperature. The experimental results fit the theoretical analysis and simulation results very well. PMID:26633398

  15. Effect of fibre shape on transverse thermal conductivity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultimately, it is the combined resistance to the heat flow that determines the conductivity of any material. Since this combined resistance do change in a wide range with different shapes of fibres and hence are the large variations in the effective conductivity. In the case of an elliptic fibre (figure 9), there exists a possibility of ...

  16. Effect of thermal and physicochemical treatment on abattoir waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evacuation of abattoir waste waters into water bodies results in excessive proliferation of decomposers, thus causing oxygen depletion and eutrophication. This study is designed to find means of effectively treating the abattoir waste water before they are reused or discharged into water bodies. The waste water was taken ...

  17. Analytical model of transient thermal effect on convectional cooled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The transient analytical solutions of temperature distribution, stress, strain and optical path difference in convectional cooled end-pumped laser rod are derived. The results are compared with other works and good agreements are found. The effects of increasing the edge cooling and face cooling are studied.

  18. Effects of thermal treatments and germination on physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain physico-chemical properties including viscoelasticity, crystallinity and maltose content of corn depends on the gelatinization of starch under different treatments. Three different treatments were performed; boiling in water, steam heating, and germination. The effects of gelatinization on viscoelastic property of corn ...

  19. Effects of thermal aging on mechanical performance of paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.T. Hotle; J.M. Considine; M.J. Wald; R.E. Rowlands; K.T. Turner

    2008-01-01

    A missing element of paper aging research is a description of mechanical performance with aging. Tensile strength cannot be predicted directly from DP measurements, and existing models do not represent the effects of aging on strength and stiffness. The primary aim of the present work is to characterize changes of mechanical properties, such as tensile response and...

  20. Thermal effects of water intrusion in hydrophobic nanoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowiak, Thomas; Paulin, Christian; Ballandras, Anthony; Weber, Guy; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2009-07-29

    Liquid water intrusion in hydrophobic nanoporous silicalite-1, a pure siliceous zeolite, in isothermal conditions under high pressure produces an endothermic effect. After intrusion, confined water in zeolite pores is in a different state from that of the liquid bulk water. Such forced intrusion also chemically modifies the material and tends to render it slightly more hydrophilic.