WorldWideScience

Sample records for thermal boundary resistance

  1. Thermal conductivity and thermal boundary resistance of nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merabia Samy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a fabrication process of low-cost superlattices and simulations related with the heat dissipation on them. The influence of the interfacial roughness on the thermal conductivity of semiconductor/semiconductor superlattices was studied by equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics and on the Kapitza resistance of superlattice's interfaces by equilibrium molecular dynamics. The non-equilibrium method was the tool used for the prediction of the Kapitza resistance for a binary semiconductor/metal system. Physical explanations are provided for rationalizing the simulation results. PACS 68.65.Cd, 66.70.Df, 81.16.-c, 65.80.-g, 31.12.xv

  2. Unexpectedly high thermal boundary resistance of Cr/graphene/SiO2 structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Tianzhuo; Wang, Haidong; Xu, Yibin

    2017-05-01

    We measured the thermal resistances of the Au/graphene/SiO2, Au/Ti/graphene/SiO2, and Au/Cr/graphene/SiO2 structures. The thermal resistances of the three structures were found to be significantly higher than those of the corresponding graphene-free structures, indicating that even monolayer graphene can greatly increase the thermal boundary resistance at metal/SiO2 interfaces. Furthermore, the thermal resistance of the Au/Cr/graphene/SiO2 structure is unexpectedly significantly higher than those of the other two structures, indicating that the diffusion mismatch model (DMM) fails to predict the thermal boundary resistance at metal/graphene interfaces. The poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) residue contamination layer on the graphene surface may play an important role in increasing the thermal resistances of metal/graphene/SiO2 structures. Also, transition metal/graphene and transition metal/PMMA interactions may also affect the thermal boundary resistance.

  3. Thermal boundary resistance at Si/Ge interfaces by molecular dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianzhuo Zhan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the temperature dependence and size effect of the thermal boundary resistance at Si/Ge interfaces by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD simulations using the direct method with the Stillinger-Weber potential. The simulations were performed at four temperatures for two simulation cells of different sizes. The resulting thermal boundary resistance decreased with increasing temperature. The thermal boundary resistance was smaller for the large cell than for the small cell. Furthermore, the MD-predicted values were lower than the diffusion mismatch model (DMM-predicted values. The phonon density of states (DOS was calculated for all the cases to examine the underlying nature of the temperature dependence and size effect of thermal boundary resistance. We found that the phonon DOS was modified in the interface regions. The phonon DOS better matched between Si and Ge in the interface region than in the bulk region. Furthermore, in interface Si, the population of low-frequency phonons was found to increase with increasing temperature and cell size. We suggest that the increasing population of low-frequency phonons increased the phonon transmission coefficient at the interface, leading to the temperature dependence and size effect on thermal boundary resistance.

  4. Interlaced, Nanostructured Interface with Graphene Buffer Layer Reduces Thermal Boundary Resistance in Nano/Microelectronic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lei; Theruvakkattil Sreenivasan, Sreeprasad; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh

    2017-01-11

    Improving heat transfer in hybrid nano/microelectronic systems is a challenge, mainly due to the high thermal boundary resistance (TBR) across the interface. Herein, we focus on gallium nitride (GaN)/diamond interface-as a model system with various high power, high temperature, and optoelectronic applications-and perform extensive reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, decoding the interplay between the pillar length, size, shape, hierarchy, density, arrangement, system size, and the interfacial heat transfer mechanisms to substantially reduce TBR in GaN-on-diamond devices. We found that changing the conventional planar interface to nanoengineered, interlaced architecture with optimal geometry results in >80% reduction in TBR. Moreover, introduction of conformal graphene buffer layer further reduces the TBR by ∼33%. Our findings demonstrate that the enhanced generation of intermediate frequency phonons activates the dominant group velocities, resulting in reduced TBR. This work has important implications on experimental studies, opening up a new space for engineering hybrid nano/microelectronics.

  5. Electron-phonon interaction and thermal boundary resistance at the crystal-amorphous interface of the phase change compound GeTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campi, Davide; Bernasconi, Marco, E-mail: marco.bernasconi@mater.unimib.it [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Via R. Cozzi 55, I-20125, Milano (Italy); Donadio, Davide [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Sosso, Gabriele C. [Computational Science, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, USI Campus, via Giuseppe Buffi 13, CH-6900 Lugano (Switzerland); Behler, Jörg [Lehrstuhl für Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2015-01-07

    Phonon dispersion relations and electron-phonon coupling of hole-doped trigonal GeTe have been computed by density functional perturbation theory. This compound is a prototypical phase change material of interest for applications in phase change non-volatile memories. The calculations allowed us to estimate the electron-phonon contribution to the thermal boundary resistance at the interface between the crystalline and amorphous phases present in the device. The lattice contribution to the thermal boundary resistance has been computed by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations with an interatomic potential based on a neural network scheme. We find that the electron-phonon term contributes to the thermal boundary resistance to an extent which is strongly dependent on the concentration and mobility of the holes. Further, for measured values of the holes concentration and electrical conductivity, the electron-phonon term is larger than the contribution from the lattice. It is also shown that the presence of Ge vacancies, responsible for the p-type degenerate character of the semiconductor, strongly affects the lattice thermal conductivity of the crystal.

  6. Electron-phonon interaction and thermal boundary resistance at the crystal-amorphous interface of the phase change compound GeTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campi, Davide; Donadio, Davide; Sosso, Gabriele C.; Behler, Jörg; Bernasconi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Phonon dispersion relations and electron-phonon coupling of hole-doped trigonal GeTe have been computed by density functional perturbation theory. This compound is a prototypical phase change material of interest for applications in phase change non-volatile memories. The calculations allowed us to estimate the electron-phonon contribution to the thermal boundary resistance at the interface between the crystalline and amorphous phases present in the device. The lattice contribution to the thermal boundary resistance has been computed by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations with an interatomic potential based on a neural network scheme. We find that the electron-phonon term contributes to the thermal boundary resistance to an extent which is strongly dependent on the concentration and mobility of the holes. Further, for measured values of the holes concentration and electrical conductivity, the electron-phonon term is larger than the contribution from the lattice. It is also shown that the presence of Ge vacancies, responsible for the p-type degenerate character of the semiconductor, strongly affects the lattice thermal conductivity of the crystal.

  7. Thermal Aging Effect on Corrosion Resistance in Fusion Boundary of A533 Gr. B and Alloy 152

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Yoo, Seung Chang; Kim, Taeho; Ham, Junhyuk; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Dissimilar metal weldment (DMW) is frequently used for joining low-alloy steel pressure vessel nozzles and steam generator nozzles to nickel-based wrought alloy or austenitic stainless steel components in high energy systems. This feature also significantly hinders C diffusion from the ferrite base metal to the weld metal. Until now, stress corrosion cracking has not occurred in DMWs where a High-Cr weld metal (such as Alloy 152 or Alloy 690), which is Ni-base weld metal including relative high Cr, is used as the weld metal in the weld between the nickel-based alloy and low-alloy steel. To understand the microstructure and corrosion evolution on fusion boundary between low-alloy steel and Ni-base weld metal, microstructural analysis and polarization test were performed with A533 Gr. B/Alloy 152/Alloy 690. Remarkable changes were observed in corrosion resistance and hardness at fusion boundary between low-alloy steel and Ni-base weld metal. The precipitate, which has different potential with peripheral region, can cause galvanic corrosion or pitting corrosion and is the one of hardening methods by disturbing movement of the dislocation. At initial step of heat treatment, the number of precipitates was increased. In fusion boundary between A533 Gr. B and Alloy 152, the corrosion resistance was decreased, and the hardness was increased. Next, at further step, the number of precipitates.

  8. Free-Boundary Resistive Modes in Tokamaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, G. T. A.; Goedbloed, J. P.; Kerner, W.

    1993-01-01

    There exist a number of observations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity that can be related to resistive MHD modes localized near the plasma boundary. To study the stability of these modes, a free boundary description of the plasma is essential. The resistive plasma-vacuum boundary conditions

  9. Final Project Report for "Interfacial Thermal Resistance of Carbon Nanotubes”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumings, John [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-04-15

    This report describes an ongoing project to comprehensively study the interfacial thermal boundary resistance (Kapitza resistance) of carbon nanotubes. It includes a list of publications, personnel supported, the overall approach, accomplishments and future plans.

  10. Grain boundary engineering to enhance thermal stability of electrodeposited nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimadadi, Hossein

    by miniaturization of the grains down to nano-meter scale. However, this augments the total grain boundary energy stored in the material, hence, making the material less thermally stable. Coherent twin boundaries are of very low energy and mobility compared to all other boundaries in a FCC material. Accordingly......, grain boundary engineering of electrodeposited nickel to achieve high population of coherent twin boundaries and, hence, higher thermal stability is a promising method to achieve simultaneous improvement in mechanical properties and thermal stability. This is of particular scientific and practical...... interest. The evolution of microstructure in as-deposited and annealed condition was investigated with a combination of complementary microscopic techniques, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI), ion channelling contrast imaging (ICCI), and, for the as...

  11. Motion of particles in a thermal boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, R.W.; Agrawal, Y.; Cheng, R.K.; Robben, F.; Talbot, L.

    1978-06-15

    In the course of using laser Doppler velocimetry to study combustion in a thermal boundary layer, the particle count rate was found to decrease abruptly to zero inside the boundary layer. Experimental and theoretical investigation of this phenomenon was carried out. The motion of the particles may be due to the combined effects of thermophoresis and radiative heating.

  12. Boundary Integral Equations for an Anisotropic Bimaterial with Thermally Imperfect Interface and Internal Inhomogeneities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulym Heorhiy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a thermoelastic anisotropic bimaterial with thermally imperfect interface and internal inhomogeneities. Based on the complex variable calculus and the extended Stroh formalism a new approach is proposed for obtaining the Somigliana type integral formulae and corresponding boundary integral equations for a thermoelastic bimaterial consisting of two half-spaces with different thermal and mechanical properties. The half-spaces are bonded together with mechanically perfect and thermally imperfect interface, which model interfacial adhesive layers present in bimaterial solids. Obtained integral equations are introduced into the modified boundary element method that allows solving arbitrary 2D thermoelacticity problems for anisotropic bimaterial solids with imperfect thin thermo-resistant inter-facial layer, which half-spaces contain cracks and thin inclusions. Presented numerical examples show the effect of thermal resistance of the bimaterial interface on the stress intensity factors at thin inhomogeneities.

  13. Thermal propagation of normal-superconductor boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, K.E.; Zasadzinski, J.; Kampwirth, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    The model of Newhouse for thermal propagation of long normal regions in thin superconducting films on good thermal conducting substrates has been verified. Measurements show much slower velocities for short regions, but the dependence is compatible with a new model calculation. Stable hot spots are found which agree semi-quantitatively with a modified hot-spot calculation.

  14. Variable Thermal Conductivity on Compressible Boundary Layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, variable thermal conductivity on heat transfer over a circular cylinder is presented. The concept of assuming constant thermal conductivity on materials is however not efficient. Hence, the governing partial differential equation is reduced using non-dimensionless variables into a system of coupled non-linear ...

  15. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved

  16. Influence of anisotropy on thermal boundary conductance at solid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Patrick E.; Beechem, Thomas; Duda, John C.; Hattar, Khalid; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Piekos, Edward S.

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the role of anisotropy on interfacial transport across solid interfaces by measuring the thermal boundary conductance from 100 to 500 K across Al/Si and Al/sapphire interfaces with different substrate orientations. The measured thermal boundary conductances show a dependency on substrate crystallographic orientation in the sapphire samples (trigonal conventional cell) but not in the silicon samples (diamond cubic conventional cell). The change in interface conductance in the sapphire samples is ascribed to anisotropy in the Brillouin zone along the principal directions defining the conventional cell. This leads to resultant phonon velocities in the direction of thermal transport that vary nearly 40% based on crystallographic direction.

  17. Thermal shock resistance ceramic insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Chester S.; Johnson, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal shock resistant cermet insulators containing 0.1-20 volume % metal present as a dispersed phase. The insulators are prepared by a process comprising the steps of (a) providing a first solid phase mixture of a ceramic powder and a metal precursor; (b) heating the first solid phase mixture above the minimum decomposition temperature of the metal precursor for no longer than 30 minutes and to a temperature sufficiently above the decomposition temperature to cause the selective decomposition of the metal precursor to the metal to provide a second solid phase mixture comprising particles of ceramic having discrete metal particles adhering to their surfaces, said metal particles having a mean diameter no more than 1/2 the mean diameter of the ceramic particles, and (c) densifying the second solid phase mixture to provide a cermet insulator having 0.1-20 volume % metal present as a dispersed phase.

  18. Thermal Internal Boundary Layer characteristics at a tropical coastal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    examined with the help of measurements carried out with a mini-SODAR (SOund Detection And ..... moisture upwards and periodic intrusion of mar- ..... Ocean System 2. 351–362. Kunhikrishnan P K, Gupta K S, Ramachandran R, Prakash. J W, Nair K N 1993 Study on thermal internal boundary layer structure over Thumba, ...

  19. Resistance Laws For Stable Baroclinic Boundary Layers Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilitinkevich, S.; Baklanov, A.; Djolov, G.; Esau, I.

    An advanced theoretical model is proposed including the effects of the free-flow sta- bility and baroclinicity in the resistance law for stable boundary layers. Theoretical predictions are verified against LES and experimental data. This new development ex- plains low accuracy of all earlier resistance law formulation and opens up fresh oppor- tunities for improved parameterisation of stable boundary layers in general circulation models.

  20. Thermal resistance of light emitting diode PCB with thermal vias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Soo; Shin, Hyung Won; Jung, Seung Boo

    2012-04-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are already familiar for use as lighting sources in various electronic devices and displays. LEDs have many advantages such as long life, low power consumption, and high reliability. In the future, as an alternative to fluorescent lighting, LEDs are certain to receive much attention. However, in components related to advanced LED packages or modules there has been an issue regarding the heat from the LED chip. The LED chip is still being developed for use in high-power devices which generate more heat. In this study, we investigate the variation of thermal resistance in LED modules embedded with thermal vias. Through the analysis of thermal resistance with various test vehicles, we obtained the concrete relationship between thermal resistance and the thermal via structure.

  1. Thermal resistance of indium coated sapphire-copper contacts below 0.1 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisel, T.; Bremer, J.; Koettig, T.

    2014-11-01

    High thermal resistances exist at ultra-low temperatures for solid-solid interfaces. This is especially true for pressed metal-sapphire joints, where the heat is transferred by phonons only. For such pressed joints it is difficult to achieve good physical, i.e. thermal contacts due to surface irregularities in the microscopic or larger scale. Applying ductile indium as an intermediate layer reduces the thermal resistance of such contacts. This could be proven by measurements of several researchers. However, the majority of the measurements were performed at temperatures higher than 1 K. Consequently, it is difficult to predict the thermal resistance of pressed metal-sapphire joints at temperatures below 1 K. In this paper the thermal resistances across four different copper-sapphire-copper sandwiches are presented in a temperature range between 30 mK and 100 mK. The investigated sandwiches feature either rough or polished sapphire discs (Ø 20 mm × 1.5 mm) to investigate the phonon scattering at the boundaries. All sandwiches apply indium foils as intermediate layers on both sides of the sapphire. Additionally to the indium foils, thin indium films are vapour deposited onto both sides of one rough and one polished sapphire in order to improve the contact to the sapphire. Significantly different thermal resistances have been found amongst the investigated sandwiches. The lowest total thermal resistivity (roughly 26 cm2 K4/W at 30 mK helium temperature) is achieved across a sandwich consisting of a polished sapphire with indium vapour deposition. The thermal boundary resistance between indium and sapphire is estimated from the total thermal resistivity by assuming the scattering at only one boundary, which is the warm sapphire boundary where phonons impinge, and taking the scattering in the sapphire bulk into account. The so derived thermal boundary resistance agrees at low temperatures very well with the acoustic mismatch theory.

  2. A Thermal Plume Model for the Martian Convective Boundary Layer

    CERN Document Server

    Colaïtis, Arnaud; Hourdin, Frédéric; Rio, Catherine; Forget, François; Millour, Ehouarn

    2013-01-01

    The Martian Planetary Boundary Layer [PBL] is a crucial component of the Martian climate system. Global Climate Models [GCMs] and Mesoscale Models [MMs] lack the resolution to predict PBL mixing which is therefore parameterized. Here we propose to adapt the "thermal plume" model, recently developed for Earth climate modeling, to Martian GCMs, MMs, and single-column models. The aim of this physically-based parameterization is to represent the effect of organized turbulent structures (updrafts and downdrafts) on the daytime PBL transport, as it is resolved in Large-Eddy Simulations [LESs]. We find that the terrestrial thermal plume model needs to be modified to satisfyingly account for deep turbulent plumes found in the Martian convective PBL. Our Martian thermal plume model qualitatively and quantitatively reproduces the thermal structure of the daytime PBL on Mars: superadiabatic near-surface layer, mixing layer, and overshoot region at PBL top. This model is coupled to surface layer parameterizations taking ...

  3. Electrical Resistivity Measurement of Cu and Zn on the Pressure-Dependent Melting Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secco, R. A.; Ezenwa, I.; Yong, W.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how the core cools through heat conduction and modelling the geodynamo requires knowledge of the thermal and electrical conductivity of solid and liquid Fe and its relevant alloys at high pressures. It has been proposed that electrical resistivity of a pure metal is constant along its P-dependent melting boundary (Stacey and Anderson, PEPI, 2001). If confirmed, this invariant behavior could serve as a practical tool for low P studies to assess electrical resistivity of Earth's core. Since Earth's inner core boundary (ICB) is a melting boundary of mainly Fe, measurements of electrical resistivity of Fe at the melting boundary, under any P, would serve as a proxy for the resistivity at the ICB. A revised treatment (Stacey and Loper, PEPI, 2007) accounted for s-d scattering in transition metals with unfilled d-bands and limited the proposal to metals with electrons of the same type in filled d-band metals. To test this proposal, we made high P, T measurements of electrical resistivity of d-band filled Cu and Zn in solid and liquid states. Experiments were carried out in a 1000 ton cubic anvil press up to 5 GPa and 300K above melting temperatures. Two thermocouples placed at opposite ends of the wire sample served as T probes as well as 4-wire resistance electrodes in a switched circuit. A polarity switch was used to remove any bias voltage measurement using thermocouple legs. Electron microprobe analyses were used to check the compositions of the recovered samples. The expected resistivity decrease with P and increase with T were found and comparisons with 1atm data are in very good agreement. Within the error of measurement, the resistivity values of Cu decrease along the melting boundary while Zn appears to support the hypothesis of constant resistivity along the melting boundary.

  4. Smoother Turbine Blades Resist Thermal Shock Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak, Paul; Longenecker, Kent; Paulus, Don; Ullman, Zane

    1991-01-01

    Surface treatment increases resistance of turbine blades to low-cycle fatigue. Smoothing removes small flaws where cracks start. Intended for blades in turbines subject to thermal shock of rapid starting. No recrystallization occurs at rocket-turbine operating temperatures.

  5. Thermal resistances of crystalline and amorphous few-layer oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Kumari, Niru; Hou, Yu

    2017-11-01

    Thermal insulation at nanoscale is of crucial importance for non-volatile memory devices such as phase change memory and memristors. We perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to study the effects of interface materials and structures on thermal transport across the few-layer dielectric nanostructures. The thermal resistance across few-layer nanostructures and thermal boundary resistance at interfaces consisting of SiO2/HfO2, SiO2/ZrO2 or SiO2/Al2O3 are obtained for both the crystalline and amorphous structures. Based on the comparison temperature profiles and phonon density of states, we show that the thermal boundary resistances are much larger in crystalline few-layer oxides than the amorphous ones due to the mismatch of phonon density of state between distinct oxide layers. Compared with the bulk SiO2, the increase of thermal resistance across crystalline few-layer oxides results from the thermal boundary resistance while the increase of thermal resistance across amorphous few-layer oxides is attributed to the lower thermal conductivity of the amorphous thin films.

  6. Localised boundary air layer and clothing evaporative resistances for individual body segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; del Ferraro, Simona; Lin, Li-Yen; Sotto Mayor, Tiago; Molinaro, Vincenzo; Ribeiro, Miguel; Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    Evaporative resistance is an important parameter to characterise clothing thermal comfort. However, previous work has focused mainly on either total static or dynamic evaporative resistance. There is a lack of investigation of localised clothing evaporative resistance. The objective of this study was to study localised evaporative resistance using sweating thermal manikins. The individual and interaction effects of air and body movements on localised resultant evaporative resistance were examined in a strict protocol. The boundary air layer's localised evaporative resistance was investigated on nude sweating manikins at three different air velocity levels (0.18, 0.48 and 0.78 m/s) and three different walking speeds (0, 0.96 and 1.17 m/s). Similarly, localised clothing evaporative resistance was measured on sweating manikins at three different air velocities (0.13, 0.48 and 0.70 m/s) and three walking speeds (0, 0.96 and 1.17 m/s). Results showed that the wind speed has distinct effects on local body segments. In contrast, walking speed brought much more effect on the limbs, such as thigh and forearm, than on body torso, such as back and waist. In addition, the combined effect of body and air movement on localised evaporative resistance demonstrated that the walking effect has more influence on the extremities than on the torso. Therefore, localised evaporative resistance values should be provided when reporting test results in order to clearly describe clothing local moisture transfer characteristics. Localised boundary air layer and clothing evaporative resistances are essential data for clothing design and assessment of thermal comfort. A comprehensive understanding of the effects of air and body movement on localised evaporative resistance is also necessary by both textile and apparel researchers and industry.

  7. Thermal Relaxation in Titanium Nanowires: Signatures of Inelastic Electron-Boundary Scattering in Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, Teemu; Lähteenmäki, Pasi; Golubev, Dmitri; Savin, Alexander; Arutyunov, Konstantin; Hakonen, Pertti

    2017-11-01

    We have employed noise thermometry for investigations of thermal relaxation between the electrons and the substrate in nanowires patterned from 40-nm-thick titanium film on top of silicon wafers covered by a native oxide. By controlling the electronic temperature T_e by Joule heating at the base temperature of a dilution refrigerator, we probe the electron-phonon coupling and the thermal boundary resistance at temperatures T_e= 0.5-3 K. Using a regular T^5-dependent electron-phonon coupling of clean metals and a T^4-dependent interfacial heat flow, we deduce a small contribution for the direct energy transfer from the titanium electrons to the substrate phonons due to inelastic electron-boundary scattering.

  8. Ion irradiation of the native oxide/silicon surface increases the thermal boundary conductance across aluminum/silicon interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, Caroline S.; Hattar, Khalid; Cheaito, Ramez; Duda, John C.; Gaskins, John T.; Beechem, Thomas E.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Biedermann, Laura B.; Piekos, Edward S.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2014-07-01

    The thermal boundary conductance across solid-solid interfaces can be affected by the physical properties of the solid boundary. Atomic composition, disorder, and bonding between materials can result in large deviations in the phonon scattering mechanisms contributing to thermal boundary conductance. Theoretical and computational studies have suggested that the mixing of atoms around an interface can lead to an increase in thermal boundary conductance by creating a region with an average vibrational spectra of the two materials forming the interface. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate that ion irradiation and subsequent modification of atoms at solid surfaces can increase the thermal boundary conductance across solid interfaces due to a change in the acoustic impedance of the surface. We measure the thermal boundary conductance between thin aluminum films and silicon substrates with native silicon dioxide layers that have been subjected to proton irradiation and post-irradiation surface cleaning procedures. The thermal boundary conductance across the Al/native oxide/Si interfacial region increases with an increase in proton dose. Supported with statistical simulations, we hypothesize that ion beam mixing of the native oxide and silicon substrate within ˜2.2nm of the silicon surface results in the observed increase in thermal boundary conductance. This ion mixing leads to the spatial gradation of the silicon native oxide into the silicon substrate, which alters the acoustic impedance and vibrational characteristics at the interface of the aluminum film and native oxide/silicon substrate. We confirm this assertion with picosecond acoustic analyses. Our results demonstrate that under specific conditions, a "more disordered and defected" interfacial region can have a lower resistance than a more "perfect" interface.

  9. Studies of planetary boundary layer by infrared thermal imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albina, Bogdan; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe, E-mail: dimitriu@uaic.ro; Gurlui, Silviu Octavian, E-mail: dimitriu@uaic.ro [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi (Romania); Cazacu, Marius Mihai [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi, Romania and Department of Physics, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, 59A Mangeron Blvd., 700 (Romania); Timofte, Adrian [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi, Romania and National Meteorological Administration, Regional Forecast Center Bacau, 1 Cuza Voda Str., 60 (Romania)

    2014-11-24

    The IR camera is a relatively novel device for remote sensing of atmospheric thermal processes from the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) based on measurements of the infrared radiation. Infrared radiation is energy radiated by the motion of atoms and molecules on the surface of aerosols, when their temperature is more than absolute zero. The IR camera measures directly the intensity of radiation emitted by aerosols which is converted by an imaging sensor into an electric signal, resulting a thermal image. Every image pixel that corresponds to a specific radiance is pre-processed to identify the brightness temperature. The thermal infrared imaging radiometer used in this study, NicAir, is a precision radiometer developed by Prata et al. The device was calibrated for the temperature range of 270–320 K and using a calibration table along with image processing software, important information about variations in temperature can be extracted from acquired IR images. The PBL is the lowest layer of the troposphere where the atmosphere interacts with the ground surfaces. The importance of PBL lies in the fact that it provides a finite but varying volume in which pollutants can disperse. The aim of this paper is to analyze the PBL altitude and thickness variations over Iasi region using the IR imaging camera as well as its behavior from day to night and thermal processes occurring in PBL.

  10. Equilibrium limit of thermal conduction and boundary scattering in nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Justin B; Kınacı, Alper; Sevik, Cem; Çağın, Tahir

    2014-06-28

    Determining the lattice thermal conductivity (κ) of nanostructures is especially challenging in that, aside from the phonon-phonon scattering present in large systems, the scattering of phonons from the system boundary greatly influences heat transport, particularly when system length (L) is less than the average phonon mean free path (MFP). One possible route to modeling κ in these systems is through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, inherently including both phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering effects in the classical limit. Here, we compare current MD methods for computing κ in nanostructures with both L ⩽ MFP and L ≫ MFP, referred to as mean free path constrained (cMFP) and unconstrained (uMFP), respectively. Using a (10,0) CNT (carbon nanotube) as a benchmark case, we find that while the uMFP limit of κ is well-defined through the use of equilibrium MD and the time-correlation formalism, the standard equilibrium procedure for κ is not appropriate for the treatment of the cMFP limit because of the large influence of boundary scattering. To address this issue, we define an appropriate equilibrium procedure for cMFP systems that, through comparison to high-fidelity non-equilibrium methods, is shown to be the low thermal gradient limit to non-equilibrium results. Further, as a means of predicting κ in systems having L ≫ MFP from cMFP results, we employ an extrapolation procedure based on the phenomenological, boundary scattering inclusive expression of Callaway [Phys. Rev. 113, 1046 (1959)]. Using κ from systems with L ⩽ 3 μm in the extrapolation, we find that the equilibrium uMFP κ of a (10,0) CNT can be predicted within 5%. The equilibrium procedure is then applied to a variety of carbon-based nanostructures, such as graphene flakes (GF), graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), CNTs, and icosahedral fullerenes, to determine the influence of size and environment (suspended versus supported) on κ. Concerning the GF and GNR systems, we find that

  11. Reduction in thermal boundary conductance due to proton implantation in silicon and sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Patrick E.; Hattar, Khalid; Beechem, Thomas; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Piekos, Edward S.

    2011-06-01

    We measure the thermal boundary conductance across Al/Si and Al/Al2O3 interfaces that are subjected to varying doses of proton ion implantation with time domain thermoreflectance. The proton irradiation creates a major reduction in the thermal boundary conductance that is much greater than the corresponding decrease in the thermal conductivities of both the Si and Al2O3 substrates into which the ions were implanted. Specifically, the thermal boundary conductances decrease by over an order of magnitude, indicating that proton irradiation presents a unique method to systematically decrease the thermal boundary conductance at solid interfaces.

  12. Approximate solution to a singular perturbed boundary value problem of thermal shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latypov, I. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper aims to investigate the problem of distribution of a non-regular, non-steady-state thermal field in the porous thermal shield material irradiated by a high flow of energy. A mathematical model of the original problem is stated in the form of a singular perturbed boundary value problem of a thermal conductivity equation with the nonlinear boundary conditions on moving boundaries. Its solution is obtained as asymptotic Poincare-type expansions in powers of small parameters.

  13. Interactions between the thermal internal boundary layer and sea breezes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steyn, D.G. [The Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Geography, Atmospheric Science Programme, Vancouver (Canada)

    1997-10-01

    In the absence of complex terrain, strongly curved coastline or strongly varying mean wind direction, the Thermal Internal Boundary Layer (TIBL) has well known square root behaviour with inland fetch. Existing slab modeling approaches to this phenomenon indicate no inland fetch limit at which this behaviour must cease. It is obvious however that the TIBL cannot continue to grow in depth with increasing fetch, since the typical continental Mixed Layer Depths (MLD) of 1500 to 2000 m must be reached between 100 and 200 km from the shoreline. The anticyclonic conditions with attendant strong convection and light winds which drive the TIBL, also drive daytime Sea Breeze Circulations (SBC) in the coastal zone. The onshore winds driving mesoscale advection of cool air are at the core of TIBL mechanisms, and are invariably part of a SBC. It is to be expected that TIBL and SBC be intimately linked through common mechanisms, as well as external conditions. (au)

  14. A Lumped Thermal Model Including Thermal Coupling and Thermal Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Detailed thermal dynamics of high power IGBT modules are important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behavior in the IGBTs: The typically used...... thermal model based on one-dimensional RC lumps have limits to provide temperature distributions inside the device, moreover some variable factors in the real-field applications like the cooling and heating conditions of the converter cannot be adapted. On the other hand, the more advanced three......-dimensional thermal models based on Finite Element Method (FEM) need massive computations, which make the long-term thermal dynamics difficult to calculate. In this paper, a new lumped three-dimensional thermal model is proposed, which can be easily characterized from FEM simulations and can acquire the critical...

  15. Thermal boundary conductance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyake, Takafumi; Sakata, Masanori; Yada, Susumu; Shiomi, Junichiro

    2015-03-01

    A solid/liquid interface plays a critical role for understanding mechanisms of biological and physical science. Moreover, carrier density of the surface is dramatically enhanced by electric double layer with ionic liquid, salt in the liquid state. Here, we have measured the thermal boundary conductance (TBC) across an interface of gold thin film and ionic liquid by using time-domain thermoreflectance technique. Following the prior researches, we have identified the TBC of two interfaces. One is gold and hydrophilic ionic liquid, N,N-Diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DEME-BF4), which is a hydrophilic ionic liquid, and the other is N,N-Diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (DEME-TFSI), which is a hydrophobic ionic liquid. We found that the TBC between gold and DEME-TFIS (19 MWm-2K-1) is surprisingly lower than the interface between gold and DEME-BF4 (45 MWm-2K-1). With these data, the importance of the wetting angle and ion concentration for the thermal transport at the solid/ionic liquid interface is discussed. Part of this work is financially supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and Japan Science and Technology Agency. The author is financially supported by JSPS Fellowship.

  16. Thermal boundary layer effects on the acoustical impedance of enclosures and consequences for acoustical sensing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen C; LoPresti, Janice L

    2008-03-01

    Expressions are derived for the acoustical impedance of a rectangular enclosure and of a finite annular cylindrical enclosure. The derivation is valid throughout the frequency range in which all dimensions of the enclosure are much less than the wavelength. The results are valid throughout the range from adiabatic to isothermal conditions in the enclosure. The effect is equivalent to placing an additional, frequency-dependent complex impedance in parallel with the adiabatic compliance. As the thermal boundary layer grows to fill the cavity, the reactive part of the impedance varies smoothly from the adiabatic value to the isothermal value. In some microphones, this change in cavity stiffness is sufficient to modify the sensitivity. The resistive part of the additional cavity impedance varies as the inverse square root of frequency at high frequencies where the boundary layer has not grown to fill the enclosure. The thermal modification gives rise to a thermal noise whose spectral density varies asymptotically as l/f(3/2) above the isothermal transition frequency.

  17. Effects of Screening on the Thermal Resistivity And Compressibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Models for computing thermal resistivity, compressibility ratio, and screening parameter of metals was developed and used to study the effects of screening on the thermal resistivity and compressibility ratio of metals. The results obtained revealed that the thermal resistivity of metals increases with an increase in the electron ...

  18. Thermally resistant polymers for fuel tank sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Imide-linked perfluoroalkylene ether polymers, that were developed for the high temperature fuel tank sealant application, are discussed. Modifications of polymer structure and properties were realized through use of a new aromatic dianhydride intermediate containing an ether-linked perfluoroalkylene segment. Tests of thermal, oxidative and hydrolytic stability, fuel resistance, and adhesion are discussed along with tensile strength and elongation results. Efforts to effect a low temperature condensation of amic acid prepolymer to form imide links inside are described.

  19. Phonon thermal transport through tilt grain boundaries in strontium titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zexi; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Shengfeng; Xiong, Liming; Chen, Youping [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Deng, Bowen; Chernatynskiy, Aleksandr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2014-08-21

    In this work, we perform nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to study phonon scattering at two tilt grain boundaries (GBs) in SrTiO{sub 3}. Mode-wise energy transmission coefficients are obtained based on phonon wave-packet dynamics simulations. The Kapitza conductance is then quantified using a lattice dynamics approach. The obtained results of the Kapitza conductance of both GBs compare well with those obtained by the direct method, except for the temperature dependence. Contrary to common belief, the results of this work show that the optical modes in SrTiO{sub 3} contribute significantly to phonon thermal transport, accounting for over 50% of the Kapitza conductance. To understand the effect of the GB structural disorder on phonon transport, we compare the local phonon density of states of the atoms in the GB region with that in the single crystalline grain region. Our results show that the excess vibrational modes introduced by the structural disorder do not have a significant effect on phonon scattering at the GBs, but the absence of certain modes in the GB region appears to be responsible for phonon reflections at GBs. This work has also demonstrated phonon mode conversion and simultaneous generation of new modes. Some of the new modes have the same frequency as the initial wave packet, while some have the same wave vector but lower frequencies.

  20. 40 CFR 90.427 - Catalyst thermal stress resistance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress resistance... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.427 Catalyst thermal stress resistance evaluation. (a) The purpose of... catalyst conversion efficiency for Phase 1 engines. The thermal stress is imposed on the test catalyst by...

  1. 40 CFR 91.427 - Catalyst thermal stress resistance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress resistance... Procedures § 91.427 Catalyst thermal stress resistance evaluation. (a)(1) The purpose of the evaluation procedure specified in this section is to determine the effect of thermal stress on catalyst conversion...

  2. Sustainably Sourced, Thermally Resistant, Radiation Hard Biopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugel, Diane

    2011-01-01

    This material represents a breakthrough in the production, manufacturing, and application of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and radiation shielding, as this represents the first effort to develop a non-metallic, non-ceramic, biomaterial-based, sustainable TPS with the capability to also act as radiation shielding. Until now, the standing philosophy for radiation shielding involved carrying the shielding at liftoff or utilizing onboard water sources. This shielding material could be grown onboard and applied as needed prior to different radiation landscapes (commonly seen during missions involving gravitational assists). The material is a bioplastic material. Bioplastics are any combination of a biopolymer and a plasticizer. In this case, the biopolymer is a starch-based material and a commonly accessible plasticizer. Starch molecules are composed of two major polymers: amylase and amylopectin. The biopolymer phenolic compounds are common to the ablative thermal protection system family of materials. With similar constituents come similar chemical ablation processes, with the potential to have comparable, if not better, ablation characteristics. It can also be used as a flame-resistant barrier for commercial applications in buildings, homes, cars, and heater firewall material. The biopolymer is observed to undergo chemical transformations (oxidative and structural degradation) at radiation doses that are 1,000 times the maximum dose of an unmanned mission (10-25 Mrad), indicating that it would be a viable candidate for robust radiation shielding. As a comparison, the total integrated radiation dose for a three-year manned mission to Mars is 0.1 krad, far below the radiation limit at which starch molecules degrade. For electron radiation, the biopolymer starches show minimal deterioration when exposed to energies greater than 180 keV. This flame-resistant, thermal-insulating material is non-hazardous and may be sustainably sourced. It poses no hazardous

  3. Direct observation of resistive heating at graphene wrinkles and grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Kyle L. [University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Dorgan, Vincent E. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign; Estrada, David [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign; Wood, Joshua D. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign; Vlassiouk, Ivan V [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Lyding, Joseph W [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign; King, William P. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign; Pop, Eric [Stanford University

    2014-01-01

    We directly measure the nanometer-scale temperature rise at wrinkles and grain boundaries (GBs) in functioning graphene devices by scanning Joule expansion microscopy with 50 nm spatial and 0.2K temperature resolution. We observe a small temperature increase at select wrinkles and a large (100 K) temperature increase at GBs between coalesced hexagonal grains. Comparisons of measurements with device simulations estimate the GB resistivity (8 150 X lm) among the lowest reported for graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. An analytical model is developed, showing that GBs can experience highly localized resistive heating and temperature rise, most likely affecting the reliability of graphene devices. Our studies provide an unprecedented view of thermal effects surrounding nanoscale defects in nanomaterials such as graphene.

  4. The asymptotic equivalence of fixed heat flux and fixed temperature thermal boundary conditions for rapidly rotating convection

    CERN Document Server

    Calkins, Michael A; Julien, Keith; Nieves, David; Driggs, Derek; Marti, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The influence of fixed temperature and fixed heat flux thermal boundary conditions on rapidly rotating convection in the plane layer geometry is investigated for the case of stress-free mechanical boundary conditions. It is shown that whereas the leading order system satisfies fixed temperature boundary conditions implicitly, a double boundary layer structure is necessary to satisfy the fixed heat flux thermal boundary conditions. The boundary layers consist of a classical Ekman layer adjacent to the solid boundaries that adjust viscous stresses to zero, and a layer in thermal wind balance just outside the Ekman layers adjusts the temperature such that the fixed heat flux thermal boundary conditions are satisfied. The influence of these boundary layers on the interior geostrophically balanced convection is shown to be asymptotically weak, however. Upon defining a simple rescaling of the thermal variables, the leading order reduced system of governing equations are therefore equivalent for both boundary condit...

  5. Evaluation of Erosion Resistance of Advanced Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Miller, Robert A.; Cuy, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to aircraft engine performance and durability. By demonstrating advanced turbine material testing capabilities, we will be able to facilitate the critical turbine coating and subcomponent development and help establish advanced erosion-resistant turbine airfoil thermal barrier coatings design tools. The objective of this work is to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments, validating advanced turbine airfoil thermal barrier coating systems based on nano-tetragonal phase toughening design approaches.

  6. Mixed boundary-value problems for quantum hydrodynamic models with semiconductors in thermal equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Dong

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We show the existence of solutions for mixed boundary-value problems that model quantum hydrodynamics in thermal equilibrium. Also we find the semi-classical limit of the solutions.

  7. Uniqueness for a boundary identification problem in thermal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Bryan

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available An inverse problem for an initial-boundary value problem is considered. The goal is to determine an unknown portion of the boundary of a region in ${mathbb R}^n$ from measurements of Cauchy data on a known portion of the boundary. The dynamics in the interior of the region are governed by a differential operator of parabolic type. Utilizing a unique continuation result for evolution operators, along with the method of eigenfunction expansions, it is shown that uniqueness holds for a large and physically reasonable class of Cauchy data pairs.

  8. A molecular dynamics study of tilt grain boundary resistance to slip and heat transfer in nanocrystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiang; Chen, Youping [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Xiong, Liming [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Chernatynskiy, Aleksandr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2014-12-28

    We present a molecular dynamics study of grain boundary (GB) resistance to dislocation-mediated slip transfer and phonon-mediated heat transfer in nanocrystalline silicon bicrystal. Three most stable 〈110〉 tilt GBs in silicon are investigated. Under mechanical loading, the nucleation and growth of hexagonal-shaped shuffle dislocation loops are reproduced. The resistances of different GBs to slip transfer are quantified through their constitutive responses. Results show that the Σ3 coherent twin boundary (CTB) in silicon exhibits significantly higher resistance to dislocation motion than the Σ9 GB in glide symmetry and the Σ19 GB in mirror symmetry. The distinct GB strengths are explained by the atomistic details of the dislocation-GB interaction. Under thermal loading, based on a thermostat-induced heat pulse model, the resistances of the GBs to transient heat conduction in ballistic-diffusive regime are characterized. In contrast to the trend found in the dislocation-GB interaction in bicrystal models with different GBs, the resistances of the same three GBs to heat transfer are strikingly different. The strongest dislocation barrier Σ3 CTB is almost transparent to heat conduction, while the dislocation-permeable Σ9 and Σ19 GBs exhibit larger resistance to heat transfer. In addition, simulation results suggest that the GB thermal resistance not only depends on the GB energy but also on the detailed atomic structure along the GBs.

  9. Validation of the k- ω turbulence model for the thermal boundary layer profile of effusive cooled walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hink, R.

    2015-09-01

    The choice of materials for rocket chamber walls is limited by its thermal resistance. The thermal loads can be reduced substantially by the blowing out of gases through a porous surface. The k- ω-based turbulence models for computational fluid dynamic simulations are designed for smooth, non-permeable walls and have to be adjusted to account for the influence of injected fluids. Wilcox proposed therefore an extension for the k- ω turbulence model for the correct prediction of turbulent boundary layer velocity profiles. In this study, this extension is validated against experimental thermal boundary layer data from the Thermosciences Division of the Department of Mechanical Engineering from the Stanford University. All simulations are performed with a finite volume-based in-house code of the German Aerospace Center. Several simulations with different blowing settings were conducted and discussed in comparison to the results of the original model and in comparison to an additional roughness implementation. This study has permitted to understand that velocity profile corrections are necessary in contrast to additional roughness corrections to predict the correct thermal boundary layer profile of effusive cooled walls. Finally, this approach is applied to a two-dimensional simulation of an effusive cooled rocket chamber wall.

  10. An axisymmetric boundary element formulation of sound wave propagation in fluids including viscous and thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2013-01-01

    The formulation presented in this paper is based on the Boundary Element Method (BEM) and implements Kirchhoff’s decomposition into viscous, thermal and acoustic components, which can be treated independently everywhere in the domain except on the boundaries. The acoustic variables with losses ar...

  11. Impact of boundary conditions on the development of the thermal plume above a sitting human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Popiolek, Zbigniew J.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of the thermal plume above a heat source has been reported in the literature as being influenced by a large number of factors. The objective of the present study is to identify the impact of the boundary conditions on the characteristics and development of the thermal plume above...

  12. EFFECTS OF SURFACE MORPHOLOGY ON THERMAL CONTACT RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal contact resistance is common in aerospace industry, nuclear reactors and electronic equipments. The work addresses a new scheme for determining the thermal contact resistance between a smooth surface of a film and a rough surface of a metal specimen. The finite element method was used as a tool to explore the surface morphology effect on the thermal contact resistance while the temperature of the contact surface was determined by a regression method. According to the results developed, the temperature on the contact surfaces linearly drops with the increasing average height of surface roughness and nonlinearly drops with the increasing ratio between non-contact area and nominal contact area. On the other hand, the thermal contact resistance increases linearly with increases in the average height of the surface roughness. What's more, the thermal contact resistance increases in a non-linear manner as the ratio of the non-contact area to the nominal contact area is increasing.

  13. Study of the blowing impact on a hot turbulent boundary layer using Thermal Large Eddy Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillant, G. [CEA/Grenoble DEN/DER/SSTH/LMDL, 17 rue des Martyrs 38054, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); INSA/Centre de Thermique de Lyon (UMR CNRS 5008), Bat. Sadi Carnot 69621, Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Husson, S. [INSA/Centre de Thermique de Lyon (UMR CNRS 5008), Bat. Sadi Carnot 69621, Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Bataille, F. [INSA/Centre de Thermique de Lyon (UMR CNRS 5008), Bat. Sadi Carnot 69621, Villeurbanne Cedex (France)], E-mail: Francoise.Daumas-Bataille@univ-perp.fr; Ducros, F. [CEA/Grenoble DEN/DER/SSTH/LMDL, 17 rue des Martyrs 38054, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-12-15

    We investigate Thermal Large Eddy Simulation in a complex case using Trio U. We develop a thermal turbulent inflow condition based on parallel flows in order to simulate a turbulent thermal boundary layer. This inflow condition is tested with a turbulent channel flow. We show that it produces fine profiles for velocity and temperature. Later, this inlet condition is used in the case of blowing through a porous plate. Two different blowing regimes are studied: the classical turbulent boundary layer and the blown off boundary layer. Comparisons show that we obtain similar experimental and numerical profiles (Brillant, G., Husson, S., Bataille, F., 2008. Experimental study of the blowing impact on a hot turbulent boundary layer. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 51 (7-8), 1996-2005.). We finish with additional results obtained only through numerical simulations.

  14. Thermal activated grain boundary creep in polycrystalline copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Creep deformation in metals and alloys at intermediate temperatures and low stresses are attributed to power-law and diffusion mechanisms. ... By superposition of the rate equations, the net strain rate is determined as the sum of three independent creep mechanisms of Cobble diffusion creep, gra-in boundary sliding and ...

  15. Thermal Internal Boundary Layer characteristics at a tropical coastal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Prabha1 R Venkatesan2 Erich Mursch-Radlgruber3 G Rengarajan3 N Jayanthi4. Crop and Soil Sciences, University of Georgia, GA, USA. Health and Safety Division, SHINE Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, India 603 102. Boundary Layer Meteorology Division, Institut fuer Meteorologie und Physik (IMP-BOKU), Wien, Austria.

  16. Intrinsic thermal resistance of the canine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesbee, M J; Alldinger, S; Vasconcelos, D; Diehl, K A; Shinko, P D; Baumgärtner, W; Tallman, R; Podell, M

    2002-01-01

    Hyperthermia above a critical threshold results in multisystemic changes that include neurological manifestations of heat stroke. It is unknown if the latter represents an intrinsic thermal sensitivity of the CNS or whether injury is secondary to physiological responses of non-CNS origin. To address this issue, the present work examined functional, structural, and biochemical changes in the CNS of dogs subjected to a thermal dosage immediately below that which induces disseminated intravascular coagulation with secondary multiple organ injury. The experimental approach is previously reported, inducing a 42.5 degrees C, 90 min, whole body hyperthermia while preventing other physiological responses to treatment, including respiratory alkalosis and significant reductions in mean arterial pressure. Functional analyses included neurologic examinations and brainstem auditory evoked potential recordings in the post-treatment interval in both hyperthermic and euthermic control populations. Biochemical and structural analyses examined the expression of 70-kDa heat shock proteins, cytokines, markers of astroglial and microglial injury/activation, evidence of vascular endothelial damage, and evidence of neuronal and axonal injury in brain between 0.5 h and 8 days from the end of the treatment. The only significant change associated with treatment was induction of the major inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein, this being most prominent in the cerebellum with maximal expression at 6 h and a return to baseline by 8 days.Collectively, from these results we suggest that the canine brain is intrinsically resistant to sublethal hyperthermia such that when CNS lesions occur, they do so in the presence of other physiological derangements.

  17. General 3D Lumped Thermal Model with Various Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Accurate thermal dynamics modeling of high power Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules is important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated...... thermal behaviors in the IGBTs. In this paper, a new three-dimensional (3D) lumped thermal model is proposed, which can easily be characterized from Finite Element Methods (FEM) based simulation and acquire the thermal distribution in critical points. Meanwhile the boundary conditions including...... the cooling system and power losses are modeled in the 3D thermal model, which can be adapted to different real field applications of power electronic converters. The accuracy of the proposed thermal model is verified by experimental results....

  18. Equilibrium Limit of Boundary Scattering in Carbon Nanostructures: Molecular Dynamics Calculations of Thermal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Justin; Kinaci, Alper; Sevik, Cem; Cagin, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    It is widely known that graphene and many of its derivative nanostructures have exceedingly high reported thermal conductivities (up to 4000 W/mK at 300 K). Such attractive thermal properties beg the use of these structures in practical devices; however, to implement these materials while preserving transport quality, the influence of structure on thermal conductivity should be thoroughly understood. For graphene nanostructures, having average phonon mean free paths on the order of one micron, a primary concern is how size influences the potential for heat conduction. To investigate this, we employ a novel technique to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity from the Green-Kubo relations and equilibrium molecular dynamics in systems where phonon-boundary scattering dominates heat flow. Specifically, the thermal conductivities of graphene nanoribbons and carbon nanotubes are calculated in sizes up to 3 microns, and the relative influence of boundary scattering on thermal transport is determined to be dominant at sizes less than 1 micron, after which the thermal transport largely depends on the quality of the nanostructure interface. The method is also extended to carbon nanostructures (fullerenes) where phonon confinement, as opposed to boundary scattering, dominates, and general trends related to the influence of curvature on thermal transport in these materials are discussed.

  19. Thermal boundary effects on a GT liner structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvatore, M.; Laget, H.; Vanderhaegen, E.; Altunlu, A.C.; Tufano, S.; Daumantas, Ciplys

    2012-01-01

    GT combustor liners are subjected to mechanical and thermal loads that damage the structure and reduce their operational life. Among those, the thermo-acoustic instabilities develop, generating pressure oscillations because of the interaction between heat release, acoustic waves and structure

  20. Modeling Interfacial Thermal Boundary Conductance of Engineered Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-31

    interface between materials 1 & 2 with an impurity mass mint , the energy transmission of all phonon frequencies is maximized when mint = (m1 +m2)/2...properties of the source and sink. Figure 5: Phonon transmission spectra, with curves corresponding to different impurity masses, mint (left plot) or...substrate [2, 34]. The thermal decay of each sample, measured by TDTR, was compared to a multilayer solution of the heat diffusion equation to extract

  1. Finite-size effects on molecular dynamics interfacial thermal-resistance predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi; Keblinski, Pawel

    2014-08-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the role of finite size effects on the determination of interfacial thermal resistance between two solids characterized by high phonon mean free paths. In particular, we will show that a direct, heat source-sink method leads to strong size effect, associated with ballistic phonon transport to and from, and specular reflections at the simulation domain boundary. Lack of proper account for these effects can lead to incorrect predictions about the role of interfacial bonding and structure on interfacial thermal resistance. We also show that the finite size effect can be dramatically reduced by introduction of rough external boundaries leading to diffuse phonon scattering, as explicitly demonstrated by phonon wave-packet simulations. Finally, we demonstrate that when careful considerations are given to the effects associated with the finite heat capacity of the simulation domains and phonon scattering from the external surfaces, a size-independent interfacial resistance can be properly extracted from the time integral of the correlation function of heat power across the interface. Our work demonstrates that reliable and consistent values of the interfacial thermal resistance can be obtained by equilibrium and nonequilibrium methods with a relatively small computational cost.

  2. Simulation of Thermal Flow Problems via a Hybrid Immersed Boundary-Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM is presented in this work to simulate the thermal flow problems. In current approach, the flow field is resolved by using our recently developed boundary condition-enforced IB-LBM (Wu and Shu, (2009. The nonslip boundary condition on the solid boundary is enforced in simulation. At the same time, to capture the temperature development, the conventional energy equation is resolved. To model the effect of immersed boundary on temperature field, the heat source term is introduced. Different from previous studies, the heat source term is set as unknown rather than predetermined. Inspired by the idea in (Wu and Shu, (2009, the unknown is calculated in such a way that the temperature at the boundary interpolated from the corrected temperature field accurately satisfies the thermal boundary condition. In addition, based on the resolved temperature correction, an efficient way to compute the local and average Nusselt numbers is also proposed in this work. As compared with traditional implementation, no approximation for temperature gradients is required. To validate the present method, the numerical simulations of forced convection are carried out. The obtained results show good agreement with data in the literature.

  3. Finite-temperature effective boundary theory of the quantized thermal Hall effect

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, Ryota; Ryu, Shinsei; Nomura, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    A finite-temperature effective free energy of the boundary of a quantized thermal Hall system is derived microscopically from the bulk two-dimensional Dirac fermion coupled with a gravitational field. In two spatial dimensions, the thermal Hall conductivity of fully gapped insulators and superconductors is quantized and given by the bulk Chern number, in analogy to the quantized electric Hall conductivity in quantum Hall systems. From the perspective of effective action functionals, two disti...

  4. Reducing Contact Resistance Errors In Measuring Thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Values of thermal conductivity (k) of glass beads, quartz sand, stone dust and clay were determined using a thermal probe with and without heat sink compounds (arctic silver grease (ASG) and white grease (WG)) at different water contents, bulk densities and particle sizes. The heat sink compounds (HSC) increased k at ...

  5. Evaluation of thermal shock resistance of cordierite honeycombs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A comparative study on thermal shock resistance (TSR) of extruded cordierite honeycombs is presented. TSR is an important property that predicts the life of these products in thermal environments used for automobile pollution control as catalytic converter or as diesel particulate filter. TSR was experimentally studied by ...

  6. Photoluminescence characterization of the grain boundary thermal stability in chemical vapor deposition grown WS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shuang; Zhao, Weiwei; Zafar, Amina; Wu, Zhangting; Tao, Yi; Bi, Kedong; Wei, Zhiyong; Ni, Zhenhua; Chen, Yunfei

    2017-10-01

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as MoS2 and WS2 have been considered as promising candidate materials in nanophotonic applications. However, the structure stability of TMDs based optoelectronic devices is highly sensitive to the working environment. Here we present a successive photoluminescence study of the thermal stability characterization of grain boundary in chemical vapor deposition grown monolayer WS2. Results show that PL intensity enhancement in grain boundaries can be significantly weakened during the annealing process. Transformation temperature starts around 210 °C, substantially lower than the surrounding non-grain-boundary area. First-principle calculations results show that the PL quenching of grain boundaries is caused by the increased structural defects induced by annealing process, which makes the transition of electrons more difficult. Our results provide a route for characterizing the structure stability of two dimensional (2D) semiconductors, calling for extra attention to nanophotonic device working condition.

  7. Thermal boundary conductance accumulation and interfacial phonon transmission: Measurements and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheaito, Ramez; Gaskins, John T.; Caplan, Matthew E.; Donovan, Brian F.; Foley, Brian M.; Giri, Ashutosh; Duda, John C.; Szwejkowski, Chester J.; Constantin, Costel; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan J.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-01-01

    The advances in phonon spectroscopy in homogeneous solids have unveiled extremely useful physics regarding the contribution of phonon energies and mean-free paths to the thermal transport in solids. However, as material systems decrease to length scales less than the phonon mean-free paths, thermal transport can become much more impacted by scattering and transmission across interfaces between two materials than the intrinsic relaxation in the homogeneous solid. To elucidate the fundamental interactions driving this thermally limiting interfacial phonon scattering process, we analytically derive and experimentally measure a thermal boundary conductance accumulation function. We develop a semiclassical theory to calculate the thermal boundary conductance accumulation function across interfaces using the diffuse mismatch model, and validate this derivation by measuring the interface conductance between eight different metals on native oxide/silicon substrates and four different metals on sapphire substrates. Measurements were performed at room temperature using time-domain thermoreflectance and represent the first-reported values for interface conductance across several metal/native oxide/silicon and metal/sapphire interfaces. The various metal films provide a variable bandwidth of phonons incident on the metal/substrate interface. This method of varying phonons' cutoff frequency in the film while keeping the same substrate allows us to mimic the accumulation of thermal boundary conductance and thus provides a direct method to experimentally validate our theory. We show that the accumulation function can be written as the product of a weighted average of the interfacial phonon transmission function and the accumulation of the temperature derivative of the phonon flux incident on the interface; this provides the framework to extract an average, spectrally dependent phonon transmissivity from a series of thermal boundary conductance measurements. Our approach provides

  8. Coral thermal tolerance: tuning gene expression to resist thermal stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Bellantuono

    Full Text Available The acclimatization capacity of corals is a critical consideration in the persistence of coral reefs under stresses imposed by global climate change. The stress history of corals plays a role in subsequent response to heat stress, but the transcriptomic changes associated with these plastic changes have not been previously explored. In order to identify host transcriptomic changes associated with acquired thermal tolerance in the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora, corals preconditioned to a sub-lethal temperature of 3°C below bleaching threshold temperature were compared to both non-preconditioned corals and untreated controls using a cDNA microarray platform. After eight days of hyperthermal challenge, conditions under which non-preconditioned corals bleached and preconditioned corals (thermal-tolerant maintained Symbiodinium density, a clear differentiation in the transcriptional profiles was revealed among the condition examined. Among these changes, nine differentially expressed genes separated preconditioned corals from non-preconditioned corals, with 42 genes differentially expressed between control and preconditioned treatments, and 70 genes between non-preconditioned corals and controls. Differentially expressed genes included components of an apoptotic signaling cascade, which suggest the inhibition of apoptosis in preconditioned corals. Additionally, lectins and genes involved in response to oxidative stress were also detected. One dominant pattern was the apparent tuning of gene expression observed between preconditioned and non-preconditioned treatments; that is, differences in expression magnitude were more apparent than differences in the identity of genes differentially expressed. Our work revealed a transcriptomic signature underlying the tolerance associated with coral thermal history, and suggests that understanding the molecular mechanisms behind physiological acclimatization would be critical for the modeling of reefs

  9. A simplified model to estimate thermal resistance between carbon nanotube and sample in scanning thermal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, Maxim; Rosamond, Mark C.; Gallant, Andrew J.; Kolosov, Oleg V.; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G.; Zeze, Dagou A.

    2017-12-01

    Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) is an attractive technique for nanoscale thermal measurements. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) can be used to enhance a SThM probe in order to drastically increase spatial resolution while keeping required thermal sensitivity. However, an accurate prediction of the thermal resistance at the interface between the MWCNT-enhanced probe tip and a sample under study is essential for the accurate interpretation of experimental measurements. Unfortunately, there is very little literature on Kapitza interfacial resistance involving carbon nanotubes under SThM configuration. We propose a model for heat conductance through an interface between the MWCNT tip and the sample, which estimates the thermal resistance based on phonon and geometrical properties of the MWCNT and the sample, without neglecting the diamond-like carbon layer covering the MWCNT tip. The model considers acoustic phonons as the main heat carriers and account for their scattering at the interface based on a fundamental quantum mechanical approach. The predicted value of the thermal resistance is then compared with experimental data available in the literature. Theoretical predictions and experimental results are found to be of the same order of magnitude, suggesting a simplified, yet realistic model to approximate thermal resistance between carbon nanotube and sample in SThM, albeit low temperature measurements are needed to achieve a better match between theory and experiment. As a result, several possible avenues are outlined to achieve more accurate predictions and to generalize the model.

  10. High resolution steady-state measurements of thermal contact resistance across thermal interface material junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzoha, Ronald J.; Donovan, Brian F.

    2017-09-01

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are meant to reduce the interfacial thermal resistance (RT) across bare metal contacts in commercial electronics packaging systems. However, there is little scientific consensus governing material design for optimized thermal performance. This is principally due to the inability to separate the effects of the intrinsic material thermal properties from the magnitude of heat flow crossing the TIM-substrate junction (RC). To date, efforts to isolate these effects using standard thermal interface material characterization techniques have not been successful. In this work, we develop an infrared thermography-based steady-state heat meter bar apparatus with a novel in situ thickness measurement system having 0.5 nm sensitivity. These in situ thickness measurements allow us to simultaneously determine RT and RC independently across current state-of-the-art TIMs with ±5% uncertainty. In this work, thermal pastes with bond line thicknesses ranging between 5 and 50 μ m are used to illustrate the capability of the apparatus to measure extremely thin materials that are expected to achieve relatively low values of RT. Results suggest that the contribution of the thermal contact resistance to the total thermal resistance can range from 5% to 80% for these materials. This finding highlights the need for appropriate metrology and independent measurements of RC and RT to better optimize thermal interface materials for a number of important electronics applications.

  11. Effects of flow and colony morphology on the thermal boundary layer of corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Isabel M.; Kühl, Michael; Larkum, Anthony W. D.; Ralph, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal microenvironment of corals and the thermal effects of changing flow and radiation are critical to understanding heat-induced coral bleaching, a stress response resulting from the destruction of the symbiosis between corals and their photosynthetic microalgae. Temperature microsensor measurements at the surface of illuminated stony corals with uneven surface topography (Leptastrea purpurea and Platygyra sinensis) revealed millimetre-scale variations in surface temperature and thermal boundary layer (TBL) that may help understand the patchy nature of coral bleaching within single colonies. The effect of water flow on the thermal microenvironment was investigated in hemispherical and branching corals (Porites lobata and Stylophora pistillata, respectively) in a flow chamber experiment. For both coral types, the thickness of the TBL decreased exponentially from 2.5 mm at quasi-stagnant flow (0.3 cm s−1), to 1 mm at 5 cm s−1, with an exponent approximately 0.5 consistent with predictions from the heat transfer theory for simple geometrical objects and typical of laminar boundary layer processes. Measurements of mass transfer across the diffusive boundary layer using O2 microelectrodes revealed a greater exponent for mass transfer when compared with heat transfer, indicating that heat and mass transfer at the surface of corals are not exactly analogous processes. PMID:21602322

  12. Holographic Thermalization in Gauss-Bonnet Gravity with de Sitter Boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shao-Jun; Abdalla, Elcio; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    We introduce higher-derivative Gauss-Bonnet correction terms in the gravity sector and we relate the modified gravity theory in the bulk to the strongly coupled quantum field theory on a de Sitter boundary. We study the process of holographic thermalization by examining three non-local observables, the two-point function, the Wilson loop and the holographic entanglement entropy. We study the time evolution of these three observables and we find that the modification of the gravity side with the Gauss-Bonnet correction terms influences the saturation time to reach thermal equilibrium with the dominant effect given by the holographic entanglement entropy since it contains more bulk information.

  13. Unsteady magnetohydrodynamic thermal and diffusion boundary layer from a horizontal circular cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boričić Aleksandar Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The unsteady 2-D dynamic, thermal, and diffusion magnetohydrodynamic laminar boundary layer flow over a horizontal cylinder of incompressible and electrical conductivity fluid, in mixed convection in the presence of heat source or sink and chemical reactions. The present magnetic field is homogenous and perpendicular to the body surface. It is assumed that induction of outer magnetic field is a function of longitudinal co-ordinate outer electric field is neglected and magnetic Reynolds number is significantly lower than one, i. e. considered the problem is in approximation without induction. Fluid electrical conductivity is constant. Free stream velocity, temperature, and concentration on the body are functions of longitudinal co-ordinate. The developed governing boundary layer equations and associated boundary conditions are made dimensionless using a suitable similarity transformation and similarity parameters. System of non-dimensionless equations is solved using the implicit finite difference three-diagonal and iteration method. Numerical results are obtained and presented for different Prandtl, Eckart, and Schmidt numbers, and values: magnetic parameter, temperature, and diffusion parameters, buoyancy temperature parameters, thermal parameter, and chemical reaction parameter. Variation of velocity profiles, temperature and diffusion distributions, and many integral and differential characteristics, boundary layer, are evaluated numerically for different values of the magnetic field. Transient effects of velocity, temperature and diffusion are analyzed. A part of obtained results is given in the form of figures and corresponding conclusions.

  14. Steady-state low thermal resistance characterization apparatus: The bulk thermal tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Brian R.; Kolly, Manuel; Blasakis, Nicolas; Gschwend, Dominic; Zürcher, Jonas; Brunschwiler, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The reliability of microelectronic devices is largely dependent on electronic packaging, which includes heat removal. The appropriate packaging design therefore necessitates precise knowledge of the relevant material properties, including thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. Thin materials and high conductivity layers make their thermal characterization challenging. A steady state measurement technique is presented and evaluated with the purpose to characterize samples with a thermal resistance below 100 mm2 K/W. It is based on the heat flow meter bar approach made up by two copper blocks and relies exclusively on temperature measurements from thermocouples. The importance of thermocouple calibration is emphasized in order to obtain accurate temperature readings. An in depth error analysis, based on Gaussian error propagation, is carried out. An error sensitivity analysis highlights the importance of the precise knowledge of the thermal interface materials required for the measurements. Reference measurements on Mo samples reveal a measurement uncertainty in the range of 5% and most accurate measurements are obtained at high heat fluxes. Measurement techniques for homogeneous bulk samples, layered materials, and protruding cavity samples are discussed. Ultimately, a comprehensive overview of a steady state thermal characterization technique is provided, evaluating the accuracy of sample measurements with thermal resistances well below state of the art setups. Accurate characterization of materials used in heat removal applications, such as electronic packaging, will enable more efficient designs and ultimately contribute to energy savings.

  15. Steady-state low thermal resistance characterization apparatus: The bulk thermal tester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burg, Brian R.; Kolly, Manuel; Blasakis, Nicolas; Gschwend, Dominic; Zürcher, Jonas; Brunschwiler, Thomas, E-mail: tbr@zurich.ibm.com [IBM Research—Zurich, 8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    The reliability of microelectronic devices is largely dependent on electronic packaging, which includes heat removal. The appropriate packaging design therefore necessitates precise knowledge of the relevant material properties, including thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. Thin materials and high conductivity layers make their thermal characterization challenging. A steady state measurement technique is presented and evaluated with the purpose to characterize samples with a thermal resistance below 100 mm{sup 2} K/W. It is based on the heat flow meter bar approach made up by two copper blocks and relies exclusively on temperature measurements from thermocouples. The importance of thermocouple calibration is emphasized in order to obtain accurate temperature readings. An in depth error analysis, based on Gaussian error propagation, is carried out. An error sensitivity analysis highlights the importance of the precise knowledge of the thermal interface materials required for the measurements. Reference measurements on Mo samples reveal a measurement uncertainty in the range of 5% and most accurate measurements are obtained at high heat fluxes. Measurement techniques for homogeneous bulk samples, layered materials, and protruding cavity samples are discussed. Ultimately, a comprehensive overview of a steady state thermal characterization technique is provided, evaluating the accuracy of sample measurements with thermal resistances well below state of the art setups. Accurate characterization of materials used in heat removal applications, such as electronic packaging, will enable more efficient designs and ultimately contribute to energy savings.

  16. Steady-state low thermal resistance characterization apparatus: The bulk thermal tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Brian R; Kolly, Manuel; Blasakis, Nicolas; Gschwend, Dominic; Zürcher, Jonas; Brunschwiler, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The reliability of microelectronic devices is largely dependent on electronic packaging, which includes heat removal. The appropriate packaging design therefore necessitates precise knowledge of the relevant material properties, including thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. Thin materials and high conductivity layers make their thermal characterization challenging. A steady state measurement technique is presented and evaluated with the purpose to characterize samples with a thermal resistance below 100 mm(2) K/W. It is based on the heat flow meter bar approach made up by two copper blocks and relies exclusively on temperature measurements from thermocouples. The importance of thermocouple calibration is emphasized in order to obtain accurate temperature readings. An in depth error analysis, based on Gaussian error propagation, is carried out. An error sensitivity analysis highlights the importance of the precise knowledge of the thermal interface materials required for the measurements. Reference measurements on Mo samples reveal a measurement uncertainty in the range of 5% and most accurate measurements are obtained at high heat fluxes. Measurement techniques for homogeneous bulk samples, layered materials, and protruding cavity samples are discussed. Ultimately, a comprehensive overview of a steady state thermal characterization technique is provided, evaluating the accuracy of sample measurements with thermal resistances well below state of the art setups. Accurate characterization of materials used in heat removal applications, such as electronic packaging, will enable more efficient designs and ultimately contribute to energy savings.

  17. Numerical simulation for thermal shock resistance of thermal protection materials considering different operating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiguo; Li, Dingyu; Wang, Ruzhuan; Fang, Daining

    2013-01-01

    Based on the sensitivities of material properties to temperature and the complexity of service environment of thermal protection system on the spacecraft, ultrahigh-temperature ceramics (UHTCs), which are used as thermal protection materials, cannot simply consider thermal shock resistance (TSR) of the material its own but need to take the external constraint conditions and the thermal environment into full account. With the thermal shock numerical simulation on hafnium diboride (HfB2), a detailed study of the effects of the different external constraints and thermal environments on the TSR of UHTCs had been made. The influences of different initial temperatures, constraint strengths, and temperature change rates on the TSR of UHTCs are discussed. This study can provide a more intuitively visual understanding of the evolution of the TSR of UHTCs during actual operation conditions.

  18. Numerical Simulation for Thermal Shock Resistance of Thermal Protection Materials Considering Different Operating Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the sensitivities of material properties to temperature and the complexity of service environment of thermal protection system on the spacecraft, ultrahigh-temperature ceramics (UHTCs, which are used as thermal protection materials, cannot simply consider thermal shock resistance (TSR of the material its own but need to take the external constraint conditions and the thermal environment into full account. With the thermal shock numerical simulation on hafnium diboride (HfB2, a detailed study of the effects of the different external constraints and thermal environments on the TSR of UHTCs had been made. The influences of different initial temperatures, constraint strengths, and temperature change rates on the TSR of UHTCs are discussed. This study can provide a more intuitively visual understanding of the evolution of the TSR of UHTCs during actual operation conditions.

  19. Metallic nanowire networks: effects of thermal annealing on electrical resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, D. P.; Lagrange, M.; Giusti, G.; Jiménez, C.; Bréchet, Y.; Nguyen, N. D.; Bellet, D.

    2014-10-01

    Metallic nanowire networks have huge potential in devices requiring transparent electrodes. This article describes how the electrical resistance of metal nanowire networks evolve under thermal annealing. Understanding the behavior of such films is crucial for the optimization of transparent electrodes which find many applications. An in-depth investigation of silver nanowire networks under different annealing conditions provides a case study demonstrating that several mechanisms, namely local sintering and desorption of organic residues, are responsible for the reduction of the systems electrical resistance. Optimization of the annealing led to specimens with transmittance of 90% (at 550 nm) and sheet resistance of 9.5 Ω sq-1. Quantized steps in resistance were observed and a model is proposed which provides good agreement with the experimental results. In terms of thermal behavior, we demonstrate that there is a maximum thermal budget that these electrodes can tolerate due to spheroidization of the nanowires. This budget is determined by two main factors: the thermal loading and the wire diameter. This result enables the fabrication and optimization of transparent metal nanowire electrodes for solar cells, organic electronics and flexible displays.

  20. Interfacial thermal resistance and thermal rectification in carbon nanotube film-copper systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zheng; Liu, Danyang; Zhang, Guang; Li, Qingwei; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan

    2017-03-02

    Thermal rectification occurring at interfaces is an important research area, which contains deep fundamental physics and has extensive application prospects. In general, the measurement of interfacial thermal rectification is based on measuring interfacial thermal resistance (ITR). However, ITRs measured via conventional methods cannot avoid extra thermal resistance asymmetry due to the contact between the sample and the thermometer. In this study, we employed a non-contact infrared thermal imager to monitor the temperature of super-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) films and obtain the ITRs between the CNT films and copper. The ITRs along the CNT-copper direction and the reverse direction are in the ranges of 2.2-3.6 cm(2) K W(-1) and 9.6-11.9 cm(2) K W(-1), respectively. The obvious difference in the ITRs of the two directions shows a significant thermal rectification effect, and the rectifying coefficient ranges between 0.57 and 0.68. The remarkable rectification factor is extremely promising for the manufacture of thermal transistors with a copper/CNT/copper structure and further thermal logic devices. Moreover, our method could be extended to other 2-dimensional materials, such as graphene and MoS2, for further explorations.

  1. Effects of hypoxia and ocean acidification on the upper thermal niche boundaries of coral reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, Rasmus; Johansen, Jacob L; Rummer, Jodie L; Esbaugh, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    Rising ocean temperatures are predicted to cause a poleward shift in the distribution of marine fishes occupying the extent of latitudes tolerable within their thermal range boundaries. A prevailing theory suggests that the upper thermal limits of fishes are constrained by hypoxia and ocean acidification. However, some eurythermal fish species do not conform to this theory, and maintain their upper thermal limits in hypoxia. Here we determine if the same is true for stenothermal species. In three coral reef fish species we tested the effect of hypoxia on upper thermal limits, measured as critical thermal maximum (CT max ). In one of these species we also quantified the effect of hypoxia on oxygen supply capacity, measured as aerobic scope (AS). In this species we also tested the effect of elevated CO 2 (simulated ocean acidification) on the hypoxia sensitivity of CT max We found that CT max was unaffected by progressive hypoxia down to approximately 35 mmHg, despite a substantial hypoxia-induced reduction in AS. Below approximately 35 mmHg, CT max declined sharply with water oxygen tension ( P w O 2 ). Furthermore, the hypoxia sensitivity of CT max was unaffected by elevated CO 2 Our findings show that moderate hypoxia and ocean acidification do not constrain the upper thermal limits of these tropical, stenothermal fishes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Design and Construction of a Thermal Contact Resistance and Thermal Conductivity Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    been applied successfully in research such as for measurement of fiberglass insulation by Sathe et al. [33] and is comprehensively discussed in Pratt...thermal conductivity [33], it cannot specifically measure thermal contact resistance at the interfaces, normally not necessary for fiberglass insulation...YVO(4), and Y(3)Al(5)O(12) measured by quasi-one-dimensional flash method,” Optics Express, vol. 14, no. 22, pp. 10528-10536, Oct. 2006. [29] Y

  3. Thermal Boundary Layer Effects on Line-of-Sight Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) Gas Concentration Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhechao; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2018-01-01

    The effects of thermal boundary layers on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) measurement results must be quantified when using the line-of-sight (LOS) TDLAS under conditions with spatial temperature gradient. In this paper, a new methodology based on spectral simulation is presented quantifying the LOS TDLAS measurement deviation under conditions with thermal boundary layers. The effects of different temperature gradients and thermal boundary layer thickness on spectral collisional widths and gas concentration measurements are quantified. A CO 2 TDLAS spectrometer, which has two gas cells to generate the spatial temperature gradients, was employed to validate the simulation results. The measured deviations and LOS averaged collisional widths are in very good agreement with the simulated results for conditions with different temperature gradients. We demonstrate quantification of thermal boundary layers' thickness with proposed method by exploitation of the LOS averaged the collisional width of the path-integrated spectrum.

  4. Importance of initial buoyancy field on evolution of mantle thermal structure: Implications of surface boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Glišović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there has been significant progress in the seismic imaging of mantle heterogeneity, the outstanding issue that remains to be resolved is the unknown distribution of mantle temperature anomalies in the distant geological past that give rise to the present-day anomalies inferred by global tomography models. To address this question, we present 3-D convection models in compressible and self-gravitating mantle initialised by different hypothetical temperature patterns. A notable feature of our forward convection modelling is the use of self-consistent coupling of the motion of surface tectonic plates to the underlying mantle flow, without imposing prescribed surface velocities (i.e., plate-like boundary condition. As an approximation for the surface mechanical conditions before plate tectonics began to operate we employ the no-slip (rigid boundary condition. A rigid boundary condition demonstrates that the initial thermally-dominated structure is preserved, and its geographical location is fixed during the evolution of mantle flow. Considering the impact of different assumed surface boundary conditions (rigid and plate-like on the evolution of thermal heterogeneity in the mantle we suggest that the intrinsic buoyancy of seven superplumes is most-likely resolved in the tomographic images of present-day mantle thermal structure. Our convection simulations with a plate-like boundary condition reveal that the evolution of an initial cold anomaly beneath the Java-Indonesian trench system yields a long-term, stable pattern of thermal heterogeneity in the lowermost mantle that resembles the present-day Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs, especially below the Pacific. The evolution of subduction zones may be, however, influenced by the mantle-wide flow driven by deeply-rooted and long-lived superplumes since Archean times. These convection models also detect the intrinsic buoyancy of the Perm Anomaly that has been identified as a unique

  5. Unsteady Casson nanofluid flow over a stretching sheet with thermal radiation, convective and slip boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibukun Sarah Oyelakin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on combined Dufour and Soret effects on the heat and mass transfer in a Casson nanofluid flow over an unsteady stretching sheet with thermal radiation and heat generation. The effects of partial slip on the velocity at the boundary, convective thermal boundary condition, Brownian and thermophoresis diffusion coefficients on the concentration boundary condition are investigated. The model equations are solved using the spectral relaxation method. The results indicate that the fluid flow, temperature and concentration profiles are significantly influenced by the fluid unsteadiness, the Casson parameter, magnetic parameter and the velocity slip. The effect of increasing the Casson parameter is to suppress the velocity and temperature growth. An increase in the Dufour parameter reduces the flow temperature, while an increase in the value of the Soret parameter causes increase in the concentration of the fluid. Again, increasing the velocity slip parameter reduces the velocity profile whereas increasing the heat generation parameter increases the temperature profile. A validation of the work is presented by comparing the current results with existing literature.

  6. Dynamic thermal characteristics of heat pipe via segmented thermal resistance model for electric vehicle battery cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifei; Lan, Fengchong; Chen, Jiqing

    2016-07-01

    Heat pipe cooling for battery thermal management systems (BTMSs) in electric vehicles (EVs) is growing due to its advantages of high cooling efficiency, compact structure and flexible geometry. Considering the transient conduction, phase change and uncertain thermal conditions in a heat pipe, it is challenging to obtain the dynamic thermal characteristics accurately in such complex heat and mass transfer process. In this paper, a ;segmented; thermal resistance model of a heat pipe is proposed based on thermal circuit method. The equivalent conductivities of different segments, viz. the evaporator and condenser of pipe, are used to determine their own thermal parameters and conditions integrated into the thermal model of battery for a complete three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The proposed ;segmented; model shows more precise than the ;non-segmented; model by the comparison of simulated and experimental temperature distribution and variation of an ultra-thin micro heat pipe (UMHP) battery pack, and has less calculation error to obtain dynamic thermal behavior for exact thermal design, management and control of heat pipe BTMSs. Using the ;segmented; model, the cooling effect of the UMHP pack with different natural/forced convection and arrangements is predicted, and the results correspond well to the tests.

  7. Aeroelastic analysis of versatile thermal insulation (VTI) panels with pinched boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Erasmo; Zappino, Enrico; Patočka, Karel; Komarek, Martin; Ferrarese, Adriano; Montabone, Mauro; Kotzias, Bernhard; Huermann, Brian; Schwane, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Launch vehicle design and analysis is a crucial problem in space engineering. The large range of external conditions and the complexity of space vehicles make the solution of the problem really challenging. The problem considered in the present work deals with the versatile thermal insulation (VTI) panel. This thermal protection system is designed to reduce heat fluxes on the LH2 tank during the long coasting phases. Because of the unconventional boundary conditions and the large-scale geometry of the panel, the aeroelastic behaviour of VTI is investigated in the present work. Known available results from literature related to similar problem, are reviewed by considering the effect of various Mach regimes, including boundary layer thickness effects, in-plane mechanical and thermal loads, non-linear effects and amplitude of limit cycle oscillations. A dedicated finite element model is developed for the supersonic regime. The models used for coupling the orthotropic layered structural model with Piston Theory aerodynamic models allow the calculations of flutter conditions in case of curved panels supported in a discrete number of points. An advanced computational aeroelasticity tool is developed using various dedicated commercial softwares (CFX, ZAERO, EDGE). A wind tunnel test campaign is carried out to assess the computational tool in the analysis of this type of problem.

  8. submitter Thermal stability of interface voids in Cu grain boundaries with molecular dynamic simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Xydou, A; Aicheler, M; Djurabekova, F

    2016-01-01

    By means of molecular dynamic simulations, the stability of cylindrical voids is examined with respect to the diffusion bonding procedure. To do this, the effect of grain boundaries between the grains of different crystallographic orientations on the void closing time was studied at high temperatures from 0.7 up to 0.94 of the bulk melting temperature $(T_m)$. The diameter of the voids varied from 3.5 to 6.5 nm. A thermal instability occurring at high temperatures at the surface of the void placed in a grain boundary triggered the eventual closure of the void at all examined temperatures. The closing time has an exponential dependence on the examined temperature values. A model based on the defect diffusion theory is developed to predict the closing time for voids of macroscopic size. The diffusion coefficient within the grain boundaries is found to be overall higher than the diffusion coefficient in the region around the void surface. The activation energy for the diffusion in the grain boundary is calculate...

  9. Dual reciprocity boundary element method for solving thermal wave model of bioheat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Lu, W

    1997-12-01

    The newly developed dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRBEM) was extended to solve the thermal wave model of bioheat transfer (TWMBT) and a practical algorithm was established. A preliminary simulation of the temperature evolution in a two dimensional zone under certain boundary conditions and micro wave heating was conducted as a numerical illustration for the method and some meaningful conclusions were drawn. The validity of DRBEM was testified through a comparison with finite difference method (FDM) under one-dimensional calculation. Owing to its unique advantages like not confined by the complex shape of biological bodies, no need of discretization of the inner domain, save vast CPU time and easy to deal with different bioheat models, DRBEM may become an important approach for predicting and controlling the transient temperature field of biological bodies under hyperthermia or hypothermia.

  10. How resistive must grain boundaries in polycrystalline superconductors be, to limit J c?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanmei; Raine, Mark J.; Hampshire, Damian P.

    2017-10-01

    Although we can use misorientation angle to distinguish the grain boundaries that can carry high critical current density ({J}{{c}}) in high temperature superconductors (HTS) from those that cannot, there is no established normal state property equivalent. In this paper, we explore the superconducting and normal state properties of the grains and grain boundaries of polycrystalline YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) using complementary magnetisation and transport measurements, and calculate how resistive grain boundaries must be to limit {J}{{c}} in polycrystalline superconductors. The average resistivity of the grain boundaries, {ρ }{{GB}}, in our micro- and nanocrystalline YBCO are 0.12 Ωm and 8.2 Ωm, values which are much higher than that of the grains ({ρ }{{G}}) and leads to huge {ρ }{{GB}}/{ρ }{{G}} values of 2 × 103 and 1.6 × 105 respectively. We find that the grain boundaries in our polycrystalline YBCO are sufficiently resistive that we can expect the transport {J}{{c}} to be several tens of orders of magnitude below the potential current density of the grains in our YBCO samples, as is found experimentally. Calculations presented show that increasing {J}{{c}} values by ˜2 orders of magnitude in high fields is still possible in all state-of-the-art technological high-field superconductors. We conclude: grain boundary engineering is unlikely to improve {J}{{c}} sufficiently in randomly aligned polycrystalline YBCO, to make it technologically useful for high-field applications; in low temperature superconducting intermetallics, such as Nb3Sn, large increases in {J}{{c}} may be achieved by completely removing the grain boundaries from these materials and, as is the case for thin films of Nb, Ba(FeCo)2As2 and HTS materials, by incorporating additional artificial pinning.

  11. Geothermal system boundary at the northern edge of Patuha Geothermal Field based on integrated study of volcanostratigraphy, geological field mapping, and cool springs contamination by thermal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryantini; Rachmawati, C.; Abdurrahman, M.

    2017-12-01

    Patuha Geothermal System is a volcanic hydrothermal system. In this type of system, the boundary of the system is often determined by low resistivity (10 ohm.m) anomaly from Magnetotelluric (MT) or DC-Resistivity survey. On the contrary, during geothermal exploration, the system boundary often need to be determined as early as possible even prior of resistivity data available. Thus, a method that use early stage survey data must be developed properly to reduce the uncertainty of the geothermal area extent delineation at the time the geophysical data unavailable. Geological field mapping, volcanostratigraphy analysis and fluid chemistry of thermal water and cold water are the data available at the early stage of exploration. This study integrates this data to delineate the geothermal system boundary. The geological mapping and volcanostratigraphy are constructed to limit the extent of thermal and cold springs. It results that springs in the study area are controlled hydrologically by topography of Patuha Volcanic Crown (complex) or so called PVC, the current geothermal field and Masigit Volcanic Crown (complex) or so called MVC, the dormant volcano not associated with active geothermal system. Some of the cold springs at PVC are contaminated by subsurface steam heated outflow while others are not contaminated. The contaminated cold springs have several characteristics such as higher water temperature than ambient temperature at the time it was measured, higher total disolved solid (TDS), and lower pH. The soluble elements analysis support the early contamination indication by showing higher cation and anion, and positive oxygen shifting of stable isotope of these cool springs. Where as the uncontaminated spring shows similar characteristic with cool springs occur at MVC. The boundary of the system is delineated by an arbitrary line drawn between distal thermal springs from the upflow or contaminated cool springs with the cool uncontaminated springs. This boundary is

  12. Application of conventional propagation resistivity logging for formation boundary identification in geosteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhen; Pan, Heping; Wu, Aiping; Yang, Huaijie; Hu, Ting; Hou, Min; Wang, Zhonghao

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies indicate that the polarization horn effect of conventional propagation resistivity (CPR) logs will occur once the logging tool is close to or passes through the boundary between high conductivity contrast layers with a small relative angle. Polarization horns cannot be used to distinguish between the top or bottom boundary. This situation disturbs the application of CPR in geosteering. Considering the cycle sequence features in sedimentary formation, e.g. fining upward sequence, coarsening upward sequence and massive cycle, they can be identified by analyzing the shapes of spontaneous potential (SP) or gamma-ray (GR) logs in logging geologic analysis. Previous studies mostly focused on the ideal medium formation models, which can only represent the massive cycle. Thus in this study, the fining upward sequence and coarsening upward sequence formation models are established, and the logging responses of CPR in the two formation models are simulated under the condition of horizontal well. The simulation analysis shows that polarization horns will either occur at the top boundary in the coarsening upward sequence or at the bottom boundary in the fining upward sequence, if the influence of formation thickness and mud invasion is ignored. The occurrence probability density chart is plotted to determine that polarization horns will occur in what formation resistivity contrast and deviation conditions. In order to identify the top or bottom boundary in sedimentary formation using CPR, a convenient method is established to facilitate geosteering. Firstly, the cycle type of the subject reservoir should be determined by analyzing the SP or GR logs of the offset wells. Secondly, the top boundary in coarsening upward sequence and the bottom boundary in fining upward sequence can be identified by using the occurred polarization horns of CPR logs. Finally, when the tool is close to the boundary, the rough distance from CPR tool to the top boundary (in coarsening

  13. Implementation aspects of the Boundary Element Method including viscous and thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of viscous and thermal losses using the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is based on the Kirchhoff’s dispersion relation and has been tested in previous work using analytical test cases and comparison with measurements. Numerical methods that can simulate sound fields in fluids...... including losses are particularly interesting whenever small cavities and narrow passages are present, as is the case with many acoustic devices such as transducers and small audio appliances. The present paper describes current work aimed at improving the method by addressing some specific issues related...

  14. Effects of air pollution on thermal structure and dispersion in an urban planetary boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viskanta, R.; Johnson, R. O.; Bergstrom, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The short-term effects of urbanization and air pollution on the transport processes in the urban planetary boundary layer (PBL) are studied. The investigation makes use of an unsteady two-dimensional transport model which has been developed by Viskanta et al., (1976). The model predicts pollutant concentrations and temperature in the PBL. The potential effects of urbanization and air pollution on the thermal structure in the urban PBL are considered, taking into account the results of numerical simulations modeling the St. Louis, Missouri metropolitan area.

  15. Methods for estimating pressure and thermal loads induced by elevon deflections on hypersonic-vehicle surfaces with turbulent boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, L. G., II; Johnson, C. B.

    1981-09-01

    Empirical anaytic methods are presented for calculating thermal and pressure distributions in three-dimensional, shock-wave turbulent-boundary-layer, interaction-flow regions on the surface of controllable hypersonic aircraft and missiles. The methods, based on several experimental investigations, are useful and reliable for estimating both the extent and magnitude of the increased thermal and pressure loads on the vehicle surfaces.

  16. [Savants and cultutal boundaries. Thermalism in Savoy and the work of Joseph Daquin (1732-1815)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpanetto, Dino

    2008-01-01

    The essay sets out to explain the general orientation of the studies, the problems, the perspectives and the research that were done by Joseph Daquin (1732-1815), a physician born in Chambéry (Savoy, Kingdom of Sardinia). He had a secular education at the Faculty of Medicine of Turin, where he earned his degree under Ignazio Somis and Vitaliano Donati. The aim of this essay is to give a critical contribution to cultural history and examine the origins of thermalism with particular emphasis on therapy, physics experiments, and its relation to political and social structure. Daquin was a witness of the advancement of science beyond the boundaries of scientific Enlightenment. His overriding intellectual concern was with the meaning and impact of chemistry theories on medical practices. The author has published an interesting Analyse des eaux thermales d'Aix en Savoie (1773), a natural experimental history of mineral waters in Aix-les-Bains.

  17. Modelling of hydrogen thermal desorption spectrum in nonlinear dynamical boundary-value problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostikova, E. K.; Zaika, Yu V.

    2016-11-01

    One of the technological challenges for hydrogen materials science (including the ITER project) is the currently active search for structural materials with various potential applications that will have predetermined limits of hydrogen permeability. One of the experimental methods is thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS). A hydrogen-saturated sample is degassed under vacuum and monotone heating. The desorption flux is measured by mass spectrometer to determine the character of interactions of hydrogen isotopes with the solid. We are interested in such transfer parameters as the coefficients of diffusion, dissolution, desorption. The paper presents a distributed boundary-value problem of thermal desorption and a numerical method for TDS spectrum simulation, where only integration of a nonlinear system of low order (compared with, e.g., the method of lines) ordinary differential equations (ODE) is required. This work is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 15-01-00744).

  18. Unsteady Radiative-Convective Boundary-Layer Flow of a Casson Fluid with Variable Thermal Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M. Gnaneswara

    2015-01-01

    The unsteady two-dimensional flow of a non-Newtonian fluid over a stretching surface with the effects of thermal radiation and variable thermal conductivity is investigated. The Casson fluid model is used to characterize the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. First, using a similarity transformation, the governing time-dependent partial differential equations are transformed into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients. Then the transformed equations are solved numerically under appropriate boundary conditions by the shooting method. An exact solution corresponding to the momentum equation for a steady case is found. The obtained numerical results are analyzed as to the effect of the pertinent parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics.

  19. Evaluation of landfill disposal boundary by means of electrical resistivity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Vladimir; Liskevich, Gady; Doudkinski, Dmitriy; Korostishevsky, Nikolay

    2008-02-01

    This paper deals with an employment of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) for survey of leachate content on the waste disposal site in Northern Israel. The research consisted of conducting ten ERI lines and drilling investigation wells. Data simulation used a 2D EarthImager inversion program. Analysis of 2D ERI interpretation results shows that determination of the boundary between the landfill body bottom intensively saturated with leachates and underlying layers of highly water saturated fat nonconsolidated clays presents a challenge. However, statistical analysis of ERI data indicates that standard deviation and confidence interval of a set of resistivity data measured in the landfill body are significantly larger than those in underlying clays. Moreover, maximum changes of these parameters are found on the boundary between landfill body and underlying soil, thus reflecting natural differences in scattering of resistivity data measured in these two objects.

  20. Effects of pressure and temperature on thermal contact resistance between different materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore whether pressure and temperature can affect thermal contact resistance, we have proposed a new experimental approach for measurement of the thermal contact resistance. Taking the thermal contact resistance between phenolic resin and carbon-carbon composites, cuprum, and aluminum as the examples, the influence of the thermal contact resistance between specimens under pressure is tested by experiment. Two groups of experiments are performed and then an analysis on influencing factors of the thermal contact resistance is presented in this paper. The experimental results reveal that the thermal contact resistance depends not only on the thermal conductivity coefficient of materials, but on the interfacial temperature and pressure. Furthermore, the thermal contact resistance between cuprum and aluminum is more sensitive to pressure and temperature than that between phenolic resin and carbon-carbon composites.

  1. INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF MULTILAYERED FIRE RESISTANT STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. GUOBYS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior under real fire conditions of new generation multilayered fire resistant structure (fire door, dimensions H × W × D: 2090 × 980 × 52 mm combining high strength and fire safety. This fire door consists of two steel sheets (thickness 1.5 and 0.7 mm with stone wool ( = 33 kg/m3, k = 0.037 W/mK, E = 5000 N/m2,  = 0.2 insulating layer in between. One surface of the structure was heated in fire furnace for specified period of time of 60 min. Temperature and deformation of opposite surface were measured from outside at selected measuring points during fire resistance test. Results are presented as temperature-time and thermal deformation-time graphs. Experimental results were compared with numerical temperature field simulation results obtained from SolidWorks®Simulation software. Numerical results were found to be in good agreement with experimental data. The percent differences between door temperatures from simulation and fire resistance test don’t exceed 8%. This shows that thermal behaviour of such multilayered structures can be investigated numerically, thus avoiding costly and time-consuming fire resistance tests. It is established that investigated structure should be installed in a way that places thicker steel sheet closer to the potential heat source than thinner one. It is also obtained that stone wool layer of higher density should be used to improve fire resistance of the structure.

  2. Thermal Loads on a Domed Protuberance Under a Mach 5.7 Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoich, Christopher; Bodony, Daniel; Geubelle, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    A high-fidelity, high-accuracy multi-physics computational tool has been developed to make predictions of structural-thermal response in the hypersonic regime. The predicted surface heat flux distribution was compared with measured data taken from a 1986 experiment in the NASA Langley 8-foot high-temperature tunnel in which a flat plate with a domed protuberance was inserted into a Mach 6.59 flow. The solution from the fluid and thermal domains obtained from the coupled simulation, with experimental comparisons, will be presented. In addition to the typical heating associated with windward-facing surfaces, several other sources of significant differential heating were observed near the dome-plate interface and due to a trailing horseshoe vortex of small size. Data were collected over a long time record (50 seconds) and comments will be given about ignoring transient thermal effects in hypersonic boundary layer calculations. An assessment of gas thermal model assumptions will also be discussed. Supported by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory Air Vehicles Directorate under contract number FA8650-06-2-3620.

  3. Thermal conductivity and contact resistance of metal foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, E [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Hsieh, S; Bahrami, M, E-mail: ehsans@uvic.ca [Mechatronic Systems Engineering, School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, BC, V3T 0A3 (Canada)

    2011-03-30

    Accurate information on heat transfer and temperature distribution in metal foams is necessary for design and modelling of thermal-hydraulic systems incorporating metal foams. The analysis of heat transfer requires determination of the effective thermal conductivity as well as the thermal contact resistance (TCR) associated with the interface between the metal foam and the adjacent surfaces/layers. In this study, a test bed that allows the separation of effective thermal conductivity and TCR in metal foams is described. Measurements are performed in a vacuum under varying compressive loads using ERG Duocel aluminium foam samples with different porosities and pore densities. Also, a graphical method associated with a computer code is developed to demonstrate the distribution of contact spots and estimate the real contact area at the interface. Our results show that the porosity and the effective thermal conductivity remain unchanged with the variation of compression in the range 0-2 MPa; but TCR decreases significantly with pressure due to an increase in the real contact area at the interface. Moreover, the ratio of real to nominal contact area varies between 0 and 0.013, depending upon the compressive force, porosity, pore density and surface characteristics.

  4. Effects of thermal aging on the microstructure of Type-II boundaries in dissimilar metal weld joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung Chang; Choi, Kyoung Joon [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Bahn, Chi Bum [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, 63-gil, Geumjeong-Gu, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Si Hoon; Kim, Ju Young [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyun, E-mail: kimjh@unist.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    In order to investigate the effects of long-term thermal aging on the microstructural evolution of Type-II boundary regions in the weld metal of Alloy 152, a representative dissimilar metal weld was fabricated from Alloy 690, Alloy 152, and A533 Gr.B. This mock-up was thermally aged at 450 °C to accelerate the effects of thermal aging in a nuclear power plant operation condition (320 °C). The microstructure of the Type-II boundary region of the weld root, which is parallel to and within 100 μm of the fusion boundary and known to be more susceptible to material degradation, was then characterized after different aging times using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope for micro-compositional analysis, electron backscattered diffraction detector for grain and grain boundary orientation analysis, and a nanoindenter for measurement of mechanical properties. Through this, it was found that a steep compositional gradient and high grain average misorientation is created in the narrow zone between the Type-II and fusion boundaries, while the concentration of chromium and number of low-angle grain boundaries increases with aging time. A high average hardness was also observed in the same region of the dissimilar metal welds, with hardness peaking with thermal aging simulating an operational time of 15 years.

  5. Effects of thermal aging on the microstructure of Type-II boundaries in dissimilar metal weld joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung Chang; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Bahn, Chi Bum; Kim, Si Hoon; Kim, Ju Young; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate the effects of long-term thermal aging on the microstructural evolution of Type-II boundary regions in the weld metal of Alloy 152, a representative dissimilar metal weld was fabricated from Alloy 690, Alloy 152, and A533 Gr.B. This mock-up was thermally aged at 450 °C to accelerate the effects of thermal aging in a nuclear power plant operation condition (320 °C). The microstructure of the Type-II boundary region of the weld root, which is parallel to and within 100 μm of the fusion boundary and known to be more susceptible to material degradation, was then characterized after different aging times using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope for micro-compositional analysis, electron backscattered diffraction detector for grain and grain boundary orientation analysis, and a nanoindenter for measurement of mechanical properties. Through this, it was found that a steep compositional gradient and high grain average misorientation is created in the narrow zone between the Type-II and fusion boundaries, while the concentration of chromium and number of low-angle grain boundaries increases with aging time. A high average hardness was also observed in the same region of the dissimilar metal welds, with hardness peaking with thermal aging simulating an operational time of 15 years.

  6. Constraints on core-mantle boundary topography from models of thermal and thermochemical convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Frédéric; Rogister, Yves; Tackley, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    Mantle flow induces dynamic topography at the core-mantle boundary (CMB), with distribution and amplitude that depend on details of the flow. To assess whether observations of CMB topography can give constraints on deep mantle structure, we determine CMB dynamic topography associated with different models of mantle convection, including thermochemical and purely thermal models. We investigate the influence of key controlling parameters, specifically the thermal viscosity ratio (ΔηT) and, for thermochemical models, the density contrast (ΔρC) and viscosity ratio (ΔηC) between primordial and regular materials. In purely thermal models, plume clusters induce positive topography with an amplitude that decreases with increasing ΔηT. In thermochemical models with moderate density contrasts, around 100-200 kg m-3, reservoirs of dense material induce depressions in CMB topography, surrounded by a ridge of positive topography. The average depression depth and ridge height increase with increasing ΔρC and ΔηC, but decrease with increasing ΔηT. We find that for purely thermal models or thermochemical models with ΔρC ˜ 90 kg m-3 and less, the long-wavelength (spherical harmonic degrees up to l = 4) dynamic topography and shear wave velocity anomalies predicted by thermochemical distributions anticorrelate. By contrast, for models with ΔρC ≥ 100 kg m-3 and ΔηC > 1, long-wavelength dynamic topography and shear wave velocity anomalies correlate well. This potentially provides a test to infer the nature, that is, either purely or mostly thermal (ΔρC ≤ 100 kg m-3 m-3) or strongly thermochemical (ΔρC ≥ 100 kg m-3), of the low shear wave velocity provinces observed by global tomographic images. The presence of post-perovskite, provided that its viscosity is similar to that of bridgmanite, does not alter these conclusions.

  7. The effect of electron scattering from disordered grain boundaries on the resistivity of metallic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, Claudio [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Casilla 487-3, Santiago 8370449 (Chile); Synopsys Inc., Avenida Vitacura 5250, Oficina 708, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Henriquez, Ricardo [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Moraga, Luis [Universidad Central de Chile, Toesca 1783, Santiago (Chile); Muñoz, Enrique [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 7820436 (Chile); Munoz, Raul C., E-mail: ramunoz@ing.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Casilla 487-3, Santiago 8370449 (Chile)

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • Quantum theory of the resistivity arising from electron-grain boundary scattering in nanometric metallic structures. • The resistivity is controlled by the collective properties of the grain assembly, by the allowed Kronig-Penney (KP) bands and by the electron transmission probability across successive grains. • When the grain diameter d is larger than the electron mean free path l, the increase in resistivity arises mainly from a decrease of the number of states at the Fermi surface that are allowed KP bands. • When the grain diameter d is smaller than the electron mean free path l, the increase in resistivity arises primarily from Anderson localization caused by electron transmission across successive grains. - Abstract: We calculate the electrical resistivity of a metallic specimen, under the combined effects of electron scattering by impurities, grain boundaries, and rough surfaces limiting the film, using a quantum theory based upon the Kubo formalism. Grain boundaries are represented by a one-dimensional periodic array of Dirac delta functions separated by a distance “d” giving rise to a Kronig–Penney (KP) potential. We use the Green's function built from the wave functions that are solutions of this KP potential; disorder is included by incorporating into the theory the probability that an electron is transmitted through several successive grain boundaries. We apply this new theory to analyze the resistivity of samples S1, S2, S7 and S8 measured between 4 and 300 K reported in Appl. Surf. Science273, 315 (2013). Although both the classical and the quantum theories predict a resistivity that agrees with experimental data to within a few percent or better, the phenomena giving rise to the increase of resistivity over the bulk are remarkably different. Classically, each grain boundary contributes to the electrical resistance by reflecting a certain fraction of the incoming electrons. In the quantum description, there are states

  8. Slip effects on MHD boundary layer flow over an exponentially stretching sheet with suction/blowing and thermal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Mukhopadhyay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The boundary layer flow and heat transfer towards a porous exponential stretching sheet in presence of a magnetic field is presented in this analysis. Velocity slip and thermal slip are considered instead of no-slip conditions at the boundary. Thermal radiation term is incorporated in the temperature equation. Similarity transformations are used to convert the partial differential equations corresponding to the momentum and energy equations into non-linear ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions of these equations are obtained by shooting method. It is found that the horizontal velocity decreases with increasing slip parameter as well as with the increasing magnetic parameter. Temperature increases with the increasing values of magnetic parameter. Temperature is found to decrease with an increase of thermal slip parameter. Thermal radiation enhances the effective thermal diffusivity and the temperature rises.

  9. Effects of internal heat generation, thermal radiation and buoyancy force on a boundary layer over a vertical plate with a convective surface boundary condition

    OpenAIRE

    Tasawar Hayat; Awatif A. Hendi; Jacob A. Gbadeyan; Philip O. Olanrewaju

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the effects of internal heat generation, thermal radiation and buoyancy force on the laminar boundary layer about a vertical plate in a uniform stream of fluid under a convective surface boundary condition. In the analysis, we assumed that the left surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid whilst a stream of cold fluid flows steadily over the right surface; the heat source decays exponentially outwards from the surface of the plate. The similarity variable m...

  10. Crossing the Traditional Boundaries: Salen-Based Schiff Bases for Thermal Protective Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Anil D; Fontaine, Gaëlle; Bellayer, Séverine; Bourbigot, Serge

    2015-09-30

    A broad spectrum of applications of "Salen"-based Schiff bases tagged them as versatile multifunctional materials. However, their applicability is often bounded by a temperature threshold and, thus, they have rarely been used for high temperature applications. Our investigation of a classical Schiff base, N,N'-bis(4-hydroxysalicylidene)ethylenediamine (L2), reveals that it displays an intriguingly combative response to an elevated temperature/fire scenario. L2 resists and regulates thermal degradation by forming an ablative surface, and acts as a thermal shield. A polycondensation via covalent cross-linking, which forms a hyperbranched cross-linked resin is found to constitute the origin of the ablative surface. This is a unique example of a resin formation produced with a Schiff base, that mimicks the operational strategy of a high-heat resistant phenolic resin. Further applicability of L2, as a flame retardant, was tested in an engineering polymer, polyamide-6. It was found that it reinforces the polymer against fire risks by the formation of an intumescent coating. This paves the way for a new strategic avenue in safeguarding polymeric materials toward fire risks. Further, this material represents a promising start for thermal protective applications.

  11. Influence of the angle between the wind and the isothermal surfaces on the boundary layer structures in turbulent thermal convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, Olga; Wagner, Sebastian; Horn, Susanne

    2014-03-01

    We derive the asymptotes for the ratio of the thermal to viscous boundary layer thicknesses for infinite and infinitesimal Prandtl numbers Pr as functions of the angle β between the large-scale circulation and an isothermal heated or cooled surface for the case of turbulent thermal convection with laminar-like boundary layers. For this purpose, we apply the Falkner-Skan ansatz, which is a generalization of the Prandtl-Blasius one to a nonhorizontal free-stream flow above the viscous boundary layer. Based on our direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection for Pr=0.1, 1, and 10 and moderate Rayleigh numbers up to 108 we evaluate the value of β that is found to be around 0.7π for all investigated cases. Our theoretical predictions for the boundary layer thicknesses for this β and the considered Pr are in good agreement with the DNS results.

  12. Three-dimensional potentials for a telegrapher's equation and their application to boundary problems of thermal conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical solution is worked out for solving direct and inverse linear boundary problems on thermal conductivity where the heat transfer process is assumed to occur at a finite velocity. Three-dimensional potentials for a simple and binary layers and volume are introduced for the telegrapher's equation. Within the limiting cases of a parabolic and wave equation, they transfer to the corresponding heat and wave potentials. The introduced potentials make it possible to reduce the internal boundary problems of thermal conductivity to second order integral-differential equations. In addition, the potentials of the telegrapher's equation are used to reduce a linear three-dimensional boundary inverse problem on thermal conductivity to a system composed of integral-differential equations of the second order and a certain integral condition for two coordinate and time functions. 9 references.

  13. Studying boundary elements’ behaviour using masonry walls built with high-resistance bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Restrepo Mejía

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at studying the behaviour of masonry walls built with and without boundary elements at both ends when sublected to monotonic and cyclic lateral loads. The walls were designed to have the greatest resistance, following NSR-98 recommendations (normas Colombianas de diseno y construcción sismo resistente, except for shear reinforcement. XTRACT software was used for finding axial load cf bending moment and curvature cf bending moment curves. One monotonic test and two cyclic tests were performed for each type of wall. Experimental results from the walls’ lateral load cf displacement curves were used for determining their ability to dissipate energy on an inelastic range (“R” force-reduction factor for seismic loads and displacement and curvature malleability. It was found that walls built without boundary elements suffered shear failure with cracks in a stepped configuration along the bricks’ edge. The type of failure for walls built with boundary elements was shear failure in the central panel with cracks in a stepped configuration, in addition to compression failure at the edge of the boundary elements with vertical cracks on the lower part of the wall and at the contact between the wall and the boundary element. Comparison with two other studies carried out at the Universidad Nacional showed similar cyclic behaviour, regardless of the clay brick’s strength. The “R” values obtained for both types of walls were lower than the recommended values given by NSR-98. It was determined that walls having boundary element have greater displacement malleability than walls without boundary elements.

  14. Studying boundary elements’ behaviour using masonry walls built with high-resistance bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Restrepo Mejía

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at studying the behaviour of masonry walls built with and without boundary elements at both ends when sublected to monotonic and cyclic lateral loads. The walls were designed to have the greatest resistance, following NSR-98 recommendations (normas Colombianas de diseno y construcción sismo resistente, except for shear reinforcement. XTRACT software was used for finding axial load cf bending moment and curvature cf bending moment curves. One monotonic test and two cyclic tests were performed for each type of wall. Experimental results from the walls’ lateral load cf displacement curves were used for determining their ability to dissipate energy on an inelastic range (“R” force-reduction factor for seismic loads and displacement and curvature malleability. It was found that walls built without boundary elements suffered shear failure with cracks in a stepped configuration along the bricks’ edge. The type of failure for walls built with boundary elements was shear failure in the central panel with cracks in a stepped configuration, in addition to compression failure at the edge of the boundary elements with vertical cracks on the lower part of the wall and at the contact between the wall and the boundary element. Comparison with two other studies carried out at the Universidad Nacional showed similar cyclic behaviour, regardless of the clay brick’s strength. The “R” values obtained for both types of walls were lower than the recommended values given by NSR-98. It was determined that walls having boundary element have greater displacement malleability than walls without boundary elements.

  15. Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow Embedded in a Thermally Stratified Porous Medium Saturated by a Nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizi Mat Yasin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the numerical investigation of the steady mixed convection boundary layer flow over a vertical surface embedded in a thermally stratified porous medium saturated by a nanofluid. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to the ordinary differential equations, using the similarity transformations. The similarity equations are solved numerically for three types of metallic or nonmetallic nanoparticles, namely, copper (Cu, alumina (Al2O3, and titania (TiO2, in a water-based fluid to investigate the effect of the solid volume fraction or nanoparticle volume fraction parameter φ of the nanofluid on the flow and heat transfer characteristics. The skin friction coefficient and the velocity and temperature profiles are presented and discussed.

  16. Boundary Layer Separation and Reattachment Detection on Airfoils by Thermal Flow Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Busche

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A sensor concept for detection of boundary layer separation (flow separation, stall and reattachment on airfoils is introduced in this paper. Boundary layer separation and reattachment are phenomena of fluid mechanics showing characteristics of extinction and even inversion of the flow velocity on an overflowed surface. The flow sensor used in this work is able to measure the flow velocity in terms of direction and quantity at the sensor’s position and expected to determine those specific flow conditions. Therefore, an array of thermal flow sensors has been integrated (flush-mounted on an airfoil and placed in a wind tunnel for measurement. Sensor signals have been recorded at different wind speeds and angles of attack for different positions on the airfoil. The sensors used here are based on the change of temperature distribution on a membrane (calorimetric principle. Thermopiles are used as temperature sensors in this approach offering a baseline free sensor signal, which is favorable for measurements at zero flow. Measurement results show clear separation points (zero flow and even negative flow values (back flow for all sensor positions. In addition to standard silicon-based flow sensors, a polymer-based flexible approach has been tested showing similar results.

  17. Relation between the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Impact Factors under Severe Surface Thermal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinhuan Ao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reported a comprehensive analysis on the diurnal variation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL in summer of Badain Jaran Desert and discussed deeply the effect of surface thermal to ABL, including the Difference in Surface-Air Temperature (DSAT, net radiation, and sensible heat, based on limited GPS radiosonde and surface observation data during two intense observation periods of experiments. The results showed that (1 affected by topography of the Tibetan Plateau, the climate provided favorable external conditions for the development of Convective Boundary Layer (CBL, (2 deep CBL showed a diurnal variation of three- to five-layer structure in clear days and five-layer ABL structure often occurred about sunset or sunrise, (3 the diurnal variation of DSAT influenced thickness of ABL through changes of turbulent heat flux, (4 integral value of sensible heat which rapidly converted by surface net radiation had a significant influence on the growth of CBL throughout daytime. The cumulative effect of thick RML dominated the role after CBL got through SBL in the development stage, especially in late summer, and (5 the development of CBL was promoted and accelerated by the variation of wind field and distribution of warm advection in high and low altitude.

  18. Identification and analysis of factors affecting thermal shock resistance of ceramic materials in solar receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselman, D. P. H.; Singh, J. P.; Satyamurthy, K.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis was conducted of the possible modes of thermal stress failure of brittle ceramics for potential use in point-focussing solar receivers. The pertinent materials properties which control thermal stress resistance were identified for conditions of steady-state and transient heat flow, convective and radiative heat transfer, thermal buckling and thermal fatigue as well as catastrophic crack propagation. Selection rules for materials with optimum thermal stress resistance for a particular thermal environment were identified. Recommendations for materials for particular components were made. The general requirements for a thermal shock testing program quantitatively meaningful for point-focussing solar receivers were outlined. Recommendations for follow-on theoretical analyses were made.

  19. Characterisation of net type thermal insulators at 1.8 K low boundary temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Peón-Hernández, G; Szeless, Balázs

    1997-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider's superconducting magnets are cooled by superfluid helium at 1.8 K and housed in cryostats that minimise the heat inleak to this temperature level by extracting heat at 70 and 5 K. In the first generation of prototype cryostats, the radiative heat to the 1.8 K temperature level accounted for 70 % of the total heat inleak. An alternative to enhance the cryostat thermal performance incorporates a thermalised radiation screen at 5 K. In order to avoid contact between the 5 K radiation screen and the cold mass, insulators are placed between both surfaces. Sets of commercial fibre glass nets are insulator candidates to minimise the heat inleak caused by a accidental contact between the two temperature levels. A model to estimate their performance is presented. A set-up to thermally characterise them has been designed and is also described in the paper. Finally, results as a function of the number of the spacer nets, the boundary temperatures and the compressive force in the spacer are pre...

  20. Role of fluttering dislocations in the thermal interface resistance between a silicon crystal and plastic solid 4He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrit, Jay; Ramiere, Aymeric; Volz, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    A quantum solid (solid 4He) in contact with a classical solid defines a new class of interfaces. In addition to its quantum nature, solid 4He is indeed a very plastic medium. We examine the thermal interface resistance upon solidification of superfluid 4He in contact with a silicon crystal surface (111) and show that dislocations play a crucial role in the thermal interface transport. The growth of solid 4He and the measurements are conducted at the minimum of the melting curve of helium (0.778 K and ˜25 bar ). The results display a first-order transition in the Kapitza resistance from a value of RK ,L=(80 ±8 ) c m2K /W at a pressure of 24.5 bar to a value of RK ,S=(41.7 ±8 ) c m2K /W after the formation of solid helium at ˜25.2 bar . The drop in RK ,S is only of a factor of ˜2 , although transverse phonon modes in solid 4He now participate in heat transmission at the interface. We provide an explanation for the measured RK ,S by considering the interaction of thermal phonons with vibrating dislocations in solid 4He. We demonstrate that this mechanism, also called fluttering, induces a thermal resistance RF l∝NdT-6 , where T is the temperature and Nd is the density of dislocations. We estimate that for dislocation densities on the order of ˜107c m-2 , RF l predominates over the boundary resistance RK ,S. These fundamental findings shed light on the role of dislocations and provide a quantitative explanation for previous experiments which showed no measurable change in the Kapitza resistance between Cu and superfluid 4He upon solidification of the latter. This demonstrates the possibility of using dislocations as an additional means to tailor thermal resistances at interfaces, formed especially with a plastic material.

  1. Selection and Evaluation of Thermal Interface Materials for Reduction of the Thermal Contact Resistance of Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Iida, Tsutomu; Sekiguchi, Takeshi; Taguchi, Yutaka; Hirayama, Naomi; Nishio, Keishi; Takanashi, Yoshifumi

    2014-10-01

    A variety of thermal interface materials (TIMs) were investigated to find a suitable TIM for improving the performance of thermoelectric power generators (TEGs) operating in the medium-temperature range (600-900 K). The thermal resistance at the thermal interface between which the TIM was inserted was evaluated. The TIMs were chosen on the basis of their thermal stability when used with TEGs operating at medium temperatures, their electrical insulating properties, their thermal conductivity, and their thickness. The results suggest that the boron nitride (BN)-based ceramic coating, Whity Paint, and the polyurethane-based sheet, TSU700-H, are suitable TIMs for the heat source and heat sink sides, respectively, of the TEG. Use of these effectively enhances TEG performance because they reduce the thermal contact resistance at the thermal interface.

  2. An investigation of thermal resistance in single- and multiple-cell GaAs MESFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.-C.; Bahrami, M.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal resistances among FETs of a variable number of gates in parallel are compared. Although the thermal resistance per cell for multiple cells is higher, the total thermal resistance is still low because all the cells are parallel to one another. This implies that the multiple-cell structure is capable of dissipating more power than the single-cell structure and therefore of being used as a power FET.

  3. Basic thermal-mechanical properties and thermal shock, fatigue resistance of swaged + rolled potassium doped tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxin; Yan, Qingzhi; Lang, Shaoting; Xia, Min; Ge, Changchun

    2014-09-01

    The potassium doped tungsten (W-K) grade was achieved via swaging + rolling process. The swaged + rolled W-K alloy exhibited acceptable thermal conductivity of 159.1 W/m K and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of about 873 K while inferior mechanical properties attributed to the coarse pores and small deformation degree. Then the thermal shock, fatigue resistance of the W-K grade were characterized by an electron beam facility. Thermal shock tests were conducted at absorbed power densities varied from 0.22 to 1.1 GW/m2 in a step of 0.22 GW/m2. The cracking threshold was in the range of 0.44-0.66 GW/m2. Furthermore, recrystallization occurred in the subsurface of the specimens tested at 0.66-1.1 GW/m2 basing on the analysis of microhardness and microstructure. Thermal fatigue tests were performed at 0.44 GW/m2 up to 1000 cycles and no cracks emerged throughout the tests. Moreover, recrystallization occurred after 1000 cycles.

  4. A Numerical Model of an Acoustic Metamaterial Using the Boundary Element Method Including Viscous and Thermal Losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Andersen, Peter Risby; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, boundary element method (BEM) and finite element method (FEM) implementations of acoustics in fluids with viscous and thermal losses have been developed. They are based on the linearized Navier–Stokes equations with no flow. In this paper, such models with acoustic losses...

  5. A Numerical Model of an Acoustic Metamaterial Using the Boundary Element Method Including Viscous and Thermal Losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Andersen, Peter Risby; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, boundary element method (BEM) and finite element method (FEM) implementations of acoustics in fluids with viscous and thermal losses have been developed. They are based on the linearized Navier–Stokes equations with no flow. In this paper, such models with acoustic losses are app...

  6. Thermal Contact Resistance Estimation: Influence of the Pressure Contact and the Coating Layer during a Hot Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhay, B.; Bourouga, B.; Dessain, C.

    2011-05-01

    The application of hot stamping in the automotive industry has experienced a fast growth due to the need for higher passive safety and weight reduction. Today, it is absolutely necessary to have reliable and accurate simulation predictions in order to assess the forming feasibility of a part as early as possible during the car design phase. In this paper, an original experimental procedure developed to estimate the thermal conductance at the Part-Tools interfaces during a hot stamping process, is presented. The tools set (punch and die) have been designed to form samples with an omega shape. Two types of material have been stamped: the Usibor 1500P® and the 22MnB5 galvanized steel. The object is to describe correctly the thermal boundary conditions at the Part-Tools interfaces; the adopted procedure consists in estimating accurately the thermal contact resistance TCR at different contact points for different contact pressure values.

  7. ANALYSIS OF EXCESSIVE HEATING ON THE THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE OF A POLYMER ELECTROLYTE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. Atan; W. A. N. W. Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    .... An analytical method by which the electrical resistance is evaluated based on the polarisation curve and the thermal resistance from the mass balance, was applied to a 72-cell PEM fuel cell assembly...

  8. The role of interfacial disorder on thermal interface resistance (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feser, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    At conformal interfaces between dissimilar materials, a finite thermal resistance develops, governed by the transmission behavior of phonons. Understanding the engineering opportunities available for such interfaces thus requires an understanding of phonon transmission behavior. Due to its simplicity, the diffuse mismatch model (DMM) remains a popular description of phonon transmission across solid-solid boundaries. However, it remains unclear in which situations the DMM is good description of the underlying physics. In this talk we present theoretical and experimental observations of interfaces with tailored degrees of disorder. Using a 3-dimensional extension of the frequency domain, perfectly matched layer (FD-PML) method, we probe the validity of the diffuse mismatch model (DMM) on a mode-by-mode basis at the interface between solids with interdiffused atoms. It is found that small levels of disorder at an interface can increase the number of available modes for transmission, and subsequently reduce thermal interface resistance. These general observations are consistent with the DMM, and for submonolayer levels of interdiffusion, similar thermal interface conductance values as the DMM are seen. However, the mode-by-mode predictions of transmission coefficient vary drastically from the DMM. Particularly, (1) contrary to the fundamental assumption of the DMM, not all modes lose memory of their initial polarization and wavevector. (2) Interdiffusion in excess of a monolayer is generally found to make agreement between the DMM and the simulations worse, not better. On the other hand, experimental measurements between epitaxial and non-epitaxial versions of the same material interfaces indicate that the detailed structure of the interfaces are unimportant to the transport properties: a key result of the DMM.

  9. A New Type of Carbon Resistance Thermometer with Excellent Thermal Contact at Millikelvin Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkharadze, Nodar; Kumar, Ashwani; Csáthy, Gábor A.

    2010-09-01

    Using a new brand of commercially available carbon resistor we built a cryogenic thermometer with an extremely good thermal contact to its thermal environment. Because of its superior thermal contact the thermometer is insensitive to low levels of spurious radio frequency heating. We calibrated our thermometer down to 5 mK using a quartz tuning fork He-3 viscometer and measured its thermal resistance and thermal response time.

  10. Physical electro-thermal model of resistive switching in bi-layered resistance-change memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungho; Kim, Sae-Jin; Kim, Kyung Min; Lee, Seung Ryul; Chang, Man; Cho, Eunju; Kim, Young-Bae; Kim, Chang Jung; Chung, U -In; Yoo, In-Kyeong

    2013-01-01

    Tantalum-oxide-based bi-layered resistance-change memories (RRAMs) have recently improved greatly with regard to their memory performances. The formation and rupture of conductive filaments is generally known to be the mechanism that underlies resistive switching. The nature of the filament has been studied intensively and several phenomenological models have consistently predicted the resistance-change behavior. However, a physics-based model that describes a complete bi-layered RRAM structure has not yet been demonstrated. Here, a complete electro-thermal resistive switching model based on the finite element method is proposed. The migration of oxygen vacancies is simulated by the local temperature and electric field derived from carrier continuity and heat equations fully coupled in a 3-D geometry, which considers a complete bi-layered structure that includes the top and bottom electrodes. The proposed model accurately accounts for the set/reset characteristics, which provides an in-depth understanding of the nature of resistive switching.

  11. Correction on the influence of thermal contact resistance in thermal conductivity measurements using the guarded hot plate method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanić Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work considers the influence of finite thermal contact resistances which exist in thermal conductivity measurements of homogeneous and poor thermal conductive materials using the guarded hot plate method. As an example of correction method proposed in this work, different experimental results obtained from a standard reference material sample (with the conductivity of about 1 W/mK have been presented.

  12. Thermal separation in near-axis boundary layers with intense swirl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrada, M. A.; Pérez-Saborid, M.; Barrero, A.

    1999-12-01

    Swirling flows have a wide range of applications and exhibit a variety of interesting features. Gas cooling near the axis in these flows, the so-called Ranque-Hilsch effect, is one of them. To gain insight into this phenomenon, we have analyzed the thermal, near-axis boundary layer of a gas jet driven by a class of conical inviscid quasi-incompressible flows whose axial and azimuthal velocity components, w and v, and stagnation temperature, Tt, behave near the axis as w=W0rm-2,v=LW0rm-2, and Tt-Tr=T0r2(m-2), where z and r are the axial and radial coordinates, L is the Squire number directly related to the swirl strength, m is any real number such as 1⩽mRanque-Hilsch effect) when the effect of both heat conduction and the work done by viscous forces are taken into account. It is also found that there exists an optimum value Lop for which the cooling effect reaches a sharp maximum and that small deviations of L from Lop reduce drastically the cooling effect. The appropriate tuning of Lop can be dramatically important for the efficient operation of Ranque-Hilsch tubes. The influence of the Prandtl number and the rest of the parameters of the problem has been also considered.

  13. On the role of thermal boundary conditions in dynamo scaling laws

    CERN Document Server

    Oruba, Ludivine

    2016-01-01

    In dynamo power-based scaling laws, the power $P$ injected by buoyancy forces is measured by a so-called flux-based Rayleigh number, denoted as ${\\rm Ra}_Q^*$ (see Christensen and Aubert, 2006). Whereas it is widely accepted that this parameter is measured (as opposite to controlled) in dynamos driven by differential heating, the literature is much less clear concerning its nature in the case of imposed heat flux. We clarify this issue by highlighting that in that case, the ${\\rm Ra}_{Q}^*$ parameter becomes controlled only in the limit of large Nusselt numbers (${\\rm Nu} \\gg 1$). We then address the issue of the robustness of the original relation between $P$ and ${\\rm Ra}_Q^*$ with the geometry and the thermal boundary conditions. We show that in the cartesian geometry, as in the spherical geometry with a central mass distribution, this relation is purely linear, in both differential and fixed-flux heating. However, we show that in the geometry commonly studied by geophysicists (spherical with uniform mass ...

  14. Mesoscopic current transport in two-dimensional materials with grain boundaries: Four-point probe resistance and Hall effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotz, Mikkel Rønne; Boll, Mads; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

    2016-01-01

    to emulate a polycrystalline sheet, and a square sample was cut from the tessellated surface. Four-point resistances and Hall effect signals were calculated for a probe placed in the center of the square sample as a function of grain density n and grain boundary resistivity ρGB. We find that the dual......, this affects how measurements on defective systems should be interpreted in order to extract relevant sample parameters. The Hall effect response in all M4PP configurations was only significant for moderate grain densities and fairly large grain boundary resistivity....

  15. Investigation of phonon transport and thermal boundary conductance at the interface of functionalized SWCNT and poly (ether-ketone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Haoxiang; Kumar, Satish, E-mail: satish.kumar@me.gatech.edu [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Chen, Liang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Varshney, Vikas [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States); Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton, Ohio 45432 (United States); Roy, Ajit K. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Carbon nanostructures such as carbon nanotube (CNT), graphene, and carbon fibers can be used as fillers in amorphous polymers to improve their thermal properties. In this study, the effect of covalent bonding of CNT with poly(ether ketone) (PEK) on interfacial thermal interactions is investigated using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The number of covalent bonds between (20, 20) CNT and PEK is varied in the range of 0–80 (0%–6.25%), and the thermal boundary conductance is computed. The analysis reveals that covalent functionalization of CNT atoms can enhance the thermal boundary conductance by an order of magnitude compared to the non-functionalized CNT-PEK interface at a high degree of CNT functionalization. Besides strengthening the thermal coupling, covalent functionalization is also shown to modify the phonon spectra of CNT. The transient spectral energy analysis shows that the crosslinks cause faster energy exchange from CNT to PEK in different frequency bands. The oxygen atom of hydroxyl group of PEK contributes energy transfer in the low frequency band, while aromatic and carbonyl carbon atoms play a more significant role in high frequency bands. In addition, by analyzing the relaxation time of the spectral temperature of different frequency bands of CNT, it is revealed that with increasing number of bonds, both lower frequency vibrational modes and higher frequency modes efficiently couple across the CNT-PEK interface and contribute in thermal energy transfer from CNT to the matrix.

  16. Physics of Canopy Boundary Layer Resistance for Better Quantification of Sensitivity of Deforestation Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragi, K. B.; Patel, R.

    2015-12-01

    A great deal of studies focused on deforestation scenarios in the tropical rainforests. Though all these efforts are useful in the understanding of its response to climate, the systematic understanding of uncertainties in representation of physical processes related to vegetation through sensitivity studies is imperative antecedently to understand the real role of vegetation in changing the climate. It is understood that the dense vegetation fluxes energy and moisture to the atmosphere. But, how much a specific process/a group of processes in the surface conditions of a specific area helps flux energy, moisture and tracers is unknown due to lack of process sensitivity studies and uncertain due to malfunctioning of processes. In this presentation, we have found a faulty parameterization, through process sensitivity studies, that would abet in energy and moisture fluxes to the atmosphere. The model we have employed is the Common Land Model2014. The area we have chosen is the Congolese rainforest. We have discovered the flaw in the leaf boundary layer resistance (LBLR), through sensitivity studies in the LSMs, especially in the dense forest regions. This LBLR is over-parameterized with constant heat transfer coefficient and characteristic dimension of leaves; and friction velocity. However, it is too scant because of overlooking of significant complex physics of turbulence and canopy roughness boundary layer to function it realistically. Our sensitivity results show the deficiency of this process and we have formulated canopy boundary layer resistance, instead of LBLR, with depending variables such as LAI, roughness length, vegetation temperature using appropriate thermo-fluid dynamical principles. We are running the sensitivity experiments with new formulations for setting the parameter values for the data not available so far. This effort would lead to better physics for the land-use change studies and demand for the retrieval of new parameters from satellite

  17. Effects of boundary characteristics on resistance to temper embrittlement and segregation behavior of Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang-Gyu; Lee, Ki-Hyoung [Nuclear Materials Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-Chul, E-mail: mckim@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Materials Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bong-Sang [Nuclear Materials Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-20

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel has higher strength and fracture toughness than those of commercial SA508 Gr.3 low alloy steel, due to its tempered martensitic microstructure as well as the solid solution effect and its higher contents of Ni and Cr. Hence, several studies have been performed on SA508 Gr.4N for nuclear application. In this study, the effects of microstructure on temper embrittlement and segregation behaviors in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel were evaluated from the viewpoint of grain boundary characteristics. To evaluate the microstructural effect while excluding chemistry effects, the same heat was used but different microstructure samples were prepared by changing the cooling rate after austenitization. The increased volume fraction of martensite reduces the resistance to temper embrittlement, showing an increased transition-temperature shift (TTS) and increased P segregation at prior austenite boundaries. The segregation occurred intensively at prior austenite grain boundaries in tempered martensite, while the segregation occurred simultaneously at both prior austenite boundaries and packet boundaries in tempered bainite. In the EBSD results, most of the packet boundaries in tempered martensite are special boundaries such as N-Ary-Summation 3 coincident site lattice (CSL) boundaries. The differences in P segregation between tempered martensite and tempered bainite are mainly caused by different portions of low energy special boundaries among the sub-grain boundaries. The reduction of temper embrittlement resistance in tempered martensite could be explained by the increased fraction of low energy CSL boundaries, which leads to a concentrated segregation of P at prior austenite grain boundaries.

  18. Decay and termite resistance, water absorption and swelling of thermally compressed wood panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner Unsal; S. Nami Kartal; Zeki Candan; Rachel A. Arango; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated decay and termite resistance of thermally compressed pine wood panels under pressure at either 5 or 7 MPa and either 120 or 150 °C for 1 h. Wood specimens from the panels were exposed to laboratory decay resistance by using the wood degrading fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trametes versicolor. The thermal compression process caused increases in...

  19. Tests of thermal resistance of simulated walls with the reflective insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowski Jerzy Zb.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the thermal resistance characteristics of walls with multilayer reflective insulation. The tests have been performed using a heat flow meter to determine the resistivity of the layers simulating partition walls in buildings. A modification of the structure has also been proposed and analysed with a view to increase the thermal resistance and, consequently, reduce the heat flux transferred through the walls. Consequently, walls produced with layers that ensure higher thermal insulation lead to better thermal performance properties of the whole buildings, which reduce heating/cooling costs throughout the year.

  20. A laboratory study of the correlation between the thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xiaopei; Du, Lizhi

    2017-10-01

    Thermal conductivity k (Wm- 1 K- 1) and electrical resistivity ρ (Ω·m) depend on common parameters such as grain size, dry density and saturation, allowing the finding of a relationship between both parameters. In this paper, we found a linear quantitative formula between thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of soil. To accomplish this, we measured the thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of 57 soil samples in the laboratory; samples included 8 reconstructed soils from the Changchun area (clay, silt, and sand) with approximately 7 different saturation levels. A linear relationship between thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity was found excluding the parameter of soil saturation, and the linear model was validated with undisturbed soils in Changchun area. To fully use this relationship (e.g., by imaging the thermal conductivity of soils with electrical resistivity tomography), further measurements with different soils are needed.

  1. Thermal resistance investigations on new leadframe-based LED packages and boards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pardo, B.; Gasse, A.; Fargeix, A.; Jakovenko, J.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Perpiñà, X.; Jordà, X.; Vellhevi, M.; Weelden, T. van; Bancken, P.

    2013-01-01

    In Solid State Lighting, thermal management is a key issue. Within the C-SSL consortium, we have developed an advanced leadframe based package to reduce the thermal resistance of the component. Numerical simulations have been implemented using Ansys® software and thermal measurements have been

  2. Thermal convection in a spherical shell with melting/freezing at either or both of its boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Deguen, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    In a number of geophysical or planetological settings (Earth's inner core, a silicate mantle crystallizing from a magma ocean, or an ice shell surrounding a deep water ocean) a convecting crystalline layer is in contact with a layer of its melt. Allowing for melting/freezing at one or both of the boundaries of the solid layer is likely to affect the pattern of convection in the layer. We study here the onset of thermal convection in a viscous spherical shell with dynamically induced melting/freezing at either or both of its boundaries. It is shown that the behavior of each interface depends on the value of a dimensional number P, which is the ratio of a melting/freezing timescale over a viscous relaxation timescale. A small value of P corresponds to permeable boundary conditions, while a large value of P corresponds to impermeable boundary conditions. The linear stability analysis predicts a significant effect of semi-permeable boundaries when the number P characterizing either of the boundary is small enough...

  3. The Development of Erosion and Impact Resistant Turbine Airfoil Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments and extend component lifetimes. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Advanced erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the doped thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion and impact damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be discussed.

  4. Performance Evaluation and Modeling of Erosion Resistant Turbine Engine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to the rotorcraft engine performance and durability. The objective of this work was to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments, thus validating a new thermal barrier coating turbine blade technology for future rotorcraft applications. A high velocity burner rig based erosion test approach was established and a new series of rare earth oxide- and TiO2/Ta2O5- alloyed, ZrO2-based low conductivity thermal barrier coatings were designed and processed. The low conductivity thermal barrier coating systems demonstrated significant improvements in the erosion resistance. A comprehensive model based on accumulated strain damage low cycle fatigue is formulated for blade erosion life prediction. The work is currently aiming at the simulated engine erosion testing of advanced thermal barrier coated turbine blades to establish and validate the coating life prediction models.

  5. Thermal preference, thermal resistance, and metabolic rate of juvenile Chinese pond turtles Mauremys reevesii acclimated to different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Dang, Wei; Geng, Jun; Lu, Hong-Liang

    2015-10-01

    The thermal acclimatory capacity of a particular species may determine its resilience to environmental change. Evaluating the physiological acclimatory responses of economically important species is useful for determining their optimal culture conditions. Here, juvenile Chinese three-keeled pond turtles (Mauremys reevesii) were acclimated to one of three different temperatures (17, 25 or 33°C) for four weeks to assess the effects of thermal acclimation on some physiological traits. Thermal acclimation significantly affected thermal resistance, but not thermal preference, of juvenile M. reevesii. Turtles acclimated to 17°C were less resistant to high temperatures than those acclimated to 25°C and 33°C. However, turtles increased resistance to low temperatures with decreasing acclimation temperature. The acclimation response ratio of the critical thermal minimum (CTMin) was lower than that of the critical thermal maximum (CTMax) for acclimation temperatures between 17 and 25°C, but slightly higher between 25 and 33°C. The thermal resistance range (i.e., the difference between CTMax and CTMin) was widest in turtles acclimated to the intermediate temperature (25°C), and narrowest in those acclimated to low temperature (17°C). The standard metabolic rate increased as body temperature and acclimation temperature increased, and the temperature quotient (Q10) between acclimation temperatures 17 and 25°C was higher than the Q10 between 25 and 33°C. Our results suggest that juvenile M. reevesii may have a greater resistance under mild thermal conditions resembling natural environments, and better physiological performance at relatively warm temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of internal heat generation, thermal radiation and buoyancy force on a boundary layer over a vertical plate with a convective surface boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the effects of internal heat generation, thermal radiation and buoyancy force on the laminar boundary layer about a vertical plate in a uniform stream of fluid under a convective surface boundary condition. In the analysis, we assumed that the left surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid whilst a stream of cold fluid flows steadily over the right surface; the heat source decays exponentially outwards from the surface of the plate. The similarity variable method was applied to the steady state governing non-linear partial differential equations, which were transformed into a set of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations and were solved numerically by applying a shooting iteration technique together with a sixth-order Runge–Kutta integration scheme for better accuracy. The effects of the Prandtl number, the local Biot number, the internal heat generation parameter, thermal radiation and the local Grashof number on the velocity and temperature profiles are illustrated and interpreted in physical terms. A comparison with previously published results on similar special cases showed excellent agreement.

  7. A new approach to the correlation of boundary layer mass transfer rates with thermal diffusion and/or variable properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, R.; Rosner, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    A rational approach to the correlation of boundary layer mass transport rates, applicable to many commonly encountered laminar flow conditions with thermal diffusion and/or variable properties, is outlined. The correlation scheme builds upon already available constant property blowing/suction solutions by introducing appropriate correction factors to account for the additional ('pseudo' blowing and source) effects identified with variable properties and thermal diffusion. Applications of the scheme to the particular laminar boundary layer mass transfer problems considered herein (alkali and transition metal compound vapor transport) indicates satisfactory accuracy up to effective blowing factors equivalent to about one third of the 'blow off' value. As a useful by-product of the variable property correlation, we extend the heat-mass transfer analogy, for a wide range of Lewis numbers, to include variable property effects.

  8. General 3D Lumped Thermal Model with Various Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Accurate thermal dynamics modeling of high power Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules is important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behaviors in the IGBTs. In this paper, a new three-dimensional (3D) lumped thermal model is proposed, which can easily be characterized from Finite Element Methods (FEM) based simulation and acqu...

  9. Effect of thermal acclimation on thermal preference, resistance and locomotor performance of hatchling soft-shelled turtle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Xian WU,Ling-Jun HU, Wei DANG, Hong-Liang LU, Wei-Guo DU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant influence of thermal acclimation on physiological and behavioral performance has been documented in many ectothermic animals, but such studies are still limited in turtle species. We acclimated hatchling soft-shelled turtles Pelodiscus sinensis under three thermal conditions (10, 20 and 30 °C for 4 weeks, and then measured selected body temperature (Tsel, critical thermal minimum (CTMin and maximum (CTMax, and locomotor performance at different body temperatures. Thermal acclimation significantly affected thermal preference and resistance of P. sinensis hatchlings. Hatchling turtles acclimated to 10 °C selected relatively lower body temperatures and were less resistant to high temperatures than those acclimated to 20 °C and 30 °C. The turtles’ resistance to low temperatures increased with a decreasing acclimation temperature. The thermal resistance range (i.e. the difference between CTMax and CTMin, TRR was widest in turtles acclimated to 20 °C, and narrowest in those acclimated to 10 °C. The locomotor performance of turtles was affected by both body temperature and acclimation temperature. Hatchling turtles acclimated to relatively higher temperatures swam faster than did those acclimated to lower temperatures. Accordingly, hatchling turtles acclimated to a particular temperature may not enhance the performance at that temperature. Instead, hatchlings acclimated to relatively warm temperatures have a better performance, supporting the “hotter is better” hypothesis [Current Zoology 59 (6 : 718–724, 2013 ].

  10. Porous polymeric membranes with thermal and solvent resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Pulido, Bruno

    2017-05-30

    Polymeric membranes are highly advantageous over their ceramic counterparts in terms of the simplicity of the manufacturing process, cost and scalability. Their main disadvantages are low stability at temperatures above 200 °C, and in organic solvents. We report for the first time porous polymeric membranes manufactured from poly(oxindolebiphenylylene) (POXI), a polymer with thermal stability as high as 500 °C in oxidative conditions. The membranes were prepared by solution casting and phase inversion by immersion in water. The asymmetric porous morphology was characterized by scanning electronic microscopy. The pristine membranes are stable in alcohols, acetone, acetonitrile and hexane, as well as in aqueous solutions with pH between 0 and 14. The membrane stability was extended for application in other organic solvents by crosslinking, using various dibromides, and the efficiency of the different crosslinkers was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). POXI crosslinked membranes are stable up to 329 °C in oxidative conditions and showed organic solvent resistance in polar aprotic solvents with 99% rejection of Red Direct 80 in DMF at 70 °C. With this development, the application of polymeric membranes could be extended to high temperature and harsh environments, fields currently dominated by ceramic membranes.

  11. Thermal Resistance Variations of Fly Ash Geopolymers: Foaming Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Yong, Heah; Yun-Ming, Liew; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the characteristic of unfoamed and foamed geopolymers after exposure to elevated temperatures (200-800 °C). Unfoamed geopolymers were produced with Class F fly ash and sodium hydroxide and liquid sodium silicate. Porous geopolymers were prepared by foaming with hydrogen peroxide. Unfoamed geopolymers possessed excellent strength of 44.2 MPa and degraded 34% to 15 MPa in foamed geopolymers. The strength of unfoamed geopolymers decreased to 5 MPa with increasing temperature up to 800 °C. Foamed geopolymers behaved differently whereby they deteriorated to 3 MPa at 400 °C and increased up to 11 MPa at 800 °C. Even so, the geopolymers could withstand high temperature without any disintegration and spalling up to 800 °C. The formation of crystalline phases at higher temperature was observed deteriorating the strength of unfoamed geopolymers but enhance the strength of foamed geopolymers. In comparison, foamed geopolymer had better thermal resistance than unfoamed geopolymers as pores provide rooms to counteract the internal damage.

  12. Consistent effects of a major QTL for thermal resistance in field-released Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Norry, Fabian M

    2011-01-01

    Molecular genetic markers can be used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for thermal resistance and this has allowed characterization of a major QTL for knockdown resistance to high temperature in Drosophila melanogaster. The QTL showed trade-off associations with cold resistance under...

  13. Arranging insulation for better thermal resistance in concrete and maonry wall systems

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, B; P. Engelmann; Kossecka, E.; Kosny, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how the spatial arrangement of thermal insulation influences the overall thermal resistance of concrete and masonry wall systems. Multi-dimensional finite difference modeling was used for this purpose. Concrete masonry units (CMUs) are commercially produced in various geometries and with different weight concretes. Although insulation inserts can increase a CMUs thermal performance, thermal bridging through the solid webbing of the CMUs can greatly reduce the effective...

  14. Influence of thermal boundary conditions on convection and dynamos in early and present earth-like cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, K.; Wicht, J.; Dietrich, W.; Christensen, U. R.

    2012-12-01

    The early dynamos of Earth and Mars probably operated without an inner core being present. They were thus exclusively driven by secular cooling and radiogenic heating, whereas the present geodynamo is thought to be predominantly driven by buoyancy fluxes which arise from the release of latent heat and the compositional enrichment associated with inner core solidification. Dynamo simulations model the secular cooling by volumetric internal buoyancy sources and the inner core-related driving by bottom sources. The impact of the inner core growth on the ancient geodynamo has been discussed extensively but is still controversial. As for Mars, the Mars Global Surveyor detected a strong northern-southern dichotomy in the crustal magnetization. A scenario proposed so far is due to such an ancient dynamo, where thermal heterogeneities at the core mantle boundary (CMB) were imposed by the lower mantle structure. A key issue here is how easily influence of the boundary anomalies emerges. Here we show that the dynamos without inner core solidification are much more sensitive to the CMB heat flows imposed by the lower mantle structure. We compare three-dimensional convection-driven MHD dynamo simulations either driven by homogeneously distributed internal heat sources or by buoyancy sources at the inner core boundary (ICB). Several different boundary heat-flux patterns are used. The effects are found even when boundaries are homogeneous. The impact of the outer boundary condition, fixed temperature or fixed heat flux, is large when convection is predominantly driven by volumetric internal heating. In the dynamos driven by ICB buoyancy sources, the lower boundary condition becomes more important. In both cases, a fixed flux condition promotes larger convective scales than a fixed temperature condition. A dipolar magnetic field can further increase the flow scale. This different sensitivity may also extend to cases when CMB heat flows are laterally inhomogeneous. In the dynamos

  15. "This is My Community": Reproducing and Resisting Boundaries of Exclusion in Contested Public Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolis, Erin E; Hammack, Phillip L

    2015-12-01

    The way that public space is structured has significant implications for identity, social interaction, and participation in society. For those experiencing homelessness, with no or limited private space, survival hinges on the accessibility and livability of public space. However, the increasing privatization of public space in the United States has contributed to the implementation of anti-homeless ordinances in cities, restricting sitting, standing, panhandling, and sleeping in public. This study analyzes data from interviews with housed and unhoused community members, text from a local policy document, and ethnographic observations to explore how boundaries between "insiders" and "outsiders" are drawn in public space and mediated through individual discourse. Our findings suggest that boundaries of exclusion are constructed through dominant narratives that portray the unhoused as a threat to safety and economic vitality, thus justifying the need for regulation and punishment through the criminalization of homelessness. Yet, informants also demonstrate resistance to this narrative by discussing how criminalization of homelessness perpetuates dehumanization, violence, and economic inequality. Policy implications for the regulation of public space are discussed.

  16. A Resistive Boundary Condition Enhanced DGTD Scheme for the Transient Analysis of Graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, the electromagnetic (EM) features of graphene are characterized by a discontinuous Galerkin timedomain (DGTD) algorithm with a resistive boundary condition (RBC). The atomically thick graphene is equivalently modeled using a RBC by regarding the graphene as an infinitesimally thin conductive sheet. To incorporate RBC into the DGTD analysis, the surface conductivity of the graphene composed of contributions from both intraband and interband terms is firstly approximated by rational basis functions using the fastrelaxation vector-fitting (FRVF) method in the Laplace-domain. Next, through the inverse Laplace transform, the corresponding time-domain matrix equations in integral can be obtained. Finally, these matrix equations are solved by time-domain finite integral technique (FIT). For elements not touching the graphene sheet, however, the well-known Runge-Kutta (RK) method is employed to solve the two first-order time-derivative Maxwell’s equations. The application of the surface boundary condition significantly alleviates the memory consuming and the limitation of time step size required by Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition. To validate the proposed algorithm, various numerical examples are presented and compared with available references.

  17. A distinct boundary between the higher brain's susceptibility to ischemia and the lower brain's resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Devin Brisson

    Full Text Available Higher brain regions are more susceptible to global ischemia than the brainstem, but is there a gradual increase in vulnerability in the caudal-rostral direction or is there a discrete boundary? We examined the interface between `higher` thalamus and the hypothalamus the using live brain slices where variation in blood flow is not a factor. Whole-cell current clamp recording of 18 thalamic neurons in response to 10 min O2/glucose deprivation (OGD revealed a rapid anoxic depolarization (AD from which thalamic neurons do not recover. Newly acquired neurons could not be patched following AD, confirming significant regional thalamic injury. Coinciding with AD, light transmittance (LT imaging during whole-cell recording showed an elevated LT front that initiated in midline thalamus and that propagated into adjacent hypothalamus. However, hypothalamic neurons patched in paraventricular nucleus (PVN, n= 8 magnocellular and 12 parvocellular neurons and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, n= 18 only slowly depolarized as AD passed through these regions. And with return to control aCSF, hypothalamic neurons repolarized and recovered their input resistance and action potential amplitude. Moreover, newly acquired hypothalamic neurons could be readily patched following exposure to OGD, with resting parameters similar to neurons not previously exposed to OGD. Thalamic susceptibility and hypothalamic resilience were also observed following ouabain exposure which blocks the Na(+/K(+ pump, evoking depolarization similar to OGD in all neuronal types tested. Finally, brief exposure to elevated [K(+]o caused spreading depression (SD, a milder, AD-like event only in thalamic neurons so SD generation is regionally correlated with strong AD. Therefore the thalamus-hypothalamus interface represents a discrete boundary where neuronal vulnerability to ischemia is high in thalamus (like more rostral neocortex, striatum, hippocampus. In contrast hypothalamic neurons are

  18. Role of thermal resistance on the performance of superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2017-03-01

    Thermal stability is an important parameter for the operation of the superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities used in particle accelerators. The rf power dissipated on the inner surface of the cavities is conducted to the helium bath cooling the outer cavity surface and the equilibrium temperature of the inner surface depends on the thermal resistance. In this manuscript, we present the results of direct measurements of thermal resistance on 1.3 GHz single cell SRF cavities made from high purity large-grain and fine-grain niobium as well as their rf performance for different treatments applied to outer cavity surface in order to investigate the role of the Kapitza resistance to the overall thermal resistance and to the SRF cavity performance. The results show no significant impact of the thermal resistance to the SRF cavity performance after chemical polishing, mechanical polishing or anodization of the outer cavity surface. Temperature maps taken during the rf test show nonuniform heating of the surface at medium rf fields. Calculations of Q0(Bp) curves using the thermal feedback model show good agreement with experimental data at 2 and 1.8 K when a pair-braking term is included in the calculation of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer surface resistance. These results indicate local intrinsic nonlinearities of the surface resistance, rather than purely thermal effects, to be the main cause for the observed field dependence of Q0(Bp) .

  19. Homotopy analysis method for variable thermal conductivity heat flux gage with edge contact resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Abdul [Gonzaga Univ., Spokane, WA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Khani, Farzad [Bakhtar Institute of Higher Education, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mathematics; Darvishi, Mohammad Taghi [Razi Univ., Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mathematics

    2010-10-15

    The homotopy analysis method (HAM) has been used to develop an analytical solution for the thermal performance of a circular-thin-foil heat flux gage with temperature dependent thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance between the edge of the foil and the heat sink. Temperature distributions in the foil are presented illustrating the effect of incident heat flux, radiation emission from the foil, variable thermal conductivity, and contact resistance between the foil and the heat sink. The HAM results agree up to four places of decimal with the numerical solutions generated using the symbolic algebra package Maple. This close comparison vouches for the high accuracy and stability of the analytic solution. (orig.)

  20. Half-Space Temperature Field with a Movable Thermally Thin-Coated Boundary Under External Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Vlasov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In engineering practice analytical methods of the mathematical theory of heat conduction hold a special place. This is due to many reasons, in particular, because of the fact that the solutions of the relevant problems represented in analytically closed form, can be used not only for a parametric analysis of the studied temperature field and to explore the specific features of its formation, but also to test the developed computational algorithms, which are aimed at solving real-world application heat and mass transfer problems. Difficulties arising when using the analytical mathematical theory methods of heat conduction in practice are well known. Also they are significantly exacerbated if the boundaries of the system under study are movable, even in the simplest case, when the law of motion is known.The main goal of the conducted research is to have an analytically closed-form problem solution for finding the orthotropic half-space temperature field, a boundary of which has thermally thin coating exposed to extremely concentrated stationary external heat flux and uniformly moves parallel to itself.The assumption that the covering of the boundary is thermally thin, allowed to realize the idea of \\concentrated capacity", that is to accept the hypothesis that the mean-thickness coating temperature is equal to the temperature of its boundaries. This assumption allowed us to reduce the problem under consideration to a mixed problem for a parabolic equation with a specific boundary condition.The Hankel integral transform of zero order with respect to the radial variable and the Laplace transform with respect to the temporal variable were used to solve the reduced problem. These techniques have allowed us to submit the required solution as an iterated integral.

  1. Exact asymptotic expansion for the resistance between the center node and a node on the cobweb network boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kenna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the resistance between two nodes in a cobweb network of resistors. Based on an exact expression, we derive the asymptotic expansions for the resistance between the center node and a node on the boundary of the M x N cobweb network with resistors r and s in the two spatial directions. All coefficients in this expansion are expressed through analytical functions.

  2. Determination of complement to the value of thermal resistance of power semiconductor devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Ostrenko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The author justifies the procedure for determining a complement to the value of thermal resistance of a direct current semiconductor device which permits to determine a maximum temperature of the device junction when loaded by current pulses.

  3. Thermally stable and chemically resistant polymer membranes : aromatic polyoxadiazoles and polytriazoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebben, Bert

    1988-01-01

    This thesis concerns the preparation of membranes from thermally stable and chemically resistant polymers. Two polymer families from the category of heterocyclic and aromatic polymers have been selected for investigation, the polyoxadiazoles and the polytriazoles, respectively. A major problem

  4. MHD boundary layer flow of Casson fluid passing through an exponentially stretching permeable surface with thermal radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swati, Mukhopadhyay; Iswar, Chandra Moindal; Tasawar, Hayat

    2014-10-01

    This article numerically examines the boundary layer flow due to an exponentially stretching surface in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Casson fluid model is used to characterize the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. The flow is subjected to suction/blowing at the surface. Analysis is carried out in presence of thermal radiation and prescribed surface heat flux. In this study, an exponential order stretching velocity and prescribed exponential order surface heat flux are accorded with each other. The governing partial differential equations are first converted into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using appropriate transformations and then solved numerically. The effect of increasing values of the Casson parameter is to suppress the velocity field. However the temperature is enhanced when Casson parameter increases. It is found that the skin-friction coefficient increases with increasing values of suction parameter. Temperature also increases for large values of power index n in both suction and blowing cases at the boundary. It is observed that the thermal radiation enhances the effective thermal diffusivity and hence the temperature rises.

  5. Verification of the Simultaneous Local Extraction Method of Base and Thermal Resistance of Bipolar Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Setekera; Luuk Tiemeijer; Ramses van der Toorn

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an extensive verification of the extraction method (published earlier) that consistently accounts for self-heating and Early effect to accurately extract both base and thermal resistance of bipolar junction transistors is presented. The method verification is demonstrated on advanced RF SiGe HBTs were the extracted results for the thermal resistance are compared with those from another published method that ignores the effect of Early effect on internal base...

  6. Imposed Thermal Fatigue and Post-Thermal-Cycle Wear Resistance of Biomimetic Gray Cast Iron by Laser Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Qi; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Deping; Chen, Zhikai; Zhang, Peng

    2017-08-01

    The present study aims to create coupling biomimetic units on gray cast iron substrate by laser surface treatment (LST). LSTs for single-step (LST1) and two-step (LST2) processes, were carried out on gray cast iron in different media (air and water). Their effects on microstructure, thermal fatigue, and post-thermal-cycle wear (PTW) resistance on the specimens were studied. The tests were carried out to examine the influence of crack-resistance behavior as well as the biomimetic surface on its post-thermal-cycle wear behavior and different units, with different laser treatments for comparison. Results showed that LST2 enhanced the PTW behaviors of gray cast iron, which then led to an increase in its crack resistance. Among the treated cast irons, the one treated by LST2 in air showed the lowest residual stress, due to the positive effect of the lower steepness of the thermal gradient. Moreover, the same specimen showed the best PTW performance, due to its superior crack resistance and higher hardness as a result of it.

  7. Characterization of Contact and Bulk Thermal Resistance of Laminations for Electric Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousineau, J. Emily [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bennion, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeVoto, Doug [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mihalic, Mark [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The ability to remove heat from an electric machine depends on the passive stack thermal resistances within the machine and the convective cooling performance of the selected cooling technology. This report focuses on the passive thermal design, specifically properties of the stator and rotor lamination stacks. Orthotropic thermal conductivity, specific heat, and density are reported. Four materials commonly used in electric machines were tested, including M19 (29 and 26 gauge), HF10, and Arnon 7 materials.

  8. Influence of heatsink from upper boundary on the industrial premises thermal conditions at gas infrared emitter operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, Vyacheslav I.; Nagornova, Tatiana A.

    2014-08-01

    The results of mathematical simulation of the heat transfer processes in the closed domain, which corresponds to production accomodation with the gas infrared emitter operation condition are presented. The system of differential Navier-Stokes equations in the approximation of Boussinesq is solved. The comparative analysis of thermal conditions formation in the closed domain is carried out taking into account heat withdrawal through the upper enclosing construction and under the conditions of its heat insulation. The essential transiency of the analyzed heat transfer process and the influence of heat withdrawal from one of the outer boundaries on the mean temperatures values in large-dimension industrial premises are established.

  9. Effect of posture positions on the evaporative resistance and thermal insulation of clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y S; Fan, J T; Yu, W

    2011-03-01

    Evaporative resistance and thermal insulation of clothing are important parameters in the design and engineering of thermal environments and functional clothing. Past work on the measurement of evaporative resistance of clothing was, however, limited to the standing posture with or without body motion. Information on the evaporative resistance of clothing when the wearer is in a sedentary or supine posture and how it is related to that when the wearer is in a standing posture is lacking. This paper presents original data on the effect of postures on the evaporative resistance of clothing, thermal insulation and permeability index, based on the measurements under three postures, viz. standing, sedentary and supine, using the sweating fabric manikin-Walter. Regression models are also established to relate the evaporative resistance and thermal insulation of clothing under sedentary and supine postures to those under the standing posture. The study further shows that the apparent evaporated resistances of standing and sedentary postures measured in the non-isothermal condition are much lower than those in the isothermal condition. The apparent evaporative resistances measured using the mass loss method are generally lower than those measured using the heat loss method due to moisture absorption or condensation within clothing. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The thermal insulation and evaporative resistance values of clothing ensembles under different postures are essential data for the ergonomics design of thermal environments (e.g. indoors or a vehicle's interior environment) and functional clothing. They are also necessary for the prediction of thermal comfort or duration of exposure in different environmental conditions.

  10. ANALYSIS OF EXCESSIVE HEATING ON THE THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE OF A POLYMER ELECTROLYTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Atan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance on a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM fuel cell is evaluated based on the relationship of thermal and electrical resistances to its electrical and thermal power output. An analytical method by which the electrical resistance is evaluated based on the polarisation curve and the thermal resistance from the mass balance, was applied to a 72-cell PEM fuel cell assembly. In order to evaluate the effect of resistances at elevated stack temperatures, the cooling system was operated at half of its maximum cooling effectiveness. The increase in current and resistance due to a unit change in temperature at a particular density was evaluated and it was found that the stack has a ratio of thermal resistance rise to current rise of 1.7, or equal to 0.00584 A/W of current increase per stack heat increase. These values suggest that the internal resistance of the stack components, most probably the electrode assemblies, are very high, which should be addressed in order to obtain lower resistances to current flow.

  11. A thermal plasmonic sensor platform: resistive heating of nanohole arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Mudassar; Xiong, Kunli; Svedendahl, Mikael; Käll, Mikael; Dahlin, Andreas B

    2014-06-11

    We have created a simple and efficient thermal plasmonic sensor platform by letting a DC current heat plasmonic nanohole arrays. The sensor can be used to determine thermodynamic parameters in addition to monitoring molecular reactions in real-time. As an application example, we use the thermal sensor to determine the kinetics and activation energy for desorption of thiol monolayers on gold. Further, the temperature of the metal can be measured optically by the spectral shift of the bonding surface plasmon mode (0.015 nm/K). We show that this resonance shift is caused by thermal lattice expansion, which reduces the plasma frequency of the metal. The sensor is also used to determine the thin film thermal expansion coefficient through a theoretical model for the expected resonance shift.

  12. Thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic: Effects of finite cooling rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihe Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a semi-analytical model to explore the effects of cooling rate on the thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic (FGC plate with a periodic array of edge cracks. The FGC is assumed to be a thermally heterogeneous material with constant elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio. The cooling rate applied at the FGC surface is modeled using a linear ramp function. An integral equation method and a closed form asymptotic temperature solution are employed to compute the thermal stress intensity factor (TSIF. The thermal shock residual strength and critical thermal shock of the FGC plate are obtained using the SIF criterion. Thermal shock simulations for an Al2O3/Si3N4 FGC indicate that a finite cooling rate leads to a significantly higher critical thermal shock than that under the sudden cooling condition. The residual strength, however, is relatively insensitive to the cooling rate.

  13. Prediction of clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance of the clothed body walking in wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoming; Fan, Jintu

    2006-11-01

    Clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance are the two most important parameters in thermal environmental engineering, functional clothing design and end use of clothing ensembles. In this study, clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance of various types of clothing ensembles were measured using the walking-able sweating manikin, Walter, under various environmental conditions and walking speeds. Based on an extensive experimental investigation and an improved understanding of the effects of body activities and environmental conditions, a simple but effective direct regression model has been established, for predicting the clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance under wind and walking motion, from those when the manikin was standing in still air. The model has been validated by using experimental data reported in the previous literature. It has shown that the new models have advantages and provide very accurate prediction.

  14. Thermal resistance measurement of In{sub 3}SbTe{sub 2} nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, J.L.; Saci, A.; De, I. [I2M Laboratory, University of Bordeaux, UMR CNRS 5295, Talence (France); Cecchini, R.; Cecchi, S.; Longo, M. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Unita di Agrate Brianza (Italy); Selmo, S.; Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Unita di Agrate Brianza (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, University of Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    The thermal resistance along the thickness of In{sub 3}SbTe{sub 2} crystalline nanowires was measured using the scanning thermal microscopy in 3ω mode. The nanowires were grown by metal organic vapor deposition, exploiting the VLS mechanism induced by Au metal-catalyst nanoparticles and harvested on a SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. Two nanowires with different thickness (13 and 23 nm) were investigated. The thermal resistance of the nanowires was determined using two different approaches; the first one exploits the experimental data, whereas the second one is more sophisticated, since it involves a minimization procedure. Both methods led to comparable values of the thermal resistance along the transverse direction (thickness) of the nanowire. The obtained results were explained starting from the mean free path of phonons calculated in the In{sub 3}SbTe{sub 2} bulk. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. The Thermal And Hydrodynamic Behavior of Thick, Rough-Wall, Turbulent Boundary Layers,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    34match point") and then extrap - olating to x = 0, the virtual origin of the hydrodynamic flow field. The values of L for the artificially thickened...boundary layers developing over rough sur- faces is important for the design of many engineering components, including reentry vehicles, nuclear reactors

  16. IMC based boundary control of a thermal process with parameter uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vajta, Miklos

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a control scheme for controlling the temperature in a slab which is not directly measurable. The process can only be controlled by manipulating the ambient temperature (boundary control). We describe the physical process and derive its (distributed) transfer

  17. Improved resistance of chemically-modified nanocellulose against thermally-induced depolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustin, Melissa B; Nakatsubo, Fumiaki; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-15

    The study demonstrated the improvement in the resistance of nanocellulose against thermally-induced depolymerization by esterification with benzoyl (BNZ) and pivaloyl (PIV). The change in the degree of polymerization (DP) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) after thermal treatment in nitrogen and in air was investigated using viscometry and gel permeation chromatography. BNZ and PIV nanocellulose esters without α-hydrogens gave higher DP and narrower MWD than pure bacterial cellulose; and the acetyl and myristoyl esters, which possess α-hydrogens. Results also showed that when depolymerization is suppressed, thermal discoloration is also reduced. Resistance against depolymerization inhibits the formation of reducing ends which can be active sites for thermal discoloration. Finally, the findings suggest that benzoylation and pivaloylation can be an excellent modification technique to improve the thermal stability of nanocellulose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using High-Resolution Hand-Held Radiometers To Measure In-Situ Thermal Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Douglas M.; Krintz, Donald F.

    1984-03-01

    A field study was carried out to investigate the accuracy of using high-resolution radiometers to determine the in situ thermal resistance of building components having conventional residential construction. Two different types of radiometers were used to determine the thermal resistances of the walls of six test buildings located at the National Bureau of Standards. These radiometer thermal resistance measurements were compared to reference thermal resistance values determined from steady-state series resistance predictions, time-averaged heat-flow-sensor measurements, and guarded-hot-box measurements. When measurements were carried out 5 hours after sunset when the outdoor temperature was relatively steady and the heating plant was operated in a typical cyclic fashion, the following results were obtained: for lightweight wood-frame cavity walls, the radiometer procedures were found to distinguish wall thermal resistance 4.4 h.ft2- °F/Btu (0.77 m2•K/W) systematically higher than corresponding reference values. Such a discrimination will per-mit insulated and uninsulated walls to be distinguished. However, in the case of walls having large heat capacity (e.g., masonry and log), thermal storage effects produced large time lags between the outdoor diurnal temperature variation and the heat-flow response at the inside surface. This phenomenon caused radiometer thermal resistances to deviate substantially from corresponding reference values. This study recommends that the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 101-1981 be modified requiring the heating plant to be operated in a typical cyclic fashion instead of being turned off prior to and during radiometer measurements.

  19. THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE OF A SODA LIME GLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. MALOU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the thermal shock of a three millimeters thickness soda lime glass using the hot-cold thermal shock technique. The cooling was made by ambient air jet on previously warmed samples. The heat transfer coefficient was about 600 W/°C.m2 (Biot number β = 0.3. The thermal shock duration was fixed at 6 seconds. The hot temperature was taken between 100°C and 550°C while the cold temperature of the air flux was kept constant at 20°C. The acoustic emission technique was used for determining the failure time and the critical temperature difference (ΔTC. By referring to experimental results, thermal shock modelling computations are conducted. Our aim is especially focused on the fracture initiation moments during the cooling process and on the crack initiation sites. The used modeling is based on the local approach of the thermal shock during the experimental data treatment. For each test, the temperature profile and the transient stress state through the samples thickness are determined. By applying the linear superposition property of the stress intensity factors, evolution of the stress intensity factor KI in function of the pre-existing natural flaws in the glass surface is established. The size of the critical flaw is determined by the linear fracture mechanics laws. Computation results confirm the experimental values of the critical difference temperature obtained that is the source of the glass degradation.

  20. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF A SODA LIME GLASS THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert FANTOZZI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparatively to the as received soda lime glass samples, the strength distribution after thermal shocks showed the appearance of a second branch in the Weibull curves. This branch is observed for temperature differences (ΔT equal or higher than the critical temperature difference (ΔTc for both water and motor oil cooling baths. The dispersion is more spread out in these two baths in comparison with the olive oil bath probably because of more pronounced slow crack growth effect. The Weibull modulus varies according to the used cooling bath and the considered temperature difference. In the case of thermal shock caused by air blast cooling at T = 20°C, a bimodal distribution is observed for only the critical state. The initial cracking time, obtained by acoustic emission, corresponds to the unstable propagation of the most critical defect. The number of cracks induced by thermal shock is proportional to the number of acoustic events.

  1. Effect of thermal treatment on the corrosion resistance of Type 316L stainless steel exposed in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Y. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Zheng, W. [CanmetMATERIALS, Natural Resources Canada, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Guzonas, D.A. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories Chalk River Laboratories, ON (Canada); Cook, W.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Kish, J.R., E-mail: kishjr@mcmaster.ca [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    There are still unknown aspects about the growth mechanism of oxide scales formed on candidate stainless steel fuel cladding materials during exposure in supercritical water (SCW) under the conditions relevant to the Canadian supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). The tendency for intermetallic precipitates to form within the grains and on grain boundaries during prolonged exposure at high temperatures represents an unknown factor to corrosion resistance, since they tend to bind alloyed Cr. The objective of this study was to better understand the extent to which intermetallic precipitates affects the mode and extent of corrosion in SCW. Type 316L stainless steel, used as a model Fe–Cr–Ni–Mo alloy, was exposed to 25 MPa SCW at 550 °C for 500 h in a static autoclave for this purpose. Mechanically-abraded samples were tested in the mill-annealed (MA) and a thermally-treated (TT) condition. The thermal treatment was conducted at 815 °C for 1000 h to precipitate the carbide (M{sub 23}C{sub 6}), chi (χ), laves (η) and sigma (σ) phases. It was found that although relatively large intermetallic precipitates formed at the scale/alloy interface locally affected the oxide scale formation, their discontinuous formation did not affect the short-term overall apparent corrosion resistance.

  2. Effect of thermal treatment on the corrosion resistance of Type 316L stainless steel exposed in supercritical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y.; Zheng, W.; Guzonas, D. A.; Cook, W. G.; Kish, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    There are still unknown aspects about the growth mechanism of oxide scales formed on candidate stainless steel fuel cladding materials during exposure in supercritical water (SCW) under the conditions relevant to the Canadian supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). The tendency for intermetallic precipitates to form within the grains and on grain boundaries during prolonged exposure at high temperatures represents an unknown factor to corrosion resistance, since they tend to bind alloyed Cr. The objective of this study was to better understand the extent to which intermetallic precipitates affects the mode and extent of corrosion in SCW. Type 316L stainless steel, used as a model Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloy, was exposed to 25 MPa SCW at 550 °C for 500 h in a static autoclave for this purpose. Mechanically-abraded samples were tested in the mill-annealed (MA) and a thermally-treated (TT) condition. The thermal treatment was conducted at 815 °C for 1000 h to precipitate the carbide (M23C6), chi (χ), laves (η) and sigma (σ) phases. It was found that although relatively large intermetallic precipitates formed at the scale/alloy interface locally affected the oxide scale formation, their discontinuous formation did not affect the short-term overall apparent corrosion resistance.

  3. Comparison of floating and thermalized multilayer insulation systems at low boundary temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Ferlin, G; Lebrun, P; Peón-Hernández, G; Riddone, G; Szeless, Balázs

    1997-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is 26.7 km circumference particle collider using high-field superconducting magnets operating in superfluid helium. An efficient and robust thermal insulation system is therefore required to minimize the residual heat in leak to the large surface area at 1.9 K constituted by the stainless steel wall of the helium enclosure. The baseline solution uses "floating" multilayer reflective insulation. Moreover, an alternative consists of a combination of multilayer reflective films and a soft screen, partially thermalized to the 5 K level and supported away from the cold wall by net-type insulating spacers. This chapter establishes the improvement potential of the alternative over the baseline solution, and compares their insulation performance on the basis of measured characteristics of thermal contacts and spacers.

  4. Study on the Thermal Resistance of Multi-chip Module High Power LED Packaging Heat Dissipation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailin Pan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal resistance is a key technical index which indicates the thermal management of multi-chip module high power LED (MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system. In this paper, the prototype structure of MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system is proposed to study the reliable thermal resistance calculation method. In order to analyze the total thermal resistance of the MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system, three kinds of thermal resistance calculation method including theoretical calculation, experimental testing and finite element simulation are developed respectively. Firstly, based on the thermal resistance network model and the principle of steady state heat transfer, the theoretical value of total thermal resistance is 6.111 K/W through sum of the thermal resistance of every material layer in the major direction of heat flow. Secondly, the thermal resistance experiment is carried out by T3Ster to obtain the experimental result of total thermal resistance, and the value is 6.729 K/W. Thirdly, a three-dimensional finite element model of MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system is established, and the junction temperature experiment is also performed to calculated the finite element simulated result of total thermal resistance, the value is 6.99 K/W. Finally, by comparing the error of all the three kinds of result, the error of total thermal resistance between the theoretical value and experimental result is 9.2 %, and the error of total thermal resistance between the experimental result and finite element simulation is only about -3.9 %, meanwhile, the main reason of each error is discussed respectively.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Zinc Antimonide Thin Films under Different Thermal Boundary Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mir Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza

    for all cases, showing that the electrical potential difference is increasing by temperature for all cases with the same slope. Also the value of Seebeck coefficient (α) is almost constant for all cases. The obtained value of α can compete with developed bulk TEG materials in literature. The thin film...... is able to operate in relatively high range of temperature with long working period without failure. Furthermore, effects of implementing thermal cycling on stability analysis of a TEG sample are considered. By testing the thermoelectric thin film specimen during a thermal cycling, behavior of the TEG...

  6. Investigation of the role of thermal boundary layer processes in initiating convection under the NASA SPACE Field Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnider, Richard T.; Song, Aaron; Casey, Dan; Crosson, William; Wetzel, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The current NWS ground based network is not sufficient to capture the dynamic or thermodynamic structure leading to the initiation and organization of air mass moist convective events. Under this investigation we intend to use boundary layer mesoscale models (McNider and Pielke, 1981) to examine the dynamic triggering of convection due to topography and surface thermal contrasts. VAS and MAN's estimates of moisture will be coupled with the dynamic solution to provide an estimate of the total convective potential. Visible GOES images will be used to specify incoming insolation which may lead to surface thermal contrasts and JR skin temperatures will be used to estimate surface moisture (via the surface thermal inertia) (Weizel and Chang, 1988) which can also induce surface thermal contrasts. We will use the SPACE-COHMEX data base to evaluate the ability of the joint mesoscale model satellite products to show skill in predicting the development of air mass convection. We will develop images of model vertical velocity and satellite thermodynamic measures to derive images of predicted convective potential. We will then after suitable geographic registration carry out a pixel by pixel correlation between the model/satellite convective potential and the 'truth' which are the visible images. During the first half of the first year of this investigation we have concentrated on two aspects of the project. The first has been in generating vertical velocity fields from the model for COHMEX case days. We have taken June 19 as the first case and have run the mesoscale model at several different grid resolutions. We are currently developing the composite model/satellite convective image. The second aspect has been the attempted calibration of the surface energy budget to provide the proper horizontal thermal contrasts for convective initiation. We have made extensive progress on this aspect using the FIFE data as a test data set. The calibration technique looks very promising.

  7. Effective thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance of gas diffusion layers in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Part 1: Effect of compressive load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, E. [Dept. Mechanical Eng., and Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC (Canada); Mechatronic Systems Engineering, School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, BC (Canada); Djilali, N. [Dept. Mechanical Eng., and Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC (Canada); Bahrami, M. [Mechatronic Systems Engineering, School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2011-01-01

    Heat transfer through the gas diffusion layer (GDL) is a key process in the design and operation of a PEM fuel cell. The analysis of this process requires determination of the effective thermal conductivity as well as the thermal contact resistance associated with the interface between the GDL and adjacent surfaces/layers. In the present study, a custom-made test bed that allows the separation of effective thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance in GDLs under vacuum and ambient conditions is described. Measurements under varying compressive loads are performed using Toray carbon paper samples with a porosity of 78% for a range of thicknesses. The measurements are complemented by compact analytical models that achieve good agreement with experimental data. A key finding is that thermal contact resistance is the dominant component of the total thermal resistance; neglecting this phenomenon may result in significant errors in evaluating heat transfer rates and temperature distributions. (author)

  8. Thermal resistance and conductivity of recycled construction and demolition waste (RCDW concrete blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Julio Apolonio Callejas

    Full Text Available Abstract In Brazil, studies to reuse construction and demolition waste are a special issue because a large amount of this material has been delivered to the public landfills and in illegal places. Some researchers have suggested reusing this material in building elements, such as bricks or blocks. It is possible to find a lot of researches in physical/mechanical characterization, while little effort has been made to characterize recycled construction and demolition waste blocks (RCDW for their thermal properties. The aim of this work was to characterize the RCDW thermal resistance and conductivity in order to provide subsidies for a building's thermal performance analysis. The hot-box method was adapted, together with measuring techniques with a heat-flow meter to determine the RCDW thermal properties. The results indicated that the RCDW block overall thermal resistance and thermal conductivity in the solid region was within the intervals of 0.33≤RT≤0.41m2KW-1 and 0.60≤l≤0.78Wm-1K-1, respectively. The lower resistance and conductivity values are justified by the presence of aggregate with a lower density and lower thermal conductivity than the natural aggregate.

  9. Effects of flow and colony morphology on the thermal boundary layer of corals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez, Isabel M; Kühl, Michael; Larkum, Anthony W D

    2011-01-01

    . The effect of water flow on the thermal microenvironment was investigated in hemispherical and branching corals (Porites lobata and Stylophora pistillata, respectively) in a flow chamber experiment. For both coral types, the thickness of the TBL decreased exponentially from 2.5 mm at quasi-stagnant flow (0...

  10. Factors affecting the thermal shock resistance of several hafnia based composites containing graphite or tungsten. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineback, L. D.

    1974-01-01

    The thermal shock resistance of hafnia based composites containing graphite powder or tungsten fibers was investigated in terms of material properties which include thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, compressive fracture stress, modulus of elasticity, and phase stability in terms of the processing parameters of hot pressing pressure and/or density, degree of stabilization of the hafnia, and composition. All other parameters were held constant or assumed constant. The thermal shock resistance was directly proportional to the compressive fracture stress to modulus of elasticity ratio and was not affected appreciably by the small thermal expansion or thermal conductivity changes. This ratio was found to vary strongly with the composition and density such that the composites containing graphite had relatively poor thermal shock resistance, while the composites containing tungsten had superior thermal shock resistance.

  11. Detection of grain-boundary resistance to slip transfer using nanoindentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, WA; De Hosson, JTM

    2005-01-01

    Nanoindentation measurements near a high-angle grain boundary in a Fe-14%Si bicrystal showed dislocation pile-up and transmission across the boundary. The latter is observed as a characteristic displacement jump, from which the Hall-Petch slope can be calculated as a measure for the slip

  12. Assessing thermal conductivity of composting reactor with attention on varying thermal resistance between compost and the inner surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjiang; Niu, Wenjuan; Ai, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic estimation of heat transfer through composting reactor wall was crucial for insulating design and maintaining a sanitary temperature. A model, incorporating conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer mechanisms, was developed in this paper to provide thermal resistance calculations for composting reactor wall. The mechanism of thermal transfer from compost to inner surface of structural layer, as a first step of heat loss, was important for improving insulation performance, which was divided into conduction and convection and discussed specifically in this study. It was found decreasing conductive resistance was responsible for the drop of insulation between compost and reactor wall. Increasing compost porosity or manufacturing a curved surface, decreasing the contact area of compost and the reactor wall, might improve the insulation performance. Upon modeling of heat transfers from compost to ambient environment, the study yielded a condensed and simplified model that could be used to conduct thermal resistance analysis for composting reactor. With theoretical derivations and a case application, the model was applicable for both dynamic estimation and typical composting scenario. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermal resistances of air in cavity walls and their effect upon the thermal insulation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkouche, S.M.A.; Cherier, M.K.; Hamdani, M.; Benamrane, N. [Application of Renewable Energies in Arid and Semi Arid Environments /Applied Research Unit on Renewable Energies/ EPST Development Center of Renewable Energies, URAER and B.P. 88, ZI, Gart Taam Ghardaia (Algeria); Benouaz, T. [University of Tlemcen, BP. 119, Tlemcen R.p. 13000 (Algeria); Yaiche, M.R. [Development Center of Renewable Energies, CDER and B.P 62, 16340, Route de l' Observatoire, Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria)

    2013-07-01

    The optimum thickness in cavity walls in buildings is determined under steady conditions; the heat transfer has been calculated according to ISO 15099:2003. Two forms of masonry units are investigated to conclude the advantage of high thermal emissivity. The paper presents also some results from a study of the thermal insulation performance of air cavities bounded by thin reflective material layer 'eta = 0.05'. The results show that the most economical cavity configuration depends on the thermal emissivity and the insulation material used.

  14. Mass transfer across combustion gas thermal boundary layers - Power production and materials processing implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of Soret diffusion (for vapors) and thermophoresis (for particles) are illustrated using recent optical experiments and boundary layer computations. Mass transfer rate augmentations of up to a factor of 1000 were observed and predicted for submicron-particle capture by cooled solid surfaces, while mass transfer suppressions of more than 10 to the -10th-fold were predicted for 'overheated' surfaces. It is noted that the results obtained are of interest in connection with such technological applications as fly-ash capture in power generation equipment and glass droplet deposition in optical-waveguide manufacture.

  15. Influence of Thermal Contact Resistance of Aluminum Foams in Forced Convection: Experimental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Stefano; Di Ilio, Giovanni; Venettacci, Simone

    2017-08-05

    In this paper, the heat transfer performances of aluminum metal foams, placed on horizontal plane surface, was evaluated in forced convection conditions. Three different types of contacts between the sample and the heated base plate have been investigated: simple contact, brazed contact and grease paste contact. First, in order to perform the study, an ad hoc experimental set-up was built. Second, the value of thermal contact resistance was estimated. The results show that both the use of a conductive paste and the brazing contact, realized by means of a copper electro-deposition, allows a great reduction of the global thermal resistance, increasing de facto the global heat transfer coefficient of almost 80%, compared to the simple contact case. Finally, it was shown that, while the contribution of thermal resistance is negligible for the cases of brazed and grease paste contact, it is significantly high for the case of simple contact.

  16. Influence of Thermal Contact Resistance of Aluminum Foams in Forced Convection: Experimental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Guarino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the heat transfer performances of aluminum metal foams, placed on horizontal plane surface, was evaluated in forced convection conditions. Three different types of contacts between the sample and the heated base plate have been investigated: simple contact, brazed contact and grease paste contact. First, in order to perform the study, an ad hoc experimental set-up was built. Second, the value of thermal contact resistance was estimated. The results show that both the use of a conductive paste and the brazing contact, realized by means of a copper electro-deposition, allows a great reduction of the global thermal resistance, increasing de facto the global heat transfer coefficient of almost 80%, compared to the simple contact case. Finally, it was shown that, while the contribution of thermal resistance is negligible for the cases of brazed and grease paste contact, it is significantly high for the case of simple contact.

  17. Synthesis of thermal and chemical resistant oxygen barrier starch with reinforcement of nano silicon carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Satyabrata; Swain, Sarat K

    2013-09-12

    Starch/silicon carbide (starch/SiC) bionanocomposites were synthesized by solution method using different wt% of silicon carbide with starch matrix. The interaction between starch and silicon carbide was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The structure of the bionanocomposites was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Thermal property of starch/SiC bionanocomposites was measured and a significant enhancement of thermal resistance was noticed. The oxygen barrier property of the composites was studied and a substantial reduction in permeability was observed as compared to the virgin starch. The reduction of oxygen permeability with enhancement of thermal stability of prepared bionanocomposites may enable the materials suitable for thermal resistant packaging and adhesive applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development and Life Prediction of Erosion Resistant Turbine Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Future rotorcraft propulsion systems are required to operate under highly-loaded conditions and in harsh sand erosion environments, thereby imposing significant material design and durability issues. The incorporation of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC) in high pressure turbine systems enables engine designs with higher inlet temperatures, thus improving the engine efficiency, power density and reliability. The impact and erosion resistance of turbine thermal barrier coating systems are crucial to the turbine coating technology application, because a robust turbine blade TBC system is a prerequisite for fully utilizing the potential coating technology benefit in the rotorcraft propulsion. This paper describes the turbine blade TBC development in addressing the coating impact and erosion resistance. Advanced thermal barrier coating systems with improved performance have also been validated in laboratory simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments. A preliminary life prediction modeling approach to emphasize the turbine blade coating erosion is also presented.

  19. Effective thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance of gas diffusion layers in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Part 2: Hysteresis effect under cyclic compressive load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, E. [Dept. Mechanical Eng., and Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC (Canada); Mechatronic Systems Engineering, School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, BC (Canada); Djilali, N. [Dept. Mechanical Eng., and Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC (Canada); Bahrami, M. [Mechatronic Systems Engineering, School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Heat transfer through the gas diffusion layer (GDL) is a key process in the design and operation of a PEM fuel cell. The analysis of this process requires the determination of the effective thermal conductivity as well as the thermal contact resistance between the GDL and adjacent surfaces/layers. The Part 1 companion paper describes an experimental procedure and a test bed devised to allow separation of the effective thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance, and presents measurements under a range of static compressive loads. In practice, during operation of a fuel cell stack, the compressive load on the GDL changes. In the present study, experiments are performed on Toray carbon papers with 78% porosity and 5% PTFE under a cyclic compressive load. Results show a significant hysteresis in the loading and unloading cycle data for total thermal resistance, thermal contact resistance (TCR), effective thermal conductivity, thickness, and porosity. It is found that after 5 loading-unloading cycles, the geometrical, mechanical, and thermal parameters reach a ''steady-state'' condition and remain unchanged. A key finding of this study is that the TCR is the dominant component of the GDL total thermal resistance with a significant hysteresis resulting in up to a 34% difference between the loading and unloading cycle data. This work aims to clarify the impact of unsteady/cyclic compression on the thermal and structural properties of GDLs and provides new insights on the importance of TCR which is a critical interfacial transport phenomenon. (author)

  20. Numerical study of radiative heat transfer and effects of thermal boundary conditions on CLC fuel reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Mansour, R.; Li, H.; Habib, M. A.; Hossain, M. M.

    2018-02-01

    Global warming has become a worldwide concern due to its severe impacts and consequences on the climate system and ecosystem. As a promising technology proving good carbon capture ability with low-efficiency penalty, Chemical Looping Combustion technology has risen much interest. However, the radiative heat transfer was hardly studied, nor its effects were clearly declared. The present work provides a mathematical model for radiative heat transfer within fuel reactor of chemical looping combustion systems and conducts a numerical research on the effects of boundary conditions, solid particles reflectivity, particles size, and the operating temperature. The results indicate that radiative heat transfer has very limited impacts on the flow pattern. Meanwhile, the temperature variations in the static bed region (where solid particles are dense) brought by radiation are also insignificant. However, the effects of radiation on temperature profiles within free bed region (where solid particles are very sparse) are obvious, especially when convective-radiative (mixed) boundary condition is applied on fuel reactor walls. Smaller oxygen carrier particle size results in larger absorption & scattering coefficients. The consideration of radiative heat transfer within fuel reactor increases the temperature gradient within free bed region. On the other hand, the conversion performance of fuel is nearly not affected by radiation heat transfer within fuel reactor. However, the consideration of radiative heat transfer enhances the heat transfer between the gas phase and solid phase, especially when the operating temperature is low.

  1. Numerical study of radiative heat transfer and effects of thermal boundary conditions on CLC fuel reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Mansour, R.; Li, H.; Habib, M. A.; Hossain, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    Global warming has become a worldwide concern due to its severe impacts and consequences on the climate system and ecosystem. As a promising technology proving good carbon capture ability with low-efficiency penalty, Chemical Looping Combustion technology has risen much interest. However, the radiative heat transfer was hardly studied, nor its effects were clearly declared. The present work provides a mathematical model for radiative heat transfer within fuel reactor of chemical looping combustion systems and conducts a numerical research on the effects of boundary conditions, solid particles reflectivity, particles size, and the operating temperature. The results indicate that radiative heat transfer has very limited impacts on the flow pattern. Meanwhile, the temperature variations in the static bed region (where solid particles are dense) brought by radiation are also insignificant. However, the effects of radiation on temperature profiles within free bed region (where solid particles are very sparse) are obvious, especially when convective-radiative (mixed) boundary condition is applied on fuel reactor walls. Smaller oxygen carrier particle size results in larger absorption & scattering coefficients. The consideration of radiative heat transfer within fuel reactor increases the temperature gradient within free bed region. On the other hand, the conversion performance of fuel is nearly not affected by radiation heat transfer within fuel reactor. However, the consideration of radiative heat transfer enhances the heat transfer between the gas phase and solid phase, especially when the operating temperature is low.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF THERMAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND THERMO-METALLURGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF X10CrMoVNb9-1 STEEL DURING SIMPLE TIG WELDING TESTS

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, Guilhem; Billardon, René

    2006-01-01

    International audience; To validate the thermo-metallurgical models that are used during finite element simulations of multi-pass TIG welding, two simple experiments – called "disk-spot" and "disk-cycle" TIG welding tests- have been designed. A procedure has been developed to identify the thermal boundary conditions that are imposed to the specimen during these experiments. These boundary conditions include the heat source that is equivalent to the TIG torch as well as the heat flux by convec...

  3. Thermal resistance of indium coated sapphire–copper contacts below 0.1K

    CERN Document Server

    Eisel, T; Koettig, T

    2014-01-01

    High thermal resistances exist at ultra-low temperatures for solid-solid interfaces. This is especially true for pressed metal-sapphire joints, where the heat is transferred by phonons only. For such pressed joints it is difficult to achieve good physical, i.e. thermal contacts due to surface irregularities in the microscopic or larger scale. Applying ductile indium as an intermediate layer reduces the thermal resistance of such contacts. This could be proven by measurements of several researchers. However, the majority of the measurements were performed at temperatures higher than 1 K. Consequently, it is difficult to predict the thermal resistance of pressed metal-sapphire joints at temperatures below 1 K. In this paper the thermal resistances across four different copper-sapphire-copper sandwiches are presented in a temperature range between 30 mK and 100 mK. The investigated sandwiches feature either rough or polished sapphire discs (empty set 20 mm x 1.5 mm) to investigate the phonon scattering at the bo...

  4. Modification of electromagnetic fields and plasma resistance by thermal effects in helicon plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M.; Niknam, A. R.

    2017-05-01

    The effects of the thermal motion of charged particles on physical characteristics of collisional helicon plasmas are investigated. First, the dielectric permittivity tensor of a helicon plasma is obtained by considering the thermal and collisional effects in the kinetic theory. Then, the electromagnetic wave and plasma resistance equations are presented and solved in a helicon plasma source with a Nagoya type III antenna. It is shown that by increasing the temperature of plasma electrons, the effective collision frequency is increased, and consequently, the peaks of resistance profiles are lowered and broadened.

  5. Nanolayering around and thermal resistivity of the water-hexagonal boron nitride interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akıner, Tolga; Mason, Jeremy K.; Ertürk, Hakan

    2017-07-01

    The water-hexagonal boron nitride interface was investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Since the properties of the interface change significantly with the interatomic potential, a new method for calibrating the solid-liquid interatomic potential is proposed based on the experimental energy of the interface. The result is markedly different from that given by Lorentz-Berthelot mixing for the Lennard-Jones parameters commonly used in the literature. Specifically, the extent of nanolayering and interfacial thermal resistivity is measured for several interatomic potentials, and the one calibrated by the proposed method gives the least thermal resistivity.

  6. The Potential Link between Thermal Resistance and Virulence in Salmonella: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki M. Dawoud

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In some animals, the typical body temperature can be higher than humans, for example, 42°C in poultry and 40°C in rabbits which can be a potential thermal stress challenge for pathogens. Even in animals with lower body temperatures, when infection occurs, the immune system may increase body temperature to reduce the chance of survival for pathogens. However, some pathogens can still easily overcome higher body temperatures and/or rise in body temperatures through expression of stress response mechanisms. Salmonella is the causative agent of one of the most prevalent foodborne illnesses, salmonellosis, and can readily survive over a wide range of temperatures due to the efficient expression of the heat (thermal stress response. Therefore, thermal resistance mechanisms can provide cross protection against other stresses including the non-specific host defenses found within the human body thus increasing pathogenic potential. Understanding the molecular mechanisms associated with thermal responses in Salmonella is crucial in designing and developing more effective or new treatments for reducing and eliminating infection caused by Salmonella that have survived heat stress. In this review, Salmonella thermal resistance is assessed followed by an overview of the thermal stress responses with a focus on gene regulation by sigma factors, heat shock proteins, along with the corresponding thermosensors and their association with virulence expression including a focus on a potential link between heat resistance and potential for infection.

  7. Thermal resistance parameters for pathogens in white grape juice concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enache, Elena; Chen, Yuhuan; Awuah, George; Economides, Athanasia; Scott, Virginia N

    2006-03-01

    The heat resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes that were in stationary phase, had been exposed to high osmotic pressure, or were acid adapted was evaluated in white grape juice concentrate (58 degrees Brix, pH 3.3). The most heat-resistant cells of all three pathogens were those exposed to high osmotic pressure or in stationary phase. Unlike in single-strength juices, in concentrate the acid-adapted cells for all three pathogens were less heat resistant than were cells in the other physiological states. E. coli O157:H7 had the highest heat resistance for all temperatures tested (e.g., D62 degrees C = 1.8 +/- 0.3 min, with a z-value of 9.9 +/- 0.6 degrees C). L. monocytogenes exposed to high osmotic pressure had the highest z-value (12.3 +/- 1.2 degrees C), although its D-values for all temperatures tested were lower (e.g., D62 degrees C = 0.93 +/- 0.1 min) than those for E. coli O157:H7. Salmonella was the most sensitive of the pathogens under all conditions. Based on the results obtained in this study, one example of a heat treatment that will inactivate 5 log units of all three pathogens in white grape juice concentrate was calculated as 1.5 min at 71.1 degrees C (z = 10.3 degrees C). Validation studies confirmed the predicted D71 degrees C for E. coli O157:H7 exposed to high osmotic pressure.

  8. Numerical simulations of baroclinic driven flows in a thermally driven rotating annulus using the immersed boundary method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas von Larcher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present results of numerical simulations of baroclinic driven flows in the thermally driven rotating annulus using the immersed boundary method for modeling of the boundary conditions. The Navier-Stokes equations in the Boussinesq approximation are solved in the Eulerian flux-form advection scheme with the geophysical flow solver EULAG as numerical framework. We test our approach against results of an appropriate laboratory experiment with water as working fluid and directly aim at the wavy flow regime where complex flows and regular wave patterns are generally observed but where centrifugal effects and turbulence is of minor importance. Multivariate statistical methods are used for analyzing time series of computed temperature data. We, here, present the outcome of the time series data analysis at particular parameter points, and specifically analyze a complex wave-wave interaction, and, secondly, a wave mode switch where the azimuthal wave number changes to the next higher one. The numerical results are highly consistent with the experimental observations. That encourage us to focus on our actual goal as the next step, that is the irregular flow regime found at large rotation rates where the centrifugal force has an increasing effect on flow states and where multiple scale flows are generally observed.

  9. GaN on Diamond with Ultra-Low Thermal Barrier Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    GaN-on-Diamond with Ultra -Low Thermal Barrier Resistance Xing Gu1, Cathy Lee1, Jinqiao Xie1, Edward Beam1, Michael Becker2, Timothy A. Grotjohn2...previously reported best data, and close to the limit predicted by theoretical models for GaN-diamond interfaces Keywords: GaN-on-Diamond; ultra -low...is yet to be realized, mainly due to thermal limitations. Diamond, which offers superior thermal conductivity of ~ 2000 W/ mK , is a natural choice

  10. Bidirectional negative differential thermal resistance phenomenon and its physical mechanism in the Frenkel-Kontorova lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianqiang, Zhang; Linru, Nie, E-mail: lrnie@163.com; Chongyang, Chen; Xinyu, Zhang [Faculty of Science, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Thermal conduction of the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) lattices with interfacial coupling is investigated numerically. The results indicate that: (i) For appropriate lattice periods, as the system is symmetric, a bidirectional negative differential thermal resistance (NDTR) phenomenon will appear. If the system is asymmetric, the bidirectional NDTR is gradually converted into an unidirectional NDTR. (ii) The bidirectional NDTR phenomenon effect also depends on the period of the FK lattice as the other parameters remains unchanged. With the increment of the lattice period, the bidirectional NDTR will gradually disappear. (iii) From a stochastic dynamics point of view, thermal transport properties of the system are determined by the competition between the two types of thermal conduction: one comes from the collusion between atoms, the other is due to the elastic coupling between atoms. For the smaller lattice periods, the former type of thermal conduction occupies the dominating position and the NDTR effect will appear.

  11. Constraints on the Thermal and Compositional Nature of the Oceanic Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary from Seismic Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghein, C.; Yuan, K.; Schmerr, N. C.; Xing, Z.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we modeled S-wave velocities, radial and azimuthal anisotropy beneath the Pacific ocean, and compared our model with detections of the Gutenberg (G) discontinuity at 40-100 km depth to evaluate its context and relation to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). The G is often associated with the LAB, but its sharpness and the low correlation between its depth and oceanic plate age suggest a compositional origin, in contradiction with tomographic models of isotropic wave velocities. Here, we inverted fundamental and higher mode anisotropic Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps to which we applied non-linear crustal corrections. Our model defines three layers within the upper 250km of the mantle. The bottom layer is characterized by relatively low velocities, strong (3%) azimuthal anisotropy, fast seismic directions that follow the absolute plate motion (APM), and strong (5%) radial anisotropy with VSH>VSV. This suggests alignment of olivine fast axes with mantle flow direction in the asthenosphere. The middle layer has fast axes aligned with the paleospreading directions, and the boundary between the bottom and middle layers follows a half-space cooling model. This suggests a thermal origin of the LAB if we use the change in alignment of the fast axes with the APM as a proxy for the LAB. Remarkably, a change in azimuthal anisotropy is found between the two top layers at a roughly constant depth that coincides with the location of the G. The G is therefore located within the thermal lithosphere and is primarily associated with a vertical gradient in azimuthal anisotropy, which may result from compositional changes. Dehydration of the mantle underlying mid-ocean ridges offers a possible explanation for our results. It could generate a chemically depleted, viscous layer that becomes overprinted by lowered temperatures as the plate cools and migrates away from the ridge. The olivine fast axes would align with the spreading direction at the ridge in the

  12. Numerical analysis of energy piles under different boundary conditions and thermal loading cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermo- mechanical behavior of energy piles has been studied extensively in recent years. In the present study, a numerical model was adapted to study the effect of various parameters (e.g. heating/cooling temperature, head loading condition and soil stiffness on the thermo-mechanical behavior of an energy pile installed in unsaturated sandstone. The results from the simulations were compared with measurements from a thermal response test on a prototype energy pile installed beneath a 1-story building at the US Air Force Academy (USAFA in Colorado Springs, CO. A good agreement was achieved between the results obtained from the prototype and the numerical models. A parametric evaluation were also carried out which indicated the significance of the stiffness of the unsaturated sandstone and pile’s head loading condition on stress-strain response of the energy pile during heating/cooling cycles.

  13. Reversal and amplification of zonal flows by boundary enforced thermal wind

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Wieland; Wicht, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Zonal flows in rapidly-rotating celestial objects such as the Sun, gas or ice giants form in a variety of surface patterns and amplitudes. Whereas the differential rotation on the Sun, Jupiter and Saturn features a super-rotating equatorial region, the ice giants, Neptune and Uranus harbour an equatorial jet slower than the planetary rotation. Global numerical models covering the optically thick, deep-reaching and rapidly rotating convective envelopes of gas giants reproduce successfully the prograde jet at the equator. In such models, convective columns shaped by the dominant Coriolis force typically exhibit a consistent prograde tilt. Hence angular momentum is pumped away from the rotation axis via Reynolds stresses. Those models are found to be strongly geostrophic, hence a modulation of the zonal flow structure along the axis of rotation, e.g. introduced by persistent latitudinal temperature gradients, seems of minor importance. Within our study we stimulate these thermal gradients and the resulting ageos...

  14. Fabrication of thermal-resistant gratings for high-temperature measurements using geometric phase analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Liu, Z; Xie, H; Ma, K; Wu, L

    2016-12-01

    Grating fabrication techniques are crucial to the success of grating-based deformation measurement methods because the quality of the grating will directly affect the measurement results. Deformation measurements at high temperatures entail heating and, perhaps, oxidize the grating. The contrast of the grating lines may change during the heating process. Thus, the thermal-resistant capability of the grating becomes a point of great concern before taking measurements. This study proposes a method that combines a laser-engraving technique with the processes of particle spraying and sintering for fabricating thermal-resistant gratings. The grating fabrication technique is introduced and discussed in detail. A numerical simulation with a geometric phase analysis (GPA) is performed for a homogeneous deformation case. Then, the selection scheme of the grating pitch is suggested. The validity of the proposed technique is verified by fabricating a thermal-resistant grating on a ZrO2 specimen and measuring its thermal strain at high temperatures (up to 1300 °C). Images of the grating before and after deformation are used to obtain the thermal-strain field by GPA and to compare the results with well-established reference data. The experimental results indicate that this proposed technique is feasible and will offer good prospects for further applications.

  15. Fabrication of thermal-resistant gratings for high-temperature measurements using geometric phase analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Liu, Z.; Xie, H.; Ma, K.; Wu, L.

    2016-12-01

    Grating fabrication techniques are crucial to the success of grating-based deformation measurement methods because the quality of the grating will directly affect the measurement results. Deformation measurements at high temperatures entail heating and, perhaps, oxidize the grating. The contrast of the grating lines may change during the heating process. Thus, the thermal-resistant capability of the grating becomes a point of great concern before taking measurements. This study proposes a method that combines a laser-engraving technique with the processes of particle spraying and sintering for fabricating thermal-resistant gratings. The grating fabrication technique is introduced and discussed in detail. A numerical simulation with a geometric phase analysis (GPA) is performed for a homogeneous deformation case. Then, the selection scheme of the grating pitch is suggested. The validity of the proposed technique is verified by fabricating a thermal-resistant grating on a ZrO2 specimen and measuring its thermal strain at high temperatures (up to 1300 °C). Images of the grating before and after deformation are used to obtain the thermal-strain field by GPA and to compare the results with well-established reference data. The experimental results indicate that this proposed technique is feasible and will offer good prospects for further applications.

  16. Analytical 1D models of the wall thermal resistance of rectangular minichannels applied in heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybiński Witold

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents four 1-dimensional models of thermal resistance of walls in a heat exchanger with rectangular minichannels. The first model is the simplest one, with a single wall separating two fluids. The second model of the so called equivalent wall takes into account total volume of intermediate walls between layers of minichannels and of side walls of minichannels. The next two more complicated models take separately into account thermal resistance of these walls. In these two models side walls are treated as fins. The results of models comparison are presented. It is shown that thermal resistance may be neglected for metal walls but it should be taken into account for the walls made of plastics. For the case of non-neglected wall thermal resistance the optimum wall thickness was derived. Minichannel heat exchangers made of plastic are larger than those built of metal, but are significantly cheaper. It makes possible to use of such exchangers in inexpensive microscale ORC installations.

  17. Effect of magnesium aluminum silicate glass on the thermal shock resistance of BN matrix composite ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Delong; Jia, Dechang; Yang, Zhihua; Zhu, Qishuai; Ocelik, Vaclav; Vainchtein, Ilia D.; De Hosson, Jeff Th M.; Zhou, Yu

    The effects of magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) glass on the thermal shock resistance and the oxidation behavior of h-BN matrix composites were systematically investigated at temperature differences from 600 degrees C up to 1400 degrees C. The retained strength rate of the composites rose with the

  18. The effect of thermal contact resistance on the thermosetting pultrusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    experimentally in the literature. In order to study the effects of the thermal contact resistance (TCR), which can also be expressed by the heat transfer coefficient (HTC), on the pultrusion process, a cylindrical die block and heaters are added to the original problem domain. The significance of using the TCR...

  19. Measurements of clothing evaporative resistance using a sweating thermal manikin: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, Faming

    2017-01-01

    Evaporative resistance has been widely used to describe the evaporative heat transfer property of clothing. It is also a critical variable in heat stress models for predicting human physiological responses in various environmental conditions. At present, sweating thermal manikins provide a fast and cost-effective way to determine clothing evaporative resistance. Unfortunately, the measurement repeatability and reproducibility of evaporative resistance are rather low due to the complicated moisture transfer processes through clothing. This review article presents a systematical overview on major influential factors affecting the measurement precision of clothing evaporative resistance measurements. It also illustrates the state-of-the-art knowledge on the development of test protocol to measure clothing evaporative resistance by means of a sweating manikin. Some feasible and robust test procedures for measurement of clothing evaporative resistance using a sweating manikin are described. Recommendations on how to improve the measurement accuracy of clothing evaporative resistance are addressed and expected future trends on development of advanced sweating thermal manikins are finally presented. PMID:28566566

  20. The Role of the Grain Boundary on the Room Temperature Resistivity of Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Bop; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Hwan

    2002-08-01

    The role of the grain boundary on the room temperature resistivity of Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PFN) was investigated using parameters such as temperature dependence of resistivity, complex impedance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The low resistivity of PFN has been reported to be due to the electron hopping between Fe2+ and Fe3+ driven by the reduction of PFN. However a reconsideration of the reduction equilibrium constant (KRe) revealed that this theory could not fully explain the effect of the sintering temperature on the room temperature resistivity. The role of the grain boundary on the total resistivity was introduced in order to account for this behavior, which was confirmed by complex impedence spectroscopy. Furthermore, the annealing data and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that the grain boundary properties were irreversibly changed at 1423 K, which appeared to be due to Pb volatilization.

  1. Standard Test Method for Thermal Oxidative Resistance of Carbon Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1982-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the apparatus and procedure for the determination of the weight loss of carbon fibers, exposed to ambient hot air, as a means of characterizing their oxidative resistance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units which are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard information, see Section 8.

  2. Determination of the Thermal Resistance of Pipe Insulation Material from Thermal Conductivity of Flat Insulation Products

    OpenAIRE

    Koenen, Alain; Marquis, Damien M.

    2015-01-01

    New European product standards now include a mandatory requirement for manufacturers to declare the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity for each insulation used in building equipments and industrial installations. For pipe insulation systems, the measurement is usually performed by a standard pipe test method, in which the value on a large temperature range is integrated to reduce temperature range and improve temperature measurement control. The alternative proposed in this article co...

  3. Wind-tunnel experiments of turbulent flow over a surface-mounted 2-D block in a thermally-stratified boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Markfort, Corey; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    Turbulent flows over complex surface topography have been of great interest in the atmospheric science and wind engineering communities. The geometry of the topography, surface roughness and temperature characteristics as well as the atmospheric thermal stability play important roles in determining momentum and scalar flux distribution. Studies of turbulent flow over simplified topography models, under neutrally stratified boundary-layer conditions, have provided insights into fluid dynamics. However, atmospheric thermal stability has rarely been considered in laboratory experiments, e.g., wind-tunnel experiments. Series of wind-tunnel experiments of thermally-stratified boundary-layer flow over a surface-mounted 2-D block, in a well-controlled boundary-layer wind tunnel, will be presented. Measurements using high-resolution PIV, x-wire/cold-wire anemometry and surface heat flux sensors were conducted to quantify the turbulent flow properties, including the size of the recirculation zone, coherent vortex structures and the subsequent boundary layer recovery. Results will be shown to address thermal stability effects on momentum and scalar flux distribution in the wake, as well as dominant mechanism of turbulent kinetic energy generation and consumption. The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from the Swiss National Foundation (Grant 200021-132122), the National Science Foundation (Grant ATM-0854766) and NASA (Grant NNG06GE256).

  4. Viscous-slip, thermal-slip, and temperature-jump coefficients as defined by the linearized Boltzmann equation and the Cercignani-Lampis boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, C. E.

    2003-06-01

    A polynomial expansion procedure and an analytical discrete-ordinates method are used to evaluate the viscous-slip coefficient, the thermal-slip coefficient, and the temperature-jump coefficient as defined by a rigorous version of the linearized Boltzmann equation for rigid-sphere interactions and the Cercignani-Lampis boundary condition.

  5. Non-Newtonian unconfined flow and heat transfer over a heated cylinder using the direct-forcing immersed boundary-thermal lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Delouei, A.; Nazari, M.; Kayhani, M. H.; Succi, S.

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the immersed boundary-thermal lattice Boltzmann method has been used to simulate non-Newtonian fluid flow over a heated circular cylinder. The direct-forcing algorithm has been employed to couple the off-lattice obstacles and on-lattice fluid nodes. To investigate the effect of boundary sharpness, two different diffuse interface schemes are considered to interpolate the velocity and temperature between the boundary and computational grid points. The lattice Boltzmann equation with split-forcing term is applied to consider the effects of the discrete lattice and the body force to the momentum flux, simultaneously. A method for calculating the Nusselt number based on diffuse interface schemes is developed. The rheological and thermal properties of non-Newtonian fluids are investigated under the different power-law indices and Reynolds numbers. The effect of numerical parameters on the accuracy of the proposed method has been investigated in detail. Results show that the rheological and thermal properties of non-Newtonian fluids in the presence of a heated immersed body can be suitably captured using the immersed boundary thermal lattice Boltzmann method.

  6. Natural convection air flow in vertical upright-angled triangular cavities under realistic thermal boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieres Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical and numerical computation of laminar natural convection in a collection of vertical upright-angled triangular cavities filled with air. The vertical wall is heated with a uniform heat flux; the inclined wall is cooled with a uniform temperature; while the upper horizontal wall is assumed thermally insulated. The defining aperture angle φ is located at the lower vertex between the vertical and inclined walls. The finite element method is implemented to perform the computational analysis of the conservation equations for three aperture angles φ (= 15º, 30º and 45º and height-based modified Rayleigh numbers ranging from a low Ra = 0 (pure conduction to a high 109. Numerical results are reported for the velocity and temperature fields as well as the Nusselt numbers at the heated vertical wall. The numerical computations are also focused on the determination of the value of the maximum or critical temperature along the hot vertical wall and its dependence with the modified Rayleigh number and the aperture angle.

  7. Optimised mixing and flow resistance during shear flow over a rib roughened boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arfaie, A.; Burns, A. D.; Dorrell, R. M.; Eggenhuisen, J. T.; Ingham, D. B.; McCaffrey, W. D.

    2014-01-01

    A series of numerical investigations has been performed to study the effect of lower boundary roughness on turbulent flow in a two-dimensional channel. The roughness spacing to height ratio, w/k, has been investigated over the range 0.12 to 402 by varying the horizontal rib spacing. The square

  8. Influence of the column rectangularity index and of the boundary conditions in the punching resistance of slab-column connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. PAIVA

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence indicates that both the column rectangularity index and the boundary conditions of the connection may affect the ultimate punching resistance. This paper presents general aspects of these topics and, through the analysis of experimental results of tests on 131 slabs, evaluates the accuracy and suitability of recommendations presented by ABNT NBR 6118, Eurocode 2, ACI 318 and fib Model Code 2010. Experimental results showed that the security level of normative estimates trend to reduce as the column rectangularity increases, and in some cases, the punching resistance was overestimated. Finally, adjustments are suggested in equations presented by NBR 6118 and MC2010 in order to eliminate this trend of unsafe results.

  9. Nonstationary thermal field in the parallelepiped in the mode of heat conduction under boundary conditions of first kind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bityukov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical study of the processes of heat conduction is one of the main topics of modern engineering research in engineering, energy, nuclear industry, process chemical, construction, textile, food, geological and other industries. Suffice to say that almost all processes in one degree or another are related to change in the temperature condition and the transfer of warmth. It should also be noted that engineering studies of the kinetics of a range of physical and chemical processes are similar to the problems of stationary and nonstationary heat transfer. These include the processes of diffusions, sedimentation, viscous flow, slowing down the neutrons, flow of fluids through a porous medium, electric fluctuations, adsorption, drying, burning, etc. There are various methods for solving the classical boundary value problems of nonstationary heat conduction and problems of the generalized type: the method of separation of variables (Fourier method method; the continuation method; the works solutions; the Duhamel's method; the integral transformations method; the operating method; the method of green's functions (stationary and non-stationary thermal conductivity; the reflection method (method source. In this paper, based on the consistent application of the Laplace transform on the dimensionless time θ and finite sine integral transformation in the spatial coordinates X and Y solves the problem of unsteady temperature distribution on the mechanism of heat conduction in a parallelepiped with boundary conditions of first kind. As a result we have the analytical solution of the temperature distribution in the parallelepiped to a conductive mode free convection, when one of the side faces of the parallelepiped is maintained at a constant temperature, and the others with the another same constant temperature.

  10. The Influence of Laser Surface Alloying on the Thermal Fatigue Resistance of Hot Work Tool Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonda E.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the effect of laser surface remelting and alloying by carbides powders of NbC, TaC, TiC, VC and WC on the structure and thermal fatigue resistance of the surface layer of hot work tool steels X40CrMoV5-1 and 32CrMoV12-28. The laser surface alloying and remelting treatments was performed using a high power diode laser (HPDL ROFIN SINAR DL 020. In order to investigate the effect of applied laser treatments and used alloying powders on the microstructure and thermal fatigue resistance of processed surface layer of hot work tool steels, the microstructure evaluation by light microscopy, hardness test, and dedicated thermal fatigue resistance test were performed. The best results regarding fatigue cracks inhibition was obtained when the surface of hot work tool steels was alloyed with TiC and VC carbides at the laser beam power of 2.0 and 2.3 kW. The grain refinement effect of laser remelting has a lower impact on the thermal crack inhibition, than a strong strengthening effect of matrix saturation in alloying elements and precipitation of fine carbides in the steel matrix.

  11. Solvent and Thermally Resistant Polymeric Membranes for Different Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Taghreeed, Jalal

    2016-11-01

    In this work polymeric materials were developed to be used as a solvent and heat resistance membrane for different applications. In ultrafiltration, poly (ether imide sulfone) membranes were manufactured by combining phase inversion and functionalization reaction between epoxy groups and amine modified polyether oligomers (Jeffamine®). Polysilsesquioxanes or oligo silsesquioxanes containing epoxy functionalities were in-situ grown in the casting solution and made available for further reaction with amines in the coagulation/annealing baths. Water permeances up to 1500 l m-2 h-1 bar-1 were obtained with sharp pore size distribution and a pore diameter peak at 66 nm, confirmed by porosimetry, allowing 99.2 % rejection of γ-globulin. The membranes were stable in 50:50 dimethylformamide/water, 50:50 N-methyl pyrrolidone/water and 100 % tetrahydrofuran. In pervaporation, Novel hydrophobic Hyflon®/Extem® and Hyflon®/PVDF were developed and investigated for ethylene glycol dehydration and n-butanol dehydration respectively. For ethylene glycol different Extem® concentrations were evaluated with regard to both flux and amount of water in the permeate side. Eighteen (18) wt% gave more than 90 wt% water in the permeate. Increasing feed temperature from 25 to 85°C increased the water flux from 31 to 91 g m-2 h-1 when using 5 wt% water in ethylene glycol as feed. The water flux of 40 wt% water:ethylene glycol at 45°C was found to be 350 g m-2 h-1. And for n-butanol dehydration the coating protocols for thin defect-free Hyflon® selective layer on the PVDF support was optimized. Water and n-butanol transport was measured, analyzing the effect of operating conditions. The water flux through the newly developed membranes was higher than 150 g m-2 h-1 with selectivity for water higher than 99 wt%. The membrane application can be extended to other solvents, supporting an effective and simple method for dehydration with hydrophobic membranes. In membrane distillation, PVDF

  12. Terrane Boundary Geophysical Signatures in Northwest Panay, Philippines: Results from Gravity, Seismic Refraction and Electrical Resistivity Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Aira S. Gabo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest Panay consists of two terranes that form part of the Central Philippine collision zone: Buruanga Peninsula and Antique Range. The Buruanga Peninsula consists of a Jurassic chert-clastic-limestone sequence, typical of oceanic plate stratigraphy of the Palawan Micro-continental Block. The Antique Range is characterized by Antique Ophiolite Complex peridotites and Miocene volcanic and clastic rocks, representing obducted oceanic crust that serves as the oceanic leading edge of the collision with the Philippine Mobile Belt. The Nabas Fault is identified as the boundary between the two terranes. This study employed the gravity method to characterize the Northwest Panay subsurface structure. Results indicate higher Bouguer anomaly values for Buruanga Peninsula than those for Antique Range, separated by a sudden decrease in gravity values toward the east-southeast (ESE direction. Forward gravity data modeling indicates the presence of an underlying basaltic subducted slab in the Buruanga Peninsula. Furthermore, the Nabas Fault is characterized as an east-dipping thrust structure formed by Buruanga Peninsula basement leading edge subduction beneath Antique Range. Additional geophysical constraints were provided by shallow seismic refraction and electrical resistivity surveys. Results from both methods delineated the shallow subsurface signature of the Nabas Fault buried beneath alluvium deposits. The gravity, seismic refraction and electrical resistivity methods were consistent in identifying the Nabas Fault as the terrane boundary between the Buruanga Peninsula and the Antique Range. The three geophysical methods helped constrain the subsurface configuration in Northwest Panay.

  13. Thermal contact resistance for a CU/G-10CR interface in a cylindrical geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, P.E. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Niemann, R.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nicol, T.H. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.

    1996-07-01

    A major component of a high-T[sub c] superconductor current lead designed to provide current to low-T[sub c] superconductor magnets is the heat intercept connection, which is a cylindrical structure consisting of an inner Cu disk, a thin-walled G-10CR composite tube, and an outer Cu ring, assembled by a thermal interference fit. It was determined in a previous study that the thermal contact resistance (R[sub c]) between the composite tube and the two Cu pieces contributed a substantial portion of the total thermal resistance between the inner and outer Cu pieces. This report emphasizes the analysis of the data for the third and final design of the heat intercept connection. In particular, it is found that R[sub c] decreases dramatically with increasing heat flux, a result consistent with earlier studies of composite cylinders. However, for the present data, the thermal contact conductance [=1/R{sub c}]varies with the calculated contact pressure with a power-law exponent of approximately 10, as compared to a theoretical value near 1. In addition, the presence of He or N[sub 2] gas substantially reduces R [sub c] even though the contacting surfaces are coated with a thermal grease.

  14. Exponentially increased thermal resistance ofSalmonellaandEnterococcus faeciumat reduced water activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuxiang; Tang, Juming; Tadapaneni, Ravi Kiran; Yang, Ren; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2018-02-09

    Salmonella exhibited prolonged survivability and high tolerance to heat in low-moisture foods. Reported thermal resistance parameters of Salmonella spp. in low-moisture foods is unpredictable due to various factors. We report here that an external factor temperature-dependent water activity (a w, treatment temperature ) of bacterial cells plays an important role in the sharply increased thermal resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 ( S Enteritidis) and its potential surrogate Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 ( E. faecium ). In our study, silicon dioxide granules, as inert carriers, were separately inoculated with these two microorganisms and heated at 80°C with controlled relative humidity between 18-72% (result in corresponding a w,80°C of bacteria between 0.18 and 0.72) in custom-designed test cells. Inactivation kinetics of both microorganisms fitted a log-linear model (R 2 =0.83-0.97). Reduced a w,80°C of bacterial cells increased the D 80°C -values (the time needed to achieve 1 log reduction of a bacterial population at 80°C) exponentially for S Enteritidis and E. faecium on silicon dioxide. The log-linear relationship between D 80°C of both strains in silicon dioxide and a w,80°C also were verified for organic wheat flour. E. faecium showed consistently higher D 80°C values than S. Enteritidis over the tested a w,80°C range. The estimated z a w values (the a w,80°C needed to alter 1 log of D 80°C ) of S Enteritidis and E. faecium were 0.31 and 0.28, respectively. This study provides an insight into the interpretation of thermal resistances of Salmonella that could guide the development and validation of thermal processing of low-moisture foods. Importance In this paper, we established that thermal resistance of the pathogen Salmonella and its surrogate Enterococcus faecium , as reflected by D values at 80°C, increases sharply with reducing relative humidity in the environment. The log-linear relationship between D 80°C of both strains in

  15. Effect of constant and uniform heat generation on the thermal behaviour of porous solids with asymmetric boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heggs, P.J.; Dare, J. [University of Manchester, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    The generation of heat due to chemical reaction will have a significant effect on the temperature profile and heat transfer within a porous body. Most forms of analysis only consider the symmetric situation or else make use of various assumptions that greatly simplify the analysis, for example: the Semenov or the Frak-kamenetskii models. The objective of this paper is to develop an improved understanding of the thermal behaviour of a porous body with uniform internal heat generation, which is in contact with two fluids at different temperatures and with different heat transfer coefficients. The mathematical representation is a one dimensional Poisson equation with asymmetric boundary conditions. The analytical solution reveals four regimes for heat flow: (a) purely conduction at zero heat generation, (b) a combination of heat flow by conduction through the body between the hot and cold fluids and all heat generated passing to the colder fluid, (c) no heat flow by conduction between the two fluids and all heat generated passing the cold flow - the so-called critical heat generation, and (d) the heat generated passes to both the cold and hot fluids and there is a maximum temperature within the body greater than that of the hot fluid, the so-called supercritical region. Expressions are developed to allow predictions of the conditions pertaining to each regime. This new representation covers the Semenov and Frank-Kamenetskii models and all possible solutions intermediate of the them. (authors)

  16. A control algorithm for attaining stationary statistics in LES of thermally stratified wind-turbine array boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sescu, A.; Meneveau, C. V.

    2012-12-01

    Recent LES studies of the interaction between neutral atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and infinitely large arrays of wind turbines have led to derivations of new similarity relations within the surface layer. A similar analysis in non-neutral conditions is not trivial, since achieving statistically stationary conditions in LES is challenging. For example, the heat flux at the ground forces vertical profiles of mean temperature to vary significantly over time. The focus of this work is on using an artificial heat source or sink, in a region located above ABL, that maintains the overall temperature field inside the ABL stationary. This goal is achieved by using a PI control algorithm, designed to keep constant the initial horizontally averaged temperature at a specified height and above. Another controller is used to drive the flow within the ABL, causing the mean velocity to achieve a prescribed direction at a specified height. This is done by controlling a source term in the momentum equations. This term is deactivated once the flow becomes statistically stationary and the geostrophic wind aligns with the desired direction at a given height. A suite of simulations at various resolutions, with and without wind turbines, and with different levels of thermal stratification are presented to test the effectiveness of the control algorithm. Streamwise velocity contours in unstable ABL interacting with 24 wind turbines. Streamwise velocity contours in stable ABL interacting with 24 wind turbines.

  17. Development of Computational Tools for Modeling Thermal and Radiation Effects on Grain Boundary Segregation and Precipitation in Fe-Cr-Ni-based Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ying [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This work aims at developing computational tools for modeling thermal and radiation effects on solute segregation at grain boundaries (GBs) and precipitation. This report described two major efforts. One is the development of computational tools on integrated modeling of thermal equilibrium segregation (TES) and radiation-induced segregation (RIS), from which synergistic effects of thermal and radiation, pre-existing GB segregation have been taken into consideration. This integrated modeling was used in describing the Cr and Ni segregation in the Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. The other effort is thermodynamic modeling on the Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo system which includes the major alloying elements in the investigated alloys in the Advanced Radiation Resistant Materials (ARRM) program. Through thermodynamic calculation, we provide baseline thermodynamic stability of the hardening phase Ni2(Cr,Mo) in selected Ni-based super alloys, and contribute knowledge on mechanistic understanding on the formation of Ni2(Cr,Mo) in the irradiated materials. The major outcomes from this work are listed in the following: 1) Under the simultaneous thermal and irradiation conditions, radiation-induced segregation played a dominant role in the GB segregation. The pre-existing GB segregation only affects the subsequent radiation-induced segregation in the short time. For the same element, the segregation tendency of Cr and Ni due to TES is opposite to it from RIS. The opposite tendency can lead to the formation of W-shape profile. These findings are consistent with literature observation of the transitory W-shape profile. 2) While TES only affects the distance of one or two atomic layers from GBs, the RIS can affect a broader distance from GB. Therefore, the W-shape due to pre-existing GB segregation is much narrower than that due to composition gradient formed during the transient state. Considering the measurement resolution of Auger or STEM analysis, the segregation tendency due to RIS should play a dominant

  18. Novel Resistance Measurement Method: Analysis of Accuracy and Thermal Dependence with Applications in Fiber Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Casans

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Material resistance is important since different physicochemical properties can be extracted from it. This work describes a novel resistance measurement method valid for a wide range of resistance values up to 100 GΩ at a low powered, small sized, digitally controlled and wireless communicated device. The analog and digital circuits of the design are described, analysing the main error sources affecting the accuracy. Accuracy and extended uncertainty are obtained for a pattern decade box, showing a maximum of 1 % accuracy for temperatures below 30 ∘ C in the range from 1 MΩ to 100 GΩ. Thermal analysis showed stability up to 50 ∘ C for values below 10 GΩ and systematic deviations for higher values. Power supply V i applied to the measurement probes is also analysed, showing no differences in case of the pattern decade box, except for resistance values above 10 GΩ and temperatures above 35 ∘ C. To evaluate the circuit behaviour under fiber materials, an 11-day drying process in timber from four species (Oregon pine-Pseudotsuga menziesii, cedar-Cedrus atlantica, ash-Fraxinus excelsior, chestnut-Castanea sativa was monitored. Results show that the circuit, as expected, provides different resistance values (they need individual conversion curves for different species and the same ambient conditions. Additionally, it was found that, contrary to the decade box analysis, V i affects the resistance value due to material properties. In summary, the proposed circuit is able to accurately measure material resistance that can be further related to material properties.

  19. Novel Resistance Measurement Method: Analysis of Accuracy and Thermal Dependence with Applications in Fiber Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casans, Silvia; Rosado-Muñoz, Alfredo; Iakymchuk, Taras

    2016-12-14

    Material resistance is important since different physicochemical properties can be extracted from it. This work describes a novel resistance measurement method valid for a wide range of resistance values up to 100 GΩ at a low powered, small sized, digitally controlled and wireless communicated device. The analog and digital circuits of the design are described, analysing the main error sources affecting the accuracy. Accuracy and extended uncertainty are obtained for a pattern decade box, showing a maximum of 1 % accuracy for temperatures below 30 ∘ C in the range from 1 MΩ to 100 GΩ. Thermal analysis showed stability up to 50 ∘ C for values below 10 GΩ and systematic deviations for higher values. Power supply V i applied to the measurement probes is also analysed, showing no differences in case of the pattern decade box, except for resistance values above 10 GΩ and temperatures above 35 ∘ C. To evaluate the circuit behaviour under fiber materials, an 11-day drying process in timber from four species (Oregon pine-Pseudotsuga menziesii, cedar-Cedrus atlantica, ash-Fraxinus excelsior, chestnut-Castanea sativa) was monitored. Results show that the circuit, as expected, provides different resistance values (they need individual conversion curves) for different species and the same ambient conditions. Additionally, it was found that, contrary to the decade box analysis, V i affects the resistance value due to material properties. In summary, the proposed circuit is able to accurately measure material resistance that can be further related to material properties.

  20. THERMAL MODIFICATION OF RUBBERWOOD TO INCREASE ITS RESISTANCE AGAINST ASIAN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasin, M

    2014-01-01

    The potential of thermal modification to improve the resistance of rubberwood to Asian subterranean termites Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) was studied. The rubberwood samples were dried at 185, 200 or 215 °C until constant weight before termite tests. The choice experiment in the field had three months duration. The results indicated that drying at 215 °C gave rubberwood the best resistance to C. gestroi infestation among these samples, with the lowest relative loss of mass, followed in rank order by 200, 185 °C and control treatments. However, the relative loss of mass did not differ significantly between the 200 and the 185 °C treatments. The control samples were distinctly infested by C. gestroi. The thermal treatments affected meachanical properties, and bending strength and density decreased while compressive strength parallel to grain increased with the treatment temperature.

  1. Thermal Resistance of Clostridium difficile Spores in Peptone Water and Pork Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Solano, Mauricio; Burson, Dennis E; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan

    2016-09-01

    The thermal resistance of four strains of Clostridium difficile spores (three hypervirulent and one nonhypervirulent) in peptone water (PW) and pork meat was evaluated individually at 70, 75, 80, 85, and 90°C using two recovery methods (taurocholate and lysozyme). PW or meat was inoculated with C. difficile spores and mixed to obtain ca. 5.0 log CFU/ml or 4.0 log CFU/g, respectively. The D-values of C. difficile spores in PW ranged from 7.07 to 22.14 h, 1.42 to 3.82 h, 0.35 to 0.59 h, 4.93 to 5.95 min, and 1.16 to 1.76 min at 70, 75, 80, 85, and 90°C, respectively, for the four strains using the taurocholate method. The D-values of the respective C. difficile spores were greater (P ≤ 0.05) using the lysozyme method, especially at higher temperatures (85 and 90°C). Greater thermal resistance of C. difficile spores was observed in meat than in PW using the lysozyme method. Hypervirulence of the C. difficile strains was not associated with greater thermal resistance in meat. The z-values for C. difficile spores in meat were between 6.21 and 7.21°C, and they were 11.24 and 12.12°C using the taurocholate and the lysozyme recovery methods, respectively. The D- and z-values of C. difficile spores were greater in both PW and pork than the values reported in the literature. C. difficile spores can survive traditional cooking or thermal processing practices and potentially grow in cooked, ready-to-eat products. The use of effective methods to recover heat-injured spores is necessary to obtain accurate thermal destruction parameters for C. difficile spores.

  2. Thermally stable and chemically resistant polymer membranes : aromatic polyoxadiazoles and polytriazoles

    OpenAIRE

    Gebben, Bert

    1988-01-01

    This thesis concerns the preparation of membranes from thermally stable and chemically resistant polymers. Two polymer families from the category of heterocyclic and aromatic polymers have been selected for investigation, the polyoxadiazoles and the polytriazoles, respectively. A major problem concerning these types of polymers is their bad processability due to their insolubility and infusibility. For the polyoxadiazoles this problem is circumvented by using a two-step preparation process th...

  3. A quasi-physical model for predicting the thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance of clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoming; Fan, Jintu

    2009-07-01

    Based on the improved understanding of the effects of wind and walking motion on the thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance of clothing induced by air ventilation in the clothing system, a new model has been derived based on fundamental mechanisms of heat and mass transfer, which include conduction, diffusion, radiation and natural convection, wind penetration and air ventilation. The model predicts thermal insulation of clothing under body movement and windy conditions from the thermal insulation of clothing measured when the person is standing in the still air. The effects of clothing characteristics such as fabric air permeability, garment style, garment fitting and construction have been considered in the model through the key prediction parameters. With the new model, an improved prediction accuracy is achieved with a percentage of fit being as high as 0.96.

  4. Crossing ethnic boundaries: Parental resistance to and consequences of adolescents' cross-ethnic friendships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munniksma, A.

    2013-01-01

    With the transition to middle school adolescents meet many new peers. This can lead to worries among parents about with whom their children will affiliate. Munniksma studied parental resistance to their children's interethnic relations, and the consequences of adolescents' interethnic friendships

  5. Crossing ethnic boundaries: Parental resistance to and consequences of adolescents' cross-ethnic friendships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munniksma, A.

    2013-01-01

    With the transition to middle school adolescents meet many new peers. This can lead to worries among parents about with whom their children will affiliate. Munniksma studied parental resistance to their children's interethnic relations, and the consequences of adolescents' interethnic friendships at

  6. An Experimental Study on Heat Conduction and Thermal Contact Resistance for the AlN Flake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huann-Ming Chou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical technology has been a fast development over the past decades. Moreover, the tendency of microelements and dense division multiplex is significantly for the electrical industries. Therefore, the high thermal conductible and electrical insulating device will be popular and important. It is well known that AlN still maintains stablility in the high temperature. This is quite attractive for the research and development department. Moreover, the thermal conduct coefficient of AlN is several times larger than the others. Therefore, it has been thought to play an important role for the radiator of heat source in the future. Therefore, this paper is focused on the studies of heat conduction and thermal contact resistance between the AlN flake and the copper specimens. The heating temperatures and the contact pressures were selected as the experimental parameters. According to the experimental results, the materials are soft and the real contact areas between the interfaces significantly increase under higher temperatures. As a result, the thermal contact resistance significantly decreases and the heat transfer rate increases with increasing the heating temperature or the contact pressures.

  7. Electrical resistivity and thermal properties of compatibilized multi-walled carbon nanotube/polypropylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Szentes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrical resistivity and thermal properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube/polypropylene (MWCNT/PP composites have been investigated in the presence of coupling agents applied for improving the compatibility between the nanotubes and the polymer. A novel olefin-maleic-anhydride copolymer and an olefin-maleic-anhydride copolymer based derivative have been used as compatibilizers to achieve better dispersion of MWCNTs in the polymer matrix. The composites have been produced by extrusion followed by injection moulding. They contained different amounts of MWCNTs (0.5, 2, 3 and 5 wt% and coupling agent to enhance the interactions between the carbon nanotubes and the polymer. The electrical resistivity of the composites has been investigated by impedance spectroscopy, whereas their thermal properties have been determined using a thermal analyzer operating on the basis of the periodic thermal perturbation method. Rheological properties, BET-area and adsorption-desorption isotherms have been determined. Dispersion of MWCNTs in the polymer has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  8. Risk analysis of the thermal sterilization process. Analysis of factors affecting the thermal resistance of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akterian, S G; Fernandez, P S; Hendrickx, M E; Tobback, P P; Periago, P M; Martinez, A

    1999-03-01

    A risk analysis was applied to experimental heat resistance data. This analysis is an approach for processing experimental thermobacteriological data in order to study the variability of D and z values of target microorganisms depending on the deviations range of environmental factors, to determine the critical factors and to specify their critical tolerance. This analysis is based on sets of sensitivity functions applied to a specific case of experimental data related to the thermoresistance of Clostridium sporogenes and Bacillus stearothermophilus spores. The effect of the following factors was analyzed: the type of target microorganism; nature of the heating substrate; pH, temperature; type of acid employed and NaCl concentration. The type of target microorganism to be inactivated, the nature of the substrate (reference or real food) and the heating temperature were identified as critical factors, determining about 90% of the alteration of the microbiological risk. The effect of the type of acid used for the acidification of products and the concentration of NaCl can be assumed to be negligible factors for the purposes of engineering calculations. The critical non-uniformity in temperature during thermobacteriological studies was set as 0.5% and the critical tolerances of pH value and NaCl concentration were 5%. These results are related to a specific case study, for that reason their direct generalization is not correct.

  9. A study on the role of grain boundary engineering in promoting high-cycle fatigue resistance and improving reliability in nickel base superalloys for propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong

    High-cycle fatigue, involving the premature initiation and/or rapid propagation of small cracks to failure due to high-frequency (vibratory) loading, remains the principal cause of failures in military gas-turbine propulsion systems. The objective of this study is to examine whether the resistance to high-cycle fatigue failures can be enhanced by grain-boundary engineering, i.e., through the modification of the spatial distribution and topology of the grain boundaries in the microstructure. While grain boundary engineering has been used to obtain significant improvements in intergranular corrosion and cracking, creep and cavitation behavior, toughness and plasticity, cold-work embrittlement, and weldability, only very limited, but positive, results exist for fatigue. Accordingly, using a commercial polycrystalline nickel base gamma/gamma' superalloy, ME3, as a typical engine disk material, sequential thermomechanical processing, involving alternate cycles of strain and annealing, is used to (i) modify the proportion of special grain boundaries, and (ii) interrupt the connectivity of the random boundaries in the grain boundary network. The processed microstructures are then subjected to fracture-mechanics based high cycle fatigue testing to evaluate how the crack initiation and small- and large-crack growth properties are affected and to examine how the altered grain boundary population and connectivity can influence growth rates and overall lifetimes. The effect of such grain-boundary engineering on the fatigue-crack-propagation behavior of large (˜8 to 20 mm), through-thickness cracks at 25, 700, and 800°C was examined. Although there was little influence of an increased special boundary fraction at ambient temperatures, the resistance to near-threshold crack growth was definitively improved at elevated temperatures, with fatigue threshold-stress intensities some 10 to 20% higher than at 25°C, concomitant with a lower proportion (˜20%) of intergranular

  10. Effect of thermal fatigue on the wear resistance of graphite cast iron with bionic units processed by laser cladding WC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Zhengjun; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chuanwei; Meng, Chao; Cong, Dalong

    2013-04-01

    Thermal fatigue and wear exist simultaneously during the service life of brake discs. Previous researchers only studied thermal fatigue resistance or abrasion resistance of compact graphite cast iron (CGI), rather than combining them together. In this paper, wear resistance after thermal fatigue of CGI was investigated basing on the principle of bionics, which was close to actual service condition of the brake discs. In the meanwhile, the effect of thermal fatigue on wear resistance was also discussed. Non-smooth bionic units were fabricated by laser cladding WC powder with different proportions (50 wt.%, 60 wt.%, 70 wt.%). Microstructure and microhardness of the units were investigated, and wear mass losses of the samples were also compared. The results indicate that thermal fatigue has a negative effect on the wear resistance. After the same thermal fatigue cycles times, the wear resistance of laser cladding WC samples is superior to that of laser remelting ones and their wear resistance enhances with the increase of WC content.

  11. MHD boundary layer flow and heat transfer due to an exponentially shrinking sheet in a nanofluid with thermal radiation and chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Rohana Abdul; Nazar, Roslinda

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the problem of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a nanofluid with the influences of the chemical reaction and thermal radiation over an exponentially shrinking sheet is studied numerically. The model used for the nanofluid is called the Buongiorno model which incorporates the effects of the Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The governing dimensionless ordinary differential equations are solved using the bvp4c method. The effects of the magnetic field parameter, thermal radiation parameter and chemical reaction parameter on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles of the nanofluid over an exponentially permeable shrinking sheet are discussed and presented through graphs and tables.

  12. Theoretical Research on Thermal Shock Resistance of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics Focusing on the Adjustment of Stress Reduction Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daining Fang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermal shock resistance of ceramics depends on not only the mechanical and thermal properties of materials, but also the external constraint and thermal condition. So, in order to study the actual situation in its service process, a temperature-dependent thermal shock resistance model for ultra-high temperature ceramics considering the effects of the thermal environment and external constraint was established based on the existing theory. The present work mainly focused on the adjustment of the stress reduction factor according to different thermal shock situations. The influences of external constraint on both critical rupture temperature difference and the second thermal shock resistance parameter in either case of rapid heating or cooling conditions had been studied based on this model. The results show the necessity of adjustment of the stress reduction factor in different thermal shock situations and the limitations of the applicable range of the second thermal shock resistance parameter. Furthermore, the model was validated by the finite element method.

  13. Decay Resistance Variability of European Wood Species Thermally Modified by Industrial Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin CANDELIER

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal modification is now considered as a new ecofriendly industrial wood modification process improving mainly the material decay resistance and its dimensional stability. Most industrial thermal treatment processes use convection heat transfer which induces sometimes heterogeneous treatment temperature propagation within the oven and lead to the heterogeneity in treatment efficiency. Thus, it is common that treatment is not completely effective on several stack boards, in a same batch. The aim of this paper was to study the decay resistance variability of various European wood species thermally modified. Thermal modifications were performed around 240°C during 4h, on about 10m3 of 27x152x2000mm3 wood planks placed in an industrial oven having a volume of 20m3 , on the following wood species: spruce, ash, beech and poplar. All of the tests concerning the decay resistance were carried out in the laboratory using untreated beech and pine woods as reference materials. An agar block test was used to determine the resistance of thermally modified woods, leached beforehand according to EN 84 standard or not, to brownrot and white-rot fungi, according to XP CEN/TS 15083-1. A large selection of treated wood samples was tested in order to estimate the variability of treatment efficiency. Thermal treatment increased the biological durability of all leached and un-leached modified wood samples, compared with native wood species. The treatment temperature of 240°C used in this study is sufficient to reach durability classes ‘‘durable’’ or ‘‘very durable’’ for the four wood species. However, the dispersion of weight loss values, due to the fungal attacks was very important and showed a large variability of the durability of wood which has been treated in a single batch. These results showed that there is a substantial need to develop process control and indicator in order to insure that the quality of treated timber is properly evaluated

  14. Crank-Nicholson Scheme for the Estimation of Thermal Disturbance on the Peripheral Tissues of Human Body Subjected to Oscillatory Boundary Condition and Time Dependent Heat Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanday, M. A.; Hussain, Fida

    2015-07-01

    To predict the behaviour of thermal physiology of a finite biological tissue in severe cold climatic conditions, a mathematical model has been established based on Pennes' bio-heat transfer equation with oscillatory boundary condition and time dependent heat source term. Crank-Nicholson scheme has been employed to obtain the solution of the boundary value problem to understand the change in stable temperature profiles at the peripheral tissues of human body subjected to forced convection due to cold. Thermal stress at these regions with respect to different input parameters has been computed under extreme environmental conditions using MATLAB Software. The results have shown a relative significance and provide a reasonable outcome in terms of variable metabolic heat generation and oscillatory heat source. The oscillations of the temperature profiles from the mean temperatures were computed in relation with tissue medium and other physiological parameters.

  15. Design of a Resistively Heated Thermal Hydraulic Simulator for Nuclear Rocket Reactor Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Foote, John P.; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Wang, Ten-See; Anghaie, Samim

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary design study is presented for a non-nuclear test facility which uses ohmic heating to replicate the thermal hydraulic characteristics of solid core nuclear reactor fuel element passages. The basis for this testing capability is a recently commissioned nuclear thermal rocket environments simulator, which uses a high-power, multi-gas, wall-stabilized constricted arc-heater to produce high-temperature pressurized hydrogen flows representative of reactor core environments, excepting radiation effects. Initially, the baseline test fixture for this non-nuclear environments simulator was configured for long duration hot hydrogen exposure of small cylindrical material specimens as a low cost means of evaluating material compatibility. It became evident, however, that additional functionality enhancements were needed to permit a critical examination of thermal hydraulic effects in fuel element passages. Thus, a design configuration was conceived whereby a short tubular material specimen, representing a fuel element passage segment, is surrounded by a backside resistive tungsten heater element and mounted within a self-contained module that inserts directly into the baseline test fixture assembly. With this configuration, it becomes possible to create an inward directed radial thermal gradient within the tubular material specimen such that the wall-to-gas heat flux characteristics of a typical fuel element passage are effectively simulated. The results of a preliminary engineering study for this innovative concept are fully summarized, including high-fidelity multi-physics thermal hydraulic simulations and detailed design features.

  16. Stability analysis of boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a permeable exponentially shrinking sheet in the presence of thermal radiation and partial slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, N. S. M.; Arifin, N. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the steady boundary layer fluid flow with heat transfer over an exponentially shrinking sheet with thermal radiation, partial slip and suction is studied. The similarity transformation was applied to the governing partial differential equations to transform into a set of ordinary differential equations which are then solved numerically using bvp4c function in Matlab. It is reveal that dual solutions exist in our observations. A stability analysis is performed to determine which solution is linearly stable and physically realizable.

  17. The thermal fatigue behaviour of creep-resistant Ni-Cr cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Piekarski

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study gives a summary of the results of industrial and laboratory investigations regarding an assessment of the thermal fatigue behaviour of creep-resistant austenitic cast steel. The first part of the study was devoted to the problem of textural stresses forming in castings during service, indicating them as a cause of crack formation and propagation. Stresses are forming in carbides and in matrix surrounding these carbides due to considerable differences in the values of the coefficients of thermal expansion of these phases. The second part of the study shows the results of investigations carried out to assess the effect of carbon, chromium and nickel on crack resistance of austenitic cast steel. As a criterion of assessment the amount and propagation rate of cracks forming in the specimens as a result of rapid heating followed by cooling in running water was adopted. Tests were carried out on specimens made from 11 alloys. The chemical composition of these alloys was comprised in a range of the following values: (wt-%: 18-40 %Ni, 17-30 %Cr, 1.2-1.6%Si and 0.05-0.6 %C. The specimens were subjected to 75 cycles of heating to a temperature of 900oC followed by cooling in running water. After every 15 cycles the number of the cracks was counted and their length was measured. The results of the measurements were mathematically processed. It has been proved that the main factor responsible for an increase in the number of cracks is carbon content in the alloy. In general assessment of the results of investigations, the predominant role of carbon and of chromium in the next place in shaping the crack behaviour of creep-resistant austenitic cast steel should be stressed. Attention was also drawn to the effect of high-temperature corrosion as a factor definitely deteriorating the cast steel resistance to thermal fatigue.

  18. Pushing the boundaries of resistance: insights from Brachypodium-rust interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania eFigueroa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The implications of global population growth urge transformation of current food and bioenergy production systems to sustainability. Members of the family Poaceae are of particular importance both in food security and for their applications as biofuel substrates. For centuries, rust fungi have threatened the production of valuable crops such as wheat, barley, oat and other small grains; similarly, biofuel crops can also be susceptible to these pathogens. Emerging rust pathogenic races with increased virulence and recurrent rust epidemics around the world point out the vulnerability of monocultures. Basic research in plant immunity, especially in model plants, can make contributions to understanding plant resistance mechanisms and improve disease management strategies. The development of the grass Brachypodium distachyon as a genetically tractable model for monocots, especially temperate cereals and grasses, offers the possibility to overcome the experimental challenges presented by the genetic and genomic complexities of economically valuable crop plants. The numerous resources and tools available in Brachypodium have opened new doors to investigate the underlying molecular and genetic bases of plant-microbe interactions in grasses and evidence demonstrating the applicability and advantages of working with B. distachyon is increasing. Importantly, several interactions between B. distachyon and devastating plant pathogens, such rust fungi, have been examined in the context of non-host resistance. Here, we discuss the use of B. distachyon in these various pathosystems. Exploiting B. distachyon to understand the mechanisms underpinning disease resistance to non-adapted rust fungi may provide effective and durable approaches to fend off these pathogens. The close phylogenetic relationship among Brachypodium spp. and grasses with industrial and agronomic value support harnessing this model plant to improve cropping systems and encourage its use in

  19. Thermal resistance of Salmonella serovars isolated from raw, frozen chicken nuggets/strips, nugget meat and pelleted broiler feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Oliver; D'Aoust, J-Y; Holley, Richard A

    2008-05-31

    Raw, frozen chicken nuggets/strips available at retail and prepared at home before consumption have been identified as a significant risk factor in contracting food-borne salmonellosis. Cases of salmonellosis from consumption of these products may be due, in part, to Salmonella strains originating in broiler feed. In this study the thermal resistances of Salmonella strains isolated from chicken nuggets and strips, chicken nugget/strip meat and broiler feed were determined to assess whether they exhibited enhanced thermal resistance. Thermal resistances (D- and z- values) of 7 cocktails (25 isolates, 4 serovars) were determined in commercially prepared irradiation-treated chicken nugget/strip meat blend, and heated in a constant temperature waterbath. The thermal resistances found were lower than those reported for similar strains in the literature. D-values ranged from 6.93 to 0.12 min at 55 and 62 degrees C respectively, with z-values from 4.10 to 5.17 degrees C. Two strains of S. Enteritidis separately isolated from pelleted feed and chicken nugget meat blend, with indistinguishable geno- and phenotypes, had lower (and probably identical) thermal resistances than the other isolates. Results indicated that the strains of Salmonella isolated from raw, frozen chicken nuggets/strips and pelleted broiler feed did not exhibit unusually high thermal resistance, and that normal heating (71 degrees C) prior to consumption should eliminate these organisms from chicken nuggets/strips.

  20. High Thermal Conductivity and High Wear Resistance Tool Steels for cost-effective Hot Stamping Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, I.; Hamasaiid, A.; Padré, A.

    2017-09-01

    In hot stamping/press hardening, in addition to its shaping function, the tool controls the cycle time, the quality of the stamped components through determining the cooling rate of the stamped blank, the production costs and the feasibility frontier for stamping a given component. During the stamping, heat is extracted from the stamped blank and transported through the tool to the cooling medium in the cooling lines. Hence, the tools’ thermal properties determine the cooling rate of the blank, the heat transport mechanism, stamping times and temperature distribution. The tool’s surface resistance to adhesive and abrasive wear is also an important cost factor, as it determines the tool durability and maintenance costs. Wear is influenced by many tool material parameters, such as the microstructure, composition, hardness level and distribution of strengthening phases, as well as the tool’s working temperature. A decade ago, Rovalma developed a hot work tool steel for hot stamping that features a thermal conductivity of more than double that of any conventional hot work tool steel. Since that time, many complimentary grades have been developed in order to provide tailored material solutions as a function of the production volume, degree of blank cooling and wear resistance requirements, tool geometries, tool manufacturing method, type and thickness of the blank material, etc. Recently, Rovalma has developed a new generation of high thermal conductivity, high wear resistance tool steel grades that enable the manufacture of cost effective tools for hot stamping to increase process productivity and reduce tool manufacturing costs and lead times. Both of these novel grades feature high wear resistance and high thermal conductivity to enhance tool durability and cut cycle times in the production process of hot stamped components. Furthermore, one of these new grades reduces tool manufacturing costs through low tool material cost and hardening through readily

  1. Thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance of epoxy resin fiberglass tape at superfluid helium temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouy, B.; Polinski, J.

    2009-03-01

    The system of materials composed of fiberglass epoxy resin impregnated tape constitutes in many cases the electrical insulation for "dry"-type superconducting accelerator magnet such as Nb 3Sn magnets. Nb 3Sn magnet technology is still under development in a few programs to reach higher magnetic fields than what NbTi magnets can produce. The European program, Next European Dipole (NED), is one of such programs and it aims to develop and construct a 15 T class Nb 3Sn magnet mainly for upgrading the Large Hardron Collider. Superfluid helium is considered as one possible coolant and since the magnet has been designed with a "dry" insulation, the thermal conductivity and the Kapitza resistance of the electrical insulation are the key properties that must be know for the thermal design of such a magnet. Accordingly, property measurements of the epoxy resin fiberglass tape insulation system developed for the NED project was carried out in superfluid helium. Four sheets with thicknesses varying from 40 to 300 μm have been tested in a steady-state condition. The determined thermal conductivity, k, is [(25.8 ± 2.8) · T - (12.2 ± 4.9)] × 10 -3 W m -1 K -1 and the Kapitza resistance is given by R K = (1462 ± 345) · T(-1.86 ± 0.41) × 10 -6 Km 2 W -1 in the temperature range of 1.55-2.05 K.

  2. Effect of Nisin and Thermal Treatments on the Heat Resistance of Clostridium sporogenes Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-Chumillas, Maria; Esteban, Maria-Dolores; Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Palop, Alfredo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (isothermal or nonisothermal) combined with nisin, a natural antimicrobial, on the survival and recovery of Clostridium sporogenes spores. The addition of nisin to the heating medium at concentrations up to 0.1 mg liter(-1) did not reduce the heat resistance of C. sporogenes. Without a thermal treatment, nisin added at concentrations up to 0.1 mg liter(-1) did not reduce the viable counts of C. sporogenes when added to the recovery medium, but inactivation of more than 4 log cycles was achieved after only 3 s at 100°C. At 100°C, the time needed to reduce viable counts by more than 3 log cycles was nine times shorter when 0.01 mg liter(-1) nisin was added to the recovery medium than without it. The heat resistance values calculated under isothermal conditions were used to predict the survival in the nonisothermal experiments, and the predicted values accurately fit the experimental data. The combination of nisin with a thermal treatment can help control C. sporogenes.

  3. Water resistance and thermal properties of polyvinyl alcohol-starch fiber blend film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, M. S. N.; Nor, N. N. Mohamed; Mohd, N.; Draman, S. F. Syed

    2017-02-01

    The growing attention of starch fiber (SF) has led to the innovation of Polyvinyl Alcohol-SF (PVA-SF) blends. This blend is regarded as the biodegradable material which aims to reduce the accumulation of synthetic polymer solid waste derived from petroleum. In this study, the thermal blending characterizations of PVA-SF were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The water resistance of the blend was also evaluated to study the polarity of the blends. The blend was prepared by plasticizing the polyvinyl alcohol with glycerol and distilled water with the addition of starch fiber. The incorporation of SF to the blends was at 10 wt% to 50 wt% composition. Based on the thermal analysis, PVA-SF blends were suitable for processing at high temperatures, which can be seen by the shifted onset degradation temperature to a higher temperature. This is because cyclic hemiacetals which were provided by SF can act to prevent the thermal attacks. Conversely, increasing the starch fiber proportion to the film blend reduce the endothermic peak amplitude in the DSC thermogram. It was found that PVA-SF blend at the higher composition of SF had the highest water resistance. This may be attributed to the content of fibre in SF which is hydrophilic.

  4. Inexpensive Method of Testing Ambient and Thermally Elevated Resistive and Piezoresistive Thin-Film Pressure Gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Christopher; Rae, Philip; Heatwole, Eric; Tasker, Douglas; Los Alamos National Labortatory Team

    2017-06-01

    Manganin is an alloy that changes resistance when subjected to high-pressure, but is insensitive to temperature changes. Resistance curves as a function of pressure for these gauges have been established. Another commonly used piezoresistive pressure sensor are thin-film carbon gauges, which are more pressure sensitive than manganin gauges. Carbon gauge response in high temperature is not well quantified. The current research is focused on verifying these established resistance curves as well as verifying this specific experimental configuration. In this research the carbon gauges' resistance change is measured for thermally elevated gauges. In this setup a 20 mm caliber gun drove planar copper projectiles at the gauge, which was embedded in a copper anvil. The Hugoniot relationship allows for a comparison between observed and theoretical pressure over a pressure range 5 to 20 GPa for manganin gauges and 1 to 5 GPa for carbon gauges. The comparison between the data obtained in this research and that of others shows that the pressure-resistance curve of manganin does to not vary between lots of manganin. Additionally, the data shows that this setup is a relatively inexpensive quick means of testing gauge response to high-pressure shocks and is suitable for elevated temperature.

  5. Development of Computational Tools for Predicting Thermal- and Radiation-Induced Solute Segregation at Grain Boundaries in Fe-based Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ying [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Radiation-induced segregation (RIS) has been frequently reported in structural materials such as austenitic, ferritic, and ferritic-martensitic stainless steels (SS) that have been widely used in light water reactors (LWRs). RIS has been linked to secondary degradation effects in SS including irradiation-induced stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Earlier studies on thermal segregation in Fe-based alloys found that metalloids elements such as P, S, Si, Ge, Sn, etc., embrittle the materials when enrichment was observed at grain boundaries (GBs). RIS of Fe-Cr-Ni-based austenitic steels has been modeled in the U.S. 2015 fiscal year (FY2015), which identified the pre-enrichment due to thermal segregation can have an important role on the subsequent RIS. The goal of this work is to develop thermal segregation models for alloying elements in steels for future integration with RIS modeling.

  6. Laser welded versus resistance spot welded bone implants: analysis of the thermal increase and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Meleti, Marco; Bonanini, Mauro; Lagori, Giuseppe; Vescovi, Paolo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Nammour, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The first aim of this "ex vivo split mouth" study was to compare the thermal elevation during the welding process of titanium bars to titanium implants inserted in pig jaws by a thermal camera and two thermocouples. The second aim was to compare the strength of the joints by a traction test with a dynamometer. Six pigs' jaws were used and three implants were placed on each side of them for a total of 36 fixtures. Twelve bars were connected to the abutments (each bar on three implants) by using, on one side, laser welding and, on the other, resistance spot welding. Temperature variations were recorded by thermocouples and by thermal camera while the strength of the welded joint was analyzed by a traction test. For increasing temperature, means were 36.83 and 37.06, standard deviations 1.234 and 1.187, and P value 0.5763 (not significant). For traction test, means were 195.5 and 159.4, standard deviations 2.00 and 2.254, and P value 0.0001 (very significant). Laser welding was demonstrated to be able to connect titanium implant abutments without the risk of thermal increase into the bone and with good results in terms of mechanical strength.

  7. Laser Welded versus Resistance Spot Welded Bone Implants: Analysis of the Thermal Increase and Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fornaini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The first aim of this “ex vivo split mouth” study was to compare the thermal elevation during the welding process of titanium bars to titanium implants inserted in pig jaws by a thermal camera and two thermocouples. The second aim was to compare the strength of the joints by a traction test with a dynamometer. Materials and Methods. Six pigs’ jaws were used and three implants were placed on each side of them for a total of 36 fixtures. Twelve bars were connected to the abutments (each bar on three implants by using, on one side, laser welding and, on the other, resistance spot welding. Temperature variations were recorded by thermocouples and by thermal camera while the strength of the welded joint was analyzed by a traction test. Results. For increasing temperature, means were 36.83 and 37.06, standard deviations 1.234 and 1.187, and P value 0.5763 (not significant. For traction test, means were 195.5 and 159.4, standard deviations 2.00 and 2.254, and P value 0.0001 (very significant. Conclusion. Laser welding was demonstrated to be able to connect titanium implant abutments without the risk of thermal increase into the bone and with good results in terms of mechanical strength.

  8. Blanch Resistant and Thermal Barrier NiAl Coating Systems for Advanced Copper Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sai V. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method of forming an environmental resistant thermal barrier coating on a copper alloy is disclosed. The steps include cleansing a surface of a copper alloy, depositing a bond coat on the cleansed surface of the copper alloy, depositing a NiAl top coat on the bond coat and consolidating the bond coat and the NiAl top coat to form the thermal barrier coating. The bond coat may be a nickel layer or a layer composed of at least one of copper and chromium-copper alloy and either the bond coat or the NiAl top coat or both may be deposited using a low pressure or vacuum plasma spray.

  9. Formalising a mechanistic linkage between heterotrophic feeding and thermal bleaching resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Scott A.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, I utilise the CO2 (sink) limitation model of coral bleaching to propose a new biochemical framework that explains how certain (well-adapted) coral species can utilise heterotrophic carbon acquisition to combat the damaging algal photoinhibition response sequence that underpins thermal bleaching, thereby increasing thermal bleaching resistance. This mechanistic linkage helps to clarify a number of previously challenging experimental responses arising from feeding (versus starved) temperature stress experiments, and isotope labelling (tracer) experiments with heterotrophic carbon sources (e.g., zooplankton). In an era of rapidly warming surface ocean temperatures, the conferred fitness benefits arising from such a mechanistic linkage are considerable. Yet, various ecological constraints are outlined which caution against the ultimate benefit of the mechanism for raising bleaching thresholds at the coral community (reef) scale. Future experiments are suggested that can strengthen these proposed arguments.

  10. Altered Landscapes and Groundwater Sustainability — Exploring Impacts with Induced Polarization, DC Resistivity, and Thermal Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, C.; Caldwell, R.; Wheeler, J.; McCarthy, P.; Binley, A. M.; Constantz, J. E.; Stonestrom, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenically impacted landscapes constitute rising proportions of the Earth’s surface that are characterized by generally elevated nutrient and sediment loadings concurrent with increased consumptive water withdrawals. In recent years a growing number of hydraulically engineered riparian habitat restoration projects have attempted to ameliorate negative impacts of land use on groundwater-surface water systems resulting, e.g., from agricultural practices and urban development. Often the nature of groundwater-surface water interactions in pre- and minimally altered systems is poorly known, making it difficult to assess the impacts of land use and restoration projects on groundwater sustainability. Traditional assessments of surface water parameters (flow, temperature, dissolved oxygen, biotic composition, etc.) can be complemented by hydraulic and thermal measurements to better understand the important role played by groundwater-surface water interactions. Hydraulic and thermal measurements are usually limited to point samples, however, making non-invasive and spatially extensive geophysical characterizations an attractive additional tool. Groundwater-surface water interactions along the Smith River, a tributary to the Missouri River in Montana, and Fish Creek and Flat Creek, tributaries to the Snake River in Wyoming, are being examined using a combination of hydraulic measurements, thermal tracing, and electrical-property imaging. Ninety-two direct-current (DC) resistivity and induced polarization cross sections were obtained at stream transects covering a wide variety of hydrogeologic settings ranging from shallow bedrock to thick alluvial sequences, nature of groundwater-surface water interactions (always gaining, always losing, or seasonally varying) and anthropogenic impacts (minimal low-intensity agriculture to major landscape engineering, including channel reconstruction). DC resistivity and induced polarization delineated mutually distinct features

  11. Modelling of Dynamic Transmission Cable Temperature Considering Soil-Specific Heat, Thermal Resistivity, and Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus; Anders, George J.; Holboell, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    as functions of the moisture content which is known to vary with time. Furthermore, issues related to the cooling effect during rainy weather are considered. The algorithm is based on the lumped parameters model and takes as input distributed temperature sensing measurements as well as the current and ambient......This paper presents an algorithm for the estimation of the time-dependent temperature evolution of power cables, when real-time temperature measurements of the cable surface or a point within its vicinity are available. The thermal resistivity and specific heat of the cable surroundings are varied...

  12. Rapid thermal annealing effect on the spatial resistivity distribution of AZO thin films deposited by pulsed-direct-current sputtering for solar cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayachi, Boubakeur, E-mail: boubakeur.ayachi@ed.univ-lille1.fr [Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, Lille 1 University, Avenue Poincaré, UMR 8520, CS 60069, Villeneuve d’Ascq 59652 (France); Aviles, Thomas [CROSSLUX, Avenue Georges Vacher, ZI Rousset Peynier, Immeuble CCE, Rousset 13106 (France); Vilcot, Jean-Pierre [Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, Lille 1 University, Avenue Poincaré, UMR 8520, CS 60069, Villeneuve d’Ascq 59652 (France); Sion, Cathy [Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, Lille 1 University, Avenue Poincaré, UMR 8520, CS 60069, Villeneuve d’Ascq 59652 (France); Ecole Centrale Lille, Cité Scientifique – CS20048, Villeneuve d’Ascq 59651 (France)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • High quality pulsed-DC sputtered AZO thin films were obtained after RTA treatment. • RTA for 30 s was sufficient to achieve uniform spatial resistivity distribution. • RTA for longer than 1 min showed a small increase in resistivity value. • Such improvement was attributed to grain boundaries passivation and doping activation. • In the framework of low cost solar cells development, RTA process would be helpful. - Abstract: Room temperature deposited aluminium-doped zinc oxide thin films on glass substrate, using pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering, have shown high optical transmittance and low electrical resistivity with high uniformity of its spatial distribution after they were exposed to a rapid thermal annealing process at 400 °C under N{sub 2}H{sub 2} atmosphere. It is particularly interesting to note that such an annealing process of AZO thin films for only 30 s was sufficient, on one hand to improve their optical transmittance from 73% to 86%, on the other hand to both decrease their resistivity from 1.7 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm to 5.1 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm and achieve the highest uniformity spatial distribution. To understand the mechanisms behind such improvements of the optoelectronic properties, electrical, optical, structural and morphological changes as a function of annealing time have been investigated by using hall measurement, UV–visible spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope imaging, respectively.

  13. Influence of Strain on Thermal Conductivity of Silicon Nitride Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    of resistance. One end of the aluminum heater (boundary 3) is provided with an electric potential (V = Vo ) and the opposite end (boundary 4) is...2007 Tunable thermal response of ZnO nanowires Nanotechnology 18 435706 [25] Shen S et al 2010 Polyethylene nanofibres with very high thermal

  14. Carbon-Starvation Induces Cross-Resistance to Thermal, Acid, and Oxidative Stress in Serratia marcescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Joseph R.; Kline, La’Kesha C.; Kenyon, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The broad host-range pathogen Serratia marcescens survives in diverse host and non-host environments, often enduring conditions in which the concentration of essential nutrients is growth-limiting. In such environments, carbon and energy source starvation (carbon-starvation) is one of the most common forms of stress encountered by S. marcescens. Related members of the family Enterobacteriaceae are known to undergo substantial changes in gene expression and physiology in response to the specific stress of carbon-starvation, enabling non-spore-forming cells to survive periods of prolonged starvation and exposure to other forms of stress (i.e., starvation-induced cross-resistance). To determine if carbon-starvation also results in elevated levels of cross-resistance in S. marcescens, both log-phase and carbon-starved cultures, depleted of glucose before the onset of high cell-density stationary-phase, were grown in minimal media at either 30 °C or 37 °C and were then challenged for resistance to high temperature (50 °C), low pH (pH 2.8), and oxidative stress (15 mM H2O2). In general, carbon-starved cells exhibited a higher level of resistance to thermal stress, acid stress, and oxidative stress compared to log-phase cells. The extent of carbon-starvation-induced cross-resistance was dependent on incubation temperature and on the particular strain of S. marcescens. In addition, strain- and temperature-dependent variations in long-term starvation survival were also observed. The enhanced stress-resistance of starved S. marcescens cells could be an important factor in their survival and persistence in many non-host environments and within certain host microenvironments where the availability of carbon sources is suboptimal for growth. PMID:27682115

  15. The corrosion resistance of 140MXC, 530AS and 560AS coatings produced by thermal spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Alexis López Covaleda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three commercial materials were deposited using electric arc thermal spraying: 140MXC (with Fe, W, Cr, Nb, 530AS (AISI 1015 steel and 560AS (AISI 420 steel on AISI 4340 steel. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the best strategy for improving a coating-substrate system’s corrosion resistance, using the following combinations: homogeneous single coatings, bilayers consisting of 530AS or 560AS under 140MXC and 140MXC + 530AS and 140MXC + 560AS coatings deposited simultaneously. The coatings were characterised using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion resistance was evaluated through potentiodynamic polarisation and hardness by using the Vickers test. Corrosion resistance depends on the amount of microstructure defects, the deposition strategy and the alloy elements. However, corrosion resistance was similar in single coatings of 140MXC and bilayers, having -630 V corrosion potential and 708 nA corrosion current. The details and corrosion mechanism of the coatings so produced are described in this paper.

  16. Tungsten oxide thin films grown by thermal evaporation with high resistance to leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Diogo S. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Quimicas, Farmaceuticas e de Alimentos; Pazinato, Julia C.O.; Freitas, Mauricio A. de; Radtke, Claudio; Garcia, Irene T.S., E-mail: irene@iq.ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Dorneles, Lucio S. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas

    2014-05-15

    Tungsten oxides show different stoichiometries, crystal lattices and morphologies. These characteristics are important mainly when they are used as photocatalysts. In this work tungsten oxide thin films were obtained by thermal evaporation on (100) silicon substrates covered with gold and heated at 350 and 600 °C, with different deposition times. The stoichiometry of the films, morphology, crystal structure and resistance to leaching were characterized through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and O{sup 16} (α,α')O{sup 16} resonant nuclear reaction. Films obtained at higher temperatures show well-defined spherical nanometric structure; they are composed of WO{sub 3.1} and the presence of hydrated tungsten oxide was also observed. The major crystal structure observed is the hexagonal. Thin films obtained through thermal evaporation present resistance to leaching in aqueous media and excellent performance as photocatalysts, evaluated through the degradation of the methyl orange dye. (author)

  17. Thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from vegetable feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Isabel R; Vázquez, Jose A; Guerra, Nelson P; Pastrana, Lorenzo

    2014-08-01

    Cattle feed is at the beginning of the food chain in the 'farm-to-fork' model and might serve as a source of contamination with pathogenic bacteria. Heat treatment is one of the most effective methods utilized to ensure the microbial safety of feeds. In this work, the thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from vegetable feed ingredients was investigated in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and in cattle feed. Mean D values calculated in PBS ranged from 34.08 to 5.70 min at 55 °C, decreasing to 0.37 and 0.22 min at 65 °C for E. coli and S. enterica, respectively. No relationship was found between thermoresistance and source of isolation. D values in feed were calculated from the adjustment of two nonlinear models to the inactivation data. Thermal resistance of E. coli and S. enterica in cattle feed showed similar results to liquid medium; however, a fivefold increment of S. aureus thermoresistance in feed was observed. Our results also revealed an increase of microbial thermoresistance with the mean feed particle diameter. These results provide relevant information for improvement in the safety of cattle feed regarding its process conditions (i.e. time, temperature and particle size). © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Experimental investigation of thermal resistance of a heat sink with hexagonal fins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakut, Kenan; Alemdaroglu, Nihal; Kotcioglu, Isak [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Ataturk, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Celik, Cafer [Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2006-12-15

    In the present work, the effects of the heights, widths of the hexagonal fins, streamwise and spanwise distances between fins and flow velocity on thermal resistance and pressure drop characteristics were investigated using Taguchi experimental design method. Also the temperature distribution within the selected pin fins was determined. Thermal resistance and dimensionless pressure drop were considered as performance statistics. L{sub 18}(2{sup 1}*3{sup 7}) orthogonal array was selected as an experimental plan for the five parameters mentioned above. While the optimum parameters were determined, due to the goals (above aims) more than one being, the trade-off among goals was considered. First of all, each goal was optimized, separately. Then, all the goals were optimized together, considering the priority of the goals, and the optimum results were found to be fin width of 14mm, fin height of 150mm, spanwise distance between fins of 20mm, streamwise distance between fins of 10mm and flow velocity of 4m/s. (author)

  19. Thermal Resistance across Interfaces Comprising Dimensionally Mismatched Carbon Nanotube-Graphene Junctions in 3D Carbon Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungkyu Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics is employed to study thermal resistance across interfaces comprising dimensionally mismatched junctions of single layer graphene floors with (6,6 single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT pillars in 3D carbon nanomaterials. Results obtained from unit cell analysis indicate the presence of notable interfacial thermal resistance in the out-of-plane direction (along the longitudinal axis of the SWCNTs but negligible resistance in the in-plane direction along the graphene floor. The interfacial thermal resistance in the out-of-plane direction is understood to be due to the change in dimensionality as well as phonon spectra mismatch as the phonons propagate from SWCNTs to the graphene sheet and then back again to the SWCNTs. The thermal conductivity of the unit cells was observed to increase nearly linearly with an increase in cell size, that is, pillar height as well as interpillar distance, and approaches a plateau as the pillar height and the interpillar distance approach the critical lengths for ballistic thermal transport in SWCNT and single layer graphene. The results indicate that the thermal transport characteristics of these SWCNT-graphene hybrid structures can be tuned by controlling the SWCNT-graphene junction characteristics as well as the unit cell dimensions.

  20. Thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A in ultrafiltered milk as related to the effect of different milk components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlachta, Kinga; Keller, Susanne E; Shazer, Arlette; Chirtel, Stuart

    2010-11-01

    Pasteurization parameters for grade A milk are well established and set by regulation. However, as solids levels increase, an increased amount of heat is required to destroy any pathogens present. This effect is not well characterized. In this work, the effect of increased dairy solids levels on the thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes was examined through the use of ultrafiltered (UF) milk, reconstituted milk powder, and the milk components lactose and caseinate. From the results obtained, lactose and caseinate did not appear to affect thermal resistance. In addition, the level of milk fat, up to 10% of the total solids in UF whole milk, did not result in statistically significant changes to thermal resistance when compared with UF skim milk. Reconstituted skim milk powder at 27% total solids (D⁶²-value = 1.16 ± 0.2 [SD] min, z = 5.7) did result in increased thermal resistance, as compared with reconstituted skim milk powder at 17.5% (D⁶²-value = 0.86 ± 0.02 min, z = 5.57) and UF whole milk at 27% total solids (D⁶²-value = 0.66 ± 0.07 min, z = 5.16). However, that increase appeared to be due to the increase in salt levels, not to increases in caseinate, fat, or lactose. Consequently, total solids, as a single measure, could not be used to predict increased thermal resistance of L. monocytogenes in concentrated milk.

  1. Measurement of effective bulk and contact resistance of gas diffusion layer under inhomogeneous compression - Part II: Thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, Prabudhya; Vikram, Ajit; Phillips, Ryan K.; Hoorfar, Mina

    2016-07-01

    The gas diffusion layer (GDL) is a thin porous layer sandwiched between a bipolar plate (BPP) and a catalyst coated membrane in a fuel cell. Besides providing passage for water and gas transport from and to the catalyst layer, it is responsible for electron and heat transfer from and to the BPP. In this paper, a method has been developed to measure the GDL bulk thermal conductivity and the contact resistance at the GDL/BPP interface under inhomogeneous compression occurring in an actual fuel cell assembly. Toray carbon paper GDL TGP-H-060 was tested under a range of compression pressure of 0.34 to 1.71 MPa. The results showed that the thermal contact resistance decreases non-linearly (from 3.8 × 10-4 to 1.17 × 10-4 Km2 W-1) with increasing pressure due to increase in microscopic contact area between the GDL and BPP; while the effective bulk thermal conductivity increases (from 0.56 to 1.42 Wm-1 K-1) with increasing the compression pressure. The thermal contact resistance was found to be greater (by a factor of 1.6-2.8) than the effective bulk thermal resistance for all compression pressure ranges applied here. This measurement technique can be used to identify optimum GDL based on minimum bulk and contact resistances measured under inhomogeneous compression.

  2. Effect of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of thermally treated Nickel-Titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D; Shen, Y; Peng, B; Haapasalo, M

    2016-10-01

    To compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of HyFlex CM, Twisted Files (TF), K3XF, Race, and K3, and evaluate the effect of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of these instruments both before and after the files were cycled. Five types of NiTi instruments with similar size 30, .06 taper were selected: HyFlex CM, TF, K3XF, Race and K3. Files were tested in a simulated canal with a curvature of 60° and a radius of 3 mm. The number of cycles to failure of each instrument was determined to evaluate cyclic fatigue resistance. Each type of instruments was randomly divided into four experimental groups: group 1 (n = 20), unsterilized instruments; group 2 (n = 20), pre-sterilized instruments subjected to 10 cycles of autoclave sterilization; group 3 (n = 20), instruments tested were sterilized at 25%, 50% and 75% of the mean cycles to failure as determined in group 1, and then cycled to failure; group 4 (n = 20), instruments cycled in the same manner as group 3 but without sterilization. The fracture surfaces of instruments were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). HyFlex CM, TF and K3XF had significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than Race and K3 in the unsterilized group 1 (P HyFlex CM and K3XF (P HyFlex CM, TF and K3XF instruments composed of new thermal-treated alloy were more resistant to fatigue failure than Race and K3. Autoclaving extended the cyclic fatigue life of HyFlex CM and K3XF. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Effect of Novolac and Graphite Polycrystal on the Acetone Penetration and Thermal Resistance of Nanocomposites Based on Nitrile Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Mahboudi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Developments of high diffusive environments in coincidence with emerging fluids with strong ability to destroy polymeric systems have resulted in rapid deformation and destruction of polymeric parts when in contact with such aggressive environments. Therefore, nowadays, there is a great need to develop highly resistant materials towards aggressive chemicals and harsh conditions. In this paper the effect of graphite polycrystal powders and novolac type phenolic resin has been experimentally studied towards acetone diffusion and thermal stability of polyacrylonitrile butadiene rubber/novolac/graphite polycrystal nanocomposites. The results obtained from dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and swelling in acetone showed that after 32 h samples reached to 94.2% of final swelling state. By using Avrami equation and swelling experimental data, the functionality of Ln(m/m0 to novolac and graphite polycrystal weight fraction and test duration time were evaluated. This theoretical equation evaluated and predicted the amount of Ln(m/m0 with 5.92% error after 32 h. Increases in graphite polycrystal content were followed by decreases in diffusion of acetone and modulus, before glass transition temperature, and increased thermal stability and thermal resistance of the nanocomposites. Increases in novolac content by 35 wt%, decreased glass transition temperature, thermal stability and thermal resistance of the nanocomposites. In nanocomposite, containing 45 wt% of novolac, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA data and scanning electron microscope (SEM images showed phase separation of thermoset and elastomer in the nanocomposite blend.

  4. Nanoscale characterization of the thermal interface resistance of a heat-sink composite material by in situ TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Naoyuki; Kakefuda, Yohei; Mori, Takao; Hirose, Kenji; Mitome, Masanori; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2015-11-20

    We developed an original method of in situ nanoscale characterization of thermal resistance utilizing a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The focused electron beam of the HRTEM was used as a contact-free heat source and a piezo-movable nanothermocouple was developed as a thermal detector. This method has a high flexibility of supplying thermal-flux directions for nano/microscale thermal conductivity analysis, and is a powerful way to probe the thermal properties of complex or composite materials. Using this method we performed reproducible measurements of electron beam-induced temperature changes in pre-selected sections of a heat-sink α-Al(2)O(3)/epoxy-based resin composite. Observed linear behavior of the temperature change in a filler reveals that Fourier's law holds even at such a mesoscopic scale. In addition, we successfully determined the thermal resistance of the nanoscale interfaces between neighboring α-Al(2)O(3) fillers to be 1.16 × 10(-8) m(2)K W(-1), which is 35 times larger than that of the fillers themselves. This method that we have discovered enables evaluation of thermal resistivity of composites on the nanoscale, combined with the ultimate spatial localization and resolution sample analysis capabilities that TEM entails.

  5. Effects of fabric thickness and material on apparent 'wet' conductive thermal resistance of knitted fabric 'skin' on sweating manikins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Lai, Dandan; Shi, Wen; Fu, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Currently, no published standard and research work have addressed the basic requirements on knitted fabric 'skin' on sweating manikins. In this study, we performed 252 experiments to investigate the influence of fabric thickness and material on the apparent 'wet' conductive (or effective) thermal resistance of the fabric 'skin' using a 'Newton' manikin. Four types of cotton fabric 'skin' (fabric thickness: 0.38, 0.54, 0.92 and 1.43mm) and three types of polyester fabric 'skin' (fabric thickness: 0.41, 0.54 and 1.0mm) were selected and their 'wet' conductive thermal resistance was determined. Empirical equations were also developed for each fabric 'skin' to predict wet fabric 'skin' surface temperatures. It was found that both fabric thickness and material significantly affected the apparent 'wet' conductive thermal resistance. Clothing total evaporative resistance determined using thin fabric 'skin' (e.g., CO1, CO2) was normally lower than that determined using thick fabric 'skin' (e.g., CO4). Besides, synthetic fabric 'skin' tended to have a larger apparent 'wet' conductive thermal resistance than the cotton fabric 'skin' due to a smaller amount of moisture contained. Hence, there is a great need to standardize the fabric 'skin' to eliminate the influence of fabric 'skin' on the measurement of clothing evaporative resistance by means of a sweating manikin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermal Resistances in the Everest Area derived from Satellite Imagery using a Nonlinear Energy Balance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounce, D.; McKinney, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    Debris cover has a large impact on sub-debris ablation rates and glacier evolution. A thin debris layer may enhance ablation by reducing albedo increasing radiation absorption, while thicker debris insulates the glacier causing ablation to decrease. Debris thickness, thermal conductivity, and meteorological conditions may be measured in the field, but they require extensive fieldwork (Brock et al., 2010; Nicholson and Benn, 2012). This has forced many simplifications and assumptions in models. Satellite imagery combined with an energy balance model has been used with to extract information about debris cover remotely (Nakawo and Rana, 1999; Zhang et al., 2011). The spatial distribution of thermal resistances derived from these studies have agreed well with field values; however, the values were considerably lower than the field values. The difference has been attributed to the mixed pixel effect. Foster et al. (2012) developed an energy balance model that agrees well with debris thickness measured in the field. The model requires knowledge of the thermal conductivity and utilizes a relationship between air and surface temperature to lower sensible heat fluxes. We derive thermal resistances of debris-covered glaciers from satellite imagery in the Everest area. Previous satellite studies have assumed a linear debris temperature gradient, which is valid for time periods of 24 hours or greater (Nicholson and Benn, 2006); however, gradients during the day are nonlinear (Nicholson and Benn, 2006; Reid and Brock, 2010). Landsat 7 imagery is used to account for the non-linear gradient, using the ratio of temperature gradient in the upper 10cm versus the entire debris thickness. These values are derived from temperature profiles on Ngozumpa Glacier (Nicholson, 2004). Meteorological data are obtained from the Pyramid Station. The derived thermal resistances agree well with those found on debris-covered glaciers in the Everest region. Brock, B., Mihalcea, C., Kirkbride, M

  7. Model for thermal stress resistance of truly elastic materials containing more than one crack. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineback, L. D.

    1974-01-01

    The model was developed upon the physical properties of surface energy and intrinsic modulus of elasticity of a material containing a number of equal sized microcracks which are independent of one another. The effect of these cracks upon the strain energy per unit volume of material necessary to continue simultaneous crack growth as well as the measured physical properties was established, and the thermal stress resistance is developed in terms of this energy. The model is expressed in its final form in terms of the measured physical properties of fracture strength, effective modulus of elasticity, and coefficient of thermal expansion. The model was applied to existent thermal stress data of ceramic materials for which these physical properties had been measured. On the basis of these data it was concluded that the thermal stress resistance of a material may be improved by increasing the fracture strength.

  8. 2D resistivity imaging and magnetic survey for characterization of thermal springs: A case study of Gergedi thermal springs in the northwest of Wonji, Main Ethiopian Rift, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkadir, Yahya Ali; Eritro, Tigistu Haile

    2017-09-01

    Electrical resistivity imaging and magnetic surveys were carried out at Gergedi thermal springs, located in the Main Ethiopian Rift, to characterize the geothermal condition of the area. The area is geologically characterized by alluvial and lacustrine deposits, basaltic lava, ignimbrites, and rhyolites. The prominent structural feature in this part of the Main Ethiopian Rift, the SW -NE trending structures of the Wonji Fault Belt System, crosse over the study area. Three lines of imaging data and numerous magnetic data, encompassing the active thermal springs, were collected. Analysis of the geophysical data shows that the area is covered by low resistivity response regions at shallow depths which resulted from saline moisturized soil subsurface horizon. Relatively medium and high resistivity responses resulting from the weathered basalt, rhyolites, and ignimbrites are also mapped. Qualitative interpretation of the magnetic data shows the presence of structures that could act as pathways for heat and fluids manifesting as springs and also characterize the degree of thermal alteration of the area. Results from the investigations suggest that the Gergedi thermal springs area is controlled by fault systems oriented parallel and sub-parallel to the main tectonic lines of the Main Ethiopian Rift.

  9. Thermal resistance of steam-generator tube deposits under single-phase forced convection and flow-boiling heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C.W.; Klimas, S.J.; Brideau, M.G

    2000-02-01

    Degradation of the thermal performance of steam generators(SGs) is a serious problem in nuclear power stations throughout the world (Lovett and Dow, 1991). In pressurized-heavy-water reactors (PWHRs), the reduced thermal performance of the SGs is manifested by an increase of the primary coolant reactor inlet header temperature (RIHT). In pressurized-light-water reactors(PWRs), which operate with fixed primary coolant temperature, the loss of thermal performance is manifested by a reduction of the steam pressure. Degradation mechanisms that may contribute to the loss of SG thermal performance include: fouling of the boiler tube inner surfaces (primary-side fouling); fouling of the boiler tube outer surfaces (secondary-side fouling); divider and thermal plate leakage that causes the coolant to bypass either the SG or the integral preheater and fouling of the steam separators. The relative contribution of these various degradation mechanisms to the overall loss of thermal performance is still under investigation. Soulard et al. (1990) examined the relative contributions of tube bundle fouling, divider plate leakage, and thermal plate leakage to the increase in RIHT at the Point Lepreau Generating Station, and concluded that tube fouling contributes to a significant fraction of the loss of thermal performance. Corrosion products deposit on both the inner and outer surfaces of the boiler tubes. Thus a complete understanding of the reasons fro the loss of thermal performance and the development of strategies to mitigate this loss requires a knowledge of the thermal resistance of tube deposits under primary and secondary side heat transfer conditions. We present here the results of measurements of the thermal resistance of primary-side and secondary-side boiler tube deposits performed under single-phase forced convection and flow-boiling conditions, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of the physical properties of the deposit and the mode of heat transfer.

  10. Effect of Thermal Fields on the Structure of Corrosion-Resistant Steels Under Different Modes of Laser Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, T. V.; Gusarov, A. V.; Protasov, K. E.; Filatova, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    The influence of temperature fields on the structure and properties of corrosion-resistant chromium steels under different modes of laser treatment is investigated. A model of heat transfer under laser impact on target is used to plot thermal fields and cycles and cooling rates. It is shown that the model used for computing thermal fields gives tentative geometric sizes of the fusion zones under laser treatment and selective laser fusion. The cooling rate is shown to have decisive influence on the structure of corrosion-resistant steels after laser treatment with surface fusion in devices for pulsed, continuous, and selective laser melting.

  11. Characterising thermal resistances and capacitances of GaN high-electron-mobility transistors through dynamic electrothermal measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Wei; Mikkelsen, Jan H.; Jensen, Ole Kiel

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a method to characterise thermal resistances and capacitances of GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) through dynamic electrothermal measurements. A measured relation between RF gain and the channel temperature (Tc) is formed and used for indirect measurements...... method ensures that trapping effects have insignificant impact on the measurements of Tc responses, which makes this method suitable for GaN HEMT characterisation. The applicability of this method is demonstrated by characterising thermal resistances and capacitances of a CREE CGH40006P GaN HEMT....

  12. Effect of growth on the thermal resistance and survival of Salmonella Tennessee and Oranienburg in peanut butter, measured by a new thin-layer thermal death time device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; Grasso, Elizabeth M; Halik, Lindsay A; Fleischman, Gregory J; Chirtel, Stuart J; Grove, Stephen F

    2012-06-01

    In published data the thermal destruction of Salmonella species in peanut butter deviates from pseudo-first-order kinetics. The reasons for such deviation are unknown. This study examined both the method used to measure the thermal destruction rate and the method of growth of the microorganisms to explain variations in destruction kinetics. Growth on a solid matrix results in a different physiological state that may provide greater resistance to adverse environments. In this study, Salmonella Tennessee and Oranienburg were grown for 24 h at 37°C under aerobic conditions in broth and agar media to represent planktonic and sessile cell growth, respectively. Peanut butter was held at 25°C and tested for Salmonella levels immediately after inoculation and at various time intervals up to 2 weeks. Thermal resistance was measured at 85°C by use of a newly developed thin-layer metal sample holder. Although thermal heat transfer through the metal device resulted in longer tau values than those obtained with plastic bags (32.5 ± 0.9 versus 12.4 ± 1.9 s), the bags have a relative variability of about 15 % compared with about 3 % in the plates, allowing improved uniformity of sample treatment. The two serovars tested in the thin-layer device showed similar overall thermal resistance levels in peanut butter regardless of growth in sessile or planktonic states. However, thermal destruction curves from sessile cultures exhibited greater linearity than those obtained from planktonic cells (P = 0.0198 and 0.0047 for Salmonella Oranienburg and Salmonella Tennessee, respectively). In addition, both Salmonella serovars showed significantly higher survival in peanut butter at 25°C when originally grown on solid media (P = 0.001) with a survival of Salmonella at different temperatures in a low-water-activity environment such as peanut butter.

  13. A Novel Identification Method of Thermal Resistances of Thermoelectric Modules Combining Electrical Characterization Under Constant Temperature and Heat Flow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Siouane

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a Thermoelectric Module (TEM is not only influenced by the material properties, but also by the heat losses due to the internal and contact thermal resistances. In the literature, the material properties are mostly discussed, mainly to increase the well-known thermoelectric figure of merit ZT. Nevertheless, when a TEM is considered, the separate characterization of the materials of the p and n elements is not enough to have a suitable TEM electrical model and evaluate more precisely its efficiency. Only a few recent papers deal with thermal resistances and their influence on the TEM efficiency; mostly, the minimization of these resistances is recommended, without giving a way to determine their values. The aim of the present paper is to identify the internal and contact thermal resistances of a TEM by electrical characterization. Depending on the applications, the TEM can be used either under constant temperature gradient or constant heat flow conditions. The proposed identification approach is based on the theoretical electrical modeling of the TEM, in both conditions. It is simple to implement, because it is based only on open circuit test conditions. A single electrical measurement under both conditions (constant-temperature and constant-heat is needed. Based on the theoretical electrical models, one can identify the internal and thermal resistances.

  14. Characterization of Fatty Acid Composition, Spore Germination, and Thermal Resistance in a Nisin-Resistant Mutant of Clostridium botulinum 169B and in the Wild-Type Strain†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta, Alejandro S.; Montville, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    The membrane fatty acids, thermal resistance, and germination of a nisin-resistant (Nisr) mutant of Clostridium botulinum 169B were compared with those of the wild-type (WT) strain. In the membranes of WT cells, almost 50% of the total fatty acids were unsaturated, but in those of Nisr cells, only 23% of the fatty acids were unsaturated. WT and Nisr spores contained similar amounts (approximately 23%) of unsaturated fatty acids, but the saturated straight-chain/branched-chain ratio was significantly higher in Nisr spores than in WT spores. These fatty acid differences suggest that Nisr cell and spore membranes may be more rigid, a characteristic which would interfere with the pore-forming ability of nisin. Nisr C. botulinum did not produce an extracellular nisin-degrading enzyme, nor were there any differences in the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of coat proteins extracted from WT and Nisr spores, eliminating these as possible reasons for nisin resistance. Nisr spores had thermal resistance parameters similar to those of WT spores. In WT spores, but not in Nisr spores, nisin caused a 40% reduction in thermal resistance and a twofold increase in the germination rate. Because the nisin-induced increase in the germination rate of WT spores occurred only in the presence of a germinant (a molecule that triggers germination), nisin can be classified as a progerminant (a molecule that stimulates germination only in the presence of a germinant). PMID:9925597

  15. Viscous Dissipation Effects on the Motion of Casson Fluid over an Upper Horizontal Thermally Stratified Melting Surface of a Paraboloid of Revolution: Boundary Layer Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Ajayi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of a non-Newtonian fluid flow past an upper surface of an object that is neither a perfect horizontal/vertical nor inclined/cone in which dissipation of energy is associated with temperature-dependent plastic dynamic viscosity is considered. An attempt has been made to focus on the case of two-dimensional Casson fluid flow over a horizontal melting surface embedded in a thermally stratified medium. Since the viscosity of the non-Newtonian fluid tends to take energy from the motion (kinetic energy and transform it into internal energy, the viscous dissipation term is accommodated in the energy equation. Due to the existence of internal space-dependent heat source; plastic dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity of the non-Newtonian fluid are assumed to vary linearly with temperature. Based on the boundary layer assumptions, suitable similarity variables are applied to nondimensionalized, parameterized and reduce the governing partial differential equations into a coupled ordinary differential equations. These equations along with the boundary conditions are solved numerically using the shooting method together with the Runge-Kutta technique. The effects of pertinent parameters are established. A significant increases in Rex1/2Cfx is guaranteed with St when magnitude of β is large. Rex1/2Cfx decreases with Ec and m.

  16. Organic nonvolatile resistive memory devices based on thermally deposited Au nanoparticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Jin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Uniform Au nanoparticles (NPs are formed by thermally depositing nominal 2-nm thick Au film on a 10-nm thick polyimide film formed on a Al electrode, and then covered by a thin polymer semiconductor film, which acts as an energy barrier for electrons to be injected from the other Al electrode (on top of polymer film into the Au NPs, which are energetically electron traps in such a resistive random access memory (RRAM device. The Au NPs based RRAM device exhibits estimated retention time of 104 s, cycle times of more than 100, and ON-OFF ratio of 102 to 103. The carrier transport properties are also analyzed by fitting the measured I-V curves with several conduction models.

  17. Compressive mechanical response of graphene foams and their thermal resistance with copper interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonjun Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report compressive mechanical response of graphene foams (GFs and the thermal resistance (RTIM between copper (Cu and GFs, where GFs were prepared by the chemical vapor deposition method. We observe that Young’s modulus (EGF and compressive strength (σGF of GFs have a power law dependence on increasing density (ρGF of GFs. The maximum efficiency of absorbed energy (ηmax for all GFs during the compression is larger than ∼0.39. We also find that a GF with a higher ρGF shows a larger ηmax. In addition, we observe that the measured RTIM of Cu/GFs at room temperature with a contact pressure of 0.25 MP applied increases from ∼50 to ∼90 mm2 K/W when ρGF increases from 4.7 to 31.9 mg/cm3.

  18. Thermal Modeling of Resistance Spot Welding and Prediction of Weld Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, M.; Valaee Tale, M.; Usefifar, GH. R.; Fattah-Alhosseini, Arash

    2017-11-01

    The microstructure of nuggets in resistance spot welding can be influenced by the many variables involved. This study aimed at examining such a relationship and, consequently, put forward an analytical model to predict the thermal history and microstructure of the nugget zone. Accordingly, a number of numerical simulations and experiments were conducted and the accuracy of the model was assessed. The results of this assessment revealed that the proposed analytical model could accurately predict the cooling rate in the nugget and heat-affected zones. Moreover, both analytical and numerical models confirmed that sheet thickness and electrode-sheet interface temperature were the most important factors influencing the cooling rate at temperatures lower than about T l/2. Decomposition of austenite is one of the most important transformations in steels occurring over this temperature range. Therefore, an easy-to-use map was designed against these parameters to predict the weld microstructure.

  19. EFFECT OF VARIABLE VISCOSITY AND SUCTION/INJECTION ON THERMAL BOUNDARY LAYER OF A NON-NEWTONIAN POWER-LAW FLUIDS PAST A POWER-LAW STRETCHED SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Fathy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of laminar boundary layer flow and heat transfer of non-Newtonian fluids over a continuous stretched surface with suction or injection has been presented.The velocity and temperature of the sheet were assumed to vary in a power-law form, that is u = U0xm, and Tw(x = T+ Cxb. The viscosity of the fluid is assumed to be inverse linear function of temperature. The resulting governing boundary-layer equations are highly non-linear and coupled form of partial differential equations and they have been solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta method and Shooting technique. Velocity and temperature distributions as well as the Nusselt number where studied for two thermal boundary conditions: uniform surface temperature (b = 0 and cooled surface temperature (b = -1, for different parameters: variable viscosity parameter qr, temperature exponent b, blowing parameter d and Prandtl number. The obtained results show that the flow and heat transfer characteristics are significantly influenced by these parameters.

  20. Nondestructive Evaluation of Flaking-Resistance in Thermal Sprayed Ceramic Coatings with X-ray Diffraction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toru; Kubohori, Toshifumi; Morimoto, Jyunji

    Thermal spraying has emerged as an important tool of increasingly sophisticated surface engineering technology. Therefore, the demand for technology that is checked non-destructively has become more insistent. This paper presents the nondestructive evaluation of fl aking-resistance in thermal sprayed Al2O3, ZrO2 and TiO2 coating. The full-width at half maximum taken from the X-ray diffraction peak profi le was used as a nondestructive evaluation method in this study. The results by the nondestructive method were compared to the results with scratch test. It was found that nondestructive evaluation of the thermal sprayed ceramic coating was effective.

  1. Study on impact properties of creep-resistant steel thermally simulated heat affected zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Radivoje M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The steam pipe line (SPL and steam line material, along with its welded joints, subject to damage that accumulates during operation in coal power plants. As a result of thermal fatigue, dilatation of SPL at an operating temperature may lead to cracks initiation at the critical zones within heat affected zone (HAZ of steam pipe line welded joints. By registration of thermal cycle during welding and subsequent HAZ simulation is possible to obtain target microstructure. For the simulation is chosen heat resisting steel, 12H1MF (designation 13CrMo44 according to DIN standard. From the viewpoint of mechanical properties, special attention is on impact toughness mostly because very small number of available references. After simulation of single run and multi run welding test on instrumented Charpy pendulum. Metallographic and fractographic analysis is also performed, on simulated 12H1MF steel from service and new, unused steel. The results and correlation between microstructure and impact toughness is discussed, too.

  2. Modern Concrete Wall-Units with Improved Thermal Resistance for Housing in Hot Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pierzchlewicz

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available New wall-units have been designed at the Civil Engineering Department of SQU, with improved and reliable thermal insulation properties for construction of buildings in hot climatic conditions. as in the Sultanate of Oman. The thermal resistance of many types of concrete units has been analyzed. Hundreds of various types of the new concrete hollow blocks as well as six-column sections made of these wall-units have been tested in full scale. The relationship of compressive strength of the new concrete hollow blocks, walls made of these units and cube samples has been investigated. The wall columns have been tested under axial load and with various eccentricities. The types of column failure have been studied. The aim of the test was to determine the characteristic compressive strength of the new concrete hollow blocks and the characteristic compressive strength of masonry made of these hollow blocks. The results of the test have shown that the new wall-units could have been used Successfully for construction of the walls in buildings.

  3. Analysis of the impact of thermal resistance of the roof on the performance of photovoltaic roof tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurz Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the issues related to the impact of thermal resistance of the roof on the electrical parameters of photovoltaic roof tiles. The methodology of determination of the thermal resistance and thermal transmittance factor was presented in accordance with the applicable legal regulations and standards. A test station was presented for the purpose of measurement of the parameters of photovoltaic roof tiles depending on the structure of the roof substrate. Detailed analysis of selected building components as well as their impact on the design thermal resistance factor and thermal transmittance factor was carried out. Results of our own studies, which indicated a relation between the type of the roof structure and the values of the electricity generated by photovoltaic tiles, were presented. Based on the calculations, it was concluded that the generated outputs in the respective constructions differ by maximum 6%. For cells with the highest temperature, the performance of the PV roof tiles on the respective roof constructions fell within the range between 0.4% and 1.2% (depending on the conducted measurement and amounted to 8.76% (in reference to 9.97% for roof tiles with the lowest temperature.

  4. Comparison of ozone and thermal hydrolysis combined with anaerobic digestion for municipal and pharmaceutical waste sludge with tetracycline resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jin; Yao, Hong; Wang, Hui; Ren, Jia; Yu, Xiaohua

    2016-08-01

    Biosolids from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) are environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes, which attract great concerns on their efficient treatments. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is widely used for sewage sludge treatment but its effectiveness is limited due to the slow hydrolysis. Ozone and thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment were employed to improve AD efficiency and reduce antibiotic-resistant genes in municipal and pharmaceutical waste sludge (MWS and PWS, respectively) in this study. Sludge solubilization achieved 15.75-25.09% and 14.85-33.92% after ozone and thermal hydrolysis, respectively. Both pre-treatments improved cumulative methane production and the enhancements were greater on PWS than MWS. Five tetracycline-resistant genes (tet(A), tet(G), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(X)) and one mobile element (intI1) were qPCR to assess pre-treatments. AD of pre-treated sludge reduced more tet genes than raw sludge for both ozonation and thermal hydrolysis in PWS and MWS. Thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment was more efficient than ozone for reduction after AD. Results of this study help support management options for reducing the spread of antibiotic resistance from biosolids. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Solvent-resistant organic transistors and thermally stable organic photovoltaics based on cross-linkable conjugated polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyeongjun

    2012-01-10

    Conjugated polymers, in general, are unstable when exposed to air, solvent, or thermal treatment, and these challenges limit their practical applications. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop new materials or methodologies that can enable organic electronics with air stability, solvent resistance, and thermal stability. Herein, we have developed a simple but powerful approach to achieve solvent-resistant and thermally stable organic electronic devices with a remarkably improved air stability, by introducing an azide cross-linkable group into a conjugated polymer. To demonstrate this concept, we have synthesized polythiophene with azide groups attached to end of the alkyl chain (P3HT-azide). Photo-cross-linking of P3HT-azide copolymers dramatically improves the solvent resistance of the active layer without disrupting the molecular ordering and charge transport. This is the first demonstration of solvent-resistant organic transistors. Furthermore, the bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaics (BHJ OPVs) containing P3HT-azide copolymers show an average efficiency higher than 3.3% after 40 h annealing at an elevated temperature of 150 °C, which represents one of the most thermally stable OPV devices reported to date. This enhanced stability is due to an in situ compatibilizer that forms at the P3HT/PCBM interface and suppresses macrophase separation. Our approach paves a way toward organic electronics with robust and stable operations. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Fabrication and thermal shock resistance of HfB2-SiC composite with B4C additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, L.; Han, W.; Hong, Ch.

    2011-12-01

    A HfB2 based ceramic matrix composite containing 20 vol.% SiC particles with 2 vol.% B4C as sintering additives was fabricated by hot-pressed sintering. The microstructure and properties, especially the thermal shock resistance of the composite were investigated. Results showed that the addition of B4C improved the powder sinterability and led to obtaining nearly full dense composite. The flexural strength and fracture toughness of the composite were 771 MPa and 7.06 MPam1/2, respectively. The thermal shock resistance tests indicated that the residual strength decreased significantly when the thermal shock temperature difference was higher than 600 °C. The large number of microcracks on the sample surface was the main reason for the catastrophic failure.

  7. A new aspects for project of subsequent thermal resistance extension at old-timer timbering constructions of wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Havířová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the reliability of subsequent thermal resistance extension at old-timer timbering constructions of wood for the period of their supposed service life a more profound analysis of construction is necessary from the aspect of a global thermal/technical evaluation. Service life of these buildings is dependent on temperature and moisture conditions in layers of the building cladding where the wood framework is built in. Temperature/moisture conditions or the corresponding equilibrium moisture content (EMC of the construction show considerable effects on the functional reliability of the whole building from the viewpoint of mechanical resistance and stability, energy savings and thermal protection and hygiene, health and environment protection.

  8. A Continuous 3D-Graphene Network to Overcome Threshold Issues and Contact Resistance in Thermally Conductive Graphene Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Conrado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome thermal resistance issues in polymeric matrix composites, self-standing graphene aerogels were synthetized and infiltrated with an epoxy resin, in order to create conductive preferential pathways through which heat can be easily transported. These continuous highly thermally conductive 3D-structures show, due to the high interconnection degree of graphene flakes, enhanced transport properties. Two kinds of aerogels were investigated, obtained by hydrothermal synthesis (HS and ice-templated direct freeze synthesis (DFS. Following HS method an isotropic structure is obtained, and following DFS method instead an anisotropic arrangement of graphene flakes results. The density of the structure can be tuned leading to a different amount of graphene inside the final composite. The residual oxygen, known to be detrimental to thermal properties, was removed by thermal treatment before the infiltration process. With 1,25 wt.% of graphene, using HS method, the thermal conductivity of the polymeric resin was increased by 80%, suggesting that this technique is a valid route to improve the thermal performance of graphene-based composites. When preferential orientation of the filler was present (DFS case, thermal conductivity was increased more than 25% with a graphene content of only 0,27 wt.%, demonstrating that oriented structures can further improve the thermal transport efficiency.

  9. Effect of thickening outermost layers in Al/Ni multilayer film on thermal resistance of reactively bonded solder joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanetsuki, Shunsuke; Kuwahara, Koichi; Egawa, Shouichi; Miyake, Shugo; Namazu, Takahiro

    2017-06-01

    To reduce the thermal resistance of solder joints obtained by Al/Ni self-propagating exothermic reaction, we focus on the interface between the solder and the reactive Al/Ni multilayer before the reaction. We fabricate an Al/Ni film in which the outermost Al or Ni layer is deposited more thickly. By the laser flash method with response function analysis, the thermal resistance of the bonded specimens was measured in the case of thickening and non-thickening of the outermost layer. It is found that the resistance decreases with the thickness of the outermost layers, particularly the Ni layer. To investigate the influence of the amount of void on the resistance, scanning acoustic tomography (SAT), scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, and field-emission electron probe micro-analysis (FE-EPMA) were carried out. Differences in the interfacial state between Ni-thickening and Al-thickening specimens are discussed in light of solder wettability, diffusion into the solder, and the type of intermetallic compound at the solder interface. It can be considered that thickening the outermost Ni layer has a great impact on decreasing the number of voids generated at the AlNi-solder interface even in low-pressure bonding, leading to reduction in the thermal resistance of solder joints.

  10. Mapping rock forming minerals at Boundary Canyon, Death Valey National Park, California, using aerial SEBASS thermal infrared hyperspectral image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslett, Zan; Taranik, James V.; Riley, Dean N.

    2018-02-01

    Aerial spatially enhanced broadband array spectrograph system (SEBASS) long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral image data were used to map the distribution of rock-forming minerals indicative of sedimentary and meta-sedimentary lithologies around Boundary Canyon, Death Valley, California, USA. Collection of data over the Boundary Canyon detachment fault (BCDF) facilitated measurement of numerous lithologies representing a contact between the relatively unmetamorphosed Grapevine Mountains allochthon and the metamorphosed core complex of the Funeral Mountains autochthon. These included quartz-rich sandstone, quartzite, conglomerate, and alluvium; muscovite-rich schist, siltstone, and slate; and carbonate-rich dolomite, limestone, and marble, ranging in age from late Precambrian to Quaternary. Hyperspectral data were reduced in dimensionality and processed to statistically identify and map unique emissivity spectra endmembers. Some minerals (e.g., quartz and muscovite) dominate multiple lithologies, resulting in a limited ability to differentiate them. Abrupt variations in image data emissivity amongst pelitic schists corresponded to amphibolite; these rocks represent gradation from greenschist- to amphibolite-metamorphic facies lithologies. Although the full potential of LWIR hyperspectral image data may not be fully utilized within this study area due to lack of measurable spectral distinction between rocks of similar bulk mineralogy, the high spectral resolution of the image data was useful in characterizing silicate- and carbonate-based sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rocks in proximity to fault contacts, as well as for interpreting some mineral mixtures.

  11. Numerical investigation of fluid flow and heat transfer around a circular cylinder utilizing nanofluid for different thermal boundary condition in the steady regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Bouakkaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, steady flow-field and heat transfer through a copper–water nanofluid around a circular cylinder, under the influence of both the standard thermal boundary conditions i.e. uniform heat flux (UHF and constant wall temperature (CWT was investigated numerically by using a finite-volume method for Reynolds numbers of 10 to 40. Furthermore, the range of nanoparticle volume fractions (φ considered is 0 ≤ φ ≤ 5%. The variation of the local and the average Nusselt numbers with Reynolds number, and volume fractions are presented for the range of conditions. The average Nusselt number is found to increase with increasing the nanoparticle volume fractions.

  12. Thermal radiation effect on a mixed convection flow and heat transfer of the Williamson fluid past an exponentially shrinking permeable sheet with a convective boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaib, A.; Bhattacharyya, K.; Khalid, M.; Shafie, S.

    2017-05-01

    The thermal radiation effect on a steady mixed convective flow with heat transfer of a nonlinear (non-Newtonian) Williamson fluid past an exponentially shrinking porous sheet with a convective boundary condition is investigated numerically. In this study, both an assisting flow and an opposing flow are considered. The governing equations are converted into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using a suitable transformation. A numerical solution of the problem is obtained by using the Matlab software package for different values of the governing parameters. The results show that dual nonsimilar solutions exist for the opposing flow, whereas the solution for the assisting flow is unique. It is also observed that the dual nonsimilar solutions exist only if a certain amount of mass suction is applied through the porous sheet, which depends on the Williamson parameter, convective parameter, and radiation parameter.

  13. Three-Dimensional Thermal Boundary Layer Corrections for Circular Heat Flux Gauges Mounted in a Flat Plate with a Surface Temperature Discontinuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, M.; Haddad, G. F.; Chen, R.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed in an effort to determine thermal boundary layer correction factors for circular convective heat flux gauges (such as Schmidt-Boelter and plug type)mounted flush in a flat plate subjected to a stepwise surface temperature discontinuity. Turbulent flow solutions with temperature-dependent properties are obtained for a free stream Reynolds number of 1E6, and freestream Mach numbers of 2 and 4. The effect of gauge diameter and the plate surface temperature have been investigated. The 3-D CFD results for the heat flux correction factors are compared to quasi-21) results deduced from constant property integral solutions and also 2-D CFD analysis with both constant and variable properties. The role of three-dimensionality and of property variations on the heat flux correction factors has been demonstrated.

  14. Thermal conductivity of a graphite bipolar plate (BPP) and its thermal contact resistance with fuel cell gas diffusion layers: Effect of compression, PTFE, micro porous layer (MPL), BPP out-of-flatness and cyclic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghifar, Hamidreza; Djilali, Ned; Bahrami, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on measurements of thermal conductivity of a graphite bipolar plate (BPP) as a function of temperature and its thermal contact resistance (TCR) with treated and untreated gas diffusion layers (GDLs). The thermal conductivity of the BPP decreases with temperature and its thermal contact resistance with GDLs, which has been overlooked in the literature, is found to be dominant over a relatively wide range of compression. The effects of PTFE loading, micro porous layer (MPL), compression, and BPP out-of-flatness are also investigated experimentally. It is found that high PTFE loadings, MPL and even small BPP out-of-flatness increase the BPP-GDL thermal contact resistance dramatically. The paper also presents the effect of cyclic load on the total resistance of a GDL-BPP assembly, which sheds light on the behavior of these materials under operating conditions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  15. Thermal boundary layer in stagnation-point flow past a permeable shrinking sheet with variable surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Sharif Uddin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation is made to study the heat transfer in boundary layer stagnation-point flow over a non-isothermal permeable shrinking sheet with suction/injection. In this study, power-law variation of sheet temperature is considered. By similarity transformation, the governing equations with the boundary conditions are transformed to self-similar nonlinear ordinary differential equations and then those are solved numerically by shooting method. In presence of variable sheet temperature, the variation of temperature is analysed. For larger shrinking rate compared to that of straining rate, dual solutions for velocity and temperature are obtained. It is found that for positive value of power-law exponent of variable sheet temperature heat transfer at the sheet as well as heat absorption at the sheet with temperature overshoot near the sheet occur and for negative value heat transfer from the sheet occurs though there is overshoot away from the sheet. With increasing positive power-law exponent heat transfer reduces for first solution and heat absorption enhances for second solution. Whereas, with increasing magnitude of negative power-law exponent heat transfer increases for second solution and for first solution the heat transfer increases for larger shrinking rate and it decreases for smaller shrinking rate. Due to suction heat transfer/absorption increases in all cases and for injection heat transfer/absorption increases for first solution and decreases for second solution. Also, interesting effects of suction/injection and Prandtl number on temperature distribution are observed when the sheet temperature varies (directly/inversely along the sheet.

  16. Spin-dependent Seebeck Effect, Thermal Colossal Magnetoresistance and Negative Differential Thermoelectric Resistance in Zigzag Silicene Nanoribbon Heterojunciton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hua-Hua; Wu, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Zu-Quan; Gu, Lei

    2015-05-22

    Spin-dependent Seebeck effect (SDSE) is one of hot topics in spin caloritronics, which examine the relationships between spin and heat transport in materials. Meanwhile, it is still a huge challenge to obtain thermally induced spin current nearly without thermal electron current. Here, we construct a hydrogen-terminated zigzag silicene nanoribbon heterojunction, and find that by applying a temperature difference between the source and the drain, spin-up and spin-down currents are generated and flow in opposite directions with nearly equal magnitudes, indicating that the thermal spin current dominates the carrier transport while the thermal electron current is much suppressed. By modulating the temperature, a pure thermal spin current can be achieved. Moreover, a thermoelectric rectifier and a negative differential thermoelectric resistance can be obtained in the thermal electron current. Through the analysis of the spin-dependent transport characteristics, a phase diagram containing various spin caloritronic phenomena is provided. In addition, a thermal magnetoresistance, which can reach infinity, is also obtained. Our results put forward an effective route to obtain a spin caloritronic material which can be applied in future low-power-consumption technology.

  17. Improving Metallic Thermal Protection System Hypervelocity Impact Resistance Through Design of Experiments Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteet, Carl C.; Blosser, Max L.

    2001-01-01

    A design of experiments approach has been implemented using computational hypervelocity impact simulations to determine the most effective place to add mass to an existing metallic Thermal Protection System (TPS) to improve hypervelocity impact protection. Simulations were performed using axisymmetric models in CTH, a shock-physics code developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and validated by comparison with existing test data. The axisymmetric models were then used in a statistical sensitivity analysis to determine the influence of five design parameters on degree of hypervelocity particle dispersion. Several damage metrics were identified and evaluated. Damage metrics related to the extent of substructure damage were seen to produce misleading results, however damage metrics related to the degree of dispersion of the hypervelocity particle produced results that corresponded to physical intuition. Based on analysis of variance results it was concluded that the most effective way to increase hypervelocity impact resistance is to increase the thickness of the outer foil layer. Increasing the spacing between the outer surface and the substructure is also very effective at increasing dispersion.

  18. Junction-to-Case Thermal Resistance of a Silicon Carbide Bipolar Junction Transistor Measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    2006-01-01

    Junction temperature of a prototype SiC-based bipolar junction transistor (BJT) was estimated by using the base-emitter voltage (V(sub BE)) characteristic for thermometry. The V(sub BE) was measured as a function of the base current (I(sub B)) at selected temperatures (T), all at a fixed collector current (I(sub C)) and under very low duty cycle pulse conditions. Under such conditions, the average temperature of the chip was taken to be the same as that of the temperature-controlled case. At increased duty cycle such as to substantially heat the chip, but same I(sub C) pulse height, the chip temperature was identified by matching the V(sub BE) to the thermometry curves. From the measured average power, the chip-to-case thermal resistance could be estimated, giving a reasonable value. A tentative explanation for an observed bunching with increasing temperature of the calibration curves may relate to an increasing dopant atom ionization. A first-cut analysis, however, does not support this.

  19. A new model for thermal contact resistance between fuel cell gas diffusion layers and bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghifar, Hamidreza; Djilali, Ned; Bahrami, Majid

    2014-11-01

    A new analytical model is developed to predict the thermal contact resistance (TCR) between fibrous porous media such as gas diffusion layers (GDLs) of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and flat surfaces (bipolar plates). This robust model accounts for the salient geometrical parameters of GDLs, mechanical deformation, and thermophysical properties of the contacting bodies. The model is successfully validated against experimental data, and is used to perform in a comprehensive parametric study to investigate the effects of fiber parameters such as waviness and GDL properties on the TCR. Fiber waviness, diameter and surface curvature, as well as GDL porosity, are found to have a strong influence on TCR whereas fiber length does not affect the TCR when the porosity is kept constant. Such findings provide useful guidance for design and manufacturing of more effective GDLs for PEMFC heat management. The analytic model can be readily implemented in simulation and modeling of PEMFCs, and can be extended with minor modifications to other fibrous porous media such as fibrous catalysts, insulating media and sintered metals.

  20. Water vapor flow and high thermal resistance insulation systems for metal buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In response to increasing energy costs, high thermal resistance insulation systems are being marketed for pre-engineered metal buildings. Historically, blanket insulation has been installed between the skin and the structure of these buildings. The new insulation systems generally are installed inside the structure; thus the structure is colder and, unless an effective retarder is included, water vapor condensation problems can result. While the vapor permeance of various insulation facing materials is documented, the effect of such field conditions as seams and penetrations is less well known. Permeance tests were performed on samples of foil-kraft paper insulation facing with two seams and two penetration configurations. The tests show that seams can multiply the permeance of the vapor retarder by factors of 1.2 or more and penetrations can multiply the permeance by 3 or more. The theory of vapor flow analysis is reviewed and compared with the test results and presented graphically. Possible applications and suggestions for further investigation are discussed.

  1. Water vapor flow and high thermal resistance insulation systems for metal buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, R.M.

    1981-12-01

    In response to increasing energy costs, high thermal resistance insulation systems are being marketed for pre-engineered metal buildings. Historically, blanket insulation has been installed between the skin and the structure of these buildings. The new insulation systems generally are installed inside the structure; thus the structure is colder and, unless an effective retarder is included, water vapor condensation problems can result. While the vapor permeance of various insulation facing materials is documented, the effect of such field conditions as seams and penetrations is less well known. Permeance tests were performed on samples of foil-kraft paper insulation facing with two seams and two penetration configurations. The tests show that seams can multiply the permeance of the vapor retarder by factors of 1.2 or more and penetrations can multiply the permeance by 3 or more. The theory of vapor flow analysis is reviewed and compared with the test results and presented graphically. Possible applications and suggestions for further investigation are discussed.

  2. In vivo non-thermal irreversible electroporation impact on rat liver galvanic apparent internal resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golberg, A; Laufer, S [Center for Bioengineering in the Service of Humanity and Society, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Rabinowitch, H D [Robert H Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Robert H Smith Institute of Plant Science and Genetics in Agriculture, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76 100 (Israel); Rubinsky, B, E-mail: Rabin@agri.huji.ac.il [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate Program in Biophysics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 84720 (United States)

    2011-02-21

    Non-thermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE) is a biophysical phenomenon which involves application of electric field pulses to cells or tissues, causing certain rearrangements in the membrane structure leading to cell death. The treated tissue ac impedance changes induced by electroporation were shown to be the indicators for NTIRE efficiency. In a previous study we characterized in vitro tissue galvanic apparent internal resistance (GAIR) changes due to NTIRE. Here we describe an in vivo study in which we monitored the GAIR changes of a rat liver treated by NTIRE. Electrical pulses were delivered through the same Zn/Cu electrodes by which GAIR was measured. GAIR was measured before and for 3 h after the treatment at 15 min intervals. The results were compared to the established ac bioimpedance measurement method. A decrease of 33% was measured immediately after the NTIRE treatment and a 40% decrease was measured after 3 h in GAIR values; in the same time 40% and 47% decrease respectively were measured by ac bioimpedance analyses. The temperature increase due to the NTIRE was only 0.5 deg. C. The results open the way for an inexpensive, self-powered in vivo real-time NTIRE effectiveness measurement.

  3. In vivo non-thermal irreversible electroporation impact on rat liver galvanic apparent internal resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, A.; Laufer, S.; Rabinowitch, H. D.; Rubinsky, B.

    2011-02-01

    Non-thermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE) is a biophysical phenomenon which involves application of electric field pulses to cells or tissues, causing certain rearrangements in the membrane structure leading to cell death. The treated tissue ac impedance changes induced by electroporation were shown to be the indicators for NTIRE efficiency. In a previous study we characterized in vitro tissue galvanic apparent internal resistance (GAIR) changes due to NTIRE. Here we describe an in vivo study in which we monitored the GAIR changes of a rat liver treated by NTIRE. Electrical pulses were delivered through the same Zn/Cu electrodes by which GAIR was measured. GAIR was measured before and for 3 h after the treatment at 15 min intervals. The results were compared to the established ac bioimpedance measurement method. A decrease of 33% was measured immediately after the NTIRE treatment and a 40% decrease was measured after 3 h in GAIR values; in the same time 40% and 47% decrease respectively were measured by ac bioimpedance analyses. The temperature increase due to the NTIRE was only 0.5 °C. The results open the way for an inexpensive, self-powered in vivo real-time NTIRE effectiveness measurement.

  4. MHD Slip Flow of Newtonian Fluid past a Stretching Sheet with Thermal Convective Boundary Condition, Radiation, and Chemical Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda G. Abdel-Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to study the problem of heat and mass transfer flow over a moving permeable flat stretching sheet in the presence of convective boundary condition, slip, radiation, heat generation/absorption, and first-order chemical reaction. The viscosity of fluid is assumed to vary linearly with temperature. Also the diffusivity is assumed to vary linearly with concentration. The governing partial differential equations have been reduced to the coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using Lie group point of transformations. The system of transformed nonlinear ordinary differential equations is solved numerically using shooting techniques with fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration scheme. Comparison between the existing literature and the present study was carried out and found to be in excellent agreement. The effects of the various interesting parameters on the flow, heat, and mass transfer are analyzed and discussed through graphs in detail. The values of the local Nusselt number, the local skin friction, and the local Sherwood number for different physical parameters are also tabulated.

  5. Size effects and charge transport in metals: Quantum theory of the resistivity of nanometric metallic structures arising from electron scattering by grain boundaries and by rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Raul C.; Arenas, Claudio

    2017-03-01

    We discuss recent progress regarding size effects and their incidence upon the coefficients describing charge transport (resistivity, magnetoresistance, and Hall effect) induced by electron scattering from disordered grain boundaries and from rough surfaces on metallic nanostructures; we review recent measurements of the magneto transport coefficients that elucidate the electron scattering mechanisms at work. We review as well theoretical developments regarding quantum transport theories that allow calculating the increase in resistivity induced by electron-rough surface scattering (in the absence of grain boundaries) from first principles—from the parameters that describe the surface roughness that can be measured with a Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (STM). We evaluate the predicting power of the quantum version of the Fuchs-Sondheimer theory and of the model proposed by Calecki, abandoning the method of parameter fitting used for decades, but comparing instead theoretical predictions with resistivity measured in thin films where surface roughness has also been measured with a STM, and where electron-grain boundary scattering can be neglected. We also review the theory of Mayadas and Shatzkes (MS) [Phys. Rev. B 1, 1382 (1970)] used for decades, and discuss its severe conceptual difficulties that arise out of the fact that: (i) MS employed plane waves to describe the electronic states within the metal sample having periodic grain boundaries, rather than the Bloch states known since the thirties to be the solutions of the Schrödinger equation describing electrons propagating through a Krönig-Penney [Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 130, 499 (1931)] periodic potential; (ii) MS ignored the fact that the wave functions describing electrons propagating through a 1-D disordered potential are expected to decay exponentially with increasing distance, a fact known since the work of Anderson [Phys. Rev. 109, 1492 (1958)] in 1958 for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in

  6. Understanding Nanoscale Thermal Conduction an Mechanical Strength Correlation in High Temperature Ceramics with Improved Thermal Shock Resistance for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    Equation (BTE). In the instances where an interface is being analyzed, variants of either acoustic mismatch model ( AMM ) or of diffusive mismatch model...DMM) are employed for the description of conductive heat transport. The AMM makes the assumption of thermal equilibrium achieved immediately on...either side of a single abrupt junction. Calculations of the AMM only consider the materials on either side of the interfacial bond and not the

  7. Prompt response and durability of polymer ablation from synthetic fibers irradiated by thermal plasmas for arc resistant clothes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Masahiro; Shinsei, Naoki; Tanaka, Yasunori; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Ishijima, Tatsuo; Mio, Wataru; Hagi, Hiroyasu; Uchibori, Keita

    2013-06-01

    Interactions between thermal plasmas and synthetic fibers such as polyamide, polyester, phenol and aramid were investigated by thermal plasma irradiation technique. Understanding the above interactions is crucial to design effective flame retardant synthetic fiber clothes with arc resistance to protect a human from arc flash accidents. To investigate the interactions, an Ar inductively coupled thermal plasma (ICTP) was used instead of the arc discharge because the ICTP has high controllability and no contamination. The ICTP irradiation raises polymer ablation in case of polyamide and polyester. Two features of the polymer ablation such as prompt response and durability were fundamentally investigated from viewpoint of shielding the heat flux. It was found that polyamide fiber has both a high prompt response and a long durability.

  8. Numerical Simulation for Thermal Shock Resistance of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics Considering the Effects of Initial Stress Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking the hafnium diboride ceramic as an example, the effects of heating rate, cooling rate, thermal shock initial temperature, and external constraint on the thermal shock resistance (TSR of ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTCs were studied through numerical simulation in this paper. The results show that the external constraint has an approximately linear influence on the critical rupture temperature difference of UHTCs. The external constraint prepares a compressive stress field in the structure because of the predefined temperature field, and this compressive stress field relieves the tension stress in the structure when it is cooled down and then it improves the TSR of UHTCs. As the thermal shock initial temperature, a danger heating rate (or cooling rate exists where the critical temperature difference is the lowest.

  9. Effects of Heat Treatment on Grain-Boundary β-Mg17Al12 and Fracture Properties of Resistance Spot-Welded AZ80 Mg Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknejad, Seyed Tirdad; Liu, Lei; Nguyen, Tam; Lee, Mok-Young; Esmaeili, Shahrzad; Zhou, Norman Y.

    2013-08-01

    The distribution and morphology of β-Mg17Al12 intermetallic phase in resistance spot-welded AZ80 Mg alloy were investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The influence of intermetallic phase on mechanical strength was studied by tensile shear testing and fractography. The results showed that continuous networks of β-Mg17Al12 formed along grain boundaries in both the nugget and heat-affected zone of the spot-welded AZ80 Mg alloy. Those continuous grain-boundary β-Mg17Al12 networks acted as effective crack propagation paths, which had negative effects on the weld strength. Post-weld solution heat treatment effectively reduced the amount of β-Mg17Al12 and broke the grain-boundary intermetallic networks in both the nugget and heat-affected zone. This significantly increased the weld strength of AZ80 Mg alloy and changed the fracture mode from nugget pull-out in the as-welded condition to through-thickness after heat treatment.

  10. Graphene surface plasmons mediated thermal radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayu; Liu, Baoan; Shen, Sheng

    2018-02-01

    A graphene nanostructure can simultaneously serve as a plasmonic optical resonator and a thermal emitter when thermally heated up. The unique electronic and optical properties of graphene have rendered tremendous potential in the active manipulation of light and the microscopic energy transport in nanostructures. Here we show that the thermally pumped surface plasmonic modes along graphene nanoribbons could dramatically modulate their thermal emission spectra in both near- and far-fields. Based on the fluctuating surface current method implemented by the resistive boundary method, we directly calculate the thermal emission spectrum from single graphene ribbons and vertically paired graphene ribbons. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both the near- and far-field thermal emission from graphene nanostructures can be optimized by tuning the chemical potential of doped graphene. The general guideline to maximize the thermal emission is illustrated by the our recently developed theory on resonant thermal emitters modulated by quasi-normal modes.

  11. Composite plasma electrolytic oxidation to improve the thermal radiation performance and corrosion resistance on an Al substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Donghyun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Dahye [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Busan 46742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Junghoon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Kim, Yonghwan [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Busan 46742 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Wonsub, E-mail: wschung1@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Composite plasma electrolytic oxidation was performed using dispersed CuO particles in convectional PEO electrolyte. • Thermal radiation performance and corrosion resistance were examined by FT-IR spectroscopy and electrochemical methods, respectively. • Deposited copper oxide on the surface of the Al substrate was enhanced the corrosion resistance and the emissivity compared with the conventional PEO. - Abstract: A composite plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was performed for enhancing the thermal radiation performance and corrosion resistance on an Al alloy by dispersing cupric oxide (CuO) particles in a conventional PEO electrolyte. Cu-based oxides (CuO and Cu{sub 2}O) formed by composite PEO increased the emissivity of the substrate to 0.892, and made the surface being dark color, similar to a black body, i.e., an ideal radiator. In addition, the corrosion resistance was analyzed using potentio-dynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests in 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution. An optimum condition of 10 ampere per square decimeter (ASD) current density and 30 min processing time produced appropriate surface morphologies and coating thicknesses, as well as dense Cu- and Al-based oxides that constituted the coating layers.

  12. Modelling of segmented high-performance thermoelectric generators with effects of thermal radiation, electrical and thermal contact resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Zhongliang; Li, Dawen

    2016-04-07

    In this study, segmented thermoelectric generators (TEGs) have been simulated with various state-of-the-art TE materials spanning a wide temperature range, from 300 K up to 1000 K. The results reveal that by combining the current best p-type TE materials, BiSbTe, MgAgSb, K-doped PbTeS and SnSe with the strongest n-type TE materials, Cu-Doped BiTeSe, AgPbSbTe and SiGe to build segmented legs, TE modules could achieve efficiencies of up to 17.0% and 20.9% at ΔT = 500 K and ΔT = 700 K, respectively, and a high output power densities of over 2.1 Watt cm(-2) at the temperature difference of 700 K. Moreover, we demonstrate that successful segmentation requires a smooth change of compatibility factor s from one end of the TEG leg to the other, even if s values of two ends differ by more than a factor of 2. The influence of the thermal radiation, electrical and thermal contact effects have also been studied. Although considered potentially detrimental to the TEG performance, these effects, if well-regulated, do not prevent segmentation of the current best TE materials from being a prospective way to construct high performance TEGs with greatly enhanced efficiency and output power density.

  13. UV Enhanced Oxygen Response Resistance Ratio of ZnO Prepared by Thermally Oxidized Zn on Sapphire Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO thin film was fabricated by thermally oxidized Zn at 600°C for 1 h. A surface containing nanostructured dumbbell and lines was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The ZnO resistor device was formed after the following Ti/Au metallization. The device resistance was characterized at different oxygen pressure environment in the dark and under ultraviolet (UV light illumination coming from the mercury lamp with a short pass filter. The resistance increases with the increase of oxygen pressure. The resistance decreases and response increases with the increase of light intensity. Models considering the barrier height variation caused by the adsorbed oxygen related species were used to explain these results. The UV light illumination technology shows an effective method to enhance the detection response for this ZnO resistor oxygen sensor.

  14. RESEARCH OF PROCESSES ON FORMATION AND TRIBOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF WEAR-RESISTANT COMPOSITE GAS THERMAL COATINGS BEING DISPERSIVELY STRENGTHENED BY SYNTHETIC DIAMONDS AND ELECTRO-CORUNDUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kobjakov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation processes, tribotechnical and wear-resistant properties of composite gas thermal coatings being dispersively strengthened by synthetic diamonds and electro-corundum are investigated in the paper.

  15. IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR-RESISTANCE AND SERVICE LIFE OF MULTI-DISK BRAKE MECHANISMS OF «BELARUS» TRACTOR BY LASER THERMAL HARDENING OF FAST WEARING PARTS

    OpenAIRE

    O. S. Kobjakov; N. V. Spiridonov; A. A. Barkun

    2008-01-01

    Problems concerning wear resistance improvement of «Belarus» tractor brake mechanism parts are considered in the paper. Properties of ВЧ-50-pig iron are investigated as a result of laser thermal hardening by various technological methods.

  16. Investigation of thermal effects in through-silicon vias using scanning thermal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgoszewski, Grzegorz; Jóźwiak, Grzegorz; Babij, Michał; Baraniecki, Tomasz; Geer, Robert; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2014-11-01

    Results of quantitative investigations of copper through-silicon vias (TSVs) are presented. The experiments were performed using scanning thermal microscopy (SThM), enabling highly localized imaging of thermal contrast between the copper TSVs and the surrounding material. Both dc and ac active-mode SThM was used and differences between these variants are shown. SThM investigations of TSVs may provide information on copper quality in TSV, as well as may lead to quantitative investigation of thermal boundaries in micro- and nanoelectronic structures. A proposal for heat flow analysis in a TSV, which includes the influence of the boundary region between the TSV and the silicon substrate, is presented; estimation of contact resistance and boundary thermal conductance is also given. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling the Effect of Temperature and Water Activity on the Thermal Resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 in Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Danielle F; Hildebrandt, Ian M; Casulli, Kaitlyn E; Dolan, Kirk D; Marks, Bradley P

    2016-12-01

    Salmonella continues to be a problem associated with low-moisture foods, particularly given enhanced thermal resistance at lower water activity (aw). However, there is a scarcity of thermal inactivation models accounting for the effect of aw. The objective of this study was to test multiple secondary models for the effect of product (wheat flour) aw on Salmonella enterica Enteritidis phage type 30 thermal resistance. A full-factorial experimental design included three temperatures (75, 80, and 85°C) and four aw values (~0.30, 0.45, 0.60, and 0.70). Prior to isothermal treatment, sample aw was achieved by equilibrating samples in a humidity-controlled conditioning chamber. Two primary models (log linear and Weibull type) and three secondary models (second-order response surface, modified Bigelow type, and combined effects) were evaluated using the corrected Akaike information criterion and root mean squared errors. Statistical analyses of the primary models favored the log-linear model. Incorporating the three secondary models into the log-linear primary model yielded root mean squared errors of 2.1, 0.78, and 0.96 log CFU/g and corrected Akaike information criterion values of 460, -145, and -19 for the response surface, modified Bigelow, and combined-effects models, respectively. The modified Bigelow-type model, which exponentially scaled both temperature and aw effects on thermal inactivation rates, predicted Salmonella lethality significantly better (P Salmonella in low-moisture products and should be appropriately included in thermal inactivation models for these types of systems.

  18. Analytical study of MHD free convective, dissipative boundary layer flow past a porous vertical surface in the presence of thermal radiation, chemical reaction and constant suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Raju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An analytical solution of MHD free convective, dissipative boundary layer flow past a vertical porous surface in the presence of thermal radiation, chemical reaction and constant suction, under the influence of uniform magnetic field which is applied normal to the surface is studied. The governing equations are solved analytically using a regular perturbation technique. The expressions for velocity, temperature and concentration fields are obtained. With the aid of these, the expressions for the coefficient of skin friction, the rate of heat transfer in the form of Nusselt number and the rate of mass transfer in the form of Sherwood number are derived. Finally the effects of various physical parameters of the flow quantities are studied with the help of graphs and tables. It is observed that the velocity and concentration increase during a generative reaction and decrease in a destructive reaction. The same observed to be true for the behavior of the fluid temperature. The presence of magnetic field and radiation diminishes the velocity and also the temperature.

  19. The Variations of Thermal Contact Resistance and Heat Transfer Rate of the AlN Film Compositing with PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huann-Ming Chou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical industries have been fast developing over the past decades. Moreover, the trend of microelements and packed division multiplex is obviously for the electrical industry. Hence, the high heat dissipative and the electrical insulating device have been popular and necessary. The thermal conduct coefficient of aluminum nitride (i.e., AlN is many times larger than the other materials. Moreover, the green technology of composite with phase change materials (i.e., PCMs is worked as a constant temperature cooler. Therefore, PCMs have been used frequently for saving energy and the green environment. Based on the above statements, it does show great potential in heat dissipative for the AlN film compositing with PCM. Therefore, this paper is focused on the research of thermal contact resistance and heat transfer between the AlN/PCM pairs. According to the experimental results, the heat transfer decreases and the thermal contact resistance increases under the melting process of PCM. However, the suitable parameters such as contact pressures can be used to improve the above defects.

  20. Resistance noise spectroscopy across the thermally and electrically driven metal-insulator transitions in VO2 nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaqqa, Ali; Kilcoyne, Colin; Singh, Sujay; Horrocks, Gregory; Marley, Peter; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Sambandamurthy, G.

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a strongly correlated material that exhibits a sharp thermally driven metal-insulator transition at Tc ~ 340 K. The transition can also be triggered by a DC voltage in the insulating phase with a threshold (Vth) behavior. The mechanisms behind these transitions are hotly discussed and resistance noise spectroscopy is a suitable tool to delineate different transport mechanisms in correlated systems. We present results from a systematic study of the low frequency (1 mHz noise behavior in VO2 nanobeams across the thermally and electrically driven transitions. In the thermal transition, the power spectral density (PSD) of the resistance noise is unchanged as we approach Tc from 300 K and an abrupt drop in the magnitude is seen above Tc and it remains unchanged till 400 K. However, the noise behavior in the electrically driven case is distinctly different: as the voltage is ramped from zero, the PSD gradually increases by an order of magnitude before reaching Vth and an abrupt increase is seen at Vth. The noise magnitude decreases above Vth, approaching the V = 0 value. The individual roles of percolation, Joule heating and signatures of correlated behavior will be discussed. This work is supported by NSF DMR 0847324.

  1. Effect of thermal ageing on the corrosion resistance of stainless steel type 316L exposed in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Y.; Kish, J., E-mail: jiaoyn@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: kishjr@mcmaster.ca [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Zheng, W., E-mail: wenyue.zheng@nrcan.rncan.gc.ca [Canmet Materials, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Guzonas, D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Cook, W., E-mail: wcook@unb.ca [University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The tendency for intermetallic precipitates to form in austenitic stainless steel during prolonged exposure at the expected operating temperature of the fuel cladding in the Canadian supercritical water reactor (SCWR) concept represents a possible serious threat to the intrinsic in-service corrosion performance of the candidate alloy. The objective of this study was to better understand the extent to which a thermally-aged microstructure affects the mode and extent of corrosion exhibited by Type 316L stainless steel exposed in 25 MPa supercritical water (SCW) at 550 {sup o}C for 500 h. Mechanically-abraded samples were exposed in an as-received and thermally-aged condition. Thermal ageing conducted at 815 {sup o}C (peak fuel cladding temperature expected) for 1000 h was found to produce a discontinuous network of the carbide (M{sub 23}C{sub 6}), chi (χ), laves (η) and sigma (σ) phases. The similar weight gain and oxide scale structure, composition and thickness suggested that the thermally-aged condition does not have a marked influence on the corrosion resistance. (author)

  2. Plasticization-resistant hollow fiber membranes for CO2/CH4 separation based on a thermally crosslinkable polyimide

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Chien-Chiang

    2011-10-01

    Decarboxylation-induced thermal crosslinking has been demonstrated to be effective for stabilizing membranes against plasticization in dense films. This study extends this promising crosslinking approach from dense films to industrially relevant asymmetric hollow fiber membranes. Crosslinkable asymmetric hollow fiber membranes were spun from a carboxylic acid containing polyimide, 6FDA-DAM:DABA. Dope and spinning conditions were optimized to obtain fibers with a defect-free selective skin layer. It is found that slightly defective fibers suffered severe selectivity loss after thermal crosslinking, suggesting that defect-free property is essential to the performance of the resulting crosslinked hollow fiber membranes. The crosslinked fibers were tested for CO 2/CH 4 separation. The excellent plasticization resistance under high pressure feeds (with highest CO 2 partial pressure of 400psia) suggests that these robust membranes are promising for aggressive natural gas purification. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Characterisation of WC-12Co thermal spray powders and HPHVOF wear resistant coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lovelock, HDL

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen commonly used commercially available, WC 12Co thermal spray powders were characterised in terms of their particle size distribution, surface morphology, cross-sectional morphology, and phase composition. Based on the results, four powders...

  4. A Comparative Study on the Thermal Resistance, Flammability and Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester and Epoxy Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Fathizadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties, flammability and mechanical properties of three different kinds of unsaturated polyester resins, ortho, iso and vinyl ester and an epoxy resin based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A were investigated. Since these resins are widely used in the composite industry it is vital to recognize their properties. For this purpose, viscosity, burning rate, limiting oxygen index (LOI and flexural properties were measured. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis were also performed. The viscosity of unsaturated polyester resins which was in the range of 300 to 450 cp showed an advantage compared to the viscosity of epoxy resin which was in the range of 600 to 1000 cp. The low viscosity property which is usually seen in unsaturated polyester resins is very important from the processing point of view, which in turn helps to ensure a simple processing. The ortho resin showed the highest conversion and conversion rate among the three unsaturated polyester resins. The vinyl ester resin showed a higher conversion than the iso resin. The results showed that the vinyl ester resin had the highest thermal resistance, flammability and mechanical properties among the unsaturated polyester resins used in this work. On the other hand, although the epoxy resin showed the highest burning rate but it had the highest carbon residue or char yield (12.4% and LOI (20.2%, and consequently the highest thermal resistance. The results of flexural test showed that the epoxy resin had the highest flexural strength (116 MPa and modulus (4.1 GPa and the lowest deflection-at-break (2.8% and toughness in comparison with the unsaturated polyester resins used in this work.

  5. Sprayable Aerogel Bead Compositions With High Shear Flow Resistance and High Thermal Insulation Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Danny; Trifu, Roxana; Caggiano, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    A sprayable aerogel insulation has been developed that has good mechanical integrity and lower thermal conductivity than incumbent polyurethane spray-on foam insulation, at similar or lower areal densities, to prevent insulation cracking and debonding in an effort to eliminate the generation of inflight debris. This new, lightweight aerogel under bead form can be used as insulation in various thermal management systems that require low mass and volume, such as cryogenic storage tanks, pipelines, space platforms, and launch vehicles.

  6. Renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven as lithium-ion battery separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhihong; Kong, Qingshan; Zhang, Chuanjian; Pang, Shuping; Yue, Liping; Wang, Xuejiang; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei

    2013-01-01

    A renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven was explored as lithium-ion battery separator via an electrospinning technique followed by a dip-coating process. It was demonstrated that such nanofibrous composite nonwoven possessed good electrolyte wettability, excellent heat tolerance, and high ionic conductivity. The cells using the composite separator displayed better rate capability and enhanced capacity retention, when compared to those of commercialized polypropylene separator under the same conditions. These fascinating characteristics would endow this renewable composite nonwoven a promising separator for high-power lithium-ion battery.

  7. Reduction in the thermal resistance (R-value) of loose-fill insulation and fiberglass batts due to compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, D.W.; Wright, J.H.

    1981-04-01

    A method is presented for calculating the thickness reduction of loose-fill insulations and fiberglass batts that result from compressive forces exerted by additional insulation. The thickness reduction is accompanied by an increase in density and a reduction in the R value of the compressed layer. Calculations for thermal resistance of two layers of insulation are given. Information in 4 appendices includes: identification of products tested (products from 3 companies); experimental values for thickness as a function of loading; Fortran programs and output; and calculated R values for stacked insulations. (MCW)

  8. Evaluation of the of thermal shock resistance of a castable containing andalusite aggregates by thermal shock cycles; Avaliacao da resistencia ao dano por choque termico por ciclagem de um concreto refratario contendo agregados de andaluzita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, G.C.R.; Santos, E.M.B.; Ribeiro, S., E-mail: girribeiro@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia de. Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Resende, W.S. [Industrias Brasileiras de Artigos Refratarios (IBAR), Lorena, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, J.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The thermal shock resistance of refractory materials is one of the most important characteristics that determine their performance in many applications, since abrupt and drastic differences in temperature can damage them. Resistance to thermal shock damage can be evaluated based on thermal cycles, i.e., successive heating and cooling cycles followed by an analysis of the drop in Young's modulus occurring in each cycle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance to thermal shock damage in a commercial refractory concrete with andalusite aggregate. Concrete samples that were sintered at 1000 deg C and 1450 deg C for 5 hours to predict and were subjected to 30 thermal shock cycles, soaking in the furnace for 20 minutes at a temperature of 1000 deg C, and subsequent cooling in circulating water at 25 deg C. The results showed a decrease in Young's modulus and rupture around 72% for samples sintered at 1000 ° C, and 82% in sintered at 1450 ° C. The refractory sintered at 1450 deg C would show lower thermal shock resistance than the refractory sintered at 1000 deg C. (author)

  9. The Tribological Performance of Hardfaced/ Thermal Sprayed Coatings for Increasing the Wear Resistance of Ventilation Mill Working Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vencl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During the coal pulverizing, the working parts of the ventilation mill are being worn by the sand particles. For this reason, the working parts are usually protected with materials resistant to wear (hardfaced/thermal sprayed coatings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tribological performance of four different types of coatings as candidates for wear protection of the mill’s working parts. The coatings were produced by using the filler materials with the following nominal chemical composition: NiFeBSi-WC, NiCrBSiC, FeCrCTiSi, and FeCrNiCSiBMn, and by using the plasma arc welding and flame and electric arc spraying processes. The results showed that Ni-based coatings exhibited higher wear resistance than Fe-based coatings. The highest wear resistance showed coating produced by using the NiFeBSi-WC filler material and plasma transferred arc welding deposition process. The hardness was not the only characteristic that affected the wear resistance. In this context, the wear rate of NiFeBSi-WC coating was not in correlation with its hardness, in contrast to other coatings. The different wear performance of NiFeBSi-WC coating was attributed to the different type and morphological features of the reinforcing particles (WC.

  10. Numerical analysis for resist profile after thermal process in display manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domnenko, Vitaliy; Stock, Hans-Jürgen; Shin, Sangmin; Ryu, Jonghyoek; Choi, Sung Won; Cho, Hyunwoo; Jeong, Eun-Soo; Choi, Jung-Hoe

    2014-03-01

    The screen size growth of mobile displays is accompanied with the drastically increased resolution. A display should have high pixel resolution to meet demanding readability and legibility expectations. The manufacturing process should be advanced to meet final device requirements. One of the important process steps is the post-development hardbake, where resist reflow is used to tune the final profile which influences subsequent process steps. Moreover, 3D resist profiles become one of critical design factors for mechanical and optical properties of display pixels. The resist reflow is the main time- and temperature-dependent effect of post-development bake process step. Since the resist is in transitional state (crystalline glassy/amorphous rubbery/viscous melt) the resist profile dynamics are very complex and predictive modeling is necessary. The model presented in this paper is based on a lattice-Boltzmann method, where the resist is considered as multicomponent (polymer-solvent) and multiphase (solid-liquid-vapor) mixture. Simulated resist profile dynamics with time are analyzed in dependency of material parameters (solvent diffusivity and evaporation rate, polymer solid fraction and adhesion with substrate). Temperature-dependent parameter descriptions are used for model calibration. Validation against experimental data shows good model consistency and predictability, demonstrating the benefit of simulation in process development and optimization.

  11. Highly-translucent, strong and aging-resistant 3Y-TZP ceramics for dental restoration by grain boundary segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Vanmeensel, Kim; Batuk, Maria; Hadermann, Joke; Inokoshi, Masanao; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Naert, Ignace; Vleugels, Jef

    2015-04-01

    Latest trends in dental restorative ceramics involve the development of full-contour 3Y-TZP ceramics which can avoid chipping of veneering porcelains. Among the challenges are the low translucency and the hydrothermal stability of 3Y-TZP ceramics. In this work, different trivalent oxides (Al2O3, Sc2O3, Nd2O3 and La2O3) were selected to dope 3Y-TZP ceramics. Results show that dopant segregation was a key factor to design hydrothermally stable and high-translucent 3Y-TZP ceramics and the cation dopant radius could be used as a controlling parameter. A large trivalent dopant, oversized as compared to Zr(4+), exhibiting strong segregation at the ZrO2 grain boundary was preferred. The introduction of 0.2 mol% La2O3 in conventional 0.1-0.25 wt.% Al2O3-doped 3Y-TZP resulted in an excellent combination of high translucency and superior hydrothermal stability, while retaining excellent mechanical properties. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Shielded resistive electromagnets of arbitrary surface geometry using the boundary element method and a minimum energy constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Chad T; Haw, Dustin W; Handler, William B; Chronik, Blaine A

    2013-09-01

    Eddy currents are generated in MR by the use of rapidly switched electromagnets, resulting in time varying and spatially varying magnetic fields that must be either minimized or corrected. This problem is further complicated when non-cylindrical insert magnets are used for specialized applications. Interruption of the coupling between an insert coil and the MR system is typically accomplished using active magnetic shielding. A new method of actively shielding insert gradient and shim coils of any surface geometry by use of the boundary element method for coil design with a minimum energy constraint is presented. This method was applied to shield x- and z-gradient coils for two separate cases: a traditional cylindrical primary gradient with cylindrical shield and, to demonstrate its versatility in surface geometry, the same cylindrical primary gradients with a rectangular box-shaped shield. For the cylindrical case this method produced shields that agreed with analytic solutions. For the second case, the rectangular box-shaped shields demonstrated very good shielding characteristics despite having a different geometry than the primary coils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bacterial spores isolated from ingredients, intermediate and final products obtained from dairies: thermal resistance in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Stoeckel, Marina; Lücking, Genia; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Atamer, Zeynep; Hinrichs, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractThe ingredients used for the development and production of milk-based products pose the risk of the introduction of new, emerging spore-formers producing highly thermoresistant spores. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the heat resistance of spores isolated from dehydrated ingredients, intermediate and final products. Furthermore, the influence of the heating medium (milk or phosphate buffer) on the heat resistance was determined in order to asses...

  14. Very Tough, Erosion-Resistant Turbine Airfoil Thermal Barrier Coatings Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are receiving increased attention for advanced gas turbine engine applications. These coatings are considered to be technologically important because of their ability to further increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling requirements, thus achieving higher engine efficiency, lower emissions, and increased performance goals. To take full advantage of the capabilities of these coatings, researchers need to use an aggressive design approach whenever possible--one that allows greater temperature reductions through the coating systems and less cooling air to the components. Advanced TBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity and better thermal stability than current coatings have been developed for future ultra-efficient, low-emission engine systems. Multicomponent-doped, defect-clustered TBCs have been shown to offer the low conductivity and high stability required for future high-temperature engine applications.

  15. Microbial modeling of thermal resistance of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA7152 spores in concentrated orange juice with nisin addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Wilmer Edgard Luera; de Massaguer, Pilar Rodriguez; Teixeira, Luciano Quintão

    2009-01-01

    The nisin effect on thermal death of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA 7152 spores in concentrated orange juice (64°Brix) was studied. Concentrations of 0, 50, 75 and 100 IU of nisin/ml juice, at temperatures of 92, 95, 98 and 102°C were evaluated. The quadratic polynomial model was used to analyze the effects of the factors and their interaction. Verification of surviving spores was carried out through plating in K medium (pH 3.7). The results showed that the D values without nisin addition were 25.5, 12.9, 6.1 and 2.3 min for 92, 95, 98 and 102°C respectively. With addition of nisin into the juice there was a drop of heat resistance as the concentration was increased at a same temperature. With 30, 50, 75, 100 and 150 IU/ml at 95°C, the D values were 12.34, 11.38, 10.49, 9.49 and 9.42 min respectively, showing that a decrease in the D value up to 27% can be obtained. The second order polynomial model established with r2 = 0.995 showed that the microorganism resistance was affected by the action of temperature followed by the nisin concentration. Nisin therefore is an alternative for reducing the rigor of the A. acidoterrestris CRA 7152 thermal treatment. PMID:24031405

  16. Non-Thermal Plasma Treatment Diminishes Fungal Viability and Up-Regulates Resistance Genes in a Plant Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panngom, Kamonporn; Lee, Sang Hark; Park, Dae Hoon; Sim, Geon Bo; Kim, Yong Hee; Uhm, Han Sup; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can have either harmful or beneficial effects on biological systems depending on the dose administered and the species of organism exposed, suggesting that application of reactive species can possibly produce contradictory effects in disease control, pathogen inactivation and activation of host resistance. A novel technology known as atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma represents a means of generating various reactive species that adversely affect pathogens (inactivation) while simultaneously up-regulating host defense genes. The anti-microbial efficacy of this technology was tested on the plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and its susceptible host plant species Solanum lycopercicum. Germination of fungal spores suspended in saline was decreased over time after exposed to argon (Ar) plasma for 10 min. Although the majority of treated spores exhibited necrotic death, apoptosis was also observed along with the up-regulation of apoptosis related genes. Increases in the levels of peroxynitrite and nitrite in saline following plasma treatment may have been responsible for the observed spore death. In addition, increased transcription of pathogenesis related (PR) genes was observed in the roots of the susceptible tomato cultivar (S. lycopercicum) after exposure to the same Ar plasma dose used in fungal inactivation. These data suggest that atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma can be efficiently used to control plant fungal diseases by inactivating fungal pathogens and up-regulating mechanisms of host resistance. PMID:24911947

  17. Measurements of the effects of thermal contact resistance on steady state heat transfer in phosphoric-acid fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Alkasab, Kalil A.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of the thermal contact resistance on the heat transfer between the electrode plates, and the cooling system plate in a phosphoric-acid fuel-cell stack was experimentally investigated. The investigation was conducted using a set-up that simulates the operating conditions prevailing in a phosphoric acid fuel-cell stack. The fuel-cell cooling system utilized three types of coolants, water, engine oil, and air, to remove excess heat generated in the cell electrode and to maintain a reasonably uniform temperature distribution in the electrode plate. The thermal contact resistance was measured as a function of pressure at the interface between the electrode plate and the cooling system plate. The interface pressure range was from 0 kPa to 3448 kPa, while the Reynolds number for the cooling limits varied from 15 to 79 for oil, 1165 to 6165 for water, and 700 to 6864 for air. Results showed that increasing the interface pressure resulted in a higher heat transfer coefficient.

  18. Non-thermal plasma treatment diminishes fungal viability and up-regulates resistance genes in a plant host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamonporn Panngom

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can have either harmful or beneficial effects on biological systems depending on the dose administered and the species of organism exposed, suggesting that application of reactive species can possibly produce contradictory effects in disease control, pathogen inactivation and activation of host resistance. A novel technology known as atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma represents a means of generating various reactive species that adversely affect pathogens (inactivation while simultaneously up-regulating host defense genes. The anti-microbial efficacy of this technology was tested on the plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and its susceptible host plant species Solanum lycopercicum. Germination of fungal spores suspended in saline was decreased over time after exposed to argon (Ar plasma for 10 min. Although the majority of treated spores exhibited necrotic death, apoptosis was also observed along with the up-regulation of apoptosis related genes. Increases in the levels of peroxynitrite and nitrite in saline following plasma treatment may have been responsible for the observed spore death. In addition, increased transcription of pathogenesis related (PR genes was observed in the roots of the susceptible tomato cultivar (S. lycopercicum after exposure to the same Ar plasma dose used in fungal inactivation. These data suggest that atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma can be efficiently used to control plant fungal diseases by inactivating fungal pathogens and up-regulating mechanisms of host resistance.

  19. ‘Spacer stitching’, an innovative material feeding technology for improved thermal resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, H.; Rödel, H.; Krzywinski, S.; Hes, L.

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the problems associated with heat loss occurring at the points of needle insertion. The insulation material at stitching points is compressed by sewing thread tensions and consequently the air entrapped is forced to leave its structure. It results in poor thermal insulation at the points of needle insertions. An innovative material feeding technology, ‘Spacer stitching’ is developed which addresses the state of the art of cold spots with a simpler and much efficient method. A comparison of sewing samples of conventional sewing technology with the spacer stitching is carried out in this research paper to study the improvement in thermal properties.

  20. Ultralight, highly thermally insulating and fire resistant aerogel by encapsulating cellulose nanofibers with two-dimensional MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Mukhopadhyay, Alolika; Jiao, Yucong; Yong, Qiang; Chen, Liao; Xing, Yingjie; Hamel, Jonathan; Zhu, Hongli

    2017-08-17

    Thermally insulating materials, made from earth-abundant and sustainable resources, are highly desirable in the sustainable construction of energy efficient buildings. Cellulose from wood has long been recognized for these characteristics. However, cellulose can be a flammability hazard, and for construction this has been addressed via chemical treatment such as that with halogen and/or phosphorus, which leads to further environmental concerns. Fortunately, the structure of cellulose lends itself well to chemical modification, giving great potential to explore interaction with other compounds. Thus, in this study, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were nano-wrapped with ultrathin 1T phase molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets via chemical crosslinking, to produce an aerogel. Thermal and combustion characterization revealed highly desirable properties (thermal conductivity k = 28.09 mW m-1 K-1, insulation R value = 5.2, limit oxygen index (LOI) = 34.7%, total heat release = 0.4 MJ m-2). Vertical burning tests also demonstrated excellent fire retardant and self-extinguishing capabilities. Raman spectra further revealed that MoS2 remained unscathed after 30 seconds of burning in a 1300 °C butane flame. Considering the inherently low density of this material, there is significant opportunity for its usage in a number of insulating applications demanding specific fire resistance properties.

  1. Electrochemical methods for characterisation of thermal spray corrosion resistant stainless steel coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R.; Vreijling, M.P.W.; Ferrari, G.M.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    1998-01-01

    The use of thermal spray stainless steel coatings for protection of low alloyed steels against different types of corrosion is limited due to high porosity levels and oxide inclusions. In this paper electrochemical methods like corrosion potential monitoring and cyclic voltammetry are reported to

  2. Effect of anisotropic thermal transport on the resistive plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xue; Liu, Yueqiang; Gao, Zhe

    2017-10-01

    Plasma response to the resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) field is numerically investigated by an extended toroidal fluid model, which includes anisotropic thermal transport physics parallel and perpendicular to the total magnetic field. The thermal transport is found to be effective in eliminating the toroidal average curvature induced plasma screening (the so called Glasser-Green-Johnson, GGJ screening) in a slow toroidal flow regime, whilst having minor effect on modifying the conventional plasma screening regimes at faster flow. This physics effect of interaction between thermal transport and GGJ screening is attributed to the modification of the radial structure of the shielding current, which resulted from the plasma response to the applied field. The modification of the plasma response (shielding current, response field, plasma displacement, and the perturbed velocity) also has direct consequence on the toroidal torques produced by RMP. Modelling results show that thermal transport reduces the resonant electromagnetic torque as well as the torque associated with the Reynolds stress, but enhances the neoclassical toroidal viscous torque at slow plasma flow.

  3. COMPARATIVE RESISTANCE OF BACTERIAL FOODBORNE PATHOGENS TO NON-THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eCebrián

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to manosonication (MS, pulsed electric fields (PEF, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP and UV-light (UV is reviewed and compared. The influence of different factors on the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to these technologies is also compared and discussed. Only results obtained under harmonized experimental conditions have been considered. This has allowed us to establish meaningful comparisons and draw significant conclusions. Among the six microorganisms here considered, Staphyloccocus aureus is the most resistant foodborne pathogen to MS and HHP and Listeria monocytogenes to UV. The target microorganism of PEF would change depending on the treatment medium pH. Thus, L. monocytogenes is the most PEF resistant microorganism at neutral pH but Gram-negatives (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Campylobacter jejuni would display a similar or even higher resistance at acidic pH. It should be noted that, in acidic products, the baroresistance of some E. coli strains would be comparable to that of S. aureus. The factors affecting the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens, as well as the magnitude of the effect, varied depending on the technology considered. Inter- and intra-specific differences in microbial resistance to PEF and HHP are much greater than to MS and UV. Similarly, both the pH and aw of the treatment medium highly condition microbial resistance to PEF and HHP but no to MS or UV. Growth phase also drastically affected bacterial HHP resistance. Regarding UV, the optical properties of the medium are, by far, the most influential factor affecting its lethal efficacy. Finally, increasing treatment temperature leads to a significant increase in lethality of the four technologies, what opens the possibility of the development of combined processes including heat. The appearance of sublethally damaged cells following PEF and HHP treatments could

  4. Comparative Resistance of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens to Non-thermal Technologies for Food Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrián, Guillermo; Mañas, Pilar; Condón, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to manosonication (MS), pulsed electric fields (PEFs), high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), and UV-light (UV) is reviewed and compared. The influence of different factors on the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to these technologies is also compared and discussed. Only results obtained under harmonized experimental conditions have been considered. This has allowed us to establish meaningful comparisons and draw significant conclusions. Among the six microorganisms here considered, Staphyloccocus aureus is the most resistant foodborne pathogen to MS and HHP and Listeria monocytogenes to UV. The target microorganism of PEF would change depending on the treatment medium pH. Thus, L. monocytogenes is the most PEF resistant microorganism at neutral pH but Gram-negatives (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Campylobacter jejuni) would display a similar or even higher resistance at acidic pH. It should be noted that, in acidic products, the baroresistance of some E. coli strains would be comparable to that of S. aureus. The factors affecting the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens, as well as the magnitude of the effect, varied depending on the technology considered. Inter- and intra-specific differences in microbial resistance to PEF and HHP are much greater than to MS and UV. Similarly, both the pH and aw of the treatment medium highly condition microbial resistance to PEF and HHP but no to MS or UV. Growth phase also drastically affected bacterial HHP resistance. Regarding UV, the optical properties of the medium are, by far, the most influential factor affecting its lethal efficacy. Finally, increasing treatment temperature leads to a significant increase in lethality of the four technologies, what opens the possibility of the development of combined processes including heat. The appearance of sublethally damaged cells following PEF and HHP treatments could also be

  5. Evaluation of the thermal resistance of different Salmonella serotypes in pork meat containing curing additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintavalla, S; Larini, S; Mutti, P; Barbuti, S

    2001-07-20

    The preliminary heat resistance evaluation of 94 Salmonella strains was carried out in culture medium (Trypticase soy broth, TSB). The heat resistance of three S. typhimurium strains (ATCC 14028, 133 and 1116), a strain each of S. derby B4373, S. potsdam 1133, S. menston 179. S. eppendorf 166, and S. kingston I124 was determined also in pork meat containing curing additives. As expected, the eight Salmonella strains showed greater heat resistance in pork meat than in TSB. At the lowest temperature (58 degrees C), the heat resistance increased 1.5-4 times, and it was most pronounced for the strains being most heat sensitive in TSB. S. potsdam 133 was the most resistant strain in pork meat, with D-values at 58 degrees C, 60 degrees C and 63 degrees C of 4.80, 1.57 and 0.30 min, respectively. The most sensitive strain turned out to be S. kingston 1124, with D-values of 2.79. 0.92 and 0.24 min, at the same temperatures. According to collected data, the heating processes, as applied to cured pork meat, providing an internal temperature of 60 degrees C for 9-10 min or of 63 degrees C for 3-4 min can be expected to provide a > or = 7 D kill of Salmonella belonging to the serotypes studied.

  6. Short-term thermal resistance of zoeae of 10 species of crabs from Puget Sound, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, B.G.

    1977-07-01

    Zoeae of 10 crab species were subjected to tests that simulated thermal stress associated with steam-powered electric stations. Shortly after hatching, the unfed zoeae were subjected to conditions simulating passage through heat exchangers (held at elevated test temperatures for 20 min with an abrupt increase and decrease from ambient) or mixing with thermal plumes (held at test temperature 1 to 4 h with temperatures gradually rising and decreasing from ambient). All species used in tests were hatched from February to November and were naturally acclimated to ambient conditions of the littoral zone. Observations were made on the point in temperature that zoeae became torpid in heat exchanger tests and on the TL/sub 50/ (maximum temperature--time that 50% or more of the subjects survived 48 h after testing). In the heat exchanger tests, the most sensitive species, the Bering hermit crab, Pagurus beringanus, and the porcelain crab, Petrolisthes eriomerus, did not become torpid at 24/sup 0/C; their torpid point and their TL/sub 50/ were at 26/sup 0/C. The economically important Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, did not become torpid at 28/sup 0/C; its TL/sub 50/ was at 30/sup 0/C. The TL/sub 50/ of other species ranged from 30 to 34/sup 0/C. The TL/sub 50/ of zoeae given the thermal plume test ranged from 26 to 34/sup 0/C for a 1-h exposure and 24 to 32/sup 0/C for a 2- to 4-h exposure. Thermal conditions in heat exchangers are postulated to be more critical to the survival of zoea than mixing with thermal plumes. The maximum temperature that should be permitted in heat exchangers to protect the most sensitive species studied is 24/sup 0/C for the Puget Sound area.

  7. Chemical resistance/thermal and mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester-based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya Vinse Ruban, Y.; Ginil Mon, S.; Vetha Roy, D.

    2013-01-01

    Nanocomposites were synthesized using unsaturated polyester as the matrix and organically modified montmorillonite (CA-MMT) as the reinforcing agent. XRD pattern of the modified montmorillonite showed that the interlayer spacing expanded from 1.21 to 1.9 nm, indicating intercalation. TGA and DTA show loss of organic surfactant from interlayer galleries. Glass transition temperature (T g) of these composites increased from 71 °C in the unfilled unsaturated polyester to 79 °C in the composites with 5 % organically modified montmorillonite. Chemical resistance and mechanical properties of the UP/organo-clay nanocomposites were studied. Chemical resistance was studied under aqueous conditions in acetic acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, aqueous ammonia and sodium carbonate. Chemical resistance studies reveal maximum weight gain/loss with increasing clay content. Mechanical studies show maximum characteristics for the composites-clay filled 5 % (w/w).

  8. Cumulative ozone effect on canopy stomatal resistance and the impact on boundary layer dynamics and CO2 assimilation at the diurnal scale: A case study for grassland in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Super, I.; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.; Krol, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and dynamical processes occurring at the surface strongly interact at diurnal scales. Therefore, this study examines the seasonal ozone impact on stomatal resistance, surface energy balance, boundary layer dynamics, and CO2 assimilation at this (sub)diurnal scale under changing

  9. Thermally triggered release of the bacteriophage endolysin CHAPKand the bacteriocin lysostaphin for the control of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Hollie; Ajuebor, Jude; Stephens, Liam; Coffey, Aidan; Potter, Ursula; Sutton, J Mark; Jenkins, A Toby A

    2017-01-10

    Staphylococcus aureus infections of the skin and soft tissue pose a major concern to public health, largely owing to the steadily increasing prevalence of drug resistant isolates. As an alternative mode of treatment both bacteriophage endolysins and bacteriocins have been shown to possess antimicrobial efficacy against multiple species of bacteria including otherwise drug resistant strains. Despite this, the administration and exposure of such antimicrobials should be restricted until required in order to discourage the continued evolution of bacterial resistance, whilst maintaining the activity and stability of such proteinaceous structures. Utilising the increase in skin temperature during infection, the truncated bacteriophage endolysin CHAP K and the staphylococcal bacteriocin lysostaphin have been co-administered in a thermally triggered manner from Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) nanoparticles. The thermoresponsive nature of the PNIPAM polymer has been employed in order to achieve the controlled expulsion of a synergistic enzybiotic cocktail consisting of CHAP K and lysostaphin. The point at which this occurs is modifiable, in this case corresponding to the threshold temperature associated with an infected wound. Consequently, bacterial lysis was observed at 37°C, whilst growth was maintained at the uninfected skin temperature of 32°C. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optomechanics for thermal characterization of suspended graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolleman, Robin J.; Houri, Samer; Davidovikj, Dejan; Cartamil-Bueno, Santiago J.; Blanter, Yaroslav M.; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Steeneken, Peter G.

    2017-10-01

    The thermal response of graphene is expected to be extremely fast due to its low heat capacity and high thermal conductivity. In this work, the thermal response of suspended single-layer graphene membranes is investigated by characterization of their mechanical motion in response to a high-frequency modulated laser. A characteristic delay time τ between the optical intensity and mechanical motion is observed, which is attributed to the time required to raise the temperature of the membrane. We find, however, that the measured time constants are significantly larger than the predicted ones based on values of the specific heat and thermal conductivity. In order to explain the discrepancy between measured and modeled τ , a model is proposed that takes a thermal boundary resistance at the edge of the graphene drum into account. The measurements provide a noninvasive way to characterize thermal properties of suspended atomically thin membranes, providing information that can be hard to obtain by other means.

  11. Effects of turbulence, resistivity and boundary conditions on helicoidal flow collimation: Consequences for the Von-Kármán-Sodium dynamo experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, J.; Brun, S.; Dubrulle, B.; Nore, C.

    2017-05-01

    We present hydrodynamic and magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of a liquid sodium flow using the compressible MHD code PLUTO to investigate the magnetic field regeneration in the Von-Kármán-Sodium dynamo experiment. The aim of the study is to analyze the influence of the fluid resistivity and turbulence level on the collimation by helicoidal motions of a remnant magnetic field. We use a simplified Cartesian geometry to represent the flow dynamics in the vicinity of one cavity of a multi-blades impeller inspired by those used in the Von-Kármán-Sodium (VKS) experiment. We perform numerical simulations with kinetic Reynolds numbers up to 1000 for magnetic Prandtl numbers between 30 and 0.1. Our study shows that perfect ferromagnetic walls favour enhanced collimation of flow and magnetic fields even if the turbulence degree of the model increases. More specifically, the location of the helicoidal coherent vortex in between the blades changes with the impinging velocity. It becomes closer to the upstream blade and the impeller base if the flow incident angle is analogous to the TM73 impeller configuration rotating in the unscooping direction. This result is also obtained at higher kinetic Reynolds numbers when the helicoidal vortex undergoes a precessing motion, leading to a reinforced effect in the vortex evolution and in the magnetic field collimation when using again perfect ferromagnetic boundary conditions. Configurations with different materials used for the impeller blades and the impeller base confirm a larger enhancement of the magnetic field when perfect ferromagnetic boundary conditions are used compared with the perfect conductor case, although smaller compared to a perfect ferromagnetic impeller, as it was observed in the VKS experiment. We further estimate the efficiency of a hypothetical dynamo loop occurring in the vicinity of the impeller and discuss the relevance of our findings in the context of mean field dynamo theory.

  12. Development of MATLAB Scripts for the Calculation of Thermal Manikin Regional Resistance Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Application ( VBA ) editor in Microsoft Excel to eliminate the tedious calculations necessary to sectionalize thermal manikin data for SCTM. Two major...deficiencies were observed with the VBA macros, 1) separate macros were required for and calculations and 2) it was necessary for the...state reports being easily selected via user interfaces (UI). As an example, a project with ten ensembles would require running the two VBA macros

  13. Report of NPSAT1 Battery Thermal Contact Resistance Testing, Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    environment (sunlight and eclipse portions of the orbit, earth albedo , etc.) and duty cycling of the electronics for internal heat generation. A network of...polycarbonate sheets and stainless steel fasteners. A thermally conductive elastomeric material, Chotherm®, is used between the housing and the...polycarbonate sheets to help distribute heat among the battery cells. The Chotherm® comes in direct contact with the leads of the battery cells. A 5-Watt

  14. Ground boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balluffi, R. W.; Bristowe, P. D.

    The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished on the study of grain boundaries in Ag, Au, Ni, Si, and Ge. Research was focused on the following four major efforts: study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; grain boundary migration; short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of Thin-Film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals.

  15. Xerogel p-anisidinapropilsílica: estudo da estabilidade térmica e da resistência à lixiviação com solventes p-anisidinepropylsilica xerogel: thermal stability and resistance to leaching by solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Franken

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The xerogel p-anisidinepropylsilica was obtained. This solid presents some residual paraffin and also a small fraction of high organofunctionalized material that was leached in polar solvent. The xerogel purification could be achieved by exhaustively washing with hexane and dichloromethane solvents, or submitting the xerogel to thermal treatment up to 300 ºC, in vacuum. The resulting purified xerogel material present an appreciable thermal stability and resistance to leaching by solvents.

  16. Corrosion resistance of Cu-Al coatings produced by thermal spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marcela Dimaté Castellanos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many components in the shipbuilding industry are made of copper-based alloys. These pieces tend to break due to corrosion generated by a marine environment; such components can be salvaged through surface engineering, through deposition of suitable coatings. This paper studied the influence of three surface preparation methods involving phosphor bronze substrates concerning the corrosion resistance of commercial coatings having Al-Cu +11% Fe chemical composition. The surface was prepared using three methods: sand blasting, shot blasting and metal polishing with an abrasive disk (with and without a base layer. The deposited coatings were micro-structurally characterised by x-ray diffraction (XRD, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical test electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Surfaces prepared by sandblasting showed the best resistance to corrosion, so these systems could be a viable alternative for salvaging certain parts in the marine industry. The corrosion mechanisms for the coatings produced are discussed in this research.

  17. Role of graphene layers on the radiation resistance of copper-graphene nanocomposite: Inhibiting the expansion of thermal spike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai; Tang, Xiaobin; Chen, Feida; Liu, Jian; Chen, Da

    2017-09-01

    Metal-graphene nanocomposites are expected to have excellent radiation resistance. The intrinsic role of the graphene layers (GrLs) in their performance has not been fully understood. Five copper-graphene nanocomposite (CGNC) systems were used to investigate the detailed mechanisms underpinning this behaviour by atomistic simulation. Results showed that GrLs can reduce the formation, growth, and intensity of the thermal spike of CGNC; this effect became more evident with the increasing number of layers of graphene. The role of the GrLs can be explained by three mechanisms: first, the ultra-strength C-C bonds of graphene hindered the penetration of high-energy atoms, second, the number of recoiled atoms decreased with the increasing number of layers of graphene, and third, the energy dissipation along the graphene planes also indirectly weakened the damage caused to the entire system. These mechanisms may provide a pathway to prevent material degradation in extreme radiation environments.

  18. Novel Mold-Resistant Building Materials Impregnated with Thermally Reduced Nano-Silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chi; Yu, Kuo-Pin; Shao, Wen-Cheng; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Pan, Wen-Chi

    2017-12-11

    In this study, we evaluated the long-term antifungal effectiveness of 3 types of interior building materials (gypsum board (GB), cement board (CB) and softwood plywood (S-PW)) impregnated with thermally reduced silver nanoparticles supported by titanium dioxide (AgNPs/TiO2 ) under 95% relative humidity for four weeks. AgNPs/TiO2 was synthesized at two thermal reduction temperatures (TRTs, 120 and 200°C) with two different AgNP weight percentages (2 and 5 wt%). Four different silver loading levels (SLLs, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.5 μg/cm2 and the critical concentration required to inhibit fungal growth on agar plates) and three fungal species (A. niger, P. spinulosum and S. chartarum) were used in the experiments. Higher temperature reduced more ionic Ag+ to metallic Ag0 and increased the dispersion of Ag on TiO2 surface. The 200°C thermally reduced AgNPs/TiO2 demonstrated excellent antifungal efficiency: mold growth was almost completely inhibited for 28 days at the low SLL of 0.5 μg/cm2 . Additionally, AgNPs/TiO2 exhibited higher antifungal activity on GB and CB than on S-PW. The stepwise regression results indicated that the TRT of AgNPs/TiO2 (β =-0.739--0.51), the SLL (β =-0.477--0.269), and the Ag0 level in the AgNPs (β=-0.379--0.136) were the major factors influencing antifungal activity and TRT might be the most significant one. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Rinse-resistant superhydrophobic block copolymer fabrics by electrospinning, electrospraying and thermally-induced self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Li, Xin; Wu, Yang; Liao, Guoxing; Johnston, Priscilla; Topham, Paul D.; Wang, Linge

    2017-11-01

    An inherent problem that restricts the practical application of superhydrophobic materials is that the superhydrophobic property is not sustainable; it can be diminished, or even lost, when the surface is physically damaged. In this work, we present an efficient approach for the fabrication of superhydrophobic fibrous fabrics with great rinse-resistance where a block copolymer has been electrospun into a nanofibrous mesh while micro-sized beads have been subsequently electrosprayed to give a morphologically composite material. The intricate nano- and microstructure of the composite was then fixed by thermally annealing the block copolymer to induce self-assembly and interdigitation of the microphase separated domains. To demonstrate this approach, a polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-polystyrene (SEBS) nanofibrous scaffold was produced by electrospinning before SEBS beads were electrosprayed into this mesh to form a hierarchical micro/nanostructure of beads and fibers. The effects of type and density of SEBS beads on the surface morphology and wetting properties of composite membranes were studied extensively. Compared with a neat SEBS fibrous mesh, the composite membrane had enhanced hydrophobic properties. The static water contact angle increased from 139° (±3°) to 156° (±1°), while the sliding angle decreased to 8° (±1°) from nearly 90°. In order to increase the rinse-resistance of the composite membrane, a thermal annealing step was applied to physically bind the fibers and beads. Importantly, after 200 h of water flushing, the hierarchical surface structure and superhydrophobicity of the composite membrane were well retained. This work provides a new route for the creation of superhydrophobic fabrics with potential in self-cleaning applications.

  20. Thermal, Microchannel, and Immersed Boundary Extension Validation for the Lattice-Boltzmann Method: Report 2 in Discrete Nano Scale Mechanics and Simulations Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Boundary Conditions D2Q9 2-dimentional lattice (D2) with nine discrete velocities (Q9) model IMB Immersed Moving Boundary Kn Knudsen number LBE...Lattice Boltzmann Equation LBM Lattice Boltzzmann Method NS Navier-Stokes method Nu Nusselt number Pr Prandtl number Ra Reynolds number ...kinetic theory was introduced. The LBM includes no continuum assumption with regard to the flow; rather the fluid is described by individual

  1. LDMOS Channel Thermometer Based on a Thermal Resistance Sensor for Balancing Temperature in Monolithic Power ICs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingyou; Ho, Yingchieh; Su, Chauchin

    2017-06-15

    This paper presents a method of thermal balancing for monolithic power integrated circuits (ICs). An on-chip temperature monitoring sensor that consists of a poly resistor strip in each of multiple parallel MOSFET banks is developed. A temperature-to-frequency converter (TFC) is proposed to quantize on-chip temperature. A pulse-width-modulation (PWM) methodology is developed to balance the channel temperature based on the quantization. The modulated PWM pulses control the hottest of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) bank to reduce its power dissipation and heat generation. A test chip with eight parallel MOSFET banks is fabricated in TSMC 0.25 μm HV BCD processes, and total area is 900 × 914 μm². The maximal temperature variation among the eight banks can reduce to 2.8 °C by the proposed thermal balancing system from 9.5 °C with 1.5 W dissipation. As a result, our proposed system improves the lifetime of a power MOSFET by 20%.

  2. LDMOS Channel Thermometer Based on a Thermal Resistance Sensor for Balancing Temperature in Monolithic Power ICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingyou; Ho, Yingchieh; Su, Chauchin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method of thermal balancing for monolithic power integrated circuits (ICs). An on-chip temperature monitoring sensor that consists of a poly resistor strip in each of multiple parallel MOSFET banks is developed. A temperature-to-frequency converter (TFC) is proposed to quantize on-chip temperature. A pulse-width-modulation (PWM) methodology is developed to balance the channel temperature based on the quantization. The modulated PWM pulses control the hottest of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) bank to reduce its power dissipation and heat generation. A test chip with eight parallel MOSFET banks is fabricated in TSMC 0.25 μm HV BCD processes, and total area is 900 × 914 μm2. The maximal temperature variation among the eight banks can reduce to 2.8 °C by the proposed thermal balancing system from 9.5 °C with 1.5 W dissipation. As a result, our proposed system improves the lifetime of a power MOSFET by 20%. PMID:28617346

  3. Structure, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity of beech wood biocarbon produced at carbonization temperatures below 1000°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Kartenko, N. F.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Muha, J.; Vera, M. C.

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports on measurements of the thermal conductivity κ and the electrical resistivity ρ in the temperature range 5-300 K, and, at 300 K, on X-ray diffraction studies of high-porosity (with a channel pore volume fraction of ˜47 vol %) of the beech wood biocarbon prepared by pyrolysis (carbonization) of tree wood in an argon flow at the carbonization temperature T carb = 800°C. It has been shown that the biocarbon template of the samples studied represents essentially a nanocomposite made up of amorphous carbon and nanocrystallites—"graphite fragments" and graphene layers. The sizes of the nanocrystallites forming these nanocomposites have been determined. The dependences ρ( T) and κ( T) have been measured for the samples cut along and perpendicular to the tree growth direction, thus permitting determination of the magnitude of the anisotropy of these parameters. The dependences ρ( T) and κ( T), which have been obtained for beech biocarbon samples prepared at T carb = 800°C, are compared with the data amassed by us earlier for samples fabricated at T carb = 1000 and 2400°C. The magnitude and temperature dependence of the phonon thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite making up the beech biocarbon template at T carb = 800°C have been found.

  4. Laser thermal ablation of multidrug-resistant bacteria using functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Lucian; Tabaran, Flaviu A; Mocan, Teodora; Pop, Teodora; Mosteanu, Ofelia; Agoston-Coldea, Lucia; Matea, Cristian T; Gonciar, Diana; Zdrehus, Claudiu; Iancu, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The issue of multidrug resistance (MDR) has become an increasing threat to public health. One alternative strategy against MDR bacteria would be to construct therapeutic vectors capable of physically damaging these microorganisms. Gold nanoparticles hold great promise for the development of such therapeutic agents, since the nanoparticles exhibit impressive properties, of which the most important is the ability to convert light into heat. This property has scientific significance since is exploited to develop nano-photothermal vectors to destroy bacteria at a molecular level. The present paper summarizes the latest advancements in the field of nanotargeted laser hyperthermia of MDR bacteria mediated by gold nanoparticles.

  5. JOURNAL CLUB: Longitudinal Qualitative Characterization of MRI Features After Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy in Drug-Resistant Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsina, Kofi-Buaku; Sharan, Ashwini D; Wu, Chengyuan; Evans, James J; Sperling, Michael R; Skidmore, Christopher T; Gorniak, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT), a method for ablating brain tissue under real-time MR thermometry, has been used more frequently in recent years to treat nonmalignant lesions. The purpose of this study is to longitudinally characterize MRI features after LITT in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, primarily in the setting of mesial temporal sclerosis. MR images from 23 consecutive patients who underwent LITT were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had images obtained immediately after the ablation. Multiple patients had follow-up imaging at various time points after treatment, from postoperative days 7 through 1539. A total of 54 MRI studies were reviewed. Immediately after LITT, MR images showed a ring-enhancing lesion at the ablation site with minimal surrounding edema. Seven images showed increased enhancement of the ipsilateral choroid plexus. Images in the subacute phase showed a mild increase in edema with similar enhancement. Images in the transitional phase showed a decrease in edema with variable enhancement. Images in the chronic phase showed minimal gliosis with or without cavity formation or cavity formation alone, with either decreased or no enhancement. This report describes the time course of the imaging findings after LITT for drug-resistant epilepsy. The typical stages include rim-enhancing lesion with minimal edema, followed by an increase in edema, to eventual gliosis and nonenhancing cavity formation. Radiologists need to be familiar with the postablation findings to minimize misdiagnosis and prevent unnecessary workup.

  6. Corrosion Resistance Properties of Aluminum Coating Applied by Arc Thermal Metal Spray in SAE J2334 Solution with Exposure Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Arc thermal metal spray coating provides excellent corrosion, erosion and wear resistance to steel substrates. This paper incorporates some results of aluminum coating applied by this method on plain carbon steel. Thereafter, coated panels were exposed to an environment known to form stable corrosion products with aluminum. The coated panels were immersed in Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J2334 for different periods of time. This solution consists of an aqueous solution of NaCl, CaCl2 and NaHCO3. Various electrochemical techniques, i.e., corrosion potential-time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and the potentiodynamic were used to determine the performance of stimulants in improving the properties of the coating. EIS studies revealed the kinetics and mechanism of corrosion and potentiodynamic attributed the formation of a passive film, which stifles the penetration of aggressive ions towards the substrate. The corrosion products that formed on the coating surface, identified using Raman spectroscopy, were Dawsonite (NaAlCO3(OH2 and Al(OH3. These compounds of aluminum are very sparingly soluble in aqueous solution and protect the substrate from pitting and uniform corrosion. The morphology and composition of corrosion products determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyses indicated that the environment plays a decisive role in improving the corrosion resistance of aluminum coating.

  7. Electrical resistivity and its thermal coefficient of TiW alloy thin films prepared by two different sputtering systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yutaka; Ikeda, Shinji; Sakamoto, Yoshinori [Toyama National College of Technology, 13 Hongo, Toyama 939-8630 (Japan); Takeda, Yuya [Takeda Design and Manufacturing Co., Ltd., 2-7-36 Meieki-minami, Nakamura-ku, Nagoya 450-0003 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Electrical resistivity and its thermal coefficient (TCR) of TiW alloy thin films which were prepared by using two different sputtering systems have been investigated. System A is a DC-magnetron sputtering system equipped with a single composite-target that allows the contents controllable by an external field of solenoid as reported in previous papers (Sakurai and Takeda, Abstract of E-MRS 2005 Fall Meeting [1] and Sakurai et al., Solid State Phenom. 154, 175 (2009) [2]). The system A prepared specimens with the range of 21.6 to 36.6 at% of W-contents. The TCR varies from minus to plus at 32 at% of W-content. On the other hand, System B is a RF-magnetron sputtering system equipped with multi-targets and multi-sputtering-sources. The system B covered the whole binary composition ranges by controlling power ratio for two independent sputtering sources. The resistivity characteristics show a parabolic curve with the maximum value on Ti-rich contents. The TCR decreases at the contents that shows the maximum resistivity, but the TCR is always plus and does not cross zero. Difference of the properties by using the two systems will be discussed. In the system A, the background is exhausted by an oil diffusion pump and the pressure is higher (lower vacuum degree) than the background in the system B with a turbo molecular pump. This suggests that zero TCR would be achieved by introducing the controlled impurities (O{sub 2} or N{sub 2}) into the binary alloy films. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Experimental Determination of Effect of Variable Resistance on Lead ZirconateTitanate (PZT-5A4Eunder various Thermal and Frequency Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Elahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A specially designed apparatus and circuit working on the principle of inverse piezoelectricity due to the effect of polarization was used to find the relationship between resistance and peak to peak voltage of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT-5A4E by shocking it at variable frequencies and at variable resistances under various thermal conditions within Curie temperature limit using equivalent circuit method. It was found that by increasing temperature, peak to peak voltage increases and similarly by increasing frequency, peak to peak voltage decreases and with the increase in resistance peak to peak voltage decreases.

  9. Thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and thermopower of aerospace alloys from 4 to 300 K. 6: Fe-22Cr-13Ni-5Mn stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hust, J. G.; Sparks, L. L.

    1971-01-01

    The equipment and techniques for determining the thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity Lorenz ratio, and thermopower characteristics of Fe-22Cr-13Ni-5Mn stainless steel are discussed. The dimensions of the specimen and its preparation are described. The experimental data are represented by arbitrary functions over the entire range and smooth tables are generated from these functions.

  10. IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR-RESISTANCE AND SERVICE LIFE OF MULTI-DISK BRAKE MECHANISMS OF «BELARUS» TRACTOR BY LASER THERMAL HARDENING OF FAST WEARING PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kobjakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems concerning wear resistance improvement of «Belarus» tractor brake mechanism parts are considered in the paper. Properties of ВЧ-50-pig iron are investigated as a result of laser thermal hardening by various technological methods.

  11. Ground boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished on the study of grain boundaries in Ag, Au, Ni, Si, and Ge. Research was focused on the following four major efforts: study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; grain boundary migration; short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of Thin-Film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  12. High Temperature Resistant Organopolysiloxane Coating for Protecting and Repairing Rigid Thermal Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiser, Daniel B. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Ceramics are protected from high temperature degradation, including high temperature, oxidative, aeroconvective degradation by a high temperature and oxidation resistant coating of a room temperature curing, hydrolyzed and partially condensed liquid polyorganosiloxane to the surface of the ceramic. The liquid polyorganosiloxane is formed by the hydrolysis and partial condensation of an alkyltrialkoxysilane with water or a mixture of an alkyltrialkoxysilane and a dialkyldialkoxysilane with water. The liquid polyorganosiloxane cures at room temperature on the surface of the ceramic to form a hard, protective, solid coating which forms a high temperature environment, and is also used as an adhesive for adhering a repair plug in major damage to the ceramic. This has been found useful for protecting and repairing porous, rigid ceramics of a type used on reentry space vehicles.

  13. Effects of ZrC on microstructure, mechanical properties and thermal shock resistance of TiC-ZrC-Co-Ni cermets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaobo, E-mail: xbxbzhang2003@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing 211167 (China); Liu, Ning [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2013-01-20

    TiC-ZrC-Co-Ni cermets with different ZrC contents were prepared by vacuum sintering. Microstructure, mechanical properties and thermal shock resistance were investigated. The results show that bright spherical grains in the microstructure are observed and their relative amounts increase with increasing ZrC addition. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectrometry results indicate that bright spherical grains are (Zr, Ti)C solid solution with more Zr content. The relative density, hardness and transverse rupture strength decrease with the increase of ZrC content. The fracture toughness, however, increases a little and then decreases. Thermal shock resistance of the cermets with 10%ZrC is the best and then declines with more ZrC addition. The parameter R{sub st} of the cermets is also calculated on the basis of the physical parameters of the constituents to interpret the thermal shock of the cermets.

  14. Evaluation of the thermal resistance of a roof-mounted multi-reflective radiant barrier for tropical and humid conditions: Experimental study from field measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Miranville, Frédéric; Guichard, Stéphane; Boyer, Harry; Praene, Jean Philippe; Bigot, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental evaluation of a roof-mounted multi-reflective radiant barrier (MRRB), installed according to the state of the art, on a dedicated test cell. An existing experimental device was completed with a specific system for the regulation of the airflow rate in the upper air layer included in a typical roof from Reunion Island. Several experimental sequences were conducted to determine the thermal resistance of the roof according to several parameters and following a specific method. The mean method, well known in international standards (ISO 9869 - 1994) for the determination of the thermal resistance using dynamic data, was used. The method was implemented in a building simulation code in order to allow the determination of the thermal indicator automatically. Experimental results are proposed according to different seasonal periods and for different values of the airflow rate in the upper air layer

  15. Marine heatwave causes unprecedented regional mass bleaching of thermally resistant corals in northwestern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Nohaïc, Morane; Ross, Claire L; Cornwall, Christopher E; Comeau, Steeve; Lowe, Ryan; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Schoepf, Verena

    2017-11-03

    In 2015/16, a marine heatwave associated with a record El Niño led to the third global mass bleaching event documented to date. This event impacted coral reefs around the world, including in Western Australia (WA), although WA reefs had largely escaped bleaching during previous strong El Niño years. Coral health surveys were conducted during the austral summer of 2016 in four bioregions along the WA coast (~17 degrees of latitude), ranging from tropical to temperate locations. Here we report the first El Niño-related regional-scale mass bleaching event in WA. The heatwave primarily affected the macrotidal Kimberley region in northwest WA (~16°S), where 4.5-9.3 degree heating weeks (DHW) resulted in 56.6-80.6% bleaching, demonstrating that even heat-tolerant corals from naturally extreme, thermally variable reef environments are threatened by heatwaves. Some heat stress (2.4 DHW) and bleaching (coral communities at Ningaloo Reef (23°9'S) and Bremer Bay (34°25'S) were not impacted. The only other major mass bleaching in WA occurred during a strong La Niña event in 2010/11 and primarily affected reefs along the central-to-southern coast. This suggests that WA reefs are now at risk of severe bleaching during both El Niño and La Niña years.

  16. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma functionalized dental implant for enhancement of bacterial resistance and osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Jeong, Won-Seok; Seo, Seog-Jin; Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2017-03-01

    Even though roughened titanium (Ti) and Ti alloys have been clinically used as dental implant, they encourage bacterial adhesion, leading to failure of the initial stability. Here, the non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ) functionalized Ti and Ti alloy were investigated to promote cellular activities but inhibit the initial attachment of the adherent pioneer bacterium, Streptococcus sanguinis, without topographical changes. After the produced radicals from NTAPPJ were characterized, bacterial adhesion to specimens was assessed by PrestoBlue assay and live-dead staining with or without the NTAPPJ functionalizing. After the surface was characterized using optical profilometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle analysis, the ions released from the specimens were investigated. In vitro initial cell attachment (4h or 24h) with adhesion images and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP, 14 days) measurements were performed using rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The initial bacterial adhesion to the Ti and Ti alloy was significantly inhibited after NTAPPJ functionalizing (pammonia and air, p<0.05). The initial cell adhesion with well-developed vinculin localization and consequent ALP activity at 14days to the NTAPPJ-functionalized specimens were superior to the non-treated specimens. For the promising success of dental implants, NTAPPJ functionalizing is suggested as a novel surface modification technique; this technique can help ensure the success of integration between the dental implants and bone tissues with less concern of inflammation. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermally aware, durable nanoengineered surfaces with high speed liquid impalement resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Manish; Peng, Chaoyi; Chen, Zhuyang

    2016-11-01

    Highly hydrophobic nanoengineered surfaces delaying freezing down to -20 degrees Centigrade for a day, sustaining dropwise steam condensation under high rate steam shear for several days, sustaining mechanical abrasion and high strains have attracted strong interest recently. Particularly, anti-icing and dropwise condensation promotion require thermally conductive surfaces with careful nucleation control - of ice germs or droplets, respectively - using precise surface nanotexture. Scalability of surface manufacture is an additional challenge. In the current presentation, we will demonstrate a pathway to address these needs. Anodisation of metallic substrate is first used to obtain nanotextured surfaces with a precision of approx. 200 nm. Next, rationally formulated nanocomposites comprising solution processed fluorinated copolymers and nanoparticle dispersions were spray coated on the anodized metals. The resulting nanocomposite coatings were superhydrophobic with approx. 20 nm precision in surface texture. The surface durability is assessed using tape peel, sand abrasion, and droplet and water jet impact tests up to 30 m/s. High speed jet splashing is recorded at speeds >10 m/s to demonstrate the influence of jet diameter on splashing characteristics. This work was partly supported by EPSRC Grant EP/N006577/1.

  18. Caesalpinia echinata Lam. - BRAZILWOOD: THERMAL BEHAVIOR, STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND RESISTANCE TO BIODETERIORATION IN STATIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Pinto Pinheiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Wood is the best-known biological material used as a raw material since the dawn of mankind until present days. As a natural and renewable composite, its lifetime is limited by the degradation of its basic elements. This degradation can be caused by chemical reactions or by biological agents capable of accelerating the process of deterioration. In this work, the wear, thermal, and micro-structural characteristics, as also the bio-degradation behavior in static systems, of the wood species Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata were studied under laboratory conditions in order to use these woods in design. The results show that Brazilwood has a good visual performance after abrasion test, since it has not shown any representative roughness increase. In addition, Brazilwood has high level of crystallinity of, approximately, 68% and was almost insensitive to fungi attack, forming only 5.3 x 103 CFU/mL. Besides, its texture did not change due to exposure to water or sweat.

  19. Hypervelocity impact resistance of reinforced carbon carbon/carbon foam thermal protection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Pandurangan, B.; Zhao, C. L.; Biggers, S. B.; Morgan, D. R.

    2006-05-01

    Common aero vehicles (CAVs) are aerodynamically designed, (from orbit) re-entry, un-powered military vehicles planned to be used for deployment of the desired munitions with increased accuracy and range. In one of the currently considered designs of the CAVs, their outer skin is planned to be constructed from two-ply panels. The outer play is made of a carbon-carbon composite while the inner ply is constructed from a carbon-based foam. In the present work a transient non-linear-dynamics-based analysis is carried out in order to predict the extent of damage and the probability for failure of the carbon-carbon/carbon-foam CAV panels during potential hypervelocity impact of space debris with the outer surface of the CAVs. The results obtained show that the extent of damage scales with the normal component of the momentum associated with the debris particles just before the impact. In addition, it is found that despite its relatively low strength, the carbon-foam can provide a major increase in the resistance of the CAV panels towards penetration of the hypervelocity debris particles. This finding has been linked with an attendant consolidation of the foam, the process that is capable of absorbing a substantial amount of kinetic energy carried by the debris particles.

  20. Biomimetic thermal barrier coating in jet engine to resist volcanic ash deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Major, Zsuzsanna; Schulz, Uwe; Muth, Tobias; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-04-01

    The threat of volcanic ash to aviation safety is attracting extensive attention when several commercial jet aircraft were damaged after flying through volcanic ash clouds from the May 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helen in Washington, U.S. and especially after the air traffic disruption in 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. A major hazard presented by volcanic ash to aircraft is linked to the wetting and spreading of molten ash droplets on engine component surfaces. Due to the fact ash has a lower melting point, around 1100 °C, than the gas temperature in the hot section (between 1400 to 2000 °C), this cause the ash to melt and potentially stick to the internal components (e.g., combustor and turbine blades), this cause the ash to melt and potentially stick to the internal components of the engine creating, substantial damage or even engine failure after ingestion. Here, inspiring form the natural surface of lotus leaf (exhibiting extreme water repellency, known as 'lotus effect'), we firstly create the multifunctional surface thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) by producing a hierarchical structure with femtosecond laser pulses. In detail, we investigate the effect of one of primary femtosecond laser irradiation process parameter (scanning speed) on the hydrophobicity of water droplets onto the two kinds of TBCs fabricated by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and air plasma spray (APS), respectively as well as their corresponding to morphology. It is found that, comparison with the original surface (without femtosecond laser ablation), all of the irradiated samples demonstrate more significant hydrophobic properties due to nanostructuring. On the basis of these preliminary room-temperature results, the wettability of volcanic ash droplets will be analysed at the high temperature to constrain the potential impact of volcanic ash on the jet engines.

  1. Negotiating boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke

    2010-01-01

    to maintain the order of the home when managing disease and adopting new healthcare technology. In our analysis we relate this boundary work to two continuums of visibility-invisibility and integration-segmentation in disease management. We explore five factors that affect the boundary work: objects......To move treatment successfully from the hospital to that of technology assisted self-care at home, it is vital in the design of such technologies to understand the setting in which the health IT should be used. Based on qualitative studies we find that people engage in elaborate boundary work......, activities, places, character of disease, and collaboration. Furthermore, the processes are explored of how boundary objects move between social worlds pushing and shaping boundaries. From this we discuss design implications for future healthcare technologies for the home....

  2. Boundary Spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors...... in the period of post-acquisition when their organization is being integrated into the acquiring MNC. The paper contributes to the literature on boundary spanning in three ways: First, by illustrating that boundary spanning is performed by numerous organizational actors in a variety of positions in MNCs......, inclusively by locals in subsidiaries. Second, by showing that boundary spanning is ‘situated’ in the sense that its result depends on the kind of knowledge to be transmitted and the attitude of the receivers. A third contribution is methodological. The study illustrates that combining bottom-up grounded...

  3. Microstructure, Tensile Adhesion Strength and Thermal Shock Resistance of TBCs with Different Flame-Sprayed Bond Coat Materials Onto BMI Polyimide Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, H. R.; Salehi, M.; Shafyei, A.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) composed of different bond coats (Zn, Al, Cu-8Al and Cu-6Sn) with mullite top coats were flame-sprayed and air-plasma-sprayed, respectively, onto bismaleimide matrix composites. These polyimide matrix composites are of interest to replace PMR-15, due to concerns about the toxicity of the MDA monomer from which PMR-15 is made. The results showed that pores and cracks appeared at the bond coat/substrate interface for the Al-bonded TBC because of its high thermal conductivity and diffusivity resulting in transferring of high heat flux and temperature to the polymeric substrate during top coat deposition. The other TBC systems due to the lower conductivity and diffusivity of bonding layers could decrease the adverse thermal effect on the polymer substrate during top coat deposition and exhibited adhesive bond coat/substrate interfaces. The tensile adhesion test showed that the adhesion strength of the coatings to the substrate is inversely proportional to the level of residual stress in the coatings. However, the adhesion strength of Al bond-coated sample decreased strongly after mullite top coat deposition due to thermal damage at the bond coat/substrate interface. TBC system with the Cu-6Sn bond coat exhibited the best thermal shock resistance, while Al-bonded TBC showed the lowest. It was inferred that thermal mismatch stresses and oxidation of the bond coats were the main factors causing failure in the thermal shock test.

  4. The through-plane thermal conductivity and the contact resistance of the components of the membrane electrode assembly and gas diffusion layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhazmi, N.; Ingham, D. B.; Ismail, M. S.; Hughes, K.; Ma, L.; Pourkashanian, M.

    2014-12-01

    The thermal conductivity of the components of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and GDL must be accurately estimated in order to better understand the heat transfer processes in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. In this study, an experimental investigation has been performed to measure the through-plane thermal conductivity and the contact resistance for a number of gas diffusion layer (GDL) materials. The sensitivity of these quantities to the temperature, PTFE content and micro porous layer (MPL) coating has been undertaken. In addition, the through-plane thermal conductivity of the membrane has been measured and reported as a function of temperature and water content. Further, the through-plane thermal conductivity of the catalyst layer has been determined as a function of temperature and platinum loading. It has been found that the through-plane thermal conductivity of the components of the MEA decreases when the temperature increases, and the through-plane thermal conductivity of the GDL is significantly lower than its in-plane thermal conductivity.

  5. Grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished to date during the second year of our four-year grant (February 15, 1990--February 14, 1994) to study grain boundaries. The research was focused on the following three major efforts: Study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; study of short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of a Thin-film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals.

  6. Grain boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balluffi, R. W.; Bristowe, P. D.

    The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished to date during the second year of our four-year grant (February 15, 1990 to February 14, 1994) to study grain boundaries. The research was focused on the following three major efforts: study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; study of short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of a Thin-film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals.

  7. Impact Assessment of Atmospheric Dust on Foliage Pigments and Pollution Resistances of Plants Grown Nearby Coal Based Thermal Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariram, Manisha; Sahu, Ravi; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian

    2018-01-01

    Plant species grown in the vicinity of thermal power plants (TPP) are one of the immobile substrates to sink most of the pollutants emitted from their stacks. The continuous exposure of toxic pollutants to these plants may affect their resistances and essential biochemical's concentrations. In the present study, we estimated the impact of dust load generated by a TPPs to plant's dust retention capacity and pollution resistances (APTI and API). The observed ambient air quality index (AQI) showed that the surroundings of TPPs are in the severe air pollution category. Observed AQI was greater than 100 in the surrounding area of TPP. The mean dust load on plant foliage was significantly greater in the polluted site compared with the control site: 4.45 ± 1.96 versus 1.38 ± 0.41 mg cm-2. Nearby, TPP highest and lowest dust load were founded in F. benghalensis (7.58 ± 0.74) and F. religiosa (2.25 ± 0.12 mg cm-2) respectively. Analysis revealed the strong negative correlation between dust load and essential pigments of foliage, such as chlorophyll content, carotenoids, pH of foliage extract, and relative water content. Conversely, strong positive correlation was observed with the ascorbic acid content of plant species. Correlation and percentage change analysis in ascorbic acid content for the polluted site against the control site showed the adverse impact on plants due to dust load. Based on their responses to dust pollution, A. scholaris, P. longifolia, and M. indica were observed as most suitable plant species. Estimation of DRC, chlorophyll a/b ratio, APTI and API revealed the A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica as the most suitable plant species for green belt formation. The high gradation was obtained in A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica for opted parameters and showed their most suitability for green belt formation. Salient features of the present study provide useful evidences to estimate the

  8. Selection and optimization of Bacillus atrophaeus inoculum medium and its effect on spore yield and thermal resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Sandra Regina B R; Dlugokenski, Regina Elizabete F; Guizelini, Belquis P; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Medeiros, Adriane B P; Pandey, Ashok; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2008-12-01

    Bacillus atrophaeus's spores are used as biological indicators to monitor sterilization processes and as a Bacillus anthracis surrogate in the development and validation of biosafety methods. The regular use of biological indicators to evaluate the efficiency of sterilization processes is a legal requirement for health services. However, its high cost hinders its widespread use. Aiming at developing a cost-effective inoculum medium, soybean molasses and nutrient-supplemented vinasse were evaluated for their effectiveness in solid-state fermentation (SSF). In biomass production, the results demonstrated that all tested compositions favor growth by providing the nutritional demands of the microorganism. Optimum casein peptone and soybean molasses concentration (1.0%, 2.5%, or 4.0%) was determined by a 2((2-0)) factorial experimental design. The results have showed a positive influence of peptone on biomass production. In order to define peptone final concentration (4.0% or 6.0%), a 2(2) factorial experimental design was used. An optimized medium containing 4.0% soybean molasses and 4.0% casein peptone was similar in performance to a synthetic control medium (tryptone soy broth) in dry-heat thermal-resistant spore production by SSF. An experiment performed under optimum SSF conditions resulted in 1.9 x 10(10) CFU g(-1) dry matter with D (160 degrees C) = 5.2 +/- 0.2 min.

  9. Influence of thermal spraying parameters on the corrosion resistance of aluminium oxide coatings deposited on steel 1020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Y.; Vera, E.; Moreno, M.; Pineda, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Parameters required for the preparation of coatings of aluminium oxide deposited on AISI 1020 steels were determined according to their thickness and type of flame to differentiate their behaviour against corrosion. Commercial powders were used by the method of thermal spraying deposition. The coatings were analysed by OM (optical microscopy), the thickness was measured by means of a coating thickness gauge and electrochemical techniques variables measured was the Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) and approximation Tafel potentiodynamic curves. The corrosion current for steel 1020 with Na2SO4 electrolyte of 3.5% is of the order of hundreds of A/cm2 and coated steel given in the order of A/cm2, which leads to think that the projection produces coatings uniform low closed porosity, although techniques DC indicate a significant porosity as is observable current response to the potentiodynamic curve. The observed thicknesses fall into the hundreds of microns and little uniformity was noted in this coatings. The coatings deposited by oxidizing flame was better performance in corrosion than the coating deposited by neutral flame.

  10. A Method to Compare the Thermal Shock Resistances and the Severity of Quenching Conditions of Brittle Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterstock, F.; Legendre, B.

    1997-03-01

    The thermal shock behavior and resistance of brittle materials are mostly investigated through the determination of a critical quenching temperature difference, Δ T_c. This technique, however, needs a large number of, almost, identical samples and is thus poorly adapted to products being in the stage of research and development. In order to overcome this difficulty, the indentation technique has been used in this work. The residual contact stresses, created during indentation, permit a stage of stable extension of the indentation cracks under the action of further stressing. The relative increase of radial crack length as a function of Vickers indentation load, c/c_0 vs. P, is taken as a criterion, or indicator, of relative thermal shock resistance, or of the severities of quenching conditions. This is validated, first in quenching materials whose empirical ranking is well established, and second in varying parameters of the Biot number. Finally, are two batches of a functional ceramic compared. The proposed criterion reflects the competition between the toughness of the quenched material, as an intrinsic property, and the thermal transient stresses, as a consequence of the physical properties of both the quenched sample and the quenching medium. Possibilities for extending the developed approach towards a more accurate description of quenching phenomena and stress states such as to refine theoretical models are discussed. La détermination d'une différence de température critique, Δ T_c, est la technique la plus souvent utilisée dans l'étude de la résistance et du comportement au choc thermique des matériaux fragiles. Elle nécessite cependant un grand nombre d'échantillons, presque identiques et est donc peu adaptée aux produits dans le stade de recherche et développement. Afin de lever cet obstacle, la méthode de l'indentation de dureté est utilisée dans ce travail. L'indentation crée des contraintes résiduelles de contact qui permettent une

  11. Determination of clothing evaporative resistance on a sweating thermal manikin in an isothermal condition: heat loss method or mass loss method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    2011-08-01

    This paper addresses selection between two calculation options, i.e heat loss option and mass loss option, for thermal manikin measurements on clothing evaporative resistance conducted in an isothermal condition (T(manikin) = T(a) = T(r)). Five vocational clothing ensembles with a thermal insulation range of 1.05-2.58 clo were selected and measured on a sweating thermal manikin 'Tore'. The reasons why the isothermal heat loss method generates a higher evaporative resistance than that of the mass loss method were thoroughly investigated. In addition, an indirect approach was applied to determine the amount of evaporative heat energy taken from the environment. It was found that clothing evaporative resistance values by the heat loss option were 11.2-37.1% greater than those based on the mass loss option. The percentage of evaporative heat loss taken from the environment (H(e,env)) for all test scenarios ranged from 10.9 to 23.8%. The real evaporative cooling efficiency ranged from 0.762 to 0.891, respectively. Furthermore, it is evident that the evaporative heat loss difference introduced by those two options was equal to the heat energy taken from the environment. In order to eliminate the combined effects of dry heat transfer, condensation, and heat pipe on clothing evaporative resistance, it is suggested that manikin measurements on the determination of clothing evaporative resistance should be performed in an isothermal condition. Moreover, the mass loss method should be applied to calculate clothing evaporative resistance. The isothermal heat loss method would appear to overestimate heat stress and thus should be corrected before use.

  12. The influence of boric acid on improved persistent luminescence and thermal oxidation resistance of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Songhak, E-mail: songhak.yoon@empa.ch [Laboratory Materials for Energy Conversion, Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Bierwagen, Jakob [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Trottmann, Matthias [Laboratory Materials for Energy Conversion, Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Walfort, Bernhard; Gartmann, Nando [LumiNova AG, Switzerland, Speicherstrasse 60a, CH-9053 Teufen (Switzerland); Weidenkaff, Anke [Institute for Materials Science, University of Stuttgart, Heisenbergstrasse 3, DE-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Hagemann, Hans [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Pokrant, Simone [Laboratory Materials for Energy Conversion, Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    Persistent luminescence of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} has attracted considerable attention due to their high initial brightness, long-lasting time and excellent thermal stability. Here the influence of boric acid on the persistent luminescence and thermal oxidation resistance of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} was investigated in detail. Crystal structural analysis and scanning electron microscopy revealed that with the addition of boron, the unit cell volume decreased and the morphology of the particles became more irregular with sharp edges. Thermogravimetric analysis showed better thermal oxidation resistance accompanied by a change in oxygen vacancy concentration when boron acid is used. Photoluminescence spectra and afterglow decay curves confirm an improved afterglow performance for boron-added SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}. Thermoluminesence allowed monitoring the changes in the trap states due to the presence of B. Our results imply that the substantial improvement of afterglow performance and the thermal stability in SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} can be attributed to the incorporation of boron into the aluminate network. - Highlights: • Improved afterglow and thermal oxidation resistance of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} by boric acid. • Decreased afterglow of oxidized SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+},B due to the oxidation of Eu{sup 2+} to Eu{sup 3+}. • Afterglow improvement attributed to the incorporation of B into the aluminate. • Thermoluminescence revealed the density of traps at various depths for SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+},B.

  13. Optimization of thermoelectric cooling regimes for heat-loaded elements taking into account the thermal resistance of the heat-spreading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, E. N.

    2017-09-01

    A mathematical model has been proposed for analyzing and optimizing thermoelectric cooling regimes for heat-loaded elements of engineering and electronic devices. The model based on analytic relations employs the working characteristics of thermoelectric modules as the initial data and makes it possible to determine the temperature regime and the optimal values of the feed current for the modules taking into account the thermal resistance of the heat-spreading system.

  14. A highly efficient silole-containing dithienylethene with excellent thermal stability and fatigue resistance: a promising candidate for optical memory storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jacky Chi-Hung; Lam, Wai Han; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2014-12-10

    Diarylethene compounds are potential candidates for applications in optical memory storage systems and photoswitchable molecular devices; however, they usually show low photocycloreversion quantum yields, which result in ineffective erasure processes. Here, we present the first highly efficient photochromic silole-containing dithienylethene with excellent thermal stability and fatigue resistance. The photochemical quantum yields for photocyclization and photocycloreversion of the compound are found to be high and comparable to each other; the latter of which is rarely found in diarylethene compounds. These would give rise to highly efficient photoswitchable material with effective writing and erasure processes. Incorporation of the silole moiety as a photochromic dithienylethene backbone also was demonstrated to enhance the thermal stability of the closed form, in which the thermal backward reaction to the open form was found to be negligible even at 100 °C, which leads to a promising candidate for use as photoswitchable materials and optical memory storage.

  15. Optimal Design of Magnetohydrodynamic Mixed Convection Flow in a Vertical Channel with Slip Boundary Conditions and Thermal Radiation Effects by Using an Entropy Generation Minimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Yaghoub Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the effect of thermal radiation on a fully developed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD convective flow of a Newtonian, incompressible and electrically conducting fluid in a vertical microchannel bounded by two infinite vertical parallel plates with constant temperature walls through a lateral magnetic field of uniform strength is presented. The Rosseland model for the conduction radiation heat transfer in an absorbing medium and two plates with slip-flow and no-slip conditions are assumed. In addition, the induced magnetic field is neglected due to the assumption of a small magnetic Reynolds number. The non-dimensional governing equations are solved numerically using Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method with a shooting technique. The channel is optimized based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics by changing various parameters such as the thermal radiation parameter, the temperature parameter, Hartmann number, Grashof to Reynolds ratio, velocity slip length, and temperature jump.

  16. Low carbon content and carbon-free refractory materials with high thermal shock resistance; Thermoschockbestaendige feuerfeste Erzeugnisse mit geringerem Kohlenstoffgehalt bzw. kohlenstofffreie Erzeugnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachhold, Nora; Aneziris, C.G.; Stein, Volker; Roungos, Vasileios; Moritz, Kirsten [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (TUBAF) (DE). Inst. fuer Keramik, Glas- und Baustofftechnik (IKGB)

    2012-07-01

    Carbon bonded refractories are essential for steelmaking due to their excellent thermal shock resistance. The research on carbon reduced and carbon-free materials is necessary to manufacture high quality stainless steels tending carbon pick-up in contact to conventional refractory materials. Further advantages are reduced emissions of CO{sub 2} and energy saving potentials due to better heat insulation properties. The challenge is to develop alternative materials with lower carbon contents but with the necessary thermal shock resistance. The Priority Programme 1418 funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) concentrates on this problem. In this article two materials are presented. First, the carbon content could be reduced by nanoscaled additives resulting in better bonding between matrix and oxidic components. Second, an AL{sub 2}O{sub 3}-rich carbon-free material is presented showing a very good thermal shock resistance due to its designed microstructure. Finally, a steel casting simulator is introduced to test the new materials under nearly real conditions. (orig.)

  17. Effect of microcracks on thermal shock resistance of magnesite-chrome refractories. Magu-kuro renga no tainetsu shogeki sei ni oyobosu bikiretsu no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzaki, N.; Ishii, H.; Aratani, K.; Oguchi, Y.; Kawakami, T. (Kawasaki Refractories Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan)); Sakai, M. (Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Aichi (Japan))

    1991-08-10

    Direct-bonded refractories are mainly used in the secondary refining furnace. Thermal shock damage of refractories is one of the most crucial types of damage to the refractories because it may results in spalling of the surface. To improve the thermal shock resistance of magnesite-chrome refractories, microcracks are induced in the refractories by addition of an additive having a different expansion coefficient, and material with expected quality is obtained. Stress fracture toughness, energy fracture toughness of the obtained high thermal shock resisting refractories are obtained, and the effect of microcracks on the crack propagation resistance is investigated. The improved refractories with the special additive show rising R-curve behavior, and the rate of rising R-curve of the refractories with the additive of 3% is found to be large. The refractory with 3% additive shows a large energy fracture toughness value even in the latter period of crack propagation. However, too much addition of the special additive results in a reverse effect, decreasing the crack propagation suppression effect. 11 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Microfabricated suspended island platform for the measurement of in-plane thermal conductivity of thin films and nanostructured materials with consideration of contact resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaie, Seyedhamidreza; Goettler, Drew F; Abbas, Khawar; Su, Mehmet F; Reinke, Charles M; El-Kady, Ihab; Leseman, Zayd C

    2013-10-01

    A technique based on suspended islands is described to measure the in-plane thermal conductivity of thin films and nano-structured materials, and is also employed for measurements of several samples with a single measurement platform. Using systematic steps for measurements, the characterization of the thermal resistances of a sample and its contacts are studied. The calibration of the contacts in this method is independent of the geometry, size, materials, and uniformity of contacts. To verify the technique, two different Si samples with different thicknesses and two samples of the same SiN(x) wafer are characterized on a single device. One of the Si samples is also characterized by another technique, which verifies the current results. Characterization of the two SiN(x) samples taken from the same wafer showed less than 1% difference in the measured thermal conductivities, indicating the precision of the method. Additionally, one of the SiN(x) samples is characterized and then demounted, remounted, and characterized for a second time. The comparison showed the change in the thermal resistance of the contact in multiple measurements could be as small as 0.2 K/μW, if a similar sample is used.

  19. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This article builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context and on the integration...... of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects......; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...

  20. Effects of radiation and thermal conductivity on MHD boundary layer flow with heat transfer along a vertical stretching sheet in a porous medium

    KAUST Repository

    Ferdows, M.

    2017-03-10

    A steady two-dimensional free convective flow of a viscous incompressible fluid along a vertical stretching sheet with the effect of magnetic field, radiation and variable thermal conductivity in porous media is analyzed. The nonlinear partial differential equations, governing the flow field under consideration, have been transformed by a similarity transformation into a systemof nonlinear ordinary differential equations and then solved numerically. Resulting non-dimensional velocity and temperature profiles are then presented graphically for different values of the parameters. Finally, the effects of the pertinent parameters, which are of physical and engineering interest, are examined both in graphical and tabular form.

  1. An extension of diffusion theory for thermal neutrons near boundaries; Extension del campo de validez de la teoria de difusion para neutrones termico en las proximidades de bordes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Rivas, J. L.

    1963-07-01

    The distribution of thermal neutron flux has been measured inside and outside copper rods of several diameters, immersed in water. It has been found that these distributions can be calculated by means of elemental diffusion theory if the value of the coefficient of diffusion is changed. this parameter is truly a diffusion coefficient, which now also depends on the diameter of the rod. Through a model an expression of this coefficient is introduced which takes account of the measurements of the author and of those reported in PUGC P/928 (1995), ANL-5872 (1959), DEGR 319 (D) (1961). This model could be extended also to plane geometry. (Author) 19 refs.

  2. Thermal modelling of the multi-stage heating system with variable boundary conditions in the wafer based precision glass moulding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    of the heating system in the glass moulding process considering detailed heating mechanisms therefore plays an important part in optimizing the heating system and the subsequent pressing stage in the lens manufacturing process.The current paper deals with three-dimensional transient thermal modelling...... pressures. Finally, the three-dimensional modelling of the multi-stage heating system in the wafer based glass moulding process is simulated with the FEM software ABAQUS for a particular industrial application for mobile phone camera lenses to obtain the temperature distribution in the glass wafer...

  3. A barotropic planetary boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, D.; Syrakov, D.; Djolov, G.

    1983-04-01

    The temperature and wind profiles in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are investigated. Assuming stationary and homogeneous conditions, the turbulent state in the PBL is uniquely determined by the external Rossby number and the stratification parameters. In this study, a simple two-layer barotropic model is proposed. It consists of a surface (SL) and overlying Ekman-type layer. The system of dynamic and heat transfer equations is closed using K theory. In the SL, the turbulent exchange coefficient is consistent with the results of similarity theory while in the Ekman layer, it is constant. Analytical solutions for the wind and temperature profiles in the PBL are obtained. The SL and thermal PBL heights are properly chosen functions of the stratification so that from the solutions for wind and temperature, the PBL resistance laws can be easily deduced. The internal PBL characteristics necessary for the calculation (friction velocity, angle between surface and geostrophic winds and internal stratification parameter) are presented in terms of the external parameters. Favorable agreement with experimental data and model results is demonstrated. The simplicity of the model allows it to be incorporated in large-scale weather prediction models as well as in the solution of various other meteorological problems.

  4. Thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance of cyanate ester epoxy mix and tri-functional epoxy electrical insulations at superfluid helium temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Pietrowicz, S; Jones, S; Canfer, S; Baudouy, B

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the European Union FP7 project EuCARD, two composite insulation systems made of cyanate ester epoxy mix and tri-functional epoxy (TGPAP-DETDA) with S-glass fiber have been thermally tested as possible candidates to be the electrical insulation of 13 T Nb3Sn high field magnets under development for this program. Since it is expected to be operated in pressurized superfluid helium at 1.9 K and 1 atm, the thermal conductivity and the Kapitza resistance are the most important input parameters for the thermal design of this type of magnet and have been determined in this study. For determining these thermal properties, three sheets of each material with different thicknesses varying from 245 μm to 598 μm have been tested in steady-state condition in the temperature range of 1.6 K - 2.0 K. The thermal conductivity for the tri-functional epoxy (TGPAP-DETDA) epoxy resin insulation is found to be k=[(34.2±5.5).T-(16.4±8.2)]×10-3 Wm-1K-1 and for the cyanate ester epoxy k=[(26.8±4.8).T- (9.6±5...

  5. Reexamination of basal plane thermal conductivity of suspended graphene samples measured by electro-thermal micro-bridge methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insun Jo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermal transport in suspended graphene samples has been measured in prior works and this work with the use of a suspended electro-thermal micro-bridge method. These measurement results are analyzed here to evaluate and eliminate the errors caused by the extrinsic thermal contact resistance. It is noted that the room-temperature thermal resistance measured in a recent work increases linearly with the suspended length of the single-layer graphene samples synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD, and that such a feature does not reveal the failure of Fourier’s law despite the increase in the reported apparent thermal conductivity with length. The re-analyzed apparent thermal conductivity of a single-layer CVD graphene sample reaches about 1680 ± 180 W m−1 K−1 at room temperature, which is close to the highest value reported for highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. In comparison, the apparent thermal conductivity values measured for two suspended exfoliated bi-layer graphene samples are about 880 ± 60 and 730 ± 60 Wm−1K−1 at room temperature, and approach that of the natural graphite source above room temperature. However, the low-temperature thermal conductivities of these suspended graphene samples are still considerably lower than the graphite values, with the peak thermal conductivities shifted to much higher temperatures. Analysis of the thermal conductivity data reveals that the low temperature behavior is dominated by phonon scattering by polymer residue instead of by the lateral boundary.

  6. Evidence of second order transition induced by the porosity in the thermal conductivity of sintered metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïmen E. Gheribi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using both experimental data and theoretical modelling, we investigate the degradation of the thermal conductivity of sintered metals due simultaneously to the grain boundary thermal resistance and the porosity. We show that the porosity dependence of the thermal conductivity of sintered material from spherical particle powder, exhibits a critical behaviour associated with a second order phase transition. An analytical model with a single parameter is proposed to describe the critical behaviour of the thermal conductivity of sintered metals versus porosity.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic and thermal radiation effects on the boundary-layer flow due to a moving extensible surface with the velocity slip model: A comparative study of four nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Emad H., E-mail: efarag@uj.edu.sa [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Jeddah, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo 11757 (Egypt); Sayed, Hamed M. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo 11757 (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Taibah University, Yanbu (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-01-15

    In the current work, we investigated effects of the velocity slip for the flow and heat transfer of four nanofluids over a non-linear stretching sheet taking into account the thermal radiation and magnetic field in presence of the effective electrical conductivity. The governing partial differential equations were transformed into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equation using similarity transformations before being solved numerically by the Chebyshev pseudospectral differentiation matrix (ChPDM). It was found that the investigated parameters affect remarkably on the nanofluid stream function for the whole investigated nanoparticles. In addition, velocity and skin friction profiles of the four investigated nanofluids decreases and increases, respectively, with the increase of the magnetic parameter, first-order and second-order velocity slips. Further, the flow velocity, surface shear stress and temperature are strongly influenced on applying the velocity slip model, where lower values of the second-order imply higher surface heat flux and thereby making the fluid warmer. - Highlights: • A comparative study for four nanoparticles with MHD and thermal radiation effects was studied. • The effective electrical conductivity is mandatory; otherwise a spurious physical sight will be gained. • The investigated parameters affect remarkably on the nanofluids' flow. • The flow velocity, surface shear stress and temperature are strongly influenced by the slip model. • Lower values of the second-order imply higher surface heat flux and thereby making the fluid warmer.

  8. A unified analysis of kinetic models for the problem of thermal creep based on the boundary conditions of Cercignani-Lampis for heterogeneous plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Cinara Ewerling da, E-mail: cinara@pb.ifarroupilha.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (IFF/UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Federal Farroupilha, Panambi, RS (Brazil); Knackfuss, Rosenei Felippe, E-mail: knackfuss@smail.ufsm.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work is presented a series of numerical results and graphical comparisons of the physical quantities of interest such as: the velocity profile and the heat on profile. This formulation is developed for the problem of Thermal Creep, where the gas is moving between two parallel plates with different chemical constitutions (heterogeneous plates) due to a temperature gradient. The flow of a rarefied gas, is investigated with special attention to the gas-surface interaction, modeled by the Cercignani-Lampis kernel, that unlike Maxwell's scattering kernel, is defined in terms of two accommodation coefficients (normal and tangential) to represent the physical properties of the gas. The kinetic theory for rarefied gas dynamics, derived from the linearized Boltzmann equation, is developed in an unified approach, to the BGK model, S model, GJ model and MRS model. In the search for solutions to solve the problem of Thermal Creep with kernel of the Cercignani-Lampis, we used a analytical version of the discrete ordinates method (ADO) based on an arbitrary quadrature scheme, under which is determined a problem of eigenvalues and their respective separation constants. Numerical results are developed by the computer program FORTRAN. (author)

  9. Mutual influence of secondary and key drug-resistance mutations on catalytic properties and thermal stability of TEM-type β-lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, Vitaly; Uporov, Igor; Rubtsova, Maya; Andreeva, Irina; Shcherbinin, Dmitrii; Veselovsky, Alexander; Serova, Oksana; Ulyashova, Maria; Ishtubaev, Igor; Egorov, Alexey

    2018-01-01

    Highly mutable β-lactamases are responsible for the ability of Gram-negative bacteria to resist β-lactam antibiotics. Using site-directed mutagenesis technique, we have produced in vitro a number of recombinant analogs of naturally occurring TEM-type β-lactamases, bearing the secondary substitution Q39K and key mutations related to the extended-spectrum (E104K, R164S) and inhibitor-resistant (M69V) β-lactamases. The mutation Q39K alone was found to be neutral and hardly affected the catalytic properties of β-lactamases. However, in combination with the key mutations, this substitution resulted in decreased K M values towards hydrolysis of a chromogenic substrate, CENTA. The ability of enzymes to restore catalytic activity after exposure to elevated temperature has been examined. All double and triple mutants of β-lactamase TEM-1 bearing the Q39K substitution showed lower thermal stability compared with the enzyme with Q39 intact. A sharp decrease in the stability was observed when Q39K was combined with E104K and M69V. The key R164S substitution demonstrated unusual ability to resist thermal inactivation. Computer analysis of the structure and molecular dynamics of β-lactamase TEM-1 revealed a network of hydrogen bonds from the residues Q39 and K32, related to the N-terminal α-helix, towards the residues R244 and G236, located in the vicinity of the enzyme's catalytic site. Replacement of Q39 by lysine in combination with the key drug resistance mutations may be responsible for loss of protein thermal stability and elevated mobility of its secondary structure elements. This effect on the activity of β-lactamases can be used as a new potential target for inhibiting the enzyme.

  10. Application of the recursion-transform method in calculating the resistance of an M×N cobweb resistor network with an arbitrary boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yinghua; Hu, Juju

    2017-10-01

    Looking for a handy and exact calculation for the equivalent resistance of an M×N resistor network is important, but difficult. In this paper, we present a standard and convenient approach to calculate the equivalent resistance of an M×N cobweb resistor network by applying multiple external current sources based on the nodal analysis in circuit theory and the recursion-transform (R-T) method. The test current source acts on different nodes in radial direction to obtain an analytical expression for the equivalent resistance between nodes of an M×N cobweb resistor network in radial direction. In our scheme, recalculations are not required to obtain the equivalent resistance between different radial nodes. We also discuss the influence of polygon sides of cobweb network and the ratio between two unit resistances on the equivalent resistance. The results show that, when the number of similar polygons M is given, with the increasing of the polygon sides and the ratio between two unit resistance, the equivalent resistances between two arbitrary radial nodes tend to a constant.

  11. Multiscale Modeling of UHTC: Thermal Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, John W.; Murry, Daw; Squire, Thomas; Bauschlicher, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing a multiscale framework in computational modeling for the ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC) ZrB2 and HfB2. These materials are characterized by high melting point, good strength, and reasonable oxidation resistance. They are candidate materials for a number of applications in extreme environments including sharp leading edges of hypersonic aircraft. In particular, we used a combination of ab initio methods, atomistic simulations and continuum computations to obtain insights into fundamental properties of these materials. Ab initio methods were used to compute basic structural, mechanical and thermal properties. From these results, a database was constructed to fit a Tersoff style interatomic potential suitable for atomistic simulations. These potentials were used to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity of single crystals and the thermal resistance of simple grain boundaries. Finite element method (FEM) computations using atomistic results as inputs were performed with meshes constructed on SEM images thereby modeling the realistic microstructure. These continuum computations showed the reduction in thermal conductivity due to the grain boundary network.

  12. Use of microhardness as a simple means of estimating relative wear resistance of carbide thermal spray coatings: Part 2. wear resistance of cemented carbide coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Michael; Roman, Itzhak

    2002-12-01

    A selection of WC-Co and Cr3C2-25%NiCr coatings produced by plasma spray and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) deposition techniques were subjected to various wear tests designed to simulate abrasion, cavitation, sliding, and particle erosion type wear mechanisms. All of the coatings were at least 200 µm thick and were deposited onto stainless steel substrates. In Part 1 of this contribution, the microstructures of the coatings were characterized and their mechanical properties were assessed using microindentation procedures. In this second part of the article, the behavior of the coatings when subjected to the various wear tests is reported and the utility of microhardness testing as an indication of relative wear resistance is discussed. It is shown that correctly performed, appropriate microhardness measurements are a good indication of abrasion resistance and sliding wear resistance, and also correlate well with cavitation resistance in Cr3C2-NiCr. The measurements were less useful for predicting erosion resistance for both Cr3C2-NiCr and WC-Co, however, and for abrasion resistance when WC-Co was ground against SiC. Here the contribution of micromechanisms involving fracturing and brittle failure is greater than that indicated by the coating microhardness, which is essentially a measurement of resistance to plastic deformation under equilibrium conditions.

  13. Assessing population and environmental effects on thermal resistance in Drosophila melanogaster using ecologically relevant assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Hoffmann, Ary A; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2011-01-01

    adult flies. We use this approach to assess upper and lower thermal limits and functional thermal scope for Drosophila melanogaster and also show that the method can be used to (1) detect a previously described latitudinal cline for cold tolerance in D. melanogaster populations collected along the east...

  14. Albedo Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-510, 11 October 2003The sharp, nearly straight line that runs diagonally across the center of this April 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image is an albedo boundary. Albedois a term that refers to reflectance of sunlight. A surface with a low albedo is one that appears dark because it reflects less light than a high albedo (bright) surface. On Mars, albedo boundaries occur between two materials of differing texture, particle size, or composition, or some combination of these three factors. The boundary shown here is remarkable because it is so sharp and straight. This is caused by wind. Most likely, the entire surface was once covered with the lower-albedo (darker) material that is now seen in the upper half of the image. At some later time, wind stripped away this darker material from the surfaces in the lower half of the image. The difference in albedo here might be related to composition, and possibly particle size. This picture is located near the southwest rim of Schiaparelli Basin at 5.5oS, 345.9oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  15. Computational analysis of heat transfer, thermal stress and dislocation density during resistively Czochralski growth of germanium single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Hossein; Renani, Elahe Kabiri; Honarmandnia, Mohtaram; Ezheiyan, Mahdi

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a set of numerical simulations of fluid flow, temperature gradient, thermal stress and dislocation density for a Czochralski setup used to grow IR optical-grade Ge single crystal have been done for different stages of the growth process. A two-dimensional steady state finite element method has been applied for all calculations. The obtained numerical results reveal that the thermal field, thermal stress and dislocation structure are mainly dependent on the crystal height, heat radiation and gas flow in the growth system.

  16. Chromium–niobium co-doped vanadium dioxide films: Large temperature coefficient of resistance and practically no thermal hysteresis of the metal–insulator transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Miyazaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of chromium (Cr and niobium (Nb co-doping on the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR and the thermal hysteresis of the metal–insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2 films. We determined the TCR and thermal-hysteresis-width diagram of the V1−x−yCrxNbyO2 films by electrical-transport measurements and we found that the doping conditions x ≳ y and x + y ≥ 0.1 are appropriate for simultaneously realizing a large TCR value and an absence of thermal hysteresis in the films. By using these findings, we developed a V0.90Cr0.06Nb0.04O2 film grown on a TiO2-buffered SiO2/Si substrate that showed practically no thermal hysteresis while retaining a large TCR of 11.9%/K. This study has potential applications in the development of VO2-based uncooled bolometers.

  17. Chromium–niobium co-doped vanadium dioxide films: Large temperature coefficient of resistance and practically no thermal hysteresis of the metal–insulator transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Kenichi, E-mail: kenichi-miyazaki@denso.co.jp, E-mail: k.shibuya@aist.go.jp [Denso Corporation, Aichi 470-0111 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Shibuya, Keisuke, E-mail: kenichi-miyazaki@denso.co.jp, E-mail: k.shibuya@aist.go.jp; Sawa, Akihito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan); Suzuki, Megumi; Sakai, Kenichi [Denso Corporation, Aichi 470-0111 (Japan); Fujita, Jun-ichi [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    We investigated the effects of chromium (Cr) and niobium (Nb) co-doping on the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the thermal hysteresis of the metal–insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) films. We determined the TCR and thermal-hysteresis-width diagram of the V{sub 1−x−y}Cr{sub x}Nb{sub y}O{sub 2} films by electrical-transport measurements and we found that the doping conditions x ≳ y and x + y ≥ 0.1 are appropriate for simultaneously realizing a large TCR value and an absence of thermal hysteresis in the films. By using these findings, we developed a V{sub 0.90}Cr{sub 0.06}Nb{sub 0.04}O{sub 2} film grown on a TiO{sub 2}-buffered SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate that showed practically no thermal hysteresis while retaining a large TCR of 11.9%/K. This study has potential applications in the development of VO{sub 2}-based uncooled bolometers.

  18. Aqueously Dispersed Silver Nanoparticle-Decorated Boron Nitride Nanosheets for Reusable, Thermal Oxidation-Resistant Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; Bunker, Christopher E.; Fernandos, K. A. Shiral; Connell, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The impurity-free aqueous dispersions of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) allowed the facile preparation of silver (Ag) nanoparticle-decorated BNNS by chemical reduction of an Ag salt with hydrazine in the presence of BNNS. The resultant Ag-BNNS nanohybrids remained dispersed in water, allowing convenient subsequent solution processing. By using substrate transfer techniques, Ag-BNNS nanohybrid thin film coatings on quartz substrates were prepared and evaluated as reusable surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensors that were robust against repeated solvent washing. In addition, because of the unique thermal oxidation-resistant properties of the BNNS, the sensor devices may be readily recycled by short-duration high temperature air oxidation to remove residual analyte molecules in repeated runs. The limiting factor associated with the thermal oxidation recycling process was the Ostwald ripening effect of Ag nanostructures.

  19. Simulation of the thermal behaviour of electric industrial resistance furnaces using the I-DEAS/TMG code; Simulation du comportement thermique des fours electriques industriels a resistances a l`aide du code I-DEAS/TMG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plard, Ch.; Branchu, K.; Le Cloirec, B. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1996-12-31

    In order to answer the modeling needs of manufacturers and users of electrical resistance furnaces, Electricite de France (EdF) has been appealed to search for a numerical simulation tool for the modeling of thermal phenomena and to carry out its qualification. The TNG software has been retained according to its modeling characteristics of radiant heat transfers and to the coupling with thermal conduction. After a description of the main characteristics of this code, two examples of application to electrical furnaces are presented. The first example illustrates how it can be possible to accurately reproduce the behaviour of a big industrial furnace. The second example is an illustration of numerical simulation possibilities for the optimization of processes performed with an electric furnace. (J.S.)

  20. Boundary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    What is our point of no return? Caesar proclaimed 'the die is cast' while crossing the Rubicon, but rarely does modern society find so visible a threshold in our continued degradation of ecosystems and the services they provide. Humans have always used their surroundings to make a living— sometimes successfully, sometimes not (Diamond 2005)—and we intuitively know that there are boundaries to our exploitation. But defining these boundaries has been a challenge since Malthus first prophesied that nature would limit the human population (Malthus 1798). In 2009, Rockström and colleagues tried to quantify what the 6.8 billion (and counting) of us could continue to get away with, and what we couldn't (Rockström et al 2009). In selecting ten 'planetary boundaries', the authors contend that a sustainable human enterprise requires treating a number of environmental thresholds as points of no return. They suggest we breach these Rubicons at our own peril, and that we've already crossed three: biodiversity loss, atmospheric CO2, and disruption of the global nitrogen (N) cycle. As they clearly hoped, the very act of setting targets has provoked scientific inquiry about their accuracy, and about the value of hard targets in the first place (Schlesinger 2009). Such debate is a good thing. Despite recent emphasis on the science of human-ecosystem interactions, understanding of our planetary boundaries is still in its infancy, and controversy can speed scientific progress (Engelhardt and Caplan 1987). A few weeks ago in this journal, Carpenter and Bennett (2011) took aim at one of the more controversial boundaries in the Rockström analysis: that for human alteration of the global phosphorus (P) cycle. Rockström's group chose riverine P export as the key indicator, suggesting that humans should not exceed a value that could trigger widespread marine anoxic events—and asserting that we have not yet crossed this threshold. There are defensible reasons for a marine

  1. boundary dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Camurdan

    1998-01-01

    are coupled by appropriate trace operators. This overall model differs from those previously studied in the literature in that the elastic chamber floor is here more realistically modeled by a hyperbolic Kirchoff equation, rather than by a parabolic Euler-Bernoulli equation with Kelvin-Voight structural damping, as in past literature. Thus, the hyperbolic/parabolic coupled system of past literature is replaced here by a hyperbolic/hyperbolic coupled model. The main result of this paper is a uniform stabilization of the coupled PDE system by a (physically appealing boundary dissipation.

  2. CONVECTIVE HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN THE COMBUSTION OF CHEMICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN THE BOUNDARY LAYER ON A POROUS SURFACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    COOLING, *POROUS MATERIALS), (*HEAT TRANSFER, *COMBUSTION), (* MASS TRANSFER , COMBUSTION), CONVECTION(HEAT TRANSFER), GAS FLOW, INJECTION, CHEMICAL REACTIONS, LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER, TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER, THERMAL INSULATION, USSR

  3. Preliminary study of cyclic thermal shock resistance of plasma-sprayed zirconium oxide turbine outer air seal shrouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, R. C.; Wisander, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Several experimental concepts representing potential high pressure turbine seal material systems were subjected to cyclic thermal shock exposures similar to those that might be encountered under severe engine start-up and shut-down sequences. All of the experimental concepts consisted of plasma-sprayed yttria stabilized ZrO2 on the high temperature side of the blade tip seal shroud. Between the ZrO2 and a cooled, dense metal backing, various intermediate layer concepts intended to mitigate thermal stresses were incorporated. Performance was judged on the basis of the number of thermal shock cycles required to cause loss of seal material through spallation. The most effective approach was to include a low modulus, sintered metal pad between the ZrO2 and the metallic backing. It was also found that reducing the density of the ZrO2 layer significantly improved the performance of specimens with plasma-sprayed metal/ceramic composite intermediate layers.

  4. Optimization of the contact resistance in the interface structure of n-type Al/a-SiC:H by thermal annealing for optoelectronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, Roberto; Mireles, Jose Jr. [Technology and Engineering Institute, Ciudad Juarez University UACJ, Av. Del Charro 450N, 32310, Chihuahua (Mexico); Torres, Alfonso; Zuniga, Carlos; Moreno, Mario [National Institute for Astrophysics Optics and Electronics INAOE, Luis E. Erro 1, PO Box 51 and 216, 7200, Puebla (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    The presented work meets the requirements for integration of amorphous silicon carbon films with silicon technology in order to obtain a complete optoelectronic system such as light emitting diodes and its electronic readout circuits. The key enabler for this integration scheme is the low temperature of deposition of a-SiC:H films and an ohmic behavior in the interface metal/a-SiC:H. In this work, the optimization of the interface Al/a-SiC:H films are performed by means of thermal annealing timing. The a-SiC:H films were deposited by enhanced chemical vapor deposition from CH{sub 4}/SiH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/SiH{sub 4} mixtures. The structural and optical properties of the deposited films are presented. An implantation phosphorous dose was used for doping before fabrication of patterned aluminum contacts. The implanted films were electrically characterized by the transfer length method (TLM) measuring a sheet resistance value as low as 171 M{omega}/square. The Schottky behavior was improved to ohmic behavior after several hours in thermal annealing treatments at 350 C, which allows to obtain a reasonable contact resistance values in the range from 8.6 to 26.8 k{omega}. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Ultrasonic-assisted preparation of graphene oxide carboxylic acid polyvinyl alcohol polymer film and studies of thermal stability and surface resistivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongshen; Li, Jihui; Li, Yuehai; Li, Yali; Song, Yunan; Niu, Shuai; Li, Ning

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, flake graphite, nitric acid and acetic anhydride are used to prepare graphene oxide carboxylic acid (GO-COOH) via an ultrasonic-assisted method, and GO-COOH and polyvinyl alcohol polymer (PVA) are used to synthesize graphene oxide carboxylic acid polyvinyl alcohol polymer (GO-COOPVA) via the ultrasonic-assisted method, and GO-COOPVA is used to manufacture graphene oxide carboxylic acid polyvinyl alcohol polymer film (GO-COOPVA film) via a solidification method, and the structure and morphology of GO-COOH, GO-COOPVA and GO-COOPVA film are characterized, and the thermal stability and surface resistivity are measured in the case of the different amount of GO-COOH. Based on the characterization and measurement, it has been successively confirmed and attested that carboxyl groups implant on 2D lattice of GO to form GO-COOH, and GO-COOH and PVA have the esterification reaction to produce GO-COOPVA, and GO-COOPVA consists of 2D lattice of GO-COOH and the chain of PVA connected in the form of carboxylic ester, and GO-COOPVA film is composed of GO-COOPVA, and the thermal stability of GO-COOPVA film obviously improves in comparison with PVA film, and the surface resistivity of GO-COOPVA film clearly decreases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Breaking Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    produce desperate attempts to maintain old or create new differences. Political and sociological research into these complex processes has been mainly guided by structural and normative concerns. Faced with growing evidence about the instability of world order and domestic social structures alike, policy....... As a fundamental human experience, liminality transmits cultural practices, codes, rituals, and meanings in-between aggregate structures and uncertain outcomes. As a methodological tool it is well placed to overcome disciplinary boundaries, which often direct attention to specific structures or sectors of society....... Its capacity to provide explanatory accounts of seemingly unstructured situations provides an opportunity to link experience-based and culture-oriented approaches not only to contemporary problems but also to undertake comparisons across historical periods. From a perspective of liminality...

  7. Multiharmonics Method Characterizing In-Plane Thermal Conductivity and TBR of Semiconductor Nanofilm on Substrate: Theoretical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoliang; Xu, Zhe; Du, Xiaoli; Tang, Dawei

    2017-02-01

    The in-plane thermal conductivity of semiconductor nanofilm is difficult to be tested due to suspension problem. The thermal boundary resistance (TBR) plays a key role in semiconductor nanoscale structures and nanoscale thermal experiments. By applying alternating current and direct current currents simultaneously on the semiconducting nanofilm on highly insulated substrate, multiharmonics including 1ω, 2ω and 3ω signals originating from the self-heating of nanofilm are measured. The thermal boundary resistance is introduced into the heat diffusion equation in in-plane direction. The expression of temperature oscillation and theoretical analysis of heat transport process show that the in-plane thermal conductivity and TBR can be decoupled from the multiharmonics in frequency domain. Thermal analysis justifies the multiharmonics method according to the effect of in-plane thermal conductivity, TBR between nanofilm and insulated substrate, resistance coefficient of semiconductor nanofilm on temperature oscillation at low frequency. Results show the multiharmonic method sensitivity variations depending on the TBR, the in-plane thermal conductivity, and the electric current frequency.

  8. Enhancement of wear and corrosion resistance of low modulus β-type Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) dental alloys through thermal oxidation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Gan, Xiaxia; Tang, Hongqun; Zhan, Yongzhong

    2017-07-01

    In order to obtain material with low elastic modulus, good abrasion resistance and high corrosion stability as screw for dental implant, the biomedical Zr-20Nb and Zr-20Nb-3Ti alloy with low elastic modulus were thermal oxidized respectively at 700°C for 1h and 600°C for 1.25h to obtain the compact oxidized layer to improve its wear resistance and corrosion resistance. The results show that smooth compact oxidized layer (composed of monoclinic ZrO 2 , tetragonal ZrO 2 and 6ZrO 2 -Nb 2 O 5 ) with 22.6μm-43.5μm thickness and 1252-1306HV hardness can be in-situ formed on the surface of the Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3). The adhesion of oxidized layers to the substrates is determined to be 58.35-66.25N. The oxidized Zr-20Nb-xTi alloys reveal great improvement of the pitting corrosion resistance in comparison with the un-oxidized alloys. In addition, the oxidized Zr-20Nb-3Ti exhibits sharply reduction of the corrosion rates and the oxidized Zr-20Nb shows higher corrosion rates than un-oxidized alloys, which is relevant with the content of the t-ZrO 2 . Wear test in artificial saliva demonstrates that the wear losses of the oxidized Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) are superior to pure Ti. All of the un-oxidized Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) alloys suffer from serious adhesive wear due to its high plasticity. Because of the protection from compact oxide layer with high adhesion and high hardness, the coefficients of friction and wear losses of the oxidized Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) alloys decrease 50% and 95%, respectively. The defects on the oxidized Zr-20Nb have a negative effect on the friction and wear properties. In addition, after the thermal oxidation, compression test show that elastic modulus and strength of Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) increase slightly with plastic deformation after 40% of transformation. Furthermore, stripping of the oxidized layer from the alloy matrix did not occur during the whole experiments. As the surface oxidized Zr-20Nb-3Ti alloy has a combination of excellent performance

  9. Comparative study of thermal conductivity in crystalline and amorphous nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juangsa, Firman Bagja; Muroya, Yoshiki; Ryu, Meguya; Morikawa, Junko; Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2017-06-01

    Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs)/polystyrene (PS) nanocomposite has been observed to have a significant decrease in thermal conductivity in terms of the SiNC fraction with unspecified factors remained unclear. In this paper, amorphous silicon nanoparticles (a-SiNPs) with a mean diameter of 6 nm and PS nanocomposites were synthesized, and their thermal conductivity, including the density and specific heat, was compared with our previous work which investigated well-crystalized SiNPs (6 nm) and PS nanocomposite. The difference between amorphous and crystalline structure is insignificant, but phonon scattering at SiNPs and PS boundary is the key influencing factor of thermal conductivity reduction. The effective thermal conductivity models for nanocomposite revealed that the thermal boundary resistance, explained by Kapitza principle, is estimated to be 4 × 10-7 m2K/W, showing the significant effect of nanostructured heterogenic surface resistance on overall heat transfer behavior. Preservation of unique properties nanoscale materials and low-cost fabrication by silicon inks process at room temperature give the promising potential of SiNPs based heat transfer management.

  10. Building unique surface structure on aramid fibers through a green layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to develop new high performance fibers with greatly improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lifang; Yuan, Li; Guan, Qingbao; Gu, Aijuan; Liang, Guozheng

    2017-07-01

    Combining green preparation and high performance is becoming the direction of sustainable development of materials. How to simultaneously overcome the two bottlenecks (poor surface activity and UV resistance) of aramid fibers (AFs) while improving thermal and mechanical properties through a green process is still an interesting issue with big challenge. Herein, new AFs (BL-AFs) were prepared by alternately self-assembling SiO2 and MgAlFe layered double hydroxide (LDH) on surfaces of AFs, successively, through a green layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique without using high temperature and organic solvent. The structures and properties of BL-AFs were systematically studied, which are controllable by adjusting the number of self-assembly cycle. The new fibers with three or more self-assembly cycles have remarkably improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance compared with AFs. Typically, with three self-assembly cycles, the initial degradation temperature and char yield of the new fiber (3BL-AF) are as high as 552.9 °C and 81.2%, about 92 °C and 25.2% higher than those of AF, respectively; after 168 h-UV irradiation, the retention of tensile performances of 3BL-AF fiber is as high as 91-95%, about 29-14% higher than that of AF, showing the best overall performances among all modified AFs prepared using a green technique reported so far. The origin behind the attractive performances of BL-AFs is revealed through correlating with structures of original and modified fibers. The excellent comprehensive properties of BL-AFs demonstrate that the green method provided in this study is facile and effective to completely solve the bottlenecks of aramid fibers, and developing higher performance organic fibers.

  11. Ti-thickness-dependent electromigration resistance for Ti/Al-Cu-Si metallization with and without barrier rapid-thermal-anneal in an ammonia ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kuan Y.; Kawasaki, Hisao; Olowolafe, Johnson O.; Pyle, Ronald E.

    1993-05-01

    The electromigration resistance for Al-Cu-Si alloy over a Ti underlayer as a function of the initial Ti thickness in the range of 0 angstroms - 1000 angstroms is investigated. After the Ti deposition, test structures have been divided into groups with and without a rapid thermal anneal (RTA) in an ammonia ambient to form a TiN barrier. The electromigration resistance of these barrier metallization systems, in general, increases with the initial Ti thickness, except when the initial Ti thickness is less than 600 angstroms for the RTA TiN/Al-Cu-Si system. A model is proposed to explain this electromigration characteristic as a function of the initial Ti thickness for these barrier metallization systems, with the support of texture analysis of the Al-alloy surface and stress measurements of barrier layers using X-ray diffraction and wafer curvature. This study highlights a direction of how a Ti-based barrier metallization system should be processed in order to optimize its electromigration resistance.

  12. Thermal contact resistance measurement of conduction cooled binary current lead joint block in cryocooler based self field I-V characterization facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Ananya, E-mail: ananya@ipr.res.in; Das, Subrat Kumar; Agarwal, Anees Bano Pooja; Pradhan, Subrata [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In the present study thermal resistance of conduction cooled current lead joint block employing two different interfacial material namely AlN sheet and Kapton Film have been studied in the temperature range 5K-35K. In each case, the performance of different interlayer materials e.g. Indium foil for moderately pressurized contacts (contact pressure <1 MPa), and Apiezon N Grease, GE varnish for low pressurized contact (contact pressure <1 MPa) is studied. The performances of AlN joint with Indium foil and with Apeizon N Grease are studied and it is observed that the contact resistance reduces more with indium foil as compared to greased contact. The contact resistance measurements of Kapton film with Apiezon N grease and with GE varnish were also carried out in the same temperature range. A comparative study of AlN joint with Indium foil and Kapton with GE varnish as filler material is carried out to demonstrate better candidate material among Kapton and AlN for a particular filler material in the same temperature range.

  13. A new strategy for improvement of the corrosion resistance of a green cerium conversion coating through thermal treatment procedure before and after application of epoxy coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahidashti, Z. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahrabi, T., E-mail: tshahrabi34@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh-bh@icrc.ac.ir [Department of Surface Coatings and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), P.O. 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The Ce conversion coating was post-heated at various conditions. • The corrosion resistance of post-heated Ce films was evaluated. • A crack free and denser Ce film were obtained after post-heating. • The corrosion resistance of Ce film noticeably increased. • Post-heated Ce film resulted better protection performance of epoxy coating. - Abstract: The effect of post-heating of CeCC on its surface morphology and chemistry has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and contact angle (CA) measurements. The corrosion protection performance of the coatings was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of thermal treatment of CeCC on the corrosion protection performance of epoxy coating was investigated by EIS. Results showed that the heat treatment of Ce film noticeably improved its corrosion resistance and adhesion properties compared to that of untreated samples. The CeCC deposited on the steel substrate at room temperature had a highly cracked structure, while the amount of micro-cracks significantly reduced after post-heating procedure. Results obtained from EIS analysis confirmed the effect of post-heating of CeCC on its corrosion protection performance enhancement. The increase of post-heating temperature and time up to 140 °C and 3 h led to better results.

  14. Effects of Thermal Aging on Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of AISI 317L Steel Weld Metal in the FSW Process

    OpenAIRE

    Farneze, Humberto Nogueira; Tavares,Sérgio Souto Maior; Pardal, Juan Manuel; Londoño,Antônio José Ramírez; Pereira,Victor Ferrinho; Barbosa, Cássio

    2015-01-01

    The AISI 317L grade is an austenitic stainless steel with high Mo content (3.0 wt% min.). Due to the higher pitting resistance, this grade has replaced AISI 316L steel in many applications where the corrosion resistance is a critical property. However, the high Mo can induce phase transformations in high temperature services. In modern oil refinaries and petrochemical industries AISI 317L has been selected for temperatures as high as 550 °C. The goal of this work was to analyze the microstruc...

  15. Thermal conductivity anisotropy and grain structure in Ge2Sb2Te5 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaeho; Li, Zijian; Reifenberg, John P.; Lee, Sangchul; Sinclair, Robert; Asheghi, Mehdi; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2011-04-01

    Although lateral thermal conduction in Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) films can influence the performance of phase change memory (PCM), there are no data available for the in-plane thermal conductivity. This work measures both the in-plane and the out-of-plane thermal conductivities for the amorphous, face-centered-cubic, and hexagonal-close-packed phases of GST using two independent techniques. For crystalline GST, we report anisotropy favoring out-of-plane conduction by up to 54%, which varies with annealing time. Scaling arguments indicate that the anisotropy may be due to the thermal resistance of amorphous regions near grain boundaries. This explanation is consistent with transmission electron microscopy images showing columnar grains and amorphous phase at grain boundaries.

  16. Antibiotic susceptibility and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fresh porcine skin xenografts: risk to recipients with thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Stacey-Ann; Robb, Andrew; Lang, Sue; Takeuchi, Yasu; Vesely, Pavel; Scobie, Linda

    2014-03-01

    The previous use of fresh porcine xenografts at the Prague Burn Centre had raised concerns over the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. This study examines the risk of zoonotic Staphylococcus aureus colonisation of burn patients from fresh porcine skin xenografts. Samples were collected from the nares, skin and perineum of commercial pigs (n=101) and were screened for methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The efficacy of the antibiotic wash used in decontamination of the pigskin was tested against planktonic- and biofilm-grown isolates. The spa type of each isolate was also confirmed. All pig swabs were negative for MRSA but 86% positive for MSSA. All planktonic-grown isolates of MSSA were sensitive to chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin and 44% of isolates were resistant to streptomycin. Isolates grown as biofilm exhibited higher rates of antimicrobial resistance. Sequence analysis revealed three distinct spa types of the MRSA ST398 clonal type. This finding demonstrates the existence of a MSSA reservoir containing spa types resembling those of well-known MRSA strains. These MSSA exhibit resistance to antibiotics used for decontamination of the pigskin prior to xenograft. Amended use of procurement could allow the use of fresh pigskin xenografts to be reinstated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of the Thermal Conductivity on Resistive Switching in GeTe and Ge2Sb2Te5 Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungjin; Park, Dambi; Jeong, Kwangsik; Kim, Taeok; Park, SeungJong; Ahn, Min; Yang, Won Jun; Han, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Hong Sik; Jeon, Seong Gi; Song, Jae Yong; Cho, Mann-Ho

    2015-10-07

    The thermal conduction characteristics of GeTe and Ge2Sb2Te5(GST) nanowires were investigated using an optical method to determine the local temperature by Raman spectroscopy. Since the localization of surface charge in a single-crystalline nanostructure can enhance charge-phonon scattering, the thermal conductivity value (κ) of single crystalline GeTe and GST nanowires was decreased significantly to 1.44 Wm(-1) K(-1) for GeTe and 1.13 Wm(-1) K(-1) for GST, compared to reported values for polycrystalline structures. The SET-to-RESET state in single-crystalline GeTe and GST nanowires are characteristic of a memory device. Unlike previous reports using GeTe and GST nanowires, the SET-to-RESET characteristics showed a bipolar switching shape and no unipolar switching. In addition, after multiple cycles of operation, a significant change in morphology and composition was observed without any structural phase transition, indicating that atoms migrate toward the cathode or anode, depending on their electronegativities. This change caused by a field effect indicates that the structural phase transition does not occur in the case of GeTe and GST nanowires with a significantly lowered thermal conductivity and stable crystalline structure. Finally, the formation of voids and hillocks as the result of the electromigration critically degrades device reliability.

  18. Interface-controlled thermal transport properties in nano-clustered phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongbok; Kang, Stephen Dongmin; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Kang, Dae-Hwan; Lyeo, Ho-Ki; Kim, Ki-Bum

    2012-04-01

    We measured the thermal conductivity of nano-clustered Ge2Sb2Te5(GST)-TiOx films in situ upon annealing from room temperature to 200 °C by the time-domain thermoreflectance method. The nano-clustered structure was found to significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of the crystallized GST-TiOx films. The reduction is attributed to the thermal resistance provided by the TiOx boundaries, of which the impact is identified by estimating the apparent interfacial thermal conductance of the embedded GST/TiOx interfaces. We suggest how to deal with the electronic contribution to thermal transport for this procedure. The apparent interfacial thermal conductance of the embedded GST/TiOx interfaces was found to tune closer to the intrinsic value 30 MW/m2 K as the microstructure of the films evolved into a distinctly clustered structure.

  19. Building unique surface structure on aramid fibers through a green layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to develop new high performance fibers with greatly improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lifang; Yuan, Li; Guan, Qingbao; Gu, Aijuan, E-mail: ajgu@suda.edu.cn; Liang, Guozheng, E-mail: lgzheng@suda.edu.cn

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • A green technology is setup to build unique surface structure on aramid fiber (AF). • The method is layer-by-layer self-assembling SiO{sub 2} and layered double hydroxide. • The surface of AF is adjustable by controlling the self-assembly cycle number. • New AF has excellent surface activity, anti-UV, thermal and mechanical properties. • The origin behind attractive performances of new AFs was intensively studied. - Abstract: Combining green preparation and high performance is becoming the direction of sustainable development of materials. How to simultaneously overcome the two bottlenecks (poor surface activity and UV resistance) of aramid fibers (AFs) while improving thermal and mechanical properties through a green process is still an interesting issue with big challenge. Herein, new AFs (BL-AFs) were prepared by alternately self-assembling SiO{sub 2} and MgAlFe layered double hydroxide (LDH) on surfaces of AFs, successively, through a green layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique without using high temperature and organic solvent. The structures and properties of BL-AFs were systematically studied, which are controllable by adjusting the number of self-assembly cycle. The new fibers with three or more self-assembly cycles have remarkably improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance compared with AFs. Typically, with three self-assembly cycles, the initial degradation temperature and char yield of the new fiber (3BL-AF) are as high as 552.9 °C and 81.2%, about 92 °C and 25.2% higher than those of AF, respectively; after 168 h-UV irradiation, the retention of tensile performances of 3BL-AF fiber is as high as 91–95%, about 29–14% higher than that of AF, showing the best overall performances among all modified AFs prepared using a green technique reported so far. The origin behind the attractive performances of BL-AFs is revealed through correlating with structures of original and

  20. Thermal Transport Model for Heat Sink Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James A.; Kelley, Richard L.; Brown, Ari D.; Smith, Stephen J.; Kilbourne, Caroline a.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the development of a finite element model for describing thermal transport through microcalorimeter arrays in order to assist in heat-sinking design. A fabricated multi-absorber transition edge sensor (PoST) was designed in order to reduce device wiring density by a factor of four. The finite element model consists of breaking the microcalorimeter array into separate elements, including the transition edge sensor (TES) and the silicon substrate on which the sensor is deposited. Each element is then broken up into subelements, whose surface area subtends 10 10 microns. The heat capacity per unit temperature, thermal conductance, and thermal diffusivity of each subelement are the model inputs, as are the temperatures of each subelement. Numerical integration using the Finite in Time Centered in Space algorithm of the thermal diffusion equation is then performed in order to obtain a temporal evolution of the subelement temperature. Thermal transport across interfaces is modeled using a thermal boundary resistance obtained using the acoustic mismatch model. The document concludes with a discussion of the PoST fabrication. PoSTs are novel because they enable incident x-ray position sensitivity with good energy resolution and low wiring density.

  1. Technology for Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study of an organisation, which is undergoing a process transforming organisational and technological boundaries. In particular, we shall look at three kinds of boundaries: the work to maintain and change the boundary between the organisation and its customers; boundaries.......After analysing the history and the current boundary work, the paper will propose new technological support for boundary work. In particular the paper will suggest means of supporting boundaries when these are productive and for changing boundaries when this seems more appropriate. In total, flexible technologies...... seem a core issue when dealing with technology for boundaries....

  2. Thermal Fatigue of Die-Casting Dies: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Hassan A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coupled studies by experimental and numerical simulations are necessary for an increased understanding of the material behaviour as related to the interaction between the thermal and mechanical conditions. This paper focus on the mechanisms of thermal fatigue in the failure of dies and cores used in the die casting of aluminum alloys. The thermal fatigue resistance is expressed by two crack parameters which are the average maximum crack and the average cracked area. Samples of various types of H13 steel were compared with a standard H13 steel by testing under identical thermal fatigue cycles. To determine the thermal constraint developed in the sample during the test, a finite difference technique was used to obtain the temperature distribution, based on temperature measurements at the boundaries. The resulting stresses and strains were computed, and the strain calculated at the edge or weakest point of the sample was used to correlate the number of cycles to crack initiation. As the strain at the edge increased, the number of cycles to failure decreased. The influence of various factors on thermal fatigue behavior was studied including austenitizing temperature, surface condition, stress relieving, casting, vacuum melting, and resulfurization. The thermal fatigue resistance improved as the austenitizing temperature increased from 1750 to 2050ºF.

  3. High-Temperature Oxidation-Resistant and Low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion NiAl-Base Bond Coat Developed for a Turbine Blade Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Many critical gas turbine engine components are currently made from Ni-base superalloys that are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC). The TBC consists of a ZrO2-based top coat and a bond coat that is used to enhance the bonding between the superalloy substrate and the top coat. MCrAlY alloys (CoCrAlY and NiCrAlY) are currently used as bond coats and are chosen for their very good oxidation resistance. TBC life is frequently limited by the oxidation resistance of the bond coat, along with a thermal expansion mismatch between the metallic bond coat and the ceramic top coat. The aim of this investigation at the NASA Glenn Research Center was to develop a new longer life, higher temperature bond coat by improving both the oxidation resistance and the thermal expansion characteristics of the bond coat. Nickel aluminide (NiAl) has excellent high-temperature oxidation resistance and can sustain a protective Al2O3 scale to longer times and higher temperatures in comparison to MCrAlY alloys. Cryomilling of NiAl results in aluminum nitride (AlN) formation that reduces the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the alloy and enhances creep strength. Thus, additions of cryomilled NiAl-AlN to CoCrAlY were examined as a potential bond coat. In this work, the composite alloy was investigated as a stand-alone substrate to demonstrate its feasibility prior to actual use as a coating. About 85 percent of prealloyed NiAl and 15 percent of standard commercial CoCrAlY alloys were mixed and cryomilled in an attritor with stainless steel balls used as grinding media. The milling was carried out in the presence of liquid nitrogen. The milled powder was consolidated by hot extrusion or by hot isostatic pressing. From the consolidated material, oxidation coupons, four-point bend, CTE, and tensile specimens were machined. The CTE measurements were made between room temperature and 1000 C in an argon atmosphere. It is shown that the CTE of the NiAl-AlN-CoCrAlY composite bond coat

  4. Structurally Deformed MoS2 for Electrochemically Stable, Thermally Resistant, and Highly Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yen-Chang

    2017-10-12

    The emerging molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) offers intriguing possibilities for realizing a transformative new catalyst for driving the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, the trade-off between catalytic activity and long-term stability represents a formidable challenge and has not been extensively addressed. This study reports that metastable and temperature-sensitive chemically exfoliated MoS2 (ce-MoS2) can be made into electrochemically stable (5000 cycles), and thermally robust (300 °C) while maintaining synthetic scalability and excellent catalytic activity through physical-transformation into 3D structurally deformed nanostructures. The dimensional transition enabled by a high throughput electrohydrodynamic process provides highly accessible, and electrochemically active surface area and facilitates efficient transport across various interfaces. Meanwhile, the hierarchically strained morphology is found to improve electronic coupling between active sites and current collecting substrates without the need for selective engineering the electronically heterogeneous interfaces. Specifically, the synergistic combination of high strain load stemmed from capillarity-induced-self-crumpling and sulfur (S) vacancies intrinsic to chemical exfoliation enables simultaneous modulation of active site density and intrinsic HER activity regardless of continuous operation or elevated temperature. These results provide new insights into how catalytic activity, electrochemical-, and thermal stability can be concurrently enhanced through the physical transformation that is reminiscent of nature, in which properties of biological materials emerge from evolved dimensional transitions.

  5. Effect of Erbium substitution on temperature and field dependence of thermally activated flux flow resistance in Bi-2212 superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladhi, D.; Mandal, P.; Sahoo, R.C.; Giri, S.K.; Nath, T.K., E-mail: tnath@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2016-12-01

    Thermally activated flux flow (TAFF) regime of Er doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 1−x}Er{sub x}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.3) polycrystalline systems have been investigated using magneto-transport measurements up to 70 kOe magnetic field. High quality single phase samples have been prepared by standard solid state reaction method. The activation energy or pinning strength (U{sub 0}) have been calculated using thermally activated flux flow (TAFF) model by linear fitting from the semi-logarithmic curve of ln ρ vs 1/T. It has been observed that activation energy (U{sub 0}) decreases with Er substitution and U{sub 0} follows power law dependence with magnetic field for all three samples. Irreversibility lines (IL) have been drawn from the magneto-transport data for all three samples and it is observed that IL shifts to lower temperature with higher Er concentration. It is confirmed from the above results that pinning strength becomes weaker with Er doping. Finally, the variation of U{sub 0} have been shown with temperature by re-plotting –T(ln (ρ/ρ{sub 100})) vs T for three samples showing non-linear dependence with temperature.

  6. Thermal build-up, decay and retention responses to local therapeutic application of 448 kHz capacitive resistive monopolar radiofrequency: A prospective randomised crossover study in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Binoy; Watson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency-based electrophysical agents are widely used in therapy-related clinical practice for their thermal effects, mainly relieving pain and inflammation and improving tissue extensibility. The most commonly used and researched are shortwave therapies that operate at 27.12 MHz. Although relatively new, electrophysical agents employing much lower frequencies have also emerged. Capacitive resistive monopolar radiofrequency employing 448 kHz is one such therapy. This laboratory-based study was aimed to investigate the skin thermal responses to 448 kHz radiofrequency-based therapy in healthy adults. In a two-group randomised crossover study, 15 volunteers attended two modes (capacitive and resistive) of 448 kHz radiofrequency-based therapy (using 'Indiba Activ 902') administered locally to the lower thigh region. Starting at minimum, the intensity was increased incrementally until thermal discomfort was felt. Participants reported three time points: thermal onset, definite thermal sensation, and onset of thermal discomfort. Local skin temperature was measured before, immediately post-treatment and up to 45 min post-treatment. Both capacitive and resistive modes of therapy significantly increased the skin temperature and sustained it over the 45-min follow-up. There was statistically significant difference between the thermal response patterns produced by the two modes. Peak post-treatment temperatures attained were not significantly different between the two; however, the retention rate at follow-up was significantly higher for the resistive mode. This study confirms that radiofrequency-based therapy at 448 kHz can significantly increase and sustain skin temperature. The study also provides useful baseline data for further research in the low frequency ranges of radiofrequency-based therapy that remain largely unexplored.

  7. Effect of molar ratios of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the sintering behavior and thermal shock resistance of MgOAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}SiO{sub 2} composite ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Dong, E-mail: 1078155409@qq.com [School of High Temperature Materials and Magnesium Resource Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Luo, Xudong, E-mail: luoxudongs@aliyun.com [School of High Temperature Materials and Magnesium Resource Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Guodong [School of High Temperature Materials and Magnesium Resource Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Xie, Zhipeng [Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-01-01

    In order to determine the relationship between the property of MgOAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}SiO{sub 2} composite ceramics and molar ratios of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, especially the sintering behavior and thermal shock resistance, the MgOAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}SiO{sub 2} composite ceramics were fabricated with micro-size MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder and nano-size SiO{sub 2} as main raw materials. The sample was characterized by phase analysis, densification and thermal shock times. Moreover, field emission scanning electron microscope was also conducted to study microstructure of the samples before and after thermal shock. Effect of different molar ratios of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the sintering behavior and thermal shock resistance of composite ceramics were investigated. The results showed that the sample possess better sintering behavior and thermal shock resistance with the molar ratio of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} equal to 2/1. Grains of periclase and spinel were directly bonded together, resulting in a dense and compact microstructure, and the bulk density of obtained sample reached 3.4 g/cm{sup 3}. The microstructure of sample after thermal shock revealed that the crack propagation path was deflected and bifurcated, the main-crack propagation was restricted and more fracture energy was consumed, the thermal shock resistance of composite ceramics was greatly improved. - Highlights: • Effect of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the composite ceramic was firstly researched with 1 mol% SiO{sub 2}. • Microcracks for a short distance by interlinking can eliminate the crack propagation. • The composite ceramic have optimal synthetic property with MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was 2/1.

  8. Predicting effects of cold shock: modeling the decline of a thermal plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D.; Trent, D.S.; Schneider, M.J.

    1977-10-01

    Predicting direct impact of cold shock on aquatic organisms after termination of power plant thermal discharges requires thermal tests that provide quantitative data on the resistance of acclimated species to lower temperatures. Selected examples from the literature on cold shock resistance of freshwater and marine fishes are illustrated to show predictive use. Abrupt cold shock data may be applied to field situations involving either abrupt or gradual temperature declines but yield conservative estimates under the latter conditions. Gradual cold shock data may be applied where heated plumes gradually dissipate because poikilotherms partially compensate for lowering temperature regimes. A simplified analytical model is presented for estimating thermal declines in terminated plumes originating from offshore, submerged discharges where shear current and boundary effects are minimal. When applied to site-specific conditions, the method provides time-temperature distributions for correlation with cold resistance data and, therefore, aids in assessing cold shock impact on aquatic biota.

  9. Resistance to radiation and concretes thermal cycles for conditioning of spent radioactive sources; Resistencia a la irradiacion y ciclos termicos de concretos para acondicionamiento de fuentes radiactivas gastadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez N, M.; Monroy G, F.; Gonzalez D, R. C.; Corona P, I. J.; Ortiz A, G., E-mail: fabiola.monroy@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In order to know the concrete type most suitable for use as a matrix of conditioning of spent radioactive sources, concrete test tubes using 4 different types of cement were prepared: CPC 30-Rs Extra, CPC 30-R Impercem, CPC 30-R Rs and CPC 30-R with two gravel sizes >30 mm and <10 mm. The concrete test tubes were subjected to testing compressive strength after 28 days of hardening and after being irradiated and subjected to thermal cycles. Subsequently they were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, in order to evaluate whether these concretes accredited the tests set by the NOM-019-Nucl-1995. The results show that the compressive strength of the hardened concretes to 28 days presents values between 36 and 25 MPa; applying irradiation the resistance may decrease to 30% of its original strength; and if subjected to high and low temperatures the ettringite formation also causes a decrease in resistance. The results show that concretes made from cement Impercem, Cruz Azul with gravel <10 mm comply with the provisions of standard and they can be used for conditioning of spent radioactive sources. (Author)

  10. Intrinsic SiO{sub x}-based unipolar resistive switching memory. II. Thermal effects on charge transport and characterization of multilevel programing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yao-Feng, E-mail: yfchang@utexas.edu; Chen, Ying-Chen; Chen, Yen-Ting; Wang, Yanzhen; Xue, Fei; Zhou, Fei; Lee, Jack C. [Microelectronics Research Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Fowler, Burt [PrivaTran, LLC, 1250 Capital of Texas Highway South, Bldg 3, Ste 400, Austin, Texas 78746 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    Multilevel programing and charge transport characteristics of intrinsic SiO{sub x}-based resistive switching memory are investigated using TaN/SiO{sub x}/n{sup ++}Si (MIS) and TiW/SiO{sub x}/TiW (MIM) device structures. Current transport characteristics of high- and low-resistance states (HRS and LRS) are studied in both device structures during multilevel operation. Analysis of device thermal response demonstrates that the effective electron energy barrier is strongly dependent on the resistance of the programed state, with estimates of 0.1 eV in the LRS and 0.6 eV in the HRS. Linear data fitting and conductance analyses indicate Poole-Frenkel emission or hopping conductance in the low-voltage region, whereas Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) or trap-assisted tunneling (TAT) is indicated at moderate voltage. Characterizations using hopping transport lead to hopping distance estimates of ∼1 nm in the LRS for both device structures. Relative permittivity values (ε{sub r}) were extracted using the Poole-Frenkel formulism and estimates of local filament temperature, where ε{sub r} values were ∼80 in the LRS and ∼4 in the HRS, suggesting a strongly polarized medium in the LRS. The onset of F-N tunneling or TAT corresponds to an observed “overshoot” in the I-V response with an estimated threshold of 1.6 ± 0.2 V, in good agreement with reported electro-luminescence results for LRS devices. Resistive switching is discussed in terms of electrochemical reactions between common SiO{sub 2} defects, and specific defect energy levels are assigned to the dominant transitions in the I-V response. The overshoot response in the LRS is consistent with TAT through either the Eγ' oxygen vacancy or the hydrogen bridge defect, both of which are reported to have an effective bandgap of 1.7 eV. The SET threshold at ∼2.5 V is modeled as hydrogen release from the (Si-H){sub 2} defect to generate the hydrogen bridge, and the RESET transition is modeled as an

  11. Occurrence and ecological distribution of Heat Resistant Moulds Spores (HRMS) in raw materials used by food industry and thermal characterization of two Talaromyces isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquillini, Roberta; Scaramuzza, Nicoletta; Berni, Elettra

    2017-02-02

    In this study, screening of some raw materials used to produce pasteurized products was carried out to determine the occurrence and ecological distribution of heat-resistant fungi. The search for Heat Resistant Mould Spores (HRMS) resulted in the isolation of a limited number of fungal genera: Arthrinium, Aspergillus with either Eurotium-type or Neosartorya-type ascoma, Byssochlamys, Hyphodermella, Monascus, Penicillium, Rasamsonia, Talaromyces and Thermoascus. Sexual aspergilli constituted an overwhelming percentage of the mycobiota, totaling 93.5% of the heat-resistant fungi detected, and being the only fungi to be simultaneously detected in discrete concentrations on almost all matrices found positive for HRMS. Talaromyces spp., Penicillium spp. and Monascus sp. occurred at low percentages (up to 2.1%), though they were the most commonly occurring genera in lemon cells (Talaromyces, Monascus) and blueberries (Penicillium spp.). Among these isolates, two Talaromyces spp. (T. trachyspermus and T. bacillisporus) were tested for heat-resistance in both blueberry and grape juice or in buffered glucose solution, in order to assess their D- and z-values. Data obtained from thermal death curves and statistical elaboration of raw data showed that D-values of T. trachyspermus ranged between 50.0 and 90.9min at 75°C; 13.6 and 20.8min at 78°C; 5.1 and 12.4min at 80°C; 1.6 and 2.6min at 82°C. D values of T. bacillisporus ranged between 44.4 and 60.9min at 82°C; 11.9 and 15.5min at 85°C; 2.7 and 4.1min at 88°C and were equal to 1.2min at 91°C, depending on the medium. The heating times needed for inactivation were comparable to those applied to most heat-resistant species, but significantly lower than those applied to Talaromyces macrosporus or less common ascospore-forming fungal species such as Hamigera avellanea and Thermoascus crustaceus. Therefore, a traditional pasteurization process would be insufficient to avoid potential spoilage problems with T

  12. Development of polystyrene-geopolymer composite for thermal insulating material and its properties with special regards to flame resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucsi, G.; Szabó, R.; Nagy, S.; Bohács, K.; Gombkötő, I.; Debreczeni, Á.

    2017-10-01

    As a first part of the research, systematic experimental series were conducted in order to develop an appropriate fly ash-based geopolymer binder focusing on the workability of the paste. In these series, the NaOH molar ratio and water glass/NaOH ratio were investigated and the fineness of the fly ash was optimized presented in a recent paper. Based on these results the effect of metakaolin on the mechanical properties was studied. After developing the appropriate binder, experimental series were carried out using ground polystyrene as light aggregate in various concentration (from 30 V/V% up to 98 V/V%) and geopolymer as a binder in order to develop a heat insulating material. Compressive and flexural strength, specimen density, flammability, freeze-thaw resistance were determined in order to characterize the composite product. As a result of the experimental investigation, it was found that the flexural strength of the composite was found to be ~400 kPa which is as high as the original polystyrene heat insulating panel. Additionally, the flammability was much better than the original pure PS product, the sample was not ignited even at higher PS content (90%). Furthermore, the freeze-thaw resistance of the composite improved compared with the neat geopolymer.

  13. Thermal stress resistance of the brown alga Fucus serratus along the North-Atlantic coast: acclimatization potential to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jueterbock, Alexander; Kollias, Spyros; Smolina, Irina; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Coyer, James A; Olsen, Jeanine L; Hoarau, Galice

    2014-02-01

    Seaweed-dominated communities are predicted to disappear south of 45° latitude on North-Atlantic rocky shores by 2200 because of climate change. The extent of predicted habitat loss, however, could be mitigated if the seaweeds' physiology is sufficiently plastic to rapidly acclimatize to the warmer temperatures. The main objectives of this study were to identify whether the thermal tolerance of the canopy-forming seaweed Fucus serratus is population-specific and where temperatures are likely to exceed its tolerance limits in the next 200 years. We measured the stress response of seaweed samples from four populations (Norway, Denmark, Brittany and Spain) to common-garden heat stress (20 °C-36 °C) in both photosynthetic performance and transcriptomic upregulation of heat shock protein genes. The two stress indicators did not correlate and likely measured different cellular components of the stress response, but both indicators revealed population-specific differences, suggesting ecotypic differentiation. Our results confirmed that thermal extremes will regularly reach physiologically stressful levels in Brittany (France) and further south by the end of the 22nd century. Although heat stress resilience in photosynthetic performance was higher at the species' southern distributional edge in Spain, the hsp expression pattern suggested that this edge-population experienced reduced fitness and limited responsiveness to further stressors. Thus, F. serratus may be unable to mitigate its predicted northward shift and may be at high risk to lose its center of genetic diversity and adaptability in Brittany (France). As it is an important intertidal key species, the disappearance of this seaweed will likely trigger major ecological changes in the entire associated ecosystem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. RESULTS OF CALCULATION-EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF ELECTRO-THERMAL RESISTIBILITY OF SHEET STEEL SAMPLES TO ACTION OF RATIONED COMPONENTS OF PULSED CURRENT OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Calculation and experimental researches of the electro-thermal resistibility of the steel sheet samples to action standard pulse current components of the artificial lightning with amplitude-time parameters (ATP, corresponded the requirements of normative documents of USA for SAE ARP 5412 & SAE ARP 5416. Methodology. Electrophysics bases of technique of high tensions and large impulsive currents (LIC, and also scientific and technical bases of planning of devices of high-voltage impulsive technique and measuring in them LIC. Сurrent amplitude ImA=±200 kA (with a tolerance of ±10 %; current action integral JA=2∙106 A2•s (with a tolerance of ±20 %; time, corresponding to the amplitude of the current ImA, tmA≤50 microseconds; the duration of the current flow τpA≤500 microseconds. Results. The results of the evaluation of the calculated and experimental studies of electro-thermal resistance of the samples of plates measuring 0,5 m  0,5 m stainless steel 1 mm thickness to the action on them artificial lightning impulse currents with rationed ATP on the requirements of normative documents of USA for SAE ARP 5412 & SAE ARP 5416. A pulse A- component have a first amplitude 192 kA, the corresponding time of 34 μs, and the duration aperiodic component amplitude 804 A, corresponding to the time 9 ms. It has been shown that the long C- component current of artificial lightning can lead to keyhole these samples. The diameter of the holes in this thin steel sheet, which is formed during the flow of current C- components can reach 15 mm. The results of calculation and experiment agree within 28 %. Originality. For the first time in world practice on the generator large pulsed currents experimental studies of resistibility of sheet steel samples to the action of artificial lightning currents with critical parameters. Practical value. Using the results obtained in the practice of lightning protection will significantly improve the

  15. Study of Shell-Mold Thermal Resistance: Laboratory Measurements, Estimation from Compact Strip Production Plant Data, and Observation of Simulated Flux-Mold Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de la C., J. Manuel; Flores F., Tania M.; Castillejos E., A. Humberto

    2016-08-01

    The slag film that forms between the shell and mold in steel continuous casting is key in regulating the heat transfer between them. Generally, the mechanisms proposed are related to the phenomena associated with the formation of crystals in the solid layer of the film, such as the appearance of internal pores and surface roughness, which decrease phononic conduction through the layer and interfacial gap with the mold, respectively, and the emergence of crystals themselves, which reduce the transmissivity of infrared radiation across the layer. Due to the importance of the solid layer, this study investigates experimentally the effective thermal resistance, R T, between a hot Inconel surface and a cold Cu surface separated by an initially glassy slag disk, made from powders for casting low and medium-carbon steels, denoted as A and B, respectively. In the tests, an initially mirror-polished disk is sandwiched for 10,800 seconds while the Inconel temperature, away from the disk face, is maintained steady at a value, T c, between 973 K and 1423 K (700 °C and 1150 °C)-below the liquidus temperature of the slags. The disks have a thickness, d t, between ~0.7 and 3.2 mm. Over the range of conditions studied, mold slag B shows R T 33 pct larger than slag A, and microscopic observation of disks hints that the greater resistance arises from the larger porosity developed in B. This finding is supported by high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscope observations of the evolution of the surface of slag parallelepipeds encased between Pt sheets, which reveal that during devitrification the film surface moves outward not inward, contrary with what is widely claimed. This behavior would favor contact of the slag with the mold for both kinds of powders. However, in the case of slag A, the crystalline grains growing at or near the surface pack closely together, leaving only few and small empty spaces. In slag B, crystalline grains pack loosely and many and large empty

  16. Surface and grain boundary scattering in nanometric Cu thin films: A quantitative analysis including twin boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barmak, Katayun [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 and Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Darbal, Amith [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Ganesh, Kameswaran J.; Ferreira, Paulo J. [Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Rickman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Sun, Tik; Yao, Bo; Warren, Andrew P.; Coffey, Kevin R., E-mail: kb2612@columbia.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The relative contributions of various defects to the measured resistivity in nanocrystalline Cu were investigated, including a quantitative account of twin-boundary scattering. It has been difficult to quantitatively assess the impact twin boundary scattering has on the classical size effect of electrical resistivity, due to limitations in characterizing twin boundaries in nanocrystalline Cu. In this study, crystal orientation maps of nanocrystalline Cu films were obtained via precession-assisted electron diffraction in the transmission electron microscope. These orientation images were used to characterize grain boundaries and to measure the average grain size of a microstructure, with and without considering twin boundaries. The results of these studies indicate that the contribution from grain-boundary scattering is the dominant factor (as compared to surface scattering) leading to enhanced resistivity. The resistivity data can be well-described by the combined Fuchs–Sondheimer surface scattering model and Mayadas–Shatzkes grain-boundary scattering model using Matthiessen's rule with a surface specularity coefficient of p = 0.48 and a grain-boundary reflection coefficient of R = 0.26.

  17. Characterization of anti-phase boundaries in epitaxial magnetite films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celotto, S.; Eerenstein, W.; Hibma, T

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of anti-phase domain boundaries (APBs) in epitaxial Fe3O4 films has a strong influence on the resistivity, magnetic and magneto-resistance properties of these films. It is therefore important to understand the configuration and magnetic coupling across the boundary. We have studied

  18. Linewidth of Josephson oscillations in YBa2Cu3O7-x grain-boundary junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Divin, Yu. Ya.; Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1993-01-01

    The AC Josephson effect in YBa2Cu3O7-x grain-boundary junctions (GBJs) was studied in the temperature range from 4 K to 90 K. The temperature dependence of the linewidth of millimeter-wave Josephson oscillations was measured, and it is shown that the derived effective noise temperature of GBJ might...... be as low as the physical temperature in the temperature range investigated. This makes it possible to use the resistively shunted junction (RSJ) model with thermal fluctuations to get a limiting performance of high-T c devices utilizing the AC Josephson effect. The lowest value of the linewidth of 72 GHz...

  19. Flow stress anisotropy caused by geometrically necessary boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Juul Jensen, D.

    1992-01-01

    The microstructural anisotropy of deformed metal is related to the formation of geometrically necessary boundaries such as dense dislocation walls and microbands. These boundaries have a macroscopic orientation with respect to the sample axes and they can resist slip due to a high concentration o...... necessary boundaries. For different macroscopic arrangements of such boundaries, the model predictions are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments....

  20. Grain boundaries: Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.

    1988-02-01

    Quantitative measurements of grain boundary structure factors using x-ray diffraction have been performed on low angle (001) twist boundaries in gold. Also, a computer atomistic simulation program is being implemented to examine the equilibrium properties of a series of boundaries in gold. Simulation of boundaries at room temperature have been performed. Electron microscopy of grain boundary melting in aluminum was also performed. Results indicated an absence of melting. (CBS)

  1. Roles of grain boundary and oxygen vacancies in Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} films for resistive switching device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xiaobing, E-mail: xiaobing-yan@126.com, E-mail: mseyanx@nus.edu.sg [Key Laboratory of Digital Medical Engineering of Hebei Province, College of Electron and Information Engineering, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Li, Yucheng; Zhao, Jianhui; Li, Yan [Key Laboratory of Digital Medical Engineering of Hebei Province, College of Electron and Information Engineering, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Bai, Gang [College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhu, Siqi [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information and Sensing Technologies of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2016-01-18

    Oxygen vacancies are widely thought to be responsible for resistive switching (RS) effects based on polycrystalline oxides films. It is also well known that grain boundaries (GB) serve as reservoirs for accumulating oxygen vacancies. Here, Ar gas was introduced to enlarge the size of GB and increase the quantity of oxygen vacancies when the Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} (BST) films were deposited by pulse laser deposition technique. The experimental results indicate that the RS properties of the device exhibits better in the Ar-introduced BST films than in the O{sub 2}-grown BST films. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images show that an amorphous region GB with large size appears between two lattice planes corresponding to oxygen vacancies defects in the Ar-introduced BST. Fourier-transform infrared reflectivity spectroscopy results also reveal highly accumulated oxygen vacancies in the Ar-introduced BST films. And we propose that the conduction transport of the cell was dominantly contributed from not ions migration of oxygen vacancies but the electrons in our case according to the value of activation energies of two kinds of films.

  2. Effect of rutile titania dioxide nanoparticles on the mechanical property, thermal stability, weathering resistance and antibacterial property of styrene acrylic polyurethane coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong Nguyen, Thien; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Dao, Phi Hung; Phuc Mac, Van; Hiep Nguyen, Anh; Thanh Do, Minh; Nguyen, The Huu

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to enhance the mechanical properties, thermal stability, weathering resistance and antibacterial property of a styrene acrylic polyurethane coating by adding rutile titania dioxide (R-TiO2) nanoparticles in coating formulation. The styrene acrylic polyurethane/R-TiO2 nanocomposite had been prepared by using ultrasonication. The effects of nanoparticles on the mechanical properties, thermal stability and weathering resistance of as-prepared coatings were investigated by using the adhesion strength and ball impact tests, the Fourier transform infrared and UV-vis analyses, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and UV/condensation weathering chamber equipped with UVA-340 fluorescent lamps, respectively. The disperse quality of nanoparticles in the coating was examined by using the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The mechanical test results showed that suitable content of R-TiO2 nanoparticles in the nanocomposite coating was 2 wt%. The FESEM images indicated that the nanoparticles were dispersed homogeneously into the entire volume of the coating. For the nanocomposite prepared by 3 h of ultrasonication, the average size of nanoparticles was in range of 40-50 nm. The ball impact and adhesion tests showed that the incorporation of nanoparticles into the coating significantly enhanced the impact strength from 120 to 145 kg cm and increased the adhesion from level 1 to level 0. The TGA test illustrated that in presence of nanoparticles, the decomposition temperature of coating increased from 146.9 °C to 154.21 °C. For the temperature at 50% loss in mass (T 50%), it was found that the T 50% of the neat coating is 351.86 °C. Adding the 2 wt% R-TiO2 nanoparticles into coating increased the T 50% value to 360.06 °C. After UV/condensation accelerated weathering test (30 cycles), the significant improvement in weight loss, impact strength and adhesion of the neat coating was observed with the presence of nanoparticles. The antibacterial test

  3. Proceedings of the 17th and 18th NAL Workshops on Investigation and Control of Boundary-Layer Transition

    OpenAIRE

    National Aerospace Laboratory; 航空宇宙技術研究所

    1996-01-01

    The following topics were discussed: vortex shedding, laminar boundary layer measurement, vortex ring, turbulent flow measurement, high Reynolds number turbulence, pulsed flow, boundary layer instability, Ekman boundary layer, sound receptivity, Tollmien-Schlichting wave in supersonic boundary layer, flow field instability, turbulent flow pattern, vorticity distribution in shear flow, turbulence wedge, streamwise vortex mixing, thermal convection, oblique wave generation in boundary layer, in...

  4. Formation of high electrical-resistivity thin surface layer on carbonyl-iron powder (CIP) and thermal stability of nanocrystalline structure and vortex magnetic structure of CIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, K.; Miyajima, Y.; Sonehara, M.; Sato, T.; Hayashi, F.; Zettsu, N.; Teshima, K.; Mizusaki, H.

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on the carbonyl-iron powder (CIP) used in the metal composite bulk magnetic core for high-efficient/light-weight SiC/GaN power device MHz switching dc-dc converter, where the fine CIP with a mean diameter of 1.1 μm is used to suppress the MHz band eddy current inside the CIP body. When applying the CIP to composite core together with the resin matrix, high electrical resistivity layer must be formed on the CIP-surface in order to suppress the overlapped eddy current between adjacent CIPs. In this study, tens nm thick silica (SiO2) was successfully deposited on the CIP-surface by using hydrolysis of TEOS (Si(OC2H5)4). Also tens nm thick oxidized layer of the CIP-surface was successfully formed by using CIP annealing in dry air. The SiC/GaN power device can operate at ambient temperature over 200 degree-C, and the composite magnetic core is required to operate at such ambient temperature. The as-made CIP had small coercivity below 800 A/m (10 Oe) due to its nanocrystalline-structure and had a single vortex magnetic structure. From the experimental results, both nanocrystalline and single vortex magnetic structure were maintained after heat-exposure of 250 degree-C, and the powder coercivity after same heat-exposure was nearly same as that of the as-made CIP. Therefore, the CIP with thermally stable nanocrystalline-structure and vortex magnetic state was considered to be heat-resistant magnetic powder used in the iron-based composite core for SiC/GaN power electronics.

  5. Formation of high electrical-resistivity thin surface layer on carbonyl-iron powder (CIP and thermal stability of nanocrystalline structure and vortex magnetic structure of CIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sugimura

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the carbonyl-iron powder (CIP used in the metal composite bulk magnetic core for high-efficient/light-weight SiC/GaN power device MHz switching dc-dc converter, where the fine CIP with a mean diameter of 1.1 μm is used to suppress the MHz band eddy current inside the CIP body. When applying the CIP to composite core together with the resin matrix, high electrical resistivity layer must be formed on the CIP-surface in order to suppress the overlapped eddy current between adjacent CIPs. In this study, tens nm thick silica (SiO2 was successfully deposited on the CIP-surface by using hydrolysis of TEOS (Si(OC2H54. Also tens nm thick oxidized layer of the CIP-surface was successfully formed by using CIP annealing in dry air. The SiC/GaN power device can operate at ambient temperature over 200 degree-C, and the composite magnetic core is required to operate at such ambient temperature. The as-made CIP had small coercivity below 800 A/m (10 Oe due to its nanocrystalline-structure and had a single vortex magnetic structure. From the experimental results, both nanocrystalline and single vortex magnetic structure were maintained after heat-exposure of 250 degree-C, and the powder coercivity after same heat-exposure was nearly same as that of the as-made CIP. Therefore, the CIP with thermally stable nanocrystalline-structure and vortex magnetic state was considered to be heat-resistant magnetic powder used in the iron-based composite core for SiC/GaN power electronics.

  6. Fracture resistance of porcelain veneered zirconia crowns with exposed lingual zirconia for anterior teeth after thermal cycling: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir Rad, Fatemeh A.; Succaria, Faysal G.; Morgano, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Statement of problem In some clinical conditions minimally invasive complete crown tooth preparations are indicated. This is especially true when gross removal of tooth structure would weaken the remaining tooth or violate the vitality of the dental pulp. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of (1) exposed lingual zirconia with veneered zirconia crowns, and (2) reduced lingual thickness of monolithic lithium disilicate crowns on the fracture resistance of the crowns after cyclic loading. Metal-ceramic crowns with exposed lingual metal served as controls. Materials and methods Twenty-four maxillary central incisor crowns were fabricated in identical shape on metal testing dies in 3 groups: metal-ceramic crowns (MC, n = 8), veneered zirconia crowns (VZ, n = 8), and monolithic lithium disilicate crowns (MO, n = 8). A conservative preparation design with 0.75 mm lingual clearance was used for each crown system. All crowns were cemented to their corresponding crown preparations with self-adhesive resin cement (Multilink Automix). The crowns were subjected to 1000 cycles of thermal cycling, then cyclic loading of 111 N by means of a stainless steel ball, and 50,000 cycles of loading were applied for the fatigue test. Fatigue loading was followed by a continuously increasing compressive load, at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until failure. The compressive load (N) required to cause failure was recorded. Means were calculated and analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD test (α = .05). Results There was a significant difference between MO vs. MC (P = .0001), MO vs. VZ (P = .0001), and VZ vs. MC (P = .012). Conclusions There was a significant difference in the mean fracture resistance of MC, VZ, and MO crowns in this in vitro study. The MC group recorded the highest mean fracture strength. PMID:26082571

  7. Fracture resistance of porcelain veneered zirconia crowns with exposed lingual zirconia for anterior teeth after thermal cycling: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir Rad, Fatemeh A; Succaria, Faysal G; Morgano, Steven M

    2015-04-01

    In some clinical conditions minimally invasive complete crown tooth preparations are indicated. This is especially true when gross removal of tooth structure would weaken the remaining tooth or violate the vitality of the dental pulp. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of (1) exposed lingual zirconia with veneered zirconia crowns, and (2) reduced lingual thickness of monolithic lithium disilicate crowns on the fracture resistance of the crowns after cyclic loading. Metal-ceramic crowns with exposed lingual metal served as controls. Twenty-four maxillary central incisor crowns were fabricated in identical shape on metal testing dies in 3 groups: metal-ceramic crowns (MC, n = 8), veneered zirconia crowns (VZ, n = 8), and monolithic lithium disilicate crowns (MO, n = 8). A conservative preparation design with 0.75 mm lingual clearance was used for each crown system. All crowns were cemented to their corresponding crown preparations with self-adhesive resin cement (Multilink Automix). The crowns were subjected to 1000 cycles of thermal cycling, then cyclic loading of 111 N by means of a stainless steel ball, and 50,000 cycles of loading were applied for the fatigue test. Fatigue loading was followed by a continuously increasing compressive load, at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until failure. The compressive load (N) required to cause failure was recorded. Means were calculated and analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD test (α = .05). There was a significant difference between MO vs. MC (P = .0001), MO vs. VZ (P = .0001), and VZ vs. MC (P = .012). There was a significant difference in the mean fracture resistance of MC, VZ, and MO crowns in this in vitro study. The MC group recorded the highest mean fracture strength.

  8. Large eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer over wind farms using a prescribed boundary layer approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlak, H.; Sørensen, J. N.; Mikkelsen, R.

    2012-09-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) of flow in a wind farm is studied in neutral as well as thermally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). An approach has been practiced to simulate the flow in a fully developed wind farm boundary layer. The approach is based on the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) and involves implementation of an arbitrary prescribed initial boundary layer (See [1]). A prescribed initial boundary layer profile is enforced through the computational domain using body forces to maintain a desired flow field. The body forces are then stored and applied on the domain through the simulation and the boundary layer shape will be modified due to the interaction of the turbine wakes and buoyancy contributions. The implemented method is capable of capturing the most important features of wakes of wind farms [1] while having the advantage of resolving the wall layer with a coarser grid than typically required for such problems.

  9. Large eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer over wind farms using a prescribed boundary layer approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) of flow in a wind farm is studied in neutral as well as thermally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). An approach has been practiced to simulate the flow in a fully developed wind farm boundary layer. The approach is based on the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM......) and involves implementation of an arbitrary prescribed initial boundary layer (See [1]). A prescribed initial boundary layer profile is enforced through the computational domain using body forces to maintain a desired flow field. The body forces are then stored and applied on the domain through the simulation...... and the boundary layer shape will be modified due to the interaction of the turbine wakes and buoyancy contributions. The implemented method is capable of capturing the most important features of wakes of wind farms [1] while having the advantage of resolving the wall layer with a coarser grid than typically...

  10. Correlation of Electrical Resistance to CMC Stress-Strain and Fracture Behavior Under High Heat-Flux Thermal and Stress Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Matthew; Morscher, Gregory; Zhu, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    Because SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are under consideration for use as turbine engine hot-section components in extreme environments, it becomes necessary to investigate their performance and damage morphologies under complex loading and environmental conditions. Monitoring of electrical resistance (ER) has been shown as an effective tool for detecting damage accumulation of woven melt-infiltrated SiCSiC CMCs. However, ER change under complicated thermo-mechanical loading is not well understood. In this study a systematic approach is taken to determine the capabilities of ER as a relevant non-destructive evaluation technique for high heat-flux testing, including thermal gradients and localized stress concentrations. Room temperature and high temperature, laser-based tensile tests were conducted in which stress-dependent damage locations were determined using modal acoustic emission (AE) monitoring and compared to full-field strain mapping using digital image correlation (DIC). This information is then compared with the results of in-situ ER monitoring, post-test ER inspection and fractography in order to correlate ER response to convoluted loading conditions and damage evolution.

  11. Thermal and Thermoelectric Properties of Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hao-Hsiang

    Many modern technologies are enabled by the use of thin films and/or nanostructured composite materials. For example, many thermoelectric devices, solar cells, power electronics, thermal barrier coatings, and hard disk drives contain nanostructured materials where the thermal conductivity of the material is a critical parameter for the device performance. At the nanoscale, the mean free path and wavelength of heat carriers may become comparable to or smaller than the size of a nanostructured material and/or device. For nanostructured materials made from semiconductors and insulators, the additional phonon scattering mechanisms associated with the high density of interfaces and boundaries introduces additional resistances that can significantly change the thermal conductivity of the material as compared to a macroscale counterpart. Thus, better understanding and control of nanoscale heat conduction in solids is important scientifically and for the engineering applications mentioned above. In this dissertation, I discuss my work in two areas dealing with nanoscale thermal transport: (1) I describe my development and advancement of important thermal characterization tools for measurements of thermal and thermoelectric properties of a variety of materials from thin films to nanostructured bulk systems, and (2) I discuss my measurements on several materials systems done with these characterization tools. First, I describe the development, assembly, and modification of a time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) system that we use to measure the thermal conductivity and the interface thermal conductance of a variety of samples including nanocrystalline alloys of Ni-Fe and Co-P, bulk metallic glasses, and other thin films. Next, a unique thermoelectric measurement system was designed and assembled for measurements of electrical resistivity and thermopower of thermoelectric materials in the temperature range of 20 to 350 °C. Finally, a commercial Anter Flashline 3000 thermal

  12. State Agency Administrative Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database comprises 28 State agency boundaries and point of contact. The Kansas Geological Survey collected legal descriptions of the boundaries for various...

  13. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  14. HUD GIS Boundary Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HUD GIS Boundary Files are intended to supplement boundary files available from the U.S. Census Bureau. The files are for community planners interested in...

  15. Political State Boundary (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  16. Design rules for interfacial thermal conductance: Building better bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Carlos A.; Rastgarkafshgarkolaei, Rouzbeh; Zhang, Jingjie; Le, Nam Q.; Norris, Pamela M.; Ghosh, Avik W.

    2017-05-01

    We study the thermal conductance across solid-solid interfaces as the composition of an intermediate matching layer is varied. In the absence of phonon-phonon interactions, an added layer can make the interfacial conductance increase or decrease depending on the interplay between (1) an increase in phonon transmission due to better bridging between the contacts and (2) a decrease in the number of available conduction channels that must conserve their momenta transverse to the interface. When phonon-phonon interactions are included, the added layer is seen to aid conductance when the decrease in resistances at the contact-layer boundaries compensate for the additional layer resistance. For the particular systems explored in this work, the maximum conductance happens when the layer mass is close to the geometric mean of the contact masses. The surprising result, usually associated with coherent antireflection coatings, follows from a monotonic increase in the boundary resistance with the interface mass ratio. This geometric mean condition readily extends to a compositionally graded interfacial layer with an exponentially varying mass that generates the thermal equivalent of a broadband impedance matching network.

  17. Teor de cimento e seus efeitos sobre a resistência ao choque térmico de concretos espinelizados in-situ Cement content and the thermal shock performance of in-situ spinel formation in refractory castables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Cintra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Concretos refratários aluminosos contendo espinélio são amplamente utilizados como revestimentos de panelas siderúrgicas, devido a sua elevada resistência à corrosão. Além do bom desempenho anti-corrosivo, estes materiais devem suportar as variações bruscas de temperatura causadas pela ciclagem térmica, responsáveis pela diminuição da vida útil do revestimento. Neste contexto, a análise da resistência ao dano por choque térmico se torna parâmetro fundamental para a correta seleção do revestimento refratário. Esta propriedade pode ser melhorada por meio da incorporação de mecanismos de tenacificação à estrutura do concreto. Uma fase que auxilia na tenacificação do material é o CA6, que está associada ao cimento de aluminato de cálcio (CAC, matéria-prima usada como ligante. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar o efeito do teor de cimento na microestrutura do concreto e suas conseqüências nos danos causados por choque térmico. Os resultados obtidos indicam que concretos com valores intermediários de cimento possuem melhor desempenho em relação ao choque térmico, nas temperaturas de uso das panelas. Dessa forma, o controle do teor de cimento possibilita aumentar a resistência ao dano por choque térmico e, consequentemente, a vida útil do revestimento.Spinel containing aluminous refractory castables are currently used in steel ladle due to their high corrosion resistance. Besides this property, these materials have to withstand sudden temperature variations caused by thermal cycling, which could be one of the main causes for shortening the lining's working life. Within this context, the thermal shock damage resistance analysis becomes a fundamental variable for the correct refractory selection. This property can be improved by toughening mechanisms, such as the presence of CA6, associated to calcium aluminate cement in the castable composition. Therefore, the objective of this work is to

  18. Using open hole and cased-hole resistivity logs to monitor gas hydrate dissociation during a thermal test in the mallik 5L-38 research well, Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B.I.; Collett, T.S.; Lewis, R.E.; Dubourg, I.

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrates, which are naturally occurring ice-like combinations of gas and water, have the potential to provide vast amounts of natural gas from the world's oceans and polar regions. However, producing gas economically from hydrates entails major technical challenges. Proposed recovery methods such as dissociating or melting gas hydrates by heating or depressurization are currently being tested. One such test was conducted in northern Canada by the partners in the Mallik 2002 Gas Hydrate Production Research Well Program. This paper describes how resistivity logs were used to determine the size of the annular region of gas hydrate dissociation that occurred around the wellbore during the thermal test in the Mallik 5L-38 well. An open-hole logging suite, run prior to the thermal test, included array induction, array laterolog, nuclear magnetic resonance and 1.1-GHz electromagnetic propagation logs. The reservoir saturation tool was run both before and after the thermal test to monitor formation changes. A cased-hole formation resistivity log was run after the test.Baseline resistivity values in each formation layer (Rt) were established from the deep laterolog data. The resistivity in the region of gas hydrate dissociation near the wellbore (Rxo) was determined from electromagnetic propagation and reservoir saturation tool measurements. The radius of hydrate dissociation as a function of depth was then determined by means of iterative forward modeling of cased-hole formation resistivity tool response. The solution was obtained by varying the modeled dissociation radius until the modeled log overlaid the field log. Pretest gas hydrate production computer simulations had predicted that dissociation would take place at a uniform radius over the 13-ft test interval. However, the post-test resistivity modeling showed that this was not the case. The resistivity-derived dissociation radius was greatest near the outlet of the pipe that circulated hot water in the wellbore

  19. Red-emitting phosphor Rb2TiF6:Mn4+ with high thermal-quenching resistance for wide color-gamut white light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengliang; Yang, Zhiyu; Tan, Huiying; Brik, Mikhail G.; Zhou, Qiang; Chen, Guo; Liang, Hongbin

    2017-10-01

    Red-emitting phosphor plays a critical role in improving performance of the phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (pc-WLEDs). Herein, a red-emitting phosphor, Rb2TiF6:Mn4+, was synthesized via the ion exchange method under mild condition. The crystal structure and morphology were characterized by the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Rietveld refinements of Rb2TiF6:Mn4+ indicate that this sample is of single phase with hexagonal crystal structure. The as-prepared Rb2TiF6:Mn4+ has sharp red emissions with broad excitation band at ∼460 nm. The luminescent behavior of Mn4+ was discussed in detail. The temperature-dependent emission spectra of Rb2TiF6:Mn4+ indicate that this phosphor shares high thermal quenching resistance and excellent color stability. A series of WLEDs with tunable color rendering index and color temperature were fabricated by combining commercial Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ and Rb2TiF6:Mn4+ on blue GaN-LED chips. With the addition of Rb2TiF6:Mn4+, WLED with wide gamut was obtained with low color temperature (3123 K), high color rendering index (91.5) and high luminous efficacy (187.9 lm/W). These findings show this phosphor could be a promising commercial red phosphor in wide color-gamut WLEDs.

  20. Wind and boundary layers in Rayleigh-Bénard convection. II. Boundary layer character and scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reeuwijk, Maarten; Jonker, Harm J J; Hanjalić, Kemo

    2008-03-01

    The scaling of the kinematic boundary layer thickness lambda(u) and the friction factor C(f) at the top and bottom walls of Rayleigh-Bénard convection is studied by direct numerical simulation (DNS). By a detailed analysis of the friction factor, a new parameterisation for C(f) and lambda(u) is proposed. The simulations were made of an L/H=4 aspect-ratio domain with periodic lateral boundary conditions at Ra=(10(5), 10(6), 10(7), 10(8)) and Pr=1. The continuous spectrum, as well as significant forcing due to Reynolds stresses, clearly indicates a turbulent character of the boundary layer, while viscous effects cannot be neglected, judging from the scaling of classical integral boundary layer parameters with Reynolds number. Using a conceptual wind model, we find that the friction factor C(f) should scale proportionally to the thermal boundary layer thickness as C(f) proportional variant lambda(Theta)/H, while the kinetic boundary layer thickness lambda(u) scales inversely proportionally to the thermal boundary layer thickness and wind Reynolds number lambda(u)/H proportional variant (lambda(Theta)/H)(-1)Re(-1). The predicted trends for C(f) and lambda(u) are in agreement with DNS results.