WorldWideScience

Sample records for thermal battery cells

  1. Multi-Cell Thermal Battery, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The multi-cell thermal battery (MCTB) is a device that can recover a large fraction of the thermal energy from heated regolith and subsequently apply this energy to...

  2. Multi-Cell Thermal Battery, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The multi-cell thermal battery (MCTB) is a device that can recover a large fraction of the thermal energy from heated regolith and subsequently apply this energy to...

  3. Modelling Thermal Effects of Battery Cells inside Electric Vehicle Battery Packs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    The poster presents a methodology to account for thermal effects on battery cells to improve the typical thermal performances in a pack through heating calculations generally performed under the operating condition assumption. The aim is to analyze the issues based on battery thermo......-physical characteristics and their impact on the electrical state of battery cells(Khan, Mulder et al. 2013, Khan, Andreasen et al. 2014, Khan et al. 2014, Khan, Mulder et al. 2014, Khan, Nielsen et al. 2014). Based on this analysis, we derive strategies in achieving the goal, and then propose a battery thermal management...

  4. Thermal Imaging of Aerospace Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, Jack; Ramirez, Julian B.; Sullivan, David; Lee, Leonine; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    2006-01-01

    Surface Thermal Profiles of Eagle Picher rabbit-ear 50Ah NiH2 and of Saft 40 Ah Li-ion cylindrical cells have been studied using ThermCAM S60 FLIR Systems. Popping Phenomenon in NiH2 cell is demonstrated Temperature gradient in NiH2 is slightly higher than normally considered, for example. Middle of stack to top or bottom is about 12.9 C compared to <7 C (may be due to passive cooling). Less than 1 C thermal gradient on the Li-Ion cell vessel surface. Significantly lower heat generation in Li-Ion cell compared to NiH2 cell. -May be due to a favorable charge method used for Li-Ion cell.

  5. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  6. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The operating temperature is critical in achieving the right balance between performance, cost, and life for both Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. The chemistries of advanced energy-storage devices - such as lithium-based batteries - are very sensitive to operating temperature. High temperatures degrade batteries faster while low temperatures decrease their power and capacity, affecting vehicle range, performance, and cost. Understanding heat generation in battery systems - from the individual cells within a module, to the inter-connects between the cells, and across the entire battery system - is imperative for designing effective thermal-management systems and battery packs. At NREL, we have developed unique capabilities to measure the thermal properties of cells and evaluate thermal performance of battery packs (air or liquid cooled). We also use our electro-thermal finite element models to analyze the thermal performance of battery systems in order to aid battery developers with improved thermal designs. NREL's tools are used to meet the weight, life, cost, and volume goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy for electric drive vehicles.

  7. Can Cell to Cell Thermal Runaway Propagation be Prevented in a Li-ion Battery Module?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith; Lopez, Carlos; Orieukwu, Josephat

    2014-01-01

    Increasing cell spacing decreased adjacent cell damage center dotElectrically connected adjacent cells drained more than physically adjacent cells center dotRadiant barrier prevents propagation when fully installed between BP cells center dotBP cells vent rapidly and expel contents at 100% SOC -Slower vent with flame/smoke at 50% -Thermal runaway event typically occurs at 160 degC center dotLG cells vent but do not expel contents -Thermal runaway event typically occurs at 200 degC center dotSKC LFP modules did not propagate; fuses on negative terminal of cell may provide a benefit in reducing cell to cell damage propagation. New requirement in NASA-Battery Safety Requirements document: JSC 20793 Rev C 5.1.5.1 Requirements - Thermal Runaway Propagation a. For battery designs greater than a 80-Wh energy employing high specific energy cells (greater than 80 watt-hours/kg, for example, lithium-ion chemistries) with catastrophic failure modes, the battery shall be evaluated to ascertain the severity of a worst-case single-cell thermal runaway event and the propensity of the design to demonstrate cell-to-cell propagation in the intended application and environment. NASA has traditionally addressed the threat of thermal runaway incidents in its battery deployments through comprehensive prevention protocols. This prevention-centered approach has included extensive screening for manufacturing defects, as well as robust battery management controls that prevent abuse-induced runaway even in the face of multiple system failures. This focused strategy has made the likelihood of occurrence of such an event highly improbable. b. The evaluation shall include all necessary analysis and test to quantify the severity (consequence) of the event in the intended application and environment as well as to identify design modifications to the battery or the system that could appreciably reduce that severity. In addition to prevention protocols, programs developing battery designs with

  8. Characterization and modeling of the thermal mechanics of lithium-ion battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal swelling shape is different than Li-ion intercalation swelling shape. • Nonuniform temperature and gap creation leads to a convex shape at free conditions. • Important parameters of thermal mechanics are estimated through experiments. • A coupled thermal-structural analysis accurately predicts thermal swelling shape. • Nonuniform temperature still plays a critical role at pack conditions. - Abstract: The thermal mechanics of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is explored with a focus on thermal swelling. Experiments show for the first time that the swelling shape of prismatic battery cells due to temperature variations is significantly different from that due to Li-ion intercalation in unconstrained conditions. In contrast to uniform and orthotropic Li-ion intercalation swelling in a direction perpendicular to electrodes, the nonuniform temperature distribution in the jellyroll and the gaps/voids between electrodes result in distinguishable different swelling shapes. A unique coupled thermal-structural analysis with a simple, but efficient 3-D finite numerical model is proposed to investigate the impact of temperature variations on the thermal behaviors of battery cells. Anisotropic heat conduction and temperature dependency of the coefficient of thermal expansion are taken into account and found to have an impact on temperature distribution and thermal expansion. Experimental validation of the proposed model clearly demonstrates that the coupled thermal-structural analysis with the proposed model can predict accurately the thermal swelling at unconstrained conditions. The solution at pack (constrained) conditions shows that the nonuniform temperature distribution of the jellyroll still plays a critical role for the thermal swelling shape, although the gaps/voids do not occur because of the constraints from spacers in the pack, suggesting that the estimation of core temperature is important. Such an accurate model, able to estimate cell

  9. Fast Thermal Runaway Detection for Lithium-Ion Cells in Large Scale Traction Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Koch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal runaway of single cells within a large scale lithium-ion battery is a well-known risk that can lead to critical situations if no counter measures are taken in today’s lithium-ion traction batteries for battery electric vehicles (BEVs, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. The United Nations have published a draft global technical regulation on electric vehicle safety (GTR EVS describing a safety feature to warn passengers in case of a thermal runaway. Fast and reliable detection of faulty cells undergoing thermal runaway within the lithium-ion battery is therefore a key factor in battery designs for comprehensive passenger safety. A set of various possible sensors has been chosen based on the determined cell thermal runaway impact. These sensors have been tested in different sized battery setups and compared with respect to their ability of fast and reliable thermal runaway detection and their feasibility for traction batteries.

  10. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  11. Considerations for the Thermal Modeling of Lithium-Ion Cells for Battery Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickman, Steven L.; Christie, Robert J.; White, Ralph E.

    Recent well-publicized events involving lithium-ion batteries in laptops, electric cars, commercial aircraft and even hover boards have raised concerns regarding thermal runaway -- a phenomenon in which stored energy in a cell is rapidly released as heat along with vented effluents. If not properly...

  12. Two-dimensional Thermal Modeling of Lithium-ion Battery Cell Based on Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Thermal modeling of lithium-ion batteries is gaining its importance together with increasing power density and compact design of the modern battery systems in order to assure battery safety and long lifetime. Thermal models of lithium-ion batteries are usually either expensive to develop and accu...

  13. Coupled electro-thermal field in a high current electrolysis cell or liquid metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liwei; Ni, Haiou; Lu, Gui-Min; Yu, Jian-Guo

    2018-01-01

    Coupled electro-thermal field exists widely in chemical batteries and electrolysis industry. In this study, a three-dimensional numerical model, which is based on the finite-element software ANSYS, has been built to simulate the electro-thermal field in a magnesium electrolysis cell. The adjustment of the relative position of the anode and cathode can change the energy consumption of the magnesium electrolysis process significantly. Besides, the current intensity has a nonlinear effect on heat balance, and the effects of heat transfer coefficients, electrolysis and air temperature on the heat balance have been released to maintain the thermal stability in a magnesium electrolysis cell. The relationship between structure as well as process parameters and electro-thermal field has been obtained and the simulation results can provide experience for the scale-up design in liquid metal batteries. PMID:29515848

  14. Coupled electro-thermal field in a high current electrolysis cell or liquid metal batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ze; Cai, Liwei; Ni, Haiou; Lu, Gui-Min; Yu, Jian-Guo

    2018-02-01

    Coupled electro-thermal field exists widely in chemical batteries and electrolysis industry. In this study, a three-dimensional numerical model, which is based on the finite-element software ANSYS, has been built to simulate the electro-thermal field in a magnesium electrolysis cell. The adjustment of the relative position of the anode and cathode can change the energy consumption of the magnesium electrolysis process significantly. Besides, the current intensity has a nonlinear effect on heat balance, and the effects of heat transfer coefficients, electrolysis and air temperature on the heat balance have been released to maintain the thermal stability in a magnesium electrolysis cell. The relationship between structure as well as process parameters and electro-thermal field has been obtained and the simulation results can provide experience for the scale-up design in liquid metal batteries.

  15. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  16. Enabling fast charging - Battery thermal considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Matthew; Pesaran, Ahmad; Li, Qibo; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Dufek, Eric; Shirk, Matthew; Meintz, Andrew; Kreuzer, Cory; Michelbacher, Christopher; Burnham, Andrew; Stephens, Thomas; Francfort, James; Carlson, Barney; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Hardy, Keith; Dias, Fernando; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Scoffield, Don; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Markel, Anthony

    2017-11-01

    Battery thermal barriers are reviewed with regards to extreme fast charging. Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today's market. Thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

  17. A new approach to the internal thermal management of cylindrical battery cells for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worwood, Daniel; Kellner, Quirin; Wojtala, Malgorzata; Widanage, W. D.; McGlen, Ryan; Greenwood, David; Marco, James

    2017-04-01

    Conventional cooling approaches that target either a singular tab or outer surface of common format cylindrical lithium-ion battery cells suffer from a high cell thermal resistance. Under an aggressive duty cycle, this resistance can result in the formation of large in-cell temperature gradients and high hot spot temperatures, which are known to accelerate ageing and further reduce performance. In this paper, a novel approach to internal thermal management of cylindrical battery cells to lower the thermal resistance for heat transport through the inside of the cell is investigated. The effectiveness of the proposed method is analysed for two common cylindrical formats when subject to highly aggressive electrical loading conditions representative of a high performance electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). A mathematical model that captures the dominant thermal properties of the cylindrical cell is created and validated using experimental data. Results from the extensive simulation study indicate that the internal cooling strategy can reduce the cell thermal resistance by up to 67.8 ± 1.4% relative to single tab cooling, and can emulate the performance of a more complex pack-level double tab cooling approach whilst targeting cooling at a single tab.

  18. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal (ECT) Models for Battery Crush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Pesaran, Ahmad; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbicki, Tom

    2016-06-14

    Vehicle crashes can lead to crushing of the battery, damaging lithium ion battery cells and causing local shorts, heat generation, and thermal runaway. Simulating all the physics and geometries at the same time is challenging and takes a lot of effort; thus, simplifications are needed. We developed a material model for simultaneously modeling the mechanical-electrochemical-thermal behavior, which predicted the electrical short, voltage drop, and thermal runaway behaviors followed by a mechanical abuse-induced short. The effect of short resistance on the battery cell performance was studied.

  19. Enhanced thermal property measurement of a silver zinc battery cell using isothermal calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubelhor, Ryan; Ellison, Daniel; Pierce, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Design and construction of novel heat flow calorimeter for large battery cell. • Heat flow characterization of silver zinc battery under load. • Thermal efficiency determination of silver zinc battery under load. • Surface map of heat flow of silver zinc battery under load. - Abstract: The push for increased energy density of electrochemical cells highlights the need for novel electrochemical techniques as well as additional characterization methods for these cells in order to meet user needs and safety requirements. To achieve ever increasing energy densities and faster controlled release of that energy, all materials of construction must be constantly evaluated from electrode to casing and everything in-between. Increasing the energy density of the cell improves its utility, but it also increases the waste heat and maximum potential uncontrolled energy release. Design agents and system developers need new ways to monitor and classify the probability and severity of the catastrophic failures as well as the system characteristics during intended operation. To support optimization of these battery cells it is necessary to understand their thermal characteristics at rest as well as under prescribed charge and discharge cycles. One of the many calorimetric tools available to observe and record these characteristics is heat flow calorimetry. Typically, a heat flow calorimeter is operated isothermally and measures the sum heat released or consumed by a sample material inside of a calorimetric measuring cell. For this study an improved calorimetric measuring cell for a modified Hart 6209 precision temperature bath was designed and constructed to measure the heat flow of larger electrochemical cells (18 × 8 × 16 cm). This new calorimetric measuring cell is constructed to allow independent measurements of heat flow among each of the sample’s six sides in contrast to the typical one measurement of the average heat flow. Heat flows from 0.01 to 7

  20. Multiphysics Based Thermal Modeling of a Pouch Lithium-Ion Battery Cell for the Development of Pack Level Thermal Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    The research is focused on the development of a three-dimensional cell level multiphysics battery thermal model. The primary aim is to represent the cooling mechanism inside the unit cell battery pack. It is accomplished through the coupling of heat transfer and computational fluid dynamics (CFD)...

  1. Thermal investigation of lithium-ion battery module with different cell arrangement structures and forced air-cooling strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Tseng, K.J.; Zhao, Jiyun; Wei, Zhongbao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional CFD model with forced air cooling are developed for battery modules. • Impact of different air cooling strategies on module thermal characteristics are investigated. • Impact of different model structures on module thermal responses are investigated. • Effect of inter-cell spacing on cell thermal characteristics are also studied. • The optimal battery module structure and air cooling strategy is recommended. - Abstract: Thermal management needs to be carefully considered in the lithium-ion battery module design to guarantee the temperature of batteries in operation within a narrow optimal range. This article firstly explores the thermal performance of battery module under different cell arrangement structures, which includes: 1 × 24, 3 × 8 and 5 × 5 arrays rectangular arrangement, 19 cells hexagonal arrangement and 28 cells circular arrangement. In addition, air-cooling strategies are also investigated by installing the fans in the different locations of the battery module to improve the temperature uniformity. Factors that influence the cooling capability of forced air cooling are discussed based on the simulations. The three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method and lumped model of single cell have been applied in the simulation. The temperature distributions of batteries are quantitatively described based on different module patterns, fan locations as well as inter-cell distance, and the conclusions are arrived as follows: when the fan locates on top of the module, the best cooling performance is achieved; the most desired structure with forced air cooling is cubic arrangement concerning the cooling effect and cost, while hexagonal structure is optimal when focus on the space utilization of battery module. Besides, the optimized inter-cell distance in battery module structure has been recommended

  2. Thermal management analysis of a Li-ion battery cell using phase change material loaded with carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samimi, Fereshteh; Babapoor, Aziz; Azizi, Mohammadmehdi; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    High latent heat of PCMs (phase change materials) has made them as one of the most important materials for thermal management purposes. However, PCMs’ low thermal diffusivities could limit their use in applications which require fast thermal response. The goal of this study is to simulate thermal performance of a lithium ion battery cell in the presence of carbon fiber-PCM composites. The effect of carbon fiber loading within the PCM on thermal performance is studied and the results are compared with the experimental data. The results showed that the presence of carbon fibers increases the effective thermal conductivity of PCM and hence influences temperature distribution within the cell. PCM composites containing higher percentages of carbon fibers present a more uniform temperature distribution. The results showed that the minimum and maximum thermal conductivity enhancement of 85% and 155% respectively (105% on average). A reasonable agreement is obtained between the simulation results and the experimental data. - Highlights: • Phase change materials (PCMs) are used for thermal management purposes. • Effective thermal conductivity of PCMs can be enhanced by loading carbon fibers. • Thermal performance of a battery is studied in presence of carbon fiber loaded PCM. • The presence of carbon fibers in the PCM can improve Li-ion battery performance.

  3. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Brad [Denso International America, Incorporated, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  4. Streamline three-dimensional thermal model of a lithium titanate pouch cell battery in extreme temperature conditions with module simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaguemont, Joris; Omar, Noshin; Martel, François; Van den Bossche, Peter; Van Mierlo, Joeri

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the development of a three-dimensional (3D) lithium titanium oxide (LTO) pouch cell is presented to first better comprehend its thermal behavior within electrified vehicle applications, but also to propose a strong modeling base for future thermal management system. Current 3D-thermal models are based on electrochemical reactions which are in need for elaborated meshing effort and long computational time. There lacks a fast electro-thermal model which can capture voltage, current and thermal distribution variation during the whole process. The proposed thermal model is a reduce-effort temperature simulation approach involving a 0D-electrical model accommodating a 3D-thermal model to exclude electrochemical processes. The thermal model is based on heat-transfer theory and its temperature distribution prediction incorporates internal conduction and heat generation effect as well as convection. In addition, experimental tests are conducted to validate the model. Results show that both the heat dissipation rate and surface temperature uniformity data are in agreement with simulation results, which satisfies the application requirements for electrified vehicles. Additionally, a LTO battery pack sizing and modeling is also designed, applied and displays a non-uniformity of the cells under driving operation. Ultimately, the model will serve as a basis for the future development of a thermal strategy for LTO cells that operate in a large temperature range, which is a strong contribution to the existing body of scientific literature.

  5. Symposium on Electrochemical and Thermal Modeling of Battery, Fuel Cell, and Photoenergy Conversion Systems, San Diego, CA, Oct. 20-22, 1986, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, J. Robert; Maru, Hans C.

    Papers are presented on modeling of the zinc chlorine battery, design modeling of zinc/bromine battery systems, the modeling of aluminum-air battery systems, and a point defect model for a nickel electrode structure. Also considered are the impedance of a tubular electrode under laminar flow, mathematical modeling of a LiAl/Cl2 cell with a gas diffusion Cl2 electrode, ultrahigh power batteries, and battery thermal modeling. Other topics include an Na/beta-alumina/NaAlCl4, Cl2/C circulating cell, leakage currents in electrochemical systems having common electrodes, modeling for CO poisoning of a fuel cell anode, electrochemical corrosion of carbonaceous materials, and electrolyte management in molten carbonate fuel cells.

  6. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  7. Thermal Battery Systems for Ordnance Fuzing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Characteriza- (63) J. DeGruson and R. Spencer, Improved tion of Aged, Unactivated Thermal Battery Thermal Battery Performance, Eagle - Picher In- Components, U.S...AFB ATTN F. TEPPER WASHINGTON, DC 20332 1421 CLARKVIEW RD BALTIMORE, MD 21209 EAGLE - PICHER INDUSTRIES ATTN R. COTTINGRAM MR. GEORGE J. METHLIE PO BOX...PERIOD COVERED Technical Report Thermal Battery Systems for Ordnance Fuzing TechnicalReport 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) B

  8. Thermal Runaway Severity Reduction Assessment and Implementation: On Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Preventing cell-cell thermal runaway propagation and flames/sparks from exiting battery enclosure is possible with proper thermal & electrical design and cell thermal runaway ejecta/effluent management and can be had with minimal mass/volume penalty.

  9. Performance Degradation of Thermal Parameters during Cycle Ageing of High Energy Density Ni-Mn-Co based Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The accelerated demand for electrifying the transportation sector, coupled with the continuous improvement of rechargeable batteries’ characteristics, have made modern high-energy Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries the standard choice for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs). Consequently, Li......-ion batteries’ electrochemical and thermal characteristics are very important topics, putting them at the forefront of the research. Along with the electrical performance of Li-ion battery cells, their thermal behavior needs to be accurately predicted during operation and over the lifespan of the application...

  10. Modeling of Li-Ion Battery Packs as Basis for Design of Battery Thermal Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu

    Li-ion batteries are one of the most popular battery types on the market, due to their prime properties such as high capacity, low self-discharge rate, zero-maintenance, high energy density and long lifetime. However, safety still remains a major drawback, due to overheating and thermal runaway...... conservation equations, and the results were compared against experimental data from the open literature; 2. A simplified thermal runaway model for investigating the propagation of thermal runaway in a battery pack designed by NASA for astronaut spacesuits. A simplified model was initially built for single...... battery cells with an internal short circuit device (ISCD) implanted inside, used for triggering thermal runaway at low temperatures. The simplified lumped model was then coupled with a 2D thermal FEM for investigating the pack design. The simplification consists of implementing an efficiency factor term...

  11. Li-ion battery thermal runaway suppression system using microchannel coolers and refrigerant injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandhauer, Todd M.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-11-08

    A battery management system with thermally integrated fire suppression includes a multiplicity of individual battery cells in a housing; a multiplicity of cooling passages in the housing within or between the multiplicity of individual battery cells; a multiplicity of sensors operably connected to the individual battery cells, the sensors adapted to detect a thermal runaway event related to one or more of the multiplicity of individual battery cells; and a management system adapted to inject coolant into at least one of the multiplicity of cooling passages upon the detection of the thermal runaway event by the any one of the multiplicity of sensors, so that the thermal runaway event is rapidly quenched.

  12. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal Models for Battery Crush; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad; Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbiki, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Propagation of failure in lithium-ion batteries during field events or under abuse is a strong function of the mechanical response of the different components in the battery. Whereas thermal and electrochemical models that capture the abuse response of batteries have been developed and matured over the years, the interaction between the mechanical behavior and the thermal response of these batteries is not very well understood. With support from the Department of Energy, NREL has made progress in coupling mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical lithium-ion models to predict the initiation and propagation of short circuits under external crush in a cell. The challenge with a cell crush simulation is to estimate the magnitude and location of the short. To address this, the model includes an explicit representation of each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc., and predicts their mechanical deformation under different crush scenarios. Initial results show reasonable agreement with experiments. In this presentation, the versatility of the approach for use with different design factors, cell formats and chemistries is explored using examples.

  13. Adaptive thermal modeling of Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadman Rad, M.; Danilov, D.L.; Baghalha, M.; Kazemeini, M.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple, accurate and adaptive thermal model is proposed for Li-ion batteries. • Equilibrium voltages, overpotentials and entropy changes are quantified from experimental results. • Entropy changes are highly dependent on the battery State-of-Charge. • Good agreement between simulated and measured heat development is obtained under all conditions. • Radiation contributes to about 50% of heat dissipation at elevated temperatures. -- Abstract: An accurate thermal model to predict the heat generation in rechargeable batteries is an essential tool for advanced thermal management in high power applications, such as electric vehicles. For such applications, the battery materials’ details and cell design are normally not provided. In this work a simple, though accurate, thermal model for batteries has been developed, considering the temperature- and current-dependent overpotential heat generation and State-of-Charge dependent entropy contributions. High power rechargeable Li-ion (7.5 Ah) batteries have been experimentally investigated and the results are used for model verification. It is shown that the State-of-Charge dependent entropy is a significant heat source and is therefore essential to correctly predict the thermal behavior of Li-ion batteries under a wide variety of operating conditions. An adaptive model is introduced to obtain these entropy values. A temperature-dependent equation for heat transfer to the environment is also taken into account. Good agreement between the simulations and measurements is obtained in all cases. The parameters for both the heat generation and heat transfer processes can be applied to the thermal design of advanced battery packs. The proposed methodology is generic and independent on the cell chemistry and battery design. The parameters for the adaptive model can be determined by performing simple cell potential/current and temperature measurements for a limited number of charge/discharge cycles

  14. Thermal Model Parameter Identification of a Lithium Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Nissing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of a Lithium battery cell is important for its performance, efficiency, safety, and capacity and is influenced by the environmental temperature and by the charging and discharging process itself. Battery Management Systems (BMS take into account this effect. As the temperature at the battery cell is difficult to measure, often the temperature is measured on or nearby the poles of the cell, although the accuracy of predicting the cell temperature with those quantities is limited. Therefore a thermal model of the battery is used in order to calculate and estimate the cell temperature. This paper uses a simple RC-network representation for the thermal model and shows how the thermal parameters are identified using input/output measurements only, where the load current of the battery represents the input while the temperatures at the poles represent the outputs of the measurement. With a single measurement the eight model parameters (thermal resistances, electric contact resistances, and heat capacities can be determined using the method of least-square. Experimental results show that the simple model with the identified parameters fits very accurately to the measurements.

  15. Battery management systems with thermally integrated fire suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandhauer, Todd M.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2017-07-11

    A thermal management system is integral to a battery pack and/or individual cells. It relies on passive liquid-vapor phase change heat removal to provide enhanced thermal protection via rapid expulsion of inert high pressure refrigerant during abnormal abuse events and can be integrated with a cooling system that operates during normal operation. When a thermal runaway event occurs and sensed by either active or passive sensors, the high pressure refrigerant is preferentially ejected through strategically placed passages within the pack to rapidly quench the battery.

  16. A review on battery thermal management in electric vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guodong; Cao, Lei; Bi, Guanglong

    2017-11-01

    The global issues of energy crisis and air pollution have offered a great opportunity to develop electric vehicles. However, so far, cycle life of power battery, environment adaptability, driving range and charging time seems far to compare with the level of traditional vehicles with internal combustion engine. Effective battery thermal management (BTM) is absolutely essential to relieve this situation. This paper reviews the existing literature from two levels that are cell level and battery module level. For single battery, specific attention is paid to three important processes which are heat generation, heat transport, and heat dissipation. For large format cell, multi-scale multi-dimensional coupled models have been developed. This will facilitate the investigation on factors, such as local irreversible heat generation, thermal resistance, current distribution, etc., that account for intrinsic temperature gradients existing in cell. For battery module based on air and liquid cooling, series, series-parallel and parallel cooling configurations are discussed. Liquid cooling strategies, especially direct liquid cooling strategies, are reviewed and they may advance the battery thermal management system to a new generation.

  17. TERRA Battery Thermal Control Anomaly - Simulation and Corrective Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    The TERRA spacecraft was launched in December 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, becoming the flagship of NASA's Earth Observing System program to gather data on how the planet's processes create climate. Originally planned as a 5 year mission, it still provides valuable science data after nearly 10 years on orbit. On October 13th, 2009 at 16:23z following a routine inclination maneuver, TERRA experienced a battery cell failure and a simultaneous failure of several battery heater control circuits used to maintain cell temperatures and gradients within the battery. With several cells nearing the minimum survival temperature, preventing the electrolyte from freezing was the first priority. After several reset attempts and power cycling of the control electronics failed to reestablish control authority on the primary side of the controller, it was switched to the redundant side, but anomalous performance again prevented full heater control of the battery cells. As the investigation into the cause of the anomaly and corrective action continued, a battery thermal model was developed to be used in determining the control ability remaining and to simulate and assess corrective actions. Although no thermal model or detailed reference data of the battery was available, sufficient information was found to allow a simplified model to be constructed, correlated against pre-anomaly telemetry, and used to simulate the thermal behavior at several points after the anomaly. It was then used to simulate subsequent corrective actions to assess their impact on cell temperatures. This paper describes the rapid development of this thermal model, including correlation to flight data before and after the anomaly., along with a comparative assessment of the analysis results used to interpret the telemetry to determine the extent of damage to the thermal control hardware, with near-term corrective actions and long-term operations plan to overcome the anomaly.

  18. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  19. Coupled electrochemical thermal modelling of a novel Li-ion battery pack thermal management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Suman; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Song, Taewon; Sohn, Dong Kee; Yeo, Taejung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional electrochemical thermal model of Li-ion battery pack using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). • Novel pack design for compact liquid cooling based thermal management system. • Simple temperature estimation algorithm for the cells in the pack using the results from the model. • Sensitivity of the thermal performance to contact resistance has been investigated. - Abstract: Thermal management system is of critical importance for a Li-ion battery pack, as high performance and long battery pack life can be simultaneously achieved when operated within a narrow range of temperature around the room temperature. An efficient thermal management system is required to keep the battery temperature in this range, despite widely varying operating conditions. A novel liquid coolant based thermal management system, for 18,650 battery pack has been introduced herein. This system is designed to be compact and economical without compromising safety. A coupled three-dimensional (3D) electrochemical thermal model is constructed for the proposed Li-ion battery pack. The model is used to evaluate the effects of different operating conditions like coolant flow-rate and discharge current on the pack temperature. Contact resistance is found to have the strongest impact on the thermal performance of the pack. From the numerical solution, a simple and novel temperature correlation of predicting the temperatures of all the individual cells given the temperature measurement of one cell is devised and validated with experimental results. Such coefficients have great potential of reducing the sensor requirement and complexity in a large Li-ion battery pack, typical of an electric vehicle.

  20. Towards an Ultimate Battery Thermal Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    The prevailing standards and scientific literature offer a wide range of options for the construction of a battery thermal management system (BTMS). The design of an innovative yet well-functioning BTMS requires strict supervision, quality audit and continuous improvement of the whole process. It...

  1. Electrothermal impedance spectroscopy as a cost efficient method for determining thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    , thermal modelling of lithium-ion battery cells and battery packs is gaining importance. Equivalent thermal circuits' models have proven to be relatively accurate with a low computational burden for the price of low spatial resolution; nevertheless, they usually require expensive equipment...... for thermal characterization of batteries. The scientific intention of this paper is to collect and systematize the state of knowledge about electrothermal impedance spectroscopy and present different measurement methods on the example of a high-power lithium battery cell and finally to discuss the prospect....

  2. Performance evaluation of thermally treated graphite felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow battery and their four-point single cell characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazúr, P.; Mrlík, J.; Beneš, J.; Pocedič, J.; Vrána, J.; Dundálek, J.; Kosek, J.

    2018-03-01

    In our contribution we study the electrocatalytic effect of oxygen functionalization of thermally treated graphite felt on kinetics of electrode reactions of vanadium redox flow battery. Chemical and morphological changes of the felts are analysed by standard physico-chemical characterization techniques. A complex method four-point method is developed and employed for characterization of the felts in a laboratory single-cell. The method is based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and load curves measurements of positive and negative half-cells using platinum wire pseudo-reference electrodes. The distribution of ohmic and faradaic losses within a single-cell is evaluated for both symmetric and asymmetric electrode set-up with respect to the treatment conditions. Positive effect of oxygen functionalization is observed only for negative electrode, whereas kinetics of positive electrode reaction is almost unaffected by the treatment. This is in a contradiction to the results of typically employed cyclovoltammetric characterization which indicate that both electrodes are enhanced by the treatment to a similar extent. The developed four-point characterization method can be further used e.g., for the component screening and in-situ durability studies on single-cell scale redox flow batteries of various chemistries.

  3. Three Dimensional Thermal Modeling of Li-Ion Battery Pack Based on Multiphysics and Calorimetric Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    . Inside the battery cells in the pack a lumped value of heat generation (HG), that works as a volumetric heat source, is used. The measured HG stems from the cell level isothermal calorimeter experiment. The batteries inside the pack stay in the same initial thermal state in the simulation case. The pack...

  4. Engineering process instructions and development summary MC3642 thermal battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D.

    1981-06-01

    The MC3642 is a dual channel thermal battery used on the DE1010/W85 Command Disable Controller. It utilizes the CalCaCrO{sub 4} electrochemical system. The electrical requirements of this battery are as follows: RISE TIME PEAK VOLTAGE ACTIVE LIFE LOAD Channel 1 - 1.0 Sec. Max. 34 Volts 10 Sec. Min. 40.0 Ohms to 20 Volts above 20 Volts Channel 2 - .350 Sec. Max. 42 Volts 10 MSec. Min. 6.5 Ohms to 23 Volts above 23 Volts The battery consists of 14 cells connected in series (Channel 2) and 12 cells connected in series (Channel 1). Each cell is composed of an anode fabricated from a bimetallic sheet (0.005{double_prime} thick calcium on 0.005{double_prime} thick iron substrate), a depolarizer-electrolyte-binder (DEB) pellet and a heat pellet. Activation is achieved by mechanical primer. Optimum battery performance is achieved with a 35155/10 DEB pellet weighing .80g and a heat pellet, weighing 1.30 grams, of 88/12 heat powder.

  5. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  6. Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy as a Cost Efficient Method for Determining Thermal Parameters of Lithium Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    -ion battery cells and battery packs is gaining importance. Equivalent thermal circuits’ models have proven to be relatively accurate with low computational burden for the price of low spatial resolution; nevertheless, they usually require expensive equipment for parametrization. Recent research initiated...... by Barsoukov et al. proposed electrothermal impedance spectroscopy (ETIS) as a novel and non-destructive method of characterizing the thermal properties of batteries by defining frequency dependent thermal impedance. This paper aims to systematize the state of knowledge about ETIS, presents measurement methods...

  7. Thermal modeling. Application to lithium batteries; Modelisation thermique. Application aux accumulateurs lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandre, A. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d`Aerotechnique (ENSMA), 86 - Poitiers (France); Flament, P. [SAFT, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Marolleau, T. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France); Guiot, T.; Lefriec, C. [TSR Futuropolis, 86 - Chasseneuil du Poitou (France)

    1996-12-31

    The thermal modeling of electrochemical batteries is today an integral part of the design and validation operations of new products. The Li-ion pair allows to increase the power density of batteries but leads to higher heat fluxes during charging-output cycles. Thus, the thermal control has become more crucial and requires the use of modeling. SAFT and TSR companies are involved in this approach and use the ESACAP software. This paper presents this software which uses a nodal method for the modeling of the coupled thermal and electrical processes that take place inside elementary cells and batteries. (J.S.)

  8. Limiting factors to advancing thermal battery technology for naval applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patrick B.; Winchester, Clinton S.

    1991-10-01

    Thermal batteries are primary reserve electrochemical power sources using molten salt electrolyte which experience little effective aging while in storage or dormant deployment. Thermal batteries are primarily used in military applications, and are currently used in a wide variety of Navy devices such as missiles, torpedoes, decays, and training targets, usually as power supplies in guidance, propulsion, and Safe/Arm applications. Technology developments have increased the available energy and power density ratings by an order of magnitude in the last ten years. Present thermal batteries, using lithium anodes and metal sulfide cathodes, are capable of performing applications where only less rugged and more expensive silver oxide/zinc or silver/magnesium chloride seawater batteries could serve previously. Additionally, these batteries are capable of supplanting lithium/thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal battery energy and power density capabilities are not projected to continue with the current available technology. Several battery designs are now at the edge of feasibility and safety. Since future naval systems are likely to require continued growth of battery energy and power densities, there must be significant advances in battery technology. Specifically, anode alloy composition and new cathode materials must be investigated to allow for safe development and deployment of these high power, higher energy density batteries.

  9. Gas Analysis and Control Methods for Thermal Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    HURST 3 EAGLE PICHER TECHNOLOGIES LLC (PDFS) JIM FERRARO CHARLEY LAMB DHARMESH BHAKTA 3 THE ENSER CORPORATION (PDFS) ROY JACKSON...Gas Analysis and Control Methods for Thermal Batteries by Frank C. Krieger and Michael S. Ding ARL-TR-6665 September 2013...September 2013 Gas Analysis and Control Methods for Thermal Batteries Frank C. Krieger and Michael S. Ding Sensors and Electron Devices

  10. Heat Transfer in the LCCM Thermal Reserve Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    CEDEX ALLEE SAINTE HELENE 18021 FRANCE 4 EAGLE PICHER TECHNOLOGIES, LLC ATTN C LAMB ATTN J FERRARO ATTN M STEELE ATTN R...Heat Transfer in the LCCM Thermal Reserve Battery by Frank C. Krieger and Michael Ding ARL-TR-4843 September 2009...Transfer in the LCCM Thermal Reserve Battery Frank C. Krieger and Michael Ding Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL

  11. Experimental performances of a battery thermal management system using a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hémery, Charles-Victor; Pra, Franck; Robin, Jean-François; Marty, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Li-ion batteries are leading candidates for mobility because electric vehicles (EV) are an environmentally friendly mean of transport. With age, Li-ion cells show a more resistive behavior leading to extra heat generation. Another kind of problem called thermal runway arises when the cell is too hot, what happens in case of overcharge or short circuit. In order to evaluate the effect of these defects at the whole battery scale, an air-cooled battery module was built and tested, using electrical heaters instead of real cells for safety reasons. A battery thermal management system based on a phase change material is developed in that study. This passive system is coupled with an active liquid cooling system in order to initialize the battery temperature at the melting of the PCM. This initialization, or PCM solidification, can be performed during a charge for example, in other words when the energy from the network is available.

  12. Simulation and experiment of thermal energy management with phase change material for ageing LiFePO4 power battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Zhonghao; Wang Shuangfeng; Zhang Guoqing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We study the thermal energy management performance of ageing LiFePO 4 power battery. → 3-D modules of single cell and battery pack are formulated according to the experimental results. → Thermal resistance in the battery cell leaded to an inevitable temperature difference. → It is necessary to improve the thermal conductivity and lower the melting point of phase change material. → Thermal conductivity of phase change material and battery exist an effective proportion. - Abstract: Thermal energy management performance of ageing commercial rectangular LiFePO 4 power batteries using phase change material (PCM) and thermal behavior related to thermal conductivity between the PCM and the cell are discussed in this paper. The heat sources are simplified according to the experimental results of the cells discharged at 35 A (∼5 C). 3-D modules of a single cell and battery pack are formulated, respectively. The results show that the thermal resistance in the cell leads to an inevitable temperature difference. It is necessary to improve the thermal conductivity and to lower the melting point of the PCM for heat transfer enhancement. The PCM with a melting point lower than 45 deg. C will be more effective for heat dissipation, with a desired maximum temperature below 50 deg. C. The temperature difference in the whole unit before PCM melting will be decreased significantly. In addition, a proper k PCM :k c is necessary for a well designed battery thermal energy management system.

  13. Electro-thermal modelling of polymer lithium batteries for starting period and pulse power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudry, P. [Electricite de France DER, Site des Renardieres, Moret-sur-Loing (France); Neri, M. [Electricite de France DER, Site des Renardieres, Moret-sur-Loing (France); Gueguen, M. [Bollore Technologies, Odet, 29 Quimper (France); Lonchampt, G. [CEA/CEREM, CENG-85X, 38 Grenoble (France)

    1995-04-01

    Since power capabilities of solid polymer lithium batteries can only be delivered above 60 C, the thermal management in electric-vehicle applications has to be carefully considered. Electro-thermal modelling of a thermally insulated 200 kg battery was performed, and electrochemical data were obtained from laboratory cell impedance measurements at 20 and 80 C. Starting at 20 C as initial working temperature, the battery reaches 40 C after 150 s of discharge in a 0.5 {Omega} resistance. At 40 C, the useful peak power is 20 kW. The energy expense for heating the battery from 20 to 40 C is 1.4 kWh, corresponding to 6% of the energy available in the battery. After a stand-by period of 24 h, the temperature decreases from 80 to 50 C, allowing efficient starting conditions. (orig.)

  14. A review of thermal management and safety for lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    Decreasing of fossil fuel sources and ecological worries has spurred global attention in the expansion of developing energy storing systems for electric vehicles (EVs). As a consequence of escalating appeal on new dependable power supplier for hybrid electric vehicles, lithium-ion (Li...... that make them interesting for researchers and producers. Thermal problem related to electric vehicle (EV) battery packs has been a matter of contention and can considerably influence battery functioning and life cycle. Temperature variations from module to module in a battery pack could result in reduced...... performance. Therefore,thermal management of batteries is essential for various purposes containing thermal runaway and longstanding of cell functioning period. The favorable outcome of electricdriven vehicles (EDVs) depends on the lithium-ion battery technology. Notwithstanding, the safety concern...

  15. Multiscale modeling of lithium ion batteries: thermal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulf Latz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries has a huge impact on their lifetime and the initiation of degradation processes. The development of hot spots or large local overpotentials leading, e.g., to lithium metal deposition depends on material properties as well as on the nano- und microstructure of the electrodes. In recent years a theoretical structure emerges, which opens the possibility to establish a systematic modeling strategy from atomistic to continuum scale to capture and couple the relevant phenomena on each scale. We outline the building blocks for such a systematic approach and discuss in detail a rigorous approach for the continuum scale based on rational thermodynamics and homogenization theories. Our focus is on the development of a systematic thermodynamically consistent theory for thermal phenomena in batteries at the microstructure scale and at the cell scale. We discuss the importance of carefully defining the continuum fields for being able to compare seemingly different phenomenological theories and for obtaining rules to determine unknown parameters of the theory by experiments or lower-scale theories. The resulting continuum models for the microscopic and the cell scale are numerically solved in full 3D resolution. The complex very localized distributions of heat sources in a microstructure of a battery and the problems of mapping these localized sources on an averaged porous electrode model are discussed by comparing the detailed 3D microstructure-resolved simulations of the heat distribution with the result of the upscaled porous electrode model. It is shown, that not all heat sources that exist on the microstructure scale are represented in the averaged theory due to subtle cancellation effects of interface and bulk heat sources. Nevertheless, we find that in special cases the averaged thermal behavior can be captured very well by porous electrode theory.

  16. A coupled thermal and electrochemical study of lithium-ion battery cooled by paraffin/porous-graphite-matrix composite

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Angelo; Jiang, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cooling using a phase change material (PCM)/compressed expanded natural graphite (CENG) composite is investigated, for a cylindrical battery cell and for a battery module scale. An electrochemistry model (average model) is coupled to the thermal model, with the addition of a one-dimensional model for the solution and solid diffusion using the nodal network method. The analysis of the temperature distribution of the battery module scale has shown that a two-dimensi...

  17. Unexpected Type of Failure of Thermal Battery Resulting in a Near Miss to a Serious Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Daena Kei [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    On 6/26/2015 at 1445 in 894/136, a thermal battery (approximately the size of a commercial size C cell) experienced an unexpected failure following a routine test where the battery is activated. The failure occurred while a test operator was transferring the battery from the testing primary containment box to another containment box within the same room; initial indications are that the battery package ruptured after it went into thermal runaway which led to the operator receiving bruising to the palm of the hand from the pressure of the expulsion. The operator was wearing the prescribed PPE, which was safety glasses and a high temperature glove on the hand that was holding the battery.

  18. Carbon nanotube: nanodiamond Li-ion battery cathodes with increased thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Ruben; Lee, Eungiee; Shevchenko, Elena V.; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2016-10-01

    Prevention of excess heat accumulation within the Li-ion battery cells is a critical design consideration for electronic and photonic device applications. Many existing approaches for heat removal from batteries increase substantially the complexity and overall weight of the battery. Some of us have previously shown a possibility of effective passive thermal management of Li-ion batteries via improvement of thermal conductivity of cathode and anode material1. In this presentation, we report the results of our investigation of the thermal conductivity of various Li-ion cathodes with incorporated carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds in different layered structures. The cathodes were synthesized using the filtration method, which can be utilized for synthesis of commercial electrode-active materials. The thermal measurements were conducted with the "laser flash" technique. It has been established that the cathode with the carbon nanotubes-LiCo2 and carbon nanotube layered structure possesses the highest in-plane thermal conductivity of 206 W/mK at room temperature. The cathode containing nanodiamonds on carbon nanotubes structure revealed one of the highest cross-plane thermal conductivity values. The in-plane thermal conductivity is up to two orders-of-magnitude greater than that in conventional cathodes based on amorphous carbon. The obtained results demonstrate a potential of carbon nanotube incorporation in cathode materials for the effective thermal management of Li-ion high-powered density batteries.

  19. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  20. Electric vehicles batteries thermal management systems employing phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianniciello, Lucia; Biwolé, Pascal Henry; Achard, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Battery thermal management is necessary for electric vehicles (EVs), especially for Li-ion batteries, due to the heat dissipation effects on those batteries. Usually, air or coolant circuits are employed as thermal management systems in Li-ion batteries. However, those systems are expensive in terms of investment and operating costs. Phase change materials (PCMs) may represent an alternative which could be cheaper and easier to operate. In fact, PCMs can be used as passive or semi-passive systems, enabling the global system to sustain near-autonomous operations. This article presents the previous developments introducing PCMs for EVs battery cooling. Different systems are reviewed and solutions are proposed to enhance PCMs efficiency in those systems.

  1. Investigation on a hydrogel based passive thermal management system for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sijie; Zhao, Rui; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2014-01-01

    An appropriate operating temperature range is critical for the overall performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries. Considering the excellent performance of water in heat dissipation in industrial applications, in this paper, a water based PAAS (sodium polyacrylate) hydrogel thermal management system has been proposed to handle the heat surge during the operation of a Li-ion battery pack. A thermal model with constant heat generation rate is employed to simulate the high current discharge process (i.e., 10 A) on a 4S1P battery pack, which shows a good consistence with the corresponding experimental results. Further experiments on 4S1P and 5S1P battery packs validate the effectiveness of the hydrogel thermal management system in lowering the temperature increase rate of battery packs at different discharge rates and minimizing the temperature difference inside battery packs during operation, thereby enhancing the stability and safety in continuous charge and discharge process and decreasing the capacity fading rate during life cycle tests. This novel hydrogel based cooling system also possesses the characteristics of high energy efficiency, easy manufacturing process, compactness, and low cost. - Highlights: • A hydrogel thermal management system (TMS) is proposed for Li-ion battery. • It is found that the heat from internal resistance predominates at high discharge rate. • Effectiveness of hydrogel in controlling cell temperature is proved. • Battery equipped with hydrogel TMS is safer at continuous high rate cycle test. • The capacity fading rate of battery pack decreases when hydrogel TMS is implemented

  2. Thermal management of cylindrical power battery module for extending the life of new energy electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jiateng; Rao, Zhonghao; Huo, Yutao; Liu, Xinjian; Li, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Thermal management especially cooling plays an important role in power battery modules for electric vehicles. In order to comprehensively understand the heat transfer characteristics of air cooling system, the air cooling numerical simulation battery models for cylindrical lithium-ion power battery pack were established in this paper, and a detailed parametric investigation was undertaken to study effects of different ventilation types and velocities, gap spacing between neighbor batteries, temperatures of environment and entrance air, amount of single row cells and battery diameter on the thermal management performance of battery pack. The results showed that the local temperature difference increased firstly and then decreased with the increase of wind speed. Reversing the air flow direction between adjacent rows is not necessarily appropriate and the gap spacing should not be too small and too large. It is prone to thermal runaway when the ambient temperature is too high, and the most suitable value of S/D (the ratio of spacing distance between neighbor cells and cell diameter) is gradually reduced along with the increase of cell diameter. - Highlights: • Air cooling models were established for cylindrical lithium-ion power battery pack. • Local temperature difference increased firstly and then decreased with wind speed. • The gap spacing size of battery pack should not be too small and too large. • It is prone to thermal runaway when the ambient temperature is too high. • The ratio of S/D is gradually reduced with the increase of cell diameter

  3. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power...

  4. Thermal modeling of cylindrical lithium ion battery during discharge cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Dong Hyup; Baek, Seung Man

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Transient and thermo-electric finite element analysis (FEA) of cylindrical lithium ion (Li-ion) battery was presented. → This model provides the thermal behavior of Li-ion battery during discharge cycle. → A LiCoO 2 /C battery at various discharge rates was investigated. → The contribution of heat source due to joule heating was significant at a high discharge rate. → The contribution of heat source due to entropy change was dominant at a low discharge rate. - Abstract: Transient and thermo-electric finite element analysis (FEA) of cylindrical lithium ion (Li-ion) battery was presented. The simplified model by adopting a cylindrical coordinate was employed. This model provides the thermal behavior of Li-ion battery during discharge cycle. The mathematical model solves conservation of energy considering heat generations due to both joule heating and entropy change. A LiCoO 2 /C battery at various discharge rates was investigated. The temperature profile from simulation had similar tendency with experiment. The temperature profile was decomposed with contributions of each heat sources and was presented at several discharge rates. It was found that the contribution of heat source due to joule heating was significant at a high discharge rate, whereas that due to entropy change was dominant at a low discharge rate. Also the effect of cooling condition and the LiNiCoMnO 2 /C battery were analyzed for the purpose of temperature reduction.

  5. A reliability design method for a lithium-ion battery pack considering the thermal disequilibrium in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Quan; Wang, Zili; Ren, Yi; Sun, Bo; Yang, Dezhen; Feng, Qiang

    2018-05-01

    With the rapid development of lithium-ion battery technology in the electric vehicle (EV) industry, the lifetime of the battery cell increases substantially; however, the reliability of the battery pack is still inadequate. Because of the complexity of the battery pack, a reliability design method for a lithium-ion battery pack considering the thermal disequilibrium is proposed in this paper based on cell redundancy. Based on this method, a three-dimensional electric-thermal-flow-coupled model, a stochastic degradation model of cells under field dynamic conditions and a multi-state system reliability model of a battery pack are established. The relationships between the multi-physics coupling model, the degradation model and the system reliability model are first constructed to analyze the reliability of the battery pack and followed by analysis examples with different redundancy strategies. By comparing the reliability of battery packs of different redundant cell numbers and configurations, several conclusions for the redundancy strategy are obtained. More notably, the reliability does not monotonically increase with the number of redundant cells for the thermal disequilibrium effects. In this work, the reliability of a 6 × 5 parallel-series configuration is the optimal system structure. In addition, the effect of the cell arrangement and cooling conditions are investigated.

  6. Thru-life impacts of driver aggression, climate, cabin thermal management, and battery thermal management on battery electric vehicle utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but have a limited utility that is affected by driver aggression and effects of climate-both directly on battery temperature and indirectly through the loads of cabin and battery thermal management systems. Utility is further affected as the battery wears through life in response to travel patterns, climate, and other factors. In this paper we apply the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V) to examine the sensitivity of BEV utility to driver aggression and climate effects over the life of the vehicle. We find the primary challenge to cold-climate BEV operation to be inefficient cabin heating systems, and to hot-climate BEV operation to be high peak on-road battery temperatures and excessive battery degradation. Active cooling systems appear necessary to manage peak battery temperatures of aggressive, hot-climate drivers, which can then be employed to maximize thru-life vehicle utility.

  7. Thermal battery. [solid metal halide electrolytes with enhanced electrical conductance after a phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.

    1973-03-06

    The patent describes an improved thermal battery whose novel design eliminates various disadvantages of previous such devices. Its major features include a halide cathode, a solid metal halide electrolyte which has a substantially greater electrical conductance after a phase transition at some temperature, and a means for heating its electrochemical cells to activation temperature.

  8. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power......, whilst batteries will handle all the load dynamics, such as acceleration, lifting, climbing and so on. The electrical part of the whole propulsion system for forklift has been investigated in details. The energy management strategy is explained and verified through simulation. Finally, experimental...

  9. Fire Tests on E-vehicle Battery Cells and Packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturk, David; Hoffmann, Lars; Ahlberg Tidblad, Annika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abuse conditions, including realistic crash scenarios, on Li ion battery systems in E-vehicles in order to develop safe practices and priorities when responding to accidents involving E-vehicles. External fire tests using a single burning item equipment were performed on commercial Li ion battery cells and battery packs for electric vehicle (E-vehicle) application. The 2 most common battery cell technologies were tested: Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and mixed transition metal oxide (lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide, NMC) cathodes against graphite anodes, respectively. The cell types investigated were "pouch" cells, with similar physical dimensions, but the NMC cells have double the electric capacity of the LFP cells due to the higher energy density of the NMC chemistry, 7 and 14 Ah, respectively. Heat release rate (HRR) data and concentrations of toxic gases were acquired by oxygen consumption calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The test results indicate that the state of charge (SOC) affects the HRR as well as the amount of toxic hydrogen fluoride (HF) gas formed during combustion. A larger number of cells increases the amount of HF formed per cell. There are significant differences in response to the fire exposure between the NMC and LFP cells in this study. The LFP cells generate a lot more HF per cell, but the overall reactivity of the NMC cells is higher. However, the total energy released by both batteries during combustion was independent of SOC, which indicates that the electric energy content of the test object contributes to the activation energy of the thermal and heat release process, whereas the chemical energy stored in the materials is the main source of thermal energy in the batteries. The results imply that it is difficult to draw conclusions about higher order system behavior with respect to HF emissions based on data from tests on single

  10. Thermal stability and modeling of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botte, Gerardine Gabriela

    2000-10-01

    First-principles mathematical models were developed to examine the effect of the lithium-lithium ion interactions inside the anode particles on the performance of a lithium foil cell. Two different models were developed: the chemical potential model (CPM) that includes the lithium-lithium ion interactions inside the anode particles and the diffusion model (DIM) that does not include the interactions. Significant differences in the thermal and electrochemical performance of the cell were observed between the two approaches. The temperature of the cell predicted by the DFM is higher than the one predicted by the CPM at a given capacity. The discharge time of the cell predicted by the DFM is shorter than the one predicted by the CPM. The results indicate that the cell needs to be modeled using the CPM approach especially at high discharge rates. An evaluation of the numerical techniques, control volume formulation (CVF) and finite difference method (FDM), used for the models was performed. It is shown that the truncation error is the same for both methods when the boundary conditions are of the Dirichlet type, the system of equations are linear and represented in Cartesian coordinates. A new technique to analyze the accuracy of the methods is presented. The only disadvantage of the FDM is that it failed to conserve mass for a small number of nodes when both boundary conditions include a derivative term whereas the CVF did conserve mass for these cases. However, for a large number of nodes the FDM provides mass conservation. It is important to note that the CVF has only (DeltaX) order of accuracy for a Neumann type boundary condition whereas the FDM has (DeltaX) 2 order. The second topic of this dissertation presents a study of the thermal stability of LiPF6 EC:EMC electrolyte for lithium ion batteries. A differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to perform the study of the electrolyte. For first time, the effect of different variables on its thermal stability

  11. Cell for making secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, S.J.; Liu, M.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1992-11-10

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145 C (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium trifluorate (PEO[sub 8]LiCF[sub 3]SO[sub 3]), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS)[sub n], and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte. 2 figs.

  12. Towards an Ultimate Battery Thermal Management System: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezwan Khan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevailing standards and scientific literature offer a wide range of options for the construction of a battery thermal management system (BTMS. The design of an innovative yet well-functioning BTMS requires strict supervision, quality audit and continuous improvement of the whole process. It must address all the current quality and safety (Q&S standards. In this review article, an effective battery thermal management is sought considering the existing battery Q&S standards and scientific literature. The article contains a broad overview of the current existing standards and literature on a generic compliant BTMS. The aim is to assist in the design of a novel compatible BTMS. Additionally, the article delivers a set of recommendations to make an effective BTMS.

  13. NASA Alternative Orion Small Cell Battery Design Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Chuck

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Orion Crew Module Reference Design was produced to address large scale thermal runaway (TR) hazard with specific safety controls for the Orion Spacecraft. The design presented provides the description of a full scale battery design reference for implementation as a drop in replacement to meet all spacecraft energy requirements with compatible 120 Vdc electrical and mechanical interface using small cell technology (18650) packaging. The 32V SuperBrick incorporates unique support features and an electrical bus bar arrangement that allows cells negative can insertion into heat sink that is compressively coupled to the battery enclosure to promote good thermal management. The housing design also provides an internal flame suppression "filter tray" and positive venting path internal to the enclosure to allow hot effluent ejecta to escape in the event of single cell TR. Virtual cells (14P Banks) that are supported to provide cell spacing with interstitial materials to prevent side can failures that can produce cell to cell TR propagation. These features were successfully test in four separate TR run with the full scale DTA1 test article in February 2016. Successfully Completed Test Objectives - Four separate TR test runs with Full-Scale DTA1 housing with Two SuperBricks, Two SuperBrick Emulators All Tests resulted in "clean" gas with less than 6 C rise at Battery vent All Tests resulted in less than 2 C temperature rise on cold-plate outlet All Tests resulted in less than 6 psi pressure rise in the battery housing Test Run 1 -One neighbor cell TR, highest remaining neighbor 139 C. Ejecta shorted to bus caused prolonged additional heating, One shorted cell did experience TR after 12 minutes, remaining cells had adequate thermal margin Test Run 2 - No cell to cell propagation, highest neighbor cell 112 C; Test Run 3 - No cell to cell propagation, highest neighbor cell 96 C; Test Run 4 - No cell to cell propagation, highest neighbor cell 101 C; Primary TR testing

  14. Electrochemical-Thermal Modeling and Microscale Phase Change for Passive Internal Thermal Management of Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandhauer, Todd Matthew

    cases. The two-phase frictional pressure drop model is used to predict the performance of a simplified passive internal cooling system. This thermal-hydraulic performance model is coupled to the electrochemical-thermal model for performance assessment of two-scaled up HEV battery packs (9.6 kWh based on 8 Ah and 20 Ah cells) subjected to an aggressive highway dynamic simulation. This assessment is used to compare the impact of air, liquid, and edge external cooling on battery performance. The results show that edge cooling causes large thermal gradients inside the cells, leading to non-uniform cycling. Air cooling also causes unacceptable temperature rise, while liquid cooling is sufficient only for the pack based on the thinner 8 Ah cell. In contrast, internally cooled cells reduce peak temperature without imposing significant thermal gradients. As a result, packs with internal cooling can be cycled more aggressively, leading to higher charge and discharge energy extraction densities in spite of the volume increase due to 160 microm channels inserted into the 284.5 microm unit c

  15. A novel thermal management system for improving discharge/charge performance of Li-ion battery packs under abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shashank; Kapoor, Ajay; Shen, Weixiang

    2018-02-01

    Parasitic load, which describes electrical energy consumed by battery thermal management system (TMS), is an important design criterion for battery packs. Passive TMSs using phase change materials (PCMs) are thus generating much interest. However, PCMs suffer from low thermal conductivities. Most current thermal conductivity enhancement techniques involve addition of foreign particles to PCMs. Adding foreign particles increases effective thermal conductivity of PCM-systems but at expense of their latent heat capacity. This paper presents an alternate approach for improving thermal performance of PCM-based TMSs. The introduced technique involves placing battery cells in a vertically inverted position within the battery-pack. It is demonstrated through experiments that inverted cell-layout facilitates build-up of convection current in the pack, which in turn minimises thermal variations within the PCM matrix by enabling PCM mass transfer between the top and the bottom regions of the battery pack. The proposed system is found capable of maintaining tight control over battery cell temperature even during abusive usage, defined as high-rate repetitive cycling with minimal rest periods. In addition, this novel TMS can recover waste heat from PCM-matrix through thermoelectric devices, thereby resulting in a negative parasitic load for TMS.

  16. Thermal analysis and two-directional air flow thermal management for lithium-ion battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuahai; Yang, Xi; Cheng, Yongzhou; Li, Changhao

    2014-12-01

    Thermal management is a routine but crucial strategy to ensure thermal stability and long-term durability of the lithium-ion batteries. An air-flow-integrated thermal management system is designed in the present study to dissipate heat generation and uniformize the distribution of temperature in the lithium-ion batteries. The system contains of two types of air ducts with independent intake channels and fans. One is to cool the batteries through the regular channel, and the other minimizes the heat accumulations in the middle pack of batteries through jet cooling. A three-dimensional anisotropic heat transfer model is developed to describe the thermal behavior of the lithium-ion batteries with the integration of heat generation theory, and validated through both simulations and experiments. Moreover, the simulations and experiments show that the maximum temperature can be decreased to 33.1 °C through the new thermal management system in comparison with 42.3 °C through the traditional ones, and temperature uniformity of the lithium-ion battery packs is enhanced, significantly.

  17. Gas Control and Thermal Modeling Methods for Pressed Pellet and Fast Rise Thin-Film Thermal Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    E PIEKOS 2 ADVANCED THERMAL (PDF) BATTERIES , INC D BRISCOE G CHAGNON 3 EAGLE PICHER (PDF) TECHNOLOGIES, LLC C LAMB J...Thin-Film Thermal Batteries by Frank C Krieger and Michael S Ding Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...Laboratory Gas Control and Thermal Modeling Methods for Pressed Pellet and Fast Rise Thin-Film Thermal Batteries by Frank C Krieger and Michael S

  18. Probing the heat sources during thermal runaway process by thermal analysis of different battery chemistries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Siqi; Wang, Li; Feng, Xuning; He, Xiangming

    2018-02-01

    Safety issue is very important for the lithium ion battery used in electric vehicle or other applications. This paper probes the heat sources in the thermal runaway processes of lithium ion batteries composed of different chemistries using accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The adiabatic thermal runaway features for the 4 types of commercial lithium ion batteries are tested using ARC, whereas the reaction characteristics of the component materials, including the cathode, the anode and the separator, inside the 4 types of batteries are measured using DSC. The peaks and valleys of the critical component reactions measured by DSC can match the fluctuations in the temperature rise rate measured by ARC, therefore the relevance between the DSC curves and the ARC curves is utilized to probe the heat source in the thermal runaway process and reveal the thermal runaway mechanisms. The results and analysis indicate that internal short circuit is not the only way to thermal runaway, but can lead to extra electrical heat, which is comparable with the heat released by chemical reactions. The analytical approach of the thermal runaway mechanisms in this paper can guide the safety design of commercial lithium ion batteries.

  19. NASA Perspective and Modeling of Thermal Runaway Propagation Mitigation in Aerospace Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shack, P.; Iannello, C.; Rickman, S.; Button, R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has traditionally sought to reduce the likelihood of a single cell thermal runaway (TR) in their aerospace batteries to an absolute minimum by employing rigorous screening program of the cells. There was generally a belief that TR propagation resulting in catastrophic failure of the battery was a forgone conclusion for densely packed aerospace lithium-ion batteries. As it turns out, this may not be the case. An increasing number of purportedly TR propagation-resistant batteries are appearing among NASA partners in the commercial sector and the Department of Defense. In the recent update of the battery safety standard (JSC 20793) to address this paradigm shift, the NASA community included requirements for assessing TR severity and identifying simple, low-cost severity reduction measures. Unfortunately, there are no best-practice guidelines for this work in the Agency, so the first project team attempting to meet these requirements would have an undue burden placed upon them. A NASA engineering Safety Center (NESC) team set out to perform pathfinding activities for meeting those requirements. This presentation will provide contextual background to this effort, as well as initial results in attempting to model and simulate TR heat transfer and propagation within battery designs.

  20. Progress in batteries and solar cells. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimotake, H.

    1984-01-01

    The 89 articles in this book are on research in batteries, solar cells and fuel cells. Topics include uses of batteries in electric powered vehicles, load management in power plants, batteries for miniature electronic devices, electrochemical processes, and various electrode and electrolyte materials, including organic compounds. Types of batteries discussed are lithium, lead-acid, manganese dioxide, Silver cells, Air cells, Nickel cells and solar cells. Problems of recharging and life cycle are also discussed

  1. Qualitative thermal characterization and cooling of lithium batteries for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, A.; D'Annibale, F.; Boccardi, G.; Celata, G. P.; Menale, C.; Bubbico, R.; Vellucci, F.

    2014-04-01

    The paper deals with the cooling of batteries. The first step was the thermal characterization of a single cell of the module, which consists in the detection of the thermal field by means of thermographic tests during electric charging and discharging. The purpose was to identify possible critical hot points and to evaluate the cooling demand during the normal operation of an electric car. After that, a study on the optimal configuration to obtain the flattening of the temperature profile and to avoid hot points was executed. An experimental plant for cooling capacity evaluation of the batteries, using air as cooling fluid, was realized in our laboratory in ENEA Casaccia. The plant is designed to allow testing at different flow rate and temperatures of the cooling air, useful for the assessment of operative thermal limits in different working conditions. Another experimental facility was built to evaluate the thermal behaviour changes with water as cooling fluid. Experimental tests were carried out on the LiFePO4 batteries, under different electric working conditions using the two loops. In the future, different type of batteries will be tested and the influence of various parameters on the heat transfer will be assessed for possible optimal operative solutions.

  2. Simulation of a thermal battery using Phoenics {sup registered}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Giancarlo C.S.; Vianna, Ardson S. Jr. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Secao de Ensino de Engenharia Quimica, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Peixoto, Fernando C. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e de Petroleo, Rua Passo da Patria, 156 - Bloco D - Sala 307, 24210-240 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    Thermal batteries are primary disposable systems specially designed to develop a high energy density in a short period. In the present work, the modeling of heat generation and propagation within three Ca/CaCrO{sub 4} thermal batteries has been carried out, using a transient model. The commercial CFD software Phoenics {sup registered} has been used and, through a typical finite volume approach, the related 2D transport equations have been solved, giving the time-dependent temperature profiles. To check the quality of the model, the temperature of pseudo-equilibrium state (a typical thermodynamic parameter), has been analyzed. The temperatures related in the literature were close to those calculated. The results also indicate that the fusion of electrolytes is virtually an instantaneous process when compared to the time to reach the pseudo-equilibrium state, which indicates that the generation of electrical current occurs immediately after the thermite burning. (author)

  3. Thermal runaway detection of cylindrical 18650 lithium-ion battery under quasi-static loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Muhammad; Elmarakbi, Ahmed; Elkady, Mustafa

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on state of charge (SOC) dependent mechanical failure analysis of 18650 lithium-ion battery to detect signs of thermal runaway. Quasi-static loading conditions are used with four test protocols (Rod, Circular punch, three-point bend and flat plate) to analyse the propagation of mechanical failures and failure induced temperature changes. Finite element analysis (FEA) is used to model single battery cell with the concentric layered formation which represents a complete cell. The numerical simulation model is designed with solid element formation where stell casing and all layers followed the same formation, and fine mesh is used for all layers. Experimental work is also performed to analyse deformation of 18650 lithium-ion cell. The numerical simulation model is validated with experimental results. Deformation of cell mimics thermal runaway and various thermal runaway detection strategies are employed in this work including, force-displacement, voltage-temperature, stress-strain, SOC dependency and separator failure. Results show that cell can undergo severe conditions even with no fracture or rupture, these conditions may slow to develop but they can lead to catastrophic failures. The numerical simulation technique is proved to be useful in predicting initial battery failures, and results are in good correlation with the experimental results.

  4. Design of Parallel Air-Cooled Battery Thermal Management System through Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In electric vehicles, the battery pack is one of the most important components that strongly influence the system performance. The battery thermal management system (BTMS is critical to remove the heat generated by the battery pack, which guarantees the appropriate working temperature for the battery pack. Air cooling is one of the most commonly-used solutions among various battery thermal management technologies. In this paper, the cooling performance of the parallel air-cooled BTMS is improved through choosing appropriate system parameters. The flow field and the temperature field of the system are calculated using the computational fluid dynamics method. Typical numerical cases are introduced to study the influences of the operation parameters and the structure parameters on the performance of the BTMS. The operation parameters include the discharge rate of the battery pack, the inlet air temperature and the inlet airflow rate. The structure parameters include the cell spacing and the angles of the divergence plenum and the convergence plenum. The results show that the temperature rise and the temperature difference of the batter pack are not affected by the inlet air flow temperature and are increased as the discharge rate increases. Increasing the inlet airflow rate can reduce the maximum temperature, but meanwhile significantly increase the power consumption for driving the airflow. Adopting smaller cell spacing can reduce the temperature and the temperature difference of the battery pack, but it consumes much more power. Designing the angles of the divergence plenum and the convergence plenum is an effective way to improve the performance of the BTMS without occupying more system volume. An optimization strategy is used to obtain the optimal values of the plenum angles. For the numerical cases with fixed power consumption, the maximum temperature and the maximum temperature difference at the end of the five-current discharge process for

  5. Assessment of lnternational Space Station (ISS) Lithium-ion Battery Thermal Runaway (TR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graika, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This task was developed in the wake of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner lithium-ion battery TR incidents of January 2013 and January 2014. The Electrical Power Technical Discipline Team supported the Dreamliner investigations and has followed up by applying lessons learned to conduct an introspective evaluation of NASA's risk of similar incidents in its own lithium-ion battery deployments. This activity has demonstrated that historically NASA, like Boeing and others in the aerospace industry, has emphasized the prevention of TR in a single cell within the battery (e.g., cell screening) but has not considered TR severity-reducing measures in the event of a single-cell TR event. center dotIn the recent update of the battery safety standard (JSC 20793) to address this paradigm shift, the NASA community included requirements for assessing TR severity and identifying simple, low-cost severity reduction measures. This task will serve as a pathfinder for meeting those requirements and will specifically look at a number of different lithium-ion batteries currently in the design pipeline within the ISS Program batteries that, should they fail in a Dreamliner-like incident, could result in catastrophic consequences. This test is an abuse test to understand the heat transfer properties of the cell and ORU in thermal runaway, with radiant barriers in place in a flight like test in on orbit conditions. This includes studying the heat flow and distribution in the ORU. This data will be used to validate the thermal runaway analysis. This test does not cover the ambient pressure case. center dotThere is no pass/ fail criteria for this test.

  6. Dynamic thermal characteristics of heat pipe via segmented thermal resistance model for electric vehicle battery cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifei; Lan, Fengchong; Chen, Jiqing

    2016-07-01

    Heat pipe cooling for battery thermal management systems (BTMSs) in electric vehicles (EVs) is growing due to its advantages of high cooling efficiency, compact structure and flexible geometry. Considering the transient conduction, phase change and uncertain thermal conditions in a heat pipe, it is challenging to obtain the dynamic thermal characteristics accurately in such complex heat and mass transfer process. In this paper, a ;segmented; thermal resistance model of a heat pipe is proposed based on thermal circuit method. The equivalent conductivities of different segments, viz. the evaporator and condenser of pipe, are used to determine their own thermal parameters and conditions integrated into the thermal model of battery for a complete three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The proposed ;segmented; model shows more precise than the ;non-segmented; model by the comparison of simulated and experimental temperature distribution and variation of an ultra-thin micro heat pipe (UMHP) battery pack, and has less calculation error to obtain dynamic thermal behavior for exact thermal design, management and control of heat pipe BTMSs. Using the ;segmented; model, the cooling effect of the UMHP pack with different natural/forced convection and arrangements is predicted, and the results correspond well to the tests.

  7. Lithium thionyl chloride cells and batteries Technical predictions versus 1994 realities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staniewicz, R.J. [Saft Research and Development Center, Hunt Valley, MD (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride D-cells, when discharged at moderate rates of 50 W/kg, provide an impressive energy density of > 350 Wh/kg; however, multiple cell batteries present serious challenges for thermal management when subjected to discharge to 0 V and overdischarge into voltage reversal at the 50 W/kg rate. This paper describes the important influence electrochemical cell balance and design has upon decreasing the heat generation within batteries. (orig.)

  8. Lithium thionyl chloride cells and batteries Technical predictions versus 1994 realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniewicz, R. J.

    Lithium thionyl chloride D-cells, when discharged at moderate rates of 50 W/kg, provide an impressive energy density of > 350 Wh/kg; however, multiple cell batteries present serious challenges for thermal management when subjected to discharge to 0 V and overdischarge into voltage reversal at the 50 W/kg rate. This paper describes the important influence electrochemical cell balance and design has upon decreasing the heat generation within batteries.

  9. New composite separator pellet to increase power density and reduce size of thermal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondy, Lisa Ann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine Cardinal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne Mary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Soehnel, Melissa Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barringer, David Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); DiAntonio, Christopher Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chavez, Thomas P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hughes, Lindsey Gloe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, Lindsey R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fitchett, Stephanie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We show that it is possible to manufacture strong macroporous ceramic films that can be backfilled with electrolyte to form rigid separator pellets suitable for use in thermal batteries. Several new ceramic manufacturing processes are developed to produce sintered magnesium oxide foams with connected porosities of over 80% by volume and with sufficient strength to withstand the battery manufacturing steps. The effects of processing parameters are quantified, and methods to imbibe electrolyte into the ceramic scaffold demonstrated. Preliminary single cell battery testing show that some of our first generation pellets exhibit longer voltage life with comparable resistance at the critical early times to that exhibited by a traditional pressed pellets. Although more development work is needed to optimize the processes to create these rigid separator pellets, the results indicate the potential of such ceramic separator pellets to be equal, if not superior to, current pressed pellets. Furthermore, they could be a replacement for critical material that is no longer available, as well as improving battery separator strength, decreasing production costs, and leading to shorter battery stacks for long-life batteries.

  10. Numerical Analysis and Design of Thermal Management System for Lithium Ion Battery Pack Using Thermoelectric Coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new design of thermal management system for lithium ion battery pack using thermoelectric coolers (TECs is proposed. Firstly, the 3D thermal model of a high power lithium ion battery and the TEC is elaborated. Then the model is calibrated with experiment results. Finally, the calibrated model is applied to investigate the performance of a thermal management system for a lithium ion battery pack. The results show that battery thermal management system (BTMS with TEC can cool the battery in very high ambient temperature. It can also keep a more uniform temperature distribution in the battery pack than common BTMS, which will extend the life of the battery pack and may save the expensive battery equalization system.

  11. A review on lithium-ion power battery thermal management technologies and thermal safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhoujian; Jia, Li; Ding, Yong; Dang, Chao; Li, Xuejiao

    2017-10-01

    Lithium-ion power battery has become one of the main power sources for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles because of superior performance compared with other power sources. In order to ensure the safety and improve the performance, the maximum operating temperature and local temperature difference of batteries must be maintained in an appropriate range. The effect of temperature on the capacity fade and aging are simply investigated. The electrode structure, including electrode thickness, particle size and porosity, are analyzed. It is found that all of them have significant influences on the heat generation of battery. Details of various thermal management technologies, namely air based, phase change material based, heat pipe based and liquid based, are discussed and compared from the perspective of improving the external heat dissipation. The selection of different battery thermal management (BTM) technologies should be based on the cooling demand and applications, and liquid cooling is suggested being the most suitable method for large-scale battery pack charged/discharged at higher C-rate and in high-temperature environment. The thermal safety in the respect of propagation and suppression of thermal runaway is analyzed.

  12. Entropy and heat generation of lithium cells/batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Songrui

    2016-01-01

    The methods and techniques commonly used in investigating the change of entropy and heat generation in Li cells/batteries are introduced, as are the measurements, calculations and purposes. The changes of entropy and heat generation are concomitant with the use of Li cells/batteries. In order to improve the management and the application of Li cells/batteries, especially for large scale power batteries, the quantitative investigations of the change of entropy and heat generating are necessary. (topical review)

  13. Thermal properties of lithium-ion battery and components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleki, H.; Hallaj, S.A.; Selman, J.R. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering; Dinwiddie, R.B.; Wang, H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1999-03-01

    Experimental thermal property data of the Sony US-18650 lithium-ion battery and components are presented, as well as thermal property measuring techniques. The properties in question are specific heat capacity (C{sub p}), thermal diffusivity ({alpha}), and thermal conductivity ({kappa}), in the presence and absence of electrolyte [1 M LiPF{sub 6} in ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate (EC:DMC, 1:1 wt %)]. The heat capacity of the battery, C{sub p}, is 0.96 {+-} 0.02 J/g K at an open-circuit voltage (OCV) of 2.75 V, and 1.04 {+-} 0.02 J/g K at 3.75 V. The thermal conductivity, {kappa}, was calculated from {kappa} {identical_to} {alpha}{rho}C{sub p} where {alpha} was measured by a xenon-flash technique. In the absence of electrolyte, {kappa} increases with OCV, for both the negative electrode (NE) and the positive electrode (PE). For the NE, the increase is 26% as the OCV increases from 2.75 to 3.75 V, whereas for the PE the increase is only 5 to 6%. The dependence of both C{sub p} and {kappa} on OCV is explained qualitatively by considering the effect of lithiation and delithiation on the electron carrier density, which leads to n-type semiconduction in the graphitic NE material, but a change from semiconducting to metallic character in Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} PE material. The overall effect is an increase of C{sub p} and {kappa} with OCV. For {kappa} this dependence is eliminated by electrolyte addition, which, however, greatly increases the effective {kappa} of the layered battery components by lowering the thermal contact resistance. For both NE and PE, the in-plane {kappa} value (measured along layers) is nearly one order of magnitude higher than the cross-plane {kappa}. This is ascribed mostly to the high thermal conductivity of the current collectors and to a lesser extent to the orientation of particles in the layers of electrodes.

  14. Electrochemical power sources batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Bagotsky, Vladimir S; Volfkovich, Yurij M

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Power Sources (EPS) provides in a concise way theoperational features, major types, and applications of batteries,fuel cells, and supercapacitors Details the design, operational features, andapplications of batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors Covers improvements of existing EPSs and thedevelopment of new kinds of EPS as the results of intense R&Dwork Provides outlook for future trends in fuel cells andbatteries Covers the most typical battery types, fuel cells andsupercapacitors; such as zinc-carbon batteries, alkaline manganesedioxide batteries, mercury-zinc cells, lead

  15. An Approach for Designing Thermal Management Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Battery Packs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.; Keyser, Matthew; Burch, Steve

    1999-01-01

    If battery packs for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are to operate effectively in all climates, thermal management of the packs is essential. In this paper, we will review a systematic approach for designing and evaluating battery pack thermal management systems. A thermal management system using air as the heat transfer medium is less complicated than a system using liquid cooling/heating. Generally, for parallel HEVs, an air thermal management system is adequate, whereas for EVs and series HEVs, liquid-based systems may be required for optimum thermal performance. Further information on battery thermal management can be found on the Web site www.ctts.nrel.gov/BTM

  16. Assessment and reuse of secondary batteries cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E. L.; Kindlein, W.; Souza, S.; Malfatti, C. F.

    The popularity of portable electronic devices and the ever-growing production of the same have led to an increase in the use of rechargeable batteries. These are often discarded even before the end of their useful life. This, in turn, leads to great waste in material and natural resources and to contamination of the environment. The objective of this study was thus to develop a methodology to assess and reuse NiMH battery cells that have been disposed of before the end of their life cycle, when they can still be used. For such, the capacity of these cells, which were still in good operating conditions when the batteries were discarded, was assessed, and the percentage was estimated. The results reveal that at the end of the assessment process, a considerable number of these cells still had reuse potential, with approximately 37% of all discarded and tested cells being approved for reuse. The methodology introduced in this study showed it is possible to establish an environmentally correct alternative to reduce the amount of this sort of electronic trash.

  17. Battery Cell Voltage Sensing and Balancing Using Addressable Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the use of saturating transformers in a matrix arrangement to address individual cells in a high voltage battery. This arrangement is able to monitor and charge individual cells while limiting the complexity of circuitry in the battery. The arrangement has inherent galvanic isolation, low cell leakage currents, and allows a single bad cell in a battery of several hundred cells to be easily spotted.

  18. Advanced nickel/hydrogen dependent pressure vessel (DPV) cell and battery concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Dwight B.; Fox, C. L.; Miller, L. E.

    The dependent pressure vessel (DPV) nickel/hydrogen (NiH 2) design is being developed by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. (EPI) as an advanced battery for military and commercial aerospace and terrestrial applications. The DPV cell design offers high specific energy and energy density as well as reduced cost, while retaining the established individual pressure vessel (IPV) technology, flight heritage and database. This advanced DPV design also offers a more efficient mechanical, electrical and thermal cell and battery configuration and a reduced parts count. The DPV battery design promotes compact, minimum volume packaging and weight efficiency, and delivers cost and weight savings with minimal design risks.

  19. A Nanostructured Composites Thermal Switch Controls Internal and External Short Circuit in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert C.; VanBlarcom, Shelly L.; Kwasnik, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses a thin layer of composite material, made from nano scale particles of nickel and Teflon, placed within a battery cell as a layer within the anode and/or the cathode. There it conducts electrons at room temperature, then switches to an insulator at an elevated temperature to prevent thermal runaway caused by internal short circuits. The material layer controls excess currents from metal-to-metal or metal-to-carbon shorts that might result from cell crush or a manufacturing defect

  20. Field Synergy Analysis and Optimization of the Thermal Behavior of Lithium Ion Battery Packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a three dimensional (3D modeling has been built for a lithium ion battery pack using the field synergy principle to obtain a better thermal distribution. In the model, the thermal behavior of the battery pack was studied by reducing the maximum temperature, improving the temperature uniformity and considering the difference between the maximum and maximum temperature of the battery pack. The method is further verified by simulation results based on different environmental temperatures and discharge rates. The thermal behavior model demonstrates that the design and cooling policy of the battery pack is crucial for optimizing the air-outlet patterns of electric vehicle power cabins.

  1. A pseudo three-dimensional electrochemical–thermal model of a prismatic LiFePO4 battery during discharge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Meng; Zhang, Zhuqian; Wang, Xia; Jia, Li; Yang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    A lithium ion battery consists of numerous electrochemical cell units. Thermal and electrical behaviors of these local cell units have great influence on the battery's performance and safety. To study the relationship between the cell units and the battery cell, a pseudo 3D (three-dimensional) model was developed for a prismatic LiFePO 4 battery by coupling the mass, charge, and energy conservations, as well as the cell electrochemical kinetics. The model treated the battery with current collecting tabs as 3D and the local cell units as 1D. Both electrochemical and thermal characteristics of the battery were studied by using this simplified model during the discharge process. A uniformity index characterizing the SOC (state of charge) distributions among 1D cell units was also introduced. This index was used to investigate the effects of the tab placement on the uniformity of the battery cell. The placement of the positive and negative current collecting tabs on the prismatic battery was found to have a significant effect on the distributions of its potential and local reaction rates, which therefore affect the heat generation rate, and thus the temperature distribution within the battery. - Highlights: • We develop a 3D electrochemical–thermal model for a prismatic LiFePO 4 battery. • Reaction rate distribution is not in a uniform mode due to electrical gradient. • The higher reaction rate, the more quickly the heat generated in local regions. • The temperature is higher in the region close to the tabs than other regions. • Tabs placed on opposite sides will improve the uniformity of thermal distribution

  2. Study on a Battery Thermal Management System Based on a Thermoelectric Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Wei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As is known to all, a battery pack is significantly important for electric vehicles. However, its performance is easily affected by temperature. In order to address this problem, an enhanced battery thermal management system is proposed, which includes two parts: a modified cooling structure and a control unit. In this paper, more attention has been paid to the structure part. According to the heat generation mechanism of a battery and a thermoelectric chip, a simplified heat generation model for a single cell and a special cooling model were created in ANSYS 17.0. The effects of inlet velocity on the performance of different heat exchanger structures were studied. The results show that the U loop structure is more reasonable and the flow field distribution is the most uniform at the inlet velocity of 1.0 m/s. Then, on the basis of the above heat exchanger and the liquid flow velocity, the cooling effect of the improved battery temperature adjustment structure and the traditional liquid temperature regulating structure were analyzed. It can be seen that the liquid cooling structure combined with thermoelectric cooling demonstrates a better performance. With respect to the control system, the corresponding hardware and software were also developed. In general, the design process for this enhanced battery thermal management system can provide a wealth of guidelines for solving similar problems. The H commutation circuit, matrix switch circuit, temperature measurement circuit, and wireless communication modules were designed in the control system and the temperature control strategy was also developed.

  3. Electrothermal impedance spectroscopy measurement on high power LiMO2/Li4Ti5O12 battery cell with low bandwidth test setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    2015-01-01

    Modern lithium-ion batteries, like LiMO2/Li4Ti5O12 chemistry, are having very high power capability, which drives the need for precise thermal modelling of the battery. Battery thermal models are required to avoid possible safety issues (thermal runaways, high-temperature gradients) but also for ......-bandwidth and high-current capability for large format battery cells. Thus, this paper evaluates the possibility and accuracy of performing ETIS measurements with a standard battery test station (or bidirectional power supply) with low-bandwidth....

  4. Simulation of passive thermal management system for lithium-ion battery packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Andrew; Al-Hallaj, Said

    A passive thermal management system that uses a phase change material (PCM) is designed and simulated for a lithium-ion (Li-ion) laptop battery pack. The problem of low thermal conductivity of the PCM was significantly improved by impregnating an expanded graphite (EG) matrix with the PCM. The heat generation rate for a commercial 186502.2 Ah Li-ion battery was experimentally measured for various constant power discharges. Simulation of the battery pack, composed of six Li-ion batteries, shows that safe operation of the battery pack during the most extreme case requires the volume of the battery pack be almost doubled to fit sufficient PCM in the pack. Improving the properties of the PCM composite have the potential to significantly reduce the volume increase in comparison to the original battery pack volume.

  5. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing thermal runaway in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Scott; Panday, Ashoutosh; Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2014-04-22

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics. In another aspect, the electrolyte exhibits a conductivity drop when the temperature of electrolyte increases over a threshold temperature, thereby providing a shutoff mechanism for preventing thermal runaway in lithium battery cells.

  6. Cell overcharge testing inside sodium metal halide battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutschy, Kris; Chatwin, Troy; Bull, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Testing was conducted to measure electrical performance and safety of the General Electric Durathon™ E620 battery module (600 V class 20 kWh) during cell overcharge. Data gathered from this test was consistent with SAE Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing specification J2464 [1]. After cell overcharge failure and 24 A current flow for additional 60 minutes, battery was then discharged at 7.5 KW average power to 12% state of charge (SOC) and recharged back to 100% SOC. This overcharging test was performed on two cells. No hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas was detected during front cell (B1) test, and small amount (6.2 ppm peak) was measured outside the battery after center cell (F13) overcharge. An additional overcharge test was performed per UL Standard 1973 - Batteries for Use in Light Electric Rail (LER) Applications and Stationary Applications[2]. With the battery at 11% SOC and 280 °C float temperature, an individual cell near the front (D1) was deliberately imbalanced by charging it to 62% SOC. The battery was then recharged to 100% SOC. In all three tests, the battery cell pack was stable and individual cell failure did not propagate to other cells. Battery discharge performance, charge performance, and electrical isolation were normal after all three tests.

  7. Microstructural Analysis of the Effects of Thermal Runaway on Li-Ion and Na-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finegan, Donal [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robinson, James B. [University College London; Heenan, Thomas M. M. [University College London; Smith, Katherine [Sharp Laboratories of Europe; Kendrick, Emma [Sharp Laboratories of Europe; University College London; Brett, Daniel J. L. [University College London; Shearing, Paul R. [University College London

    2017-12-06

    Thermal runaway is a phenomenon that occurs due to self-sustaining reactions within batteries at elevated temperatures resulting in catastrophic failure. Here, the thermal runaway process is studied for a Li-ion and Na-ion pouch cells of similar energy density (10.5 Wh, 12 Wh, respectively) using accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). Both cells were constructed with a z-fold configuration, with a standard shutdown separator in the Li-ion and a low-cost polypropylene (PP) separator in the Na-ion. Even with the shutdown separator, it is shown that the self-heating rate and rate of thermal runaway in Na-ion cells is significantly slower than that observed in Li-ion systems. The thermal runaway event initiates at a higher temperature in Na-ion cells. The effect of thermal runaway on the architecture of the cells is examined using X-ray microcomputed tomography, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to examine the failed electrodes of both cells. Finally, from examination of the respective electrodes, likely due to the carbonate solvent containing electrolyte, it is suggested that thermal runaway in Na-ion batteries (NIBs) occurs via a similar mechanism to that reported for Li-ion cells.

  8. Preparation and Thermal Management of Expanded Graphite/Paraffin Composite for Li-ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Gui-wen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of expanded graphite (EG/paraffin composites with various EG contents were prepared for Li-ion battery thermal management, in which paraffin was chosen as PCM and EG as the promoter of thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of the samples was measured by a thermal conductivity analyzer based on the transient hot wire method.The effect of EG content in composite on Li-ion battery thermal management was investigated. The thermal management performance of EG/PCM composites with different thermal conductivity was also discussed by software ANSYS. The results show that:EG incorporation dramatically enhances the thermal conductivity of PCM;the thermal conductivity of EG/PCM shows anisotropy, with EG content equaling to or exceeding 9%; The temperature of Li-ion battery surface decreases with an increase in EG content of composite, EG(12/PCM(88 exhibits excellent thermal management for Li-ion battery.To adequately increase the thermal conductivity of EG/PCM in radial direction is beneficial to improve Li-ion battery thermal management.

  9. Safety via Thermal Shutdown for Space Rated Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Li-ion battery safety has inspired many safety features from CID, to safety valves. However, none of the current features protect a battery from internal...

  10. Micro Calorimeter for Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As battery technology forges ahead and consumer demand for safer, more affordable, high-performance batteries grows, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has added a patented Micro Calorimeter to its existing family of R&D 100 Award-winning Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs). The Micro Calorimeter examines the thermal signature of battery chemistries early on in the design cycle using popular coin cell and small pouch cell designs, which are simple to fabricate and study.

  11. Batteries 2020 – Lithium - ion battery first and second life ageing, validated battery models, lifetime modelling and ageing assessment of thermal parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Jean-Marc; Nikolian, Alexandros; De Hoog, Joris

    2016-01-01

    The European Project “Batteries 2020” unites nine partners jointly working on research and the development of competitive European automotive batteries. The project aims at increasing both the energy density and lifetime of large format pouch lithium-ion batteries towards the goals targeted...... for automotive batteries (250 Wh/kg at cell level, over 4000 cycles at 80% depth of discharge). Three parallel strategies are followed in order to achieve those targets: (i) Highly focused materials development; two improved generations of NMC cathode materials allows to improve the performance, stability...... and cyclability of state of the art battery cells. (ii) Better understanding of the ageing phenomena; a robust and realistic testing methodology has been developed and was carried out. Combined accelerated, real driving cycle tests, real field data, post - mortem analysis, modelling and validation with real...

  12. A coupled thermal and electrochemical study of lithium-ion battery cooled by paraffin/porous-graphite-matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Angelo; Jiang, Xi

    2016-05-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cooling using a phase change material (PCM)/compressed expanded natural graphite (CENG) composite is investigated, for a cylindrical battery cell and for a battery module scale. An electrochemistry model (average model) is coupled to the thermal model, with the addition of a one-dimensional model for the solution and solid diffusion using the nodal network method. The analysis of the temperature distribution of the battery module scale has shown that a two-dimensional model is sufficient to describe the transient temperature rise. In consequence, a two-dimensional cell-centred finite volume code for unstructured meshes is developed with additions of the electrochemistry and phase change. This two-dimensional thermal model is used to investigate a new and usual battery module configurations cooled by PCM/CENG at different discharge rates. The comparison of both configurations with a constant source term and heat generation based on the electrochemistry model showed the superiority of the new design. In this study, comparisons between the predictions from different analytical and computational tools as well as open-source packages were carried out, and close agreements have been observed.

  13. 3-D CFD modeling and experimental testing of thermal behavior of a Li-Ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gümüşsu, Emre; Ekici, Özgür; Köksal, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermally fully predictive 3-D CFD model is developed for Li-Ion batteries. • Complete flow field around the battery and conduction inside the battery are solved. • Macro-scale thermophysical properties and the entropic term are investigated. • Discharge rate and usage history of the battery are systematically investigated. • Reliability of the model was tested through experimental measurements. - Abstract: In this study, a 3-D computational fluid dynamics model was developed for investigating the thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries under natural convection. The model solves the complete flow field around the battery as well as conduction inside the battery using the well-known heat generation model of Bernardi et al. (1985). The model is thermally fully predictive so it requires only electrical performance parameters of the battery to calculate its temperature during discharging. Using the model, detailed investigation of the effects of the variation of the macro-scale thermophysical properties and the entropic term of the heat generation model was carried out. Results show that specific heat is a critical property that has a significant impact on the simulation results whereas thermal conductivity has relatively minor importance. Moreover, the experimental data can be successfully predicted without taking the entropic term into account in the calculation of the heat generation. The difference between the experimental and predicted battery surface temperature was less than 3 °C for all discharge rates and regardless of the usage history of the battery. The developed model has the potential to be used for the investigation of the thermal behavior of Li-Ion batteries in different packaging configurations under natural and forced convection.

  14. Conceptual design of a sodium sulfur cell for US electric van batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binden, Peter J.

    1993-05-01

    A conceptual design of an advanced sodium/sulfur cell for US electric-van applications has been completed. The important design factors included specific physical and electrical requirements, service life, manufacturability, thermal management, and safety. The capacity of this cell is approximately the same as that for the PB cell being developed by Silent Power Limited (10 Ah). The new cell offers a 50% improvement in energy capacity and nearly a 100% improvement in peak power over the existing PB cells. A battery constructed with such cells would significantly exceed the USABC's mid-term performance specifications. In addition, a similar cell and battery design effort was completed for an advanced passenger car application. A battery using the van cell would have nearly 3 times the energy compared to lead-acid batteries, yet weigh 40% less; a present-day battery using a cell specifically designed for this car would provide 50% more energy in a package 60% smaller and 50% lighter.

  15. Renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven as lithium-ion battery separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhihong; Kong, Qingshan; Zhang, Chuanjian; Pang, Shuping; Yue, Liping; Wang, Xuejiang; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei

    2013-01-01

    A renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven was explored as lithium-ion battery separator via an electrospinning technique followed by a dip-coating process. It was demonstrated that such nanofibrous composite nonwoven possessed good electrolyte wettability, excellent heat tolerance, and high ionic conductivity. The cells using the composite separator displayed better rate capability and enhanced capacity retention, when compared to those of commercialized polypropylene separator under the same conditions. These fascinating characteristics would endow this renewable composite nonwoven a promising separator for high-power lithium-ion battery.

  16. Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Pradyumna; Legedza, Stanislav; Dhar, Aditya; Salgado, Ruben; Renteria, Jacqueline; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2014-02-01

    Li-ion batteries are crucial components for progress in mobile communications and transport technologies. However, Li-ion batteries suffer from strong self-heating, which limits their life-time and creates reliability and environmental problems. Here we show that thermal management and the reliability of Li-ion batteries can be drastically improved using hybrid phase change material with graphene fillers. Conventional thermal management of batteries relies on the latent heat stored in the phase change material as its phase changes over a small temperature range, thereby reducing the temperature rise inside the battery. Incorporation of graphene to the hydrocarbon-based phase change material allows one to increase its thermal conductivity by more than two orders of magnitude while preserving its latent heat storage ability. A combination of the sensible and latent heat storage together with the improved heat conduction outside of the battery pack leads to a significant decrease in the temperature rise inside a typical Li-ion battery pack. The described combined heat storage-heat conduction approach can lead to a transformative change in thermal management of Li-ion and other types of batteries.

  17. Shutdown-functionalized nonwoven separator with improved thermal and electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngkwon; Lee, Won-Yeol; Kim, Ki Jae; Yu, Ji-Sang; Kim, Young-Jun

    2016-02-01

    A shutdown-functionalized nonwoven separator (SFNS) with improved thermal and electrochemical stabilities is prepared by a simple dip coating method for use in lithium-ion battery (LiB) applications. The SFNS shows thermal stability at 200 °C, while providing shutdown functionality at approximately 140 °C, similar to commercial porous polyethylene separators. The surface-coated polymer prevents leakage current problems and in addition, shows air permeability values similar to that of bare nonwoven separators, while maintaining a thickness of about 20 μm, which is a desired attribute of effective separators for LiBs. The SFNS also shows increased electrolyte uptake and higher conductivity, compared to a bare polyethylene separator. Therefore, a cell with the SFNS exhibits higher discharge capacity and better cycle property than that with a porous polyethylene separator. These results suggest that SFNS is an effective separator for high-performance LiBs.

  18. Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Thomas F. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Bandhauer, Todd (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Garimella, Srinivas (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)

    2012-01-01

    A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.

  19. Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Analysis of Failure Propagation in Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-07-28

    This is a presentation given at the 12th World Congress for Computational Mechanics on coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal analysis of failure propagation in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  20. Thermal management for high-capacity large format Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin; Kepler, Keith Douglas; Pannala, Sreekanth; Allu, Srikanth

    2017-05-30

    A lithium ion battery includes a cathode in electrical and thermal connection with a cathode current collector. The cathode current collector has an electrode tab. A separator is provided. An anode is in electrical and thermal connection with an anode current collector. The anode current collector has an electrode tab. At least one of the cathode current collector and the anode current collector comprises a thermal tab for heat transfer with the at least one current collector. The thermal tab is separated from the electrode tab. A method of operating a battery is also disclosed.

  1. Novel Ceramic-Grafted Separator with Highly Thermal Stability for Safe Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Xiaoming; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2017-08-09

    The separator is a critical component of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), which not only allows ionic transport while it prevents electrical contact between electrodes but also plays a key role for thermal safety performance of LIBs. However, commercial separators for LIBs are typically microporous polyolefin membranes that pose challenges for battery safety, due to shrinking and melting at elevated temperature. Here, we demonstrate a strategy to improve the thermal stability and electrolyte affinity of polyethylene (PE) separators. By simply grafting the vinylsilane coupling reagent on the surface of the PE separator by electron beam irradiation method and subsequent hydrolysis reaction into the Al 3+ solution, an ultrathin Al 2 O 3 layer is grafted on the surface of the porous polymer microframework without sacrificing the porous structure and increasing the thickness. The as-synthesized Al 2 O 3 ceramic-grafted separator (Al 2 O 3 -CGS) shows almost no shrinkage at 150 °C and decreases the contact angle of the conventional electrolyte compared with the bare PE separator. Notably, the full cells with the Al 2 O 3 -CGSs exhibit better cycling performance and rate capability and also provide stable open circuit voltage even at 170 °C, indicating its promising application in LIBs with high safety and energy density.

  2. Teach Battery Technology with Class-Built Wet Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    With some simple metal samples and common household liquids, teachers can build wet cell batteries and use them to teach students about batteries and how they work. In this article, the author offers information that is derived from some simple experiments he conducted in his basement workshop and can easily be applied in the classroom or lab. He…

  3. Corrosion in batteries and fuel-cell power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslak, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Batteries and fuel cells, as electrochemical power sources, provide energy through controlled redox reactions. Because these devices contain electrochemically active components, they place metals in contact with environments in which the metals may corrode. The shelf lives of batteries, particularly those that operate at ambient temperatures depend on very slow rates of corrosion of the electrode materials at open circuit. The means of reducing this corrosion must also be evaluated for its influence on performance. A second major corrosion consideration in electrochemical power sources involves the hardware. Again, shelf lives and service lives depend on very good corrosion resistance of the containment materials and inactive components, such as separators. In those systems in which electrolyte purity is important, even small amounts of corrosion that have not lessened structural integrity can degrade performance. There is a wide variety of batteries and fuel cells, and new systems are constantly under development. Therefore, to illustrate the types of corrosion phenomena that occur, this article will discuss the following systems: lead-acid batteries, alkaline batteries (in terms of the sintered nickel electrode only), lithium ambient-temperature batteries, aluminum/air batteries, sodium/sulfur batteries, phosphoric acid (H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/) fuel cells, and molten carbonate fuel cells

  4. Thermal modeling of a cylindrical LiFePO{sub 4}/graphite lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgez, Christophe; Vinh Do, Dinh; Friedrich, Guy [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, EA 1006, Laboratoire d' Electromecanique de Compiegne, BP 20529, 60205 Compiegne Cedex (France); Morcrette, Mathieu; Delacourt, Charles [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, UMR 6007, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 Rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens (France)

    2010-05-01

    A lumped-parameter thermal model of a cylindrical LiFePO{sub 4}/graphite lithium-ion battery is developed. Heat transfer coefficients and heat capacity are determined from simultaneous measurements of the surface temperature and the internal temperature of the battery while applying 2 Hz current pulses of different magnitudes. For internal temperature measurements, a thermocouple is introduced into the battery under inert atmosphere. Heat transfer coefficients (thermal resistances in the model) inside and outside the battery are obtained from thermal steady state temperature measurements, whereas the heat capacity (thermal capacitance in the model) is determined from the transient part. The accuracy of the estimation of internal temperature from surface temperature measurements using the model is validated on current-pulse experiments and a complete charge/discharge of the battery and is within 1.5 C. Furthermore, the model allows for simulating the internal temperature directly from the measured current and voltage of the battery. The model is simple enough to be implemented in battery management systems for electric vehicles. (author)

  5. Modularized battery management for large lithium ion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, Thomas A.; Zhu, Wei [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Toledo, Mail Stop 308, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A modular electronic battery management system (BMS) is described along with important features for protecting and optimizing the performance of large lithium ion (LiIon) battery packs. Of particular interest is the use of a much improved cell equalization system that can increase or decrease individual cell voltages. Experimental results are included for a pack of six series connected 60 Ah (amp-hour) LiIon cells. (author)

  6. Integrated Equivalent Circuit and Thermal Model for Simulation of Temperature-Dependent LiFePO4 Battery in Actual Embedded Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuchang Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational efficient battery pack model with thermal consideration is essential for simulation prototyping before real-time embedded implementation. The proposed model provides a coupled equivalent circuit and convective thermal model to determine the state-of-charge (SOC and temperature of the LiFePO4 battery working in a real environment. A cell balancing strategy applied to the proposed temperature-dependent battery model balanced the SOC of each cell to increase the lifespan of the battery. The simulation outputs are validated by a set of independent experimental data at a different temperature to ensure the model validity and reliability. The results show a root mean square (RMS error of 1.5609 × 10−5 for the terminal voltage and the comparison between the simulation and experiment at various temperatures (from 5 °C to 45 °C shows a maximum RMS error of 7.2078 × 10−5.

  7. Battery system and method for sensing and balancing the charge state of battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A battery system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with the battery cells. The transformers each have at least one transformer core operable for magnetization in at least a first magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a first direction and a second magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a second direction. The transformer cores retain the first magnetic state and the second magnetic state without current flow through said plurality of transformers. Circuitry is utilized for switching a selected transformer core between the first and second magnetic states to sense voltage and/or balance particular cells or particular banks of cells.

  8. Computer battery cell in the cricopharynx of a toddler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Aloke Bose; Sengupta, Arup; Pal, Ranabir

    2011-07-01

    A computer lithium battery cell was impacted in the cricopharynx of a 1 year and 9 month-old child. The battery cell was safely removed with the pediatric flexible oesophagoscope under anesthesia without trauma to the surrounding structures. The lithium battery cell is potentially dangerous due to its ability to cause chemical damage to the mucosa and cause early inflammation and edema leading to dysphagia and respiratory obstruction. Hence, it should be promptly extracted without delay to prevent catastrophe. The toddler recovered uneventfully in the immediate post-operative period and was followed-up for the last 1 year without any complication. To the horizon of our knowledge, no previous case was reported with computer battery cell in the cricopharynx of a toddler in Eastern India. In conclusion, parent education is important in the early detection of foreign bodies and their interventions.

  9. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  10. Thermal explosion hazards on 18650 lithium ion batteries with a VSP2 adiabatic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhu, Can-Yong; Wang, Yih-Wen; Shu, Chi-Min; Chang, Jian-Chuang; Wu, Hung-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Thermal abuse behaviors relating to adiabatic runaway reactions in commercial 18650 lithium ion batteries (LiCoO 2 ) are being studied in an adiabatic calorimeter, vent sizing package 2 (VSP2). We select four worldwide battery producers, Sony, Sanyo, Samsung and LG, and tested their Li-ion batteries, which have LiCoO 2 cathodes, to determine their thermal instabilities and adiabatic runaway features. The charged (4.2 V) and uncharged (3.7 V) 18650 Li-ion batteries are tested using a VSP2 with a customized stainless steel test can to evaluate their thermal hazard characteristics, such as the initial exothermic temperature (T 0 ), the self-heating rate (dT/dt), the pressure rise rate (dP/dt), the pressure-temperature profiles and the maximum temperature (T max ) and pressure (P max ). The T max and P max of the charged Li-ion battery during the runaway reaction reach 903.0 o C and 1565.9 psig (pound-force per square inch gauge), respectively. This result leads to a thermal explosion, and the heat of reaction is 26.2 kJ. The thermokinetic parameters of the reaction of LiCoO 2 batteries are also determined using the Arrhenius model. The thermal reaction mechanism of the Li-ion battery (pack) proved to be an important safety concern for energy storage. Additionally, use of the VSP2 to classify the self-reactive ratings of the various Li-ion batteries demonstrates a new application of the adiabatic calorimetric methodology.

  11. Thermal explosion hazards on 18650 lithium ion batteries with a VSP2 adiabatic calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhu, Can-Yong; Wang, Yih-Wen; Shu, Chi-Min; Chang, Jian-Chuang; Wu, Hung-Chun

    2011-08-15

    Thermal abuse behaviors relating to adiabatic runaway reactions in commercial 18650 lithium ion batteries (LiCoO(2)) are being studied in an adiabatic calorimeter, vent sizing package 2 (VSP2). We select four worldwide battery producers, Sony, Sanyo, Samsung and LG, and tested their Li-ion batteries, which have LiCoO(2) cathodes, to determine their thermal instabilities and adiabatic runaway features. The charged (4.2V) and uncharged (3.7 V) 18650 Li-ion batteries are tested using a VSP2 with a customized stainless steel test can to evaluate their thermal hazard characteristics, such as the initial exothermic temperature (T(0)), the self-heating rate (dT/dt), the pressure rise rate (dP/dt), the pressure-temperature profiles and the maximum temperature (T(max)) and pressure (P(max)). The T(max) and P(max) of the charged Li-ion battery during the runaway reaction reach 903.0°C and 1565.9 psig (pound-force per square inch gauge), respectively. This result leads to a thermal explosion, and the heat of reaction is 26.2 kJ. The thermokinetic parameters of the reaction of LiCoO(2) batteries are also determined using the Arrhenius model. The thermal reaction mechanism of the Li-ion battery (pack) proved to be an important safety concern for energy storage. Additionally, use of the VSP2 to classify the self-reactive ratings of the various Li-ion batteries demonstrates a new application of the adiabatic calorimetric methodology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Big-Data-Based Thermal Runaway Prognosis of Battery Systems for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichao Hong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A thermal runaway prognosis scheme for battery systems in electric vehicles is proposed based on the big data platform and entropy method. It realizes the diagnosis and prognosis of thermal runaway simultaneously, which is caused by the temperature fault through monitoring battery temperature during vehicular operations. A vast quantity of real-time voltage monitoring data is derived from the National Service and Management Center for Electric Vehicles (NSMC-EV in Beijing. Furthermore, a thermal security management strategy for thermal runaway is presented under the Z-score approach. The abnormity coefficient is introduced to present real-time precautions of temperature abnormity. The results illustrated that the proposed method can accurately forecast both the time and location of the temperature fault within battery packs. The presented method is flexible in all disorder systems and possesses widespread application potential in not only electric vehicles, but also other areas with complex abnormal fluctuating environments.

  13. Tracking degradation in lithium iron phosphate batteries using differential thermal voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibagaki, Toshio; Merla, Yu; Offer, Gregory J.

    2018-01-01

    Diagnosing the state-of-health of lithium ion batteries in-operando is becoming increasingly important for multiple applications. We report the application of differential thermal voltammetry (DTV) to lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cells for the first time, and demonstrate that the technique is capable of diagnosing degradation in a similar way to incremental capacity analysis (ICA). DTV has the advantage of not requiring current and works for multiple cells in parallel, and is less sensitive to temperature introducing errors. Cells were aged by holding at 100% SOC or cycling at 1C charge, 6D discharge, both at an elevated temperature of 45 °C under forced air convection. Cells were periodically characterised, measuring capacity fade, resistance increase (power fade), and DTV fingerprints. The DTV results for both cells correlated well with both capacity and power, suggesting they could be used to diagnose SOH in-operando for both charge and discharge. The DTV peak-to-peak capacity correlated well with total capacity fade for the cycled cell, suggesting that it should be possible to estimate SOC and SOH from DTV for incomplete cycles within the voltage hysteresis region of an LFP cell.

  14. Causal Analysis For Occurrence Report OR NA-SS-SNL-2000-2015-0005 Unexpected Type of Failure of Thermal Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, Elizabeth H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    On 6/26/2015 at approximately 1445 in 894/136, a pulse thermal battery (approximately the size of a commercial size C cell) experienced an unexpected failure following an electrical performance test that is routinely conducted on thermal batteries. A dedicated tester for this operation was used and it ran the test until the nominal 28-volt output of the battery had dropped to 5 volts, usually indicative of the battery being spent and safe enough to move. The failure occurred while a test operator was transferring the battery from the testing primary containment box to another primary containment box within the same room; initial indications are that the battery experienced an over-pressurization failure which led to the battery's base plate being expelled and the operator receiving a non-recordable injury (bruising to the palm of the hand) from the pressure of the expulsion. The operator was wearing the prescribed PPE (safety glasses and high temperature glove) and was handling the battery appropriately with an open, flat hand. Pictures of the scene are below.

  15. Enhancing low-grade thermal energy recovery in a thermally regenerative ammonia battery using elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; LaBarge, Nicole; Yang, Wulin; Liu, Jia; Logan, Bruce E

    2015-03-01

    A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a new approach for converting low-grade thermal energy into electricity by using an ammonia electrolyte and copper electrodes. TRAB operation at 72 °C produced a power density of 236 ± 8 Wm(-2), with a linear decrease in power to 95 ± 5 Wm(-2) at 23 °C. The improved power at higher temperatures was due to reduced electrode overpotentials and more favorable thermodynamics for the anode reaction (copper oxidation). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650 Wh m(-3) at a discharge energy efficiency of 54% and a temperature of 37 °C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot-based efficiency of up to 13% and an overall thermal energy recovery of 0.5%. It should be possible to substantially improve these energy recoveries through optimization of electrolyte concentrations and by using improved ion-selective membranes and energy recovery systems such as heat exchangers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Enhancing Low-Grade Thermal Energy Recovery in a Thermally Regenerative Ammonia Battery Using Elevated Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2015-02-13

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a new approach for converting low-grade thermal energy into electricity by using an ammonia electrolyte and copper electrodes. TRAB operation at 72°C produced a power density of 236±8 Wm-2, with a linear decrease in power to 95±5 Wm-2 at 23°C. The improved power at higher temperatures was due to reduced electrode overpotentials and more favorable thermodynamics for the anode reaction (copper oxidation). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650 Whm-3 at a discharge energy efficiency of 54% and a temperature of 37°C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot-based efficiency of up to 13% and an overall thermal energy recovery of 0.5%. It should be possible to substantially improve these energy recoveries through optimization of electrolyte concentrations and by using improved ion-selective membranes and energy recovery systems such as heat exchangers.

  17. Cooling Simulation and Thermal Abuse Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using the Newman, Tiedemann, Gu, and Kim (NTGK) Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    This paper gives insight into the cooling simulation and thermal abuse modeling of lithium-ion batteries by ANSYS FLUENT. Cooling strategies are important issues in the thermal management of lithium-ion battery systems, and it is essential to investigate them attentively in order to maintain...... the functioning temperature of batteries within an optimum range. The high temperature is able not only to decrease the efficiency of batteries but also may lead to the thermal runaway. To comprehend further, the thermal abuse behavior of lithium-ion batteries based on The Newman, Tiedemann, Gu, and Kim (NTGK......) model has been implemented in ANSYS FLUENT software. The results show that to achieve an optimum energy consumption for battery cooling, a minimum value of average heat transfer coefficient can be selected in order to keep the functioning temperature of batteries within an optimum range....

  18. Thermal Characteristics of Conversion-Type FeOF Cathode in Li-ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Zhao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rutile FeOF was used as a conversion-type cathode material for Li-ion batteries. In the present study, 0.6Li, 1.4Li, and 2.7Li per mole lithiation reactions were carried out by changing the electrochemical discharge reaction depth. The thermal characteristics of the FeOF cathode were investigated by thermogravimetric mass spectrometric (TG-MS and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC systems. No remarkable HF release was detected, even up to 700 °C, which indicated a low toxic risk for the FeOF cathode. Changes in the thermal properties of the FeOF cathode via different conversion reaction depths in the associated electrolyte were studied by changing the cathode/electrolyte ratio in the mixture. LiFeOF was found to exothermically react with the electrolyte at about 210 °C. Similar exothermic reactions were found with charged FeOF cathodes because of the irreversible Li ions. Among the products of the conversion reaction of FeOF, Li2O was found to exothermically react with the electrolyte at about 120 °C, which induced the main thermal risk of the FeOF cathode. It suggests that the oxygen-containing conversion-type cathodes have a higher thermal risk than the oxygen-free ones, but controlling the cathode/electrolyte ratio in cells successfully reduced the thermal risk. Finally, the thermal stability of the FeOF cathode was evaluated in comparison with FeF3 and LiFePO4 cathodes.

  19. Evaluation of ceramic papers and tapes for use as separators in thermal batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Frederick William; Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Ceramic tapes and papers were evaluated for potential use as separators in high-temperature thermal batteries. The bulk of the tests involved fiberglass tape and borosilicate filter discs. Quartz (SiO{sub 2}) and zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) materials were also examined to a limited extent. In addition, custom-prepared MgO-coated ceramic discs from Inventek Inc. were evaluated as separators. The tapes and paper discs were impregnated with LiCl-KCl eutectic or LiCl-LiBr-LiF electrolytes using three different techniques. Test discs were punched from the tapes and papers, impregnated with electrolyte and evaluated as separators in Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} single cells at 400 or 500 C at a steady-state current of 63 or 125 mA/cm{sup 2}. The performance of single cells containing these discs generally improved with increased electrolyte loading for most of the materials in the case of the LiCl-KCl eutectic. Better results were obtained with the paper filter discs than with the tapes. The best results with the paper discs were obtained with Whatman GF/A filter discs. Active lives for cells with these separators were about 85% of standard cells with pressed-powder separators. Good results were obtained in one battery test with the eutectic electrolyte. Mixed results were obtained with the LiCl-LiBr-LiF electrolyte under similar conditions. Higher loadings of electrolyte did not always translate into improved cell performance. Self-discharge reactions are believed responsible. The best overall results were obtained with the Inventek separators. Based on the results of this study, more work in this technology area is merited.

  20. A 3D thermal runaway propagation model for a large format lithium ion battery module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xuning; Lu, Languang; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jiangqiu; He, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a 3D thermal runaway (TR) propagation model is built for a large format lithium ion battery module. The 3D TR propagation model is built based on the energy balance equation. Empirical equations are utilized to simplify the calculation of the chemical kinetics for TR, whereas equivalent thermal resistant layer is employed to simplify the heat transfer through the thin thermal layer. The 3D TR propagation model is validated by experiment and can provide beneficial discussions on the mechanisms of TR propagation. According to the modeling analysis of the 3D model, the TR propagation can be delayed or prevented through: 1) increasing the TR triggering temperature; 2) reducing the total electric energy released during TR; 3) enhancing the heat dissipation level; 4) adding extra thermal resistant layer between adjacent batteries. The TR propagation is successfully prevented in the model and validated by experiment. The model with 3D temperature distribution provides a beneficial tool for researchers to study the TR propagation mechanisms and for engineers to design a safer battery pack. - Highlights: • A 3D thermal runaway (TR) propagation model for Li-ion battery pack is built. • The 3D TR propagation model can fit experimental results well. • Temperature distributions during TR propagation are presented using the 3D model. • Modeling analysis provides solutions for the prevention of TR propagation. • Quantified solutions to prevent TR propagation in battery pack are discussed.

  1. In Situ Analysis of the Li-O2 Battery with Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Cathode: Influence of Water Addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Christensen, Mathias Kjærgård; Younesi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The Li-O2 battery technology holds the promise to deliver a battery with significantly increased specific energy compared to today's Li-ion batteries. As a cathode support material, reduced graphene oxide has received increasing attention in the Li-O2 battery community due to the possibility...... of increased discharge capacity, increased battery cyclability, and decreased, charging, overpotential. In this. article we investigate the effect of water on a thermally, redircedigraphene, oxide cathode in a Li-O2 battery. Differential electrochemical mass spectrciscnieveals a, decreased electron count...... for batteries with 1000 ppm water added- to the electrolyte in comparison to dry batteries, indicating additional parasitic electrochemical or chemical processes. A comparable capacity of the wet and dry batteries indicates that the reaction mechanism in the Li-O2 battery also depends on the 'surface...

  2. Interpretation of Simultaneous Mechanical-Electrical-Thermal Failure in a Lithium-Ion Battery Module: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Stock, Mark J.; Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas; Gruchalla, Kenny

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently the state-of- the-art power sources for electric vehicles, and their safety behavior when subjected to abuse, such as a mechanical impact, is of critical concern. A coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal model for simulating the behavior of a lithium-ion battery under a mechanical crush has been developed. We present a series of production-quality visualizations to illustrate the complex mechanical and electrical interactions in this model.

  3. Thermal Management of Battery Systems in Electric Vehicle and Smart Grid Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan

    vehicles is foreseen. The future battery manufacturers strive to meet the ever growing requirement of consumer’s demand using the battery as a primary power source of these cars. So naturally, the growing popularity of battery electric and hybrid vehicles have catapulted the car industry in the recent...... years. The products include for instance: hybrids, plug-in hybrids, battery and fuel-cell-battery electric vehicles (EV) and so forth. Undeniably, the battery is one of the most significant parts in all of those. Furthermore, stationary storage is another aspect of an emerging field. It represents next......Last few years’ governments are tightening the carbon emission regulations. Moreover, the availability of different financial assistances is available to cut the market share of the fossil fuel vehicles. Conversely, to fill up the gap of the required demand, higher penetration of electrical...

  4. Numerical investigation of thermal behaviors in lithium-ion battery stack discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rui; Chen, Jixin; Xun, Jingzhi; Jiao, Kui; Du, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermal behaviors of a Li-ion battery stack have been investigated by modeling. • Parametric studies have been performed focusing on three different cooling materials. • Effects of discharge rate, ambient temperature and Reynolds number are examined. • General guidelines are proposed for the thermal management of a Li-ion battery stack. - Abstract: Thermal management is critically important to maintain the performance and prolong the lifetime of a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery. In this paper, a two-dimensional and transient model has been developed for the thermal management of a 20-flat-plate-battery stack, followed by comprehensive numerical simulations to study the influences of ambient temperature, Reynolds number, and discharge rate on the temperature distribution in the stack with different cooling materials. The simulation results indicate that liquid cooling is generally more effective in reducing temperature compared to phase-change material, while the latter can lead to more homogeneous temperature distribution. Fast and deep discharge should be avoided, which generally yields high temperature beyond the acceptable range regardless of cooling materials. At low or even subzero ambient temperatures, air cooling is preferred over liquid cooling because heat needs to be retained rather than removed. Such difference becomes small when the ambient temperature increases to a mild level. The effects of Reynolds number are apparent in liquid cooling but negligible in air cooling. Choosing appropriate cooling material and strategy is particularly important in low ambient temperature and fast discharge cases. These findings improve the understanding of battery stack thermal behaviors and provide the general guidelines for thermal management system. The present model can also be used in developing control system to optimize battery stack thermal behaviors

  5. Quantifying Cell-to-Cell Variations in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriram Santhanagopalan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have conventionally been manufactured in small capacities but large volumes for consumer electronics applications. More recently, the industry has seen a surge in the individual cell capacities, as well as the number of cells used to build modules and packs. Reducing cell-to-cell and lot-to-lot variations has been identified as one of the major means to reduce the rejection rate when building the packs as well as to improve pack durability. The tight quality control measures have been passed on from the pack manufactures to the companies building the individual cells and in turn to the components. This paper identifies a quantitative procedure utilizing impedance spectroscopy, a commonly used tool, to determine the effects of material variability on the cell performance, to compare the relative importance of uncertainties in the component properties, and to suggest a rational procedure to set quality control specifications for the various components of a cell, that will reduce cell-to-cell variability, while preventing undue requirements on uniformity that often result in excessive cost of manufacturing but have a limited impact on the cells' performance.

  6. Thermal Behavior and Heat Generation Modeling of Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Lithium Sulfur batteries are receiving a lot of research interest because of their intrinsic characteristics, such as very high energy density and increased safety, which make them a suitable solution for zero-emission vehicles and space application. This paper analyses the influence of the tempe......Lithium Sulfur batteries are receiving a lot of research interest because of their intrinsic characteristics, such as very high energy density and increased safety, which make them a suitable solution for zero-emission vehicles and space application. This paper analyses the influence...

  7. A thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery for efficient harvesting of low-grade thermal energy as electrical power

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Thermal energy was shown to be efficiently converted into electrical power in a thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery (TRAB) using copper-based redox couples [Cu(NH3)4 2+/Cu and Cu(ii)/Cu]. Ammonia addition to the anolyte (2 M ammonia in a copper-nitrate electrolyte) of a single TRAB cell produced a maximum power density of 115 ± 1 W m-2 (based on projected area of a single copper mesh electrode), with an energy density of 453 W h m-3 (normalized to the total electrolyte volume, under maximum power production conditions). Adding a second cell doubled both the voltage and maximum power. Increasing the anolyte ammonia concentration to 3 M further improved the maximum power density to 136 ± 3 W m-2. Volatilization of ammonia from the spent anolyte by heating (simulating distillation), and re-addition of this ammonia to the spent catholyte chamber with subsequent operation of this chamber as the anode (to regenerate copper on the other electrode), produced a maximum power density of 60 ± 3 W m-2, with an average discharge energy efficiency of ∼29% (electrical energy captured versus chemical energy in the starting solutions). Power was restored to 126 ± 5 W m-2 through acid addition to the regenerated catholyte to decrease pH and dissolve Cu(OH)2 precipitates, suggesting that an inexpensive acid or a waste acid could be used to improve performance. These results demonstrated that TRABs using ammonia-based electrolytes and inexpensive copper electrodes can provide a practical method for efficient conversion of low-grade thermal energy into electricity.

  8. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembacki, Bradley L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murthy, Jayathi Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Scott Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  9. Influence of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy-Storage Sizing on Battery Lifetime in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs) results in a high-performance, highly efficient, low-size, and light system. Often, the battery is rated with respect to its energy requirement to reduce its volume and mass....... This does not prevent deep discharges of the battery, which are critical to the lifetime of the battery. In this paper, the ratings of the battery and ultracapacitors are investigated. Comparisons of the system volume, the system mass, and the lifetime of the battery due to the rating of the energy storage......, the battery, and the ultracapacitors, are proposed. A charging strategy, which charges the energy-storage devices due to the conditions of the FCHEV, is also proposed. The analysis provides recommendations on the design of the battery and the ultracapacitor energy-storage systems for FCHEVs....

  10. Thermal characteristics of air flow cooling in the lithium ion batteries experimental chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukhanin A.; Rohatgi U.; Belyaev, A.; Fedorchenko, D.; Khazhmuradov, M.; Lukhanin, O; Rudychev, I.

    2012-07-08

    A battery pack prototype has been designed and built to evaluate various air cooling concepts for the thermal management of Li-ion batteries. The heat generation from the Li-Ion batteries was simulated with electrical heat generation devices with the same dimensions as the Li-Ion battery (200 mm x 150 mm x 12 mm). Each battery simulator generates up to 15W of heat. There are 20 temperature probes placed uniformly on the surface of the battery simulator, which can measure temperatures in the range from -40 C to +120 C. The prototype for the pack has up to 100 battery simulators and temperature probes are recorder using a PC based DAQ system. We can measure the average surface temperature of the simulator, temperature distribution on each surface and temperature distributions in the pack. The pack which holds the battery simulators is built as a crate, with adjustable gap (varies from 2mm to 5mm) between the simulators for air flow channel studies. The total system flow rate and the inlet flow temperature are controlled during the test. The cooling channel with various heat transfer enhancing devices can be installed between the simulators to investigate the cooling performance. The prototype was designed to configure the number of cooling channels from one to hundred Li-ion battery simulators. The pack is thermally isolated which prevents heat transfer from the pack to the surroundings. The flow device can provide the air flow rate in the gap of up to 5m/s velocity and air temperature in the range from -30 C to +50 C. Test results are compared with computational modeling of the test configurations. The present test set up will be used for future tests for developing and validating new cooling concepts such as surface conditions or heat pipes.

  11. Battery and Fuel Cell Development for NASA's Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Reid, Concha M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's return to the moon will require advanced battery, fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell energy storage systems. This paper will provide an overview of the planned energy storage systems for the Orion Spacecraft and the Aries rockets that will be used in the return journey to the Moon. Technology development goals and approaches to provide batteries and fuel cells for the Altair Lunar Lander, the new space suit under development for extravehicular activities (EVA) on the Lunar surface, and the Lunar Surface Systems operations will also be discussed.

  12. Battery and Fuel Cell Development for NASA's Constellation Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's return to the moon will require advanced battery, fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell energy storage systems. This paper will provide an overview of the planned energy storage systems for the Orion Spacecraft and the Aries rockets that will be used in the return journey to the Moon. Technology development goals and approaches to provide batteries and fuel cells for the Altair Lunar Lander, the new space suit under development for extravehicular activities (EY A) on the Lunar surface, and the Lunar Surface Systems operations will also be discussed.

  13. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., fuses, etc.) if a battery contains cells or series of cells that are connected in parallel. (4) Be... packagings in such a manner as to prevent short circuits, including movement which could lead to short circuits. The inner packaging must be packed within one of the following outer packagings: metal boxes (4A...

  14. Cumulative effects of using pin fin heat sink and porous metal foam on thermal management of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadian, Shahabeddin K.; Zhang, Yuwen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D transient thermal analysis of a pouch Li-ion cell has been carried out. • Using pin fin heat sink improves the temperature reduction at low pumping powers. • Using pin fin heat sink enhances the temperature uniformity at low air flow rates. • Porous aluminum foam insertion with pin fins improves temperature reduction. • Porous aluminum foam insertion with pin fins enhances temperature uniformity. - Abstract: Three-dimensional transient thermal analysis of an air-cooled module was carried out to investigate cumulative effects of using pin fin heat sink and porous metal foam on thermal management of a Li-ion (lithium-ion) battery pack. Five different cases were designed as Case 1: flow channel without any pin fin or porous metal foam insertion, Case 2: flow channel with aluminum pin fins, Case 3: flow channel with porous aluminum foam pin fins, Case 4: fully inserted flow channel with porous aluminum foam, and Case 5: fully inserted flow channel with porous aluminum foam and aluminum pin fins. The effects of porous aluminum insertions, pin fin types, air flow inlet temperature, and air flow inlet velocity on the temperature uniformity and maximum temperature inside the battery pack were systematically investigated. The results showed that using pin fin heat sink (Case 2) is appropriate only for low air flow velocities. In addition, the use of porous aluminum pin fins or embedding porous aluminum foam inside the air flow channel (Cases 3 and 4) are not beneficial for thermal management improvement. The combination of aluminum pin fins and porous aluminum foam insertion inside the air flow channel (Case 5) is a proper option that improves both temperature reduction and temperature uniformity inside the battery cell.

  15. A three-dimensional model for thermal analysis in a vanadium flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Qiong; Zhang, Huamin; Xing, Feng; Ma, Xiangkun; Li, Xianfeng; Ning, Guiling

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A three-dimensional model for thermal analysis in a VFB has been developed. • A quasi-static thermal behavior and temperature spatial distribution were showed. • Ohmic heat gets vital in heat generation if applied current density is large enough. • A lower porosity or a faster flow shows a more uniform temperature distribution. • The model shows good prospect in heat and temperature management for a VFB. - Abstract: A three-dimensional model for thermal analysis has been developed to gain a better understanding of thermal behavior in a vanadium flow battery (VFB). The model is based on a comprehensive description of mass, momentum, charge and energy transport and conservation, combining with a global kinetic model for reactions involving all vanadium species. The emphasis in this paper is placed on the heat losses inside a cell. A quasi-static behavior of temperature and the temperature spatial distribution were characterized via the thermal model. The simulations also indicate that the heat generation exhibits a strong dependence on the applied current density. The reaction rate and the over potential rise with an increased applied current density, resulting in the electrochemical reaction heat rises proportionally and the activation heat rises at a parabolic rate. Based on the Ohm’s law, the ohmic heat rises at a parabolic rate when the applied current density increases. As a result, the determining heat source varies when the applied current density changes. While the relative contribution of the three types of heat is dependent on the cell materials and cell geometry, the regularities of heat losses can also be attained via the model. In addition, the electrochemical reaction heat and activation heat have a lack of sensitivity to the porosity and flow rate, whereas an obvious increase of ohmic heat has been observed with the rise of the porosity. A lower porosity or a faster flow shows a better uniformity of temperature distribution in

  16. New low temperature electrolytes with thermal runaway inhibition for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Braja K.; Padhi, Akshaya K.; Shi, Zhong; Chakraborty, Sudipto; Filler, Robert

    This paper describes a low temperature electrolyte system for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. The electrolyte exhibits high ionic conductivity, good electrochemical stability and no exothermic reaction in the presence of lithium metal. The system features a low lattice energy lithium salt in a specific mixture of carbonate solvents and a novel thermal runaway inhibitor.

  17. Large format lithium ion pouch cell full thermal characterisation for improved electric vehicle thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Thomas; Barai, Anup; Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Guo, Yue; McGordon, Andrew; Marco, James

    2017-08-01

    It is crucial to maintain temperature homogeneity in lithium ion batteries in order to prevent adverse voltage distributions and differential ageing within the cell. As such, the thermal behaviour of a large-format 20 Ah lithium iron phosphate pouch cell is investigated over a wide range of ambient temperatures and C rates during both charging and discharging. Whilst previous studies have only considered one surface, this article presents experimental results, which characterise both surfaces of the cell exposed to similar thermal media and boundary conditions, allowing for thermal gradients in-plane and perpendicular to the stack to be quantified. Temperature gradients, caused by self-heating, are found to increase with increasing C rate and decreasing temperature to such an extent that 13.4 ± 0.7% capacity can be extracted using a 10C discharge compared to a 0.5C discharge, both at -10 °C ambient temperature. The former condition causes an 18.8 ± 1.1 °C in plane gradient and a 19.7 ± 0.8 °C thermal gradient perpendicular to the stack, which results in large current density distributions and local state of charge differences within the cell. The implications of these thermal and electrical inhomogeneities on ageing and battery pack design for the automotive industry are discussed.

  18. New developments in Nickel-Hydrogen Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) cell and battery design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Dwight B.; Fox, Chris L.; Miller, Lee E.

    1997-01-01

    The Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) design is being developed by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. (EPI) as an advanced battery for military and commercial, aerospace and terrestrial applications. The DPV cell design offers high specific energy, energy density and reduced cost, while retaining the established Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV) technology flight heritage and database. This advanced DPV design also offers a more efficient mechanical, electrical and thermal cell and battery configuration and a reduced parts count. The DPV battery design promotes compact, minimum volume packaging and weight efficiency, and delivers significant cost and weight savings while providing minimal design risks. This presentation will discuss new DPV design concepts and production features and present test data from existing development cells. The DPV combines the unique features and significant advantages of NiH2 electrochemistry with the simplicity and extensive design heritage of the NiCd battery system to create a power source ideal for military and commercial terrestrial projects as well as traditional aerospace applications.

  19. Thermal effects of the stone battery depending on the bed volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latala Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search restrictions energy consumption in horticultural production there are in progress continually. They concern on the one hand reduce heat loss and, second, better use of available energy. Greenhouse efect in the greenhouse forced ventilation process especially in the surplus heat. The paper presents the manner of management of excess heat in the stone battery. Its structure included four segments with a volume of 13.1 m3 each. Segments of the battery were fed a stream of air in an independent manner. This enabled the work of individual segments or a few at a time. The battery can work in two stages: charging and discharging. Selecting the stage took place automatically according to the developed algorithm. This decision was dependent on the parameters of air flowing through the bed and the thermal state of the battery. During the process of charging and discharging monitored changes in air enthalpy at the inlet and outlet of the battery, and the temperature and relative humidity of air in the bed of battery. For different bed volumes increases its temperature, heat storage capacity and the ability to absorb water vapoure was determined.

  20. Temperature dependent capacity contribution of thermally treated anode current collectors in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Kwon; Li Xifei; Wang Chunlei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied the influence of the thermal treatment of current collectors on the energy capacity. ► Different current collectors show different thermal treatment effect on performance. ► The non-negligible capacity contribution is closely related to the treatment temperatures. ► Our results could be beneficial to designing battery architectures. - Abstract: Metal current collectors, offering a good connection between the active materials and the external circuit, is an important component in a rechargeable lithium ion battery. Some necessary thermal treatment in the battery fabrication and assembly procedure results in current collectors with some non-negligible reversible energy capacities; however, these energy capacities were negligible in the previous references. In this research, for the first time, we investigated the influence of the thermal treatment of current collectors (such as copper foil and stainless steel disk) on energy capacities. Our results indicate that different current collector materials have different thermal treatment effects on their electrochemical performance. The non-negligible capacity contribution is closely related to the treatment temperature.

  1. Review of US Nanocorp - SNL Joint Development of Thermal-Sprayed Thin-Film Cathodes for Thermal Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; DAI,JINXIANG; XIAO,T. DANNY; REISNER,DAVID E.

    2000-11-14

    The use of plasma spray to deposit thin metal-sulfide cathode films is described in this paper. Conventional electroactive stack components in thermal batteries are constructed from pressed-powder parts that are difficult to fabricate in large diameters in thicknesses <0.010. Plasma-sprayed electrodes do not steer from this difficulty, allowing greater energy densities and specific energies to be realized. Various co-spraying agents have been found suitable for improving the mechanical as well as electrochemical properties of plasma-sprayed cathodes for thermal batteries. These electrodes generally show equal or improved performance over conventional pressed-powder electrodes. A number of areas for future growth and development of plasma-spray technology is discussed.

  2. COTS Li-Ion Cells in High Voltage Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis; Darcy, Eric; Jeevarajan, Judy; Cowles, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Testing at NASA JSC and COMDEV shows that Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) Li Ion cells can not be used in high voltage batteries safely without considering the voltage stresses that may be put on the protective devices in them during failure modes.

  3. Resource recovery of scrap silicon solar battery cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Hwa; Hung, Chi-En; Tsai, Shang-Lin; Popuri, Srinivasa R; Liao, Ching-Hua

    2013-05-01

    In order to minimize pollution problems and to conserve limited natural resources, a hydrometallurgical procedure was developed in this study to recover the valuable resources of silicon (Si), silver (Ag) and aluminum (Al) from scrap silicon solar battery cells. In this study, several methods of leaching, crystallization, precipitation, electrolysis and replacement were employed to investigate the recovery efficiency of Ag and Al from defective monocrystalline silicon solar battery cells. The defective solar battery cells were ground into powder followed by composition analysis with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The target metals Ag and Al weight percentage were found to be 1.67 and 7.68 respectively. A leaching process was adopted with nitric acid (HNO3), hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and sodium hydroxide as leaching reagent to recover Ag and Al from a ground solar battery cell. Aluminum was leached 100% with 18N H2SO4 at 70°C and Ag was leached 100% with 6N HNO3. Pure Si of 100% was achieved from the leaching solution after the recovery of Ag and Al, and was analyzed by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectroscopy. Aluminum was recovered by crystallization process and silver was recovered by precipitation, electrolysis and replacement processes. These processes were applied successfully in the recovery of valuable metal Ag of 98-100%.

  4. A systematic approach for electrochemical-thermal modelling of a large format lithium-ion battery for electric vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Genieser, Ronny; Worwood, Daniel; Barai, Anup; Marco, James; Jennings, Paul

    2018-04-01

    A 1D electrochemical-thermal model is developed to characterise the behaviour of a 53 Ah large format pouch cell with LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO2 (NMC) chemistry over a wide range of operating conditions, including: continuous charge (0.5C-2C), continuous discharge (0.5C-5C) and operation of the battery within an electric vehicle (EV) over an urban drive-cycle (WLTP Class 3) and for a high performance EV being driven under track racing conditions. The 1D model of one electrode pair is combined with a 3D thermal model of a cell to capture the temperature distribution at the cell scale. Performance of the model is validated for an ambient temperature range of 5 °C-45 °C. Results highlight that battery performance is highly dependent on ambient temperature. By decreasing the ambient temperature from 45 °C to 5 °C, the available energy drops by 17.1% and 7.8% under 0.5C and 5C discharge respectively. Moreover, the corresponding power loss is found to be: 5.23% under the race cycle as compared with 7.57% under the WLTP drive cycle. Formulation of the model is supported by a comprehensive set of experiments, for quantifying key parameters and for model validation. The full parameter-set for the model is provided ensuring the model is a valuable resource to underpin further research.

  5. Experimental Study of Thermal Runaway Process of 18650 Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the effects of the SOC (State of Charge and the charging–discharging process on the thermal runaway of 18650 lithium-ion batteries. A series of experiments were conducted on an electric heating and testing apparatus. The experimental results indicate that 6 W is the critical heating power for 40% SOC. With a 20 W constant heating rate, the thermal runaway initial temperature of the lithium-ion battery decreases with the increasing SOC. The final thermal runaway temperature increases with the SOC when the SOC is lower than 80%. However, a contrary conclusion was obtained when the SOC was higher than 80%. Significant mass loss, accompanied by an intense exothermic reaction, took place under a higher SOC. The critical charging current, beyond which the thermal runaway occurs, was found to be 2.6 A. The thermal runaway initial temperature decreases with the increasing charging current, while the intensity of the exothermic reaction varies inversely. Mass ejection of gas and electrolytes exists during thermal runaway when the charging current is higher than 10.4 A, below which only a large amount of gas is released. The thermal runaway initial temperature of discharging is higher than that of non-discharging.

  6. Theoretical Modelling Methods for Thermal Management of Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Shabani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge associated with renewable energy generation is the intermittency of the renewable source of power. Because of this, back-up generation sources fuelled by fossil fuels are required. In stationary applications whether it is a back-up diesel generator or connection to the grid, these systems are yet to be truly emissions-free. One solution to the problem is the utilisation of electrochemical energy storage systems (ESS to store the excess renewable energy and then reusing this energy when the renewable energy source is insufficient to meet the demand. The performance of an ESS amongst other things is affected by the design, materials used and the operating temperature of the system. The operating temperature is critical since operating an ESS at low ambient temperatures affects its capacity and charge acceptance while operating the ESS at high ambient temperatures affects its lifetime and suggests safety risks. Safety risks are magnified in renewable energy storage applications given the scale of the ESS required to meet the energy demand. This necessity has propelled significant effort to model the thermal behaviour of ESS. Understanding and modelling the thermal behaviour of these systems is a crucial consideration before designing an efficient thermal management system that would operate safely and extend the lifetime of the ESS. This is vital in order to eliminate intermittency and add value to renewable sources of power. This paper concentrates on reviewing theoretical approaches used to simulate the operating temperatures of ESS and the subsequent endeavours of modelling thermal management systems for these systems. The intent of this review is to present some of the different methods of modelling the thermal behaviour of ESS highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.

  7. Navy primary and secondary batteries: Design and manufacturing guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    The best practices for the specification, design, and manufacture of primary and secondary batteries most commonly used in military applications are provided. The scope was limited to lead-acid batteries (excluding submarine batteries), nickel-cadmium batteries, dry cell, thermal cells, and lithium cells (primaries only). Silver-Zinc batteries, secondary and primary, were purposely excluded since they represent a small portion of the military procurement and require a special treatment of their manufacture and quality assurance best practices.

  8. Thermal Characteristics of an Oscillating Heat Pipe Cooling System for Electric Vehicle Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri-Guang Chi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The heat generation of lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs leads to a degradation of energy capacity and lifetime. To solve this problem, a new cooling concept using an oscillating heat pipe (OHP is proposed. In the present study, an OHP has been adopted for Li-ion battery cooling. Due to the limited space in EVs, the cooling channel is installed on the bottom of the battery module. In the bottom cooling method with an OHP, generated heat can be dissipated easily and conveniently. However, most studies on heat pipes have used bottom heating and top or side cooling methods, so we investigate the various effects of parameters with a top heating/bottom cooling mode with the OHP, i.e., the inclination angle of the system, amount of working fluid charged, the heating amount, and the cold plate temperature with ethanol as a working fluid. The experimental results show that the thermal resistance (0.6 °C/W and uneven pulsating features influence the heat transfer performance. A heater used as a simulated battery was sustained under 60 °C under 10 W and 14 W heating conditions. This indicates that the proposed cooling system with the bottom cooling is feasible for use as an EV’s battery cooling system.

  9. Novel Battery Management System with Distributed Wireless and Fiber Optic Sensors for Early Detection and Suppression of Thermal Runaway in Large Battery Packs, FY13 Q4 Report, ARPA-E Program: Advanced Management Protection of Energy Storage Devices (AMPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chang, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zumstein, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kovotsky, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Puglia, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dobley, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moore, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Osswald, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolf, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kaschmitter, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eaves, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-10-08

    Technology has been developed that enables monitoring of individual cells in highcapacity lithium-ion battery packs, with a distributed array of wireless Bluetooth 4.0 tags and sensors, and without proliferation of extensive wiring harnesses. Given the safety challenges facing lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle, civilian aviation and defense applications, these wireless sensors may be particularly important to these emerging markets. These wireless sensors will enhance the performance, reliability and safety of such energy storage systems. Specific accomplishments to date include, but are not limited to: (1) the development of wireless tags using Bluetooth 4.0 standard to monitor a large array of sensors in battery pack; (2) sensor suites enabling the simultaneous monitoring of cell voltage, cell current, cell temperature, and package strain, indicative of swelling and increased internal pressure, (3) small receivers compatible with USB ports on portable computers; (4) software drivers and logging software; (5) a 7S2P battery simulator, enabling the safe development of wireless BMS hardware in the laboratory; (6) demonstrated data transmission out of metal enclosures, including battery box, with small variable aperture opening; (7) test data demonstrating the accurate and reliable operation of sensors, with transmission of terminal voltage, cell temperature and package strain at distances up to 110 feet; (8) quantification of the data transmission error as a function of distance, in both indoor and outdoor operation; (9) electromagnetic interference testing during operation with live, high-capacity battery management system at Yardney Technical Products; (10) demonstrated operation with live high-capacity lithium-ion battery pack during charge-discharge cycling; (11) development of special polymer-gel lithium-ion batteries with embedded temperature sensors, capable of measuring the core temperature of individual of the cells during charge-discharge cycling

  10. Non-steady experimental investigation on an integrated thermal management system for power battery with phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Shang; Xie, Yongqi; Li, Ming; Yuan, Yanping; Yu, Jianzu; Wu, Hongwei; Liu, Bin; Liu, Nan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated thermal management system for power battery is designed. • The battery temperature rise is a non-steady process for charge and discharge. • A mathematical model can accurately represent temperature rise characteristics. • The heat generation power of the battery is calculated theoretically. • The excess temperatures and thermal resistances affect the system performance. - Abstract: A large amount of heat inside the power battery must be dissipated to maintain the temperature in a safe range for the hybrid power train during high-current charging/discharging processes. In this article, a combined experimental and theoretical study has been conducted to investigate a newly designed thermal management system integrating phase change material with air cooling. An unsteady mathematical model was developed for the battery with the integrated thermal management system. Meanwhile, the heat generation power, thermal resistance, and time constant were calculated. The effect of several control parameters, such as thermal resistance, initial temperature, melting temperature and ambient temperature, on the performance of the integrated thermal management system were analyzed. The results indicated that: (1) the calculated temperature rise of the battery was in good agreement with the experimental data. The appropriate operation temperature of the battery was attained by the action of the phase change storage energy unit which is composed of copper foam and n-Eicosane, (2) the remarkable decrease of the battery temperature can be achieved by reducing the convection thermal resistance or increasing the conductivity of the phase change storage energy unit, where the latter could be the better option due to no additional energy consumption. When convective resistance and thermal resistance between the battery surface and the phase change storage energy unit are less than 2.03 K/W and 1.85 K/W, respectively, the battery will not exceed the

  11. Modelling Venting and Pressure Build-up in a 18650 LCO Cell during Thermal Runaway (ABSTRACT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian; White, Ralph

    Li-ion batteries are a very popular type of electric storage devices that possess high energy density when compared to the other battery chemistries. Due to this property, when operating under abusive conditions such as high ambient temperature, the batteries can experience thermal runaway, which...... may lead to fires and explosions. To prevent this, it is therefore important to model thermal runaway considering different events such as venting and the pressure development inside the battery cell, which makes the main purpose of this paper. A model consisting of the different decomposition...... reactions in the anode, cathode and SEI, but also in electrochemical reactions and boiling of the electrolyte is developed for a cylindrical 18650 LCO cell (Lithium Cobalt Oxide). For determining the pressure and the temperature after venting, the isentropic flow equations are included in the model...

  12. Thermal Management of Battery Systems in EV and Smart Grid Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan

    The principal outcome of the research is to deliver experimental and modelling framework targeted for both EV and next-generation smart grid application developer. The results of the research assist in providing a correct datasheet for a battery cell. It is a result of an experimental framework t...

  13. Prediction of thermal behaviors of an air-cooled lithium-ion battery system for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Seok; Kang, Dal Mo

    2014-12-01

    Thermal management has been one of the major issues in developing a lithium-ion (Li-ion) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery system since the Li-ion battery is vulnerable to excessive heat load under abnormal or severe operational conditions. In this work, in order to design a suitable thermal management system, a simple modeling methodology describing thermal behavior of an air-cooled Li-ion battery system was proposed from vehicle components designer's point of view. A proposed mathematical model was constructed based on the battery's electrical and mechanical properties. Also, validation test results for the Li-ion battery system were presented. A pulse current duty and an adjusted US06 current cycle for a two-mode HEV system were used to validate the accuracy of the model prediction. Results showed that the present model can give good estimations for simulating convective heat transfer cooling during battery operation. The developed thermal model is useful in structuring the flow system and determining the appropriate cooling capacity for a specified design prerequisite of the battery system.

  14. Thermal characterizations of a large-format lithium ion cell focused on high current discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veth, C.; Dragicevic, D.; Merten, C.

    2014-12-01

    The thermal behavior of a large-format lithium ion cell has been investigated during measurements on cell and battery level. High current discharges up to 300 A are the main topic of this study. This paper demonstrates that the temperature response to high current loads provides the possibility to investigate internal cell parameters and their inhomogeneity. In order to identify thermal response caused by internal cell processes, the heat input due to contact resistances has been minimized. The differences between the thermal footprint of a cell during cell and battery measurements are being addressed. The study presented here focuses on the investigation of thermal hot and cold spots as well as temperature gradients in a 50 Ah pouch cell. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the difference between charge and discharge can have significant influence on the thermal behavior of lithium ion cells. Moreover, the miscellaneous thermal characteristics of differently aged lithium ion cells highlight the possibility of an ex-situ non-destructive post-mortem-analysis, providing the possibility of a qualitative and quantitative characterization of inhomogeneous cell-aging. These investigations also generate excellent data for the validation and parameterization of electro-thermal cell models, predicting the distribution of temperature, current, potential, SOC and SOH inside large-format cells.

  15. Construction and testing of coin cells of lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayyar, Archana; Huang, Jiajia; Samiee, Mojtaba; Luo, Jian

    2012-08-02

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have wide applications in electronics, where customers always demand more capacity and longer lifetime. Lithium ion batteries have also been considered to be used in electric and hybrid vehicles or even electrical grid stabilization systems. All these applications simulate a dramatic increase in the research and development of battery materials, including new materials, doping, nanostructuring, coatings or surface modifications and novel binders. Consequently, an increasing number of physicists, chemists and materials scientists have recently ventured into this area. Coin cells are widely used in research laboratories to test new battery materials; even for the research and development that target large-scale and high-power applications, small coin cells are often used to test the capacities and rate capabilities of new materials in the initial stage. In 2010, we started a National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored research project to investigate the surface adsorption and disordering in battery materials (grant no. DMR-1006515). In the initial stage of this project, we have struggled to learn the techniques of assembling and testing coin cells, which cannot be achieved without numerous help of other researchers in other universities (through frequent calls, email exchanges and two site visits). Thus, we feel that it is beneficial to document, by both text and video, a protocol of assembling and testing a coin cell, which will help other new researchers in this field. This effort represents the "Broader Impact" activities of our NSF project, and it will also help to educate and inspire students. In this video article, we document a protocol to assemble a CR2032 coin cell with a LiCoO2 working electrode, a Li counter electrode, and (the mostly commonly used) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder. To ensure new learners to readily repeat the protocol, we keep the protocol as specific and explicit as we can. However, it is important

  16. Research on Thermal Stability of Cellulose-based Lithium Battery Separator Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lizhen; Zhao, Chuanshan; Han, Wenjia; Jiang, Yifei

    2017-10-01

    With the application of battery becoming more and more widely in our life, the importance of battery production with high quality has been increasingly emphasized. Battery separator is one of the important factors that affect the performance of the battery, so the high functions separator production is particularly important. This article preliminary investigates the effect of pulp types, composition and beating degree on the performances of separator. Main research work:Beating softwood pulp, hardwood pulp and dissolving pulp for different degree by PFI, and papermaking, then detecting the physical properties of paper sheets. Through comprehensive analysis conclude that softwood pulp, hardwood pulp and dissolving pulp have excellent physical properties in the 40° SR, and thermal stability up to 200° in the process of heat treatment. The paper sheets are made using different ratio of softwood pulp, hardwood pulp and dissolving pulp, then test the physical properties. According to the comprehensive analysis of experimental datum obtained that the sheets made using mixed pulp (40° SR dissolving pulp: 40° SR softwood =5:5) have excellent physical performance, and sheet strength index decreased slightly at 200°C, compared to other ratios.

  17. In Situ Synchrotron XRD on a Capillary Li-O2 Battery Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Johnsen, Rune E.; Younesi, Reza

    In situ studies give an opportunity to explore systems with a minimum of external interference. As Li-air batteries hold the promise for a future battery technology the investigation of the discharge and charge components of the cathode and anode is of importance, as these components may hold...... the key to making a large capacity rechargeable battery[1]. Different design for in situ XRD studies of Li-O2 batteries has been published, based on coin cell like configuration[2] [3] or Swagelok designs [4]. Capillary batteries have been investigated for the Li-ion system since its development[5......], but no capillary batteries of Li-air has yet been designed. Some of the advantage of the capillary battery design lies in its ability to separate the cathode and anode and avoid the use of glass fiber or separators, which may enable ex situ analysis of battery components. The battery design consist...

  18. In Situ Synchrotron XRD on a Capillary Li-O2 Battery Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Johnsen, Rune E.; Younesi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    In situ studies give an opportunity to explore systems with a minimum of external interference. As Li-air batteries hold the promise for a future battery technology the investigation of the discharge and charge components of the cathode and anode is of importance, as these components may hold...... the key to making a large capacity rechargeable battery[1]. Different design for in situ XRD studies of Li-O2 batteries has been published, based on coin cell like configuration[2] [3] or Swagelok designs [4]. Capillary batteries have been investigated for the Li-ion system since its development[5......], but no capillary batteries of Li-air has yet been designed. Some of the advantage of the capillary battery design lies in its ability to separate the cathode and anode and avoid the use of glass fiber or separators, which may enable ex situ analysis of battery components. The battery design consist...

  19. Modeling based on design of thermal management systems for vertical elevation applications powered by lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Martín, Leire; Gastelurrutia, Jon; Nieto, Nerea; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Rivas, Alejandro; Gil, Iñigo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A TMS is designed for a cylindrical Li-ion BP using CFD tools. • The model is experimentally validated with a maximum time-averaged error of 1.5 °C. • Cell temperature and module thermal dispersion are below 39 °C and 3 °C. • The prototype design fulfills all thermal requirements. • Design improvements are proposed to minimize the cost and the TMS consumption. - Abstract: Environmental sustainability, more efficient use of energy, and active safety concepts are becoming important requirements for the actual elevation sector. In this context IK4-IKERLAN and ORONA have designed an auxiliary energy storage system (ESS) for a residential elevation application based on lithium-ion cells. Safety and specially lifetime are two of the main concerns surrounding this new technology, which is closely related to the cells operating behavior and temperature asymmetries in the complete ESS. Therefore, the temperature of the cells in battery packs (BPs) needs to be controlled in an efficient way. This paper describes the development of the thermal management system (TMS) designed for this application based on various Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) mathematical models. The accuracy of Transient model is validated by using a single module to compare the simulation temperature results with experimental measurements, with a maximum time-averaged temperature prediction error of 1.5 °C. The proposed design is validated as it fulfills the requirements for a wide operating window, with a maximum cell temperature of 39 °C and a thermal dispersion at system level below 3 °C for the worst tested case. A more realistic current profile is checked numerically in the worst ambient and operative conditions for different virtual design variants to propose improvements.

  20. Feasibility Study and Techno-Economic Optimization Model for Battery Thermal Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    . Hence, the objective of this paper is to develop and detail the method of the feasibility for commissioning BTMS called “The decision tool frame-work” (DTF) and to investigate its sensitivity to major factors (e.g. lifetime and application requirement) which are well-known to influence the battery pack...... thermal performance, battery pack performance and ultimately the performance as well as utility of the desired application. This DTF is designed to provide a common frame-work of a BTMS manufacturer and designer to evaluate the options of different BTMS applicable for different applications and operating...... conditions. The results provide insight into the feasibility and the required specifi-cation and configuration of a BTMS....

  1. Parameterization and Observability Analysis of Scalable Battery Clusters for Onboard Thermal Management Paramétrage et analyse d’observabilité de clusters de batteries de taille variable pour une gestion thermique embarquée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xinfan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the battery surface temperature is commonly measured, the core temperature of a cell may be much higher hence more critical than the surface temperature. The core temperature of a battery, though usually unmeasured in commercial applications, can be estimated by an observer, based on a lumped-parameter battery thermal model and the measurement of the current and the surface temperature. Even with a closed loop observer based on the measured surface temperature, the accuracy of the core temperature estimation depends on the model parameters. For such purpose, an online parameterization methodology and an adaptive observer are designed for a cylindrical battery. The single cell thermal model is then scaled up to create a battery cluster model to investigate the temperature pattern of the cluster. The modeled thermal interconnections between cells include cell to cell heat conduction and convection to the surrounding coolant flow. An observability analysis is performed on the cluster before designing a closed loop observer for the pack. Based on the analysis, guidelines for determining the minimum number of required sensors and their exact locations are derived that guarantee the observability of all temperature states. Bien que la température de surface d’une batterie soit généralement mesurée, la température interne d’une cellule peut être beaucoup plus élevée donc plus critique que la température de surface. La température interne d’une batterie, pourtant normalement non mesurée dans les applications commerciales, peut être évaluée par un observateur, sur la base d’un modèle thermique de batterie à constantes localisées et à partir de la mesure du courant et de la température de surface. Même avec un observateur en boucle fermée basé sur la température de surface mesurée, la précision de l’estimation de la température interne dépend des constantes du modèle. Dans cette optique, une méthodologie de

  2. Magnum(R) NiCd advanced nickel-cadmium battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoles, Darren

    1995-04-01

    The Power Systems Department of Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., located in Colorado Springs, Colorado, had developed a long-life advanced Nickel-Cadmium battery cell for aerospace applications. This battery cell, known as the MAGNUM NiCd cell, offers significant life expectancy increase over traditional NiCd battery cells. In addition, it offers significant cost reduction from the Super NiCd battery cell (developed by Hughes Aircraft Company and manufactured by the Power Systems Department of Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc.).

  3. A LiFePO4 battery pack capacity estimation approach considering in-parallel cell safety in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Limei; Cheng, Yong; Zhao, Xiuliang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Find the influence of in-parallel battery cell variations on battery pack capacity. • Redefine the battery module capacity with considering ANY battery cell safety. • Discuss the safety end-of-charge voltage for an aged in-parallel battery module. • Build an algorithm for battery pack capacity estimation with the charge curve. • Bench tests are used to verify the validity of the proposed algorithm. - Abstract: In electric vehicles (EVs), several battery cells are connected in parallel to establish a battery module. The safety of the battery module is influenced by inconsistent battery cell performance which causes uneven currents flowing through internal in-parallel battery cells. A battery cell model is developed based on the Matlab–Simscape platform and validated by tests. The battery cell model is used to construct simulation models for analyzing the effect of battery cell inconsistency on the performance of an in-parallel battery module. Simulation results indicate that the state-of-charge (SOC) of a battery module cannot characterize the SOC of ALL the internal battery cells in the battery module. When the battery management system (BMS) controls the end-of-charge (EOC) time according to the SOC of a battery module, some internal battery cells are over-charged. To guarantee the safety of ALL battery cells through the whole battery life, a safety EOC voltage of the battery module should be set according to the number of battery cells in the battery module and the applied charge current. Simulations reveal that the SOC of the “normal battery module” is related to its charge voltage when aged battery module is charged to the EOC voltage. Then, a function describing their relationship is established. Both the capacity and the charge voltage shift are estimated by comparing the measured voltage-to-capacity curve with the standard one provided by the manufactory. A battery pack capacity estimation method is proposed according to the SOC

  4. Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/carbon microspheres (Fe3O4/C were prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction using cellulose and ferric trichloride as precursors. The resultant composite spheres have been investigated as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, and they show high capacity and good cycle stability (830mAhg−1 at a current density of 0.1C up to 70 cycles, as well as enhanced rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the high structural stability and high rate of ionic/electronic conduction arising from the porous character and the synergetic effect of the carbon coated Fe3O4 structure and conductive carbon coating.

  5. Parallelized Genetic Identification of the Thermal-Electrochemical Model for Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The parameters of a well predicted model can be used as health characteristics for Lithium-ion battery. This article reports a parallelized parameter identification of the thermal-electrochemical model, which significantly reduces the time consumption of parameter identification. Since the P2D model has the most predictability, it is chosen for further research and expanded to the thermal-electrochemical model by coupling thermal effect and temperature-dependent parameters. Then Genetic Algorithm is used for parameter identification, but it takes too much time because of the long time simulation of model. For this reason, a computer cluster is built by surplus computing resource in our laboratory based on Parallel Computing Toolbox and Distributed Computing Server in MATLAB. The performance of two parallelized methods, namely Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD and parallel FOR loop (PARFOR, is investigated and then the parallelized GA identification is proposed. With this method, model simulations running parallelly and the parameter identification could be speeded up more than a dozen times, and the identification result is batter than that from serial GA. This conclusion is validated by model parameter identification of a real LiFePO4 battery.

  6. Alkaline and non-aqueous proton-conducting pouch-cell batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Kwo-hsiung; Nei, Jean; Meng, Tiejun

    2018-01-02

    Provided are sealed pouch-cell batteries that are alkaline batteries or non-aqueous proton-conducing batteries. A pouch cell includes a flexible housing such as is used for pouch cell construction where the housing is in the form of a pouch, a cathode comprising a cathode active material suitable for use in an alkaline battery, an anode comprising an anode active material suitable for use in an alkaline battery, an electrolyte that is optionally an alkaline or proton-conducting electrolyte, and wherein the pouch does not include or require a safety vent or other gas absorbing or releasing system as the anode active material and the cathode active material do not increase the internal atmospheric pressure any more than 2 psig during cycling. The batteries provided function contrary to the art recognized belief that such battery systems were impossible due to unacceptable gas production during cycling.

  7. A physically meaningful equivalent circuit network model of a lithium-ion battery accounting for local electrochemical and thermal behaviour, variable double layer capacitance and degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Srbik, Marie-Therese; Marinescu, Monica; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo F.; Offer, Gregory J.

    2016-09-01

    A novel electrical circuit analogy is proposed modelling electrochemical systems under realistic automotive operation conditions. The model is developed for a lithium ion battery and is based on a pseudo 2D electrochemical model. Although cast in the framework familiar to application engineers, the model is essentially an electrochemical battery model: all variables have a direct physical interpretation and there is direct access to all states of the cell via the model variables (concentrations, potentials) for monitoring and control systems design. This is the first Equivalent Circuit Network -type model that tracks directly the evolution of species inside the cell. It accounts for complex electrochemical phenomena that are usually omitted in online battery performance predictors such as variable double layer capacitance, the full current-overpotential relation and overpotentials due to mass transport limitations. The coupled electrochemical and thermal model accounts for capacity fade via a loss in active species and for power fade via an increase in resistive solid electrolyte passivation layers at both electrodes. The model's capability to simulate cell behaviour under dynamic events is validated against test procedures, such as standard battery testing load cycles for current rates up to 20 C, as well as realistic automotive drive cycle loads.

  8. Prevention of overpressurization of lithium-thionyl chloride battery cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, G. R.; Salmon, D. J.

    1984-12-25

    A method of preventing overpressurization of a lithium-thionyl chloride battery cell by formation of excessive SO/sub 2/ during high rate discharge. The method comprises the step of providing PCl/sub 5/ in the cathode. Alternatively, the PCl/sub 5/ may be provided in the electrolyte or in both the cathode and electrolyte as desired. The PCl/sub 5/ may be incorporated in the cathode by introduction thereof into the porous carbon structure of a preformed carbon element. Alternatively, the PCl/sub 5/ may be dry mixed with the carbon and the mixture formed into the desired cathode element.

  9. Recovering metal values hydrometallurgically from spent dry battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, M. A.; Barakat, M. A.; Mahrous, Y. Sh.

    1999-12-01

    A hydro-pyrometallurgical method was used to recover metal values from spent dry battery cells. Water-soluble ingredients were filtered, and solid residue was sorted by magnetic separation and water flotation. Parameters affecting the recovery efficiency were also studied. Results revealed that metallic parts, carbon rods, and paper were safely recovered; pure NH4Cl, MnO2, and ZnCl2 salts were obtained. Maximum recovery efficiencies reached 93 percent for manganese and 99.5 percent for zinc and NH4.

  10. Battery performances and thermal stability of polyacrylonitrile nano-fiber-based nonwoven separators for Li-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Tae-Hyung; Tanase, Shigeo; Sakai, Tetsuo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Kansai, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Tanaka, Masanao; Onishi, Hiroshi; Kondo, Yuka; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Yamazaki, Hiroaki [Japan Vilene Co., Ltd., 7 Kita-Tone, Koga, Ibaraki 306-0213 (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    The microporous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nonwoven separators have been developed by using electrospun nano-fibers with homogeneous diameter of 380 and 250 nm. The physical, electrochemical and thermal properties of the PAN nonwovens were characterized. The PAN nonwovens possessed homogeneous pore size distribution with similar pore size to the conventional microporous membrane separator. Moreover, the PAN nonwovens showed higher porosities, lower gurley values and better wettabilities than the conventional polyolefin microporous separator. Cells with the PAN nonwovens showed better cycle lives and higher rate capabilities than that of a cell with conventional one. Any internal short circuit was not observed for the cells with the PAN nonwovens during charge-discharge test. Hot oven tests for the charged cells up to 4.2 V have revealed that the PAN nonwoven was thermally stable at 120 C, but showed shrinkage of about 26% isotropically after the test at 150 C for 1 h. The Celgard membrane showed uniaxial shrinkage of about 30% along the machine direction at 150 C for 1 h. (author)

  11. Battery performances and thermal stability of polyacrylonitrile nano-fiber-based nonwoven separators for Li-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Tae-Hyung; Tanaka, Masanao; Onishi, Hiroshi; Kondo, Yuka; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Yamazaki, Hiroaki; Tanase, Shigeo; Sakai, Tetsuo

    The microporous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nonwoven separators have been developed by using electrospun nano-fibers with homogeneous diameter of 380 and 250 nm. The physical, electrochemical and thermal properties of the PAN nonwovens were characterized. The PAN nonwovens possessed homogeneous pore size distribution with similar pore size to the conventional microporous membrane separator. Moreover, the PAN nonwovens showed higher porosities, lower gurley values and better wettabilities than the conventional polyolefin microporous separator. Cells with the PAN nonwovens showed better cycle lives and higher rate capabilities than that of a cell with conventional one. Any internal short circuit was not observed for the cells with the PAN nonwovens during charge-discharge test. Hot oven tests for the charged cells up to 4.2 V have revealed that the PAN nonwoven was thermally stable at 120 °C, but showed shrinkage of about 26% isotropically after the test at 150 °C for 1 h. The Celgard membrane showed uniaxial shrinkage of about 30% along the machine direction at 150 °C for 1 h.

  12. Electrochemical Characteristics of Layered Transition Metal Oxide Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries: Surface, Bulk Behavior, and Thermal Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chixia; Lin, Feng; Doeff, Marca M

    2018-01-16

    structural and chemical changes affect the charge distribution, the charge compensation mechanisms, and ultimately, the battery performance. Surface reconstruction, cathode/electrolyte interface layer formation, and oxygen loss are intimately related, making it difficult to disentangle the effects of each of these phenomena. They are driven by the different redox activities of Ni and O on the surface and in the bulk; there is a greater tendency for charge compensation to occur on oxygen anions at particle surfaces rather than on Ni, whereas the Ni in the bulk is more redox active than on the surface. Finally, our latest research efforts are directed toward understanding the thermal properties of NMCs, which is highly relevant to their safety in operating cells.

  13. Thermal stress promotes host mitochondrial degradation in symbiotic cnidarians: are the batteries of the reef going to run out?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R Dunn

    Full Text Available The symbiotic relationship between cnidarians and their dinoflagellate symbionts, Symbiodinium spp, which underpins the formation of tropical coral reefs, can be destabilized by rapid changes to environmental conditions. Although some studies have concluded that a breakdown in the symbiosis begins with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation within the symbiont due to a decoupling of photosynthesis, others have reported the release of viable symbionts via a variety of host cell derived mechanisms. We explored an alternative model focused upon changes in host cnidarian mitochondrial integrity in response to thermal stress. Mitochondria are often likened to being batteries of the cell, providing energy in the form of ATP, and controlling cellular pathway activation and ROS generation. The overall morphology of host mitochondria was compared to that of associated symbionts under an experimental thermal stress using confocal and electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that hyperthermic stress induces the degradation of cnidarian host mitochondria that is independent of symbiont cellular deterioration. The potential sites of host mitochondrial disruption were also assessed by measuring changes in the expression of genes associated with electron transport and ATP synthesis using quantitative RT-PCR. The primary site of degradation appeared to be downstream of complex III of the electron transport chain with a significant reduction in host cytochrome c and ATP synthase expression. The consequences of reduced expression could limit the capacity of the host to mitigate ROS generation and maintain both organelle integrity and cellular energy supplies. The disruption of host mitochondria, cellular homeostasis, and subsequent cell death irrespective of symbiont integrity highlights the importance of the host response to thermal stress and in symbiosis dysfunction that has substantial implications for understanding how coral reefs will survive

  14. New glyme-cyclic imide lithium salt complexes as thermally stable electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takashi; Hachida, Takeshi; Yoshida, Kazuki; Tachikawa, Naoki; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    New glyme-Li salt complexes were prepared by mixing equimolar amounts of a novel cyclic imide lithium salt LiN(C 2F 4S 2O 4) (LiCTFSI) and a glyme (triglyme (G3) or tetraglyme (G4)). The glyme-Li salt complexes, [Li(G3)][CTFSI] and [Li(G4)][CTFSI], are solid and liquid, respectively, at room temperature. The thermal stability of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is much higher than that of pure G4, and the vapor pressure of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is negligible at temperatures lower than 100 °C. Although the viscosity of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is high (132.0 mPa s at 30 °C), because of its high molar concentration (ca. 3 mol dm -3), its ionic conductivity at 30 °C is relatively high, i.e., 0.8 mS cm -1, which is slightly lower than that of a conventional organic electrolyte solution (1 mol dm -3 LiTFSI dissolved in propylene carbonate). The self-diffusion coefficients of a Li + cation, a CTFSI - anion, and a glyme molecule were measured by the pulsed gradient spin-echo NMR method (PGSE-NMR). The ionicity (dissociativity) of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] at 30 °C is ca. 0.5, as estimated from the PGSE-NMR diffusivity measurements and the ionic conductivity measurements. Results of linear sweep voltammetry revealed that [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is electrochemically stable in an electrode potential range of 0-4.5 V vs. Li/Li +. The reversible deposition-stripping behavior of lithium was observed by cyclic voltammetry. The [LiCoO 2|[Li(G4)][CTFSI]|Li metal] cell showed a stable charge-discharge cycling behavior during 50 cycles, indicating that the [Li(G4)][CTFSI] complex is applicable to a 4 V class lithium secondary battery.

  15. Minority Institution ARO Fuel Cell/Battery Manufacturing Research Hub

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selman, J

    2001-01-01

    ...) high-energy rechargeable battery research concentrated on Li-ion batteries; (3) minority outreach to give undergraduate minority students hands-on experience in electrochemical energy conversion technology and attract them to graduate studies...

  16. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a...

  17. Investigation of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Rating for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Khaligh, A.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    Combining high energy density batteries and high power density ultracapacitors in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) results in a high efficient, high performance, low size, and light system. Often the batteries are rated with respect to their energy requirement in order to reduce...... their volume and mass. This does not prevent deep discharges of the batteries, which is critical to their lifetime. In this paper, the ratings of the batteries and ultracapacitors in a FCHEV are investigated. Comparison of system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime due to the rating of the energy...... storage devices are presented. It is concluded, that by sufficient rating of the battery or ultracapacitors, an appropriate balance between system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime is achievable....

  18. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  19. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-27

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  20. Cell properties for modified PTMA cathodes of organic radical batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Kentaro; Iriyama, Jiro; Iwasa, Shigeyuki; Suguro, Masahiro; Satoh, Masaharu [Fundamental and Environmental Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, Tsukuba (Japan); Cairns, Elton J. [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    2007-02-25

    Stable nitroxyl radical polymers, such as poly (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy-4-yl methacrylate) (PTMA), are known to be effective as cathode active materials for lithium rechargeable batteries. A water-based slurry was used to prepare PTMA composite electrodes, enabling successful production of homogeneous electrodes. This improved utilization of active material and enabled us to obtain specific capacities almost equal to the theoretical value (111 mAh g{sup -1}). Lithium half cells were fabricated using these electrodes and using graphite as the anode active material, and their cycling stability, temperature dependence, rate capability and self-discharge rate were measured in detail. Although they showed 24% irreversible capacity on the first cycle, the capacity stabilized after the second cycle. (author)

  1. Next-generation batteries and fuel cells for commercial, military, and space applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jha, A R

    2012-01-01

    Distilling complex theoretical physical concepts into an understandable technical framework, Next-Generation Batteries and Fuel Cells for Commercial, Military, and Space Applications describes primary and secondary (rechargeable) batteries for various commercial, military, spacecraft, and satellite applications for covert communications, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions. It emphasizes the cost, reliability, longevity, and safety of the next generation of high-capacity batteries for applications where high energy density, minimum weight and size, and reliability in harsh conditions are

  2. Battery Usage and Thermal Performance of the Toyota Prius and Honda Insight for Various Chassis Dynamometer Test Procedures: Preprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, K. J.; Mihalic, M.; Zolot, M.

    2001-01-01

    This study describes the results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) chassis dynamometer testing of a 2000 model year Honda Insight and 2001 model year Toyota Prius. The tests were conducted for the purpose of evaluating the battery thermal performance, assessing the impact of air conditioning on fuel economy and emissions, and providing information for NREL's Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

  3. Water uptake by salts during the electrolyte processing for thermal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masset, Patrick; Poinso, Jean-Yves; Poignet, Jean-Claude

    Water uptake of single salts and electrolytes were measured in industrial conditions (dry-room). The water uptake rate ϑ (g h -1 cm -2) was expressed with respect to the apparent area of contact of the salt with atmosphere of the dry room. The water uptake by potassium-based salts was very low. LiF and LiCl salts were found to behave similarly. For LiBr- and LiI-based salts and mixtures, we pointed out a linear relationship between the water uptake and the elapsed time. Water uptake by magnesium oxide reached a limit after 200 h. This work provides a set of data concerning the rate of water uptake by single salts, salt mixtures and magnesia used in thermal battery electrolytes.

  4. Functional Analysis of Battery Management Systems using Multi-Cell HIL Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Schaltz, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Developers and manufacturers of Battery Management Systems (BMSs) require extensive testing of controller HW and SW, such as analog front-end (AFE) and performance of generated control code. In comparison with tests conducted on real batteries, tests conducted on hardware-in-the-loop (HIL......) simulator may be more costant time effective, easier to reproduce and safer beyond the normal range of operation, especially at early stages in the development process or during fault simulation. In this paper a li-ion battery (LIB) electro-thermal multicell model coupled with an aging model is designed......, characterized and validated based on experimental data, converted to C code and emulated in real-time with a dSpace HIL simulator. The BMS to be tested interacts with the emulated battery pack as if it was managing a real battery pack. BMS functions such as protection, measuring of current, voltage...

  5. Evaluation of a new charge algorithm for a lead-acid battery with gelled electrolyte using a 96V gel cell 4 as a test battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dieter K.

    1989-10-01

    A summary is reported of test results obtained utilizing the new UAH charge algorithm for Lead-Acid batteries with gelled electrolyte. The battery performance data for a 96V Phase 4 Gel/Cell battery pack was tested in a Jet Industries Electrica vehicle. It was shown that the new charge concept is sound although there can be problems with batteries that are highly imbalanced and where excessive electronic noise is experienced on the electronic signal feed-back line that carries the voltage sensor signals from the battery. Additional work is needed to add intelligence to the charge algorithm in terms of a better ability to extract the beginning of gas development from the voltage spread function. This can probably be accomplished by scanning the voltages more often and including that data into the function analysis by adding software filters. The Phase 4 Gel/Cell battery performance was found to be about 20 percent lower than that of the Phase 3 Gel/Cell battery. Problems with cell valve leakage were encountered in the Phase 4 Gel/Cell that pose a threat to battery life although so far no battery module has been lost.

  6. Device and Method for Continuously Equalizing the Charge State of Lithium Ion Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Paul D. (Inventor); Martin, Mark N. (Inventor); Roufberg, Lewis M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method of equalizing charge states of individual cells in a battery includes measuring a previous cell voltage for each cell, measuring a previous shunt current for each cell, calculating, based on the previous cell voltage and the previous shunt current, an adjusted cell voltage for each cell, determining a lowest adjusted cell voltage from among the calculated adjusted cell voltages, and calculating a new shunt current for each cell.

  7. Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Metal Values From Spent Dry Battery Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, M.A.; Barakat, M.A.; Mahrous, Y.Sh.

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on the recovery of metal values from spent dry battery cells (DBC) applying a hydro-pyrometallurgical method. A process flow sheet was followed up starting with cutting the DBC with toothed cutter disc followed by water soaking and rinsing. Water soluble ingredients were filtered. Solid residue was assorted with the help of magnetic separation and water flotation.The method utilizes hydrogen peroxide to enhance dissolution of these metals in acidic or alkaline leachants. Parameters affecting the recovery efficiency such as stoichiometric ratio, solid: liquid ratio, temperature, time and ph of the system were investigated. In this concern, experiments were executed with a battery sample weighing up to 15 kg. Atomic absorption analysis showed that the input DBC contain appreciable amounts of metal zinc, zinc chloride and manganese that are recoverable.Results obtained revealed that metallic parts, carbon rods and paper were safely separated for recycling. From the water-soluble salts, pure NH 4 CI, MnO 2 and ZnCI 2 salts are obtained meeting the standard specifications. Temperature up to 55 degree enhances the recovery process. Under the optimum conditions, maximum recovery efficiency obtained amounts to 93% for Mn, and 99.5% for Zn and NH 4 CI. A model for explaining the obtained results was also given. Dissolution of metals concerned increases in the order nitric> hydrochloric acid. Results were explained in the premise of the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the reactions involved. Cost estimate of the products shows that the prices of the products are competitive to those of the market prices

  8. Performance of Li-Ion Cells Under Battery Voltage Charge Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Vaidyanathan, Hari; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A study consisting of electrochemical characterization and Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) cycling of Li-Ion cells from three vendors was initiated in 1999 to determine the cycling performance and to infuse the new technology in the future NASA missions. The 8-cell batteries included in this evaluation are prismatic cells manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances Company (MSA), cylindrical cells manufactured by SAFT and prismatic cells manufactured by Yardney Technical Products, Inc. (YTP). The three batteries were cycle tested in the LEO regime at 40% depth of discharge, and under a charge control technique that consists of battery voltage clamp with a current taper. The initial testing was conducted at 20 C; however, the batteries were cycled also intermittently at low temperatures. YTP 20 Ah cells consisted of mixed-oxide (Co and Ni) positive, graphitic carbon negative, LIPF6 salt mixed with organic carbonate solvents. The battery voltage clamp was 32 V. The low temperature cycling tests started after 4575 cycles at 20 C. The cells were not capable of cycling. at low temperature since the charge acceptance at battery level was poor. There was a cell in the battery that showed too high an end-of-charge (EOC) voltage thereby limiting the ability to charge the rest of the cells in the battery. The battery has completed 6714 cycles. SAFT 12 Ah cells consisted of mixed-oxide (Co and NO positive, graphitic carbon negative, LiPF6 salt mixed with organic carbonate solvents. The battery voltage clamp was for 30.8 V. The low temperature cycling tests started after 4594 cycles at 20 C. A cell that showed low end of discharge (EOD) and EOC voltages and three other cells that showed higher EOC voltages limited the charge acceptance at the selected voltage limit during charge. The cells were capable of cycling at 10 C and 0 C but the charge voltage limit had to be increased to 34.3 V (4.3 V per cell). The low temperature cycling may have induced poor chargeability since the voltage had to

  9. Extensive EIS characterization of commercially available lithium polymer battery cell for performance modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has become a popular analytical technique for research and development of battery cells' chemistries, due to the established, high precision computer controlled equipment, that are capable of direct, on-line monitoring of performance parameters...... on the performance of a commercially available 53 Ah Lithium polymer battery cell, manufactured by Kokam Co. Ltd., is investigated in laboratory experiments, at its beginning of life, by means of EIS. A data fitting algorithm was used to obtain the parameter values for the proposed equivalent electrical circuit......, which was further selected for the development of an accurate EIS based performance model for the chosen Li-ion battery cell....

  10. The AC Impedance Characteristic of High Power Li4Ti5O12-based Battery Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the impedance characteristics of a fresh 13 Ah high-power lithium titanate oxide (LTO) battery cell and analyses its dependence on the temperature and state-of-charge. The impedance of the battery cell was measured by means of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS......) technique for the entire state-of-charge (SOC) interval and considering five temperatures between 5oC and 45oC. By analyzing the measured impedance spectra of the LTO-based battery cell, it was found out that the cell’s impedance is extremely dependent on the operating conditions. By further processing...

  11. Fuzzy energy management for hybrid fuel cell/battery systems for more electric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcau, Jenica-Ileana; Dinca, Liviu; Grigorie, Teodor Lucian; Tudosie, Alexandru-Nicolae

    2017-06-01

    In this paper is presented the simulation and analysis of a Fuzzy Energy Management for Hybrid Fuel cell/Battery Systems used for More Electric Aircraft. The fuel cell hybrid system contains of fuel cell, lithium-ion batteries along with associated dc to dc boost converters. In this configuration the battery has a dc to dc converter, because it is an active in the system. The energy management scheme includes the rule based fuzzy logic strategy. This scheme has a faster response to load change and is more robust to measurement imprecisions. Simulation will be provided using Matlab/Simulink based models. Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance.

  12. Experiment and simulation of a LiFePO4 battery pack with a passive thermal management system using composite phase change material and graphite sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunjing; Xu, Sichuan; Chang, Guofeng; Liu, Jinling

    2015-02-01

    A passive thermal management system (TMS) for LiFePO4 battery modules using phase change material (PCM) as the heat dissipation source to control battery temperature rise is developed. Expanded graphite matrix and graphite sheets are applied to compensate low thermal conductivity of PCM and improve temperature uniformity of the batteries. Constant current discharge and mixed charge-discharge duties were applied on battery modules with and without PCM on a battery thermal characteristics test platform. Experimental results show that PCM cooling significantly reduces the battery temperature rise during short-time intense use. It is also found that temperature uniformity across the module deteriorates with the increasing of both discharge time and current rates. The maximum temperature differences at the end of 1C and 2C-rate discharges are both less than 5 °C, indicating a good performance in battery thermal uniformity of the passive TMS. Experiments on warm-keeping performance show that the passive TMS can effectively keep the battery within its optimum operating temperature for a long time during cold weather uses. A three dimensional numerical model of the battery pack with the passive TMS was conducted using ANSYS Fluent. Temperature profiles with respect to discharging time reveal that simulation shows good agreement with experiment at 1C-discharge rate.

  13. Efficient Simulation and Abuse Modeling of Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Phenomena in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, Ahmad A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Chao [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Laboratories; Abraham, Daniel [Argonne National Laboratory; Dees, Dennis [Argonne National Laboratory; Yao, Pierre [Argonne National Laboratory

    2017-08-08

    NREL's Energy Storage team is exploring the effect of mechanical crush of lithium ion cells on their thermal and electrical safety. PHEV cells, fresh as well as ones aged over 8 months under different temperatures, voltage windows, and charging rates, were subjected to destructive physical analysis. Constitutive relationship and failure criteria were developed for the electrodes, separator as well as packaging material. The mechanical models capture well, the various modes of failure across different cell components. Cell level validation is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories.

  14. Novel Battery Thermal Management System for Greater Lifetime Ratifying Current Quality and Safety Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    , vehicles, telecommunications installations, large industrial and commercial installations, large uninterruptible power supply (UPS) installations and renewable energy plant installations etc. The capacity of the battery pack increases as the operating temperature is raised for a battery pack however...

  15. Development of coin-type cell and engineering of its compartments for rechargeable seawater batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinhyup; Hwang, Soo Min; Go, Wooseok; Senthilkumar, S. T.; Jeon, Donghoon; Kim, Youngsik

    2018-01-01

    Cell design and optimization of the components, including active materials and passive components, play an important role in constructing robust, high-performance rechargeable batteries. Seawater batteries, which utilize earth-abundant and natural seawater as the active material in an open-structured cathode, require a new platform for building and testing the cells other than typical Li-ion coin-type or pouch-type cells. Herein, we present new findings based on our optimized cell. Engineering the cathode components-improving the wettability of cathode current collector and seawater catholyte flow-improves the battery performance (voltage efficiency). Optimizing the cell component and design is the key to identifying the electrochemical processes and reactions of active materials. Hence, the outcome of this research can provide a systematic study of potentially active materials used in seawater batteries and their effectiveness on the electrochemical performance.

  16. Physical Integration of a Photovoltaic-Battery System : A Thermal Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vega Garita, V.E.; Ramirez Elizondo, L.M.; Bauer, P.

    2017-01-01

    Solar-battery systems are still expensive, bulky, and space consuming. To tackle these issues, we propose a novel device that combines all the components of a solar-battery system in one device. This device might help reduce installation cost compared to the current solar-battery systems as well as

  17. Control of internal and external short circuits in lithium batteries using a composite thermal switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Robert C.; Pickett, Jerome; Goebel, Franz

    1991-01-01

    A composite material has been developed, consisting of a blend of metal and fluorocarbon particles, which behaves as an electronic conductor at room temperature and which abruptly becomes an insulator at a predetermined temperature. This switching behavior results from the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the conductive and non-conductive portions of the composite. This material was applied as a thin film between the carbon cathode in Li/SOCl2 cells, and the metallic cathode current collector. Using test articles incorporating this feature it was shown that lithium cells externally heated or internally heated during a short circuit lost rate capability and the ability to overheat well below the melting point of lithium (180 C). Thus, during an internal or external cell short circuit, the potential for thermal runaway involving reactions of molten lithium is avoided.

  18. Directly connected series coupled HTPEM fuel cell stacks to a Li-ion battery DC bus for a fuel cell electrical vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Remón, Ian Natanael

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this paper examines the use of pure hydrogen fuelled high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell stacks in an electrical car, charging a Li-ion battery pack. The car is equipped with two branches of two series coupled 1 kW fuel cell stacks which...... are connected directly parallel to the battery pack during operation. This enables efficient charging of the batteries for increased driving range. With no power electronics used, the fuel cell stacks follow the battery pack voltage, and charge the batteries passively. This saves the electrical and economical...... losses related to these components and their added system complexity. The new car battery pack consists of 23 Li-ion battery cells and the charging and discharging are monitored by a battery management system (BMS) which ensures safe operating conditions for the batteries. The direct connection...

  19. Distinction of impedance responses of Li-ion batteries for individual electrodes using symmetric cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momma, Toshiyuki; Yokoshima, Tokihiko; Nara, Hiroki; Gima, Yuhei; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Impedance of lithium ion battery and symmetric cells were analyzed. • Anode symmetric cells and cathode one were prepared with ca. 7 × 7 cm 2 electrodes. • Except for R ct in cathode, electrochemical parameters did not change by reassembling. • Fitting data for symmetric cell were found to be useful for full cell analysis. • Electrochemical parameters of battery were traced during cycling degradation. - Abstract: Symmetric cells were prepared with a newly designed separable cell module, which enabled ca. 70 mm by 70 mm electrode sheets to be used for a pouch type 5 Ah class Li-ion battery (LIB). Impedance analysis of the LIB as a full cell state was successfully performed with electrochemical parameters obtained by an impedance analysis of symmetric cells of anodes and cathodes obtained from the operated Li-ion batteries. While the charge transfer resistance of the cathode was found to increase after reassembling the cells symmetrically, other electrochemical parameters were found not to change when comparing the values obtained for full cells with symmetric cells. Eelectrodes degraded by charge/discharge cycling of the battery were also investigated, and the parameter change caused by the degradation was confirmed

  20. Modular Approach for Continuous Cell-Level Balancing to Improve Performance of Large Battery Packs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muneed ur Rehman, M.; Evzelman, M.; Hathaway, K.; Zane, R.; Plett, G. L.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Maksimovic, D.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage systems require battery cell balancing circuits to avoid divergence of cell state of charge (SOC). A modular approach based on distributed continuous cell-level control is presented that extends the balancing function to higher level pack performance objectives such as improving power capability and increasing pack lifetime. This is achieved by adding DC-DC converters in parallel with cells and using state estimation and control to autonomously bias individual cell SOC and SOC range, forcing healthier cells to be cycled deeper than weaker cells. The result is a pack with improved degradation characteristics and extended lifetime. The modular architecture and control concepts are developed and hardware results are demonstrated for a 91.2-Wh battery pack consisting of four series Li-ion battery cells and four dual active bridge (DAB) bypass DC-DC converters.

  1. Analysis of structural and thermal stability in the positive electrode for sulfide-based all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Otoyama, Misae; Mori, Yota; Mori, Shigeo; Morimoto, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    Sulfide-based all-solid-state batteries using a non-flammable inorganic solid electrolyte are promising candidates as a next-generation power source owing to their safety and excellent charge-discharge cycle characteristics. In this study, we thus focus on the positive electrode and investigated structural stabilities of the interface between the positive electrode active material LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) and the 75Li2S·25P2S5 (LPS) glass electrolyte after charge-discharge cycles via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To evaluate the thermal stability of the fabricated all-solid-state cell, in-situ TEM observations for the positive electrode during heating are conducted. As a result, structural and morphological changes are detected in the LPS glasses. Thus, exothermal reaction present in the NMC-LPS composite positive electrode after the initial charging is attributable to the crystallization of LPS glasses. On the basis of a comparison with crystallization behavior in single LPS glasses, the origin of exothermal reaction in the NMC-LPS composites is discussed.

  2. Enhanced separator properties by thermal curing of poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate-based gel polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Man; Poliquit, Beta Zenia; Lee, Young-Gi; Won, Jeongha; Ko, Jang Myoun; Cho, Won Il

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PEGDA-based gel polymer electrolytes are synthesized on separator via thermal polymerization of PEGDA with a thermal initiator and a LiPF 6 -/EC/DMC solution. • The nonwoven PVdF separator shows good absorption of gel polymer electrolytes due to high porosity and good compatibility with the precursor solution. • The inclusion of the PEGDA-based gel polymer electrolytes prolongs the cycle life through a better capacity retention ratio in lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: Porous polyethylene (PE) or nonwoven poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) separator-supported gel polymer electrolytes are realized by thermal polymerization of a precursor solution consisting of poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate (PEGDA) and an electrolyte solution (1 M LiPF 6 in an equal-volume mixture of ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate). The polymerization conditions are optimized to include a PEGDA content of 3 wt.% in the precursor solution and subsequent heat treatment at 80 °C for 10 min. Even though the gelled PEGDA electrolyte has a lower ionic conductivity than the electrolyte solution, a Li x CoO 2 /graphite full-cell that has a gel electrolyte with optimized PEGDA content on the PVdF separator achieves a battery performance superior to the one with PE. The best battery performances achieved are a high discharge capacity (116 mAh g −1 ), a good high-rate capability (95 mAh g −1 at 5.0 C-rate), and a high capacity retention ratio (90%) after the 100th cycle. This enhancement is due to the incorporation of a polar electrolyte solution that is entrapped by the polar PEGDA matrix within the nonwoven PVdF separator, which is a more suitable host that is able to well absorb and preserve the gel electrolyte

  3. Thermal stability of gallium arsenide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papež, Nikola; Škvarenina, Ľubomír.; Tofel, Pavel; Sobola, Dinara

    2017-12-01

    This article summarizes a measurement of gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells during their thermal processing. These solar cells compared to standard silicon cells have better efficiency and high thermal stability. However, their use is partly limited due to high acquisition costs. For these reasons, GaAs cells are deployed only in the most demanding applications where their features are needed, such as space applications. In this work, GaAs solar cells were studied in a high temperature range within 30-650 °C where their functionality and changes in surface topology were monitored. These changes were recorded using an electron microscope which determined the position of the defects; using an atomic force microscope we determined the roughness of the surface and an infrared camera that showed us the thermal radiated places of the defected parts of the cell. The electrical characteristics of the cells during processing were determined by its current-voltage characteristics. Despite the occurrence of subtle changes on the solar cell with newly created surface features after 300 °C thermal processing, its current-voltage characteristic remained without a significant change.

  4. In situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy of electrochemical cells: batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Frédéric; Leskes, Michal; Grey, Clare P

    2013-09-17

    Electrochemical cells, in the form of batteries (or supercapacitors) and fuel cells, are efficient devices for energy storage and conversion. These devices show considerable promise for use in portable and static devices to power electronics and various modes of transport and to produce and store electricity both locally and on the grid. For example, high power and energy density lithium-ion batteries are being developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles where they improve the efficiency of fuel use and help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To gain insight into the chemical reactions involving the multiple components (electrodes, electrolytes, interfaces) in the electrochemical cells and to determine how cells operate and how they fail, researchers ideally should employ techniques that allow real-time characterization of the behavior of the cells under operating conditions. This Account reviews the recent use of in situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy, a technique that probes local structure and dynamics, to study these devices. In situ NMR studies of lithium-ion batteries are performed on the entire battery, by using a coin cell design, a flat sealed plastic bag, or a cylindrical cell. The battery is placed inside the NMR coil, leads are connected to a potentiostat, and the NMR spectra are recorded as a function of state of charge. (7)Li is used for many of these experiments because of its high sensitivity, straightforward spectral interpretation, and relevance to these devices. For example, (7)Li spectroscopy was used to detect intermediates formed during electrochemical cycling such as LixC and LiySiz species in batteries with carbon and silicon anodes, respectively. It was also used to observe and quantify the formation and growth of metallic lithium microstructures, which can cause short circuits and battery failure. This approach can be utilized to identify conditions that promote dendrite formation and whether different electrolytes and additives can help

  5. Determination of lead and cadmium contents of dry cell batteries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    established system for collection, separation, storage and management of municipal and industrial wastes containing primary and secondary battery wastes and similar toxic materials to halt the open burning of such wastes within inhabited areas ...

  6. Enhanced Wettability and Thermal Stability of a Novel Polyethylene Terephthalate-Based Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Nanofiber Hybrid Membrane for the Separator of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunhong; Nagaishi, Tomoki; Shi, Jian; Lee, Hoik; Wong, Pok Yin; Sui, Jianhua; Hyodo, Kenji; Kim, Ick Soo

    2017-08-09

    In this study, a novel membrane for the separator in a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery was proposed via a mechanically pressed process with a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofiber subject and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) microfiber support. Important physical properties, such as surface morphology, wettability, and heat stability were considered for the PET-reinforced PVDF nanofiber (PRPN) hybrid separator. Images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the PRPN hybrid separator had a homogeneous pore size and high porosity. It can wet out in battery electrolytes completely and quickly, satisfying wettability requirements. Moreover, the electrolyte uptake was higher than that of dry-laid and wet-laid nonwovens. For heat stability, no shrink occurred even when the heating temperature reached 135 °C, demonstrating thermal and dimensional stability. Moreover, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that the PRPN hybrid separator possessed a shutdown temperature of 131 °C, which is the same as conventional separators. Also, the meltdown temperature reached 252 °C, which is higher than the shutdown temperature, and thus can protect against internal cell shorts. The proposed PRPN hybrid separator is a strong candidate material for utilization in Li-ion batteries.

  7. Thermal Stability of LiPF6 Salt and Li-ion Battery Electrolytes Containing LiPF6

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hui; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Ross Jr., Philip N.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal stability of the neat LiPF6 salt and of 1 molal solutions of LiPF6 in prototypical Li-ion battery solvents was studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and on-line FTIR. Pure LiPF6 salt is thermally stable up to 380 oK in a dry inert atmosphere, and its decomposition path is a simple dissociation producing LiF as solid and PF5 as gaseous products. In the presence of water (300 ppm) in the carrier gas, its decomposition onset temperature is lowered as a result of direct t...

  8. Smart Battery Thermal Management for PHEV Efficiency Une gestion avancée de la thermique de la batterie basse tension de traction pour optimiser l’efficacité d’un véhicule hybride électrique rechargeable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefebvre L.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A smart battery thermal management is crucial for vehicle performances and battery lifetime targets achievements when electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are concerned. The thermal system needs to be designed and tuned in accordance and compromises with powertrain and vehicle requirements, battery pack architecture, environmental constraints, costs, weight, etc., in a process that will be described in the first part of this paper. Among the portfolio of battery thermal management technologies, these items will be illustrated by two examples: thermal management by cabin air and by refrigerant in a direct cooling, enlightening a decision process. A simplified battery thermo-electric simulation model, which the second part of our work focuses on, has been built, first for both thermal and energetic balance dimensioning of the battery thermal management system. Examples are given on these two perspectives. That simplified simulation model has also identified some promising thermal management strategies for improving vehicle efficiency and performances and battery lifetime. That is the task of the last part of this paper. Battery heating has shown opportunities for improving energy and power availability at cold conditions and, thus, electric drive availability and autonomy. Post-cooling the battery at the end of a journey and its pre-conditioning before the following journey, not only improve vehicle efficiency, electric drive availability and autonomy, but also enhance battery lifetime and compromises with cabin thermal comfort. Others promising strategies optimizing the relation between vehicle performances and battery lifetime are still under investigations. L’atteinte des performances et des prestations requises d’un véhicule électrique ou hybride électrique rechargeable nécessite un thermomanagement intelligent de la batterie basse tension de traction. Ce thermomanagement est incontournable pour respecter dans le même temps

  9. Advanced Modular "All in One" Battery System with Intelligent Autonomous Cell Balancing Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdidier, X.; Pasquier, E.; Defer, M.; Koch, M.; Knorr, W.

    2008-09-01

    A new generation of energy storage systems based on Li-ion technology emerged at the end of the last century.To perform the first tests in safe conditions, Saft designed a simple electronic.Today, all Li-ion batteries for autonomous applications such as drones, launchers, missiles, torpedoes and "human" applications such as cellular, laptop, hybrid vehicle and nearly sub-marines need a Battery Management System.The minimum in terms of functions is the overcharge and over-discharge protections.For a battery made of 2 cells connected in series or more, a balancing system is added to maintain the available energy during all the life of the battery. For stringent/demanding applications, the state of charge and state of health are calculated by one or more computers.It is now time to take benefit of the past 10 years of Saft's experience in the domain to re-evaluate the constraints of Li-ion batteries and provide customers with improved products by optimizing the battery management.Benefits of electronic for satellite applications:• Full control over battery.• Confidence whatever the possible change of conditions in environment.• The battery system can resist long exposure to gradient conditions with mitigated and stabilized impact on performances.• The balancing function allow to use all the energy of all the cells: optimize of installed energy (compact design, mass saving). It started out with the basic fact that electrochemists are not intended to be space rated electronic experts and vice versa, even if Saft has a good heritage in the electronic battery management system. Consequently, considering heritage and expertise in their respective core businesses, Saft and ASP teamed up.It became necessary to provide an "all in one" modular energy storage system with intelligent autonomous cell balancing management.

  10. The Comparative Performance of Batteries: The Lead-Acid and the Aluminum-Air Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, Xavier; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a teaching program that shows how electrochemical principles can be conveyed by means of hands-on experiences of student-centered teaching experiments. Employs the readily available lead-acid cell and the simple aluminum-air cell. Discusses the batteries, equilibrium cell potential, performance comparison, current, electrode separation,…

  11. Power Management for Fuel Cell and Battery Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jared Robert

    As electric powered unmanned aerial vehicles enter a new age of commercial viability, market opportunities in the small UAV sector are expanding. Extending UAV flight time through a combination of fuel cell and battery technologies enhance the scope of potential applications. A brief survey of UAV history provides context and examples of modern day UAVs powered by fuel cells are given. Conventional hybrid power system management employs DC-to-DC converters to control the power split between battery and fuel cell. In this study, a transistor replaces the DC-to-DC converter which lowers weight and cost. Simulation models of a lithium ion battery and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are developed and integrated into a UAV power system model. Flight simulations demonstrate the operation of the transistor-based power management scheme and quantify the amount of hydrogen consumed by a 5.5 kg fixed wing UAV during a six hour flight. Battery power assists the fuel cell during high throttle periods but may also augment fuel cell power during cruise flight. Simulations demonstrate a 60 liter reduction in hydrogen consumption when battery power assists the fuel cell during cruise flight. Over the full duration of the flight, averaged efficiency of the power system exceeds 98%. For scenarios where inflight battery recharge is desirable, a constant current battery charger is integrated into the UAV power system. Simulation of inflight battery recharge is performed. Design of UAV hybrid power systems must consider power system weight against potential flight time. Data from the flight simulations are used to identify a simple formula that predicts flight time as a function of energy stored onboard the modeled UAV. A small selection of commercially available batteries, fuel cells, and compressed air storage tanks are listed to characterize the weight of possible systems. The formula is then used in conjunction with the weight data to generate a graph of power system weight

  12. Thermal energy recycling fuel cell arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Paul R.

    2017-04-11

    An example fuel cell arrangement includes a fuel cell stack configured to receive a supply fluid and to provide an exhaust fluid that has more thermal energy than the supply fluid. The arrangement also includes an ejector and a heat exchanger. The ejector is configured to direct at least some of the exhaust fluid into the supply fluid. The heat exchanger is configured to increase thermal energy in the supply fluid using at least some of the exhaust fluid that was not directed into the supply fluid.

  13. Lithium/metal sulfide cells and battery development progress at Eagle-Picher Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, E. B.

    A program aimed at the design, development, and fabrication of lithium/metal sulfide secondary batteries with a molten-salt electrolyte that has been under way since 1975 is reviewed. The goals of the program are to develop a long-life, high-power, high-energy-density battery for electric-vehicle applications. The tasks accomplished so far are discussed with particular attention given to the development of current collectors for both FeS and FeS2 cells, separator improvements, sealing techniques, and active-material balances. The present state-of-the-art Li/MS(x) molten-salt batteries are characterized.

  14. Thermal Implications for Extreme Fast Charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-14

    Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today's market. Thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

  15. Lithium-Ion Battery Cell Cycling and Usage Analysis in a Heavy-Duty Truck Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Svens

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a field test performed on commercial power-optimized lithium-ion battery cells cycled on three heavy-duty trucks. The goal with this study was to age battery cells in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV environment and find suitable methods for identifying cell ageing. The battery cells were cycled on in-house developed equipment intended for testing on conventional vehicles by emulating an HEV environment. A hybrid strategy that allows battery usage to vary within certain limits depending on driving patterns was used. This concept allows unobtrusive and low-cost testing of battery cells under realistic conditions. Each truck was equipped with one cell cycling equipment and two battery cells. One cell per vehicle was cycled during the test period while a reference cell on each vehicle experienced the same environmental conditions without being cycled. Differential voltage analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to identify ageing of the tested battery cells. Analysis of driving patterns and battery usage was performed from collected vehicle data and battery cell data.

  16. Significance of the Capacity Recovery Effect in Pouch Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Zhang, Teng; Stroe, Daniel Loan

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) batteries are an emerging energy storage technology, which is technically-attractive due to its high theoretical limits; practically, it is expected that Li-S batteries will result into lighter energy storage devices with higher capacities than traditional Lithium......-ion batteries. One of the actual disadvantages for this technology is the highly pronounced rate capacity effect, which reduces the available capacity to be discharged when high currents are used. This drawback might be addressed by the use of the capacity recovery effect, which by introducing relaxation...... periods between consecutive pulse discharges of the battery, increases the available discharge capacity of the cell. The capacity recovery effect of the Li-S cell is studied in this paper using the pulse discharge technique, considering its dependence on the applied current, discharge step length...

  17. A thermal-electrochemical model that gives spatial-dependent growth of solid electrolyte interphase in a Li-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Park, Jonghyun; Lin, Xianke; Sastry, Ann Marie; Lu, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The formation of a SEI layer and its growth cause internal resistance increase and capacity loss, leading to performance degradation of lithium-ion batteries. In order to comprehensively investigate the effects of SEI growth on battery performance, a one-dimensional thermal-electrochemical model was developed. This model is equipped with a growth mechanism of the SEI layer coupled with thermal evolution, based on the diffusional process of the solvent through the SEI layer and the kinetic process at the interface between the solid and liquid phases. The model is able to reveal the effects of diffusivity, reaction kinetics and temperature on SEI layer growth and cell capacity fade. We show that depending on the SEI thickness, the growth can be kinetics-limited or diffusion-limited. With the layer becoming thicker, its growth rate slows down gradually due to increased diffusion resistance. The SEI layer grows faster during charge than discharge due to the difference in the electron flux through the SEI layer and the temperature change during cycling. Temperature rise due to reaction and joule heating accelerates the SEI layer growth, leading to more capacity loss. Our model can provide insights on position-dependent SEI growth rate and be used to guide the strategic monitoring location.

  18. Thermal Properties of Microstrain Gauges Used for Protection of Lithium-Ion Cells of Different Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this innovation is to use microstrain gauges to monitor minute changes in temperature along with material properties of the metal cans and pouches used in the construction of lithium-ion cells. The sensitivity of the microstrain gauges to extremely small changes in temperatures internal to the cells makes them a valuable asset in controlling the hazards in lithium-ion cells. The test program on lithium-ion cells included various cell configurations, including the pouch type configurations. The thermal properties of microstrain gauges have been found to contribute significantly as safety monitors in lithium-ion cells that are designed even with hard metal cases. Although the metal cans do not undergo changes in material property, even under worst-case unsafe conditions, the small changes in thermal properties observed during charge and discharge of the cell provide an observable change in resistance of the strain gauge. Under abusive or unsafe conditions, the change in the resistance is large. This large change is observed as a significant change in slope, and this can be used to prevent cells from going into a thermal runaway condition. For flexible metal cans or pouch-type lithium-ion cells, combinations of changes in material properties along with thermal changes can be used as an indication for the initiation of an unsafe condition. Lithium-ion cells have a very high energy density, no memory effect, and almost 100-percent efficiency of charge and discharge. However, due to the presence of a flammable electrolyte, along with the very high energy density and the capability of releasing oxygen from the cathode, these cells can go into a hazardous condition of venting, fire, and thermal runaway. Commercial lithium-ion cells have current and voltage monitoring devices that are used to control the charge and discharge of the batteries. Some lithium-ion cells have internal protective devices, but when used in multi-cell configurations, these protective

  19. Site-specific transition metal occupation in multicomponent pyrophosphate for improved electrochemical and thermal properties in lithium battery cathodes: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Rana A; Kim, Heejin; Cho, Woosuk; Lim, Soo Yeon; Song, Hannah; Lee, Jung Woo; Kang, Jeung Ku; Kim, Yong-Tae; Jung, Yousung; Choi, Jang Wook

    2012-07-18

    As an attempt to develop lithium ion batteries with excellent performance, which is desirable for a variety of applications including mobile electronics, electrical vehicles, and utility grids, the battery community has continuously pursued cathode materials that function at higher potentials with efficient kinetics for lithium insertion and extraction. By employing both experimental and theoretical tools, herein we report multicomponent pyrophosphate (Li(2)MP(2)O(7), M = Fe(1/3)Mn(1/3)Co(1/3)) cathode materials with novel and advantageous properties as compared to the single-component analogues and other multicomponent polyanions. Li(2)Fe(1/3)Mn(1/3)Co(1/3)P(2)O(7) is formed on the basis of a solid solution among the three individual transition-metal-based pyrophosphates. The unique crystal structure of pyrophosphate and the first principles calculations show that different transition metals have a tendency to preferentially occupy either octahedral or pyramidal sites, and this site-specific transition metal occupation leads to significant improvements in various battery properties: a single-phase mode for Li insertion/extraction, improved cell potentials for Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) (raised by 0.18 eV) and Co(2+)/Co(3+) (lowered by 0.26 eV), and increased activity for Mn(2+)/Mn(3+) with significantly reduced overpotential. We reveal that the favorable energy of transition metal mixing and the sequential redox reaction for each TM element with a sufficient redox gap is the underlying physical reason for the preferential single-phase mode of Li intercalation/deintercalation reaction in pyrophosphate, a general concept that can be applied to other multicomponent systems. Furthermore, an extremely small volume change of ~0.7% between the fully charged and discharged states and the significantly enhanced thermal stability are observed for the present material, the effects unseen in previous multicomponent battery materials.

  20. Containment system and thermal conduction in lithium electric batteries energy modules 2 kWh with polymeric electrolytes; Sviluppo del sistema di contenimento e del condizionamento termico di moduli da 2 kWh di batterie al litio ad elettrolita polimerico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciancia, A.; Alessandrini, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia Divisione Tecnologie Energetiche Avanzate

    1997-06-01

    In this work are presented some technical specifications regarding lithium electric batteries with polymeric electrolytes, in particular the design of electrodes container efficient and reliable and thermal management system oriented to safety, performances and battery life.

  1. Thermal plasma treatment of cell-phone waste : preliminary result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruj, B. [Central Mechanical Engineering Research Inst., Durgapur (India). Thermal Engineering Group; Chang, J.S.; Li, O.L. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Pietsch, G. [RWTH Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The cell phone is an indispensable service facilitator, however, the disposal and recycling of cell phones is a major problem. While the potential life span of a mobile phone, excluding batteries, is over 10 years, most of the users upgrade their phones approximately four times during this period. Cell phone waste is significantly more hazardous than many other municipal wastes as it contains thousands of components made of toxic chemicals and metals like lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, polyvinyl chlorides (PVC), brominated flame retardants, beryllium, antimony and phthalates. Cell phones also use many expensive rare metals. Since cell phones are made up of plastics, metals, ceramics, and trace other substances, primitive recycling or disposal of cell phone waste to landfills and incinerators creates irreversible environmental damage by polluting water and soil, and contaminating air. In order to minimize releases into the environment and threat to human health, the disposal of cell phones needs to be managed in an environmentally friendly way. This paper discussed a safer method of reducing the generation of syngas and hydrocarbons and metal recovery through the treatment of cell phone wastes by a thermal plasma. The presentation discussed the experiment, with particular reference to sample preparation; experimental set-up; and results four samples with different experimental conditions. It was concluded that the plasma treatment of cell phone waste in reduced condition generates gaseous components such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons which are combustible. Therefore, this system is an energy recovery system that contributes to resource conservation and reduction of climate change gases. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. SOFC seal and cell thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnis, Shailesh Vijay [Neenah, WI; Rehg, Timothy Joseph [Huntington Beach, CA

    2011-05-17

    The solid oxide fuel cell module includes a manifold, a plate, a cathode electrode, a fuel cell and an anode electrode. The manifold includes an air or oxygen inlet in communication with divergent passages above the periphery of the cell which combine to flow the air or oxygen radially or inwardly for reception in the center of the cathode flow field. The latter has interconnects providing circuitous cooling passages in a generally radial outward direction cooling the fuel cell and which interconnects are formed of different thermal conductivity materials for a preferential cooling.

  3. Thermal stability of LiPF 6 salt and Li-ion battery electrolytes containing LiPF 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Ross, Philip N.

    The thermal stability of the neat lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6) salt and of 1 molal (m) solutions of LiPF 6 in prototypical Li-ion battery solvents was studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and on-line Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Pure LiPF 6 salt is thermally stable up to 107 °C in a dry inert atmosphere, and its decomposition path is a simple dissociation producing lithium fluoride (LiF) as solid and PF 5 as gaseous products. In the presence of water (300 ppm) in the carrier gas, its decomposition onset temperature is lowered as a result of direct thermal reaction between LiPF 6 and water vapor to form phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF 3) and hydrofluoric acid (HF). No new products were observed in 1 m solutions of LiPF 6 in ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) by on-line TGA-FTIR analysis. The storage of the same solutions in sealed containers at 85 °C for 300-420 h did not produce any significant quantity of new products as well. In particular, no alkylflurophosphates were found in the solutions after storage at elevated temperature. In the absence of either an impurity like alcohol or cathode active material that may (or may not) act as a catalyst, there is no evidence of thermally induced reaction between LiPF 6 and the prototypical Li-ion battery solvents EC, PC, DMC or EMC.

  4. Experimental Investigation on Thermal Management of Electric Vehicle Battery Module with Paraffin/Expanded Graphite Composite Phase Change Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangyun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature has to be controlled adequately to maintain the electric vehicles (EVs within a safety range. Using paraffin as the heat dissipation source to control the temperature rise is developed. And the expanded graphite (EG is applied to improve the thermal conductivity. In this study, the paraffin and EG composite phase change material (PCM was prepared and characterized. And then, the composite PCM have been applied in the 42110 LiFePO4 battery module (48 V/10 Ah for experimental research. Different discharge rate and pulse experiments were carried out at various working conditions, including room temperature (25°C, high temperature (35°C, and low temperature (−20°C. Furthermore, in order to obtain the practical loading test data, a battery pack with the similar specifications by 2S∗2P with PCM-based modules were installed in the EVs for various practical road experiments including the flat ground, 5°, 10°, and 20° slope. Testing results indicated that the PCM cooling system can control the peak temperature under 42°C and balance the maximum temperature difference within 5°C. Even in extreme high-discharge pulse current process, peak temperature can be controlled within 50°C. The aforementioned results exhibit that PCM cooling in battery thermal management has promising advantages over traditional air cooling.

  5. Functional mesoporous materials for energy applications: solar cells, fuel cells, and batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Youngjin; Jo, Changshin; Jeong, Inyoung; Lee, Jinwoo

    2013-06-07

    This feature article presents recent progress made in the synthesis of functional ordered mesoporous materials and their application as high performance electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), fuel cells, and Li-ion batteries. Ordered mesoporous materials have been mainly synthesized using two representative synthetic methods: the soft template and hard template methods. To overcome the limitations of these two methods, a new method called CASH was suggested. The CASH method combines the advantages of the soft and hard template methods by employing a diblock copolymer, PI-b-PEO, which contains a hydrophilic block and an sp(2)-hybridized-carbon-containing hydrophobic block as a structure-directing agent. After discussing general techniques used in the synthesis of mesoporous materials, this article presents recent applications of mesoporous materials as electrodes in DSCs and QDSCs, fuel cells, and Li-ion batteries. The role of material properties and mesostructures in device performance is discussed in each case. The developed soft and hard template methods, along with the CASH method, allow control of the pore size, wall composition, and pore structure, providing insight into material design and optimization for better electrode performances in these types of energy conversion devices. This paper concludes with an outlook on future research directions to enable breakthroughs and overcome current limitations in this field.

  6. Dynamic behaviour of Li batteries in hydrogen fuel cell power trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneri, O.; Migliardini, F.; Capasso, C.; Corbo, P.

    A Li ion polymer battery pack for road vehicles (48 V, 20 Ah) was tested by charging/discharging tests at different current values, in order to evaluate its performance in comparison with a conventional Pb acid battery pack. The comparative analysis was also performed integrating the two storage systems in a hydrogen fuel cell power train for moped applications. The propulsion system comprised a fuel cell generator based on a 2.5 kW polymeric electrolyte membrane (PEM) stack, fuelled with compressed hydrogen, an electric drive of 1.8 kW as nominal power, of the same typology of that installed on commercial electric scooters (brushless electric machine and controlled bidirectional inverter). The power train was characterized making use of a test bench able to simulate the vehicle behaviour and road characteristics on driving cycles with different acceleration/deceleration rates and lengths. The power flows between fuel cell system, electric energy storage system and electric drive during the different cycles were analyzed, evidencing the effect of high battery currents on the vehicle driving range. The use of Li batteries in the fuel cell power train, adopting a range extender configuration, determined a hydrogen consumption lower than the correspondent Pb battery/fuel cell hybrid vehicle, with a major flexibility in the power management.

  7. Controlling Factors of Cell Design on Large-Format Li-Ion Battery Safety during Nail Penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qing; Shaffer, Christian Edward; Sinha, Puneet K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the controlling design parameters of large-format Li-ion batteries on safety while undergoing nail penetration. We have identified three critical design parameters that control the safety during the nail penetration process: nail diameter (D nail ), single sheet foil area (A foil ), and cell capacity (Q cell ).Using commercial AutoLion™ software, we have investigated two typical design problems related to the selection of cell thickness and aspect ratio, namely, (1) the safety ramifications of increasing cell capacity via greater cell thickness for a fixed footprint and (2) the effect of aspect ratio, or single sheet foil size, on safety at a given capacity. For a fixed footprint, our results indicate that the safety of the cell can be predicted by (Q cell D nail -0.5 ). For a given cell capacity, our results indicate that typically a larger single sheet foil area leads to a greater likelihood for thermal runaway due to its effect of making the heating more local in nature; however, for small cells (~5 Ah) and large nails (~20 mm), the greater aspect ratio can lead to a safer cell, as the greater surface area strongly cools the global heating of the cell.

  8. In situ thermally cross-linked polyacrylonitrile as binder for high-performance silicon as lithium ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lanyao; Shen, Lian; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-07-01

    Electrode integrity and electric contact between particles and between particle and current collector are critical for electrochemical performance, especially for that of electrode materials with large volume change during cycling and with poor electric conductivity. We report on the in situ thermally cross-linked polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binder for silicon-based anodes of lithium-ion batteries. The electrode delivers excellent cycle life and rate capability with a reversible capacity of about 1450 mA h g(-1) even after 100 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance of such silicon electrodes is attributed to heat-treatment-induced cross-linking and the formation of conjugated PAN. These findings open new avenues to explore other polymers for both anode and cathode electrodes of rechargeable batteries. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. H2-O2 fuel cell and advanced battery power systems for autonomous underwater vehicles: performance envelope comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubak, G.E.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles have traditionally been powered by low energy density lead-acid batteries. Recently, advanced battery technologies and H 2 -O 2 fuel cells have become available, offering significant improvements in performance. This paper compares the solid polymer fuel cell to the lithium-thionyl chloride primary battery, sodium-sulfur battery, and lead acid battery for a variety of missions. The power system performance is simulated using computer modelling techniques. Performance envelopes are constructed, indicating domains of preference for competing power system technologies. For most mission scenarios, the solid polymer fuel cell using liquid reactant storage is the preferred system. Nevertheless, the advanced battery systems are competitive with the fuel cell systems using gaseous hydrogen storage, and they illustrate preferred performance for missions requiring high power density. 11 figs., 4 tabs., 15 refs

  10. Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Based Batteries and Thermal Management for Airborne High Energy Electric Lasers (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fellner, Joseph P; Miller, Ryan M; Shanmugasundaram, Venkatrama

    2006-01-01

    ...). Rechargeable lithium-ion polymer batteries, for applications such as remote-control aircraft, are achieving simultaneously high energy density and high power density (>160 Whr/kg at > 1.0 kW/kg...

  11. Thermal Management of Battery Systems in Electric Vehicle and Smart Grid Application

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan

    2016-01-01

    Last few years’ governments are tightening the carbon emission regulations. Moreover, the availability of different financial assistances is available to cut the market share of the fossil fuel vehicles. Conversely, to fill up the gap of the required demand, higher penetration of electrical vehicles is foreseen. The future battery manufacturers strive to meet the ever growing requirement of consumer’s demand using the battery as a primary power source of these cars. So naturally, the growing ...

  12. Ultrafine polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibers. [separators for alkaline batteries and dfuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenevey, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    Mats were made from ultrafine polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibers to provide an alternate to the use of asbestos as separators in fuel cells and alkaline batteries. To minimize distortion during mat drying, a process to provide a dry fibrid was developed. Two fibrid types were developed: one coarse, making mats for battery separators; the other fine, making low permeability matrices for fuel cells. Eventually, it was demonstrated that suitable mat fabrication techniques yielded fuel cell separators from the coarser alkaline battery fibrids. The stability of PBI mats to 45% KOH at 123 C can be increased by heat treatment at high temperatures. Weight loss data to 1000 hours exposure show the alkali resistance of the mats to be superior to that of asbestos.

  13. Influence of gaseous atmosphere during a thermal process for recovery of manganese and zinc from spent batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardi, G.; Medici, F.; Piga, L.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the work is the recovery by thermal treatment of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, due to the different phase change temperatures of the metals. Activated charcoal, as a reductant of the zinc-bearing phases to metallic Zn, was added to the mixture that was heated in different atmospheres (air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide) at different temperatures and residence times. Characterization of the mixture and of the residues of thermal treatment was carried out by chemical analysis, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction and allowed to understand the mechanisms of reduction of zinc and to interpret the formation of different compounds during the process. Results show that recovery of 99% of Zn (grade 96%) at 1200 °C and 97% of Zn (grade 99%) at 1000 °C, are achieved in N2 at 30 min residence time. Recovery of Mn at 1200 °C and 30 min residence time was around 90-100% (90% grade). These products are suitable, after refining, for production of new batteries or higher value-added products. The residue of the treatment, enriched in manganese oxide, could be used in the production of iron-manganese alloys.

  14. Effect of Oxide Nanoparticles on Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Electrospun Separators for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Zaccaria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the fabrication and characterization of poly(ethylene oxide (PEO and poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene (PVDF-CTFE nanofibrous separators for lithium-ion batteries loaded with different amounts of fumed-silica and tin oxide nanoparticles. Membrane morphological characterization (SEM, TEM showed the presence of good-quality nanofibres containing nanoparticles. Thermal degradation and membrane mechanical properties were also investigated, and a remarkable effect of nanoparticle addition on membrane mechanical properties was found. In particular, PEO membranes were strengthened by the addition of metal oxide, whereas PVDF-CTFE membranes acquired ductility.

  15. Simulation of the Battery Pack Exploitation Based on Real Measurement Data of Applied Chemical Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koniak Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors of following article present the method of battery work simulation based on real measurement data of applied chemical cells and workload data. Description of method as its assumptions are presented. Next authors present workplace designed and constructed for acquiring operating characteristics according to assumed research plan. Article introduces computer system responsible for running simulations. At the end of publication results of selected runs are presented. Also described are types of tested cells and means of acquiring data concerning battery workload. Article ends with summarization and approximate plans of method development.

  16. Power Management Optimization of an Experimental Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Odeim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid system is investigated in terms of modeling and power management design and optimization. The power management strategy is designed based on the role that should be played by each component of the hybrid power source. The supercapacitor is responsible for the peak power demands. The battery assists the supercapacitor in fulfilling the transient power demand by controlling its state-of-energy, whereas the fuel cell system, with its slow dynamics, controls the state-of-charge of the battery. The parameters of the power management strategy are optimized by a genetic algorithm and Pareto front analysis in a framework of multi-objective optimization, taking into account the hydrogen consumption, the battery loading and the acceleration performance. The optimization results are validated on a test bench composed of a fuel cell system (1.2 kW, 26 V, lithium polymer battery (30 Ah, 37 V, and a supercapacitor (167 F, 48 V.

  17. Design approach for solar cell and battery of a persistent solar powered GPS tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraei, Nasim; Watson, Sterling M.; Pennes, Anthony; Marius Peters, Ian; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2017-08-01

    Sensors with wireless communication can be powered by photovoltaic (PV) devices. However, using solar power requires thoughtful design of the power system, as well as a careful management of the power consumption, especially for devices with cellular communication (because of their higher power consumption). A design approach can minimize system size, weight, and/or cost, while maximizing device performance (data transmission rate and persistence). In this contribution, we describe our design approach for a small form-factor, solar-powered GPS tracker with cellular communication. We evaluate the power consumption of the device in different stages of operation. Combining measured power consumption and the calculated energy-yield of a solar cell, we estimate the battery capacity and solar cell area required for 5 years of continuous operation. We evaluate trade-offs between PV and battery size by simulating the battery state of charge. The data show a trade-off between battery capacity and solar-cell area for given target data transmission rate and persistence. We use this analysis to determine the combination of solar panel area and battery capacity for a given application and the data transmission rate that results in minimum cost or total weight of the system.

  18. Controlling Factors of Cell Design on Large-format Li-ion Battery Safety During Nail Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the controlling design parameters of large-format Li-ion batteries on safety while undergoing nail penetration. We have identified three critical design parameters that control the safety during the nail penetration process: nail diameter, single sheet foil area, and cell capacity.Using commercial AutoLion software, we have investigated two typical design problems related to the selection of cell thickness and aspect ratio, namely: (1 the safety ramifications of increasing cell capacity via greater cell thickness for a fixed footprint, and (2 the effect of aspect ratio, or single sheet foil size, on safety at a given capacity. For a fixed footprint, our results indicate that the safety of the cell can be predicted by (Qcell Dnail^-0.5. For a given cell capacity, our results indicate that typically a larger single sheet foil area leads to a greater likelihood for thermal runaway due to its effect of making the heating more local in nature; however, for small cells (~ 5Ah and large nails (~ 20mm, the greater aspect ratio can lead to a safer cell, as the greater surface area strongly cools the global heating of the cell.

  19. Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpelt, M.; Bates, J.K.

    1980-05-09

    A system and method are described for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

  20. Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpelt, Michael; Bates, John K.

    1981-01-01

    A system and method for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 Kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

  1. Flexible hybrid energy cell for simultaneously harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya; Zhang, Hulin; Zhu, Guang; Lee, Sangmin; Lin, Zong-Hong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-01-22

    We report the first flexible hybrid energy cell that is capable of simultaneously or individually harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies to power some electronic devices. For having both the pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties, a polarized poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film-based nanogenerator (NG) was used to harvest thermal and mechanical energies. Using aligned ZnO nanowire arrays grown on the flexible polyester (PET) substrate, a ZnO-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) heterojunction solar cell was designed for harvesting solar energy. By integrating the NGs and the solar cells, a hybrid energy cell was fabricated to simultaneously harvest three different types of energies. With the use of a Li-ion battery as the energy storage, the harvested energy can drive four red light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

  2. Flexible thermal cycle test equipment for concentrator solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Peter H [Glendale, CA; Brandt, Randolph J [Palmdale, CA

    2012-06-19

    A system and method for performing thermal stress testing of photovoltaic solar cells is presented. The system and method allows rapid testing of photovoltaic solar cells under controllable thermal conditions. The system and method presents a means of rapidly applying thermal stresses to one or more photovoltaic solar cells in a consistent and repeatable manner.

  3. Modelling Li-ion cell thermal runaway triggered by an internal short circuit device using an efficiency factor and Arrhenius formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Darcy, Eric; Veje, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel model for analyzing the thermal runaway in Li-ion battery cells with an internal short circuit device implanted in the cell. The model is constructed using Arrhenius formulations for representing the self-heating chemical reactions and the State of Charge. The model...

  4. The 50 AMP-hour nickel cadmium battery manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The battery is designed with a minimum battery to cell weight ratio consistent with adequate containment for operating conditions and dynamic environments and minimized weight. The battery is fully qualified and the environments to which it was successfully subjected were selected by NASA Goddard to cover a wide range of probable uses. The battery is suitable for either near-Earth geosynchronous missions, is compatible with passive or active thermal control systems and may be electrically controlled by a variety of changing routines. The initial application of the 50 A.H. Battery is a near-Earth mission aboard the LANDSAT D Satellite.

  5. Performance of Li-Ion Cells Under Battery Voltage Charge Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2002-01-01

    Li-ion cells manufactured by YTP, SAFT, and MSA have completed 6714, 6226, and 3441 cycles, respectively. An increase in the charge voltage limit was required in all cases to maintain the discharge voltage. SAFT and MSA cells were capable of cycling at -10 C and 0 C with an increase in the charge voltage limit, whereas Yardney cells could not be cycled. Reconditioning improved the discharge voltage of SAFT and MSA cells; it is important to note that the effect has been temporary as in Ni-H and Ni-Cd batteries. It was demonstrated that the charge operation with VT clamp at battery rather than at cell level is feasible. Continuation of testing depends on the health of the cells and on the funding situation.

  6. Preparation and performance of polymer electrolyte based on poly(vinylidene fluoride)/polysulfone blend membrane via thermally induced phase separation process for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiao; Cui, Zhenyu; Li, Jiangbo; Qin, Shuhao; Yan, Feng; Li, Jianxin

    2014-11-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/polysulfone (PVDF/PSF) blend microporous matrix of polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery is prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) technique. Because of only one parameter, i.e., the PSF/PVDF weight ratio, the membrane microstructure is conveniently controlled. The membrane formation mechanism of PVDF/PSF blend membranes is proposed with the assistance of a binary PSF/PVDF weight ratio-temperature phase diagram. In addition to studying the microstructure and mechanical properties of PVDF/PSF blend membrane, the relationship between properties of membrane, electrochemical performances of corresponding polymer electrolyte and membrane microstructure are also discussed in this paper. It is found that the addition of PSF not only increases ionic conductivity and electrochemical stable window of polymer electrolyte, but also markedly enhances charge-discharge performances of coin cell. The results reveal that PVDF/PSF blend microporous membranes prepared via TIPS technique can be used as polymer matrices of polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries.

  7. Coin-Cell-Based In Situ Characterization Techniques for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In situ characterization techniques have made a significant progress in recent years, especially in the electrochemical field. For Li-ion batteries, in situ characterization techniques refer to using analytical equipment to directly characterize electrode materials during electrochemical measurements. At present, most in situ batteries are developed from commercial simulated batteries, of which the cost is very high and the cycle life is quite short. In this work, two kinds of coin-cell-based in situ batteries were designed as in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD and Raman coin cells which exhibit many admirable advantages, such as low cost, long cycle life, easy to carry, and so on. In the designing process, in situ XRD and Raman coin cell have been tested with two electrode materials of Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4, and we solved many technical problems of assembling and measuring these two kinds of cells. Finally, in situ coin cells could be improved to investigate a variety of electrode materials, and this technique would arouse wide interests in the electrochemical field.

  8. Models for mass transfer effects in semi-fuel cells and for a silver-zinc battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Murali Sankar

    Semi-Fuel Cells (SFCs) and Silver-Zinc batteries have been recognized as batteries for high power applications. For channel flow between two parallel plates, featured in SFCs, obstacles may take the form of ordered asymmetrical porous nets. The net controls the spacing between the two electrode plates. The effect of the inert insulating net and its geometry on the heat and mass transfer characteristics in such a system is presented. The governing equations for momentum, continuity, and energy are solved in a three-dimensional domain using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software for fully developed flow with constant temperature boundary conditions. The local Nusselt number is calculated from the resulting temperature distribution. This net also affects the limiting current distribution in an SFC operating at limiting current because it disrupts the parabolic laminar flow velocity distribution. Hence, the current density distribution is obtained from the Nusselt number distribution through a heat and mass transfer analogy. The location, spacing, and number of the longitudinal and transverse ribs of the net are shown to affect the local and average current density distributions and Nusselt numbers on each of the two electrode plates. The results show that transverse ribs have a greater effect and that the enhancements of the average current density of 250% can be obtained for a spacing of 0.94 x 10-3 m with greater than 16 transverse ribs. A silver-zinc battery shows similar mass transfer limitations while discharged at moderate to high discharge rates. A one-dimensional mathematical model consisting of a negative (zinc) electrode, separator, and positive (silver) electrode, has been developed to study the performance and thermal behavior of the silver-zinc cell during discharge. The physical phenomena described here are reaction kinetics, mass transfer and heat generation. The analysis includes finite matrix conductivities (thermal and electrical

  9. Combinatorial electrochemical cell array for high throughput screening of micro-fuel-cells and metal/air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongzhong

    2007-07-01

    An electrochemical cell array was designed that contains a common air electrode and 16 microanodes for high throughput screening of both fuel cells (based on polymer electrolyte membrane) and metal/air batteries (based on liquid electrolyte). Electrode materials can easily be coated on the anodes of the electrochemical cell array and screened by switching a graphite probe from one cell to the others. The electrochemical cell array was used to study direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), including high throughput screening of electrode catalysts and determination of optimum operating conditions. For screening of DMFCs, there is about 6% relative standard deviation (percentage of standard deviation versus mean value) for discharge current from 10to20mA/cm2. The electrochemical cell array was also used to study tin/air batteries. The effect of Cu content in the anode electrode on the discharge performance of the tin/air battery was investigated. The relative standard deviations for screening of metal/air battery (based on zinc/air) are 2.4%, 3.6%, and 5.1% for discharge current at 50, 100, and 150mA/cm2, respectively.

  10. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  11. Development of cooling strategy for an air cooled lithium-ion battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongguang; Dixon, Regan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes a cooling strategy development method for an air cooled battery pack with lithium-ion pouch cells used in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The challenges associated with the temperature uniformity across the battery pack, the temperature uniformity within each individual lithium-ion pouch cell, and the cooling efficiency of the battery pack are addressed. Initially, a three-dimensional battery pack thermal model developed based on simplified electrode theory is correlated to physical test data. An analytical design of experiments (DOE) approach using Optimal Latin-hypercube technique is then developed by incorporating a DOE design model, the correlated battery pack thermal model, and a morphing model. Analytical DOE studies are performed to examine the effects of cooling strategies including geometries of the cooling duct, cooling channel, cooling plate, and corrugation on battery pack thermal behavior and to identify the design concept of an air cooled battery pack to maximize its durability and its driving range.

  12. Sizing stack and battery of a fuel cell hybrid distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bram Veenhuizen; P. van den Bosch; T. Hofman; Edwin Tazelaar; Y. Shen

    2012-01-01

    An existing fuel cell hybrid distribution truck, built for demonstration purposes, is used as a case study to investigate the effect of stack (kW) and battery (kW, kWh) sizes on the hydrogen consumption of the vehicle. Three driving cycles, the NEDC for Low Power vehicles, CSC and JE05 cycle, define

  13. Hazards, Safety and Design Considerations for Commercial Lithium-ion Cells and Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the features of the Lithium-ion batteries, particularly in reference to the hazards and safety of the battery. Some of the characteristics of the Lithium-ion cell are: Highest Energy Density of Rechargeable Battery Chemistries, No metallic lithium, Leading edge technology, Contains flammable electrolyte, Charge cut-off voltage is critical (overcharge can result in fire), Open circuit voltage higher than metallic lithium anode types with similar organic electrolytes. Intercalation is a process that places small ions in crystal lattice. Small ions (such as lithium, sodium, and the other alkali metals) can fit in the interstitial spaces in a graphite lattice. These metallic ions can go farther and force the graphitic planes apart to fit two, three, or more layers of metallic ions between the carbon sheets. Other features of the battery/cell are: The graphite is conductive, Very high energy density compared to NiMH or NiCd, Corrosion of aluminum occurs very quickly in the presence of air and electrolyte due to the formation of HF from LiPF6 and HF is highly corrosive. Slides showing the Intercalation/Deintercalation and the chemical reactions are shown along with the typical charge/discharge for a cylindrical cell. There are several graphs that review the hazards of the cells.

  14. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hua Kun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

  15. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): High Specific Energy Li-ion Battery Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project element is to increase the specific energy of Li-ion battery cells to 265 Wh/kg and the energy density to 500 Wh/L at 10oC while maintaining...

  16. Thermal conductivity of Li-ion batteries and their electrode configurations - A novel combination of modelling and experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Daniel; Loges, André; Becker, Dominic J.; Wetzel, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    A bottom-up approach to calculate the overall and averaged thermal properties of the jelly roll or electrode stack of Li-ion cells in a generally applicable way is introduced. The model is based on temperature-dependent material properties and is specifically applied to a prismatic hardcase cell. The geometrical properties, such as width, depth, height, porosity, tortuosity, and the saturation with electrolyte are considered. Most of the material properties are determined by own measurements within a wide temperature range and compared with literature data. Anisotropic unit cell properties for homogenised three-dimensional thermal models and the corresponding representative thermal conductivity for one- or two-dimensional models can be calculated. A non-destructive measurement technique to determine the thermal conductivity of prismatic hardcase cell geometries and validate the described model is presented.

  17. Lithium-Sulfur Dioxide (Li/SO2) Battery Safety Hazards - Thermal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Cathode Potential 0.0 volts versus Li) FREQUENCY (cm ’I I NTENSITY ASSTI NXMNNT 3975 M OH gp Vib of watcr attached to L. 3660 K Oil gp Vjbr of water 3620...Discharge", Proceedings of the Symposia on Power Sources for Biomedical Implatable Applications and Ambient Temperature Lithium Batteries, 80-4, 570

  18. In-line monitoring of Li-ion battery electrode porosity and areal loading using active thermal scanning - modeling and initial experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupnowski, Przemyslaw; Ulsh, Michael; Sopori, Bhushan; Green, Brian G.; Wood, David L.; Li, Jianlin; Sheng, Yangping

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on a new technique called active thermal scanning for in-line monitoring of porosity and areal loading of Li-ion battery electrodes. In this technique a moving battery electrode is subjected to thermal excitation and the induced temperature rise is monitored using an infra-red camera. Static and dynamic experiments with speeds up to 1.5 m min-1 are performed on both cathodes and anodes and a combined micro- and macro-scale finite element thermal model of the system is developed. It is shown experimentally and through simulations that during thermal scanning the temperature profile generated in an electrode depends on both coating porosity (or area loading) and thickness. It is concluded that by inverting this relation the porosity (or areal loading) can be determined, if thermal response and thickness are simultaneously measured.

  19. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li2CO3. Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g−1carbon at 20 μA cm−2. Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g−1carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g−1carbon at 20 μA cm−2 and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage. PMID:28117359

  20. Thermal properties and effects for Li/BCX (thionyl chloride) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, E. S.; Holmes, C. F.; Clark, W. D. K.

    1987-01-01

    New NASA requirements for the screening of lithium cells for space applications involve thermal soaks at elevated temperatures (149 C). The currently qualified Li/BCX cells and three design modifications have been evaluated showing that a design incorporating a shortened electrode stack met this test condition while continuing to satisfy the performance and safety requirements for cells used on NASA manned space vehicles. Information was also developed to show that measured heat capacities for the BCX D size cells correlated well with the heat generated from cells discharged in an insulated environment. Calculated heat capacities based on the amounts and types of materials in a cell were low compared to these values. This information provides the basis for the design of battery packs in the highly insulating environment of outer space.

  1. Fuel cell/back-up battery hybrid energy conversion systems: Dynamic modeling and harmonic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel technique to completely eliminate the harmful harmonics of fuel cell system. • Presenting a novel high accurate detailed electrochemical dynamic model of fuel cells. • Back-up battery system to compensate the slow dynamic response of fuel cell system. • Exact analysis of real electrochemical reactions occurring inside fuel cells. - Abstract: In this study, a novel dynamic model of fuel cells is presented. High accurate static and dynamic responses of the proposed model are experimentally validated by comparing simulated results with real experimental data. The obtained model together with theoretical results shows that a fuel cell or a fuel cell stack has very slow dynamic response, so that, it cannot adapt itself to the fast variations in load demand. It is shown that for adapting well a fuel cell stack to the load demand, the stack should be equipped with a proposed back-up battery system which compensates the slow dynamic response of the stack by providing a bidirectional path to transmit/absorb the extra instant power. It is proved that the conventional switching waveforms used in the converters of the stacks and back-up systems produce an enormous amount of harmful harmonics. Then, a novel technique is proposed to completely eliminate main harmful harmonics. It is worthwhile to note that all the other techniques only reduce the harmful harmonics. Simulated results verify that the back-up battery system together with applying the proposed technique provide a fast dynamic response for the fuel cell/back-up battery system, and also completely eliminate the main harmful harmonics

  2. A novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells used in non-road hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Johannes; Hametner, Christoph; Jakubek, Stefan; Quasthoff, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    An accurate state of charge (SoC) estimation of a traction battery in hybrid electric non-road vehicles, which possess higher dynamics and power densities than on-road vehicles, requires a precise battery cell terminal voltage model. This paper presents a novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells to obtain precise battery models. The methodology comprises the architecture of local model networks (LMN) and optimal model based design of experiments (DoE). Three main novelties are proposed: 1) Optimal model based DoE, which aims to high dynamically excite the battery cells at load ranges frequently used in operation. 2) The integration of corresponding inputs in the LMN to regard the non-linearities SoC, relaxation, hysteresis as well as temperature effects. 3) Enhancements to the local linear model tree (LOLIMOT) construction algorithm, to achieve a physical appropriate interpretation of the LMN. The framework is applicable for different battery cell chemistries and different temperatures, and is real time capable, which is shown on an industrial PC. The accuracy of the obtained non-linear battery model is demonstrated on cells with different chemistries and temperatures. The results show significant improvement due to optimal experiment design and integration of the battery non-linearities within the LMN structure.

  3. Passive hybridization of a photovoltaic module with lithium-ion battery cells: A model-based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Stella; Weißhar, Björn; Bessler, Wolfgang G.

    2017-04-01

    Standard photovoltaic battery systems based on AC or DC architectures require power electronics and controllers, including inverters, MPP tracker, and battery charger. Here we investigate an alternative system design based on the parallel connection of a photovoltaic module with battery cells without any intermediate voltage conversion. This approach, for which we use the term passive hybridization, is based on matching the solar cell's and battery cell's respective current/voltage behavior. A battery with flat discharge characteristics can allow to pin the solar cell to its maximum power point (MPP) independently of the external power consumption. At the same time, upon battery full charge, voltage increase will drive the solar cell towards zero current and therefore self-prevent battery overcharge. We present a modeling and simulation analysis of passively hybridizing a 5 kWp PV system with a 5 kWh LFP/graphite lithium-ion battery. Dynamic simulations with 1-min time resolution are carried out for three exemplary summer and winter days using historic weather data and a synthetic single-family household consumer profile. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the system. The passive hybrid allows for high self-sufficiencies of 84.6% in summer and 25.3% in winter, which are only slightly lower than those of a standard system.

  4. Power sources for portable electronics and hybrid cars: lithium batteries and fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The activities in progress in our laboratory for the development of batteries and fuel cells for portable electronics and hybrid car applications are reviewed and discussed. In the case of lithium batteries, the research has been mainly focused on the characterization of new electrode and electrolyte materials. Results related to disordered carbon anodes and improved, solvent-free, as well as gel-type, polymer electrolytes are particularly stressed. It is shown that the use of proper gel electrolytes, in combination with suitable electrode couples, allows the development of new types of safe, reliable, and low-cost lithium ion batteries which appear to be very promising power sources for hybrid vehicles. Some of the technologies proven to be successful in the lithium battery area are readapted for use in fuel cells. In particular, this approach has been followed for the preparation of low-cost and stable protonic membranes to be proposed as an alternative to the expensive, perfluorosulfonic membranes presently used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Copyright 2005 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  5. Discarded cell phone lithium ion batteries state of health quick method analysis by galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Catarini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The state of health (SOH is a important evaluation parameter to rechargeable batteries, because determine its cycle life and help on electric devices supplied by batteries maintenance. In this work the lithium ion discards cell phones batteries state of health and apparent diffusion coefficient (Dap were measured and correlated which purpose is diminish the batteries analyze time. The apparent diffusion coefficient is a ionic diffusion coefficient modification from GITT technique. The SOH and Dap correlation is well behaved, disclosing a cubic dependency. The time analyze was reduced by more than 1 h.

  6. On Demand Internal Short Circuit Device Enables Verification of Safer, Higher Performing Battery Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcy, Eric; Keyser, Matthew

    2017-05-15

    The Internal Short Circuit (ISC) device enables critical battery safety verification. With the aluminum interstitial heat sink between the cells, normal trigger cells cannot be driven into thermal runaway without excessive temperature bias of adjacent cells. With an implantable, on-demand ISC device, thermal runaway tests show that the conductive heat sinks protected adjacent cells from propagation. High heat dissipation and structural support of Al heat sinks show high promise for safer, higher performing batteries.

  7. Development and Evaluation of Active Thermal Management System for Lithium-Ion Batteries using Solid-State Thermoelectric Heat Pump and Heat Pipes with Electric Vehicular Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Bhaumik Kamlesh

    Lithium-Ion batteries have become a popular choice for use in energy storage systems in electric vehicles (EV) and Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) because of high power and high energy density. But the use of EV and HEV in all climates demands for a battery thermal management system (BTMS) since temperature effects their performance, cycle life and, safety. Hence the BTMS plays a crucial role in the performance of EV and HEV. In this paper, three thermal management systems are studied: (a) simple aluminum as heat spreader material, (b) heat pipes as heat spreader, and (c) advanced combined solid state thermoelectric heat pump (TE) and heat pipe system; these will be subsequently referred to as Design A, B and C, respectively. A detailed description of the designs and the experimental setup is presented. The experimental procedure is divided into two broad categories: Cooling mode and Warming-up mode. Cooling mode covers the conditions when a BTMS is responsible to cool the battery pack through heat dissipation and Warming-up mode covers the conditions when the BTMS is responsible to warm the battery pack in a low temperature ambient condition, maintaining a safe operating temperature of the battery pack in both modes. The experimental procedure analyzes the thermal management system by evaluating the effect of each variable like heat sink area, battery heat generation rate, cooling air temperature, air flow rate and TE power on parameters like maximum temperature of the battery pack (T max), maximum temperature difference (DeltaT) and, heat transfer through heat sink/cooling power of TE (Q c). The results show that Design C outperforms Design A and Design B in spite of design issues which reduce its efficiency, but can still be improved to achieve better performance.

  8. On the comparison and the complementarity of batteries and fuel cells for electric driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duigou, Alain; Smatti, Aimen

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers different current and emerging power train technologies (ICE, BEV, HEV, FCEV and FC-RE) and provides a comparison within a techno-economic framework, especially for the architectures of range-extender power trains. The economic benefits in terms of Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) are based on forecasts for the major TCO influencing parameters up to 2030: electric driving distances, energy (fuel, electricity, hydrogen) prices, batteries and fuel cell costs. The model takes into account functional parameters such as the battery range as well as daily trip segmentation statistics. The TCOs of all the vehicles become similar in 2030, given a 200 km battery range for BEVs. BEVs are profitable for yearly mileages of 30,000 km and over, and for higher battery ranges. The competitiveness of FCEVs is examined through the H 2 target price at the pump. There is a very significant effect of the fuel cell cost on the TCO. A FCEV with a fuel cell cost of 40 V/kW will be competitive with a similar ICE car for a 1.75 Euros/l fuel cost and ca. 7 Euros/kg hydrogen cost. This depends too to a great extent on possible ICE cars' CO 2 taxes. As regard the FC-RE electric car, the hydrogen target price at the pump is noticeably higher (ca 10 Euros/Kg). FC-RE cars TCOs are strongly affected by the FC power, the discount rate chosen and the yearly mileage. Moreover, it therefore seems reasonable to confine FC-RE battery ranges in the region of 60 km. (authors)

  9. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  10. Real-time mass spectroscopy analysis of Li-ion battery electrolyte degradation under abusive thermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulupeau, B.; Delobel, B.; Cahen, S.; Fontana, S.; Hérold, C.

    2017-02-01

    The lithium-ion batteries are widely used in rechargeable electronic devices. The current challenges are to improve the capacity and safety of these systems in view of their development to a larger scale, such as for their application in electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium-ion batteries use organic solvents because of the wide operating voltage. The corresponding electrolytes are usually based on combinations of linear, cyclic alkyl carbonates and a lithium salt such as LiPF6. It has been reported that in abusive thermal conditions, a catalytic effect of the cathode materials lead to the formation fluoro-organics compounds. In order to understand the degradation phenomenon, the study at 240 °C of the interaction between positive electrode materials (LiCoO2, LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2, LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4) and electrolyte in dry and wet conditions has been realized by an original method which consists in analyzing by mass spectrometry in real time the volatile molecules produced. The evolution of specific gases channels coupled to the NMR reveal the formation of rarely discussed species such as 2-fluoroethanol and 1,4-dioxane. Furthermore, it appears that the presence of water or other protic impurities greatly influence their formation.

  11. A thermally regenerative ammonia battery with carbon-silver electrodes for converting low-grade waste heat to electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mohammad; Kim, Taeyoung; Gorski, Christopher A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2018-01-01

    Thermally regenerative ammonia batteries (TRABs) have shown great promise as a method to convert low-grade waste heat into electrical power, with power densities an order of magnitude higher than other approaches. However, previous TRABs based on copper electrodes suffered from unbalanced anode dissolution and cathode deposition rates during discharging cycles, limiting practical applications. To produce a TRAB with stable and reversible electrode reactions over many cycles, inert carbon electrodes were used with silver salts. In continuous flow tests, power production was stable over 100 discharging cycles, demonstrating excellent reversibility. Power densities were 23 W m-2-electrode area in batch tests, which was 64% higher than that produced in parallel tests using copper electrodes, and 30 W m-2 (net energy density of 490 Wh m-3-anolyte) in continuous flow tests. While this battery requires the use a precious metal, an initial economic analysis of the system showed that the cost of the materials relative to energy production was 220 per MWh, which is competitive with energy production from other non-fossil fuel sources. A substantial reduction in costs could be obtained by developing less expensive anion exchange membranes.

  12. Embedded Si/Graphene Composite Fabricated by Magnesium-Thermal Reduction as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiangliu; Ren, Yurong; Yang, Bo; Chen, Wenkai; Ding, Jianning

    2017-12-01

    Embedded Si/graphene composite was fabricated by a novel method, which was in situ generated SiO2 particles on graphene sheets followed by magnesium-thermal reduction. The tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and flake graphite was used as original materials. On the one hand, the unique structure of as-obtained composite accommodated the large volume change to some extent. Simultaneously, it enhanced electronic conductivity during Li-ion insertion/extraction. The MR-Si/G composite is used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries, which shows high reversible capacity and ascendant cycling stability reach to 950 mAh·g-1 at a current density of 50 mA·g-1 after 60 cycles. These may be conducive to the further advancement of Si-based composite anode design.

  13. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) Battery Replacement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    gions of the electrode assembly and lowering reactor efficiency. Array fuel cells are ideal for evaluation of catalytic layers, gas diffusion...advanced high throughput screening system for flow electrochemical reactor components. 36 37 Laser Activated Membrane ...studies on performance degradation of Catalysts and Nafion™ Membrane Functional Groups in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells, IN PREP (06 2013) TOTAL: 1 Books

  14. Wide Operating Voltage Range Fuel Cell Battery Charger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Sen, Gokhan

    2014-01-01

    DC-DC converters for fuel cell applications require wide voltage range operation due to the unique fuel cell characteristic curve. Primary parallel isolated boost converter (PPIBC) is a boost derived topology for low voltage high current applications reaching an efficiency figure up to 98.2 %. Th...

  15. Thermal characterization of tetrabasic lead sulfate used in the lead acid battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferg, E. E.; Billing, D. G.; Venter, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The thermal production of 4PbO·PbSO4 was comprehensively studied and characterized for two syntheses routes, i.e. either heating 3PbO·PbSO4·H2O, or a mixture of 4PbO:PbSO4, in air to about 700 °C. In the 3PbO·PbSO4·H2O approach, the formation of an intermediate amorphous phase occurred at around 210 °C with the loss of H2O from the hydrated structure. Formation of 4PbO·PbSO4 initiated at around 270 °C with predominantly 4PbO·PbSO4 and 13% residual PbO·PbSO4 existing at 700 °C. With the synthesis route of mixing a stoichiometric ratio of 4PbO with PbSO4, an intermediate phase of PbO·PbSO4 formed at around 300 °C, before the 4PbO·PbSO4 phase started to form at around 500 °C. Upon further heating, 4PbO·PbSO4 was the predominant phase with 8% of PbO·PbSO4 remaining. Both samples decomposed upon further heating to 850 °C. Powder neutron diffraction studies of the final 4PbO·PbSO4 products from the two different synthesis routes showed similar crystallographic unit cell lattice parameters with slight differences in the PbO:PbSO4 contents. This could possibly be linked to differences observed in the microscopic crystallite shapes from the two synthesis routes.

  16. Wireless Battery Management System of Electric Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ataur; Rahman, Mizanur; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2017-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are being developed and considered as the future transportation to reduce emission of toxic gas, cost and weight. The battery pack is one of the main crucial parts of the electric vehicle. The power optimization of the battery pack has been maintained by developing a two phase evaporative thermal management system which operation has been controlled by using a wireless battery management system. A large number of individual cells in a battery pack have many wire terminations that are liable for safety failure. To reduce the wiring problem, a wireless battery management system based on ZigBee communication protocol and point-to-point wireless topology has been presented. Microcontrollers and wireless modules are employed to process the information from several sensors (voltage, temperature and SOC) and transmit to the display devices respectively. The WBMS multistage charge balancing system offering more effective and efficient responses for several numbers of series connected battery cells. The concept of double tier switched capacitor converter and resonant switched capacitor converter is used for reducing the charge balancing time of the cells. The balancing result for 2 cells and 16 cells are improved by 15.12% and 25.3% respectively. The balancing results are poised to become better when the battery cells are increased.

  17. Flammability limits of lithium-ion battery thermal runaway vent gas in air and the inerting effects of halon 1301

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Matthew Eugene

    Lithium-ion (rechargeable) and lithium-metal (non-rechargeable) battery cells put aircraft at risk of igniting and fueling fires. Lithium batteries can be packed in bulk and shipped in the cargo holds of freighter aircraft; currently lithium batteries are banned from bulk shipment on passenger aircraft [1]. The federally regulated Class C cargo compartment extinguishing system's utilization of a 5 %vol Halon 1301 knockdown concentration and a sustained 3 %vol Halon 1301 may not be sufficient at inerting lithium-ion battery vent gas and air mixtures [2]. At 5 %vol Halon 1301 the flammability limits of lithium-ion premixed battery vent gas (Li-Ion pBVG) in air range from 13.80 %vol to 26.07 %vol Li-Ion pBVG. Testing suggests that 8.59 %vol Halon 1301 is required to render all ratios of the Li-Ion pBVG in air inert. The lower flammability limit (LFL) and upper flammability limit (UFL) of hydrogen and air mixtures are 4.95 %vol and 76.52 %vol hydrogen, respectively. With the addition of 10 %vol and 20 %vol Halon 1301 the LFL is 9.02 %vol and 11.55 %vol hydrogen, respectively, and the UFL is 45.70 %vol and 28.39 %vol hydrogen, respectively. The minimum inerting concentration (MIC) of Halon 1301 in hydrogen and air mixtures is 26.72 %vol Halon 1301 at 16.2 %vol hydrogen. The LFL and UFL of Li-Ion pBVG and air mixtures are 7.88 %vol and 37.14 %vol Li-Ion pBVG, respectively. With the addition of 5 %vol, 7 %vol, and 8 %vol Halon 1301 the LFL is 13.80 %vol, 16.15 %vol, and 17.62 % vol Li-Ion pBVG, respectively, and the UFL is 26.07 %vol, 23.31 %vol, and 21.84 %vol Li- Ion pBVG, respectively. The MIC of Halon 1301 in Li-Ion pBVG and air mixtures is 8.59 %vol Halon 1301 at 19.52 %vol Li-Ion pBVG. Le Chatelier's mixing rule has been shown to be an effective measure for estimating the flammability limits of Li-Ion pBVGes. The LFL has a 1.79 % difference while the UFL has a 4.53 % difference. The state of charge (SOC) affects the flammability limits in an apparent parabolic

  18. Seismic-fragility tests of new and accelerated-aged Class 1E battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged nuclear station safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the potential survivability of a battery given a seismic event. Prior reports in this series discussed the seismic-fragility tests and results for three specific naturally-aged cell types: 12-year old NCX-2250, 10-year old LCU-13, and 10-year old FHC-19. This report focuses on the complementary approach, namely, the seismic-fragility response of accelerated-aged batteries. Of particular interest is the degree to which such approaches accurately reproduce the actual failure modes and thresholds. In these tests the significant aging effects observed, in terms of seismic survivability, were: embrittlement of cell cases, positive bus material and positive plate grids; and excessive sulphation of positive plate active material causing hardening and expansion of positive plates. The IEEE Standard 535 accelerated aging method successfully reproduced seismically significant aging effects in new cells but accelerated grid embrittlement an estimated five years beyond the conditional age of other components

  19. Effectiveness of Dry Cell Microscopic Simulation (DCMS) to Promote Conceptual Understanding about Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catur Wibowo, Firmanul; Suhandi, Andi; Rusdiana, Dadi; Samsudin, Achmad; Rahmi Darman, Dina; Faizin, M. Noor; Wiyanto; Supriyatman; Permanasari, Anna; Kaniawati, Ida; Setiawan, Wawan; Karyanto, Yudi; Linuwih, Suharto; Fatah, Abdul; Subali, Bambang; Hasani, Aceng; Hidayat, Sholeh

    2017-07-01

    Electricity is a concept that is abstract and difficult to see by eye directly, one example electric shock, but cannot see the movement of electric current so that students have difficulty by students. A computer simulation designed to improve the understanding of the concept of the workings of the dry cell (battery). This study was conducted to 82 students (aged 18-20 years) in the experimental group by learning to use the Dry Cell Microscopic Simulation (DCMS). The result shows the improving of students’ conceptual understanding scores from post test were statistically significantly of the workings of batteries. The implication using computer simulations designed to overcome the difficulties of conceptual understanding, can effectively help students in facilitating conceptual change.

  20. A Novel Range-Extended Strategy for Fuel Cell/Battery Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jenn-Jiang; Lin, Chih-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The range-extended electric vehicle is proposed to improve the range anxiety drivers have of electric vehicles. Conventionally, a gasoline/diesel generator increases the range of an electric vehicle. Due to the zero-CO2 emission stipulations, utilizing fuel cells as generators raises concerns in society. This paper presents a novel charging strategy for fuel cell/battery electric vehicles. In comparison to the conventional switch control, a fuzzy control approach is employed to enhance the battery's state of charge (SOC). This approach improves the quick loss problem of the system's SOC and thus can achieve an extended driving range. Smooth steering experience and range extension are the main indexes for development of fuzzy rules, which are mainly based on the energy management in the urban driving model. Evaluation of the entire control system is performed by simulation, which demonstrates its effectiveness and feasibility. PMID:26236771

  1. A Novel Range-Extended Strategy for Fuel Cell/Battery Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jenn-Jiang; Hu, Jia-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The range-extended electric vehicle is proposed to improve the range anxiety drivers have of electric vehicles. Conventionally, a gasoline/diesel generator increases the range of an electric vehicle. Due to the zero-CO2 emission stipulations, utilizing fuel cells as generators raises concerns in society. This paper presents a novel charging strategy for fuel cell/battery electric vehicles. In comparison to the conventional switch control, a fuzzy control approach is employed to enhance the battery's state of charge (SOC). This approach improves the quick loss problem of the system's SOC and thus can achieve an extended driving range. Smooth steering experience and range extension are the main indexes for development of fuzzy rules, which are mainly based on the energy management in the urban driving model. Evaluation of the entire control system is performed by simulation, which demonstrates its effectiveness and feasibility.

  2. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of transport phenomena in fuel cells and flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ao; Shyy, Wei; Zhao, Tianshou

    2017-06-01

    Fuel cells and flow batteries are promising technologies to address climate change and air pollution problems. An understanding of the complex multiscale and multiphysics transport phenomena occurring in these electrochemical systems requires powerful numerical tools. Over the past decades, the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method has attracted broad interest in the computational fluid dynamics and the numerical heat transfer communities, primarily due to its kinetic nature making it appropriate for modeling complex multiphase transport phenomena. More importantly, the LB method fits well with parallel computing due to its locality feature, which is required for large-scale engineering applications. In this article, we review the LB method for gas-liquid two-phase flows, coupled fluid flow and mass transport in porous media, and particulate flows. Examples of applications are provided in fuel cells and flow batteries. Further developments of the LB method are also outlined.

  3. Practical Application Limits of Fuel Cells and Batteries for Zero Emission Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnehan, John J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Energy Innovation Dept.; Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Energy Innovation Dept.

    2017-11-01

    Batteries and hydrogen fuel cells provide zero emission power at the point of use. They are studied as an alternative powerplant for maritime vessels by considering 14 case studies of various ship sizes and routes varying from small passenger vessels to the largest cargo ships. The method used was to compare the mass and volume of the required zero emission solution to the available mass and volume on an existing vessel considering its current engine and fuel storage systems. The results show that it is practically feasible to consider these zero emission technologies for most vessels in the world's fleet. Hydrogen fuel cells proved to be the most capable while battery systems showed an advantage for high power, short duration missions. The results provide a guide to ship designers to determine the most suitable types of zero emission powerplants to fit a ship based on its size and energy requirements.

  4. Electrolyte Suitable for Use in a Lithium Ion Cell or Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Electrolyte suitable for use in a lithium ion cell or battery. According to one embodiment, the electrolyte includes a fluorinated lithium ion salt and a solvent system that solvates lithium ions and that yields a high dielectric constant, a low viscosity and a high flashpoint. In one embodiment, the solvent system includes a mixture of an aprotic lithium ion solvating solvent and an aprotic fluorinated solvent.

  5. A Survey of the Use of Ceramics in Battery and Fuel Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    weight materials such as aluminum . Another approach is to use an "inside-out" design in which the sulfur is contained within the electrolyte tube...a dispersed current collector, and the (A3) cathodic reactant is a metal chloride such as antimony trichloride . With this choice of materials...batteries, and in the cells built at Argonne National Laboratory the calcium was alloyed with aluminum or silicon, paralleling the technology developed

  6. Nanocrystalline TiO2 for Solar Cells and Lithium Batteries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, - (2006), s. 20-29. ISBN 3-908158-08-7. ISSN 1661-819X Grant - others:EC project Molycell(XE) SES6-CT-2003-502783; High Power Lithium(XE) EC- COST D35.0002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : titanium dioxide * solar cells * Li-ion batteries Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  7. Bio-batteries and bio-fuel cells: leveraging on electronic charge transfer proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, A M; Renugopalakrishnan, V; Filipek, S; Li, P; Audette, G F; Munukutla, L

    2009-03-01

    Bio-fuel cells are alternative energy devises based on bio-electrocatalysis of natural substrates by enzymes or microorganisms. Here we review bio-fuel cells and bio-batteries based on the recent literature. In general, the bio-fuel cells are classified based on the type of electron transfer; mediated electron transfer and direct electron transfer or electronic charge transfer (ECT). The ECT of the bio-fuel cells is critically reviewed and a variety of possible applications are considered. The technical challenges of the bio-fuel cells, like bioelectrocatalysis, immobilization of bioelectrocatalysts, protein denaturation etc. are highlighted and future research directions are discussed leveraging on the use of electron charge transfer proteins. In addition, the packaging aspects of the bio-fuel cells are also analyzed and the found that relatively little work has been done in the engineering development of bio-fuel cells.

  8. Case Studies of Energy Storage with Fuel Cells and Batteries for Stationary and Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Belmonte

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, hydrogen coupled with fuel cells and lithium-ion batteries are considered as alternative energy storage methods. Their application on a stationary system (i.e., energy storage for a family house and a mobile system (i.e., an unmanned aerial vehicle will be investigated. The stationary systems, designed for off-grid applications, were sized for photovoltaic energy production in the area of Turin, Italy, to provide daily energy of 10.25 kWh. The mobile systems, to be used for high crane inspection, were sized to have a flying range of 120 min, one being equipped with a Li-ion battery and the other with a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell. The systems were compared from an economical point of view and a life cycle assessment was performed to identify the main contributors to the environmental impact. From a commercial point of view, the fuel cell and the electrolyzer, being niche products, result in being more expensive with respect to the Li-ion batteries. On the other hand, the life cycle assessment (LCA results show the lower burdens of both technologies.

  9. Seeking effective dyes for a mediated glucose-air alkaline battery/fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustis, Ross; Tsang, Tsz Ming; Yang, Brigham; Scott, Daniel; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2014-02-01

    A significant level of power generation from an abiotic, air breathing, mediated reducing sugar-air alkaline battery/fuel cell has been achieved in our laboratories at room temperature without complicated catalysis or membrane separation in the reaction chamber. Our prior studies suggested that mass transport limitation by the mediator is a limiting factor in power generation. New and effective mediators were sought here to improve charge transfer and power density. Forty-five redox dyes were studied to identify if any can facilitate mass transport in alkaline electrolyte solution; namely, by increasing the solubility and mobility of the dye, and the valence charge carried per molecule. Indigo dyes were studied more closely to understand the complexity involved in mass transport. The viability of water-miscible co-solvents was also explored to understand their effect on solubility and mass transport of the dyes. Using a 2.0 mL solution, 20% methanol by volume, with 100 mM indigo carmine, 1.0 M glucose and 2.5 M sodium hydroxide, the glucose-air alkaline battery/fuel cell attained 8 mA cm-2 at short-circuit and 800 μW cm-2 at the maximum power point. This work shall aid future optimization of mediated charge transfer mechanism in batteries or fuel cells.

  10. Sizing Stack and Battery of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Distribution Truck Dimensionnement pile et batterie d’un camion hybride à pile à combustible de distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazelaar E.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An existing fuel cell hybrid distribution truck, built for demonstration purposes, is used as a case study to investigate the effect of stack (kW and battery (kW, kWh sizes on the hydrogen consumption of the vehicle. Three driving cycles, the NEDC for Low Power vehicles, CSC and JE05 cycle, define the driving requirements for the vehicle. The Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS is used for determining the control setpoint for the fuel cell and battery system. It closely approximates the global minimum in fuel consumption, set by Dynamic Programming (DP. Using DP the sizing problem can be solved but ECMS can also be implemented real-time. For the considered vehicle and hardware, all three driving cycles result in optimal sizes for the fuel cell stack of approximately three times the average drive power demand. This demonstrates that sizing the fuel cell stack the average or maximum power demand is not necessarily optimal with respect to a minimum fuel consumption. The battery is sized to deliver the difference between specified stack power and the peak power in the total power demand. The sizing of the battery is dominated by its power handling capabilities. Therefore, a higher maximum C-rate leads to a lower battery weight which in turn leads to a lower hydrogen consumption. The energy storage capacity of the battery only becomes an issue for C-rates over 30. Compared to a Range Extender (RE configuration, where the stack size is comparable to the average power demand and the stack is operated on a constant power level, optimal stack and battery sizes with ECMS as EnergyManagement Strategy significantly reduce the fuel consumption. Compared to a RE strategy, ECMS makes much better use of the combined power available from the fuel cell stack and the battery, resulting in a lower fuel consumption but also enabling a lower battery weight which consequently leads to improved payload capabilities. Un camion hybride, utilisant une pile

  11. Nanomembrane-Based, Thermal-Transport Biosensor for Living Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.

    2016-11-23

    Knowledge of materials\\' thermal-transport properties, conductivity and diffusivity, is crucial for several applications within areas of biology, material science and engineering. Specifically, a microsized, flexible, biologically integrated thermal transport sensor is beneficial to a plethora of applications, ranging across plants physiological ecology and thermal imaging and treatment of cancerous cells, to thermal dissipation in flexible semiconductors and thermoelectrics. Living cells pose extra challenges, due to their small volumes and irregular curvilinear shapes. Here a novel approach of simultaneously measuring thermal conductivity and diffusivity of different materials and its applicability to single cells is demonstrated. This technique is based on increasing phonon-boundary-scattering rate in nanomembranes, having extremely low flexural rigidities, to induce a considerable spectral dependence of the bandgap-emission over excitation-laser intensity. It is demonstrated that once in contact with organic or inorganic materials, the nanomembranes\\' emission spectrally shift based on the material\\'s thermal diffusivity and conductivity. This NM-based technique is further applied to differentiate between different types and subtypes of cancer cells, based on their thermal-transport properties. It is anticipated that this novel technique to enable an efficient single-cell thermal targeting, allow better modeling of cellular thermal distribution and enable novel diagnostic techniques based on variations of single-cell thermal-transport properties.

  12. A chemo-mechanical model coupled with thermal effect on the hollow core–shell electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrode is a key component to remain durability and safety of lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries. Li-ion insertion/removal and thermal expansion mismatch may induce high stress in electrode during charging and discharging processes. In this paper, we present a continuum model based on COMSOL Multiphysics software, which involves thermal, chemical and mechanical behaviors of electrodes. The results show that, because of diffusion-induced stress and thermal mismatch, the electrode geometry plays an important role in diffusion kinetics of Li-ions. A higher local compressive stress results in a lower Li-ion concentration and thus a lower capacity when a particle is embedded another, which is in agreement with experimental observations. Keywords: Lithium-ion battery, Diffusion-induced stress, COMSOL, Chemo-mechanical, Electrode

  13. A new approach to calculating endurance in electric flight and comparing fuel cells and batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donateo, Teresa; Ficarella, Antonio; Spedicato, Luigi; Arista, Alessandro; Ferraro, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Gross endurance of an UAV calculated with literature correlations. • Net endurance calculated with an innovative mission-based approach. • Three state-of-the-art battery technologies compared to a PEM fuel cell. • Analysis with different values of energy stored on board. • Effect of powertrain mass and volume of aircraft empty mass and wing area. - Abstract: Electric flight is of increasing interest in order to reduce emissions of pollution and greenhouse gases in the aviation field in particular when the takeoff mass is low, as in the case of lightweight cargo transport or remotely controlled drones. The present investigation addresses two key issues in electric flight, namely the correct calculation of the endurance and the comparison between batteries and fuel cells, with a mission-based approach. As a test case, a light Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) powered exclusively by a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane fuel cell with a gaseous hydrogen tank was compared with the same aircraft powered by different kinds of Lithium batteries sized to match the energy stored in the hydrogen tank. The mass and the volume of each powertrain were calculated with literature data about existing technologies for propellers, motors, batteries and fuel cells. The empty mass and the wing area of the UAV were amended with the mass of the proposed powertrain to explore the range of application of the proposed technologies. To evaluate the efficiency of the whole powertrain a simulation software was used instead of considering only level flight. This software allowed an in-depth analysis on the efficiency of all sub-systems along the flight. The secondary demand of power for auxiliaries was taken into account along with the propulsive power. The main parameter for the comparison was the endurance but the takeoff performance, the volume of the powertrain and the environmental impact were also taken into account. The battery-based powertrain was found to be the most

  14. NREL Multiphysics Modeling Tools and ISC Device for Designing Safer Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.; Yang, Chuanbo

    2016-03-24

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed a portfolio of multiphysics modeling tools to aid battery designers better understand the response of lithium ion batteries to abusive conditions. We will discuss this portfolio, which includes coupled electrical, thermal, chemical, electrochemical, and mechanical modeling. These models can simulate the response of a cell to overheating, overcharge, mechanical deformation, nail penetration, and internal short circuit. Cell-to-cell thermal propagation modeling will be discussed.

  15. Simulations of thermal Rayleigh-Marangoni convection in a three-layer liquid-metal-battery model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, Thomas; Boeck, Thomas; Schumacher, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    Operating a liquid-metal battery produces Ohmic losses in the electrolyte layer that separates both metal electrodes. As a consequence, temperature gradients establish which potentially cause thermal convection since density and interfacial tension depend on the local temperature. In our numerical investigations, we considered three plane, immiscible layers governed by the Navier-Stokes-Boussinesq equations held at a constant temperature of 500°C at the bottom and top. A homogeneous current is applied that leads to a preferential heating of the mid electrolyte layer. We chose a typical material combination of Li separated by LiCl-KCl (a molten salt) from Pb-Bi for which we analyzed the linear stability of pure thermal conduction and performed three-dimensional direct-numerical simulations by a pseudospectral method probing different: electrolyte layer heights, overall heights, and current densities. Four instability mechanisms are identified, which are partly coupled to each other: buoyant convection in the upper electrode, buoyant convection in the molten salt layer, and Marangoni convection at both interfaces between molten salt and electrode. The global turbulent heat transfer follows scaling predictions for internally heated buoyant convection. Financial support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. KO 5515/1-1 is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Advances in VRLA battery technology for telecommunications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Sudhan S. [SPM Consultants LLC, 112 Gwynmont Circle, North Wales, PA 19454 (United States)

    2007-05-25

    Wide scale use of the newly emergent VRLA (valve-regulated lead-acid) battery in telecommunication applications and the subsequent problems encountered early in their deployment history spurred intense efforts to improve the design as a continuous endeavor. After implementing improvements to battery placement and containment design to prevent the sudden onset of thermal runaway, the focus of the development work has been on cell internals. These include improved grid and strap alloys, superior AGM (absorbent glass mat) separator that retains compression in the cell, use of beneficial additives to the active materials and the need to avoid contaminants that promote detrimental side reactions. These improvements are now resulting in a vastly superior VRLA experience in the telecommunication applications. To further improve the reliability demanded by today's communication and internet environment VRLA battery installations should include continuous cell/module and system monitoring similar to that incorporated in competing advanced battery systems under development. (author)

  17. Will Your Battery Survive a World With Fast Chargers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.

    2015-05-04

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that result could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's development of BLAST-V-the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles-to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. We present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. We find that the impact of realistic fast charging on battery degradation is minimal for most drivers, due to the low frequency of use. However, in the absence of active battery cooling systems, a driver's desired utilization of a BEV and fast charging infrastructure can result in unsafe peak battery temperatures. We find that active battery cooling systems can control peak battery temperatures to safe limits while allowing the desired use of the vehicle.

  18. Performance-degradation model for Li4Ti5O12-based battery cells used in wind power applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2012-01-01

    Energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries have the potential to mitigate the negative impact of wind power grid integration on the power system stability, which is caused by the characteristics of the wind. This paper presents a performance model for a Li4Ti5O12/LiMO2 battery cell....... For developing the performance model an EIS-based electrical modelling approach was followed. The obtained model is able to predict with high accuracy charge and discharge voltage profiles for different ages of the battery cell and for different charging/discharging current rates. Moreover, the ageing behaviour...... of the battery cell was analysed for the case of accelerated cycling ageing with a certain mission profile....

  19. Overcurrent Abuse of Primary Prismatic Zinc–Air Battery Cells Studying Air Supply Effects on Performance and Safety Shut-Down

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrik Larsson; Antti Rytinki; Istaq Ahmed; Ingvar Albinsson; Bengt-Erik Mellander

    2017-01-01

    Overcurrent abuse has been performed on commercial 48 Ah primary prismatic zinc (Zn)–Air battery cells with full air supply as well as with shut-off air supply. Compared to other battery technologies, e.g., lithium-ion batteries, metal–air batteries offer the possibility to physically stop the battery operation by stopping its air supply, thus offering an additional protection against severe battery damage in the case of, e.g., an accidental short circuit. This method may also reduce the elec...

  20. Finite element analysis study on the thermomechanical stability of thermal compression bonding (TCB) joints in tubular sodium sulfur cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Keeyoung; Lee, Solki; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2014-03-01

    A typical large capacity sodium sulfur (NaS) battery is operated at 300-350 °C with 20-50 °C thermal fluctuations during its charging and discharging. In addition, for maintenance purposes, the cell experiences larger temperature changes down to the intermediate or room temperatures. Such temperature changes can cause mechanical failure of heterogeneous joints such as thermal compression bonding (TCB) joints, which is one of the most critical issues in developing NaS batteries. The present study seeks to build a computational finite element analysis (FEA) model to predict the thermomechanical responses of NaS batteries to the attack induced by the temperature changes. Specifically, the thermomechanical stress accumulation at TCB joints of a tubular cell has been explored during its booting-and-shutdown cycles. Static temperature profiles and simplified friction conditions in the cathode wall were assumed for the model. Using the developed model, the stress components that dominantly contribute the stress accumulation at the joint were identified, and the effects of TCB geometries and container material types on the thermal stress accumulation at the TCB joints were carefully examined. It turns out that the stress accumulation at the bonding interface would be critical for the failure at the TCB joints.

  1. Effect of KOH concentration on LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen flight battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1990-01-01

    A breakthrough in the low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycle life of individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel hydrogen battery cells is reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The effect of KOH concentration on cycle life was studied. The cycle regime was a stressful accelerated LEO, which consisted of a 27.5 min charge followed by a 17.5 min charge (2 x normal rate). The depth of discharge (DOD) was 80 percent. The cell temperature was maintained at 23 C. The next step is to validate these results using flight hardware and real time LEO test. NASA Lewis has a contract with the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), Crane, Indiana to validate the boiler plate test results. Six 48 A-hr Hughes recirculation design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight battery cells are being evaluated. Three of the cells contain 26 percent KOH (test cells) and three contain 31 percent KOH (control cells). They are undergoing real time LEO cycle life testing. The cycle regime is a 90-min LEO orbit consisting of a 54-min charge followed by a 36-min discharge. The depth-of-discharge is 80 percent. The cell temperature is maintained at 10 C. The cells were cycled for over 8000 cycles in the continuing test. There were no failures for the cells containing 26 percent KOH. There were two failures, however, for the cells containing 31 percent KOH.

  2. Design of a new lithium ion battery test cell for in-situ neutron diffraction measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Matthew; Biendicho, Jordi Jacas; Hull, Stephen; Beran, Premysl; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Svensson, Gunnar; Edström, Kristina

    2013-03-01

    This paper introduces a new cell design for the construction of lithium ion batteries with conventional electrochemical performance whilst allowing in situ neutron diffraction measurement. A cell comprising of a wound cathode, electrolyte and anode stack has been prepared. The conventional hydrogen-containing components of the cell have been replaced by hydrogen-free equivalents. The electrodes are fabricated using a PTFE binder, the electrolyte consists of deuterated solvents which are supported in a quartz glass fibre separator. Typical battery performance is reported using the hydrogen-free components with a specific capacity of 140 mA h g-1 being observed for LiFePO4 at a rate of 0.2 C. Neutron diffraction patterns of full cells were recorded with phase change reactions monitored. When aluminium packaging was used a better signal to noise ratio was obtained. The obtained atomic positions and lattice parameters for all cells investigated were found to be consistent with parameters refined from the diffraction pattern of a powder of the pure electrode material. This paper highlights the pertinent points in designing cells for these measurements and addresses some of the problems.

  3. Rocks, Clays, Water, and Salts: Highly Durable, Infinitely Rechargeable, Eminently Controllable Thermal Batteries for Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan W. Rempel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials that store the energy of warm days, to return that heat during cool nights, have been fundamental to vernacular building since ancient times. Although building with thermally rechargeable materials became a niche pursuit with the advent of fossil fuel-based heating and cooling, energy and climate change concerns have sparked new enthusiasm for these substances of high heat capacity and moderate thermal conductivity: stone, adobe, rammed earth, brick, water, concrete, and more recently, phase-change materials. While broadly similar, these substances absorb and release heat in unique patterns characteristic of their mineralogies, densities, fluidities, emissivities, and latent heats of fusion. Current architectural practice, however, shows little awareness of these differences and the resulting potential to match materials to desired thermal performance. This investigation explores that potential, illustrating the correspondence between physical parameters and thermal storage-and-release patterns in direct-, indirect-, and isolated-gain passive solar configurations. Focusing on heating applications, results demonstrate the superiority of water walls for daytime warmth, the tunability of granite and concrete for evening warmth, and the exceptional ability of phase-change materials to sustain near-constant heat delivery throughout the night.

  4. A Study of Cell-to-Cell Interactions and Degradation in Parallel Strings: Implications for the Battery Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Fernández, C.; Bruen, T.; Widanage, W. D.; Gama-Valdez, M. A.; Marco, J.

    2016-10-01

    Vehicle battery systems are usually designed with a high number of cells connected in parallel to meet the stringent requirements of power and energy. The self-balancing characteristic of parallel cells allows a battery management system (BMS) to approximate the cells as one equivalent cell with a single state of health (SoH) value, estimated either as capacity fade (SoHE) or resistance increase (SoHP). A single SoH value is however not applicable if the initial SoH of each cell is different, which can occur when cell properties change due to inconsistent manufacturing processes or in-homogeneous operating environments. As such this work quantifies the convergence of SoHE and SoHP due to initial differences in cell SoH and examines the convergence factors. Four 3 Ah 18650 cells connected in parallel at 25 °C are aged by charging and discharging for 500 cycles. For an initial SoHE difference of 40% and SoHP difference of 45%, SoHE converge to 10% and SoHP to 30% by the end of the experiment. From this, a strong linear correlation between ΔSoHE and ΔSoHP is also observed. The results therefore imply that a BMS should consider a calibration strategy to accurately estimate the SoH of parallel cells until convergence is reached.

  5. Analysis of a Drive System in a Fuel Cell and Battery powered Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Tsotoulidis, Savvas N; Safacas, Athanasios Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the design and the operation of the drive system in a Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) is presented. The system consists of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack, an interleaved boost converter, battery pack connected via a bidirectional buck-boost converter and a brushless DC motor (BLDC) driven by a three phase inverter. A basic analysis of each component of the investigated system is presented. The main objective of this paper is to manage the energy transfer fr...

  6. Performance simulation and analysis of a fuel cell/battery hybrid forklift truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Advani, Suresh G.

    2013-01-01

    strategies to study their effect on hydrogen consumption and battery state-of-charge for two drive cycles characterized by different operating speeds and forklift loads. The results show that for all case studies, the combination of a 110 cell stack with two strings of 55 Ah batteries is the most economical...... choice for the hybrid system based on system size and hydrogen consumption. In addition, it is observed that hydrogen consumption decreases by about 24% when the maximum speed of the drive cycle is decreased from 4.5 to 3 m/s. Similarly, by decreasing the forklift load from 2.5 to 1.5 ton, the hydrogen...... consumption decreases by over 20%....

  7. Electrolyte management considerations in modern nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cell and battery designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, L. H.; Zimmerman, A. H.

    1995-01-01

    In the early 1980's the NASA Lewis group addressed the topic of designing nickel hydrogen cells for LEO applications. As published in 1984, the design addressed the topics of gas management, liquid management, plate expansion, and the recombination of oxygen during overcharge. This design effort followed principles set forth in an earlier Lewis paper that addressed the topic of pore size engineering. At about that same time, the beneficial effect on cycle life of lower electrolyte concentrations was verified by Hughes Aircraft as part of a Lewis funded study. A succession of life cycle tests of these concepts have been carried out that essentially verified all of this earlier work. During these past two decades, some of the mysteries involved in the active material of the nickel electrode have been resolved by careful research efforts carried out at several laboratories. At The Aerospace Corporation, Dr. Zimmerman has been developing a sophisticated model of an operating nickel hydrogen cell which will be used to model certain mechanisms that have contributed to premature failures in nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cells. During the course of trying to understand and model abnormal nickel hydrogen cell behaviors, we have noted that not enough attention has been paid to the potassium ion content in these cells, and more recently batteries. Several of these phenomenon have been well known in the area of alkaline fuel cells, but only recently have they been examined as they might impact alkaline cell designs. This paper will review three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium devices, Once these phenomenon are understood conceptually, the impact of potassium content on a potential cell design can be evaluated with the aid of an accurate model of an operating cell or battery. All three of these areas are directly related to the volume tolerance and pore size engineering aspects of the

  8. An Electronic Measurement Instrumentation of the Impedance of a Loaded Fuel Cell or Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddad El-Moznine

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an inexpensive electronic measurement instrumentationdeveloped in our laboratory, to measure and plot the impedance of a loaded fuel cell orbattery. Impedance measurements were taken by using the load modulation method. Thisinstrumentation has been developed around a VXI system stand which controls electroniccards. Software under Hpvee® was developed for automatic measurements and the layout ofthe impedance of the fuel cell on load. The measurement environment, like the ambienttemperature, the fuel cell temperature, the level of the hydrogen, etc..., were taken withseveral sensors that enable us to control the measurement. To filter the noise and theinfluence of the 50Hz, we have implemented a synchronous detection which filters in a verynarrow way around the useful signal. The theoretical result obtained by a simulation underPspice® of the method used consolidates the choice of this method and the possibility ofobtaining correct and exploitable results. The experimental results are preliminary results ona 12V vehicle battery, having an inrush current of 330A and a capacity of 40Ah (impedancemeasurements on a fuel cell are in progress, and will be the subject of a forthcoming paper.The results were plotted at various nominal voltages of the battery (12.7V, 10V, 8V and 5Vand with two imposed currents (0.6A and 4A. The Nyquist diagram resulting from theexperimental data enable us to show an influence of the load of the battery on its internalimpedance. The similitude in the graph form and in order of magnitude of the valuesobtained (both theoretical and practical enables us to validate our electronic measurementinstrumentation. One of the future uses for this instrumentation is to integrate it with several control sensors, on a vehicle as an embedded system to monitor the degradation of fuel cell membranes.

  9. Advanced Fuel Cell System Thermal Management for NASA Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. An analysis of a state-of-the-art fuel cell cooling systems was done to benchmark the portion of a fuel cell system s mass that is dedicated to thermal management. Additional analysis was done to determine the key performance targets of the advanced passive thermal management technology that would substantially reduce fuel cell system mass.

  10. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchat, J. P.; Descroix, J. P.; Sarre, G.

    A comparative performance study has been conducted for silver-zinc, thionyl chloride, and thermal batteries designed for such missile applications as ICBM guidance system power supplies. Attention is given to each of the three candidates' conformity to requirements concerning mechanical configuration, electrochemical design, electrolyte reservoir, external case, and gas generator. The silver-zinc and Li-SOCl2 candidates employ similar cell configurations and yield comparable performance. The thermal battery is found to be incapable of meeting battery case temperature-related requirements.

  11. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.

  12. Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the use of Hydrogen Fuel-Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Ulsh, M.

    2013-10-01

    Battery electric vehicles possess great potential for decreasing lifecycle costs in medium-duty applications, a market segment currently dominated by internal combustion technology. Characterized by frequent repetition of similar routes and daily return to a central depot, medium-duty vocations are well positioned to leverage the low operating costs of battery electric vehicles. Unfortunately, the range limitation of commercially available battery electric vehicles acts as a barrier to widespread adoption. This paper describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and industry partners to analyze the use of small hydrogen fuel-cell stacks to extend the range of battery electric vehicles as a means of improving utility, and presumably, increasing market adoption. This analysis employs real-world vocational data and near-term economic assumptions to (1) identify optimal component configurations for minimizing lifecycle costs, (2) benchmark economic performance relative to both battery electric and conventional powertrains, and (3) understand how the optimal design and its competitiveness change with respect to duty cycle and economic climate. It is found that small fuel-cell power units provide extended range at significantly lower capital and lifecycle costs than additional battery capacity alone. And while fuel-cell range-extended vehicles are not deemed economically competitive with conventional vehicles given present-day economic conditions, this paper identifies potential future scenarios where cost equivalency is achieved.

  13. Thermal treatment and ammoniacal leaching for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongming; Liu, Nannan; Hu, Fang; Ye, Longgang; Xi, Yan; Yang, Shenghai

    2018-02-22

    The recycling of spent commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) generates numerous environmental and economic benefits. In this research, a thermal treatment-ammoniacal leaching process is proposed to recover valuable metals from cathode active powder. Based on the thermal behavior by TG-DSC analysis, the cathode active powder is calcined at 300 °C and 550 °C in air atmosphere, and the crystalline phase characterization indicates that a new phase of Co 3 O 4 appears in the cathode active powder calcined at 550 °C, which signifies that the layer structure of LiCoO 2 collapses. The valence of manganese increases to form Li 4 Mn 5 O 12 in spinel structure of LiMn 2 O 4 . Using calcined cathode powder as feed material, ammoniacal leaching is carried out in (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -(NH 4 ) 2 SO 3 solution. Under the optimum conditions, Ni, Co, Mn and Li can be completely leached out with efficiencies of 98%, 81%, 92% and 98%, respectively. However, with the increase of ammonia concentration, the leaching efficiency of Mn decreases dramatically to 4% due to the formation of double salts. It is found that Co and Mn can be precipitated into residues in the form of (NH 4 ) 2 Co(SO 4 ) 2 ·H 2 O, (NH 4 ) 2 Mn(SO 3 ) 2 ·H 2 O and (NH 4 ) 2 Mn(SO 4 ) 2 ·6H 2 O under different leaching parameters. Based on the corresponding relationship between the leaching efficiency and phase evolution of object element, selective leaching can be achieved by controlling the formation of double salts. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha; Bennett, William

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair lunar lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy as compared to today's state-of-the-art batteries. Based on customer requirements, the specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery level at 0 degrees Celsius (degrees Celcius) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation over 0 to 30 degrees C, and 200 cycles are targeted. The team, consisting of members from NASA Glenn Research Center, Johnson Space Center, and Jet Propulsion laboratory, surveyed the literature, compiled information on recent materials developments, and consulted with other battery experts in the community to identify advanced battery materials that might be capable of achieving the desired results with further development. A variety of electrode materials were considered, including layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. lithium-sulfur systems were also considered. Hypothetical cell constructs that combined compatible anode and cathode materials with suitable electrolytes, separators, current collectors, headers, and cell enclosures were modeled. While some of these advanced materials are projected to obtain the desired electrical performance, there are risks that also factored into the decision making process. The risks include uncertainties due to issues such as safety of a system containing some of these materials, ease of scaling-up of large batches of raw materials, adaptability of the materials to processing using established

  15. Micro solid oxide fuel cell fabricated on porous stainless steel: a new strategy for enhanced thermal cycling ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kun Joong; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Sun Jae; Lee, Younki; Bae, Hongyeul; Choi, Gyeong Man

    2016-01-01

    Miniaturized solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) are being extensively studied as a promising alternative to Li batteries for next generation portable power. A new micro-SOFC is designed and fabricated which shows enhanced thermal robustness by employing oxide-based thin-film electrode and porous stainless steel (STS) substrate. To deposit gas-tight thin-film electrolyte on STS, nano-porous composite oxide is proposed and applied as a new contact layer on STS. The micro-SOFC fabricated on composite oxide- STS dual layer substrate shows the peak power density of 560 mW cm−2 at 550 °C and maintains this power density during rapid thermal cycles. This cell may be suitable for portable electronic device that requires high power-density and fast thermal cycling. PMID:26928921

  16. Mechanism of Thermal Runaway in VRLA Batteries and Methods to Suppress It - Phase II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pavlov, Detchko

    2007-01-01

    .... The oxygen evolution (OER) and oxygen recombination reactions (ORR) proceed in the cells, and the only work done by the input power is to transfer water from anode to cathode through these reactions, the remaining energy being dissipated as heat...

  17. Activation of endogeneous retroviruses in mouse cells by thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Ohtsura

    1987-01-01

    The effect of thermal neutrons on the induction of murine endogenous viruses from a mouse fibroblast cell line was investigated. Thermal neutrons were more effective than X-rays in induction of endogenous virus as well as in killing of the cells. However, when measured as a function of cell killing, both radiations had similar efficiency of induction. The RBEs of thermal neutrons alone were calculated on the assumption that the contribution of contaminating γ-rays was additive. It was 4.2 for the killing effect and 4-5 for virus induction. (author)

  18. Imidazolium-based Block Copolymers as Solid-State Separators for Alkaline Fuel Cells and Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykaza, Jacob Richard

    electrode (RDE) experiments determined the interfacial resistance imposed during cell assembly between the AEM, catalyst, and ionomer was a factor in fuel cell performance. Further RDE studies investigated the electrochemical stability of the PIL block copolymer ionomer under applied potentials, where it was determined that potential cycling increased the degradation compared to constant voltage or open circuit voltage studies. The PIL diblock copolymer was then anion exchanged to the bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (TFSI-) anion form and imbibed with a lithium salt and ionic liquid solution for use as a SPE in lithium-ion batteries resulting in a maximum discharge capacity of 112 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C with a Coulombic efficiency greater than 94% over 100 cycles. PIL block copolymers have promising mechanical properties and transport properties (i.e., ion conductivity) in both the hydrated (hydrophilic anions; Br-, OH-) and dry (hydrophobic anions; TFSI-) states resulting in highly conductive, chemically/thermally stable, and mechanically robust solid-state polymer separators for use as AEMs in AFCs and as SPEs in lithium-ion batteries.

  19. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  20. Long life 80Ah standard IPV NiH2 battery cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armantrout, Jon D.; Waller, J. S.

    1995-02-01

    A standard Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV) battery cell is needed to meet future low cost, high performance mission requirements for NASA, military, and civil space programs. A common or standard cell design has evolved from the heritage of HST, Milstar, and other Air Force Mantech cell designs with substantial flight experience, while incorporating some of the historical COMSAT cell design features described in a previous NASA publication. Key features include slurry process nickel electrodes having high strength, long life and high yield (lower cost), and dual layer zircar separators for improved KOH retention, uniformality, and longer life. The cell design will have a zirconium oxide wall wick inside the pressure vessel to redistribute electrolyte and extend life. The slurry electrode will be 35 mils thick to take advantage of qualified cell mechanical configurations and proven assembly and activation techniques developed by Eagle Picher Industries (EPI) for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) RNH-90-3 and 'Generic HST' RNH-90-5 cell designs with back-to-back nickel electrodes produced by the dry sinter process. The 80Ah common cell design can be scaled to meet capacity requirements from 60Ah to 100Ah. Producibility, commonality, and long life performance will be enhanced with the robust cell design described herein.

  1. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  2. Integrating a dual-silicon photoelectrochemical cell into a redox flow battery for unassisted photocharging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shichao; Zong, Xu; Seger, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Solar rechargeable flow cells (SRFCs) provide an attractive approach for in situ capture and storage of intermittent solar energy via photoelectrochemical regeneration of discharged redox species for electricity generation. However, overall SFRC performance is restricted by inefficient photoelect......Solar rechargeable flow cells (SRFCs) provide an attractive approach for in situ capture and storage of intermittent solar energy via photoelectrochemical regeneration of discharged redox species for electricity generation. However, overall SFRC performance is restricted by inefficient...... photoelectrochemical reactions. Here we report an efficient SRFC based on a dual-silicon photoelectrochemical cell and a quinone/bromine redox flow battery for in situ solar energy conversion and storage. Using narrow bandgap silicon for efficient photon collection and fast redox couples for rapid interface charge...

  3. Lethal action of thermal neutron to living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Kenichi; Akahoshi, Mitsuhiko

    1975-01-01

    Using Amoeba Proteus (DNA content was 5x10 -10 g/cell), action mechanism of thermal neutron was described by using death of cells as an index. Using mononuclear type (M-type) and polynuclear type (P-type) of Amoeba, investigation was made as to whether the number of nucleus contained in cell was related to death of cell by radiation. As compared to gamma-ray, marked difference between sensitivity of both types of Amoeba was not recognized. It was suggested that nucleus was important as a place of death of cell by thermal neutron. In order to demonstrate that reaction of 31 P(n, γ) 32 Pwas a main cause of lethality, the following experiment was carried out. 1) In order to investigate that radical reaction was not a main cause of lethal action by thermal neutron, increase and decrease of radical reaction were observed by adding AET, Cysteine and BudR. As to thermal neutron action, effect of its chemical factors did not appeared. 2) In order to demonstrate that nuclear reaction of constituent atom of living body played an important part in death of cell, increase and decrease of nuclear reaction within cell were observed by taking Na 2 , B 4 and O 7 into Amoeba. It was suggested that nuclear reaction of cell constituent atom itself was important in death of cell. 3) Potentiation effect of gamma-ray and thermal neutron was investigated and its mechanism was discussed. (K. Serizawa)

  4. Evolution of Surface Temperature of a 13 Amp Hour Nano Lithium-Titanate Battery Cell under Fast Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    is to study the surface temperature evolution of a 13 Ah Nano Lithium-Titanate battery cell for the usage of rechargeable energy storage system under fast charging conditions. The nominal voltage of the cell is 2.26V and the nominal capacity is 13.4 Ah. In this research, contact thermocouples were employed...

  5. Efficient Strategies for Predictive Cell-Level Control of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Marcelo A.

    This dissertation introduces a set of state-space based model predictive control (MPC) algorithms tailored to a non-zero feedthrough term to account for the ohmic resistance that is inherent to the battery dynamics. MPC is herein applied to the problem of regulating cell-level measures of performance for lithium-ion batteries; the control methodologies are used first to compute a fast charging profile that respects input, output, and state constraints, i.e., input current, terminal voltage, and state of charge for an equivalent circuit model of the battery cell, and extended later to a linearized physics-based reduced-order model. The novelty of this work can summarized as follows: (1) the MPC variants are employed to a physics based reduce-order model in order to make use of the available set of internal electrochemical variables and mitigate internal mechanisms of cell degradation. (e.g., lithium plating); (2) we developed a dual-mode MPC closed-loop paradigm that suits the battery control problem with the objective of reducing computational effort by solving simpler optimization routines and guaranteeing stability; and finally (3) we developed a completely new approach of the use of a predictive control strategy where MPC is employed as a "smart sensor" for power estimation. Results are presented that show the comparative performance of the MPC algorithms for both EMC and PBROM These results highlight that dual-mode MPC can deliver optimal input current profiles by using a shorter horizon while still guaranteeing stability. Additionally, rigorous mathematical developments are presented for the development of the MPC algorithms. The use of MPC as a "smart sensor" presents it self as an appealing method for power estimation, since MPC permits a fully dynamic input profile that is able to achieve performance right at the proper constraint boundaries. Therefore, MPC is expected to produce accurate power limits for each computed sample time when compared to the

  6. Electrical, thermal and abusive tests on lithium thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1980-04-01

    Electrical characterizations, thermal characterizations, and outer limits tests of lithium thionyl chloride cells are discussed. Graphs of energy density vs power density and heat rate vs time are presented along with results of forced reversal and high rate discharge tests.

  7. Behavior of 2-Cell CPV Ni-H2 Battery During Pulse Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    1998-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the transient voltage behavior of the 2-cell CPV nickel-hydrogen battery with the objective of using the results as a basis for mathematical modeling. The 2-cell CPV battery which is manufactured by Eagle Picher, Inc. for the GOES program yields 18.5 Ah at C/2 rate of discharge at 10 C with a mid-discharge voltage of 2.514 V. The capacity increased with decrease of temperature and a maximum capacity of 22 Ah was obtained at -5 C. The pulse tests consisted of obtaining the voltage profile in the first 20 milliseconds of the one minute pulse discharge at 37 A and pulse discharge was repeated as a function of state-of-charge. The pulse test at 10 C and 20 C provided voltage profiles with the expected decrease in voltage as the pulse was applied. The end of pulse voltage decreased with the state-of-charge. The battery voltage was above 2V at the end of the one-minute pulse at 8 % state-of-charge at 10 C. The voltage profile during the 37 A pulse discharge consists of an initial drop in voltage which was independent of the state of charge. The invariability in the value for the initial drop in voltage with state of charge is a very important observation. The results show that towards the end of discharge the dominant resistance is not ohmic in nature. It could be hypothesized from the nature of the voltage transients that the dominant mechanism towards the end of discharge is proton diffusion. The study also shows that the dominant resistance in the voltage plateau during discharge is activation polarization.

  8. Behavior of 2 Cell CPV NI-H2 Battery During Pulse Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishna, M. Rao; Vaidyanathan, Hari

    1997-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the transient voltage behavior of the 2-cell CPV nickel-hydrogen battery with the objective of using the results as a basis for mathematical modeling. The 2-cell CPV battery which is manufactured by Eagle Picher, Inc. for the GOES program yields 18.5 Ah at C/2 rate of discharge at 10 C with a mid-discharge voltage of 2.514 V. The capacity increased with decrease of temperature and a maximum capacity of 22 Ah was obtained at - 5 C. The pulse test consisted of obtaining the voltage profile in the first 20 milliseconds of the one minute pulse discharge at 37 A and pulse discharge was repeated as a function of state-of-charge. The pulse test at 10 C and 20 C provided voltage profiles with the expected decrease in voltage as the pulse was applied. The end of pulse voltage decreased with the state-of-charge. The battery voltage was above 2V at the end of the one-minute pulse at 12% state-of-charge at 10 C. The voltage profile during the 37 A pulse discharge consists of an initial drop in voltage which was independent of the state of charge. The invariability in the value for the initial drop in voltage with state of charge is a very important observation and indicates that towards the end of discharge the dominant resistance is not ohmic in nature. It could be hypothesized from the nature of the voltage transients that the dominant mechanism towards the end of discharge is proton diffusion. The study also shows that the dominant resistance in the voltage plateau during discharge is activation polarization.

  9. Analysis of a Battery Management System (BMS Control Strategy for Vibration Aged Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC Lithium-Ion 18650 Battery Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bruen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle (EV manufacturers are using cylindrical format cells as part of the vehicle’s rechargeable energy storage system (RESS. In a recent study focused at determining the ageing behavior of 2.2 Ah Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC Lithium-Ion 18650 battery cells, significant increases in the ohmic resistance (RO were observed post vibration testing. Typically a reduction in capacity was also noted. The vibration was representative of an automotive service life of 100,000 miles of European and North American customer operation. This paper presents a study which defines the effect that the change in electrical properties of vibration aged 18650 NMC cells can have on the control strategy employed by the battery management system (BMS of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV. It also proposes various cell balancing strategies to manage these changes in electrical properties. Subsequently this study recommends that EV manufacturers conduct vibration testing as part of their cell selection and development activities so that electrical ageing characteristics associated with road induced vibration phenomena are incorporated to ensure effective BMS and RESS performance throughout the life of the vehicle.

  10. Battery Management System—Balancing Modularization Based on a Single Switched Capacitor and Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter with the Auxiliary Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Daowd

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-based batteries are considered as the most advanced batteries technology, which can be designed for high energy or high power storage systems. However, the battery cells are never fully identical due to the fabrication process, surrounding environment factors and differences between the cells tend to grow if no measures are taken. In order to have a high performance battery system, the battery cells should be continuously balanced for maintain the variation between the cells as small as possible. Without an appropriate balancing system, the individual cell voltages will differ over time and battery system capacity will decrease quickly. These issues will limit the electric range of the electric vehicle (EV and some cells will undergo higher stress, whereby the cycle life of these cells will be shorter. Quite a lot of cell balancing/equalization topologies have been previously proposed. These balancing topologies can be categorized into passive and active balancing. Active topologies are categorized according to the active element used for storing the energy such as capacitor and/or inductive component as well as controlling switches or converters. This paper proposes an intelligent battery management system (BMS including a battery pack charging and discharging control with a battery pack thermal management system. The BMS user input/output interfacing. The battery balancing system is based on battery pack modularization architecture. The proposed modularized balancing system has different equalization systems that operate inside and outside the modules. Innovative single switched capacitor (SSC control strategy is proposed to balance between the battery cells in the module (inside module balancing, IMB. Novel utilization of isolated bidirectional DC/DC converter (IBC is proposed to balance between the modules with the aid of the EV auxiliary battery (AB. Finally an experimental step-up has been implemented for the validation of the

  11. Hybrid Microgrid Model based on Solar Photovoltaics with Batteries and Fuel Cells system for intermittent applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Maxx

    Microgrids are a subset of the modern power structure; using distributed generation (DG) to supply power to communities rather than vast regions. The reduced scale mitigates loss allowing the power produced to do more with better control, giving greater security, reliability, and design flexibility. This paper explores the performance and cost viability of a hybrid grid-tied microgrid that utilizes Photovoltaic (PV), batteries, and fuel cell (FC) technology. The concept proposes that each community home is equipped with more PV than is required for normal operation. As the homes are part of a microgrid, excess or unused energy from one home is collected for use elsewhere within the microgrid footprint. The surplus power that would have been discarded becomes a community asset, and is used to run intermittent services. In this paper, the modeled community does not have parking adjacent to each home allowing for the installment of a privately owned slower Level 2 charger, making EV ownership option untenable. A solution is to provide a Level 3 DC Quick Charger (DCQC) as the intermittent service. The addition of batteries and Fuel Cells are meant to increase load leveling, reliability, and instill limited island capability.

  12. An Energy Management System of a Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Boat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Han

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All-electric ships are now a standard offering for energy/propulsion systems in boats. In this context, integrating fuel cells (FCs as power sources in hybrid energy systems can be an interesting solution because of their high efficiency and low emission. The energy management strategy for different power sources has a great influence on the fuel consumption, dynamic performance and service life of these power sources. This paper presents a hybrid FC/battery power system for a low power boat. The hybrid system consists of the association of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC and battery bank. The mathematical models for the components of the hybrid system are presented. These models are implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulations allow analyzing the dynamic performance and power allocation according to a typical driving cycle. In this system, an efficient energy management system (EMS based on operation states is proposed. This EMS strategy determines the operating point of each component of the system in order to maximize the system efficiency. Simulation results validate the adequacy of the hybrid power system and the proposed EMS for real ship driving cycles.

  13. Morphology control of zinc regeneration for zinc-air fuel cell and battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xizhong

    2014-12-01

    Morphology control is crucial both for zinc-air batteries and for zinc-air fuel cells during zinc regeneration. Zinc dendrite should be avoided in zinc-air batteries and zinc pellets are yearned to be formed for zinc-air fuel cells. This paper is mainly to analyze the mechanism of shape change and to control the zinc morphology during charge. A numerical three-dimensional model for zinc regeneration is established with COMSOL software on the basis of ionic transport theory and electrode reaction electrochemistry, and some experiments of zinc regeneration are carried out. The deposition process is qualitatively analyzed by the kinetics Monte Carlo method to study the morphological change from the electrocrystallization point of view. Morphological evolution of deposited zinc under different conditions of direct currents and pulse currents is also investigated by simulation. The simulation shows that parametric variables of the flowing electrolyte, the surface roughness and the structure of the electrode, the charging current and mode affect morphological evolution. The uniform morphology of deposited zinc is attained at low current, pulsating current or hydrodynamic electrolyte, and granular morphology is obtained by means of an electrode of discrete columnar structure in combination with high current and flowing electrolyte.

  14. Diagnostics and Degradation Investigations of Li-Ion Battery Electrodes using Single Nanowire Electrochemical Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palapati, Naveen Kumar Reddy

    Portable energy storage devices, which drive advanced technological devices, are improving the productivity and quality of our everyday lives. In order to meet the growing needs for energy storage in transportation applications, the current lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology requires new electrode materials with performance improvements in multiple aspects: (1) energy and power densities, (2) safety, and (3) performance lifetime. While a number of interesting nanomaterials have been synthesized in recent years with promising performance, accurate capabilities to probe the intrinsic performance of these high-performance materials within a battery environment are lacking. Most studies on electrode nanomaterials have so far used traditional, bulk-scale techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. These approaches give an ensemble-average estimation of the electrochemical properties of a battery electrode and does not provide a true indication of the performance that is intrinsic to its material system. Thus, new techniques are essential to understand the changes happening at a single particle level during the operation of a battery. The results from this thesis solve this need and study the electrical, mechanical and size changes that take place in a battery electrode at a single particle level. Single nanowire lithium cells are built by depositing nanowires in carefully designed device regions of a silicon chip using Dielectrophoresis (DEP). This work has demonstrated the assembly of several NW cathode materials like LiFePO 4, pristine and acid-leached alpha-MnO2, todorokite - MnO2, acid and nonacid-leached Na0.44MnO2. Within these materials, alpha-MnO2 was chosen as the model material system for electrochemical experiments. Electrochemical lithiation of pristine alpha-MnO 2 was performed inside a glove box. The volume, elasticity and conductivity changes were measured at each state-of-charge (SOC) to

  15. Thermal Management of Concentrated Multi-Junction Solar Cells with Graphene-Enhanced Thermal Interface Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Saadah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We report results of experimental investigation of temperature rise in concentrated multi-junction photovoltaic solar cells with graphene-enhanced thermal interface materials. Graphene and few-layer graphene fillers, produced by a scalable environmentally-friendly liquid-phase exfoliation technique, were incorporated into conventional thermal interface materials. Graphene-enhanced thermal interface materials have been applied between a solar cell and heat sink to improve heat dissipation. The performance of the multi-junction solar cells has been tested using an industry-standard solar simulator under a light concentration of up to 2000 suns. It was found that the application of graphene-enhanced thermal interface materials allows one to reduce the solar cell temperature and increase the open-circuit voltage. We demonstrated that the use of graphene helps in recovering a significant amount of the power loss due to solar cell overheating. The obtained results are important for the development of new technologies for thermal management of concentrated photovoltaic solar cells.

  16. An electrochemical cell for in operando studies of lithium/sodium batteries using a conventional x-ray powder diffractometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanbin; Pedersen, Erik Ejler; Christensen, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    to operate and maintain. Test examples on lithium insertion/extraction in two spinel-type LIB electrode materials (Li4Ti5O12 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode) are presented as well as first results on sodium extraction from a layered SIB cathode material (Na0.84Fe0.56Mn0.44O2).......An electrochemical cell has been designed for powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies of lithium ion batteries (LIB) and sodium ion batteries (SIB) in operando with high time resolution using conventional powder X-ray diffractometer. The cell allows for studies of both anode and cathode electrode...

  17. Thermal Stability of LiPF6 Salt and Li-ion Battery Electrolytes Containing LiPF6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Zhuang, Guorong V; Ross, Jr, Philip N

    2006-03-08

    The thermal stability of the neat LiPF6 salt and of 1 molal solutions of LiPF6 in prototypical Li-ion battery solvents was studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and on-line FTIR. Pure LiPF6 salt is thermally stable up to 380 K in a dry inert atmosphere, and its decomposition path is a simple dissociation producing LiF as solid and PF5 as gaseous products. In the presence of water (300 ppm) in the carrier gas, its decomposition onset temperature is lowered as a result of direct thermal reaction between LiPF6 and water vapor to form POF3 and HF. No new products were observed in 1 molal solutions of LiPF6 in EC, DMC and EMC by on-line TGA-FTIR analysis. The storage of the same solutions in sealed containers at 358 K for 300 420 hrs. did not produce any significant quantity of new products as well. In particular, noalkylflurophosphates were found in the solutions after storage at elevated temperature. In the absence of either an impurity like alcohol or cathode active material that may (or may not) act as a catalyst, there is no evidence of thermally induced reaction between LiPF6 and the prototypical Li-ion battery solvents EC, PC, DMC or EMC.

  18. Experimental evaluation of battery cells for space-based radar application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskell, Craig A.; Metcalfe, John R.

    1994-02-01

    A test program was conducted to characterize five space-quality nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) battery cells. A subset of those tests was also done on five commercial nickel-cadmium (NiCd) cells, for correlation to the characteristics of an Energy Storage Unit Simulator. The test program implemented the recommendations of a 1991 study, as reported to IECEC-92. The findings of the tests are summarized, and expected impacts on the performance of the electrical power system (EPS) of a large space-based radar (SBR) surveillance satellite are derived. The main characteristics examined and compared were terminal voltage (average and transient) and capacity through discharge, equivalent series resistance, derived inductance and capacitance, charge return efficiency, and inter-pulse charge effectiveness.

  19. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  20. Development of Passive Fuel Cell Thermal Management Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA Exploration program. The passive thermal management system relies on heat conduction within highly thermally conductive cooling plates to move the heat from the central portion of the cell stack out to the edges of the fuel cell stack. Using the passive approach eliminates the need for a coolant pump and other cooling loop components within the fuel cell system which reduces mass and improves overall system reliability. Previous development demonstrated the performance of suitable highly thermally conductive cooling plates that could conduct the heat, provide a sufficiently uniform temperature heat sink for each cell of the fuel cell stack, and be substantially lighter than the conventional thermal management approach. Tests were run with different materials to evaluate the design approach to a heat exchanger that could interface with the edges of the passive cooling plates. Measurements were made during fuel cell operation to determine the temperature of individual cooling plates and also to determine the temperature uniformity from one cooling plate to another.

  1. Primary zinc-air batteries for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Bourland, Deborah S.; Merry, Glenn; Putt, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Prismatic HR and LC cells and batteries were built and tested, and they performed well with respect to the program goals of high capacity and high rate capability at specific energies. The HR batteries suffered reduced utilizations owing to dryout at the 2 and 3 A rates for the 50 C tests owing to the requirement for forced convection. The LC batteries suffered reduced utilizations under all conditions owing to the chimney effect at 1 G, although this effect would not occur at 0 G. An empirical model was developed which accurately predicted utilizations and average voltages for single cells, although thermal effects encountered during battery testing caused significant deviations, both positive and negative, from the model. Based on the encouraging results of the test program, we believe that the zinc-air primary battery of a flat, stackable configuration can serve as a high performance and safe power source for a range of space applications.

  2. A study of advanced magnesium-based hydride and development of a metal hydride thermal battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengshang

    Metal hydrides are a group of important materials known as energy carriers for renewable energy and thermal energy storage. A concept of thermal battery based on advanced metal hydrides is studied for heating and cooling of cabins in electric vehicles. The system utilizes a pair of thermodynamically matched metal hydrides as energy storage media. The hot hydride that is identified and developed is catalyzed MgH2 due to its high energy density and enhanced kinetics. TiV0.62Mn1.5, TiMn2, and LaNi5 alloys are selected as the matching cold hydride. A systematic experimental survey is carried out in this study to compare a wide range of additives including transitions metals, transition metal oxides, hydrides, intermetallic compounds, and carbon materials, with respect to their effects on dehydrogenation properties of MgH2. The results show that additives such as Ti and V-based metals, hydride, and certain intermetallic compounds have strong catalytic effects. Solid solution alloys of magnesium are exploited as a way to destabilize magnesium hydride thermodynamically. Various elements are alloyed with magnesium to form solid solutions, including indium and aluminum. Thermodynamic properties of the reactions between the magnesium solid solution alloys and hydrogen are investigated, showing that all the solid solution alloys that are investigated in this work have higher equilibrium hydrogen pressures than that of pure magnesium. Cyclic stability of catalyzed MgH2 is characterized and analyzed using a PCT Sievert-type apparatus. Three systems, including MgH2-TiH 2, MgH2-TiMn2, and MgH2-VTiCr, are examined. The hydrogenating and dehydrogenating kinetics at 300°C are stable after 100 cycles. However, the low temperature (25°C to 150°C) hydrogenation kinetics suffer a severe degradation during hydrogen cycling. Further experiments confirm that the low temperature kinetic degradation can be mainly related the extended hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reactions. Proof

  3. From lithium to sodium: cell chemistry of room temperature sodium–air and sodium–sulfur batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Adelhelm

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research devoted to room temperature lithium–sulfur (Li/S8 and lithium–oxygen (Li/O2 batteries has significantly increased over the past ten years. The race to develop such cell systems is mainly motivated by the very high theoretical energy density and the abundance of sulfur and oxygen. The cell chemistry, however, is complex, and progress toward practical device development remains hampered by some fundamental key issues, which are currently being tackled by numerous approaches. Quite surprisingly, not much is known about the analogous sodium-based battery systems, although the already commercialized, high-temperature Na/S8 and Na/NiCl2 batteries suggest that a rechargeable battery based on sodium is feasible on a large scale. Moreover, the natural abundance of sodium is an attractive benefit for the development of batteries based on low cost components. This review provides a summary of the state-of-the-art knowledge on lithium–sulfur and lithium–oxygen batteries and a direct comparison with the analogous sodium systems. The general properties, major benefits and challenges, recent strategies for performance improvements and general guidelines for further development are summarized and critically discussed. In general, the substitution of lithium for sodium has a strong impact on the overall properties of the cell reaction and differences in ion transport, phase stability, electrode potential, energy density, etc. can be thus expected. Whether these differences will benefit a more reversible cell chemistry is still an open question, but some of the first reports on room temperature Na/S8 and Na/O2 cells already show some exciting differences as compared to the established Li/S8 and Li/O2 systems.

  4. The Synthesis and Characterization of Ionic Liquids for Alkali-Metal Batteries and a Novel Electrolyte for Non-Humidified Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Telpriore G.

    This thesis focused on physicochemical and electrochemical projects directed towards two electrolyte types: 1) class of ionic liquids serving as electrolytes in the catholyte for alkali-metal ion conduction in batteries and 2) gel membrane for proton conduction in fuel cells; where overall aims were encouraged by the U.S. Department of Energy. Large-scale, sodium-ion batteries are seen as global solutions to providing undisrupted electricity from sustainable, but power-fluctuating, energy production in the near future. Foreseen ideal advantages are lower cost without sacrifice of desired high-energy densities relative to present lithium-ion and lead-acid battery systems. Na/NiCl2 (ZEBRA) and Na/S battery chemistries, suffer from high operation temperature (>300ºC) and safety concerns following major fires consequent of fuel mixing after cell-separator rupturing. Initial interest was utilizing low-melting organic ionic liquid, [EMI+][AlCl 4-], with well-known molten salt, NaAlCl4, to create a low-to-moderate operating temperature version of ZEBRA batteries; which have been subject of prior sodium battery research spanning decades. Isothermal conductivities of these electrolytes revealed a fundamental kinetic problem arisen from "alkali cation-trapping effect" yet relived by heat-ramping >140ºC. Battery testing based on [EMI+][FeCl4 -] with NaAlCl4 functioned exceptional (range 150-180ºC) at an impressive energy efficiency >96%. Newly prepared inorganic ionic liquid, [PBr4+][Al2Br7-]:NaAl2Br 7, melted at 94ºC. NaAl2Br7 exhibited super-ionic conductivity 10-1.75 Scm-1 at 62ºC ensued by solid-state rotator phase transition. Also improved thermal stability when tested to 265ºC and less expensive chemical synthesis. [PBr4 +][Al2Br7-] demonstrated remarkable, ionic decoupling in the liquid-state due to incomplete bromide-ion transfer depicted in NMR measurements. Fuel cells are electrochemical devices generating electrical energy reacting hydrogen/oxygen gases

  5. A lumped model of venting during thermal runaway in a cylindrical lithium cobalt oxide lithium-ion cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Rayman, Sean; White, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model built for analyzing the intricate thermal behavior of a 18650 LCO (Lithium Cobalt Oxide) battery cell during thermal runaway when venting of the electrolyte and contents of the jelly roll (ejecta) is considered. The model consists of different ODEs (Ordinary......, Christoph Stangl, Gisela Fauler, Gernot Voitice Alexander Thaler and Viktor Hacker, RSC Advances, 4:3633–3642, 2014] for two cases - with flow and without flow. The results show that if the isentropic flow equations are not included in the model, the thermal runaway is triggered prematurely at the point...... where venting should occur. This shows that the heat dissipation due to ejection of electrolyte and jelly roll contents has a significant contribution. When the flow equations are included, the model shows good agreement with the experiment and therefore proving the importance of including venting....

  6. A battery-fuel cell hybrid auxiliary power unit for trucks: Analysis of direct and indirect hybrid configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krupp, Carsten; Baltzer, Sidney; Gnörich, Bruno; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A battery-fuel cell hybrid auxiliary power unit for heavy duty vehicles is reported. • Comparison of direct and indirect hybrids using representative load profiles. • Evaluation based on validated fuel cell system and battery models. • Indirect hybrid with constant fuel cell load yields 29.3% hybrid system efficiency. • Fuel cell should be pre-heated using waste heat from the diesel engine during drive. - Abstract: The idling operation of engines in heavy duty vehicles to cover electricity demand during layovers entails significant fuel consumption and corresponding emissions. Indeed, this mode of operation is highly inefficient and a noteworthy contributor to the transportation sector’s aggregate carbon dioxide emissions. Here, a potential solution to this wasteful practice is outlined in the form of a hybrid battery-fuel cell system for application as an auxiliary power unit for trucks. Drawing on experimentally-validated fuel cell and battery models, several possible hybrid concepts are evaluated and direct and indirect hybrid configurations analyzed using a representative load profile. The results indicate that a direct hybrid configuration is only applicable if the load demand profile does not deviate strongly from the assumed profile. Operation of an indirect hybrid with a constant fuel cell load yields the greatest hybrid system efficiency, at 29.3%, while battery size could be reduced by 87% if the fuel cell is operated at the highest dynamics. Maximum efficiency in truck applications can be achieved by pre-heating the system prior to operation using exhaust heat from the motor, which increased system efficiency from 25.3% to 28.1%, including start-up. These findings confirm that hybrid systems could offer enormous fuel savings and constitute a sizeable step on the path toward energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly heavy duty vehicles that does not necessitate a fuel switch.

  7. Battery Monitoring and Charging System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thivierge, Daniel P

    2007-01-01

    A battery monitoring device for a battery having cells grouped in modules. The device includes a monitoring circuit for each module which monitors the voltage in each cell and the overall module voltage...

  8. Optimizing Battery Usage and Management for Long Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-16

    This presentation discusses the impact of system design factors on battery aging and end of life. Topics include sizing of the state-of-charge operating window, cell balancing, and thermal management systems and their value in reducing pack degradation rates and cell imbalance growth over lifetime.

  9. Optimizing Battery Usage and Management for Long Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-16

    This presentation discusses the impact of system design factors on battery aging and end of life. Topics include sizing of the SOC operating window, cell balancing and thermal management systems and their value in reducing pack degradation rates and cell imbalance growth over lifetime.

  10. The Battle between Battery and Fuel Cell Powered Electric Vehicles: A BWM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geerten van de Kaa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The transition to a more sustainable personal transportation sector requires the widespread adoption of electric vehicles. However, a dominant design has not yet emerged and a standards battle is being fought between battery and hydrogen fuel cell powered electric vehicles. The aim of this paper is to analyze which factors are most likely to influence the outcome of this battle, thereby reducing the uncertainty in the industry regarding investment decisions in either of these technologies. We examine the relevant factors for standard dominance and apply a multi-criteria decision-making method, best worst method, to determine the relative importance of these factors. The results indicate that the key factors include technological superiority, compatibility, and brand reputation and credibility. Our findings show that battery powered electric vehicles have a greater chance of winning the standards battle. This study contributes to theory by providing further empirical evidence that the outcome of standards battles can be explained and predicted by applying factors for standard success. We conclude that technology dominance in the automotive industry is mostly driven by technological characteristics and characteristics of the format supporter.

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Nickel Hydrogen Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullion, R.; Gu, W. B.; Wang, C. Y.; Timmerman, P.

    2000-01-01

    An electrochemical Ni-H2 battery model has been expanded to include thermal effects. A thermal energy conservation equation was derived from first principles. An electrochemical and thermal coupled model was created by the addition of this equation to an existing multiphase, electrochemical model. Charging at various rates was investigated and the results validated against experimental data. Reaction currents, pressure changes, temperature profiles, and concentration variations within the cell are predicted numerically and compared with available data and theory.

  12. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention. PMID:24958177

  13. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skyllas-Kazacos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention.

  14. Cell design concepts for aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries: A model-based assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grübl, Daniel; Bessler, Wolfgang G.

    2015-11-01

    Seven cell design concepts for aqueous (alkaline) lithium-oxygen batteries are investigated using a multi-physics continuum model for predicting cell behavior and performance in terms of the specific energy and specific power. Two different silver-based cathode designs (a gas diffusion electrode and a flooded cathode) and three different separator designs (a porous separator, a stirred separator chamber, and a redox-flow separator) are compared. Cathode and separator thicknesses are varied over a wide range (50 μm-20 mm) in order to identify optimum configurations. All designs show a considerable capacity-rate effect due to spatiotemporally inhomogeneous precipitation of solid discharge product LiOH·H2O. In addition, a cell design with flooded cathode and redox-flow separator including oxygen uptake within the external tank is suggested. For this design, the model predicts specific power up to 33 W/kg and specific energy up to 570 Wh/kg (gravimetric values of discharged cell including all cell components and catholyte except housing and piping).

  15. Effect of thermotolerance on thermal radiosensitization in hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Rijn, J.; van den Berg, J.; Schamhart, D.H.J.; van Wijk, R.

    1984-01-01

    The interaction between hyperthermia and X irradiation was determined in cultured Reuber H35 hepatoma cells with different states of thermosensitivity. Incubation at 41 0 C followed by 4-Gy X rays resulted after 2 hr in a stabilization of cell survival for heat or heat plus X rays, with a maximum synergism factor of 1.6. Thermotolerance did not develop during incubation at 41.7 or 42.5 0 C. When heat treatment of cells was followed by irradiation, the synergism factor for thermal radiosensitization increased with both the amount of thermal cell killing and the amount of X-ray cell killing; the influence of thermal exposure on the synergism factor was greater than that of the X-ray dose. Cells were made thermotolerant either by incubation at 42.5 0 C for 30 or 60 min followed by an interval at 37 0 C, or by continuous incubation at 41 0 C. In both cases thermotolerance was measured by incubation at 42.5 0 C. No difference was observed between the maximum thermotolerance achieved with both methods. When cells were irradiated in addition to the second heat treatment, thermal radiosensitization was strongly reduced concomitant with the decreased sensitivity to killing by heat

  16. Active cooling of microvascular composites for battery packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pety, Stephen J.; Chia, Patrick X. L.; Carrington, Stephen M.; White, Scott R.

    2017-10-01

    Batteries in electric vehicles (EVs) require a packaging system that provides both thermal regulation and crash protection. A novel packaging scheme is presented that uses active cooling of microvascular carbon fiber reinforced composites to accomplish this multifunctional objective. Microvascular carbon fiber/epoxy composite panels were fabricated and their cooling performance assessed over a range of thermal loads and experimental conditions. Tests were performed for different values of coolant flow rate, channel spacing, panel thermal conductivity, and applied heat flux. More efficient cooling occurs when the coolant flow rate is increased, channel spacing is reduced, and thermal conductivity of the host composite is increased. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were also performed and correlate well with the experimental data. CFD simulations of a typical EV battery pack confirm that microvascular composite panels can adequately cool battery cells generating 500 W m-2 heat flux below 40 °C.

  17. Overcurrent Abuse of Primary Prismatic Zinc–Air Battery Cells Studying Air Supply Effects on Performance and Safety Shut-Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Larsson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overcurrent abuse has been performed on commercial 48 Ah primary prismatic zinc (Zn–Air battery cells with full air supply as well as with shut-off air supply. Compared to other battery technologies, e.g., lithium-ion batteries, metal–air batteries offer the possibility to physically stop the battery operation by stopping its air supply, thus offering an additional protection against severe battery damage in the case of, e.g., an accidental short circuit. This method may also reduce the electrical hazard in a larger battery system since, by stopping the air supply, the voltage can be brought to zero while maintaining the energy capacity of the battery. Measurements of overdischarge currents and current cut-off by suffocation have been performed to assess the safety of this type of Zn–air battery. The time to get to zero battery voltage is shown to mainly be determined by the volume of air trapped in the cell.

  18. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  19. Thermal aging of electrolytes used in lithium-ion batteries - An investigation of the impact of protic impurities and different housing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Patricia; Fauler, Gisela; Kapper, Katja; Schmuck, Martin; Stangl, Christoph; Fischer, Roland; Uhlig, Frank; Koller, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Thermal degradation products in lithium-ion batteries result mainly from hydrolysis sensitivity of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6). As organic carbonate solvents contain traces of protic impurities, the thermal decomposition of electrolytes is enhanced. Therefore, resulting degradation products are studied with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The electrolyte contains 1 M LiPF6 in a binary mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethylene carbonate (DEC) in a ratio of 1:2 (v/v) and is aged at ambient and elevated temperature. The impact of protic impurities, either added as deionized water or incorporated in positive electrode material, upon aging is investigated. Further, the influence of different housing materials on the electrolyte degradation is shown. Difluorophosphoric acid is identified as main decomposition product by NMR-spectroscopy. Traces of other decomposition products are determined by headspace GC-MS. Acid-base and coulometric titration are used to determine the total amount of acid and water content upon aging, respectively. The aim of this investigation is to achieve profound understanding about the thermal decomposition of one most common used electrolyte in a battery-like housing material.

  20. A thermal conductivity cell for small powdered samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, C. J.

    1971-01-01

    A thermal conductivity cell is described for making measurements of the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of small samples of powdered dielectric materials. The principle used is that of the line heat source. A novel way is described for applying this method so that much smaller samples than normal may be tested. This size requirement is necessary for investigations involving limited samples as does the Lunar Science Program. The method is checked by measuring the conductivity of standard samples and comparing the results with those found in the literature.

  1. Spectral splitting for thermal management in photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoleris, Harry; Chiou, Yu-Cheng; Chiesa, Matteo; Almansouri, Ibraheem

    2017-09-01

    Spectral splitting is widely employed as a way to divide light between different solar cells or processes to optimize energy conversion. Well-understood but less explored is the use of spectrum splitting or filtering to combat solar cell heating. This has impacts both on cell performance and on the surrounding environment. In this manuscript we explore the design of spectral filtering systems that can improve the thermal and power-conversion performance of commercial PV modules.

  2. New innovative materials for advanced electrochemical applications in battery and fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voß, S.; Kollmann, H.; Kollmann, W.

    The advanced material POLYMET is an innovative high tech polymer with a three-dimensional polymeric structure metallized with an enclosing coating of different kinds of metals or alloys. The result is a range of tailor-made, microporous structures on a designable scale. By varying the metals and alloys, it is possible to draw upon extremely diverse areas of applications such as battery systems, fuel cells, filters or efficient catalysts as well as air regeneration systems, e.g. in aerospace. The three-dimensional structure of metallized high tech woven or non-woven materials or foams causes a lot of advantages such as high conductivity, high corrosion resistance, flexibility or mechanical strength. Therefore, POLYMET is suitable for, e.g. current collectors or gas diffusion layers in energy storage systems. They supply an economic and environmental alternative material to improve functional electrochemical systems.

  3. Current status of hybrid, battery and fuel cell electric vehicles: From electrochemistry to market prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollet, Bruno G.; Staffell, Iain; Shang, Jin Lei

    2012-01-01

    Decarbonising transport is proving to be one of today's major challenges for the global automotive industry due to many factors such as the increase in greenhouse gas and particulate emissions affecting not only the climate but also humans, the increase in pollution, rapid oil depletion, issues with energy security and dependency from foreign sources and population growth. For more than a century, our society has been dependent upon oil, and major breakthroughs in low- and ultra-low carbon technologies and vehicles are urgently required. This review paper highlights the current status of hybrid, battery and fuel cell electric vehicles from an electrochemical and market point of view. The review paper also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using each technology in the automotive industry and the impact of these technologies on consumers.

  4. Test series 1: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Gould NCX-2250 battery cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonzon, L. L.; Hente, D. B.; Kukreti, B. M.; Schendel, J. S.; Tulk, J. D.; Janis, W. J.; Black, D A; Paulsen, G. D.; Aucoin, B. D.

    1984-09-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged, nuclear station, safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds; and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the end-of-life of a battery, given a seismic event. This report covers the first test series of an extensive program using 12-year old, lead-calcium, Gould NCX-2250 cells, from the James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Station operated by the New York Power Authority. Seismic tests with three cell configurations were performed using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; multi-cell (three) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack; and single-cell tests specifically aimed towards examining propagation of pre-existing case cracks. In general the test philosophy was to monitor the electrical properties including discharge capacity of cells through a graduated series of g-level step increases until either the shake-table limits were reached or until electrical failure of the cells occurred. Of nine electrically active cells, six failed during seismic testing over a range of imposed g-level loads in excess of a 1-g ZPA. Post-test examination revealed a common failure mode, the cracking at the abnormally brittle, positive lead bus-bar/post interface; further examination showed that the failure zone was extremely coarse grained and extensively corroded. Presently accepted accelerated-aging methods for qualifying batteries, per IEEE Std. 535-1979, are based on plate growth, but these naturally-aged 12-year old cells showed no significant plate growth.

  5. Key challenges and recent progress in batteries, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage for clean energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk, Steven G.; Miller, James F.

    Reducing or eliminating the dependency on petroleum of transportation systems is a major element of US energy research activities. Batteries are a key enabling technology for the development of clean, fuel-efficient vehicles and are key to making today's hybrid electric vehicles a success. Fuel cells are the key enabling technology for a future hydrogen economy and have the potential to revolutionize the way we power our nations, offering cleaner, more efficient alternatives to today's technology. Additionally fuel cells are significantly more energy efficient than combustion-based power generation technologies. Fuel cells are projected to have energy efficiency twice that of internal combustion engines. However before fuel cells can realize their potential, significant challenges remain. The two most important are cost and durability for both automotive and stationary applications. Recent electrocatalyst developments have shown that Pt alloy catalysts have increased activity and greater durability than Pt catalysts. The durability of conventional fluorocarbon membranes is improving, and hydrocarbon-based membranes have also shown promise of equaling the performance of fluorocarbon membranes at lower cost. Recent announcements have also provided indications that fuel cells can start from freezing conditions without significant deterioration. Hydrogen storage systems for vehicles are inadequate to meet customer driving range expectations (>300 miles or 500 km) without intrusion into vehicle cargo or passenger space. The United States Department of Energy has established three centers of Excellence for hydrogen storage materials development. The centers are focused on complex metal hydrides that can be regenerated onboard a vehicle, chemical hydrides that require off-board reprocessing, and carbon-based storage materials. Recent developments have shown progress toward the 2010 DOE targets. In addition DOE has established an independent storage material testing center

  6. Gas explosions and thermal runaways during external heating abuse of commercial lithium-ion graphite-LiCoO2 cells at different levels of ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Fredrik; Bertilsson, Simon; Furlani, Maurizio; Albinsson, Ingvar; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2018-01-01

    Commercial 6.8 Ah lithium-ion cells with different ageing/status have been abused by external heating in an oven. Prior to the abuse test, selected cells were aged either by C/2 cycling up to 300 cycles or stored at 60 °C. Gas emissions were measured by FTIR and three separate vents were identified, two well before the thermal runaway while the third occurred simultaneously with the thermal runaway releasing heavy smoke and gas. Emissions of toxic carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) were detected in the third vent, regardless if there was a fire or not. All abused cells went into thermal runaway and emitted smoke and gas, the working cells also released flames as well as sparks. The dead cells were however less reactive but still underwent thermal runaway. For about half of the working cells, for all levels of cycle ageing, ignition of the accumulated battery released gases occurred about 15 s after the thermal runaway resulting in a gas explosion. The thermal runaway temperature, about 190 °C, varied somewhat for the different cell ageing/status where a weak local minimum was found for cells cycled between 100 and 200 times.

  7. Modelling and design optimization of low speed fuel cell - battery hybrid electric vehicles. Paper no. IGEC-1-125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, M.; Dong, Z.

    2005-01-01

    A push for electric vehicles has occurred in the past several decades due to various concerns about air pollution and the contribution of emissions to global climate change. Although electric cars and buses have been the focus of much of electric vehicle development, smaller vehicles are used extensively for transportation and utility purposes in many countries. In order to explore the viability of fuel cell - battery hybrid electric vehicles, empirical fuel cell system data has been incorporated into the NREL's vehicle design and simulation tool, ADVISOR (ADvanced Vehicle SimulatOR), to predict the performance of a low-speed, fuel cell - battery electric vehicle through MATLAB Simulink. The modelling and simulation provide valuable feedback to the design optimization of the fuel cell power system. A sampling based optimization algorithm was used to explore the viability and options of a low cost design for urban use. (author)

  8. Active load current sharing in fuel cell and battery fed DC motor drive for electric vehicle application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pany, Premananda; Singh, R.K.; Tripathi, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Load current sharing in FC and battery fed dc drive. • Active current sharing control using LabVIEW. • Detail hardware implementation. • Controller performance is verified through MATLAB simulation and experimental results. - Abstract: In order to reduce the stress on fuel cell based hybrid source fed electric drive system the controller design is made through active current sharing (ACS) technique. The effectiveness of the proposed ACS technique is tested on a dc drive system fed from fuel cell and battery energy sources which enables both load current sharing and source power management. High efficiency and reliability of the hybrid system can be achieved by proper energy conversion and management of power to meet the load demand in terms of required voltage and current. To overcome the slow dynamics feature of FC, a battery bank of adequate power capacity has to be incorporated as FC voltage drops heavily during fast load demand. The controller allows fuel cell to operate in normal load region and draw the excess power from battery. In order to demonstrate the performance of the drive using ACS control strategy different modes of operation of the hybrid source with the static and dynamic behavior of the control system is verified through simulation and experimental results. This control scheme is implemented digitally in LabVIEW with PCI 6251 DAQ I/O interface card. The efficacy of the controller performance is demonstrated in system changing condition supplemented by experimental validation.

  9. New battery model considering thermal transport and partial charge stationary effects in photovoltaic off-grid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Gorrachategui, Iván; Bernal, Carlos; Oyarbide, Estanis; Garayalde, Erik; Aizpuru, Iosu; Canales, Jose María; Bono-Nuez, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    The optimization of the battery pack in an off-grid Photovoltaic application must consider the minimum sizing that assures the availability of the system under the worst environmental conditions. Thus, it is necessary to predict the evolution of the state of charge of the battery under incomplete daily charging and discharging processes and fluctuating temperatures over day-night cycles. Much of previous development work has been carried out in order to model the short term evolution of battery variables. Many works focus on the on-line parameter estimation of available charge, using standard or advanced estimators, but they are not focused on the development of a model with predictive capabilities. Moreover, normally stable environmental conditions and standard charge-discharge patterns are considered. As the actual cycle-patterns differ from the manufacturer's tests, batteries fail to perform as expected. This paper proposes a novel methodology to model these issues, with predictive capabilities to estimate the remaining charge in a battery after several solar cycles. A new non-linear state space model is proposed as a basis, and the methodology to feed and train the model is introduced. The new methodology is validated using experimental data, providing only 5% of error at higher temperatures than the nominal one.

  10. Cycle life test. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells. [performance tests on silver zinc batteries, silver cadmium batteries, and nickel cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Considerable research is being done to find more efficient and reliable means of starting electrical energy for orbiting satellites. Rechargeable cells offer one such means. A test program is described which has been established in order to further the evaluation of certain types of cells and to obtain performance and failure data as an aid to their continued improvement. The purpose of the program is to determine the cycling performance capabilities of packs of cells under different load and temperature conditions. The various kinds of cells tested were nickel-cadmium, silver-cadmium, and silver-zinc sealed cells. A summary of the results of the life cycling program is given in this report.

  11. Report on Lithium Ion Battery Trade Studies to Support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Kissock, Barbara I.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the results of two system related analyses to support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project. The first study documents a trade study to determine the optimum Li-ion battery cell capacity for the ascent stage battery for the Altair lunar lander being developed under the Constellation Systems program. The battery cell capacity for the Ultra High Energy (UHE) Li-ion battery initially chosen as the target for development was 35 A-hr; this study concludes that a 19.4 A-hr cell capacity would be more optimum from a minimum battery mass perspective. The second study in this report is an assessment of available low temperature Li-ion battery cell performance data to determine whether lowering the operating temperature range of the Li-ion battery, in a rover application, could save overall system mass by eliminating thermal control system mass normally needed to maintain battery temperature within a tighter temperature limit than electronics or other less temperature sensitive components. The preliminary assessment for this second study indicates that the reduction in the thermal control system mass is negated by an increase in battery mass to compensate for the loss in battery capacity due to lower temperature operating conditions.

  12. Heat exchange studies on coconut oil cells as thermal energy storage for room thermal conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutjahja, I. M.; Putri, Widya A.; Fahmi, Z.; Wonorahardjo, S.; Kurnia, D.

    2017-07-01

    As reported by many thermal environment experts, room air conditioning might be controlled by thermal mass system. In this paper we discuss the performance of coconut oil cells as room thermal energy storage. The heat exchange mechanism of coconut oil (CO) which is one of potential organic Phase Change Material (PCM) is studied based on the results of temperature measurements in the perimeter and core parts of cells. We found that the heat exchange performance, i.e. heat absorption and heat release processes of CO cells are dominated by heat conduction in the sensible solid from the higher temperature perimeter part to the lower temperature core part and heat convection during the solid-liquid phase transition and sensible liquid phase. The capability of heat absorption as measured by the reduction of air temperature is not influenced by CO cell size. Besides that, the application of CO as the thermal mass has to be accompanied by air circulation to get the cool sensation of the room’s occupants.

  13. Electrochemical performance and interfacial investigation on Si composite anode for lithium ion batteries in full cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobukawa, Hitoshi; Alvarado, Judith; Yang, Yangyuchen; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2017-08-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) containing silicon (Si) as a negative electrode have gained much attention recently because they deliver high energy density. However, the commercialization of LIBs with Si anode is limited due to the unstable electrochemical performance associated with expansion and contraction during electrochemical cycling. This study investigates the electrochemical performance and degradation mechanism of a full cell containing Si composite anode and LiFePO4 (lithium iron phosphate (LFP)) cathode. Enhanced electrochemical cycling performance is observed when the full cell is cycled with fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) additive compared to the standard electrolyte. To understand the improvement in the electrochemical performance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used. Based on the electrochemical behavior, FEC improves the reversibility of lithium ion diffusion into the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the Si composite anode. Moreover, XPS analysis demonstrates that the SEI composition generated from the addition of FEC consists of a large amount of LiF and less carbonate species, which leads to better capacity retention over 40 cycles. The effective SEI successively yields more stable capacity retention and enhances the reversibility of lithium ion diffusion through the interphase of the Si anode, even at higher discharge rate. This study contributes to a basic comprehension of electrochemical performance and SEI formation of LIB full cells with a high loading Si composite anode.

  14. Energy analysis of electric vehicles using batteries or fuel cells through well-to-wheel driving cycle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanari, Stefano; Manzolini, Giampaolo; Garcia de la Iglesia, Fernando

    This work presents a study of the energy and environmental balances for electric vehicles using batteries or fuel cells, through the methodology of the well to wheel (WTW) analysis, applied to ECE-EUDC driving cycle simulations. Well to wheel balances are carried out considering different scenarios for the primary energy supply. The fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) are based on the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) technology, and it is discussed the possibility to feed the fuel cell with (i) hydrogen directly stored onboard and generated separately by water hydrolysis (using renewable energy sources) or by conversion processes using coal or natural gas as primary energy source (through gasification or reforming), (ii) hydrogen generated onboard with a fuel processor fed by natural gas, ethanol, methanol or gasoline. The battery electric vehicles (BEV) are based on Li-ion batteries charged with electricity generated by central power stations, either based on renewable energy, coal, natural gas or reflecting the average EU power generation feedstock. A further alternative is considered: the integration of a small battery to FCEV, exploiting a hybrid solution that allows recovering energy during decelerations and substantially improves the system energy efficiency. After a preliminary WTW analysis carried out under nominal operating conditions, the work discusses the simulation of the vehicles energy consumption when following standardized ECE-EUDC driving cycle. The analysis is carried out considering different hypothesis about the vehicle driving range, the maximum speed requirements and the possibility to sustain more aggressive driving cycles. The analysis shows interesting conclusions, with best results achieved by BEVs only for very limited driving range requirements, while the fuel cell solutions yield best performances for more extended driving ranges where the battery weight becomes too high. Results are finally compared to those of conventional internal

  15. Charge retention test experiences on Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Dave E.; Driscoll, J. R.; Armantrout, J. D.; Baker, R. C.; Wajsgras, H.

    1993-02-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) nickel-hydrogen battery module was designed by Lockheed Missile & Space Co (LMSC) and manufactured by Eagle-Picher Ind. (EPI) for the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) for the nickel-cadmium batteries originally selected for this low earth orbit mission. The design features of the HST nickel hydrogen battery are described and the results of an extended charge retention test are summarized.

  16. Understanding the thermal instability of fluoroethylene carbonate in LiPF6-based electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Koeun; Park, Inbok; Ha, Se-Young; Kim, Yeonkyoung; Woo, Myung-Heuio; Jeong, Myung-Hwan; Shin, Woo Cheol; Ue, Makoto; Hong, Sung You; Choi, Nam-Soon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The FEC in LiPF 6 -based electrolytes thermally decomposes at elevated temperatures. • Lewis acids in the electrolyte promote de-fluorination of the FEC to form HF. • The HF causes the SEI destruction and severe metal ion dissolution from the cathode. - Abstract: The cycling and storage performances of LiCoO 2 (LCO)-LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 (NCM)/pitch-coated silicon alloy-graphite (Si-C) full cells with ethylene carbonate (EC)–based and fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC)–based electrolytes are investigated at elevated temperatures. Excess FEC (used as a co-solvent in LiPF 6 -based electrolytes), which is not completely consumed during the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on the electrodes, is prone to defluorination in the presence of Lewis acids such as PF 5 ; this reaction can generate unwanted HF and various acids (H 3 OPF 6 , HPO 2 F 2 , H 2 PO 3 F, H 3 PO 4 ) at elevated temperatures. Our investigation reveals that the HF and acid compounds that are formed by FEC decomposition causes significant dissolution of transition metal ions (from the LCO-NCM cathode) into the electrolyte at elevated temperatures; as a result, the reversible capacity of the full cells reduces because of the deposition of the dissolved metal ions onto the anode. Moreover, we demonstrate possible mechanisms that account for the thermal instability of FEC in LiPF 6 -based electrolytes at elevated temperatures using model experiments.

  17. Thermally regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell power cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehouse, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Two innovative thermodynamic power cycles are analytically examined for future engineering feasibility. The power cycles use a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell for electrical energy production and use the thermal dissociation of water for regeneration of the hydrogen and oxygen. The TDS (thermal dissociation system) uses a thermal energy input at over 2000 K to thermally dissociate the water. The other cycle, the HTE (high temperature electrolyzer) system, dissociates the water using an electrolyzer operating at high temperature (1300 K) which receives its electrical energy from the fuel cell. The primary advantages of these cycles is that they are basically a no moving parts system, thus having the potential for long life and high reliability, and they have the potential for high thermal efficiency. Both cycles are shown to be classical heat engines with ideal efficiency close to Carnot cycle efficiency. The feasibility of constructing actual cycles is investigated by examining process irreversibilities and device efficiencies for the two types of cycles. The results show that while the processes and devices of the 2000 K TDS exceed current technology limits, the high temperature electrolyzer system appears to be a state-of-the-art technology development. The requirements for very high electrolyzer and fuel cell efficiencies are seen as determining the feasbility of the HTE system, and these high efficiency devices are currently being developed. It is concluded that a proof-of-concept HTE system experiment can and should be conducted.

  18. Modeling thermal inkjet and cell printing process using modified pseudopotential and thermal lattice Boltzmann methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Salman; Liu, Yaling

    2018-03-01

    Pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) can simulate a phase transition in high-density ratio multiphase flow systems. If coupled with thermal LBMs through equation of state, they can be used to study instantaneous phase transition phenomena with a high-temperature gradient where only one set of formulations in an LBM system can handle liquid, vapor, phase transition, and heat transport. However, at lower temperatures an unrealistic spurious current at the interface introduces instability and limits its application in real flow system. In this study, we proposed new modifications to the LBM system to minimize a spurious current which enables us to study nucleation dynamic at room temperature. To demonstrate the capabilities of this approach, the thermal ejection process is modeled as one example of a complex flow system. In an inkjet printer, a thermal pulse instantly heats up the liquid in a microfluidic chamber and nucleates bubble vapor providing the pressure pulse necessary to eject droplets at high speed. Our modified method can present a more realistic model of the explosive vaporization process since it can also capture a high-temperature/density gradient at nucleation region. Thermal inkjet technology has been successfully applied for printing cells, but cells are susceptible to mechanical damage or death as they squeeze out of the nozzle head. To study cell deformation, a spring network model, representing cells, is connected to the LBM through the immersed boundary method. Looking into strain and stress distribution of a cell membrane at its most deformed state, it is found that a high stretching rate effectively increases the rupture tension. In other words, membrane deformation energy is released through creation of multiple smaller nanopores rather than big pores. Overall, concurrently simulating multiphase flow, phase transition, heat transfer, and cell deformation in one unified LB platform, we are able to provide a better insight into the

  19. NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca Solid-State High-Temperature Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; DelCastillo, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Experiments and theoretical study have demonstrated the promise of all-solid-state, high-temperature electrochemical battery cells based on NiF2 as the active cathode material, CaF2 doped with NaF as the electrolyte material, and Ca as the active anode material. These and other all-solid-state cells have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop batteries for instruments that must operate in environments much hotter than can be withstood by ordinary commercially available batteries. Batteries of this type are needed for exploration of Venus (where the mean surface temperature is about 450 C), and could be used on Earth for such applications as measuring physical and chemical conditions in geothermal wells and oil wells. All-solid-state high-temperature power cells are sought as alternatives to other high-temperature power cells based, variously, on molten anodes and cathodes or molten eutectic salt electrolytes. Among the all-solid-state predecessors of the present NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca cells are those described in "Solid-State High-Temperature Power Cells" (NPO-44396), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 5 (May 2008), page 40. In those cells, the active cathode material is FeS2, the electrolyte material is a crystalline solid solution of equimolar amounts of Li3PO4 and LiSiO4, and the active anode material is Li contained within an alloy that remains solid in the intended high operational temperature range.

  20. Heat loss distribution: Impedance and thermal loss analyses in LiFePO4/graphite 18650 electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasundaram, Manikandan; Ramar, Vishwanathan; Yap, Christopher; Lu, Li; Tay, Andrew A. O.; Palani, Balaya

    2016-10-01

    We report here thermal behaviour and various components of heat loss of 18650-type LiFePO4/graphite cell at different testing conditions. In this regard, the total heat generated during charging and discharging processes at various current rates (C) has been quantified in an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter experiment. Irreversible heat generation, which depends on applied current and internal cell resistance, is measured under corresponding charge/discharge conditions using intermittent pulse techniques. On the other hand, reversible heat generation which depends on entropy changes of the electrode materials during the cell reaction is measured from the determination of entropic coefficient at various states of charge/discharge. The contributions of irreversible and reversible heat generation to the total heat generation at both high and low current rates are evaluated. At every state of charge/discharge, the nature of the cell reaction is found to be either exothermic or endothermic which is especially evident at low C rates. In addition, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements are performed on above 18650 cells at various states of charge to determine the components of internal resistance. The findings from the impedance and thermal loss analysis are helpful for understanding the favourable states of charge/discharge for battery operation, and designing better thermal management systems.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of the superonic-based secondary battery cell Ag/RbAg4I5/RbI3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effendi Nurdin; Jahja, A.K.; Purnama, S.

    2000-01-01

    The solid electrolyte material silver based, RbAg 4 I 5 had been used as electrolyte in making a secondary rechargeable battery cell with silver (Ag) as the anode and rubidium tri-iodide (RbI 3 ) as the cathode.The charge-discharge characteristics measurements and the battery polarization in normal atmospheric pressure, at ambient temperature had been carried out. It can be deduced that the cell configuration Ag/RbAg 4I5/ RbI 3 has performed as a secondary battery. The cell performed well with current density up to 230 μA/cm 2

  2. Evaluation of battery converters based on 4. 8-MW fuel cell demonstrator inverter. Final report. [Contains brief glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Electrical power conditioning is a critical element in the development of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems. This program evaluates the use of existing self-commutated converter technology (as developed by the Power Systems Division of United Technologies for the 4.8-MW Fuel Cell Demonstrator) with modification for use in battery energy storage systems. The program consists of three parts: evaluation of the cost and performance of a self-commutated converter modified to maintain production commonality between battery and fuel cell power conditioners, demonstration of the principal characteristics required for the battery application in MW-scale hardware, and investigation of the technical requirements of operation isolated from the utility system. A power-conditioning system consisting of a self-commutated converter augmented with a phase-controlled rectifier was selected and a preliminary design, prepared. A principal factor in this selection was production commonality with the fuel cell inverter system. Additional types of augmentation, and the use of a self-commutated converter system without augmentation, were also considered. A survey of advanced battery manufacturers was used to establish the dc interface characteristics. The principal characteristics of self-commutated converter operation required for battery application were demonstrated with the aid of an available 0.5-MW development system. A survey of five REA and municipal utilities and three A and E firms was conducted to determine technical requirements for operation in a mode isolated from the utility. Definitive requirements for this application were not established because of the limited scope of this study. 63 figures, 37 tables.

  3. Further Cost Reduction of Battery Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Asif

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for batteries for energy storage is growing with the rapid increase in photovoltaics (PV and wind energy installation as well as electric vehicle (EV, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV. Electrochemical batteries have emerged as the preferred choice for most of the consumer product applications. Cost reduction of batteries will accelerate the growth in all of these sectors. Lithium-ion (Li-ion and solid-state batteries are showing promise through their downward price and upward performance trends. We may achieve further performance improvement and cost reduction for Li-ion and solid-state batteries through reduction of the variation in physical and electrical properties. These properties can be improved and made uniform by considering the electrical model of batteries and adopting novel manufacturing approaches. Using quantum-photo effect, the incorporation of ultra-violet (UV assisted photo-thermal processing can reduce metal surface roughness. Using in-situ measurements, advanced process control (APC can help ensure uniformity among the constituent electrochemical cells. Industrial internet of things (IIoT can streamline the production flow. In this article, we have examined the issue of electrochemical battery manufacturing of Li-ion and solid-state type from cell-level to battery-level process variability, and proposed potential areas where improvements in the manufacturing process can be made. By incorporating these practices in the manufacturing process we expect reduced cost of energy management system, improved reliability and yield gain with the net saving of manufacturing cost being at least 20%.

  4. Performance Testing of Lithium Li-ion Cells and Batteries in Support of JPL's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Surampudi, S.; Puglia, F.; Gitzendanner, R.

    2007-01-01

    In early 2004, JPL successfully landed two Rovers, named Spirit and Opportunity, on the surface of Mars after traveling > 300 million miles over a 6-7 month period. In order to operate for extended duration on the surface of Mars, both Rovers are equipped with rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries, which were designed to aid in the launch, correct anomalies during cruise, and support surface operations in conjunction with a triple-junction deployable solar arrays. The requirements of the Lithium-ion battery include the ability to provide power at least 90 sols on the surface of Mars, operate over a wide temperature range (-20(super 0)C to +40(super 0)C), withstand long storage periods (e.g., including pre-launch and cruise period), operate in an inverted position, and support high currents (e.g., firing pyro events). In order to determine the inability of meeting these requirements, ground testing was performed on a Rover Battery Assembly Unit RBAU), consisting of two 8-cell 8 Ah lithium-ion batteries connected in parallel. The RBAU upon which the performance testing was performed is nearly identical to the batteries incorporated into the two Rovers currently on Mars. The primary focus of this paper is to communicate the latest results regarding Mars surface operation mission simulation testing, as well as, the corresponding performance capacity loss and impedance characteristics as a function of temperature and life. As will be discussed, the lithium-ion batteries (fabricated by Yardney Technical Products, Inc.) have been demonstrated to far exceed the requirements defined by the mission, being able to support the operation of the rovers for over three years, and are projected to support an even further extended mission.

  5. Bipolar stacked quasi-all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries with output cell potentials of over 6 V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Takahiro; Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Yan; Honma, Itaru

    2014-08-15

    Designing a lithium ion battery (LIB) with a three-dimensional device structure is crucial for increasing the practical energy storage density by avoiding unnecessary supporting parts of the cell modules. Here, we describe the superior secondary battery performance of the bulk all-solid-state LIB cell and a multilayered stacked bipolar cell with doubled cell potential of 6.5 V, for the first time. The bipolar-type solid LIB cell runs its charge/discharge cycle over 200 times in a range of 0.1-1.0 C with negligible capacity decrease despite their doubled output cell potentials. This extremely high performance of the bipolar cell is a result of the superior battery performance of the single cell; the bulk all-solid-state cell has a charge/discharge cycle capability of over 1500 although metallic lithium and LiFePO₄ are employed as anodes and cathodes, respectively. The use of a quasi-solid electrolyte consisting of ionic liquid and Al₂O₃ nanoparticles is considered to be responsible for the high ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability at the interface between the electrodes and the electrolyte. This paper presents the effective applications of SiO₂, Al₂O₃, and CeO₂ nanoparticles and various Li(+) conducting ionic liquids for the quasi-solid electrolytes and reports the best ever known cycle performances. Moreover, the results of this study show that the bipolar stacked three-dimensional device structure would be a smart choice for future LIBs with higher cell energy density and output potential. In addition, our report presents the advantages of adopting a three-dimensional cell design based on the solid-state electrolytes, which is of particular interest in energy-device engineering for mobile applications.

  6. Bipolar stacked quasi-all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries with output cell potentials of over 6 V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Takahiro; Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Yan; Honma, Itaru

    2014-01-01

    Designing a lithium ion battery (LIB) with a three-dimensional device structure is crucial for increasing the practical energy storage density by avoiding unnecessary supporting parts of the cell modules. Here, we describe the superior secondary battery performance of the bulk all-solid-state LIB cell and a multilayered stacked bipolar cell with doubled cell potential of 6.5 V, for the first time. The bipolar-type solid LIB cell runs its charge/discharge cycle over 200 times in a range of 0.1–1.0 C with negligible capacity decrease despite their doubled output cell potentials. This extremely high performance of the bipolar cell is a result of the superior battery performance of the single cell; the bulk all-solid-state cell has a charge/discharge cycle capability of over 1500 although metallic lithium and LiFePO4 are employed as anodes and cathodes, respectively. The use of a quasi-solid electrolyte consisting of ionic liquid and Al2O3 nanoparticles is considered to be responsible for the high ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability at the interface between the electrodes and the electrolyte. This paper presents the effective applications of SiO2, Al2O3, and CeO2 nanoparticles and various Li+ conducting ionic liquids for the quasi-solid electrolytes and reports the best ever known cycle performances. Moreover, the results of this study show that the bipolar stacked three-dimensional device structure would be a smart choice for future LIBs with higher cell energy density and output potential. In addition, our report presents the advantages of adopting a three-dimensional cell design based on the solid-state electrolytes, which is of particular interest in energy-device engineering for mobile applications. PMID:25124398

  7. Optimization for a fuel cell/battery/capacity tram with equivalent consumption minimization strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenbin; Li, Jianqiu; Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The hybridization of the fuel cell with the energy storage systems is realized for the tram. • A protype tram is tested based on an operation mode switching method. • An equivalent consumption minimization strategy is proposed and verified for optimization. - Abstract: This paper describes a hybrid tram powered by a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) stack supported by an energy storage system (ESS) composed of a Li-ion battery (LB) pack and an ultra-capacitor (UC) pack. This configuration allows the tram to operate without grid connection. The hybrid tram with its full load is tested in the CRRC Qingdao Sifang Co.; Ltd. It firstly works on the operation mode switching method (OPMS) without energy regenerative and proper power management. Therefore, an equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) aimed at minimizing the hydrogen consumption is proposed to improve the characteristics of the tram. The results show that the proposed control system enhances drivability and economy, and is effective for application to this hybrid system.

  8. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can

  9. Assessment of Li/SOCl2 battery technology: Reserve, thin-cell design, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier-Boss, P. A.; Szpak, S.

    1990-06-01

    In choosing and developing a battery system, extensive research, i.e., computer modeling and electrochemistry experiments is required. The kinetics of chemical and electrochemical reactions determine the operational characteristics of a battery, including discharge rate capability and shelf storage life. This in turn affects power output. Battery design also affects battery output, i.e., distance between the bipolar plates, thickness of the electrodes and spacers, materials used, uniformity of electrolyte flow, etc. To maximize the performance of a battery system, therefore, one must do basic research ot identify the electrochemical and chemical process occurring within the battery. Too often this has not been done with the expected results. With regards to Li/SOCl2 battery development program described in Volume 1 of TR 1154, this volume contains a compilation of technical papers and is a continuation of Volume 2 of TR 1154. These papers have appeared in referred journals and books. In addition, abstracts of presentations given at meetings and a table of contents for the previous two volumes of TR 1154 are included. This work was performed as part of the Naval Ocean Systems Center Independent Exploratory Development program and constitutes a portion of a program whose goal is to establish a technology base for high-discharge rate Li/SOCl2 batteries.

  10. Surface properties and graphitization of polyacrylonitrile based fiber electrodes affecting the negative half-cell reaction in vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, J.; Bruns, M.; Dixon, D.; Nefedov, A.; Wöll, Ch.; Scheiba, F.; Ehrenberg, H.; Roth, C.; Melke, J.

    2016-07-01

    Carbon felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries are obtained by the graphitization of polyacrylonitrile based felts at different temperatures. Subsequently, the surface of the felts is modified via thermal oxidation at various temperatures. A single-cell experiment shows that the voltage efficiency is increased by this treatment. Electrode potentials measured with reference electrode setup show that this voltage efficiency increase is caused mainly by a reduction of the overpotential of the negative half-cell reaction. Consequently, this reaction is investigated further by cyclic voltammetry and the electrode activity is correlated with structural and surface chemical properties of the carbon fibers. By Raman, X-ray photoelectron and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy the role of edge sites and oxygen containing functional groups (OCFs) for the electrochemical activity are elucidated. A significant activity increase is observed in correlation with these two characteristics. The amount of OCFs is correlated with structural defects (e.g. edge sites) of the carbon fibers and therefore decreases with an increasing graphitization degree. Thus, for the same thermal oxidation temperature carbon fibers graphitized at a lower temperature show higher activities than those graphitized at a higher temperature.

  11. Experimental Investigation on the Internal Resistance of Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Cells during Calendar Ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    on the obtained laboratory results, an empirical ageing model was developed; the model is able to predict with accurately the increase of the internal resistance of Lithium-ion batteries during calendar (storage) ageing. Based on the proposed ageing model, it was found out that the internal resistance......Lithium-ion batteries are increasingly considered for a wide area of applications because of their superior characteristics in comparisons to other energy storage technologies. However, at present, Lithium-ion batteries are expensive storage devices and consequently their ageing behavior must...... be known in order to estimate their economic viability in different application. The ageing behavior of Lithium-ion batteries is described by the fade of their discharge capacity and by the decrease of their power capability. The capability of a Lithium-ion battery to deliver or to absorb a certain power...

  12. Performance Enhancement of Silicon Alloy-Based Anodes Using Thermally Treated Poly(amide imide) as a Polymer Binder for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwi Soo; Kim, Sang-Hyung; Kannan, Aravindaraj G; Kim, Seon Kyung; Park, Cheolho; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-04-05

    The development of silicon-based anodes with high capacity and good cycling stability for next-generation lithium-ion batteries is a very challenging task due to the large volume changes in the electrodes during repeated cycling, which results in capacity fading. In this work, we synthesized silicon alloy as an active anode material, which was composed of silicon nanoparticles embedded in Cu-Al-Fe matrix phases. Poly(amide imide)s, (PAI)s, with different thermal treatments were used as polymer binders in the silicon alloy-based electrodes. A systematic study demonstrated that the thermal treatment of the silicon alloy electrodes at high temperature made the electrodes mechanically strong and remarkably enhanced the cycling stability compared to electrodes without thermal treatment. The silicon alloy electrode thermally treated at 400 °C initially delivered a discharge capacity of 1084 mAh g(-1) with good capacity retention and high Coulombic efficiency. This superior cycling performance was attributed to the strong adhesion of the PAI binder resulting from enhanced secondary interactions, which maintained good electrical contacts between the active materials, electronic conductors, and current collector during cycling. These findings are supported by results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and a surface and interfacial cutting analysis system.

  13. Impact resistant battery enclosure systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo; Feng, Yuezhong; Chen, Weinong Wayne; Siegmund, Thomas Heinrich

    2017-10-31

    Battery enclosure arrangements for a vehicular battery system. The arrangements, capable of impact resistance include plurality of battery cells and a plurality of kinetic energy absorbing elements. The arrangements further include a frame configured to encase the plurality of the kinetic energy absorbing elements and the battery cells. In some arrangements the frame and/or the kinetic energy absorbing elements can be made of topologically interlocked materials.

  14. Experimental investigation on the dynamic performance of a hybrid PEM fuel cell/battery system for lightweight electric vehicle application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yong; Yuan, Wei; Pan, Minqiang; Wan, Zhenping

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid system combining a 2 kW air-blowing proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack and a lead-acid battery pack is developed for a lightweight cruising vehicle. The dynamic performances of this PEMFC system with and without the assistance of the batteries are systematically investigated in a series of laboratory and road tests. The stack current and voltage have timely dynamic responses to the load variations. Particularly, the current overshoot and voltage undershoot both happen during the step-up load tests. These phenomena are closely related to the charge double-layer effect and the mass transfer mechanisms such as the water and gas transport and distribution in the fuel cell. When the external load is beyond the range of the fuel cell system, the battery immediately participates in power output with a higher transient discharging current especially in the accelerating and climbing processes. The DC-DC converter exhibits a satisfying performance in adaptive modulation. It helps rectify the voltage output in a rigid manner and prevent the fuel cell system from being overloaded. The dynamic responses of other operating parameters such as the anodic operating pressure and the inlet and outlet temperatures are also investigated. The results show that such a hybrid system is able to dynamically satisfy the vehicular power demand.

  15. Linear thermal expansion coefficient measurement technology in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dae Gyu; Choo, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Lee, K. S.

    1998-06-01

    To establish linear thermal expansion coefficient measurement technology in hot cell, we reviewed and evaluated various measuring technology by paper and these were compared with the data produced with pre-installed dilatometer in hot cell. Detailed contents are as follows; - The theory of test. - Review of characteristics for various measurement technology and compatibility with hot cell. - Review of standard testing regulations(ASTM). - System calibration of pre-installed dilatometer. - Performance test of pre-installed dilatometer. (author). 12 refs., 15 tabs., 8 figs

  16. Powering Small Satellites with Advanced NiH2 Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Dwight; Fox, Chris; Miller, Lee

    1996-01-01

    The Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) design is being developed by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. (EPI), as a spacecraft battery for both large and small, military and commercial satellites. The DPV cell design offers high specific energy, energy density and reduced cost, while retaining the established IPV technology flight heritage and database. This advanced design also offers a more efficient mechanical, electrical and thermal cell and battery configuration and a reduc...

  17. Dynamic thermal model of photovoltaic cell illuminated by laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Hua, Wenshen; Guo, Tong

    2015-07-01

    Photovoltaic cell is one of the most important components of laser powered unmanned aerial vehicle. Illuminated by high power laser beam, photovoltaic cell temperature increases significantly, which leads to efficiency drop, or even physical damage. To avoid such situation, the temperature of photovoltaic cell must be predicted precisely. A dynamic thermal model of photovoltaic cell is established in this paper, and the relationships between photovoltaic cell temperature and laser power, wind speed, ambient temperature are also analyzed. Simulation result indicates that illuminated by a laser beam, the temperature of photovoltaic cell rises gradually and reach to a constant maximum value. There is an approximately linear rise in photovoltaic cell temperature as the laser flux gets higher. The higher wind speed is, the stronger forced convection is, and then the lower photovoltaic cell temperature is. But the relationship between photovoltaic cell temperature and wind speed is not linear. Photovoltaic cell temperature is proportional to the ambient temperature. For each increase of 1 degree of ambient temperature, there is approximate 1 degree increase in photovoltaic cell temperature. The result will provide fundamentals to take reasonable measures to control photovoltaic cell temperature.

  18. Off-grid hybrid electric power supply system, using a combination of solar cells, small scale wind turbine and batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeter, W.

    1994-03-01

    The design of an off-grid electric power supply system consisting of a small scale wind turbine, a combination of solar cells and batteries is described. The robust, small scale FC 4000 wind turbine, which needs little maintenance, can be used under varying climatic conditions. It is equipped with a permanent-magnet generator with an output of 1.5 kW. The generator`s rotor is directly coupled with the wind turbine`s rotor and is without a gearbox, so the frequency and output varies according to wind speed. The 12 m{sup 2} solar cell system consists of round modules embedded in glass and with an efficiency of 13%. The lead acid batteries are used when power consumption exceeds production and store energy for future use. Further adjustments are necessary in order to optimize the performance of this hybrid system. (AB)

  19. Investigation of low-cost oligoanthraquinones for alkaline, aqueous rechargeable batteries with cell potential up to 1.13 V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dražević, Emil; Andersen, Anders Søndergaard; Wedege, Kristina; Henriksen, Martin Lahn; Hinge, Mogens; Bentien, Anders

    2018-03-01

    The transition to renewable energy sources has created need for stationary, low-cost electrical energy storage. A possible technology to address both cost and environmental concerns are batteries based on organic materials. The use of oligoanthraquinones as a replacement for metal hydrides or cadmium in nickel hydroxide rechargeable batteries is investigated in detail regarding polymer composition, electrochemical reversibility and electroactive species cost. Two different oligoanthraquinones are paired with a nickel hydroxide cathode and demonstrate cycling stability dependent on parameters such as supporting electrolyte strength, C-rate, and anode swelling. The energy efficiencies are up to 75% and the cell potential up to 1.13 V. Simple functionalization of the basic structure increases the cell potential by 100 mV.

  20. Battery equalization active methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  1. Multi-Electrode Resistivity Probe for Investigation of Local Temperature Inside Metal Shell Battery Cells via Resistivity: Experiments and Evaluation of Electrical Resistance Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Current (DC electrical resistivity is a material property that is sensitive to temperature changes. In this paper, the relationship between resistivity and local temperature inside steel shell battery cells (two commercial 10 Ah and 4.5 Ah lithium-ion cells is innovatively studied by Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT. The Schlumberger configuration in ERT is applied to divide the cell body into several blocks distributed in different levels, where the apparent resistivities are measured by multi-electrode surface probes. The investigated temperature ranges from −20 to 80 °C. Experimental results have shown that the resistivities mainly depend on temperature changes in each block of the two cells used and the function of the resistivity and temperature can be fitted to the ERT-measurement results in the logistical-plot. Subsequently, the dependence of resistivity on the state of charge (SOC is investigated, and the SOC range of 70%–100% has a remarkable impact on the resistivity at low temperatures. The proposed approach under a thermal cool down regime is demonstrated to monitor the local transient temperature.

  2. Towards Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Herstedt, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Surface film formation at the electrode/electrolyte interface in lithium-ion batteries has a crucial impact on battery performance and safety. This thesis describes the characterisation and treatment of electrode interfaces in lithium-ion batteries. The focus is on interface modification to improve battery safety, in particular to enhance the onset temperature for thermally activated reactions, which also can have a negative influence on battery performance. Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) ...

  3. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, Brett L. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  4. Energy Management Strategy for a Fuel Cell/ Ultracapasitor/ Battery Hybrid System for Portable Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Afiqah Abd Hamid; Ros Emilia Rosli; Edy Herianto Majlan; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Ramizi Mohamed; Ramli Sitanggang

    2016-01-01

    A proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FCs) with ultracapacitor (UC) and battery (BT) hybrid system has fast transient response compare to stand alone FCs. This hybrid system is promising candidates for environmentally friendly alternative energy sources. An energy management system design and control strategy was introduced in this study. The energy management strategy FC/ UC/ BT hybrid system model has been developed and the control strategy was programmed in the LabVIEWTM environment and implemented using National Instrument (NI) devices. The energy management strategy is able to manage the energy flow between the main power source (FCs) and auxiliary sources (UC and BT). To control the hybrid system and achieved proper performance, a controller circuit was developed with the three energy sources aligned in parallel to deliver the requested power. The developed model demonstrates the proportion power from the FC, UC and BT under various load demand. Experimental results demonstrate that FC/ UC/ BT hybrid system operated automatically with the varying load condition. The experimental results are presented; showing that the proposed strategy utilized the characteristic of both energy storage devices thus satisfies the load requirement. (author)

  5. X-ray Raman spectroscopy of lithium-ion battery electrolyte solutions in a flow cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketenoglu, Didem; Spiekermann, Georg; Harder, Manuel; Oz, Erdinc; Koz, Cevriye; Yagci, Mehmet C; Yilmaz, Eda; Yin, Zhong; Sahle, Christoph J; Detlefs, Blanka; Yavaş, Hasan

    2018-03-01

    The effects of varying LiPF 6 salt concentration and the presence of lithium bis(oxalate)borate additive on the electronic structure of commonly used lithium-ion battery electrolyte solvents (ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate and propylene carbonate) have been investigated. X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy (a non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering method) was utilized together with a closed-circle flow cell. Carbon and oxygen K-edges provide characteristic information on the electronic structure of the electrolyte solutions, which are sensitive to local chemistry. Higher Li + ion concentration in the solvent manifests itself as a blue-shift of both the π* feature in the carbon edge and the carbonyl π* feature in the oxygen edge. While these oxygen K-edge results agree with previous soft X-ray absorption studies on LiBF 4 salt concentration in propylene carbonate, carbon K-edge spectra reveal a shift in energy, which can be explained with differing ionic conductivities of the electrolyte solutions.

  6. Fuel cells, batteries and super-capacitors stand-alone power systems management using optimal/flatness based-control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaouadj, M.; Aboubou, A.; Ayad, M. Y.; Bahri, M.; Boucetta, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, an optimal control (under constraints) based on the Pontryagin's maximum principle is used to optimally manage energy flows in a basic PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cells system associated to lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors through a common DC bus having a voltage to stabilize using the differential flatness approach. The adaptation of voltage levels between different sources and load is ensured by use of three DC-DC converters, one boost connected to the PEM fuel cells, while the two others are buck/boost and connected to the lithiumion batteries and supercapacitors. The aim of this paper is to develop an energy management strategy that is able to satisfy the following objectives: - Impose the power requested by a habitat (representing the load) according to a proposed daily consumption profile, - Keep fuel cells working at optimal power delivery conditions, - Maintain constant voltage across the common DC bus, - Stabilize the batteries voltage and stored quantity of charge at desired values given by the optimal control.Results obtained under MATLAB/Simulink environment prove that the cited objectives are satisfied, validating then, effectiveness and complementarity between the optimal and flatness concepts proposed for energy management. Note that this study is currently in experimentally validation within MSE Laboratory.

  7. Fuel cells, batteries and super-capacitors stand-alone power systems management using optimal/flatness based-control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benaouadj, M.; Aboubou, A.; Bahri, M.; Boucetta, A.; Ayad, M. Y.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, an optimal control (under constraints) based on the Pontryagin’s maximum principle is used to optimally manage energy flows in a basic PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cells system associated to lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors through a common DC bus having a voltage to stabilize using the differential flatness approach. The adaptation of voltage levels between different sources and load is ensured by use of three DC-DC converters, one boost connected to the PEM fuel cells, while the two others are buck/boost and connected to the lithiumion batteries and supercapacitors. The aim of this paper is to develop an energy management strategy that is able to satisfy the following objectives: Impose the power requested by a habitat (representing the load) according to a proposed daily consumption profile, Keep fuel cells working at optimal power delivery conditions, Maintain constant voltage across the common DC bus, Stabilize the batteries voltage and stored quantity of charge at desired values given by the optimal control. Results obtained under MATLAB/Simulink environment prove that the cited objectives are satisfied, validating then, effectiveness and complementarity between the optimal and flatness concepts proposed for energy management. Note that this study is currently in experimentally validation within MSE Laboratory.

  8. Fuel cells, batteries and super-capacitors stand-alone power systems management using optimal/flatness based-control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benaouadj, M.; Aboubou, A.; Bahri, M.; Boucetta, A. [MSE Laboratory, Mohamed khiderBiskra University (Algeria); Ayad, M. Y., E-mail: ayadmy@gmail.com [R& D, Industrial Hybrid Vehicle Applications (France)

    2016-07-25

    In this work, an optimal control (under constraints) based on the Pontryagin’s maximum principle is used to optimally manage energy flows in a basic PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cells system associated to lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors through a common DC bus having a voltage to stabilize using the differential flatness approach. The adaptation of voltage levels between different sources and load is ensured by use of three DC-DC converters, one boost connected to the PEM fuel cells, while the two others are buck/boost and connected to the lithiumion batteries and supercapacitors. The aim of this paper is to develop an energy management strategy that is able to satisfy the following objectives: Impose the power requested by a habitat (representing the load) according to a proposed daily consumption profile, Keep fuel cells working at optimal power delivery conditions, Maintain constant voltage across the common DC bus, Stabilize the batteries voltage and stored quantity of charge at desired values given by the optimal control. Results obtained under MATLAB/Simulink environment prove that the cited objectives are satisfied, validating then, effectiveness and complementarity between the optimal and flatness concepts proposed for energy management. Note that this study is currently in experimentally validation within MSE Laboratory.

  9. Optimal/flatness based-control of stand-alone power systems using fuel cells, batteries and supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Benaouadj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an optimal control (under constraints based on the Pontryagin’s maximum principle is used to optimally manage energy flows in a basic PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells system associated to lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors through a common DC bus having a voltage to stabilize using the differential flatness approach. The adaptation of voltage levels between different sources and load is ensured by use of three DCDC converters, one boost connected to the PEM fuel cells, while the two others are buck/boost and connected to the lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors. The aim of this paper is to develop an energy management strategy that is able to satisfy the following objectives: - Impose the power requested by a habitat (representing the load according to a proposed daily consumption profile, - Keep fuel cells working at optimal power delivery conditions, - Maintain constant voltage across the common DC bus, - Stabilize the batteries voltage and stored quantity of charge at desired values given by the optimal control. Results obtained under MATLAB/Simulink environment prove that the cited objectives are satisfied, validating then, effectiveness and complementarity between the optimal and flatness concepts proposed for energy management. Note that this study is currently in experimentally validation within MSE Laboratory.

  10. PEM fuel cells thermal and water management fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yun; Cho, Sung Chan

    2014-01-01

    Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells convert chemical energy in hydrogen into electrical energy with water as the only by-product. Thus, PEM fuel cells hold great promise to reduce both pollutant emissions and dependency on fossil fuels, especially for transportation-passenger cars, utility vehicles, and buses-and small-scale stationary and portable power generators. But one of the greatest challenges to realizing the high efficiency and zero emissions potential of PEM fuel cells technology is heat and water management. This book provides an introduction to the essential concepts for effective thermal and water management in PEM fuel cells and an assessment on the current status of fundamental research in this field. The book offers you: An overview of current energy and environmental challenges and their imperatives for the development of renewable energy resources, including discussion of the role of PEM fuel cells in addressing these issues; Reviews of basic principles pertaining to PEM fuel cel...

  11. Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC Lithium-Ion 18,650 Battery Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Hooper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle (EV manufacturers are employing cylindrical format cells in the construction of the vehicles’ battery systems. There is evidence to suggest that both the academic and industrial communities have evaluated cell degradation due to vibration and other forms of mechanical loading. The primary motivation is often the need to satisfy the minimum requirements for safety certification. However, there is limited research that quantifies the durability of the battery and in particular, how the cells will be affected by vibration that is representative of a typical automotive service life (e.g., 100,000 miles. This paper presents a study to determine the durability of commercially available 18,650 cells and quantifies both the electrical and mechanical vibration-induced degradation through measuring changes in cell capacity, impedance and natural frequency. The impact of the cell state of charge (SOC and in-pack orientation is also evaluated. Experimental results are presented which clearly show that the performance of 18,650 cells can be affected by vibration profiles which are representative of a typical vehicle life. Consequently, it is recommended that EV manufacturers undertake vibration testing, as part of their technology selection and development activities to enhance the quality of EVs and to minimize the risk of in-service warranty claims.

  12. Computing Battery Lifetime Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloth, L.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Jongerden, M.R.

    The usage of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  13. Maximizing System Lifetime by Battery Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Bohnenkamp, H.C.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries over the load to exploit recovery properties usually extends the system lifetime. Straightforward scheduling schemes, like round robin or choosing the best battery available, already provide a big improvement compared to a sequential discharge of the batteries. ...

  14. Performance Testing of Yardney Li-Ion Cells and Batteries in Support of JPL's 2009 Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, M.C.; Ratnakumar, B.V.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Dewell, E. A.; Jones, L. E.; Salvo, C. G.; Puglia, F. J.; Cohen, S.; Gitzendanner, R.

    2008-01-01

    In 2009, JPL is planning to launch an unmanned rover mission to the planet Mars. This mission, referred to as the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), will involve the use of a rover that is much larger than the previously developed Spirit and Opportunity Rovers for the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, that are currently still in operation on the surface of the planet after more than three years. Part of the reason that the MER rovers have operated so successfully, far exceeding the required mission duration of 90 sols, is that they possess robust Li-ion batteries, manufactured by Yardney Technical Products, which have demonstrated excellent life characteristics. Given the excellent performance characteristics displayed, similar lithium-ion batteries have been projected to successfully meet the mission requirements of the up-coming MSL mission. Although comparable in many facets, such as being required to operate over a wide temperature range (-20 to 40 C), the MSL mission has more demanding performance requirements compared to the MER mission, including much longer mission duration (approx. 687 sols vs. 90 sols), higher power capability, and the need to withstand higher temperature excursions. In addition, due to the larger rover size, the MSL mission necessitates the use of a much larger battery to meet the energy, life, and power requirements. In order to determine the viability of meeting these requirements, a number of performance verification tests were performed on 10 Ah Yardney lithium-ion cells (MER design) under MSL-relevant conditions, including mission surface operation simulation testing. In addition, the performance of on-going ground life testing of 10 Ah MER cells and 8-cell batteries will be discussed in the context of capacity loss and impedance growth predictions.

  15. A Multi-Component Additive to Improve the Thermal Stability of Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-Based Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the safety of lithium ion batteries, a multi-component (MC additive (consisting of vinylene carbonate (VC, 1,3-propylene sulfite (PS and dimethylacetamide (DMAC is used in the baseline electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6/ethylene carbonate (EC + diethyl carbonate (DEC. The electrolyte with the MC additive is named safety electrolyte. The thermal stabilities of fully charged Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM mixed with the baseline electrolyte and safety electrolyte, respectively, are investigated using a C80 micro-calorimeter. The electrochemical performances of the NCM/baseline electrolyte/Li and NCM/safety electrolyte/Li half cells are evaluated using galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and alternating current (AC impedance. The experimental results demonstrate that the fully charged NCM-safety electrolyte system releases less heat and reduces the main sharp exothermic peak value to a great extent, with a reduction of 40.6%. Moreover, the electrochemical performances of NCM/safety electrolyte/Li half cells are not worse, and are almost as good as that of the NCM/baseline electrolyte/Li half cells.

  16. Influence of thermal-decomposition temperatures on structures and properties of V2O5 as cathode materials for lithium ion battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Submicron spherical V2O5 particles with a uniform size and a lower crystallinity were successfully synthesized by a chemical precipitation-thermal decomposition technique using the commercial V2O5 powders as starting material. The crystal structure and grain morphology of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Electrochemical testing such as discharge–charge cycling (CD and cyclic voltammetry (CV were employed in evaluating their electrochemical properties as cathode materials for lithium ion battery. Results reveal that the crystallinity and crystalline size of V2O5 particles increased when the thermal-decomposition temperature increased from 400 °C to 500 °C, and their adhesiveness was also synchronously increased. This indicate that the thermal-decomposition temperature palyed a significant influence on electrochemical properties of V2O5 cathodes. The V2O5 sample obtained at 400 °C delivered not only a high initial discharge capacity of 330 mA h g−1 and also the good cycle stability during 50 cycles due to its higher values of α in crystal structure and better dispersity in grain morphology.

  17. Development of a Novel Scanning Thermal Microscopy (SThM) Method to Measure the Thermal Conductivity of Biological Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Kouichi; Kogure, Akinori; Kuwana, Ritsuko; Takamatsu, Hiromu; Ito, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

     Differences in the physical properties of individual cells cannot be evaluated with conventional experimental methods that are used to study groups of cells obtained from pure cultures. To examine the differences in the thermal tolerance of individual cells that are genetically identical, a method is needed to measure the thermal energy required to kill single cells. We developed a scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) system and measured the thermal conductivity of various bacterial cells, for example, spore formeing Bacillus genus and non spore-forming bacteria such as Escherichia coli. The thermal conductivity of vegetative cells (0.61 to 0.75 W/m・K) was found to be higher than that of spores (0.29 to 0.45 W/m・K). Furthermore the newly developed method enables us to estimate the thermal energy needed to kill individual cells or spores. We believe that this method can estimate the thermal energy required to achieve the cell for sterilization by heating.

  18. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  19. Lithium Battery Safety/Cell-to-Cell Failure Project FY14 Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-06

    DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 6. AUTHOR(S) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10...testing and certification. Higher-level models that predict different aspects of platform impact, e.g. fire spread [13,14] and structural damage [15...fabricated using alternating layers of non-conductive mica and stainless steel shim, mimicking the construction of a real cell which consists of layers of

  20. Hybrid electric system based on fuel cell and battery and integrating a single dc/dc converter for a tramway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Luis M.; Garcia, Pablo; Garcia, Carlos Andres; Jurado, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. → Hybrid system based on PEM fuel cell with dc/dc converter and Ni-MH battery. → New control strategy for the energy management of the tramway. → Hybrid system demonstrated to meet appropriate driving cycle of the tramway. -- Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. The hybrid system consists of two electrical energy sources integrating a single dc/dc converter to provide the power demanded by the tramway loads (four electric traction motors and auxiliary services): (1) a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) as the primary and (2) a rechargeable Ni-MH battery as electrical energy storage to supplement the FC over the driving cycle. According to the requirements of the real driving cycle of the tramway, it was considered a 200 kW PEM FC system with two FCs connected in parallel and a 34 Ah Ni-MH battery. The PEM FC and Ni-MH battery models were designed from commercially available components. The power conditioning system provides the appropriate power for the tramway. It is composed of: (1) a unique dc/dc boot converter which adapts the FC output voltage to the 750 V traction standard dc bus; (2) three phase inverters to drive properly each electric motors; and (3) a braking chopper to dissipate excess of regenerative braking energy. Suitable state machine control architecture is presented for the hybrid system, its objective being to provide demanded power by the driving cycle, optimizing the energy generated. Following this objective, a new state machine control strategy based on eight states decides the operating point of each component of the system and a cascade control structure allows achieving the operating points determined by the strategy. Simulation results of the real driving cycle of the tramway check the adequacy of the hybrid electric power system.

  1. Crash Models for Advanced Automotive Batteries: A Review of the Current State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Allu, Srikanth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gorti, Sarma B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kalnaus, Sergiy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kumar, Abhishek [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pannala, Sreekanth [Saudi Arabia Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), Houston, TX (United States); Simunovic, Srdjan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Slattery, Stuart R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hsin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Safety is a critical aspect of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery design. Impact/crash conditions can trigger a complex interplay of mechanical contact, heat generation and electrical discharge, which can result in adverse thermal events. The cause of these thermal events has been linked to internal contact between the opposite electrodes, i.e. internal short circuit. The severity of the outcome is influenced by the configuration of the internal short circuit and the battery state. Different loading conditions and battery states may lead to micro (soft) shorts where material burnout due to generated heat eliminates contact between the electrodes, or persistent (hard) shorts which can lead to more significant thermal events and potentially damage the entire battery system and beyond. Experimental characterization of individual battery components for the onset of internal shorts is limited, since it is impractical to canvas all possible variations in battery state of charge, operating conditions, and impact loading in a timely manner. This report provides a survey of modeling and simulation approaches and documents a project initiated and funded by DOT/NHTSA to improve modeling and simulation capabilities in order to design tests that provide leading indicators of failure in batteries. In this project, ORNL has demonstrated a computational infrastructure to conduct impact simulations of Li-ion batteries using models that resolve internal structures and electro-thermo-chemical and mechanical conditions. Initial comparisons to abuse experiments on cells and cell strings conducted at ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) at Carderock MD for parameter estimation and model validation have been performed. This research has provided insight into the mechanisms of deformation in batteries (both at cell and electrode level) and their relationship to the safety of batteries.

  2. Techno-economic and behavioural analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offer, G.J.; Contestabile, M.; Howey, D.A.; Clague, R.; Brandon, N.P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper conducts a techno-economic study on hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCV), Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and hydrogen Fuel Cell plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) in the UK using cost predictions for 2030. The study includes an analysis of data on distance currently travelled by private car users daily in the UK. Results show that there may be diminishing economic returns for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) with battery sizes above 20 kWh, and the optimum size for a PHEV battery is between 5 and 15 kWh. Differences in behaviour as a function of vehicle size are demonstrated, which decreases the percentage of miles that can be economically driven using electricity for a larger vehicle. Decreasing carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation by 80% favours larger optimum battery sizes as long as carbon is priced, and will reduce emissions considerably. However, the model does not take into account reductions in carbon dioxide emissions from hydrogen generation, assuming hydrogen will still be produced from steam reforming methane in 2030. - Research highlights: → Report diminishing returns for plug-in hybrids with battery sizes above 20 kWh. → The optimum size for a PHEV battery is between 5 and 15 kWh. → Current behaviour decreases percentage electric only miles for larger vehicles. → Low carbon electricity favours larger battery sizes as long as carbon is priced. → Reinforces that the FCHEV is a cheaper option than conventional ICE vehicles in 2030.

  3. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, Richard E., E-mail: richard.e.lyon@faa.gov; Walters, Richard N.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • First measure of anaerobic failure energy of lithium ion batteries. • Novel and simple bomb calorimeter method developed and demonstrated. • Four different cathode chemistries examined. • Full range of charged capacity used as independent variable. • Failure energy identified as primary safety hazard. - Abstract: The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔH{sub f}, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential × charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔU{sub rxn}. The contribution of E and ΔU{sub rxn} to ΔH{sub f} was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells.

  4. Thermal stress analysis of sulfur deactivated solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shumao; Parbey, Joseph; Yu, Guangsen; Xu, Min; Li, Tingshuai; Andersson, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide in fuels can deactivate catalyst for solid oxide fuel cells, which has become one of the most critical challenges to stability. The reactions between sulfur and catalyst will cause phase changes, leading to increase in cell polarization and mechanical mismatch. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach based on the finite element method (FEM) is thus used to investigate the polarization, temperature and thermal stress in a sulfur deactivated SOFC by coupling equations for gas-phase species, heat, momentum, ion and electron transport. The results indicate that sulfur in fuels can strongly affect the cell polarization and thermal stresses, which shows a sharp decrease in the vicinity of electrolyte when 10% nickel in the functional layer is poisoned, but they remain almost unchanged even when the poisoned Ni content was increased to 90%. This investigation is helpful to deeply understand the sulfur poisoning effects and also benefit the material design and optimization of electrode structure to enhance cell performance and lifetimes in various hydrocarbon fuels containing impurities.

  5. Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Simulation of Lithium-Ion Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Zhang, Chao; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Models capture the force response for single-cell and cell-string levels to within 15%-20% accuracy and predict the location for the origin of failure based on the deformation data from the experiments. At the module level, there is some discrepancy due to poor mechanical characterization of the packaging material between the cells. The thermal response (location and value of maximum temperature) agrees qualitatively with experimental data. In general, the X-plane results agree with model predictions to within 20% (pending faulty thermocouples, etc.); the Z-plane results show a bigger variability both between the models and test-results, as well as among multiple repeats of the tests. The models are able to capture the timing and sequence in voltage drop observed in the multi-cell experiments; the shapes of the current and temperature profiles need more work to better characterize propagation. The cells within packaging experience about 60% less force under identical impact test conditions, so the packaging on the test articles is robust. However, under slow-crush simulations, the maximum deformation of the cell strings with packaging is about twice that of cell strings without packaging.

  6. Attainable gravimetric and volumetric energy density of Li-S and li ion battery cells with solid separator-protected Li metal anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Bryan D

    2015-11-19

    As a result of sulfur's high electrochemical capacity (1675 mA h/gs), lithium-sulfur batteries have received significant attention as a potential high-specific-energy alternative to current state-of-the-art rechargeable Li ion batteries. For Li-S batteries to compete with commercially available Li ion batteries, high-capacity anodes, such as those that use Li metal, will need to be enabled to fully exploit sulfur's high capacity. The development of Li metal anodes has focused on eliminating Coulombically inefficient and dendritic Li cycling, and to this end, an interesting direction of research is to protect Li metal by employing mechanically stiff solid-state Li(+) conductors, such as garnet phase Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO), NASICON-type Li1+xAlxTi2-x(PO4)3 (LATP), and Li2S-P2S5 glasses (LPS), as electrode separators. Basic calculations are used to quantify useful targets for solid Li metal protective separator thickness and cost to enable Li metal batteries in general and Li-S batteries specifically. Furthermore, maximum electrolyte-to-sulfur ratios that allow Li-S batteries to compete with Li ion batteries are calculated. The results presented here suggest that controlling the complex polysulfide speciation chemistry in Li-S cells with realistic, minimal electrolyte loading presents a meaningful opportunity to develop Li-S batteries that are competitive on a specific energy basis with current state-of-the-art Li ion batteries.

  7. Analysis of cell performance and thermal regeneration of a lithium-tin cell having an immobilized fused-salt electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, E. J.; Shimotake, H.

    1969-01-01

    Cell performance and thermal regeneration of a thermally regenerative cell uses lithium and tin and a fused-salt electrolyte. The emf of the Li-Sn cell, as a function of cathode-alloy composition, is shown to resemble that of the Na-Bi cell.

  8. Research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated in a test-bed bus. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-30

    This project, the research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated into test-bed buses, began as a multi-phase U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project in 1989. Phase I had a goal of developing two competing half-scale (25 kW) brassboard phosphoric acid fuel cell systems. An air-cooled and a liquid-cooled fuel cell system were developed and tested to verify the concept of using a fuel cell and a battery in a hybrid configuration wherein the fuel cell supplies the average power required for operating the vehicle and a battery supplies the `surge` or excess power required for acceleration and hill-climbing. Work done in Phase I determined that the liquid-cooled system offered higher efficiency.

  9. FY14 Milestone: Simulated Impacts of Life-Like Fast Charging on BEV Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Burton, Evan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Smith, Kandler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Pesaran, Ahmad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center

    2014-09-01

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that results could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported NREL's development of BLAST-V 'the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles' to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. The authors present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. The primary challenge for BEV batteries operated in the presence of fast charging is controlling maximum battery temperature, which can be achieved with active battery cooling systems.

  10. Extending the endurance, missions and capabilities of most UAVS using advanced flexible/ridged solar cells and new high power density batteries technology

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Chee Keen.

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The extension of flight time for military miniature unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been demonstrated through the implementation of thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) cells. Currently, most electric mini-UAVs are powered by high energy density lithium-ion or lithium polymer batteries; however, the flight endurance is usually limited between 60 to 90 minutes before requiring a forced recovery to replace exhausted batteries. In this ...

  11. Development of an Experimental Testbed for Research in Lithium-Ion Battery Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ferdowsi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced electrochemical batteries are becoming an integral part of a wide range of applications from household and commercial to smart grid, transportation, and aerospace applications. Among different battery technologies, lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries are growing more and more popular due to their high energy density, high galvanic potential, low self-discharge, low weight, and the fact that they have almost no memory effect. However, one of the main obstacles facing the widespread commercialization of Li-ion batteries is the design of reliable battery management systems (BMSs. An efficient BMS ensures electrical safety during operation, while increasing battery lifetime, capacity and thermal stability. Despite the need for extensive research in this field, the majority of research conducted on Li-ion battery packs and BMS are proprietary works conducted by manufacturers. The available literature, however, provides either general descriptions or detailed analysis of individual components of the battery system, and ignores addressing details of the overall system development. This paper addresses the development of an experimental research testbed for studying Li-ion batteries and their BMS design. The testbed can be configured in a variety of cell and pack architectures, allowing for a wide range of BMS monitoring, diagnostics, and control technologies to be tested and analyzed. General considerations that should be taken into account while designing Li-ion battery systems are reviewed and different technologies and challenges commonly encountered in Li-ion battery systems are investigated. This testbed facilitates future development of more practical and improved BMS technologies with the aim of increasing the safety, reliability, and efficiency of existing Li-ion battery systems. Experimental results of initial tests performed on the system are used to demonstrate some of the capabilities of the developed research testbed. To the authors

  12. Computing Optimal Schedules of Battery Usage in Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Mereacre, Alexandru; Bohnenkamp, H.C.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries or battery cells over the load to exploit the recovery

  13. A Cell-to-Cell Battery Equalizer With Zero-Current Switching and Zero-Voltage Gap Based on Quasi-Resonant LC Converter and Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Yunlong; Zhang, Chenghui; Cui, Naxin

    2015-01-01

    In conventional equalizers, the facts of bulky size and high cost are widespread. Particularly, the zero switching loss and zero-voltage gap (ZVG) between cells are difficult to implement due to the high-frequency hard switching and the voltage drop across power devices. To overcome...... these difficulties, an innovative direct cell-to-cell battery equalizer based on quasi-resonant LC converter (QRLCC) and boost DC-DC converter (BDDC) is proposed. The QRLCC is employed to gain zero-current switching (ZCS), leading to a reduction of power losses. The BDDC is employed to enhance the equalization...

  14. Maximizing System Lifetime by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Bohnenkamp, H.C.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries over the load to exploit recovery properties usually extends the

  15. CRADA final report: Technical assessment of roll-to-roll operation of lamination process, thermal treatment, and alternative carbon fiber precursors for low-cost, high-efficiency manufacturing of flow battery stacks and other energy devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Claus [ORNL; Madden, Thomas [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Wood III, David L [ORNL; Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Warrington, Curtis [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL; Manson, Hunter [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tekinalp, Halil L [ORNL; Smith, Mark A [ORNL; Lu, Yuan [ORNL; Loretz, Jeremy [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2015-09-23

    Among the various stationary-storage technologies under development, redox flow batteries (RFBs) offer the greatest potential to deliver inexpensive, scalable, and efficient grid-scale electrical-energy storage. Unlike traditional sealed batteries, in a flow battery power and energy are decoupled. Cell area and cell count in the stack determine the device power, and the chemical storage volume determines the total energy. Grid-scale energy-storage applications require megawatt-scale devices, which require the assembly of hundreds of large-area, bipolar cells per power plant. The cell-stack is the single system component with the largest impact on capital cost (due to the large number of highly engineered components) and operating costs (determined by overall round-trip efficiency).

  16. Evaluation of Palm PCRTM G1-12 System: a portable battery-operated PCR thermal cycler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aminah Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the basis of recombinant and other molecular biological techniques. Availability of cheap and robust PCR platforms enables the tests to be performed easily, even in resource constrained settings. Herein we compared the efficacy of a portable thermal cycler ( Palm PCRTM G1-12 System for rapid DNA amplification against the standard Peltier-based thermal cycler using plasmid DNA and genomic DNA in single and multiplex PCR experiments. Our study revealed that the Palm PCRTM G1-12 System could be a portable DNA amplification system to conduct various molecular techniques, especially in places where resources are limited.

  17. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Larry K. W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  18. Battery venting system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Thomas J.; Ching, Larry K. W.; Baer, Jose T.; Swan, David H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  19. Partition-based Unscented Kalman Filter for Reconfigurable Battery Pack State Estimation using an Electrochemical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Luis D.; Kinnaert, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Accurate state estimation of large-scale lithium-ion battery packs is necessary for the advanced control of batteries, which could potentially increase their lifetime through e.g. reconfiguration. To tackle this problem, an enhanced reduced-order electrochemical model is used here. This model allows considering a wider operating range and thermal coupling between cells, the latter turning out to be significant. The resulting nonlinear model is exploited for state estimation through unscented ...

  20. A Cell-to-Cell Equalizer Based on Three-Resonant-State Switched-Capacitor Converters for Series-Connected Battery Strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Shang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low cost, small size, and ease of control, the switched-capacitor (SC battery equalizers are promising among active balancing methods. However, it is difficult to achieve the full cell equalization for the SC equalizers due to the inevitable voltage drops across Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET switches. Moreover, when the voltage gap among cells is larger, the balancing efficiency is lower, while the balancing speed becomes slower as the voltage gap gets smaller. In order to soften these downsides, this paper proposes a cell-to-cell battery equalization topology with zero-current switching (ZCS and zero-voltage gap (ZVG among cells based on three-resonant-state SC converters. Based on the conventional inductor-capacitor (LC converter, an additional resonant path is built to release the charge of the capacitor into the inductor in each switching cycle, which lays the foundations for obtaining ZVG among cells, improves the balancing efficiency at a large voltage gap, and increases the balancing speed at a small voltage gap. A four-lithium-ion-cell prototype is applied to validate the theoretical analysis. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed topology has good equalization performances with fast equalization, ZCS, and ZVG among cells.

  1. Battery system with temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  2. Effective Thermal Conductivity of High Porosity Open Cell Nickel Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullins, Alan D.; Daryabeigi, Kamran

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal conductivity of high-porosity open cell nickel foam samples was measured over a wide range of temperatures and pressures using a standard steady-state technique. The samples, measuring 23.8 mm, 18.7 mm, and 13.6 mm in thickness, were constructed with layers of 1.7 mm thick foam with a porosity of 0.968. Tests were conducted with the specimens subjected to temperature differences of 100 to 1000 K across the thickness and at environmental pressures of 10(exp -4) to 750 mm Hg. All test were conducted in a gaseous nitrogen environment. A one-dimensional finite volume numerical model was developed to model combined radiation/conduction heat transfer in the foam. The radiation heat transfer was modeled using the two-flux approximation. Solid and gas conduction were modeled using standard techniques for high porosity media. A parameter estimation technique was used in conjunction with the measured and predicted thermal conductivities at pressures of 10(exp -4) and 750 mm Hg to determine the extinction coefficient, albedo of scattering, and weighting factors for modeling the conduction thermal conductivity. The measured and predicted conductivities over the intermediate pressure values differed by 13%.

  3. Lithium thionyl chloride batteries: Small cells are great. Lithium-Thionylchlorid-Batterien: Kleine Zelle ganz gross

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, T. (Sonnenschein, Buedingen (Germany))

    This is a report on the new development of a Li/SOCl[sub 2] battery series from the firm of Sonnenschein at Buedingen (Germany) with a supply voltage of 3.6 V and rated capacities of 1.1 - 19 Ah. While retaining the previous design, the period of operation has been extended to 8 to 10 years. (MM)

  4. Secondary Batteries: Lead Acid Battery Thermal Runaway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Catherino, Henry A

    2007-01-01

    .... Although it is a fact that this recombination reaction is exothermic, the first law of thermodynamics mandates that the net enthalpy of the closed cycle oxygen recombination process is exactly zero...

  5. Digital Simulation of Closed Loop Zvs-Zcs Bidirectional Dc-Dc Converter for Fuel Cell and Battery Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Subrahmanya Kumar Bhajana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A closed loop ZVS-ZCS bidirectional dc-dc converter is modeled and appropriate digital simulations are provided. With the ZVS-ZCS concept, the MATLAB simulation results of application to a fuel cell and battery application have been obtained whenever the input voltage exceeds the given 24V, at that time the load voltage will change from 180V to 230V. But due to this usage the load is disturbed and there is instability in the model. Using closed loop the output voltage is stabilized.

  6. Self-assembled nitrogen-doped fullerenes and their catalysis for fuel cell and rechargeable metal-air battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seung Hyo; Kwon, Choah; Hwang, Jeemin; Ohsaka, Takeo; Kim, Beom-Jun; Kim, Tae-Young; Yoon, Young-Gi; Chen, Zhongwei; Seo, Min Ho; Han, Byungchan

    2017-06-08

    In this study, we report self-assembled nitrogen-doped fullerenes (N-fullerene) as non-precious catalysts, which are active for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and thus applicable for energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells and metal-air battery systems. We screen the best N-fullerene catalyst at the nitrogen doping level of 10 at%, not at the previously known doping level of 5 or 20 at% for graphene. We identify that the compressive surface strain induced by doped nitrogen plays a key role in the fine-tuning of catalytic activity.

  7. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-03-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  8. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, P.M. (Alliant Techsystems, Inc., Power Sources Center, Horsham, PA (United States))

    1993-03-15

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thinoyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings (>40%) over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, (CoPC)[sub n], into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Finally, the results of testing a complete prototype battery are described in detail. (orig.)

  9. Research Progress of Preparation Methods of Graphene Nanocomposites for Low-Temperature Fuel Cells and Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of its unique two-dimensional structure, huge specific surface area, high electrical conductivity, and other excellent performances, graphene has shown great potential for application in catalysis, electronics, sensors, energy storage, and other areas. Especially, graphene nanocomposites have been found to be promising catalyst support for low-temperature fuel cells, and as anode nanomaterials for high reversible capacity and excellent rate capability for lithium-ion batteries, which has triggered a new round of research hotspot. Preparation methods of graphene nanocomposites mainly for low-temperature fuel cells are reviewed. Particularly, the research progress and principles of physical preparation methods (molecular beam epitaxy, chemical preparation methods (chemical reduction, electrochemical deposition and hydrothermal/solvothermal methods, etc. and high-energy ball milling are summarized. Research outlook of graphene nanocomposites for low-temperature fuel cells are prospected.

  10. Design and Realization of a Smart Battery Management System

    OpenAIRE

    C. Chen; K.L. Man; T.O. Ting; Chi-Un Lei; T. Krilavicius; T.T. Jeong; J.K. Seon; Sheng-Uei Guan; Prudence W.H. Wong

    2012-01-01

    Battery management system (BMS) emerges a decisive system component in battery-powered applications, such as (hybrid) electric vehicles and portable devices. However, due to the inaccurate parameter estimation of aged battery cells and multi-cell batteries, current BMSs cannot control batteries optimally, and therefore affect the usability of products. In this paper, we proposed a smart management system for multi-cell batteries, and discussed the development of our research study in three di...

  11. Dynamic NMR studies of polymer electrolyte materials for application to lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalfan, Amish N.

    This dissertation investigates the structural and dynamical properties of polymer electrolyte materials for applications to lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique was used to characterize these materials. NMR aids in understanding the local environments of nuclei and the mobility of a molecular/ionic species. Five research projects were carried out, and they have been outlined in this work. NASA has developed rod-coil block copolymers for use as electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. The copolymers exhibit a microphase separation within their structure leading to the formation of ionically conducting channels. We studied ion transport properties of the copolymers, and determined the predominant mechanism for transport to occur in the amorphous phase. Seven gel polymer electrolytes, each containing a mixture of LiBETI salt and organic solvents, were studied. Two of them incorporated BMI (1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) ionic liquid. Ionic liquids are room temperature molten salts. BMI had been thought to enhance ion mobility. However, the BMI component was observed to restrict ion mobility. Gel polymer electrolytes containing LiTFSI salt and P13TFSI ionic liquid with or without the inclusion of ethylene carbonate (EC) were studied for application to lithium metal/air batteries, which have high theoretical energy densities. The addition of EC was found to improve lithium ion transport. The gels with EC therefore prove to be favorable for use as electrolytes in lithium metal/air batteries. Highly sulfonated poly(arylenethioethersulfone) (SPTES) membranes were examined for use in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) as an alternative to the Nafion membrane. DMFCs use methanol as a fuel instead of reformed hydrogen as in conventional proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Compared to Nafion, the SPTES membranes were shown to retain water better at high temperatures and yield lower methanol diffusion. SPTES membranes with the

  12. Joint Battery Industry Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-31

    company, Yardney Technical Products, is a potential supplier of lithium systems to the military but, to date, has not produced any batteries . The...small,3 single pimary cell batteries used in commercial electoic devices. Yardney Technical Products, Inc. and BST Systems are the North Americ-m...primary reserve silver zinc batteries , there are three main suppliers - Yardney , Whittaker, and Eagle-Picher. Commercial primary silver zinc cells are

  13. Improving the Performance Attributes of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Hot Climates through Key-Off Battery Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Shojaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambient conditions can have a significant impact on the average and maximum temperature of the battery of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Given the sensitivity of the ageing mechanisms of typical battery cells to temperature, a significant variability in battery lifetime has been reported with geographical location. In addition, high battery temperature and the associated cooling requirements can cause poor passenger thermal comfort, while extreme battery temperatures can negatively impact the power output of the battery, limiting the available electric traction torque. Avoiding such issues requires enabling battery cooling even when the vehicle is parked and not plugged in (key-off, but the associated extra energy requirements make applying key-off cooling a non-trivial decision. In this paper, a representative plug-in parallel hybrid electric vehicle model is used to simulate a typical 24-h duty cycle to quantify the impact of hot ambient conditions on three performance attributes of the vehicle: the battery lifetime, passenger thermal comfort and fuel economy. Key-off cooling is defined as an optimal control problem in view of the duty cycle of the vehicle. The problem is then solved using the dynamic programming method. Controlling key-off cooling through this method leads to significant improvements in the battery lifetime, while benefiting the fuel economy and thermal comfort attributes. To further improve the battery lifetime, partial charging of the battery is considered. An algorithm is developed that determines the optimum combination of key-off cooling and the level of battery charge. Simulation results confirm the benefits of the proposed method.

  14. Computational Methods for Nanoscale X-ray Computed Tomography Image Analysis of Fuel Cell and Battery Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arjun S.

    Over the last fifteen years, there has been a rapid growth in the use of high resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT) imaging in material science applications. We use it at nanoscale resolutions up to 50 nm (nano-CT) for key research problems in large scale operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in automotive applications. PEMFC are clean energy sources that electrochemically react with hydrogen gas to produce water and electricity. To reduce their costs, capturing their electrode nanostructure has become significant in modeling and optimizing their performance. For Li-ion batteries, a key challenge in increasing their scope for the automotive industry is Li metal dendrite growth. Li dendrites are structures of lithium with 100 nm features of interest that can grow chaotically within a battery and eventually lead to a short-circuit. HRXCT imaging is an effective diagnostics tool for such applications as it is a non-destructive method of capturing the 3D internal X-ray absorption coefficient of materials from a large series of 2D X-ray projections. Despite a recent push to use HRXCT for quantitative information on material samples, there is a relative dearth of computational tools in nano-CT image processing and analysis. Hence, we focus on developing computational methods for nano-CT image analysis of fuel cell and battery materials as required by the limitations in material samples and the imaging environment. The first problem we address is the segmentation of nano-CT Zernike phase contrast images. Nano-CT instruments are equipped with Zernike phase contrast optics to distinguish materials with a low difference in X-ray absorption coefficient by phase shifting the X-ray wave that is not diffracted by the sample. However, it creates image artifacts that hinder the use of traditional image segmentation techniques. To restore such images, we setup an inverse problem by modeling the X-ray phase contrast

  15. Modular Battery Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert M (Inventor); Gonzalez, Marcelo C (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some embodiments of the present invention describe a battery including a plurality of master-less controllers. Each controller is operatively connected to a corresponding cell in a string of cells, and each controller is configured to bypass a fraction of current around the corresponding cell when the corresponding cell has a greater charge than one or more other cells in the string of cells.

  16. Synthesizing Nanomaterials for Energy Applications: Probing Activity as a Function of Composition, Morphology and Purity to Address Key Issues Associated with Fuel Cells and Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Megan Elaine

    With the growing need to find alternative clean energy sources to fossil fuels, research into developing efficient fuel cells and batteries stands at the forefront of this grand effort. However, before mass commercialization, fundamental key issues need to be addressed. For example, fuel cells are subject to high catalyst costs and poor durability of the underlying carbon support. As a way to alleviate these issues, we have synthesized ultrathin one-dimensional (1D) alloy nanowires to probe the effect of composition, purity, and one-dimensionality upon the observed overall activity, performance, and durability. In terms of chemical composition, crystalline ultrathin PtM alloy nanowires (NWs) ('M' = Fe, Co, Ru, Cu, and Au) were generated and subsequently evaluated for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Additionally, ternary-based catalysts were synthesized (PtRuFe) in order to analyze how chemical composition influences CO tolerance as well as methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) activities. In both cases, we utilized a sustainably mild, ambient wet-synthesis method for the fabrication of chemically pure and crystalline systems in order to fabricate ultrathin, homogeneous alloy NWs. Moreover, in these studies, our NW systems exhibit favorable synergistic electronic effects with respect to controls. To address another fundamental issue associated with the durability of fuel cells, we have synthesized various metal oxide and perovskite materials of different sizes and chemical compositions as supports for Pt nanoparticles (NPs). Specifically, we have demonstrated favorable metal support interactions between the Pt NPs and the SrRuO3 NP supports, which lead to increased MOR activity as compared with not only the other metal oxide supports tested but also the commercial Pt NP/C standard. In terms of Li-ion batteries, LiFePO4 materials have become increasingly popular as a cathode material due to the many benefits they possess

  17. Elucidating effects of cell architecture, electrode material, and solution composition on overpotentials in redox flow batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezeshki, Alan M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sacci, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delnick, Frank M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Aaron, Douglas S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Mench, Matthew M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-16

    Here, an improved method for quantitative measurement of the charge transfer, finite diffusion, and ohmic overpotentials in redox flow batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is presented. The use of a pulse dampener in the hydraulic circuit enables the collection of impedance spectra at low frequencies with a peristaltic pump, allowing the measurement of finite diffusion resistances at operationally relevant flow rates. This method is used to resolve the rate-limiting processes for the V2+/V3+ redox couple on carbon felt and carbon paper electrodes in the vanadium redox flow battery. Carbon felt was limited by both charge transfer and ohmic resistance, while carbon paper was limited by charge transfer, finite diffusion, and ohmic resistances. The influences of vanadium concentration and flow field design also are quantified.

  18. Simulation and experimental study on lithium ion battery short circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rui; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Both external and internal short circuit tests were performed on Li-ion batteries. • An electrochemical–thermal model with an additional nail site heat source is presented. • The model can accurately simulate the temperature variations of non-venting batteries. • The model is reliable in predicting the occurrence and start time of thermal runaway. • A hydrogel cooling system proves its strength in preventing battery thermal runaway. - Abstract: Safety is the first priority in lithium ion (Li-ion) battery applications. A large portion of electrical and thermal hazards caused by Li-ion battery is associated with short circuit. In this paper, both external and internal short circuit tests are conducted. Li-ion batteries and battery packs of different capacities are used. The results indicate that external short circuit is worse for smaller size batteries due to their higher internal resistances, and this type of short can be well managed by assembling fuses. In internal short circuit tests, higher chance of failure is found on larger capacity batteries. A modified electrochemical–thermal model is proposed, which incorporates an additional heat source from nail site and proves to be successful in depicting temperature changes in batteries. Specifically, the model is able to estimate the occurrence and approximate start time of thermal runaway. Furthermore, the effectiveness of a hydrogel based thermal management system in suppressing thermal abuse and preventing thermal runaway propagation is verified through the external and internal short tests on batteries and battery packs.

  19. User safety considerations in lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.J.; Willis, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanics of failure of lithium batteries with thionyl chloride as a catholyte are discussed, and methods available to provide user safety are outlined. Advantages of using the batteries are discussed, including a high cell voltage of 3.6 V, a high specific energy density greater than 200 W-hr per pound, excellent voltage stability over 95% of the discharge life of the cell, low cost materials, and a storage life up to 10 years. Safety problems such as explosion, venting, leaking, and short circuit overheating are also discussed. A fault matrix is presented to relate battery hazards to the possible use and disposal conditions, and to determine levels of safety for the user system. A test plan is also developed which includes mechanical, thermal, electrical and chemical considerations, and can be organized into categories convenient to various test facility capabilities.

  20. User safety considerations in lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. J.; Willis, A. H.

    The mechanics of failure of lithium batteries with thionyl chloride as a catholyte are discussed, and methods available to provide user safety are outlined. Advantages of using the batteries are discussed, including a high cell voltage of 3.6 V, a high specific energy density greater than 200 W-hr per pound, excellent voltage stability over 95% of the discharge life of the cell, low cost materials, and a storage life up to 10 years. Safety problems such as explosion, venting, leaking, and short circuit overheating are also discussed. A fault matrix is presented to relate battery hazards to the possible use and disposal conditions, and to determine levels of safety for the user system. A test plan is also developed which includes mechanical, thermal, electrical and chemical considerations, and can be organized into categories convenient to various test facility capabilities.

  1. Facile synthesis of ultrafine SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets via thermal decomposition of tin-octoate as anode for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinkai; Xie, Sanmu; Cao, Daxian; Lu, Xuan [Xi’an Jiaotong University, State Key Lab of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Center of Nanomaterials for Renewable Energy (CNRE), School of Electrical Engineering (China); Meng, Lingjie, E-mail: menglingjie@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Department of Chemistry, School of Science (China); Yang, Guidong [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China); Wang, Hongkang, E-mail: hongkang.wang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Xi’an Jiaotong University, State Key Lab of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Center of Nanomaterials for Renewable Energy (CNRE), School of Electrical Engineering (China)

    2016-09-15

    We demonstrate a facile synthesis of ultrafine SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles within graphene nanosheets (GNSs) via thermal decomposition of tin-octoate, in which tin-octoate is firstly blended with GNSs followed by annealing in air at a low temperature (350 °C) and a short time (1 h). As anode for lithium ion batteries, the SnO{sub 2}/GNSs displays superior cycle and rate performance, delivering reversible capacities of 803 and 682 mA h/g at current densities of 200 and 500 mA/g after 120 cycles, respectively, much higher than that of pure SnO{sub 2} and GNSs counterparts (143 and 310 mA h/g at 500 mA/g after 120 cycles, respectively). The enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to the ultrafine SnO{sub 2} nanoparticle size and introduction of GNSs. GNSs prevent the aggregation of the ultrafine SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles, which alleviate the stress and also provide more electrochemically active sites for lithium insertion and extraction. Moreover, GNSs with large specific surface area (~363 m{sup 2}/g) act as a good electrical conductor which greatly improves the electrode conductivity and also an excellent buffer matrix to tolerate the severe volume changes originated from the Li-Sn alloying-dealloying. This work provides a straight-forward synthetic approach for the design of novel composite anode materials with superior electrochemical performance.

  2. Cell safety analysis of a molten sodium-sulfur battery under failure mode from a fracture in the solid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, June Kee; Stackpool, Michael; Shin, Cheol Ho; Lee, Chang-Hui

    2015-10-01

    A numerical prediction model is developed for the safety analysis of molten sodium-sulfur battery. Under the assumption that a crack occurred in a solid electrolyte of a cell, a rapid increase in the temperature and pressure from a direct reaction between sulfur and sodium can be predicted by solving equations for flow, energy and the chemical reaction. The crack, the powder-type in-filler and the carbon felt in the sulfur electrode are modeled by porous media approximations. The results are compared to experimental results with extreme value probability statistics for the data assessment. The effects of the size of the cell and wick tube, the depth of discharge, and the filler material are summarized quantitatively.

  3. Heterogeneity in induced thermal resistance of rat tumor cell clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasovic, S.P.; Rosenblatt, P.L.; Heitzman, D.

    1983-01-01

    Four 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma clones were examined for their survival response to heating under conditions that induced transient thermal resistance (thermotolerance). Clones MTC and MTF7 were isolated from the subcutaneous locally growing tumor, whereas clones MTLn2 and MTLn3 were derived from spontaneous lung metastases. There was heterogeneity among these clones in thermotolerance induced by either fractionated 45 0 C or continuous 42 0 C heating, but the order of sensitivity was not necessarily the same. The clones developed thermal resistance at different rates and to different degrees within the same time intervals. There was heterogeneity between clones isolated from within either the primary site or metastatic lesions. However, clones derived from metastatic foci did not intrinsically acquire more or less thermotolerance to fractionated 45 0 C or continuous 42 0 C heating than did clones from the primary tumor. Further, there was no apparent relationship between any phenotypic properties that conferred more or less thermotolerance in vitro and any phenotypic properties that conferred enhanced metastatic success of these same clones by spontaneous (subcutaneous) or experimental (intravenous) routes in vivo. These tumor clones also differ in their karyotype, metastatic potential, cell surface features, sensitivity to x-irradiation and drugs, and ability to repair sublethal radiation damage. These results provide further credence to the concept that inherent heterogeneity within tumors may be as important in therapeutic success as other known modifiers of outcome such as site and treatment heterogeneity

  4. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  5. The programme PIP2 for lattice cell thermal calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, A.J.

    1964-08-01

    The programme PIP2 solves the multigroup equations obtained by applying the method of collision probabilities to a fuel region (which may contain a cluster of fuel elements), and the SPECTROX flux assumption in a surrounding 'moderator'. The programme does not calculate collision probabilities for the fuel region and any geometry can be treated in the fuel region for which collision probabilities can be calculated. Lattice cell source problems may be treated and it is possible to include part of the physical moderator with the fuel region for treatment by the collision probability method. The programme is primarily intended for thermal fixed source problems, with the sources in the (physical moderator), but by including part of the moderator with the fuel it is possible to include fixed sources in the fuel for the study of fast effects. (author)

  6. Estimation of the charge quantity from solar cell to battery; Taiyo denchi ni yoru chikudenchi eno juden yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, K.; Nishitani, M. [Daiichi University, College of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In performing an experiment of running a small electric vehicle by installing solar cells in it and by charging the storage battery at a specific voltage, an estimation was made on the charge quantity to the battery for each solar altitude and inclination of a module at different hours. The solar altitude was determined at Daiichi University, College of Technology, according to the month and the time of day from a formula using day-declination and time equation of a chronological table of science. The quantity of global solar radiation was determined by resolving the solar radiation into its direct and diffuse components on the basis of the extra-terrestrial solar radiation quantity with the change in radius vector taken into consideration; and then, the global solar radiation on the inclined face was obtained from the angle of inclination and incidence. On the roof of a Daiichi University building, solar cell modules were installed facing north and south at 0{degree}, 30{degree}, 45{degree}, 60{degree} and 90{degree} each, so that a short-circuit current was measured for each differently inclined angle. As a result of the experiment, shown in an regression formula is a relation between the temperature conversion value of the maximum output of the solar cell at the standard temperature of 25{degree}C and the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface. Consequently, it enabled the prediction of a charging quantity, in the case of running a small vehicle with solar cells installed, from the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface in the clear weather. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Investigation of lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, A. I.; Gabriel, K. A.; Burns, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    In the ten years since the feasibility of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell was first recognized (1) remarkable progress has been made in hardware development. Cells as large as 16,000 Ah (2) and batteries of 10.8 MWh (3) have been demonstrated. In a low rate configuration, energy densities of 500 to 600 Wh/kg are easily achieved. Even in the absence of reported explosions, safety would be a concern for such a dense energetic package; the energy density of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell is approaching that of dynamite (924 Wh/kg). In fact explosions have occurred. In general the hazards associated with lithium-thionyl chloride batteries may be divided into four categories: Explosions as a result of an error in battery design. Very large cells were in prototype development prior to a full appreciation of the hazards of the system. It is possible that some of the remaining safety issues are related to cell design; Explosions as a result of external physical abuse such as cell incineration and puncture; Explosions due to short circuiting which could lead to thermal runaway reactions. These problems appear to have been solved by changes in the battery design (4); and Explosions due to abnormal electrical operation (i.e., charging (5) and overdischarging (6) and in partially or fully discharged cells on storage (7 and 8).

  8. Which energy source for road transport in the future? A comparison of battery, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierlo, J. van; Maggetto, G.; Lataire, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen era is foreseen following the European research programme in a time horizon of 2020-2040. But there will be clearly a choice to be made between an electron economy (direct use of the produced electricity) and the so called 'hydrogen economy' which leads to the introduction of an intermediate hydrogen production, transport and distribution process before the final use in an electrical process. This paper considers only passenger car and delivery vans applications. In this field a big time gap is to be filled between the situation today, the occurrence of oil shortage in a quite short future and this time horizon 2020-2040. Today's intermediate solutions are clearly based on hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles. The performances of these solutions are putting a lot of questions on the necessity of a hydrogen economy for future transportation. The paper discusses performances of hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles in comparison of the future hydrogen fuel cell based systems which are now in R and D phase and a very beginning of field demonstration

  9. A natural carbonized leaf as polysulfide diffusion inhibitor for high-performance lithium-sulfur battery cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sheng-Heng; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-06-01

    Attracted by the unique tissue and functions of leaves, a natural carbonized leaf (CL) is presented as a polysulfide diffusion inhibitor in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The CL that is covered on the pure sulfur cathode effectively suppresses the polysulfide shuttling mechanism and enables the use of pure sulfur as the cathode. A low charge resistance and a high discharge capacity of 1320 mA h g(-1) arise from the improved cell conductivity due to the innately integral conductive carbon network of the CL. The unique microstructure of CL leads to a high discharge/charge efficiency of >98 %, low capacity fade of 0.18 % per cycle, and good long-term cyclability over 150 cycles. The structural gradient and the micro/mesoporous adsorption sites of CL effectively intercept/trap the migrating polysulfides and facilitate their reutilization. The green CL polysulfide diffusion inhibitor thus offers a viable approach for developing high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Response of turkey muscle satellite cells to thermal challenge. I. transcriptome effects in proliferating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kent M; Mendoza, Kristelle M; Abrahante, Juan E; Barnes, Natalie E; Velleman, Sandra G; Strasburg, Gale M

    2017-05-06

    Climate change poses a multi-dimensional threat to food and agricultural systems as a result of increased risk to animal growth, development, health, and food product quality. This study was designed to characterize transcriptional changes induced in turkey muscle satellite cells cultured under cold or hot thermal challenge to better define molecular mechanisms by which thermal stress alters breast muscle ultrastructure. Satellite cells isolated from the pectoralis major muscle of 7-weeks-old male turkeys from two breeding lines (16 weeks body weight-selected and it's randombred control) were proliferated in culture at 33 °C, 38 °C or 43 °C for 72 h. Total RNA was isolated and 12 libraries subjected to RNAseq analysis. Statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed among treatments and between turkey lines with a greater number of genes altered by cold treatment than by hot and fewer differences observed between lines than between temperatures. Pathway analysis found that cold treatment resulted in an overrepresentation of genes involved in cell signaling/signal transduction and cell communication/cell signaling as compared to control (38 °C). Heat-treated muscle satellite cells showed greater tendency towards expression of genes related to muscle system development and differentiation. This study demonstrates significant transcriptome effects on turkey skeletal muscle satellite cells exposed to thermal challenge. Additional effects on gene expression could be attributed to genetic selection for 16 weeks body weight (muscle mass). New targets are identified for further research on the differential control of satellite cell proliferation in poultry.

  11. Electrochemical performance and safety features of high-safety lithium ion battery using novel branched additive for internal short protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuhan; Lee, Meng-Lun; Wang Fuming; Yang, Chang-Rung; Chu, Peter P.J.; Yau, Shueh-Lin; Pan, Jing-Pin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► N-phenylmaleimide-containing branched oligomer has been employed as an additive in lithium cells. ► The branched oligomer additive enhances safety and cycling performance of Li ion battery. ► The highest temperature of branched oligomer-containing battery was only 85 °C in the nail penetration test. - Abstract: In this study, we have investigated N-phenylmaleimide/bismaleimide-containing branched oligomer (BO1) as additive in Li-ion batteries to increase the safety performance by reducing the probability of batteries suffering an internal short circuit. In the nail penetration test, a LiCoO 2 /MCMB full battery with N-phenylmaleimide/bismaleimide-containing branched oligomer (BO1) showed a significant improvement in thermal stability and was able to restrain the temperature of the battery at about 85 °C. Furthermore, we found that N-phenylmaleimide/bismaleimide-containing branched oligomer (BO1) contained battery revealed better cycling and electrochemical performance, compared with the battery with bismaleimide-containing branched oligomer (BO3) in the electrolyte. The improvement might result from the favorable ionic conductivity, Li ion mobility and lower resistance in the battery. This additive can meet the cycling performance and safety requirements for Li-ion batteries.

  12. Thermal analysis of cryoprotective solutions for red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, T

    1998-05-01

    A differential scanning calorimeter was used to study the thermal behavior of glycerol-water solutions (binary system) and the more complex glycerol-based cryoprotective solutions that are used clinically in order to examine the cryoprotective role of glycerol in preserving frozen red blood cells. The melting and glass transition temperatures for the clinically used cryoprotective solutions were as expected, based on the nonequilibriumphase diagram for cryoprotective solutions incorporating isotonic phosphate-buffered saline. Two zones were identified in which solidification occurred without the formation of ice crystals: a glassy state that is crystallographically amorphous was found for glycerol concentrations between 40 and 55% in the binary system and between 45 and 60% in the complex system; a glassy state in the complete absence of ice was found at glycerol concentrations greater than 55% for the binary system or 60% for the complex system. In clinical practice, cryoprotectants are used at initial concentrations lower than those at which these two glassy states occur but there is an increase in the effective glycerol concentration inside and outside the cells as ice forms during the freezing process.

  13. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Shi, Y.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-09-01

    Predictive models of Li-ion battery reliability must consider a multiplicity of electrochemical, thermal and mechanical degradation modes experienced by batteries in application environments. Complicating matters, Li-ion batteries can experience several path dependent degradation trajectories dependent on storage and cycling history of the application environment. Rates of degradation are controlled by factors such as temperature history, electrochemical operating window, and charge/discharge rate. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must be absorbed by overdesign and warranty costs. Degradation models are needed that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. Models should also provide engineering feedback for next generation battery designs. This presentation reviews both multi-dimensional physical models and simpler, lumped surrogate models of battery electrochemical and mechanical degradation. Models are compared with cell- and pack-level aging data from commercial Li-ion chemistries. The analysis elucidates the relative importance of electrochemical and mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms in real-world operating environments. Opportunities for extending the lifetime of commercial battery systems are explored.

  14. THERMAL VACUUM TEST OF ORBITAL STATIC MOISTURE-REMOVAL FUEL CELL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report presents the results of a thermal vacuum chamber test of an orbital fuel cell of advanced design. The fuel cell package used a static moisture-removal system. The fuel cell , tested in the thermal vacuum chamber at Wright-Patterson AFB, gave satisfactory results. This test constituted the second and final ground qualification of this orbital fuel cell prior to orbital test. (Author)

  15. Response of Turkey Muscle Satellite Cells to Thermal Challenge. II. Transcriptome Effects in Differentiating Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent M. Reed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of poultry to extreme temperatures during the critical period of post-hatch growth can seriously affect muscle development and thus compromise subsequent meat quality. This study was designed to characterize transcriptional changes induced in turkey muscle satellite cells by thermal challenge during differentiation. Our goal is to better define how thermal stress alters breast muscle ultrastructure and subsequent development.Results: Skeletal muscle satellite cells previously isolated from the Pectoralis major muscle of 7-wk-old male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo from two breeding lines: the F-line (16 wk body weight-selected and RBC2 (randombred control line were used in this study. Cultured cells were induced to differentiate at 38°C (control or thermal challenge temperatures of 33 or 43°C. After 48 h of differentiation, cells were harvested and total RNA was isolated for RNAseq analysis. Analysis of 39.9 Gb of sequence found 89% mapped to the turkey genome (UMD5.0, annotation 101 with average expression of 18,917 genes per library. In the cultured satellite cells, slow/cardiac muscle isoforms are generally present in greater abundance than fast skeletal isoforms. Statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed among treatments and between turkey lines, with a greater number of genes affected in the F-line cells following cold treatment whereas more differentially expressed (DE genes were observed in the RBC2 cells following heat treatment. Many of the most significant pathways involved signaling, consistent with ongoing cellular differentiation. Regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis appears to be significantly affected by temperature treatment, particularly cold treatment.Conclusions: Satellite cell differentiation is directly influenced by temperature at the level of gene transcription with greater effects attributed to selection for fast growth. At lower temperature, muscle-associated genes in the

  16. Lethal Effect of Thermal Neutrons on Hypoxic Elirlich Ascites Tumour Cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    MITSUHIKO, AKABOSHI; KENICHI, KAWAI; HIROTOSHI, MAKI; Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University; Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University; Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University

    1985-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites tumour cells were irradiated in vitro with thermal neutrons under aerobic and hypoxic conditions, and the survival of their reproductive capacity was assayed in vivo. Only a slight hypoxic protection was observed for thermal neutron irradiation with an oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of 1.2, as compared with OER of 3.3 for ^Co-γ-rays. Absorbed dose of thermal neutrons was calculated by assuming that the energies of recoiled nuclei were completely absorbed within a cell nucleus....

  17. Multicell LiSOCl sub 2 reserve battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, A. R.; Garoutte, K. F.

    Recent development work on reverse lithium thionyl chloride (RLTC) batteries at SNLA and Honeywell has included safety and performance evaluations. The RLTC battery is being considered for applications that were traditionally fulfilled by state-of-the-art thermal batteries and reserve silver oxide zinc electrochemical systems. These applications typically demand a reserve battery having a rapid voltage rise, high reliability, operational safety and useful active lifetime ranging from minutes to hours. The RLTC work reported here was directed toward a power battery capable of meeting or exceeding the design requirements. Performance and safety test data indicate that the RLTC battery may be better suited than thermal batteries for some long-life applications. A comparison between Li(Si)/FeS2 thermal battery and an RLTC battery, both of which were designed to fulfill the requirements is presented.

  18. Multi-Hybrid Power Vehicles with Cost Effective and Durable Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell and Li-ion Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Anima [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Anima Bose, the principal investigator of the project, originally proposed to develop composite membranes to operate PEMFCs at much higher temperatures than 80°C and to alleviate the flooding problems often encountered in Nafion menmbrane containing fuel cells. The PI has successfully created composite membranes by blending small quantities of octasilane-poss (OSP) with Nafion. The composite membranes exhibited temperature tolerance up to 110°C without scarifying cell performance as determined by polarization curves and proton conductivity measurements. These membranes also exhibited superior water management performance as evident from the lack of flooding. Furthermore, these fuel cells performed well under reduced humidities. Structural and thermal analyses revealed that these Nafion-octasilane composite membranes are homogenous at concentrations up to 3 wt% of the OSP and that the siloxane offers additional thermal stability.

  19. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  20. New highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and Zn/air battery applications (NORA). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, D.; Zuettel, A.

    2008-04-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning a new, highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and zinc/air battery applications. The goal of this project was, according to the authors, to increase the efficiency of the oxygen reduction reaction by lowering the activation polarisation through the right choice of catalyst and by lowering the concentration polarisation. In this work, carbon nanotubes are used as support material. The use of these nanotubes grown on perovskites is discussed. Theoretical considerations regarding activation polarisation are discussed and alternatives to the use of platinum are examined. The results of experiments carried out are presented in graphical and tabular form. The paper is completed with a comprehensive list of references.