WorldWideScience

Sample records for thermal batteries

  1. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The operating temperature is critical in achieving the right balance between performance, cost, and life for both Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. The chemistries of advanced energy-storage devices - such as lithium-based batteries - are very sensitive to operating temperature. High temperatures degrade batteries faster while low temperatures decrease their power and capacity, affecting vehicle range, performance, and cost. Understanding heat generation in battery systems - from the individual cells within a module, to the inter-connects between the cells, and across the entire battery system - is imperative for designing effective thermal-management systems and battery packs. At NREL, we have developed unique capabilities to measure the thermal properties of cells and evaluate thermal performance of battery packs (air or liquid cooled). We also use our electro-thermal finite element models to analyze the thermal performance of battery systems in order to aid battery developers with improved thermal designs. NREL's tools are used to meet the weight, life, cost, and volume goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy for electric drive vehicles.

  2. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  3. Thermal management of batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbard, H. F.; Chen, C.-C.

    Control of the internal temperature during high rate discharge or charge can be a major design problem for large, high energy density battery systems. A systematic approach to the thermal management of such systems is described for different load profiles based on: thermodynamic calculations of internal heat generation; calorimetric measurements of heat flux; analytical and finite difference calculations of the internal temperature distribution; appropriate system designs for heat removal and temperature control. Examples are presented of thermal studies on large lead-acid batteries for electrical utility load levelling and nickel-zinc and lithium-iron sulphide batteries for electric vehicle propulsion.

  4. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  5. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brunke, Lyle Brent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  6. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  7. Enabling fast charging - Battery thermal considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Matthew; Pesaran, Ahmad; Li, Qibo; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Dufek, Eric; Shirk, Matthew; Meintz, Andrew; Kreuzer, Cory; Michelbacher, Christopher; Burnham, Andrew; Stephens, Thomas; Francfort, James; Carlson, Barney; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Hardy, Keith; Dias, Fernando; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Scoffield, Don; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Markel, Anthony

    2017-11-01

    Battery thermal barriers are reviewed with regards to extreme fast charging. Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today's market. Thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

  8. Multi-Cell Thermal Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The multi-cell thermal battery (MCTB) is a device that can recover a large fraction of the thermal energy from heated regolith and subsequently apply this energy to...

  9. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Brad [Denso International America, Incorporated, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  10. Enabling fast charging – Battery thermal considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew; Pesaran, Ahmad; Li, Qibo; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Dufek, Eric; Shirk, Matthew; Meintz, Andrew; Kreuzer, Cory; Michelbacher, Christopher; Burnham, Andrew; Stephens, Thomas; Francfort, James; Carlson, Barney; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Hardy, Keith; Dias, Fernando; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Scoffield, Don; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Markel, Anthony

    2017-11-01

    Battery thermal barriers are reviewed with regards to extreme fast charging. Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today's market. Thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

  11. Towards an Ultimate Battery Thermal Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    The prevailing standards and scientific literature offer a wide range of options for the construction of a battery thermal management system (BTMS). The design of an innovative yet well-functioning BTMS requires strict supervision, quality audit and continuous improvement of the whole process....... It must address all the current quality and safety (Q&S) standards. In this review article, an effective battery thermal management is sought considering the existing battery Q&S standards and scientific literature. The article contains a broad overview of the current existing standards and literature...

  12. Battery Cell Thermal Runaway Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric

    2017-01-01

    We currently have several methods for determining total energy output of an 18650 lithium ion cell. We do not, however, have a good method for determining the fraction of energy that dissipates via conduction through the cell can vs. the energy that is released in the form of ejecta. Knowledge of this fraction informs the design of our models, battery packs, and storage devices; (a) No longer need to assume cell stays together in modeling (b) Increase efficiency of TR mitigation (c) Shave off excess protection.

  13. Thermal fuse for high-temperature batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungst, Rudolph G.; Armijo, James R.; Frear, Darrel R.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal fuse, preferably for a high-temperature battery, comprising leads and a body therebetween having a melting point between approximately 400.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. The body is preferably an alloy of Ag--Mg, Ag--Sb, Al--Ge, Au--In, Bi--Te, Cd--Sb, Cu--Mg, In--Sb, Mg--Pb, Pb--Pd, Sb--Zn, Sn--Te, or Mg--Al.

  14. A Thermal Runaway Simulation on a Lithium Titanate Battery and the Battery Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the electrochemical and thermal model, a coupled electro-thermal runaway model was developed and implemented using finite element methods. The thermal decomposition reactions when the battery temperature exceeds the material decomposition temperature were embedded into the model. The temperature variations of a lithium titanate battery during a series of charge-discharge cycles under different current rates were simulated. The results of temperature and heat generation rate demonstrate that the greater the current, the faster the battery temperature is rising. Furthermore, the thermal influence of the overheated cell on surrounding batteries in the module was simulated, and the variation of temperature and heat generation during thermal runaway was obtained. It was found that the overheated cell can induce thermal runaway in other adjacent cells within 3 mm distance in the battery module if the accumulated heat is not dissipated rapidly.

  15. Modelling Thermal Effects of Battery Cells inside Electric Vehicle Battery Packs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    -physical characteristics and their impact on the electrical state of battery cells(Khan, Mulder et al. 2013, Khan, Andreasen et al. 2014, Khan et al. 2014, Khan, Mulder et al. 2014, Khan, Nielsen et al. 2014). Based on this analysis, we derive strategies in achieving the goal, and then propose a battery thermal management...

  16. Electric vehicles batteries thermal management systems employing phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianniciello, Lucia; Biwolé, Pascal Henry; Achard, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Battery thermal management is necessary for electric vehicles (EVs), especially for Li-ion batteries, due to the heat dissipation effects on those batteries. Usually, air or coolant circuits are employed as thermal management systems in Li-ion batteries. However, those systems are expensive in terms of investment and operating costs. Phase change materials (PCMs) may represent an alternative which could be cheaper and easier to operate. In fact, PCMs can be used as passive or semi-passive systems, enabling the global system to sustain near-autonomous operations. This article presents the previous developments introducing PCMs for EVs battery cooling. Different systems are reviewed and solutions are proposed to enhance PCMs efficiency in those systems.

  17. Battery management systems with thermally integrated fire suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandhauer, Todd M.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2017-07-11

    A thermal management system is integral to a battery pack and/or individual cells. It relies on passive liquid-vapor phase change heat removal to provide enhanced thermal protection via rapid expulsion of inert high pressure refrigerant during abnormal abuse events and can be integrated with a cooling system that operates during normal operation. When a thermal runaway event occurs and sensed by either active or passive sensors, the high pressure refrigerant is preferentially ejected through strategically placed passages within the pack to rapidly quench the battery.

  18. A review on battery thermal management in electric vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guodong; Cao, Lei; Bi, Guanglong

    2017-11-01

    The global issues of energy crisis and air pollution have offered a great opportunity to develop electric vehicles. However, so far, cycle life of power battery, environment adaptability, driving range and charging time seems far to compare with the level of traditional vehicles with internal combustion engine. Effective battery thermal management (BTM) is absolutely essential to relieve this situation. This paper reviews the existing literature from two levels that are cell level and battery module level. For single battery, specific attention is paid to three important processes which are heat generation, heat transport, and heat dissipation. For large format cell, multi-scale multi-dimensional coupled models have been developed. This will facilitate the investigation on factors, such as local irreversible heat generation, thermal resistance, current distribution, etc., that account for intrinsic temperature gradients existing in cell. For battery module based on air and liquid cooling, series, series-parallel and parallel cooling configurations are discussed. Liquid cooling strategies, especially direct liquid cooling strategies, are reviewed and they may advance the battery thermal management system to a new generation.

  19. Thermal Model Parameter Identification of a Lithium Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Nissing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of a Lithium battery cell is important for its performance, efficiency, safety, and capacity and is influenced by the environmental temperature and by the charging and discharging process itself. Battery Management Systems (BMS take into account this effect. As the temperature at the battery cell is difficult to measure, often the temperature is measured on or nearby the poles of the cell, although the accuracy of predicting the cell temperature with those quantities is limited. Therefore a thermal model of the battery is used in order to calculate and estimate the cell temperature. This paper uses a simple RC-network representation for the thermal model and shows how the thermal parameters are identified using input/output measurements only, where the load current of the battery represents the input while the temperatures at the poles represent the outputs of the measurement. With a single measurement the eight model parameters (thermal resistances, electric contact resistances, and heat capacities can be determined using the method of least-square. Experimental results show that the simple model with the identified parameters fits very accurately to the measurements.

  20. Thermal modeling of the lithium/polymer battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pals, Carolyn R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1994-10-01

    Research in the area of advanced batteries for electric-vehicle applications has increased steadily since the 1990 zero-emission-vehicle mandate of the California Air Resources Board. Due to their design flexibility and potentially high energy and power densities, lithium/polymer batteries are an emerging technology for electric-vehicle applications. Thermal modeling of lithium/polymer batteries is particularly important because the transport properties of the system depend exponentially on temperature. Two models have been presented for assessment of the thermal behavior of lithium/polymer batteries. The one-cell model predicts the cell potential, the concentration profiles, and the heat-generation rate during discharge. The cell-stack model predicts temperature profiles and heat transfer limitations of the battery. Due to the variation of ionic conductivity and salt diffusion coefficient with temperature, the performance of the lithium/polymer battery is greatly affected by temperature. Because of this variation, it is important to optimize the cell operating temperature and design a thermal management system for the battery. Since the thermal conductivity of the polymer electrolyte is very low, heat is not easily conducted in the direction perpendicular to cell layers. Temperature profiles in the cells are not as significant as expected because heat-generation rates in warmer areas of the cell stack are lower than heat-generation rates in cooler areas of the stack. This nonuniform heat-generation rate flattens the temperature profile. Temperature profiles as calculated by this model are not as steep as those calculated by previous models that assume a uniform heat-generation rate.

  1. Thru-life impacts of driver aggression, climate, cabin thermal management, and battery thermal management on battery electric vehicle utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but have a limited utility that is affected by driver aggression and effects of climate-both directly on battery temperature and indirectly through the loads of cabin and battery thermal management systems. Utility is further affected as the battery wears through life in response to travel patterns, climate, and other factors. In this paper we apply the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V) to examine the sensitivity of BEV utility to driver aggression and climate effects over the life of the vehicle. We find the primary challenge to cold-climate BEV operation to be inefficient cabin heating systems, and to hot-climate BEV operation to be high peak on-road battery temperatures and excessive battery degradation. Active cooling systems appear necessary to manage peak battery temperatures of aggressive, hot-climate drivers, which can then be employed to maximize thru-life vehicle utility.

  2. TERRA Battery Thermal Control Anomaly - Simulation and Corrective Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    The TERRA spacecraft was launched in December 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, becoming the flagship of NASA's Earth Observing System program to gather data on how the planet's processes create climate. Originally planned as a 5 year mission, it still provides valuable science data after nearly 10 years on orbit. On October 13th, 2009 at 16:23z following a routine inclination maneuver, TERRA experienced a battery cell failure and a simultaneous failure of several battery heater control circuits used to maintain cell temperatures and gradients within the battery. With several cells nearing the minimum survival temperature, preventing the electrolyte from freezing was the first priority. After several reset attempts and power cycling of the control electronics failed to reestablish control authority on the primary side of the controller, it was switched to the redundant side, but anomalous performance again prevented full heater control of the battery cells. As the investigation into the cause of the anomaly and corrective action continued, a battery thermal model was developed to be used in determining the control ability remaining and to simulate and assess corrective actions. Although no thermal model or detailed reference data of the battery was available, sufficient information was found to allow a simplified model to be constructed, correlated against pre-anomaly telemetry, and used to simulate the thermal behavior at several points after the anomaly. It was then used to simulate subsequent corrective actions to assess their impact on cell temperatures. This paper describes the rapid development of this thermal model, including correlation to flight data before and after the anomaly., along with a comparative assessment of the analysis results used to interpret the telemetry to determine the extent of damage to the thermal control hardware, with near-term corrective actions and long-term operations plan to overcome the anomaly.

  3. Mitigating Thermal Runaway Risk in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric; Jeevarajan, Judy; Russell, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The JSC/NESC team has successfully demonstrated Thermal Runaway (TR) risk reduction in a lithium ion battery for human space flight by developing and implementing verifiable design features which interrupt energy transfer between adjacent electrochemical cells. Conventional lithium ion (li-Ion) batteries can fail catastrophically as a result of a single cell going into thermal runaway. Thermal runaway results when an internal component fails to separate electrode materials leading to localized heating and complete combustion of the lithium ion cell. Previously, the greatest control to minimize the probability of cell failure was individual cell screening. Combining thermal runaway propagation mitigation design features with a comprehensive screening program reduces both the probability, and the severity, of a single cell failure.

  4. Searching for a Better Thermal Battery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gur, I; Sawyer, K; Prasher, R

    2012-01-01

    .... Progress in materials science, chemistry, and engineering may lead to dramatic breakthroughs in thermal energy storage that could improve the efficiency with which we produce, distribute, and consume energy...

  5. Thermal analysis and two-directional air flow thermal management for lithium-ion battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuahai; Yang, Xi; Cheng, Yongzhou; Li, Changhao

    2014-12-01

    Thermal management is a routine but crucial strategy to ensure thermal stability and long-term durability of the lithium-ion batteries. An air-flow-integrated thermal management system is designed in the present study to dissipate heat generation and uniformize the distribution of temperature in the lithium-ion batteries. The system contains of two types of air ducts with independent intake channels and fans. One is to cool the batteries through the regular channel, and the other minimizes the heat accumulations in the middle pack of batteries through jet cooling. A three-dimensional anisotropic heat transfer model is developed to describe the thermal behavior of the lithium-ion batteries with the integration of heat generation theory, and validated through both simulations and experiments. Moreover, the simulations and experiments show that the maximum temperature can be decreased to 33.1 °C through the new thermal management system in comparison with 42.3 °C through the traditional ones, and temperature uniformity of the lithium-ion battery packs is enhanced, significantly.

  6. Probing the heat sources during thermal runaway process by thermal analysis of different battery chemistries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Siqi; Wang, Li; Feng, Xuning; He, Xiangming

    2018-02-01

    Safety issue is very important for the lithium ion battery used in electric vehicle or other applications. This paper probes the heat sources in the thermal runaway processes of lithium ion batteries composed of different chemistries using accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The adiabatic thermal runaway features for the 4 types of commercial lithium ion batteries are tested using ARC, whereas the reaction characteristics of the component materials, including the cathode, the anode and the separator, inside the 4 types of batteries are measured using DSC. The peaks and valleys of the critical component reactions measured by DSC can match the fluctuations in the temperature rise rate measured by ARC, therefore the relevance between the DSC curves and the ARC curves is utilized to probe the heat source in the thermal runaway process and reveal the thermal runaway mechanisms. The results and analysis indicate that internal short circuit is not the only way to thermal runaway, but can lead to extra electrical heat, which is comparable with the heat released by chemical reactions. The analytical approach of the thermal runaway mechanisms in this paper can guide the safety design of commercial lithium ion batteries.

  7. Final treatment of spent batteries by thermal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, Anelise Leal Vieira; Machado, Marina de Medeiros; Machado, Marília de Medeiros; Dutra, Ana Regina de Aguiar; Moecke, Elisa Helena Siegel; Fiedler, Haidi D; Bueno, Priscila

    2015-08-15

    The growth in the use of wireless devices, notebooks and other electronic products has led to an ever increasing demand for batteries, leading to these products being commonly found in inappropriate locations, with adverse effects on the environment and human health. Due to political pressure and according to the environmental legislation which regulates the destination of spent batteries, in several countries the application of reverse logistics to hazardous waste is required. Thus, some processes have been developed with the aim of providing an appropriate destination for these products. In this context, a method for the treatment of spent batteries using thermal plasma technology is proposed herein. The efficiency of the method was tested through the determination of parameters, such as total organic carbon, moisture content and density, as well as analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence using samples before and after inertization. The value obtained for the density was 19.15%. The TOC results indicated 8.05% of C in the batteries prior to pyrolisis and according to the XRF analysis Fe, S, Mn and Zn were the most stable elements in the samples (highest peaks). The efficiency of the paste inertization was 97% for zinc and 99.74% for manganese. The results also showed that the most efficient reactor was that with the DC transferred arc plasma torch and quartzite sand positively influenced by the vitrification during the pyrolysis of the electrolyte paste obtain from batteries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Li-ion battery thermal runaway suppression system using microchannel coolers and refrigerant injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandhauer, Todd M.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-11-08

    A battery management system with thermally integrated fire suppression includes a multiplicity of individual battery cells in a housing; a multiplicity of cooling passages in the housing within or between the multiplicity of individual battery cells; a multiplicity of sensors operably connected to the individual battery cells, the sensors adapted to detect a thermal runaway event related to one or more of the multiplicity of individual battery cells; and a management system adapted to inject coolant into at least one of the multiplicity of cooling passages upon the detection of the thermal runaway event by the any one of the multiplicity of sensors, so that the thermal runaway event is rapidly quenched.

  9. Two-dimensional Thermal Modeling of Lithium-ion Battery Cell Based on Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Thermal modeling of lithium-ion batteries is gaining its importance together with increasing power density and compact design of the modern battery systems in order to assure battery safety and long lifetime. Thermal models of lithium-ion batteries are usually either expensive to develop...... and accurate or equivalent thermal circuit based with moderate accuracy and without spatial temperature distribution. This work presents initial results that can be used as a fundament for the cost-efficient development of the two-dimensional thermal model of lithium-ion battery based on multipoint...

  10. Dynamic thermal characteristics of heat pipe via segmented thermal resistance model for electric vehicle battery cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifei; Lan, Fengchong; Chen, Jiqing

    2016-07-01

    Heat pipe cooling for battery thermal management systems (BTMSs) in electric vehicles (EVs) is growing due to its advantages of high cooling efficiency, compact structure and flexible geometry. Considering the transient conduction, phase change and uncertain thermal conditions in a heat pipe, it is challenging to obtain the dynamic thermal characteristics accurately in such complex heat and mass transfer process. In this paper, a ;segmented; thermal resistance model of a heat pipe is proposed based on thermal circuit method. The equivalent conductivities of different segments, viz. the evaporator and condenser of pipe, are used to determine their own thermal parameters and conditions integrated into the thermal model of battery for a complete three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The proposed ;segmented; model shows more precise than the ;non-segmented; model by the comparison of simulated and experimental temperature distribution and variation of an ultra-thin micro heat pipe (UMHP) battery pack, and has less calculation error to obtain dynamic thermal behavior for exact thermal design, management and control of heat pipe BTMSs. Using the ;segmented; model, the cooling effect of the UMHP pack with different natural/forced convection and arrangements is predicted, and the results correspond well to the tests.

  11. An electrochemical-thermal coupled overcharge-to-thermal-runaway model for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongsheng; Feng, Xuning; Lu, Languang; Ouyang, Minggao; Zheng, Siqi; Li, Jianqiu; He, Xiangming

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents an electrochemical-thermal coupled overcharge-to-thermal-runaway (TR) model to predict the highly interactive electrochemical and thermal behaviors of lithium ion battery under the overcharge conditions. In this model, the battery voltage equals the difference between the cathode potential and the anode potential, whereas the temperature is predicted by modeling the combined heat generations, including joule heat, thermal runaway reactions and internal short circuit. The model can fit well with the adiabatic overcharge tests results at 0.33C, 0.5C and 1C, indicating a good capture of the overcharge-to-TR mechanism. The modeling analysis based on the validated model helps to quantify the heat generation rates of each heat sources during the overcharge-to-TR process. And the two thermal runaway reactions including the electrolyte oxidation reaction and the reaction between deposited lithium and electrolyte are found to contribute most to the heat generations during the overcharge process. Further modeling analysis on the critical parameters is performed to find possible solutions for the overcharge problem of lithium ion battery. The result shows that increasing the oxidation potential of the electrolyte, and increasing the onset temperature of thermal runaway are the two effective ways to improve the overcharge performance of lithium ion battery.

  12. A review on lithium-ion power battery thermal management technologies and thermal safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhoujian; Jia, Li; Ding, Yong; Dang, Chao; Li, Xuejiao

    2017-10-01

    Lithium-ion power battery has become one of the main power sources for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles because of superior performance compared with other power sources. In order to ensure the safety and improve the performance, the maximum operating temperature and local temperature difference of batteries must be maintained in an appropriate range. The effect of temperature on the capacity fade and aging are simply investigated. The electrode structure, including electrode thickness, particle size and porosity, are analyzed. It is found that all of them have significant influences on the heat generation of battery. Details of various thermal management technologies, namely air based, phase change material based, heat pipe based and liquid based, are discussed and compared from the perspective of improving the external heat dissipation. The selection of different battery thermal management (BTM) technologies should be based on the cooling demand and applications, and liquid cooling is suggested being the most suitable method for large-scale battery pack charged/discharged at higher C-rate and in high-temperature environment. The thermal safety in the respect of propagation and suppression of thermal runaway is analyzed.

  13. Thermal Runaway Severity Reduction Assessment and Implementation: On Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Preventing cell-cell thermal runaway propagation and flames/sparks from exiting battery enclosure is possible with proper thermal & electrical design and cell thermal runaway ejecta/effluent management and can be had with minimal mass/volume penalty.

  14. Effects of Angular Fillers on Thermal Runaway of Lithium-Ion Battery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meng Wang Anh V.Le Yang Shi Daniel J.Noelle Hyojung Yoon Minghao Zhang Y.Shirley Meng Yu Qiao

    2016-01-01

    By adding 1 wt% damage homogenizer(DH), i.e. carbon black microparticles, into the electrodes of lithiumion batteries, thermal runaway can be mitigated as the battery cells are subjected to impact loadings...

  15. Mechanistic elucidation of thermal runaway in potassium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan A.; Varma, Arvind; Pol, Vilas G.

    2018-01-01

    For the first time, thermal runaway of charged graphite anodes for K-ion batteries is investigated, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to probe the exothermic degradation reactions. Investigated parameters such as state of charge, cycle number, surface area, and binder demonstrate strong influences on the DSC profiles. Thermal runaway initiates at 100 °C owing to KxC8 - electrolyte reactions, but the K-ion graphite anode evolves significantly less heat as compared to the analogous Li-ion system (395 J g-1 vs. 1048 J g-1). The large volumetric expansion of graphite during potassiation cracks the SEI layer, enabling contact and reaction of KC8 - electrolyte, which diminishes with cycle number due to continuous SEI growth. High surface area graphite decreases the total heat generation, owing to thermal stability of the K-ion SEI layer. These findings illustrate the dynamic nature of K-ion thermal runaway and its many contrasts with the Li-ion graphite system, permitting possible engineering solutions for safer batteries.

  16. Gas Control and Thermal Modeling Methods for Pressed Pellet and Fast Rise Thin-Film Thermal Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    high operating battery case temperatures. Acceptable hermetic seals for thermal batteries ordinarily use laser welding , tungsten inert gas ( TIG ... welding , or high temperature (~1000 °C) melting point silver solder methods. 31 Thin-walled thermal battery cases can be hermetically sealed for gas...high temperature attachment of standard gas collection fittings using high temperature attachment methods such as laser welding with external

  17. Lithium-Ion Batteries: Thermal Behaviour Investigation of Unbalanced Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Capron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the thermal behaviour of an unbalanced battery module made of large lithium iron phosphate cylindrical cells of 18 Ah nominal capacity is investigated during its discharge with 18 A, 54 A and 90 A currents. For this study, several cells were assigned in the module to 5%, 10% and 20% initial depth of discharge (DoD. The thermal management of the cells in the module is achieved based on a forced air cooling. The computations of the temperature distribution inside the cells and the module are performed with a two-dimensional modelling approach. During the discharges, the cells with a non-zero initial DoD show a more pronounced temperature increase up to 5% compared to the reference cells. In the end of the three discharges, the highest temperatures 26.5 °C (18 A, 29.6 °C  (54 A and 32.3 °C  (90 A, respectively, are reached for the cells with the highest initial DoD. For these cells, with the increase in the current rate, the highest amount of total heat exceeds 25 W. The reactive and the active heats are found to be the main contributors to the total heat generated by the cells. This study provides the effect of the initial DoD of the cells on the temperature development occurring in an unbalanced battery module during its discharge.

  18. Field Synergy Analysis and Optimization of the Thermal Behavior of Lithium Ion Battery Packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a three dimensional (3D modeling has been built for a lithium ion battery pack using the field synergy principle to obtain a better thermal distribution. In the model, the thermal behavior of the battery pack was studied by reducing the maximum temperature, improving the temperature uniformity and considering the difference between the maximum and maximum temperature of the battery pack. The method is further verified by simulation results based on different environmental temperatures and discharge rates. The thermal behavior model demonstrates that the design and cooling policy of the battery pack is crucial for optimizing the air-outlet patterns of electric vehicle power cabins.

  19. Parameterization and Observability Analysis of Scalable Battery Clusters for Onboard Thermal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    which includes the current from regenerative braking . Repeated UAC cycles are used as the model input to generate the surface temperature Ts to test...battery thermal dynamics is the key to an effective thermal management system and to main- tain safety, performance, and life longevity of these Li-Ion...the current and surface temperature of the battery, which are the commonly mea- sured signals in a vehicle battery management system . It is shown that

  20. Safety via Thermal Shutdown for Space Rated Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Li-ion battery safety has inspired many safety features from CID, to safety valves. However, none of the current features protect a battery from internal...

  1. Thermal modeling. Application to lithium batteries; Modelisation thermique. Application aux accumulateurs lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandre, A. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d`Aerotechnique (ENSMA), 86 - Poitiers (France); Flament, P. [SAFT, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Marolleau, T. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France); Guiot, T.; Lefriec, C. [TSR Futuropolis, 86 - Chasseneuil du Poitou (France)

    1996-12-31

    The thermal modeling of electrochemical batteries is today an integral part of the design and validation operations of new products. The Li-ion pair allows to increase the power density of batteries but leads to higher heat fluxes during charging-output cycles. Thus, the thermal control has become more crucial and requires the use of modeling. SAFT and TSR companies are involved in this approach and use the ESACAP software. This paper presents this software which uses a nodal method for the modeling of the coupled thermal and electrical processes that take place inside elementary cells and batteries. (J.S.)

  2. Evaluation of heat sink materials for thermal management of lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimpault-Darcy, E. C.; Miller, K.

    1988-01-01

    Aluminum, neopentyl glycol (NPG), and resins FT and KT are evaluated theoretically and experimentally as heat sink materials for lithium battery packs. The thermal performances of the two resins are compared in a thermal vacuum experiment. As solutions to the sublimation property were not immediately apparent, a theoretical comparison of the thermal performance of NPG versus KT, Al, and no material, is presented.

  3. Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Thomas F. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Bandhauer, Todd (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Garimella, Srinivas (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)

    2012-01-01

    A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.

  4. Tools for Designing Thermal Management of Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.; Keyser, M.; Kim, G. H.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.

    2013-02-01

    Temperature has a significant impact on life, performance, and safety of lithium-ion battery technology, which is expected to be the energy storage of choice for electric drive vehicles (xEVs). High temperatures degrade Li-ion cells faster while low temperatures reduce power and energy capabilities that could have cost, reliability, range, or drivability implications. Thermal management of battery packs in xEVs is essential to keep the cells in the desired temperature range and also reduce cell-to-cell temperature variations, both of which impact life and performance. The value that the battery thermal management system provides in reducing battery life and improving performance outweighs its additional cost and complexity. Tools that are essential for thermal management of batteries are infrared thermal imaging, isothermal calorimetry, thermal conductivity meter and computer-aided thermal analysis design software. This presentation provides details of these tools that NREL has used and we believe are needed to design right-sized battery thermal management systems.

  5. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegan, Donal P.; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B.; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J.; Millichamp, Jason; Di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J.; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J.L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features. PMID:25919582

  6. Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Analysis of Failure Propagation in Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-07-28

    This is a presentation given at the 12th World Congress for Computational Mechanics on coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal analysis of failure propagation in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  7. Three Dimensional Thermal Modeling of Li-Ion Battery Pack Based on Multiphysics and Calorimetric Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional multiphysics-based thermal model of a battery pack is presented. The model is intended to demonstrate the cooling mechanism inside the battery pack. Heat transfer (HT) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) physics are coupled for both time-dependent and steady-state simulation...... is simulated to find the temperature gradient over the pack surfaces. Moreover, the temperature evolution results are simulated. It is demonstrated that the developed pack model can provide the thermal spatio-temporal behaviour with great detail. The result helps to understand the thermal behavior of the cells....... Inside the battery cells in the pack a lumped value of heat generation (HG), that works as a volumetric heat source, is used. The measured HG stems from the cell level isothermal calorimeter experiment. The batteries inside the pack stay in the same initial thermal state in the simulation case. The pack...

  8. Thermal management for high-capacity large format Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin; Kepler, Keith Douglas; Pannala, Sreekanth; Allu, Srikanth

    2017-05-30

    A lithium ion battery includes a cathode in electrical and thermal connection with a cathode current collector. The cathode current collector has an electrode tab. A separator is provided. An anode is in electrical and thermal connection with an anode current collector. The anode current collector has an electrode tab. At least one of the cathode current collector and the anode current collector comprises a thermal tab for heat transfer with the at least one current collector. The thermal tab is separated from the electrode tab. A method of operating a battery is also disclosed.

  9. Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy as a Cost Efficient Method for Determining Thermal Parameters of Lithium Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (HEV, PHEV, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging and discharging power capability rates...... by Barsoukov et al. proposed electrothermal impedance spectroscopy (ETIS) as a novel and non-destructive method of characterizing the thermal properties of batteries by defining frequency dependent thermal impedance. This paper aims to systematize the state of knowledge about ETIS, presents measurement methods...

  10. Experimental performances of a battery thermal management system using a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hémery, Charles-Victor; Pra, Franck; Robin, Jean-François; Marty, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Li-ion batteries are leading candidates for mobility because electric vehicles (EV) are an environmentally friendly mean of transport. With age, Li-ion cells show a more resistive behavior leading to extra heat generation. Another kind of problem called thermal runway arises when the cell is too hot, what happens in case of overcharge or short circuit. In order to evaluate the effect of these defects at the whole battery scale, an air-cooled battery module was built and tested, using electrical heaters instead of real cells for safety reasons. A battery thermal management system based on a phase change material is developed in that study. This passive system is coupled with an active liquid cooling system in order to initialize the battery temperature at the melting of the PCM. This initialization, or PCM solidification, can be performed during a charge for example, in other words when the energy from the network is available.

  11. Thermal modeling of a cylindrical LiFePO{sub 4}/graphite lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgez, Christophe; Vinh Do, Dinh; Friedrich, Guy [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, EA 1006, Laboratoire d' Electromecanique de Compiegne, BP 20529, 60205 Compiegne Cedex (France); Morcrette, Mathieu; Delacourt, Charles [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, UMR 6007, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 Rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens (France)

    2010-05-01

    A lumped-parameter thermal model of a cylindrical LiFePO{sub 4}/graphite lithium-ion battery is developed. Heat transfer coefficients and heat capacity are determined from simultaneous measurements of the surface temperature and the internal temperature of the battery while applying 2 Hz current pulses of different magnitudes. For internal temperature measurements, a thermocouple is introduced into the battery under inert atmosphere. Heat transfer coefficients (thermal resistances in the model) inside and outside the battery are obtained from thermal steady state temperature measurements, whereas the heat capacity (thermal capacitance in the model) is determined from the transient part. The accuracy of the estimation of internal temperature from surface temperature measurements using the model is validated on current-pulse experiments and a complete charge/discharge of the battery and is within 1.5 C. Furthermore, the model allows for simulating the internal temperature directly from the measured current and voltage of the battery. The model is simple enough to be implemented in battery management systems for electric vehicles. (author)

  12. Thermal management of a Li-ion battery pack employing water evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yonghuan; Yu, Ziqun; Song, Guangji

    2017-08-01

    Battery thermal management (BTM) system plays a key part in vehicle thermal safety. A novel method employing water evaporation is presented in this paper. The thin sodium alginate film (SA-1 film) with water content of 99 wt% is prepared using a simple spraying method, and is attached on the surface of battery pack to explore its effectiveness on preventing heat accumulation. The result shows that under the condition with constant current charge/discharge larger than 1 C, the temperature rise rate is reduced by half. Under the condition with the New Europe Drive Cycle, the temperature could maintain stable without obvious rise. Moreover, a simple water automatic-refilling system is designed to address the dry issue of the film in terms of evaporation elimination. The proposed SA-1 film BTM system shows to be a very convenient and efficient approach in handling the thermal surge of Li-ion batteries without any change in battery pack integration and assembly.

  13. Electro-thermal analysis of Lithium Iron Phosphate battery for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, L. H.; Somasundaram, K.; Ye, Y.; Tay, A. A. O.

    2014-03-01

    Lithium ion batteries offer an attractive solution for powering electric vehicles due to their relatively high specific energy and specific power, however, the temperature of the batteries greatly affects their performance as well as cycle life. In this work, an empirical equation characterizing the battery's electrical behavior is coupled with a lumped thermal model to analyze the electrical and thermal behavior of the 18650 Lithium Iron Phosphate cell. Under constant current discharging mode, the cell temperature increases with increasing charge/discharge rates. The dynamic behavior of the battery is also analyzed under a Simplified Federal Urban Driving Schedule and it is found that heat generated from the battery during this cycle is negligible. Simulation results are validated with experimental data. The validated single cell model is then extended to study the dynamic behavior of an electric vehicle battery pack. The modeling results predict that more heat is generated on an aggressive US06 driving cycle as compared to UDDS and HWFET cycle. An extensive thermal management system is needed for the electric vehicle battery pack especially during aggressive driving conditions to ensure that the cells are maintained within the desirable operating limits and temperature uniformity is achieved between the cells.

  14. New Electro-Thermal Battery Pack Model of an Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Alhanouti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution of the electric and hybrid vehicle, the analysis of batteries’ characteristics and influence on driving range has become essential. This fact advocates the necessity of accurate simulation modeling for batteries. Different models for the Li-ion battery cell are reviewed in this paper and a group of the highly dynamic models is selected for comparison. A new open circuit voltage (OCV model is proposed. The new model can simulate the OCV curves of lithium iron magnesium phosphate (LiFeMgPO4 battery type at different temperatures. It also considers both charging and discharging cases. The most remarkable features from different models, in addition to the proposed OCV model, are integrated in a single hybrid electrical model. A lumped thermal model is implemented to simulate the temperature development in the battery cell. The synthesized electro-thermal battery cell model is extended to model a battery pack of an actual electric vehicle. Experimental tests on the battery, as well as drive tests on the vehicle are performed. The proposed model demonstrates a higher modeling accuracy, for the battery pack voltage, than the constituent models under extreme maneuver drive tests.

  15. Enhancing Low-Grade Thermal Energy Recovery in a Thermally Regenerative Ammonia Battery Using Elevated Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2015-02-13

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a new approach for converting low-grade thermal energy into electricity by using an ammonia electrolyte and copper electrodes. TRAB operation at 72°C produced a power density of 236±8 Wm-2, with a linear decrease in power to 95±5 Wm-2 at 23°C. The improved power at higher temperatures was due to reduced electrode overpotentials and more favorable thermodynamics for the anode reaction (copper oxidation). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650 Whm-3 at a discharge energy efficiency of 54% and a temperature of 37°C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot-based efficiency of up to 13% and an overall thermal energy recovery of 0.5%. It should be possible to substantially improve these energy recoveries through optimization of electrolyte concentrations and by using improved ion-selective membranes and energy recovery systems such as heat exchangers.

  16. Big-Data-Based Thermal Runaway Prognosis of Battery Systems for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichao Hong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A thermal runaway prognosis scheme for battery systems in electric vehicles is proposed based on the big data platform and entropy method. It realizes the diagnosis and prognosis of thermal runaway simultaneously, which is caused by the temperature fault through monitoring battery temperature during vehicular operations. A vast quantity of real-time voltage monitoring data is derived from the National Service and Management Center for Electric Vehicles (NSMC-EV in Beijing. Furthermore, a thermal security management strategy for thermal runaway is presented under the Z-score approach. The abnormity coefficient is introduced to present real-time precautions of temperature abnormity. The results illustrated that the proposed method can accurately forecast both the time and location of the temperature fault within battery packs. The presented method is flexible in all disorder systems and possesses widespread application potential in not only electric vehicles, but also other areas with complex abnormal fluctuating environments.

  17. Thermal explosion hazards on 18650 lithium ion batteries with a VSP2 adiabatic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhu, Can-Yong [Doctoral Program, Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (NYUST), 123, University Rd., Sec. 3, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Yih-Wen, E-mail: g9410825@yuntech.edu.tw [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, 79-9, Sha-Luen-Hu, Xi-Zhou-Li, Houlong, Miaoli 35664, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shu, Chi-Min [Doctoral Program, Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (NYUST), 123, University Rd., Sec. 3, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Jian-Chuang; Wu, Hung-Chun [Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), Rm. 222, Bldg. 77, 2F, 195, Sec. 4, Chung Hsing Rd., Chutung, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2011-08-15

    Thermal abuse behaviors relating to adiabatic runaway reactions in commercial 18650 lithium ion batteries (LiCoO{sub 2}) are being studied in an adiabatic calorimeter, vent sizing package 2 (VSP2). We select four worldwide battery producers, Sony, Sanyo, Samsung and LG, and tested their Li-ion batteries, which have LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes, to determine their thermal instabilities and adiabatic runaway features. The charged (4.2 V) and uncharged (3.7 V) 18650 Li-ion batteries are tested using a VSP2 with a customized stainless steel test can to evaluate their thermal hazard characteristics, such as the initial exothermic temperature (T{sub 0}), the self-heating rate (dT/dt), the pressure rise rate (dP/dt), the pressure-temperature profiles and the maximum temperature (T{sub max}) and pressure (P{sub max}). The T{sub max} and P{sub max} of the charged Li-ion battery during the runaway reaction reach 903.0 {sup o}C and 1565.9 psig (pound-force per square inch gauge), respectively. This result leads to a thermal explosion, and the heat of reaction is 26.2 kJ. The thermokinetic parameters of the reaction of LiCoO{sub 2} batteries are also determined using the Arrhenius model. The thermal reaction mechanism of the Li-ion battery (pack) proved to be an important safety concern for energy storage. Additionally, use of the VSP2 to classify the self-reactive ratings of the various Li-ion batteries demonstrates a new application of the adiabatic calorimetric methodology.

  18. Thermal Analysis of the Vulnerability of the Spacesuit Battery Design to Short-Circuit Conditions (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G. H.; Chaney, L.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.

    2010-04-22

    NREL researchers created a mathematical model of a full 16p-5s spacesuit battery for NASA that captures electrical/thermal behavior during shorts to assess the vulnerability of the battery to pack-internal (cell-external) shorts. They found that relocating the short from battery pack-external (experimental validation) to pack-internal (modeling study) causes substantial additional heating of cells, which can lead to cell thermal runaway. All three layers of the bank-to-bank separator must fail for the pack-internal short scenario to occur. This finding emphasizes the imperative of battery pack assembly cleanliness. The design is tolerant to pack-internal shorts when stored at 0% state of charge.

  19. A review of thermal management and safety for lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    Decreasing of fossil fuel sources and ecological worries has spurred global attention in the expansion of developing energy storing systems for electric vehicles (EVs). As a consequence of escalating appeal on new dependable power supplier for hybrid electric vehicles, lithium-ion (Li......-ion) batteries have obtained much considerations in the previous decade. Their highest production rate among other types of batteries is because of their superior characteristics. Greater energy efficiency, lesser self-discharge rate, more lifespan and the nonexistence of the memory effect are the main reasons...... that make them interesting for researchers and producers. Thermal problem related to electric vehicle (EV) battery packs has been a matter of contention and can considerably influence battery functioning and life cycle. Temperature variations from module to module in a battery pack could result in reduced...

  20. Electrochemical-Thermal Modeling and Microscale Phase Change for Passive Internal Thermal Management of Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandhauer, Todd Matthew

    In the current investigation, a fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the effects of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. This work represents the first ever study of these coupled electrochemical-thermal phenomena in batteries from the electrochemical heat generation all the way to the dynamic heat removal in actual hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) drive cycles. In addition, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid, thereby allowing battery performance to improve unimpeded by thermal limitations. For the battery model, local electrochemical reaction rates are predicted using temperature-dependent data on a commercially available battery designed for high rates (C/LiFePO4) in a computationally efficient manner. Data were collected on this small battery (˜1 Ah) over a wide range of temperatures (10°C to 60°C), depths of discharge (0.15 Ah loading, which serves as the basis for the electrochemical-thermal model development. This model is then used to compare the effects of external and internal cooling on battery performance. The proposed internal cooling system utilizes microchannels inserted into the interior of the cell that contain a liquid-vapor phase change fluid for heat removal at the source of heat generation. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow for pure refrigerants at low mass fluxes (G thermally driven refrigerant (R134a) flow in a representative test section geometry (3.175 mm x 160 mm) is investigated using a surrogate heat source. Heat inputs were varied over a wide range of values representative of battery operating conditions (120 calculate the two-phase frictional pressure drop in the

  1. Report of NPSAT1 Battery Thermal Contact Resistance Testing, Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    environment (sunlight and eclipse portions of the orbit, earth albedo , etc.) and duty cycling of the electronics for internal heat generation. A network of...polycarbonate sheets and stainless steel fasteners. A thermally conductive elastomeric material, Chotherm®, is used between the housing and the...polycarbonate sheets to help distribute heat among the battery cells. The Chotherm® comes in direct contact with the leads of the battery cells. A 5-Watt

  2. Interpretation of Simultaneous Mechanical-Electrical-Thermal Failure in a Lithium-Ion Battery Module: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Stock, Mark J.; Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas; Gruchalla, Kenny

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently the state-of- the-art power sources for electric vehicles, and their safety behavior when subjected to abuse, such as a mechanical impact, is of critical concern. A coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal model for simulating the behavior of a lithium-ion battery under a mechanical crush has been developed. We present a series of production-quality visualizations to illustrate the complex mechanical and electrical interactions in this model.

  3. A review of thermal performance improving methods of lithium ion battery: Electrode modification and thermal management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Sijie; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2015-12-01

    Lithium ion (Li-ion) battery has emerged as an important power source for portable devices and electric vehicles due to its superiority over other energy storage technologies. A mild temperature variation as well as a proper operating temperature range are essential for a Li-ion battery to perform soundly and have a long service life. In this review paper, the heat generation and dissipation of Li-ion battery are firstly analyzed based on the energy conservation equations, followed by an examination of the hazardous effects of an above normal operating temperature. Then, advanced techniques in respect of electrode modification and systematic battery thermal management are inspected in detail as solutions in terms of reducing internal heat production and accelerating external heat dissipation, respectively. Specifically, variable parameters like electrode thickness and particle size of active material, along with optimization methods such as coating, doping, and adding conductive media are discussed in the electrode modification section, while the current development in air cooling, liquid cooling, heat pipe cooling, and phase change material cooling systems are reviewed in the thermal management part as different ways to improve the thermal performance of Li-ion batteries.

  4. Thermal hydraulic behavior and efficiency analysis of an all-vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Binyu; Zhao, Jiyun; Tseng, K. J.; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Zhang, Yu

    2013-11-01

    Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs) are very competitive for large-capacity energy storage in power grids and in smart buildings due to low maintenance costs, high design flexibility, and long cycle life. Thermal hydraulic modeling of VRB energy storage systems is an important issue and temperature has remarkable impacts on the battery efficiency, the lifetime of material and the stability of the electrolytes. In this paper, a lumped model including auxiliary pump effect is developed to investigate the VRB temperature responses under different operating and surrounding environmental conditions. The impact of electrolyte flow rate and temperature on the battery electrical characteristics and efficiencies are also investigated. A one kilowatt VRB system is selected to conduct numerical simulations. The thermal hydraulic model is benchmarked with experimental data and good agreement is found. Simulation results show that pump power is sensitive to hydraulic design and flow rates. The temperature in the stack and tanks rises up about 10 °C under normal operating conditions for the stack design and electrolyte volume selected. An optimal flow rate of around 90 cm3 s-1 is obtained for the proposed battery configuration to maximize battery efficiency. The models developed in this paper can also be used for the development of a battery control strategy to achieve satisfactory thermal hydraulic performance and maximize energy efficiency.

  5. Novel thermal management system using boiling cooling for high-powered lithium-ion battery packs for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zareer, Maan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    2017-09-01

    A thermal management system is necessary to control the operating temperature of the lithium ion batteries in battery packs for electrical and hybrid electrical vehicles. This paper proposes a new battery thermal management system based on one type of phase change material for the battery packs in hybrid electrical vehicles and develops a three dimensional electrochemical thermal model. The temperature distributions of the batteries are investigated under various operating conditions for comparative evaluations. The proposed system boils liquid propane to remove the heat generated by the batteries, and the propane vapor is used to cool the part of the battery that is not covered with liquid propane. The effect on the thermal behavior of the battery pack of the height of the liquid propane inside the battery pack, relative to the height of the battery, is analyzed. The results show that the propane based thermal management system provides good cooling control of the temperature of the batteries under high and continuous charge and discharge cycles at 7.5C.

  6. Thermal Behavior and Heat Generation Modeling of Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Lithium Sulfur batteries are receiving a lot of research interest because of their intrinsic characteristics, such as very high energy density and increased safety, which make them a suitable solution for zero-emission vehicles and space application. This paper analyses the influence...... of the temperature on the performance parameters of a 3.4 Ah Lithium-Sulfur battery cell. Furthermore, the values of the internal resistance and entropic heat coefficient, which are necessary for the parametrization of a heat generation model, are determined experimentally....

  7. Thermal characteristics of air flow cooling in the lithium ion batteries experimental chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukhanin A.; Rohatgi U.; Belyaev, A.; Fedorchenko, D.; Khazhmuradov, M.; Lukhanin, O; Rudychev, I.

    2012-07-08

    A battery pack prototype has been designed and built to evaluate various air cooling concepts for the thermal management of Li-ion batteries. The heat generation from the Li-Ion batteries was simulated with electrical heat generation devices with the same dimensions as the Li-Ion battery (200 mm x 150 mm x 12 mm). Each battery simulator generates up to 15W of heat. There are 20 temperature probes placed uniformly on the surface of the battery simulator, which can measure temperatures in the range from -40 C to +120 C. The prototype for the pack has up to 100 battery simulators and temperature probes are recorder using a PC based DAQ system. We can measure the average surface temperature of the simulator, temperature distribution on each surface and temperature distributions in the pack. The pack which holds the battery simulators is built as a crate, with adjustable gap (varies from 2mm to 5mm) between the simulators for air flow channel studies. The total system flow rate and the inlet flow temperature are controlled during the test. The cooling channel with various heat transfer enhancing devices can be installed between the simulators to investigate the cooling performance. The prototype was designed to configure the number of cooling channels from one to hundred Li-ion battery simulators. The pack is thermally isolated which prevents heat transfer from the pack to the surroundings. The flow device can provide the air flow rate in the gap of up to 5m/s velocity and air temperature in the range from -30 C to +50 C. Test results are compared with computational modeling of the test configurations. The present test set up will be used for future tests for developing and validating new cooling concepts such as surface conditions or heat pipes.

  8. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  9. Thermal analysis of large-capacity LiFePO4 power batteries for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunjing; Xu, Sichuan; Li, Zhao; Li, Bin; Chang, Guofeng; Liu, Jinling

    2015-10-01

    Excellent design of a thermal management system requires good understanding of the thermal behaviors of power batteries. In this study, the electrochemical and heat performances of a prismatic 40 Ah C/LiFePO4 battery are investigated with a focus on the influence of temperature on cell capacity in a mixed charge-discharge cycle. In addition, the heat generation and energy efficiency of a battery are determined during charge and discharge at different current rates. The experimental results indicate that in certain temperature ranges, both the charging and discharging capacities increase significantly as the temperature increases. In addition, the energy efficiency reaches more than 95% when the battery runs at a current rate of 0.33 C-2 C and temperature of 25-45 °C. A thermal mathematical model based on experimentally obtained internal resistances and entropy coefficients is developed. Using this model, the increase in the battery temperature is simulated based on specific heat values that are measured experimentally and calculated theoretically. The results from the simulation indicate that the temperature increase agrees well with the experimental values, the measured specific heat provides better results than the calculated specific heat and the heat generated decreases as the temperature increases.

  10. A materials database for Li(Si)/FeS sub 2 thermal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, R.A.

    1990-09-01

    The establishment of a database for the materials that are used in production Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal batteries designed at Sandia National Laboratories is described. The database is a Hewlett-Packard (HP) network type (IMAGE) designed to run on an HP3000 computer. Heavy emphasis is placed on the use of screen forms for entry, editing, and retrieval of data. Custom screen forms were used for the various materials in the battery. For the purposes of the materials database, each battery is composed of four mixes: cathode, separator, anode, and heat (pyrotechnic) powders. A consistent lot-numbering system was adopted for both the mixes and the discrete components that make up the mixes. Each serial number of a particular battery is linked to the lot numbers of the four mixes used in the battery. Each mix, in turn, is linked to the lot numbers of the discrete components that are contained within the mix. This allows traceability of each of the components used in any given serial number of a particular battery. The materials database provides the necessary traceability, as required by the Department of Energy, for the lifetime of the program associated with the battery. 3 refs., 23 figs.

  11. Thermal conductivity and internal temperature profiles of Li-ion secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Frank; Kjelstrup, Signe; Vie, Preben J. S.; Burheim, Odne S.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we report the thermal conductivity for commercial battery components. Materials were obtained from several electrode- and separator manufacturers, and some were extracted from commercial batteries. We measured with and without electrolyte solvent and at different compaction pressures. The experimentally obtained values are used in a thermal model and corresponding internal temperature profiles are shown. The thermal conductivity of dry separator materials was found to range from 0.07 ± 0.01 to 0.18 ± 0.02 WK-1m-1 . Dry electrode (active) materials ranged from 0.13 ± 0.02 to 0.61 ± 0.02 WK-1m-1 . Adding the electrolyte solvent increased the thermal conductivity of electrode (active) materials by at least a factor of 2.

  12. Electrothermal impedance spectroscopy as a cost efficient method for determining thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging...... for parametrization. Recent research initiated by Barsoukov et al. proposed electrothermal impedance spectroscopy as a novel and non-destructive method of characterizing the thermal properties of batteries by defining frequency dependent thermal impedance. Despite its usefulness, the electrothermal impedance...... spectroscopy method can be still improved in terms of e.g. accuracy and measurement time and it has a potential to be extended to new applications. Performed review indicates that the electrothermal impedance spectroscopy is a very promising, non-destructive, simple and especially cost-efficient method...

  13. Extreme learning machine based spatiotemporal modeling of lithium-ion battery thermal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Han-Xiong

    2015-03-01

    Due to the overwhelming complexity of the electrochemical related behaviors and internal structure of lithium ion batteries, it is difficult to obtain an accurate mathematical expression of their thermal dynamics based on the physical principal. In this paper, a data based thermal model which is suitable for online temperature distribution estimation is proposed for lithium-ion batteries. Based on the physics based model, a simple but effective low order model is obtained using the Karhunen-Loeve decomposition method. The corresponding uncertain chemical related heat generation term in the low order model is approximated using extreme learning machine. All uncertain parameters in the low order model can be determined analytically in a linear way. Finally, the temperature distribution of the whole battery can be estimated in real time based on the identified low order model. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. The simple training process of the model makes it superior for onboard application.

  14. New low temperature electrolytes with thermal runaway inhibition for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Braja K.; Padhi, Akshaya K.; Shi, Zhong; Chakraborty, Sudipto; Filler, Robert

    This paper describes a low temperature electrolyte system for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. The electrolyte exhibits high ionic conductivity, good electrochemical stability and no exothermic reaction in the presence of lithium metal. The system features a low lattice energy lithium salt in a specific mixture of carbonate solvents and a novel thermal runaway inhibitor.

  15. Considerations for the Thermal Modeling of Lithium-Ion Cells for Battery Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickman, Steven L.; Christie, Robert J.; White, Ralph E.

    Recent well-publicized events involving lithium-ion batteries in laptops, electric cars, commercial aircraft and even hover boards have raised concerns regarding thermal runaway -- a phenomenon in which stored energy in a cell is rapidly released as heat along with vented effluents. If not properly...

  16. Qualitative thermal characterization and cooling of lithium batteries for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, A.; D'Annibale, F.; Boccardi, G.; Celata, G. P.; Menale, C.; Bubbico, R.; Vellucci, F.

    2014-04-01

    The paper deals with the cooling of batteries. The first step was the thermal characterization of a single cell of the module, which consists in the detection of the thermal field by means of thermographic tests during electric charging and discharging. The purpose was to identify possible critical hot points and to evaluate the cooling demand during the normal operation of an electric car. After that, a study on the optimal configuration to obtain the flattening of the temperature profile and to avoid hot points was executed. An experimental plant for cooling capacity evaluation of the batteries, using air as cooling fluid, was realized in our laboratory in ENEA Casaccia. The plant is designed to allow testing at different flow rate and temperatures of the cooling air, useful for the assessment of operative thermal limits in different working conditions. Another experimental facility was built to evaluate the thermal behaviour changes with water as cooling fluid. Experimental tests were carried out on the LiFePO4 batteries, under different electric working conditions using the two loops. In the future, different type of batteries will be tested and the influence of various parameters on the heat transfer will be assessed for possible optimal operative solutions.

  17. Synthesis of CaCrO{sub 4} powders for the cathode material of the thermal battery by GNP and electrochemical characteristics of Ca/LiCl-KCl/CaCrO{sub 4} thermal battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Whung Whoe

    2000-04-01

    Thermal batteries are one of the devices employing solid electrolyte that are not nonconductive at ambient temperature, and activated by electrochemical reaction when the sufficient heat is supplied to electrolyte to melt. The demand of thermal batteries would be increased because it is cost effective and highly reliable in that no maintenance is necessary, electric power can be generated as necessary and no self discharge unlike the other primary batteries. These thermal batteries are used to the military purposes and satellite communication systems and as an emergency power sources, applied to the important places where power supply should not be interrupted, such as hospital, powder plants, ships and portable communication devices. Therefore, the purpose of this study was focused to obtain the manufacturing technologies of thermal battery on our own, after manufacturing the CaCrO{sub 4} produced by GNP and investigating the electrochemical characteristics of Ca/LiCl-KCl+CaCrO{sub 4}/Ni.

  18. PCM Thermal Control of Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    vessel DOD depth of discharge EOL end of life ESLI Energy Science Laboratories, Inc. Na-S sodium sulfur Ni-H2 nickel hydrogen Ni-Cd nickel cadmium NiMH...high temperature sodium - sulfur batteries forFigure 1 PCC conductivity structure design stli adeeti eil plctos options. satellite and electric vehicle...Table I Phase change material candidates for storing 10 kWh heat within AT = 30’C at 350’C. Material Weight (kg) Volume (Liter) Sodium - sulfur cells

  19. Multiphysics Based Thermal Modeling of a Pouch Lithium-Ion Battery Cell for the Development of Pack Level Thermal Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    The research is focused on the development of a three-dimensional cell level multiphysics battery thermal model. The primary aim is to represent the cooling mechanism inside the unit cell battery pack. It is accomplished through the coupling of heat transfer and computational fluid dynamics (CFD......) physics. A lumped value of heat generation (HG) inside the battery cell is used. It stems from isothermal calorimeter experiment. HG depends on current rate and the corresponding operating temperature. It is demonstrated that the developed model provides a deeper understanding of the thermal spatio......-temporal behavior of Li-ion battery in different operating conditions....

  20. Novel thermal management system design methodology for power lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Nerea; Díaz, Luis; Gastelurrutia, Jon; Blanco, Francisco; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Rivas, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    Battery packs conformed by large format lithium-ion cells are increasingly being adopted in hybrid and pure electric vehicles in order to use the energy more efficiently and for a better environmental performance. Safety and cycle life are two of the main concerns regarding this technology, which are closely related to the cell's operating behavior and temperature asymmetries in the system. Therefore, the temperature of the cells in battery packs needs to be controlled by thermal management systems (TMSs). In the present paper an improved design methodology for developing TMSs is proposed. This methodology involves the development of different mathematical models for heat generation, transmission, and dissipation and their coupling and integration in the battery pack product design methodology in order to improve the overall safety and performance. The methodology is validated by comparing simulation results with laboratory measurements on a single module of the battery pack designed at IK4-IKERLAN for a traction application. The maximum difference between model predictions and experimental temperature data is 2 °C. The models developed have shown potential for use in battery thermal management studies for EV/HEV applications since they allow for scalability with accuracy and reasonable simulation time.

  1. Cooling Simulation and Thermal Abuse Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using the Newman, Tiedemann, Gu, and Kim (NTGK) Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    This paper gives insight into the cooling simulation and thermal abuse modeling of lithium-ion batteries by ANSYS FLUENT. Cooling strategies are important issues in the thermal management of lithium-ion battery systems, and it is essential to investigate them attentively in order to maintain......) model has been implemented in ANSYS FLUENT software. The results show that to achieve an optimum energy consumption for battery cooling, a minimum value of average heat transfer coefficient can be selected in order to keep the functioning temperature of batteries within an optimum range....

  2. Can Cell to Cell Thermal Runaway Propagation be Prevented in a Li-ion Battery Module?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith; Lopez, Carlos; Orieukwu, Josephat

    2014-01-01

    Increasing cell spacing decreased adjacent cell damage center dotElectrically connected adjacent cells drained more than physically adjacent cells center dotRadiant barrier prevents propagation when fully installed between BP cells center dotBP cells vent rapidly and expel contents at 100% SOC -Slower vent with flame/smoke at 50% -Thermal runaway event typically occurs at 160 degC center dotLG cells vent but do not expel contents -Thermal runaway event typically occurs at 200 degC center dotSKC LFP modules did not propagate; fuses on negative terminal of cell may provide a benefit in reducing cell to cell damage propagation. New requirement in NASA-Battery Safety Requirements document: JSC 20793 Rev C 5.1.5.1 Requirements - Thermal Runaway Propagation a. For battery designs greater than a 80-Wh energy employing high specific energy cells (greater than 80 watt-hours/kg, for example, lithium-ion chemistries) with catastrophic failure modes, the battery shall be evaluated to ascertain the severity of a worst-case single-cell thermal runaway event and the propensity of the design to demonstrate cell-to-cell propagation in the intended application and environment. NASA has traditionally addressed the threat of thermal runaway incidents in its battery deployments through comprehensive prevention protocols. This prevention-centered approach has included extensive screening for manufacturing defects, as well as robust battery management controls that prevent abuse-induced runaway even in the face of multiple system failures. This focused strategy has made the likelihood of occurrence of such an event highly improbable. b. The evaluation shall include all necessary analysis and test to quantify the severity (consequence) of the event in the intended application and environment as well as to identify design modifications to the battery or the system that could appreciably reduce that severity. In addition to prevention protocols, programs developing battery designs with

  3. Design of Parallel Air-Cooled Battery Thermal Management System through Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In electric vehicles, the battery pack is one of the most important components that strongly influence the system performance. The battery thermal management system (BTMS is critical to remove the heat generated by the battery pack, which guarantees the appropriate working temperature for the battery pack. Air cooling is one of the most commonly-used solutions among various battery thermal management technologies. In this paper, the cooling performance of the parallel air-cooled BTMS is improved through choosing appropriate system parameters. The flow field and the temperature field of the system are calculated using the computational fluid dynamics method. Typical numerical cases are introduced to study the influences of the operation parameters and the structure parameters on the performance of the BTMS. The operation parameters include the discharge rate of the battery pack, the inlet air temperature and the inlet airflow rate. The structure parameters include the cell spacing and the angles of the divergence plenum and the convergence plenum. The results show that the temperature rise and the temperature difference of the batter pack are not affected by the inlet air flow temperature and are increased as the discharge rate increases. Increasing the inlet airflow rate can reduce the maximum temperature, but meanwhile significantly increase the power consumption for driving the airflow. Adopting smaller cell spacing can reduce the temperature and the temperature difference of the battery pack, but it consumes much more power. Designing the angles of the divergence plenum and the convergence plenum is an effective way to improve the performance of the BTMS without occupying more system volume. An optimization strategy is used to obtain the optimal values of the plenum angles. For the numerical cases with fixed power consumption, the maximum temperature and the maximum temperature difference at the end of the five-current discharge process for

  4. New composite separator pellet to increase power density and reduce size of thermal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondy, Lisa Ann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine Cardinal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne Mary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Soehnel, Melissa Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barringer, David Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); DiAntonio, Christopher Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chavez, Thomas P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hughes, Lindsey Gloe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, Lindsey R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fitchett, Stephanie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We show that it is possible to manufacture strong macroporous ceramic films that can be backfilled with electrolyte to form rigid separator pellets suitable for use in thermal batteries. Several new ceramic manufacturing processes are developed to produce sintered magnesium oxide foams with connected porosities of over 80% by volume and with sufficient strength to withstand the battery manufacturing steps. The effects of processing parameters are quantified, and methods to imbibe electrolyte into the ceramic scaffold demonstrated. Preliminary single cell battery testing show that some of our first generation pellets exhibit longer voltage life with comparable resistance at the critical early times to that exhibited by a traditional pressed pellets. Although more development work is needed to optimize the processes to create these rigid separator pellets, the results indicate the potential of such ceramic separator pellets to be equal, if not superior to, current pressed pellets. Furthermore, they could be a replacement for critical material that is no longer available, as well as improving battery separator strength, decreasing production costs, and leading to shorter battery stacks for long-life batteries.

  5. NASA Perspective and Modeling of Thermal Runaway Propagation Mitigation in Aerospace Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shack, P.; Iannello, C.; Rickman, S.; Button, R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has traditionally sought to reduce the likelihood of a single cell thermal runaway (TR) in their aerospace batteries to an absolute minimum by employing rigorous screening program of the cells. There was generally a belief that TR propagation resulting in catastrophic failure of the battery was a forgone conclusion for densely packed aerospace lithium-ion batteries. As it turns out, this may not be the case. An increasing number of purportedly TR propagation-resistant batteries are appearing among NASA partners in the commercial sector and the Department of Defense. In the recent update of the battery safety standard (JSC 20793) to address this paradigm shift, the NASA community included requirements for assessing TR severity and identifying simple, low-cost severity reduction measures. Unfortunately, there are no best-practice guidelines for this work in the Agency, so the first project team attempting to meet these requirements would have an undue burden placed upon them. A NASA engineering Safety Center (NESC) team set out to perform pathfinding activities for meeting those requirements. This presentation will provide contextual background to this effort, as well as initial results in attempting to model and simulate TR heat transfer and propagation within battery designs.

  6. Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Modeling for Accelerated Design of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad; Zhang, Chao; Kim, Gi-heon; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2015-06-10

    The physical and chemical phenomena occurring in a battery are many and complex and in many different scales. Without a better knowledge of the interplay among the multi-physics occurring across the varied scales, it is very challenging and time consuming to design long-lasting, high-performing, safe, affordable large battery systems, enabling electrification of the vehicles and modernization of the grid. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory, has been developing thermal and electrochemical models for cells and battery packs. Working with software producers, carmakers, and battery developers, computer-aided engineering tools have been developed that can accelerate the electrochemical and thermal design of batteries, reducing time to develop and optimize them and thus reducing the cost of the system. In the past couple of years, we initiated a project to model the mechanical response of batteries to stress, strain, fracture, deformation, puncture, and crush and then link them to electrochemical and thermal models to predict the response of a battery. This modeling is particularly important for understanding the physics and processes that happen in a battery during a crush-inducing vehicle crash. In this paper, we provide an overview of electrochemical-thermal-mechanical models for battery system understanding and designing.

  7. Experimental Study of Thermal Runaway Process of 18650 Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Wang, Zhirong; Gong, Junhui; Liu, Kai; Wang, Hao; Guo, Linsheng

    2017-02-25

    This study addresses the effects of the SOC (State of Charge) and the charging-discharging process on the thermal runaway of 18650 lithium-ion batteries. A series of experiments were conducted on an electric heating and testing apparatus. The experimental results indicate that 6 W is the critical heating power for 40% SOC. With a 20 W constant heating rate, the thermal runaway initial temperature of the lithium-ion battery decreases with the increasing SOC. The final thermal runaway temperature increases with the SOC when the SOC is lower than 80%. However, a contrary conclusion was obtained when the SOC was higher than 80%. Significant mass loss, accompanied by an intense exothermic reaction, took place under a higher SOC. The critical charging current, beyond which the thermal runaway occurs, was found to be 2.6 A. The thermal runaway initial temperature decreases with the increasing charging current, while the intensity of the exothermic reaction varies inversely. Mass ejection of gas and electrolytes exists during thermal runaway when the charging current is higher than 10.4 A, below which only a large amount of gas is released. The thermal runaway initial temperature of discharging is higher than that of non-discharging.

  8. Experimental Study of Thermal Runaway Process of 18650 Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the effects of the SOC (State of Charge and the charging–discharging process on the thermal runaway of 18650 lithium-ion batteries. A series of experiments were conducted on an electric heating and testing apparatus. The experimental results indicate that 6 W is the critical heating power for 40% SOC. With a 20 W constant heating rate, the thermal runaway initial temperature of the lithium-ion battery decreases with the increasing SOC. The final thermal runaway temperature increases with the SOC when the SOC is lower than 80%. However, a contrary conclusion was obtained when the SOC was higher than 80%. Significant mass loss, accompanied by an intense exothermic reaction, took place under a higher SOC. The critical charging current, beyond which the thermal runaway occurs, was found to be 2.6 A. The thermal runaway initial temperature decreases with the increasing charging current, while the intensity of the exothermic reaction varies inversely. Mass ejection of gas and electrolytes exists during thermal runaway when the charging current is higher than 10.4 A, below which only a large amount of gas is released. The thermal runaway initial temperature of discharging is higher than that of non-discharging.

  9. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal (ECT) Models for Battery Crush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Pesaran, Ahmad; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbicki, Tom

    2016-06-14

    Vehicle crashes can lead to crushing of the battery, damaging lithium ion battery cells and causing local shorts, heat generation, and thermal runaway. Simulating all the physics and geometries at the same time is challenging and takes a lot of effort; thus, simplifications are needed. We developed a material model for simultaneously modeling the mechanical-electrochemical-thermal behavior, which predicted the electrical short, voltage drop, and thermal runaway behaviors followed by a mechanical abuse-induced short. The effect of short resistance on the battery cell performance was studied.

  10. Theoretical Modelling Methods for Thermal Management of Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Shabani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge associated with renewable energy generation is the intermittency of the renewable source of power. Because of this, back-up generation sources fuelled by fossil fuels are required. In stationary applications whether it is a back-up diesel generator or connection to the grid, these systems are yet to be truly emissions-free. One solution to the problem is the utilisation of electrochemical energy storage systems (ESS to store the excess renewable energy and then reusing this energy when the renewable energy source is insufficient to meet the demand. The performance of an ESS amongst other things is affected by the design, materials used and the operating temperature of the system. The operating temperature is critical since operating an ESS at low ambient temperatures affects its capacity and charge acceptance while operating the ESS at high ambient temperatures affects its lifetime and suggests safety risks. Safety risks are magnified in renewable energy storage applications given the scale of the ESS required to meet the energy demand. This necessity has propelled significant effort to model the thermal behaviour of ESS. Understanding and modelling the thermal behaviour of these systems is a crucial consideration before designing an efficient thermal management system that would operate safely and extend the lifetime of the ESS. This is vital in order to eliminate intermittency and add value to renewable sources of power. This paper concentrates on reviewing theoretical approaches used to simulate the operating temperatures of ESS and the subsequent endeavours of modelling thermal management systems for these systems. The intent of this review is to present some of the different methods of modelling the thermal behaviour of ESS highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.

  11. Improved thermal stability of lithium ion battery by using cresyl diphenyl phosphate as an electrolyte additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qingsong; Ping, Ping; Sun, Jinhua [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, No. 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei 230026, Anhui (China); Chen, Chunhua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, No. 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei 230026, Anhui (China)

    2010-11-01

    To enhance the safety of lithium ion battery, cresyl diphenyl phosphate (CDP) is explored as an additive in 1.0 M LiPF{sub 6}/ethylene carbonate (EC) + diethyl carbonate (DEC) (1:1 wt.). The electrochemical performances of LiCoO{sub 2}/CDP-electrolyte/C cells are tested. At the thermal aspect, the thermal stability of the electrolyte with CDP is detected firstly by using a C80 micro-calorimeter, and then the charged LiCoO{sub 2}/CDP-electrolyte/C cells are disassembled and wrapped to detect the thermal behaviors. The results indicate that CDP-containing electrolyte enhances the thermal stabilities of electrolyte and lithium ion battery, and the electrochemical performances of LiCoO{sub 2}/CDP-electrolyte/C cell become slightly worse by using CDP in the electrolyte. Furthermore, the cell with 10% (wt.) CDP-containing electrolyte shows better cycle efficiency than that of other CDP-containing electrolyte, such as containing 5% (wt.) CDP and 15% (wt.) CDP. This maybe because that the mass ratio between CDP and electrolyte is close to the reaction stoichiometric ratio in the 10% (wt.) CDP-containing electrolyte, where stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed. Therefore, 10% CDP-containing electrolyte improves the safety of lithium ion battery and keeps its electrochemical performance. (author)

  12. Assessment of lnternational Space Station (ISS) Lithium-ion Battery Thermal Runaway (TR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graika, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This task was developed in the wake of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner lithium-ion battery TR incidents of January 2013 and January 2014. The Electrical Power Technical Discipline Team supported the Dreamliner investigations and has followed up by applying lessons learned to conduct an introspective evaluation of NASA's risk of similar incidents in its own lithium-ion battery deployments. This activity has demonstrated that historically NASA, like Boeing and others in the aerospace industry, has emphasized the prevention of TR in a single cell within the battery (e.g., cell screening) but has not considered TR severity-reducing measures in the event of a single-cell TR event. center dotIn the recent update of the battery safety standard (JSC 20793) to address this paradigm shift, the NASA community included requirements for assessing TR severity and identifying simple, low-cost severity reduction measures. This task will serve as a pathfinder for meeting those requirements and will specifically look at a number of different lithium-ion batteries currently in the design pipeline within the ISS Program batteries that, should they fail in a Dreamliner-like incident, could result in catastrophic consequences. This test is an abuse test to understand the heat transfer properties of the cell and ORU in thermal runaway, with radiant barriers in place in a flight like test in on orbit conditions. This includes studying the heat flow and distribution in the ORU. This data will be used to validate the thermal runaway analysis. This test does not cover the ambient pressure case. center dotThere is no pass/ fail criteria for this test.

  13. Correlation of aging and thermal stability of commercial 18650-type lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, M.; Friesen, A.; Grützke, M.; Stenzel, Y. P.; Brunklaus, G.; Haetge, J.; Nowak, S.; Schappacher, F. M.; Winter, M.

    2017-02-01

    Established safety of lithium ion batteries is key for the vast diversity of applications. The influence of aging on the thermal stability of individual cell components and complete cells is of particular interest. Commercial 18650-type lithium ion batteries based on LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2/C are investigated after cycling at different temperatures. The variations in the electrochemical performance are mainly attributed to aging effects on the anode side considering the formation of an effective solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) during cycling at 45 °C and a thick decomposition layer on the anode surface at 20 °C. The thermal stability of the anodes is investigated including the analysis of the evolving gases which confirmed the severe degradation of the electrolyte and active material during cycling at 20 °C. In addition, the presence of metallic lithium deposits could strongly affect the thermal stability. Thermal safety tests using quasi-adiabatic conditions show variations in the cells response to elevated temperatures according to the state-of-charge, i.e. a reduced reactivity in the discharged state. Furthermore, it is revealed that the onset of exothermic reactions correlates with the thermal stability of the SEI, while the thermal runaway is mainly attributed to the decomposition of the cathode and the subsequent reactions with the electrolyte.

  14. An experimental study of lithium ion battery thermal management using flexible hydrogel films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Sijie; Gu, Junjie; Liu, Jie; Carkner, Steve; Lanoue, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Many portable devices such as soldier carrying devices are powered by low-weight but high-capacity lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries. An effective battery thermal management (BTM) system is required to keep the batteries operating within a desirable temperature range with minimal variations, and thus to guarantee their high efficiency, long lifetime and great safety. However, the rigorous constraints imposed by the budgets in weight and volume for this specific application eliminate the possible consideration of many existing classical cooling approaches and make the development of BTM system very challenging in this field. In this paper, a flexible hydrogel-based BTM system is developed to address this challenge. The proposed BTM system is based on cost-effective sodium polyacrylate and can be arbitrarily shaped and conveniently packed to accommodate any Li-ion stacks. This BTM system is tested through a series of high-intensity discharge and abnormal heat release processes, and its performance is compared with three classical BTM systems. The test results demonstrate that the proposed low-cost, space-saving, and contour-adaptable BTM system is a very economic and efficient approach in handling the thermal surge of Li-ion batteries.

  15. Thermal-sprayed, thin-film pyrite cathodes for thermal batteries -- Discharge-rate and temperature studies in single cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; DAI,JINXIANG; XIAO,T. DANNY; REISNER,DAVID

    2000-05-25

    Using an optimized thermal-spray process, coherent, dense deposits of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) with good adhesion were formed on 304 stainless steel substrates (current collectors). After leaching with CS{sub 2} to remove residual free sulfur, these served as cathodes in Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal cells. The cells were tested over a temperature range of 450 C to 550 C under baseline loads of 125 and 250 mA/cm{sup 2}, to simulate conditions found in a thermal battery. Cells built with such cathodes outperformed standard cells made with pressed-powder parts. They showed lower interracial resistance and polarization throughout discharge, with higher capacities per mass of pyrite. Post-treatment of the cathodes with Li{sub 2}O coatings at levels of >7% by weight of the pyrite was found to eliminate the voltage transient normally observed for these materials. Results equivalent to those of standard lithiated catholytes were obtained in this manner. The use of plasma-sprayed cathodes allows the use of much thinner cells for thermal batteries since only enough material needs to be deposited as the capacity requirements of a given application demand.

  16. Thermal runaway detection of cylindrical 18650 lithium-ion battery under quasi-static loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Muhammad; Elmarakbi, Ahmed; Elkady, Mustafa

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on state of charge (SOC) dependent mechanical failure analysis of 18650 lithium-ion battery to detect signs of thermal runaway. Quasi-static loading conditions are used with four test protocols (Rod, Circular punch, three-point bend and flat plate) to analyse the propagation of mechanical failures and failure induced temperature changes. Finite element analysis (FEA) is used to model single battery cell with the concentric layered formation which represents a complete cell. The numerical simulation model is designed with solid element formation where stell casing and all layers followed the same formation, and fine mesh is used for all layers. Experimental work is also performed to analyse deformation of 18650 lithium-ion cell. The numerical simulation model is validated with experimental results. Deformation of cell mimics thermal runaway and various thermal runaway detection strategies are employed in this work including, force-displacement, voltage-temperature, stress-strain, SOC dependency and separator failure. Results show that cell can undergo severe conditions even with no fracture or rupture, these conditions may slow to develop but they can lead to catastrophic failures. The numerical simulation technique is proved to be useful in predicting initial battery failures, and results are in good correlation with the experimental results.

  17. Electrochemical and thermal studies of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenquan

    The structural, electrochemical, and thermal characteristics of carbonaceous anodes and LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 cathode in Li-ion cells were investigated using various electrochemical and calorimetric techniques. The electrode-electrolyte interface was investigated for various carbonaceous materials such as graphite with different shapes, surface modified graphite with copper, and novel carbon material derived from sepiolite template. The structural and morphological properties were determined using XRD, TGA, SEM, BET techniques. The electrochemical characteristics were studied using conventional electrochemical techniques such as galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance (AC and DC) methods. It was observed that the electrochemical active surface area instead of the BET area plays a critical role in the irreversible capacity loss associated with the carbonaceous anodes. It was also found that the exfoliation of carbon anodes especially in PC based electrolyte could be significantly reduced by protective copper coating of the natural graphite. LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 cathode material was found to possess high energy density and excellent cycling characteristics. The structural and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.8Co 0.2O2 synthesized by sol-gel and solid-state methods were studied. Results of the AC impedance spectroscopy carried out on LiNi 0.8Co0.2O2 cathodes revealed that the charge transfer resistance is a function of the state of charge. The solid state Li + diffusion was calculated to be around 10-13 cm2/s in the oxide particle by Warburg impedance method. In addition, the cell fabricated with LiNi0.8Co0.2O 2 cathode showed excellent energy and power performance under static and dynamic load conditions that prevail in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. Thermal properties of the LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 cathode, carbonaceous anodes, and Li-ion cells fabricated with these electrodes were also investigated using isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC), differential

  18. Experimental Study of a CO2 Thermal Battery for Simultaneous Cooling and Heating Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tianwei; Dharkar, Supriya; Kurtulus, Orkan; Eckhard A. Groll; Yazawa, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents experimental investigations of the dynamics of a transcritical CO2 heat pump system with two thermal storages for simultaneous cooling and heating application. The preliminary results of the thermal battery are provided using a small-scale test bed that shows the accelerated penetration of renewable energy sources for building heating and cooling applications. The experimental system consists of a CO2 heat pump system with a compressor of 3 kW (1.02x104 BTU/hr) cooling cap...

  19. A new approach to the internal thermal management of cylindrical battery cells for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worwood, Daniel; Kellner, Quirin; Wojtala, Malgorzata; Widanage, W. D.; McGlen, Ryan; Greenwood, David; Marco, James

    2017-04-01

    Conventional cooling approaches that target either a singular tab or outer surface of common format cylindrical lithium-ion battery cells suffer from a high cell thermal resistance. Under an aggressive duty cycle, this resistance can result in the formation of large in-cell temperature gradients and high hot spot temperatures, which are known to accelerate ageing and further reduce performance. In this paper, a novel approach to internal thermal management of cylindrical battery cells to lower the thermal resistance for heat transport through the inside of the cell is investigated. The effectiveness of the proposed method is analysed for two common cylindrical formats when subject to highly aggressive electrical loading conditions representative of a high performance electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). A mathematical model that captures the dominant thermal properties of the cylindrical cell is created and validated using experimental data. Results from the extensive simulation study indicate that the internal cooling strategy can reduce the cell thermal resistance by up to 67.8 ± 1.4% relative to single tab cooling, and can emulate the performance of a more complex pack-level double tab cooling approach whilst targeting cooling at a single tab.

  20. Self-adaptive thermal management - the fundamentals and applications in Li-polymer batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaobao

    -state thermal insulation, making them more suitable for cold start applications. A few key design factors have been identified to increase the on-state thermal conductance, reduce the off-state thermal conductance and enhance their ratio (switching ratio). The TSAs were then applied to a Li-polymer battery stack to demonstrate the self-adaptive thermal management capability. When cold-started from -10°C, the TSA-regulated battery stack reached 20°C in ~10min. The operational temperature was sustained with a moderate discharge current until depletion, while maintaining a fairly uniform temperate distribution within the battery stack. Compared with the open-cooling case, the performance of the Li-polymer battery was significantly improved by TSA-regulated thermal management. The capacity and output energy were increased by 16% and 23%, respectively. With the low-off TSA, the cold-start time has been shortened to ~ 7min, while the capacity and output energy of battery stack were increased by 18% and 27%, respectively, as compared to open-cooling case. The promising results have also paved the way for improving the performance of self-adaptive thermal management through the key design parameters.

  1. Electrospun core-shell microfiber separator with thermal-triggered flame-retardant properties for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Liu, Wei; Qiu, Yongcai; Kong, Biao; Sun, Yongming; Chen, Zheng; Zhuo, Denys; Lin, Dingchang; Cui, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Although the energy densities of batteries continue to increase, safety problems (for example, fires and explosions) associated with the use of highly flammable liquid organic electrolytes remain a big issue, significantly hindering further practical applications of the next generation of high-energy batteries. We have fabricated a novel “smart” nonwoven electrospun separator with thermal-triggered flame-retardant properties for lithium-ion batteries. The encapsulation of a flame retardant inside a protective polymer shell has prevented direct dissolution of the retardant agent into the electrolyte, which would otherwise have negative effects on battery performance. During thermal runaway of the lithium-ion battery, the protective polymer shell would melt, triggered by the increased temperature, and the flame retardant would be released, thus effectively suppressing the combustion of the highly flammable electrolytes. PMID:28097221

  2. Electrospun core-shell microfiber separator with thermal-triggered flame-retardant properties for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Liu, Wei; Qiu, Yongcai; Kong, Biao; Sun, Yongming; Chen, Zheng; Zhuo, Denys; Lin, Dingchang; Cui, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Although the energy densities of batteries continue to increase, safety problems (for example, fires and explosions) associated with the use of highly flammable liquid organic electrolytes remain a big issue, significantly hindering further practical applications of the next generation of high-energy batteries. We have fabricated a novel "smart" nonwoven electrospun separator with thermal-triggered flame-retardant properties for lithium-ion batteries. The encapsulation of a flame retardant inside a protective polymer shell has prevented direct dissolution of the retardant agent into the electrolyte, which would otherwise have negative effects on battery performance. During thermal runaway of the lithium-ion battery, the protective polymer shell would melt, triggered by the increased temperature, and the flame retardant would be released, thus effectively suppressing the combustion of the highly flammable electrolytes.

  3. Prediction of thermal behaviors of an air-cooled lithium-ion battery system for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Seok; Kang, Dal Mo

    2014-12-01

    Thermal management has been one of the major issues in developing a lithium-ion (Li-ion) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery system since the Li-ion battery is vulnerable to excessive heat load under abnormal or severe operational conditions. In this work, in order to design a suitable thermal management system, a simple modeling methodology describing thermal behavior of an air-cooled Li-ion battery system was proposed from vehicle components designer's point of view. A proposed mathematical model was constructed based on the battery's electrical and mechanical properties. Also, validation test results for the Li-ion battery system were presented. A pulse current duty and an adjusted US06 current cycle for a two-mode HEV system were used to validate the accuracy of the model prediction. Results showed that the present model can give good estimations for simulating convective heat transfer cooling during battery operation. The developed thermal model is useful in structuring the flow system and determining the appropriate cooling capacity for a specified design prerequisite of the battery system.

  4. Research on Thermal Stability of Cellulose-based Lithium Battery Separator Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lizhen; Zhao, Chuanshan; Han, Wenjia; Jiang, Yifei

    2017-10-01

    With the application of battery becoming more and more widely in our life, the importance of battery production with high quality has been increasingly emphasized. Battery separator is one of the important factors that affect the performance of the battery, so the high functions separator production is particularly important. This article preliminary investigates the effect of pulp types, composition and beating degree on the performances of separator. Main research work:Beating softwood pulp, hardwood pulp and dissolving pulp for different degree by PFI, and papermaking, then detecting the physical properties of paper sheets. Through comprehensive analysis conclude that softwood pulp, hardwood pulp and dissolving pulp have excellent physical properties in the 40° SR, and thermal stability up to 200° in the process of heat treatment. The paper sheets are made using different ratio of softwood pulp, hardwood pulp and dissolving pulp, then test the physical properties. According to the comprehensive analysis of experimental datum obtained that the sheets made using mixed pulp (40° SR dissolving pulp: 40° SR softwood =5:5) have excellent physical performance, and sheet strength index decreased slightly at 200°C, compared to other ratios.

  5. An investigation of lithium-ion battery thermal management using paraffin/porous-graphite-matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Angelo; Jiang, Xi; Cao, Dongpu

    2015-03-01

    The thermal management of a cylindrical battery cell by a phase change material (PCM)/compressed expanded natural graphite (CENG) is investigated in this study. The transient thermal behaviour of both the battery and the PCM/CENG is described with a simplified one-dimensional model taking into account the physical and phase change properties of the PCM/CENG composite. The 1D analytical/computational model yielded nearly identical results to the three-dimensional simulation results for various cooling strategies. Therefore, the 1D model is sufficient to describe the transient behaviour of the battery cooled by a PCM/CENG composite. Moreover, the maximum temperature reached by the PCM/CENG cooling strategy is much lower than that by the forced convection in the same configuration. In the test case studied, the PCM showed superior transient characteristics to forced convection cooling. The PCM cooling is able to maintain a lower maximum temperature during the melting process and to extend the transient time for temperature rise. Furthermore, the graphite-matrix bulk density is identified as an important parameter for optimising the PCM/CENG cooling strategy.

  6. A thermal analysis of a spirally wound battery using a simple mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T. I.; White, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    A two-dimensional thermal model for spirally wound batteries has been developed. The governing equation of the model is the energy balance. Convective and insulated boundary conditions are used, and the equations are solved using a finite element code called TOPAZ2D. The finite element mesh is generated using a preprocessor to TOPAZ2D called MAZE. The model is used to estimate temperature profiles within a spirally wound D-size cell. The model is applied to the lithium/thionyl chloride cell because of the thermal management problems that this cell exhibits. Simplified one-dimensional models are presented that can be used to predict best and worst temperature profiles. The two-dimensional model is used to predict the regions of maximum temperature within the spirally wound cell. Normal discharge as well as thermal runaway conditions are investigated.

  7. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing thermal runaway in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Scott; Panday, Ashoutosh; Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2014-04-22

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics. In another aspect, the electrolyte exhibits a conductivity drop when the temperature of electrolyte increases over a threshold temperature, thereby providing a shutoff mechanism for preventing thermal runaway in lithium battery cells.

  8. Parallelized Genetic Identification of the Thermal-Electrochemical Model for Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The parameters of a well predicted model can be used as health characteristics for Lithium-ion battery. This article reports a parallelized parameter identification of the thermal-electrochemical model, which significantly reduces the time consumption of parameter identification. Since the P2D model has the most predictability, it is chosen for further research and expanded to the thermal-electrochemical model by coupling thermal effect and temperature-dependent parameters. Then Genetic Algorithm is used for parameter identification, but it takes too much time because of the long time simulation of model. For this reason, a computer cluster is built by surplus computing resource in our laboratory based on Parallel Computing Toolbox and Distributed Computing Server in MATLAB. The performance of two parallelized methods, namely Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD and parallel FOR loop (PARFOR, is investigated and then the parallelized GA identification is proposed. With this method, model simulations running parallelly and the parameter identification could be speeded up more than a dozen times, and the identification result is batter than that from serial GA. This conclusion is validated by model parameter identification of a real LiFePO4 battery.

  9. A Nanostructured Composites Thermal Switch Controls Internal and External Short Circuit in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert C.; VanBlarcom, Shelly L.; Kwasnik, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses a thin layer of composite material, made from nano scale particles of nickel and Teflon, placed within a battery cell as a layer within the anode and/or the cathode. There it conducts electrons at room temperature, then switches to an insulator at an elevated temperature to prevent thermal runaway caused by internal short circuits. The material layer controls excess currents from metal-to-metal or metal-to-carbon shorts that might result from cell crush or a manufacturing defect

  10. In Situ Analysis of the Li-O2 Battery with Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Cathode: Influence of Water Addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Christensen, Mathias Kjærgård; Younesi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The Li-O2 battery technology holds the promise to deliver a battery with significantly increased specific energy compared to today's Li-ion batteries. As a cathode support material, reduced graphene oxide has received increasing attention in the Li-O2 battery community due to the possibility...... of increased discharge capacity, increased battery cyclability, and decreased, charging, overpotential. In this. article we investigate the effect of water on a thermally, redircedigraphene, oxide cathode in a Li-O2 battery. Differential electrochemical mass spectrciscnieveals a, decreased electron count...... for batteries with 1000 ppm water added- to the electrolyte in comparison to dry batteries, indicating additional parasitic electrochemical or chemical processes. A comparable capacity of the wet and dry batteries indicates that the reaction mechanism in the Li-O2 battery also depends on the 'surface...

  11. Shutdown-functionalized nonwoven separator with improved thermal and electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngkwon; Lee, Won-Yeol; Kim, Ki Jae; Yu, Ji-Sang; Kim, Young-Jun

    2016-02-01

    A shutdown-functionalized nonwoven separator (SFNS) with improved thermal and electrochemical stabilities is prepared by a simple dip coating method for use in lithium-ion battery (LiB) applications. The SFNS shows thermal stability at 200 °C, while providing shutdown functionality at approximately 140 °C, similar to commercial porous polyethylene separators. The surface-coated polymer prevents leakage current problems and in addition, shows air permeability values similar to that of bare nonwoven separators, while maintaining a thickness of about 20 μm, which is a desired attribute of effective separators for LiBs. The SFNS also shows increased electrolyte uptake and higher conductivity, compared to a bare polyethylene separator. Therefore, a cell with the SFNS exhibits higher discharge capacity and better cycle property than that with a porous polyethylene separator. These results suggest that SFNS is an effective separator for high-performance LiBs.

  12. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle LiFePO4 battery life implications of thermal management, driving conditions, and regional climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Tugce; Litster, Shawn; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2017-01-01

    Battery degradation strongly depends on temperature, and many plug-in electric vehicle applications employ thermal management strategies to extend battery life. The effectiveness of thermal management depends on the design of the thermal management system as well as the battery chemistry, cell and pack design, vehicle system characteristics, and operating conditions. We model a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with an air-cooled battery pack composed of cylindrical LiFePO4/graphite cells and simulate the effect of thermal management, driving conditions, regional climate, and vehicle system design on battery life. We estimate that in the absence of thermal management, aggressive driving can cut battery life by two thirds; a blended gas/electric-operation control strategy can quadruple battery life relative to an all-electric control strategy; larger battery packs can extend life by an order of magnitude relative to small packs used for all-electric operation; and batteries last 73-94% longer in mild-weather San Francisco than in hot Phoenix. Air cooling can increase battery life by a factor of 1.5-6, depending on regional climate and driving patterns. End of life criteria has a substantial effect on battery life estimates.

  13. Electrical power production from low-grade waste heat using a thermally regenerative ethylenediamine battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mohammad; D'Angelo, Adriana; Gorski, Christopher A.; Scialdone, Onofrio; Logan, Bruce E.

    2017-05-01

    Thermally regenerative ammonia-based batteries (TRABs) have been developed to harvest low-grade waste heat as electricity. To improve the power production and anodic coulombic efficiency, the use of ethylenediamine as an alternative ligand to ammonia was explored here. The power density of the ethylenediamine-based battery (TRENB) was 85 ± 3 W m-2-electrode area with 2 M ethylenediamine, and 119 ± 4 W m-2 with 3 M ethylenediamine. This power density was 68% higher than that of TRAB. The energy density was 478 Wh m-3-anolyte, which was ∼50% higher than that produced by TRAB. The anodic coulombic efficiency of the TRENB was 77 ± 2%, which was more than twice that obtained using ammonia in a TRAB (35%). The higher anodic efficiency reduced the difference between the anode dissolution and cathode deposition rates, resulting in a process more suitable for closed loop operation. The thermal-electric efficiency based on ethylenediamine separation using waste heat was estimated to be 0.52%, which was lower than that of TRAB (0.86%), mainly due to the more complex separation process. However, this energy recovery could likely be improved through optimization of the ethylenediamine separation process.

  14. Novel Ceramic-Grafted Separator with Highly Thermal Stability for Safe Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Xiaoming; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2017-08-09

    The separator is a critical component of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), which not only allows ionic transport while it prevents electrical contact between electrodes but also plays a key role for thermal safety performance of LIBs. However, commercial separators for LIBs are typically microporous polyolefin membranes that pose challenges for battery safety, due to shrinking and melting at elevated temperature. Here, we demonstrate a strategy to improve the thermal stability and electrolyte affinity of polyethylene (PE) separators. By simply grafting the vinylsilane coupling reagent on the surface of the PE separator by electron beam irradiation method and subsequent hydrolysis reaction into the Al(3+) solution, an ultrathin Al2O3 layer is grafted on the surface of the porous polymer microframework without sacrificing the porous structure and increasing the thickness. The as-synthesized Al2O3 ceramic-grafted separator (Al2O3-CGS) shows almost no shrinkage at 150 °C and decreases the contact angle of the conventional electrolyte compared with the bare PE separator. Notably, the full cells with the Al2O3-CGSs exhibit better cycling performance and rate capability and also provide stable open circuit voltage even at 170 °C, indicating its promising application in LIBs with high safety and energy density.

  15. Adaptive Kalman filtering based internal temperature estimation with an equivalent electrical network thermal model for hard-cased batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Haifeng; Zhu, Letao; Zhu, Jiangong; Wei, Xuezhe; Sun, Zechang

    2015-10-01

    The accurate monitoring of battery cell temperature is indispensible to the design of battery thermal management system. To obtain the internal temperature of a battery cell online, an adaptive temperature estimation method based on Kalman filtering and an equivalent time-variant electrical network thermal (EENT) model is proposed. The EENT model uses electrical components to simulate the battery thermodynamics, and the model parameters are obtained with a least square algorithm. With a discrete state-space description of the EENT model, a Kalman filtering (KF) based internal temperature estimator is developed. Moreover, considering the possible time-varying external heat exchange coefficient, a joint Kalman filtering (JKF) based estimator is designed to simultaneously estimate the internal temperature and the external thermal resistance. Several experiments using the hard-cased LiFePO4 cells with embedded temperature sensors have been conducted to validate the proposed method. Validation results show that, the EENT model expresses the battery thermodynamics well, the KF based temperature estimator tracks the real central temperature accurately even with a poor initialization, and the JKF based estimator can simultaneously estimate both central temperature and external thermal resistance precisely. The maximum estimation errors of the KF- and JKF-based estimators are less than 1.8 °C and 1 °C respectively.

  16. Experimental verification of a thermal equivalent circuit dynamic model on an extended range electric vehicle battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramotar, Lokendra; Rohrauer, Greg L.; Filion, Ryan; MacDonald, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    The development of a dynamic thermal battery model for hybrid and electric vehicles is realized. A thermal equivalent circuit model is created which aims to capture and understand the heat propagation from the cells through the entire pack and to the environment using a production vehicle battery pack for model validation. The inclusion of production hardware and the liquid battery thermal management system components into the model considers physical and geometric properties to calculate thermal resistances of components (conduction, convection and radiation) along with their associated heat capacity. Various heat sources/sinks comprise the remaining model elements. Analog equivalent circuit simulations using PSpice are compared to experimental results to validate internal temperature nodes and heat rates measured through various elements, which are then employed to refine the model further. Agreement with experimental results indicates the proposed method allows for a comprehensive real-time battery pack analysis at little computational expense when compared to other types of computer based simulations. Elevated road and ambient conditions in Mesa, Arizona are simulated on a parked vehicle with varying quiescent cooling rates to examine the effect on the diurnal battery temperature for longer term static exposure. A typical daily driving schedule is also simulated and examined.

  17. Thermal Characteristics of Conversion-Type FeOF Cathode in Li-ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Zhao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rutile FeOF was used as a conversion-type cathode material for Li-ion batteries. In the present study, 0.6Li, 1.4Li, and 2.7Li per mole lithiation reactions were carried out by changing the electrochemical discharge reaction depth. The thermal characteristics of the FeOF cathode were investigated by thermogravimetric mass spectrometric (TG-MS and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC systems. No remarkable HF release was detected, even up to 700 °C, which indicated a low toxic risk for the FeOF cathode. Changes in the thermal properties of the FeOF cathode via different conversion reaction depths in the associated electrolyte were studied by changing the cathode/electrolyte ratio in the mixture. LiFeOF was found to exothermically react with the electrolyte at about 210 °C. Similar exothermic reactions were found with charged FeOF cathodes because of the irreversible Li ions. Among the products of the conversion reaction of FeOF, Li2O was found to exothermically react with the electrolyte at about 120 °C, which induced the main thermal risk of the FeOF cathode. It suggests that the oxygen-containing conversion-type cathodes have a higher thermal risk than the oxygen-free ones, but controlling the cathode/electrolyte ratio in cells successfully reduced the thermal risk. Finally, the thermal stability of the FeOF cathode was evaluated in comparison with FeF3 and LiFePO4 cathodes.

  18. An experimental study of heat pipe thermal management system with wet cooling method for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Gu, Junjie; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    An effective battery thermal management (BTM) system is required for lithium-ion batteries to ensure a desirable operating temperature range with minimal temperature gradient, and thus to guarantee their high efficiency, long lifetime and great safety. In this paper, a heat pipe and wet cooling combined BTM system is developed to handle the thermal surge of lithium-ion batteries during high rate operations. The proposed BTM system relies on ultra-thin heat pipes which can efficiently transfer the heat from the battery sides to the cooling ends where the water evaporation process can rapidly dissipate the heat. Two sized battery packs, 3 Ah and 8 Ah, with different lengths of cooling ends are used and tested through a series high-intensity discharges in this study to examine the cooling effects of the combined BTM system, and its performance is compared with other four types of heat pipe involved BTM systems and natural convection cooling method. A combination of natural convection, fan cooling and wet cooling methods is also introduced to the heat pipe BTM system, which is able to control the temperature of battery pack in an appropriate temperature range with the minimum cost of energy and water spray.

  19. Batteries 2020 – Lithium - ion battery first and second life ageing, validated battery models, lifetime modelling and ageing assessment of thermal parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Jean-Marc; Nikolian, Alexandros; De Hoog, Joris

    2016-01-01

    The European Project “Batteries 2020” unites nine partners jointly working on research and the development of competitive European automotive batteries. The project aims at increasing both the energy density and lifetime of large format pouch lithium-ion batteries towards the goals targeted...... for automotive batteries (250 Wh/kg at cell level, over 4000 cycles at 80% depth of discharge). Three parallel strategies are followed in order to achieve those targets: (i) Highly focused materials development; two improved generations of NMC cathode materials allows to improve the performance, stability...... and cyclability of state of the art battery cells. (ii) Better understanding of the ageing phenomena; a robust and realistic testing methodology has been developed and was carried out. Combined accelerated, real driving cycle tests, real field data, post - mortem analysis, modelling and validation with real...

  20. Towards more thermally stable Li-ion battery electrolytes with salts and solvents sharing nitrile functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Manfred; Lim, Du-Hyun; Jeschke, Steffen; Rydholm, Tomas; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Scheers, Johan

    2016-11-01

    The overall safety of Li-ion batteries is compromised by the state-of-the-art electrolytes; the thermally unstable lithium salt, lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), and flammable carbonate solvent mixtures. The problem is best addressed by new electrolyte compositions with thermally robust salts in low flammability solvents. In this work we introduce electrolytes with either of two lithium nitrile salts, lithium 4,5-dicyano-1,2,3-triazolate (LiDCTA) or lithium 4,5-dicyano-2-trifluoromethylimidazolide (LiTDI), in solvent mixtures with high flashpoint adiponitrile (ADN), as the main component. With sulfolane (SL) and ethylene carbonate (EC) as co-solvents the liquid temperature range of the electrolytes are extended to lower temperatures without lowering the flashpoint, but at the expense of high viscosities and moderate ionic conductivities. The anodic stabilities of the electrolytes are sufficient for LiFePO4 cathodes and can be charged/discharged for 20 cycles in Li/LiFePO4 cells with coulombic efficiencies exceeding 99% at best. The excellent thermal stabilities of the electrolytes with the solvent combination ADN:SL are promising for future electrochemical investigations at elevated temperatures (> 60 °C) to compensate the moderate transport properties and rate capability. The electrolytes with EC as a co-solvent, however, release CO2 by decomposition of EC in presence of a lithium salt, which potentially makes EC unsuitable for any application targeting higher operating temperatures.

  1. A thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery for efficient harvesting of low-grade thermal energy as electrical power

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Thermal energy was shown to be efficiently converted into electrical power in a thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery (TRAB) using copper-based redox couples [Cu(NH3)4 2+/Cu and Cu(ii)/Cu]. Ammonia addition to the anolyte (2 M ammonia in a copper-nitrate electrolyte) of a single TRAB cell produced a maximum power density of 115 ± 1 W m-2 (based on projected area of a single copper mesh electrode), with an energy density of 453 W h m-3 (normalized to the total electrolyte volume, under maximum power production conditions). Adding a second cell doubled both the voltage and maximum power. Increasing the anolyte ammonia concentration to 3 M further improved the maximum power density to 136 ± 3 W m-2. Volatilization of ammonia from the spent anolyte by heating (simulating distillation), and re-addition of this ammonia to the spent catholyte chamber with subsequent operation of this chamber as the anode (to regenerate copper on the other electrode), produced a maximum power density of 60 ± 3 W m-2, with an average discharge energy efficiency of ∼29% (electrical energy captured versus chemical energy in the starting solutions). Power was restored to 126 ± 5 W m-2 through acid addition to the regenerated catholyte to decrease pH and dissolve Cu(OH)2 precipitates, suggesting that an inexpensive acid or a waste acid could be used to improve performance. These results demonstrated that TRABs using ammonia-based electrolytes and inexpensive copper electrodes can provide a practical method for efficient conversion of low-grade thermal energy into electricity.

  2. Role of Amines in Thermal-Runaway-Mitigating Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang; Noelle, Daniel J; Wang, Meng; Le, Anh V; Yoon, Hyojung; Zhang, Minghao; Meng, Ying Shirley; Qiao, Yu

    2016-11-16

    Benzylamine (BA), dibenzylamine (DBA), and trihexylamine (THA) are investigated as thermal-runaway retardants (TRR) for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In a LIB, TRR is packaged separately and released when internal shorting happens, so as to suppress exothermic reactions and slow down temperature increase. THA is identified as the most efficient TRR. Upon nail penetration, 4 wt % THA can reduce the peak temperature by nearly 50%. The working mechanisms of the three amines are different: THA is highly wettable to the separator and immiscible with the electrolyte, and therefore, it blocks lithium-ion (Li+) transport. BA and DBA decrease the ionic conductivity of electrolyte and increase the charge transfer resistance. All three amines react with charged electrodes; the reactions of DBA and THA do not have much influence on the overall heat generation, while the reaction of BA cannot be ignored.

  3. Personal, closed-cycle cooling and protective apparatus and thermal battery therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, James W.; Klett, Lynn B.

    2004-07-20

    A closed-cycle apparatus for cooling a living body includes a heat pickup body or garment which permits evaporation of an evaporating fluid, transmission of the vapor to a condenser, and return of the condensate to the heat pickup body. A thermal battery cooling source is provided for removing heat from the condenser. The apparatus requires no external power and provides a cooling system for soldiers, race car drivers, police officers, firefighters, bomb squad technicians, and other personnel who may utilize protective clothing to work in hostile environments. An additional shield layer may simultaneously provide protection from discomfort, illness or injury due to harmful atmospheres, projectiles, edged weapons, impacts, explosions, heat, poisons, microbes, corrosive agents, or radiation, while simultaneously removing body heat from the wearer.

  4. Thermal management improvement of an air-cooled high-power lithium-ion battery by embedding metal foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Shahabeddin K.; Rassoulinejad-Mousavi, Seyed Moein; Zhang, Yuwen

    2015-11-01

    Effect of embedding aluminum porous metal foam inside the flow channels of an air-cooled Li-ion battery module was studied to improve its thermal management. Four different cases of metal foam insert were examined using three-dimensional transient numerical simulations. The effects of permeability and porosity of the porous medium as well as state of charge were investigated on the standard deviation of the temperature field and maximum temperature inside the battery in all four cases. Compared to the case of no porous insert, embedding aluminum metal foam in the air flow channel significantly improved the thermal management of Li-ion battery cell. The results also indicated that, decreasing the porosity of the porous structure decreases both standard deviation of the temperature field and maximum temperature inside the battery. Moreover, increasing the permeability of the metal foam drops the maximum temperature inside the battery while decreasing this property leads to improving the temperature uniformity. Our results suggested that, among the all studied cases, desirable temperature uniformity and maximum temperature were achieved when two-third and the entire air flow channel is filled with aluminum metal foam, respectively.

  5. A coupled thermal and electrochemical study of lithium-ion battery cooled by paraffin/porous-graphite-matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Angelo; Jiang, Xi

    2016-05-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cooling using a phase change material (PCM)/compressed expanded natural graphite (CENG) composite is investigated, for a cylindrical battery cell and for a battery module scale. An electrochemistry model (average model) is coupled to the thermal model, with the addition of a one-dimensional model for the solution and solid diffusion using the nodal network method. The analysis of the temperature distribution of the battery module scale has shown that a two-dimensional model is sufficient to describe the transient temperature rise. In consequence, a two-dimensional cell-centred finite volume code for unstructured meshes is developed with additions of the electrochemistry and phase change. This two-dimensional thermal model is used to investigate a new and usual battery module configurations cooled by PCM/CENG at different discharge rates. The comparison of both configurations with a constant source term and heat generation based on the electrochemistry model showed the superiority of the new design. In this study, comparisons between the predictions from different analytical and computational tools as well as open-source packages were carried out, and close agreements have been observed.

  6. Mitigating thermal runaway of lithium-ion battery through electrolyte displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang; Noelle, Daniel J.; Wang, Meng; Le, Anh V.; Yoon, Hyojung; Zhang, Minghao; Meng, Ying Shirley; Fan, Jiang; Wu, Dengguo; Qiao, Yu

    2017-02-01

    Alkanes are investigated as thermal-runaway retardants (TRR) for lithium-ion battery (LIB). TRR is a chemical that can rapidly terminate exothermic reactions in LIB. Under normal working conditions, TRR is sealed in separate packages in the LIB cell, and upon mechanical abuse, it is released to suppress heat generation. The alkanes under investigation include octane, pentadecane, and icosane, among which pentadecane has the highest thermal-runaway mitigation (TRM) efficiency. In nail penetration test on coin cells, ˜4 wt. % pentadecane reduced the maximum temperature by ˜60%; in impact test on pouch cells, ˜5 wt. % pentadecane reduced the maximum temperature by ˜90%. The high TRM efficiency of pentadecane is attributed to its high wettability to separator and its immiscibility with electrolyte. By forming a physical barrier between the cathode and anode, pentadecane interrupts lithium ion (Li+) transport and increases the charge transfer resistance by nearly two orders of magnitude. The diffusion rate of pentadecane in the electrode layer stack was measured to be ˜580 μm/s.

  7. Renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven as lithium-ion battery separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhihong; Kong, Qingshan; Zhang, Chuanjian; Pang, Shuping; Yue, Liping; Wang, Xuejiang; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei

    2013-01-01

    A renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven was explored as lithium-ion battery separator via an electrospinning technique followed by a dip-coating process. It was demonstrated that such nanofibrous composite nonwoven possessed good electrolyte wettability, excellent heat tolerance, and high ionic conductivity. The cells using the composite separator displayed better rate capability and enhanced capacity retention, when compared to those of commercialized polypropylene separator under the same conditions. These fascinating characteristics would endow this renewable composite nonwoven a promising separator for high-power lithium-ion battery.

  8. Life cycle monitoring of lithium-ion polymer batteries using cost-effective thermal infrared sensors with applications for lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xunfei; Malik, Anav; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen

    2017-05-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have become indispensable parts of our lives for their high-energy density and long lifespan. However, failure due to from abusive usage conditions, flawed manufacturing processes, and aging and adversely affect battery performance and even endanger people and property. Therefore, battery cells that are failing or reaching their end-of-life need to be replaced. Traditionally, battery lifetime prediction is achieved by analyzing data from current, voltage and impedance sensors. However, such a prognostic system is expensive to implement and requires direct contact. In this study, low-cost thermal infrared sensors were used to acquire thermographic images throughout the entire lifetime of small scale lithium-ion polymer batteries (410 cycles). The infrared system (non-destructive) took temperature readings from multiple batteries during charging and discharging cycles of 1C. Thermal characteristics of the batteries were derived from the thermographic images. A time-dependent and spatially resolved temperature mapping was obtained and quantitatively analyzed. The developed model can predict cycle number using the first 10 minutes of surface temperature data acquired through infrared imaging at the beginning of the cycle, with an average error rate of less than 10%. This approach can be used to correlate thermal characteristics of the batteries with life cycles, and to propose cost-effective thermal infrared imaging applications in battery prognostic systems.

  9. Experiment and simulation of a LiFePO4 battery pack with a passive thermal management system using composite phase change material and graphite sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunjing; Xu, Sichuan; Chang, Guofeng; Liu, Jinling

    2015-02-01

    A passive thermal management system (TMS) for LiFePO4 battery modules using phase change material (PCM) as the heat dissipation source to control battery temperature rise is developed. Expanded graphite matrix and graphite sheets are applied to compensate low thermal conductivity of PCM and improve temperature uniformity of the batteries. Constant current discharge and mixed charge-discharge duties were applied on battery modules with and without PCM on a battery thermal characteristics test platform. Experimental results show that PCM cooling significantly reduces the battery temperature rise during short-time intense use. It is also found that temperature uniformity across the module deteriorates with the increasing of both discharge time and current rates. The maximum temperature differences at the end of 1C and 2C-rate discharges are both less than 5 °C, indicating a good performance in battery thermal uniformity of the passive TMS. Experiments on warm-keeping performance show that the passive TMS can effectively keep the battery within its optimum operating temperature for a long time during cold weather uses. A three dimensional numerical model of the battery pack with the passive TMS was conducted using ANSYS Fluent. Temperature profiles with respect to discharging time reveal that simulation shows good agreement with experiment at 1C-discharge rate.

  10. Performance Degradation of Thermal Parameters during Cycle Ageing of High Energy Density Ni-Mn-Co based Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The accelerated demand for electrifying the transportation sector, coupled with the continuous improvement of rechargeable batteries’ characteristics, have made modern high-energy Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries the standard choice for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs). Consequently, Li......-ion batteries’ electrochemical and thermal characteristics are very important topics, putting them at the forefront of the research. Along with the electrical performance of Li-ion battery cells, their thermal behavior needs to be accurately predicted during operation and over the lifespan of the application...... as well, since the thermal management of the battery is crucial for the safety of the EV driver. Moreover, the thermal management system can significantly lower the degradation rate of the battery pack and thus reduce costs. In this paper, the thermal characterization of a commercially available Nickel...

  11. Thermal modeling of large prismatic LiFePO4/graphite battery. Coupled thermal and heat generation models for characterization and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damay, Nicolas; Forgez, Christophe; Bichat, Marie-Pierre; Friedrich, Guy

    2015-06-01

    This paper deals with the thermal modeling of a large prismatic Li-ion battery (LiFePO4/graphite). A lumped model representing the main thermal phenomena in the cell, in and outside the casing, is hereby proposed. Most of the parameters are determined analytically using physical and geometrical properties. The heat capacity, the internal and the interfacial thermal resistances between the battery and its cooling system are experimentally identified. On the other hand, the heat sources modeling is considered to be one of the most difficult task. In order to overcome this problem, a heat generation model is included. More specifically, the electrical losses are computed thanks to an electrical model which is represented by an equivalent electric circuit. A method is also proposed for parameter determination which is based on a quasi-steady state assumption. It also takes into account the battery heating during characterization which is the temperature variation due to heat generation during current pulses. This temperature variation is estimated thanks to the coupled thermal and heat generation models. The electrical parameters are determined as function of state of charge (SoC), temperature and current. Finally, the proposed coupled models are experimentally validated with a precision of 1 °C.

  12. Evaluation of ceramic papers and tapes for use as separators in thermal batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Frederick William; Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Ceramic tapes and papers were evaluated for potential use as separators in high-temperature thermal batteries. The bulk of the tests involved fiberglass tape and borosilicate filter discs. Quartz (SiO{sub 2}) and zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) materials were also examined to a limited extent. In addition, custom-prepared MgO-coated ceramic discs from Inventek Inc. were evaluated as separators. The tapes and paper discs were impregnated with LiCl-KCl eutectic or LiCl-LiBr-LiF electrolytes using three different techniques. Test discs were punched from the tapes and papers, impregnated with electrolyte and evaluated as separators in Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} single cells at 400 or 500 C at a steady-state current of 63 or 125 mA/cm{sup 2}. The performance of single cells containing these discs generally improved with increased electrolyte loading for most of the materials in the case of the LiCl-KCl eutectic. Better results were obtained with the paper filter discs than with the tapes. The best results with the paper discs were obtained with Whatman GF/A filter discs. Active lives for cells with these separators were about 85% of standard cells with pressed-powder separators. Good results were obtained in one battery test with the eutectic electrolyte. Mixed results were obtained with the LiCl-LiBr-LiF electrolyte under similar conditions. Higher loadings of electrolyte did not always translate into improved cell performance. Self-discharge reactions are believed responsible. The best overall results were obtained with the Inventek separators. Based on the results of this study, more work in this technology area is merited.

  13. Physical Integration of a Photovoltaic-Battery System : A Thermal Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vega Garita, V.E.; Ramirez Elizondo, L.M.; Bauer, P.

    2017-01-01

    Solar-battery systems are still expensive, bulky, and space consuming. To tackle these issues, we propose a novel device that combines all the components of a solar-battery system in one device. This device might help reduce installation cost compared to the current solar-battery systems as well as

  14. Microstructural Analysis of the Effects of Thermal Runaway on Li-Ion and Na-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finegan, Donal [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robinson, James B. [University College London; Heenan, Thomas M. M. [University College London; Smith, Katherine [Sharp Laboratories of Europe; Kendrick, Emma [Sharp Laboratories of Europe; University College London; Brett, Daniel J. L. [University College London; Shearing, Paul R. [University College London

    2017-12-06

    Thermal runaway is a phenomenon that occurs due to self-sustaining reactions within batteries at elevated temperatures resulting in catastrophic failure. Here, the thermal runaway process is studied for a Li-ion and Na-ion pouch cells of similar energy density (10.5 Wh, 12 Wh, respectively) using accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). Both cells were constructed with a z-fold configuration, with a standard shutdown separator in the Li-ion and a low-cost polypropylene (PP) separator in the Na-ion. Even with the shutdown separator, it is shown that the self-heating rate and rate of thermal runaway in Na-ion cells is significantly slower than that observed in Li-ion systems. The thermal runaway event initiates at a higher temperature in Na-ion cells. The effect of thermal runaway on the architecture of the cells is examined using X-ray microcomputed tomography, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to examine the failed electrodes of both cells. Finally, from examination of the respective electrodes, likely due to the carbonate solvent containing electrolyte, it is suggested that thermal runaway in Na-ion batteries (NIBs) occurs via a similar mechanism to that reported for Li-ion cells.

  15. Characteristics and thermal behavior analysis of lithium-ion batteries for application in hybrid locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Krishnashis

    The locomotive industry accounts for 2.5 % of the total fuel consumption in the US. Thus the necessity for reducing fuel consumption and emissions led to the development of the concept of hybrid locomotive which is dual powered by the diesel engine and electric motors. But the energy dissipated in braking such a locomotive in a year is enough to power over 9100 average US households over the same period of time. Recovering this energy using regenerative braking system and storing it in a electric battery is of great interest among researchers for improving overall efficiency and reducing consumption of fuels. In the present study, LiFePO4 batteries, a type of the state-of-art lithium-ion batteries, have been tested under different environmental and load conditions. Environmental temperatures were varied to analyze their effects on the charging and discharging patterns of the battery by using the CADEX battery analyzer in order to find the temperature range for optimum battery performance. The fluctuations of temperature of the battery surface were monitored along the length of the tests, using Infra-Red imaging and thermocouple probes at different points on the battery surface. Both battery performance characteristics and the variation of the battery surface temperature were also recorded for different load cycles in order to get a comprehensive picture of the heat generation and its effect on the behavior of the battery under different load conditions. Lastly a practical Load Cycle analysis of the battery has been performed which gave a picture of the heat generated by the battery and also the performance characteristics as it is subjected to a practical Load Cycle.

  16. Tracking degradation in lithium iron phosphate batteries using differential thermal voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibagaki, Toshio; Merla, Yu; Offer, Gregory J.

    2018-01-01

    Diagnosing the state-of-health of lithium ion batteries in-operando is becoming increasingly important for multiple applications. We report the application of differential thermal voltammetry (DTV) to lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cells for the first time, and demonstrate that the technique is capable of diagnosing degradation in a similar way to incremental capacity analysis (ICA). DTV has the advantage of not requiring current and works for multiple cells in parallel, and is less sensitive to temperature introducing errors. Cells were aged by holding at 100% SOC or cycling at 1C charge, 6D discharge, both at an elevated temperature of 45 °C under forced air convection. Cells were periodically characterised, measuring capacity fade, resistance increase (power fade), and DTV fingerprints. The DTV results for both cells correlated well with both capacity and power, suggesting they could be used to diagnose SOH in-operando for both charge and discharge. The DTV peak-to-peak capacity correlated well with total capacity fade for the cycled cell, suggesting that it should be possible to estimate SOC and SOH from DTV for incomplete cycles within the voltage hysteresis region of an LFP cell.

  17. Development of a tester for evaluation of prototype thermal cells and batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Ronald A.

    A tester was developed to evaluate prototype thermal cells and batteries--especially high-voltage units--under a wide range of constant-current and constant-resistance discharge conditions. Programming of the steady-state and pulsing conditions was by software control or by hardware control via an external pulse generator. The tester was assembled from primarily Hewlett-Packard (H-P) instrumentation and was operated under H-P's Rocky Mountain Basic (RMB). Constant-current electronic loads rated up to 4 kW (400 V at up to 100 A) were successfully used with the setup. For testing under constant-resistance conditions, power metal-oxide field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) controlled by a programmable pulse generator were used to switch between steady-state and pulse loads. The pulses were digitized at up to a 50 kHz rate (20 microseconds/pt) using high-speed DVM's; steady-state voltages were monitored with standard DVM's. This paper describes several of the test configurations used and discusses the limitations of each. Representative data are presented for a number of the test conditions.

  18. Streamline three-dimensional thermal model of a lithium titanate pouch cell battery in extreme temperature conditions with module simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaguemont, Joris; Omar, Noshin; Martel, François; Van den Bossche, Peter; Van Mierlo, Joeri

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the development of a three-dimensional (3D) lithium titanium oxide (LTO) pouch cell is presented to first better comprehend its thermal behavior within electrified vehicle applications, but also to propose a strong modeling base for future thermal management system. Current 3D-thermal models are based on electrochemical reactions which are in need for elaborated meshing effort and long computational time. There lacks a fast electro-thermal model which can capture voltage, current and thermal distribution variation during the whole process. The proposed thermal model is a reduce-effort temperature simulation approach involving a 0D-electrical model accommodating a 3D-thermal model to exclude electrochemical processes. The thermal model is based on heat-transfer theory and its temperature distribution prediction incorporates internal conduction and heat generation effect as well as convection. In addition, experimental tests are conducted to validate the model. Results show that both the heat dissipation rate and surface temperature uniformity data are in agreement with simulation results, which satisfies the application requirements for electrified vehicles. Additionally, a LTO battery pack sizing and modeling is also designed, applied and displays a non-uniformity of the cells under driving operation. Ultimately, the model will serve as a basis for the future development of a thermal strategy for LTO cells that operate in a large temperature range, which is a strong contribution to the existing body of scientific literature.

  19. Containment system and thermal conduction in lithium electric batteries energy modules 2 kWh with polymeric electrolytes; Sviluppo del sistema di contenimento e del condizionamento termico di moduli da 2 kWh di batterie al litio ad elettrolita polimerico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciancia, A.; Alessandrini, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia Divisione Tecnologie Energetiche Avanzate

    1997-06-01

    In this work are presented some technical specifications regarding lithium electric batteries with polymeric electrolytes, in particular the design of electrodes container efficient and reliable and thermal management system oriented to safety, performances and battery life.

  20. Extended Kalman filter method for state of charge estimation of vanadium redox flow battery using thermal-dependent electrical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Binyu; Zhao, Jiyun; Wei, Zhongbao; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2014-09-01

    State of charge (SOC) estimation is a key issue for battery management since an accurate estimation method can ensure safe operation and prevent the over-charge/discharge of a battery. Traditionally, open circuit voltage (OCV) method is utilized to estimate the stack SOC and one open flow cell is needed in each battery stack [1,2]. In this paper, an alternative method, extended Kalman filter (EKF) method, is proposed for SOC estimation for VRBs. By measuring the stack terminal voltages and applied currents, SOC can be predicted with a state estimator instead of an additional open circuit flow cell. To implement EKF estimator, an electrical model is required for battery analysis. A thermal-dependent electrical circuit model is proposed to describe the charge/discharge characteristics of the VRB. Two scenarios are tested for the robustness of the EKF. For the lab testing scenarios, the filtered stack voltage tracks the experimental data despite the model errors. For the online operation, the simulated temperature rise is observed and the maximum SOC error is within 5.5%. It is concluded that EKF method is capable of accurately predicting SOC using stack terminal voltages and applied currents in the absence of an open flow cell for OCV measurement.

  1. Preventing thermal runaway propagation in lithium ion battery packs using a phase change composite material: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Stephen; Schweitzer, Ben; Khateeb, Siddique; Al-Hallaj, Said

    2017-02-01

    The safety issues of lithium ion batteries pose ongoing challenges as the market for Li-ion technology continues to grow in personal electronics, electric mobility, and stationary energy storage. The severe risks posed by battery thermal runaway necessitate safeguards at every design level - from materials, to cell construction, to module and pack assembly. One promising approach to pack thermal management is the use of phase change composite materials (PCC™), which offer passive protection at low weight and cost while minimizing system complexity. We present experimental nail penetration studies on a Li-ion pack for small electric vehicles, designed with and without PCC, to investigate the effectiveness of PCC thermal management for preventing propagation when a single cell enters thermal runaway. The results show that when parallel cells short-circuit through the penetrated cell, the packs without PCC propagate fully while those equipped with PCC show no propagation. In cases where no external short circuits occur, packs without PCC sometimes propagate, but not consistently. In all test conditions, the use of PCC lowers the maximum temperature experienced by neighboring cells by 60 °C or more. We also elucidate the propagation sequence and aspects of pack failure based on cell temperature, voltage, and post-mortem data.

  2. In situ thermally cross-linked polyacrylonitrile as binder for high-performance silicon as lithium ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lanyao; Shen, Lian; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-07-01

    Electrode integrity and electric contact between particles and between particle and current collector are critical for electrochemical performance, especially for that of electrode materials with large volume change during cycling and with poor electric conductivity. We report on the in situ thermally cross-linked polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binder for silicon-based anodes of lithium-ion batteries. The electrode delivers excellent cycle life and rate capability with a reversible capacity of about 1450 mA h g(-1) even after 100 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance of such silicon electrodes is attributed to heat-treatment-induced cross-linking and the formation of conjugated PAN. These findings open new avenues to explore other polymers for both anode and cathode electrodes of rechargeable batteries. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Novel Battery Thermal Management System for Greater Lifetime Ratifying Current Quality and Safety Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    Temperature excursions and non-uniformity of the temperature inside the battery systems are the main concern and drawback for any attempt to scale-up battery cells to the larger sizes as required for high power applications. The applications may include electric generating stations, substations...... this come with the very high expense of accelerated capacity fade i.e. ageing. Subsequently the lifetime of the battery system is reduced. Moreover poor performance (limited capacity availability) is observed at low operating temperature. In addition, excessive or uneven temperature rise in a system or pack...

  4. Causal Analysis For Occurrence Report OR NA-SS-SNL-2000-2015-0005 Unexpected Type of Failure of Thermal Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, Elizabeth H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    On 6/26/2015 at approximately 1445 in 894/136, a pulse thermal battery (approximately the size of a commercial size C cell) experienced an unexpected failure following an electrical performance test that is routinely conducted on thermal batteries. A dedicated tester for this operation was used and it ran the test until the nominal 28-volt output of the battery had dropped to 5 volts, usually indicative of the battery being spent and safe enough to move. The failure occurred while a test operator was transferring the battery from the testing primary containment box to another primary containment box within the same room; initial indications are that the battery experienced an over-pressurization failure which led to the battery's base plate being expelled and the operator receiving a non-recordable injury (bruising to the palm of the hand) from the pressure of the expulsion. The operator was wearing the prescribed PPE (safety glasses and high temperature glove) and was handling the battery appropriately with an open, flat hand. Pictures of the scene are below.

  5. Thermal Management of Battery Systems in Electric Vehicle and Smart Grid Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan

    Last few years’ governments are tightening the carbon emission regulations. Moreover, the availability of different financial assistances is available to cut the market share of the fossil fuel vehicles. Conversely, to fill up the gap of the required demand, higher penetration of electrical...... generation smart grids, for instance, photovoltaic (PV) with battery users. Additionally, the stakeholders in the energy sector are anticipating higher market share of the battery system as different battery powered system is penetrating into the consumer market. Currently, there is a revolution going...... on the power-system domain. The dumb grids are turning into a smart grid that contains computer intelligence and networking abilities to accommodate dispersed renewable generations (e.g. solar, wind power, geothermal, wave energy and so forth). The battery takes a primary role both as stationary...

  6. Influence of gaseous atmosphere during a thermal process for recovery of manganese and zinc from spent batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardi, G.; Medici, F.; Piga, L.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the work is the recovery by thermal treatment of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, due to the different phase change temperatures of the metals. Activated charcoal, as a reductant of the zinc-bearing phases to metallic Zn, was added to the mixture that was heated in different atmospheres (air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide) at different temperatures and residence times. Characterization of the mixture and of the residues of thermal treatment was carried out by chemical analysis, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction and allowed to understand the mechanisms of reduction of zinc and to interpret the formation of different compounds during the process. Results show that recovery of 99% of Zn (grade 96%) at 1200 °C and 97% of Zn (grade 99%) at 1000 °C, are achieved in N2 at 30 min residence time. Recovery of Mn at 1200 °C and 30 min residence time was around 90-100% (90% grade). These products are suitable, after refining, for production of new batteries or higher value-added products. The residue of the treatment, enriched in manganese oxide, could be used in the production of iron-manganese alloys.

  7. Advanced technology development program for lithium-ion batteries : thermal abuse performance of 18650 Li-ion cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crafts, Chris C.; Doughty, Daniel Harvey; McBreen, James. (Bookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY); Roth, Emanuel Peter

    2004-03-01

    Li-ion cells are being developed for high-power applications in hybrid electric vehicles currently being designed for the FreedomCAR (Freedom Cooperative Automotive Research) program. These cells offer superior performance in terms of power and energy density over current cell chemistries. Cells using this chemistry are the basis of battery systems for both gasoline and fuel cell based hybrids. However, the safety of these cells needs to be understood and improved for eventual widespread commercial application in hybrid electric vehicles. The thermal behavior of commercial and prototype cells has been measured under varying conditions of cell composition, age and state-of-charge (SOC). The thermal runaway behavior of full cells has been measured along with the thermal properties of the cell components. We have also measured gas generation and gas composition over the temperature range corresponding to the thermal runaway regime. These studies have allowed characterization of cell thermal abuse tolerance and an understanding of the mechanisms that result in cell thermal runaway.

  8. Battery performances and thermal stability of polyacrylonitrile nano-fiber-based nonwoven separators for Li-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Tae-Hyung; Tanaka, Masanao; Onishi, Hiroshi; Kondo, Yuka; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Yamazaki, Hiroaki; Tanase, Shigeo; Sakai, Tetsuo

    The microporous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nonwoven separators have been developed by using electrospun nano-fibers with homogeneous diameter of 380 and 250 nm. The physical, electrochemical and thermal properties of the PAN nonwovens were characterized. The PAN nonwovens possessed homogeneous pore size distribution with similar pore size to the conventional microporous membrane separator. Moreover, the PAN nonwovens showed higher porosities, lower gurley values and better wettabilities than the conventional polyolefin microporous separator. Cells with the PAN nonwovens showed better cycle lives and higher rate capabilities than that of a cell with conventional one. Any internal short circuit was not observed for the cells with the PAN nonwovens during charge-discharge test. Hot oven tests for the charged cells up to 4.2 V have revealed that the PAN nonwoven was thermally stable at 120 °C, but showed shrinkage of about 26% isotropically after the test at 150 °C for 1 h. The Celgard membrane showed uniaxial shrinkage of about 30% along the machine direction at 150 °C for 1 h.

  9. Battery performances and thermal stability of polyacrylonitrile nano-fiber-based nonwoven separators for Li-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Tae-Hyung; Tanase, Shigeo; Sakai, Tetsuo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Kansai, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Tanaka, Masanao; Onishi, Hiroshi; Kondo, Yuka; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Yamazaki, Hiroaki [Japan Vilene Co., Ltd., 7 Kita-Tone, Koga, Ibaraki 306-0213 (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    The microporous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nonwoven separators have been developed by using electrospun nano-fibers with homogeneous diameter of 380 and 250 nm. The physical, electrochemical and thermal properties of the PAN nonwovens were characterized. The PAN nonwovens possessed homogeneous pore size distribution with similar pore size to the conventional microporous membrane separator. Moreover, the PAN nonwovens showed higher porosities, lower gurley values and better wettabilities than the conventional polyolefin microporous separator. Cells with the PAN nonwovens showed better cycle lives and higher rate capabilities than that of a cell with conventional one. Any internal short circuit was not observed for the cells with the PAN nonwovens during charge-discharge test. Hot oven tests for the charged cells up to 4.2 V have revealed that the PAN nonwoven was thermally stable at 120 C, but showed shrinkage of about 26% isotropically after the test at 150 C for 1 h. The Celgard membrane showed uniaxial shrinkage of about 30% along the machine direction at 150 C for 1 h. (author)

  10. Effect of Oxide Nanoparticles on Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Electrospun Separators for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Zaccaria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the fabrication and characterization of poly(ethylene oxide (PEO and poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene (PVDF-CTFE nanofibrous separators for lithium-ion batteries loaded with different amounts of fumed-silica and tin oxide nanoparticles. Membrane morphological characterization (SEM, TEM showed the presence of good-quality nanofibres containing nanoparticles. Thermal degradation and membrane mechanical properties were also investigated, and a remarkable effect of nanoparticle addition on membrane mechanical properties was found. In particular, PEO membranes were strengthened by the addition of metal oxide, whereas PVDF-CTFE membranes acquired ductility.

  11. Integrated Equivalent Circuit and Thermal Model for Simulation of Temperature-Dependent LiFePO4 Battery in Actual Embedded Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuchang Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational efficient battery pack model with thermal consideration is essential for simulation prototyping before real-time embedded implementation. The proposed model provides a coupled equivalent circuit and convective thermal model to determine the state-of-charge (SOC and temperature of the LiFePO4 battery working in a real environment. A cell balancing strategy applied to the proposed temperature-dependent battery model balanced the SOC of each cell to increase the lifespan of the battery. The simulation outputs are validated by a set of independent experimental data at a different temperature to ensure the model validity and reliability. The results show a root mean square (RMS error of 1.5609 × 10−5 for the terminal voltage and the comparison between the simulation and experiment at various temperatures (from 5 °C to 45 °C shows a maximum RMS error of 7.2078 × 10−5.

  12. Characterization of the physico-chemical properties of polymeric materials for aerospace flight. [differential thermal and atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis of nickel cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrodes and electrolytes of nickel cadmium sealed batteries were analyzed. Different thermal analysis of negative and positive battery electrodes was conducted and the temperature ranges of occurrence of endotherms indicating decomposition of cadmium hydroxide and nickel hydroxide are identified. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze electrodes and electrolytes for traces of nickel, cadmium, cobalt, and potassium. Calibration curves and data are given for each sample analyzed. Instrumentation and analytical procedures used for each method are described.

  13. Rapid, in Situ Synthesis of High Capacity Battery Anodes through High Temperature Radiation-Based Thermal Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanan; Li, Yiju; Wang, Yanbin; Fu, Kun; Danner, Valencia A; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven D; Yao, Yonggang; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-09-14

    High capacity battery electrodes require nanosized components to avoid pulverization associated with volume changes during the charge-discharge process. Additionally, these nanosized electrodes need an electronically conductive matrix to facilitate electron transport. Here, for the first time, we report a rapid thermal shock process using high-temperature radiative heating to fabricate a conductive reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite with silicon nanoparticles. Silicon (Si) particles on the order of a few micrometers are initially embedded in the RGO host and in situ transformed into 10-15 nm nanoparticles in less than a minute through radiative heating. The as-prepared composites of ultrafine Si nanoparticles embedded in a RGO matrix show great performance as a Li-ion battery (LIB) anode. The in situ nanoparticle synthesis method can also be adopted for other high capacity battery anode materials including tin (Sn) and aluminum (Al). This method for synthesizing high capacity anodes in a RGO matrix can be envisioned for roll-to-roll nanomanufacturing due to the ease and scalability of this high-temperature radiative heating process.

  14. Energy efficiency evaluation of a stationary lithium-ion battery container storage system via electro-thermal modeling and detailed component analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimpe, Michael; Naumann, Maik; Truong, Nam; Hesse, Holger C.; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Saxon, Aron; Jossen, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Energy efficiency is a key performance indicator for battery storage systems. A detailed electro-thermal model of a stationary lithium-ion battery system is developed and an evaluation of its energy efficiency is conducted. The model offers a holistic approach to calculating conversion losses and auxiliary power consumption. Sub-models for battery rack, power electronics, thermal management as well as the control and monitoring components are developed and coupled to a comprehensive model. The simulation is parametrized based on a prototype 192 kWh system using lithium iron phosphate batteries connected to the low voltage grid. The key loss mechanisms are identified, thoroughly analyzed and modeled. Generic profiles featuring various system operation modes are evaluated to show the characteristics of stationary battery systems. Typically the losses in the power electronics outweigh the losses in the battery at low power operating points. The auxiliary power consumption dominates for low system utilization rates. For estimation of real-world performance, the grid applications Primary Control Reserve, Secondary Control Reserve and the storage of surplus photovoltaic power are evaluated. Conversion round-trip efficiency is in the range of 70-80%. Overall system efficiency, which also considers system power consumption, is 8-13 percentage points lower for Primary Control Reserve and the photovoltaic-battery application. However, for Secondary Control Reserve, the total round-trip efficiency is found to be extremely low at 23% due to the low energy throughput of this application type.

  15. In-line monitoring of Li-ion battery electrode porosity and areal loading using active thermal scanning - modeling and initial experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupnowski, Przemyslaw; Ulsh, Michael; Sopori, Bhushan; Green, Brian G.; Wood, David L.; Li, Jianlin; Sheng, Yangping

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on a new technique called active thermal scanning for in-line monitoring of porosity and areal loading of Li-ion battery electrodes. In this technique a moving battery electrode is subjected to thermal excitation and the induced temperature rise is monitored using an infra-red camera. Static and dynamic experiments with speeds up to 1.5 m min-1 are performed on both cathodes and anodes and a combined micro- and macro-scale finite element thermal model of the system is developed. It is shown experimentally and through simulations that during thermal scanning the temperature profile generated in an electrode depends on both coating porosity (or area loading) and thickness. It is concluded that by inverting this relation the porosity (or areal loading) can be determined, if thermal response and thickness are simultaneously measured.

  16. Thermal Management of Battery Systems in EV and Smart Grid Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan

    The principal outcome of the research is to deliver experimental and modelling framework targeted for both EV and next-generation smart grid application developer. The results of the research assist in providing a correct datasheet for a battery cell. It is a result of an experimental framework...

  17. The effect of mass ratio of electrolyte and electrodes on the thermal stabilities of electrodes used in lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qingsong, E-mail: pinew@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ping, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Sun, Jinhua, E-mail: sunjh@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Chen, Chunhua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2011-04-20

    Research highlights: {yields} Mass ratio effect of electrolyte and electrodes is investigated. {yields} The electrode reacts with electrolyte more than one exothermic peaks. {yields} The heat generation increases with the electrolyte content increasing. {yields} The reaction thermodynamics and kinetics are obtained. - Abstract: The mass ratio between electrode and electrolyte in lithium-ion battery plays a key role for the battery thermal stability. Its effect on the thermal stability of their coexisting system was studied using C80 micro-calorimeter. For the Li{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 2}-LiPF{sub 6}/ethylene carbonate (EC) + diethyl carbonate (DEC) coexisting system, when the mass ratios of Li{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 2}-LiPF{sub 6}/EC + DEC are 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3, one, two, three and four main exothermic peaks are detected with total heat generation of -1043.8 J g{sup -1}, -1052.6 J g{sup -1}, -1178.5 J g{sup -1} and -1684.5 J g{sup -1}, respectively. For the Li{sub x}C{sub 6}-LiPF{sub 6}/EC + DEC coexisting system, the thermal behavior trend is similar, and the heat generation increases with the electrolyte content increasing, however, and the onset temperature are very close to each others. The heating rate also influence the heat generation rate for the two coexisting system, too far or too low heating rate could results in varies heat generation.

  18. Thermal management optimization of an air-cooled Li-ion battery module using pin-fin heat sinks for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Shahabeddin K.; Zhang, Yuwen

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional transient thermal analysis of an air-cooled module that contains prismatic Li-ion cells next to a special kind of aluminum pin fin heat sink whose heights of pin fins increase linearly through the width of the channel in air flow direction was studied for thermal management of Lithium-ion battery pack. The effects of pin fins arrangements, discharge rates, inlet air flow velocities, and inlet air temperatures on the battery were investigated. The results showed that despite of heat sinks with uniform pin fin heights that increase the standard deviation of the temperature field, using this kind of pin fin heat sink compare to the heat sink without pin fins not only decreases the bulk temperature inside the battery, but also decreases the standard deviation of the temperature field inside the battery as well. Increasing the inlet air temperature leads to decreasing the standard deviation of the temperature field while increases the maximum temperature of the battery. Furthermore, increasing the inlet air velocity first increases the standard deviation of the temperature field till reaches to the maximum point, and after that decreases. Also, increasing the inlet air velocity leads to decrease in the maximum temperature of the battery.

  19. Development and Evaluation of Active Thermal Management System for Lithium-Ion Batteries using Solid-State Thermoelectric Heat Pump and Heat Pipes with Electric Vehicular Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Bhaumik Kamlesh

    Lithium-Ion batteries have become a popular choice for use in energy storage systems in electric vehicles (EV) and Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) because of high power and high energy density. But the use of EV and HEV in all climates demands for a battery thermal management system (BTMS) since temperature effects their performance, cycle life and, safety. Hence the BTMS plays a crucial role in the performance of EV and HEV. In this paper, three thermal management systems are studied: (a) simple aluminum as heat spreader material, (b) heat pipes as heat spreader, and (c) advanced combined solid state thermoelectric heat pump (TE) and heat pipe system; these will be subsequently referred to as Design A, B and C, respectively. A detailed description of the designs and the experimental setup is presented. The experimental procedure is divided into two broad categories: Cooling mode and Warming-up mode. Cooling mode covers the conditions when a BTMS is responsible to cool the battery pack through heat dissipation and Warming-up mode covers the conditions when the BTMS is responsible to warm the battery pack in a low temperature ambient condition, maintaining a safe operating temperature of the battery pack in both modes. The experimental procedure analyzes the thermal management system by evaluating the effect of each variable like heat sink area, battery heat generation rate, cooling air temperature, air flow rate and TE power on parameters like maximum temperature of the battery pack (T max), maximum temperature difference (DeltaT) and, heat transfer through heat sink/cooling power of TE (Q c). The results show that Design C outperforms Design A and Design B in spite of design issues which reduce its efficiency, but can still be improved to achieve better performance.

  20. Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Thermal Behavior of a Lithium-Ion Battery Module for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeshin Yi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a modeling methodology to predict the effects of operating conditions on the thermal behavior of a lithium-ion battery (LIB module. The potential and current density distributions on the electrodes of an LIB cell are predicted as a function of discharge time based on the principle of charge conservation. By using the modeling results of the potential and current density distributions of the LIB cell, the non-uniform distribution of the heat generation rate in a single LIB cell within the module is calculated. Based on the heat generation rate in the single LIB cell determined as a function of the position on the electrode and time, a three-dimensional thermal modeling of an LIB module is performed to calculate the three-dimensional velocity, pressure, and temperature distributions within the LIB module as a function of time at various operating conditions. Thermal modeling of an LIB module is validated by the comparison between the experimental measurements and the modeling results. The effect of the cooling condition of the LIB module on the temperature rise of the LIB cells within the module and the uniformity of the distribution of the cell temperatures are analyzed quantitatively based on the modeling results.

  1. A thermally regenerative ammonia battery with carbon-silver electrodes for converting low-grade waste heat to electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mohammad; Kim, Taeyoung; Gorski, Christopher A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2018-01-01

    Thermally regenerative ammonia batteries (TRABs) have shown great promise as a method to convert low-grade waste heat into electrical power, with power densities an order of magnitude higher than other approaches. However, previous TRABs based on copper electrodes suffered from unbalanced anode dissolution and cathode deposition rates during discharging cycles, limiting practical applications. To produce a TRAB with stable and reversible electrode reactions over many cycles, inert carbon electrodes were used with silver salts. In continuous flow tests, power production was stable over 100 discharging cycles, demonstrating excellent reversibility. Power densities were 23 W m-2-electrode area in batch tests, which was 64% higher than that produced in parallel tests using copper electrodes, and 30 W m-2 (net energy density of 490 Wh m-3-anolyte) in continuous flow tests. While this battery requires the use a precious metal, an initial economic analysis of the system showed that the cost of the materials relative to energy production was 220 per MWh, which is competitive with energy production from other non-fossil fuel sources. A substantial reduction in costs could be obtained by developing less expensive anion exchange membranes.

  2. Real-time mass spectroscopy analysis of Li-ion battery electrolyte degradation under abusive thermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulupeau, B.; Delobel, B.; Cahen, S.; Fontana, S.; Hérold, C.

    2017-02-01

    The lithium-ion batteries are widely used in rechargeable electronic devices. The current challenges are to improve the capacity and safety of these systems in view of their development to a larger scale, such as for their application in electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium-ion batteries use organic solvents because of the wide operating voltage. The corresponding electrolytes are usually based on combinations of linear, cyclic alkyl carbonates and a lithium salt such as LiPF6. It has been reported that in abusive thermal conditions, a catalytic effect of the cathode materials lead to the formation fluoro-organics compounds. In order to understand the degradation phenomenon, the study at 240 °C of the interaction between positive electrode materials (LiCoO2, LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2, LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4) and electrolyte in dry and wet conditions has been realized by an original method which consists in analyzing by mass spectrometry in real time the volatile molecules produced. The evolution of specific gases channels coupled to the NMR reveal the formation of rarely discussed species such as 2-fluoroethanol and 1,4-dioxane. Furthermore, it appears that the presence of water or other protic impurities greatly influence their formation.

  3. Embedded Si/Graphene Composite Fabricated by Magnesium-Thermal Reduction as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiangliu; Ren, Yurong; Yang, Bo; Chen, Wenkai; Ding, Jianning

    2017-12-01

    Embedded Si/graphene composite was fabricated by a novel method, which was in situ generated SiO2 particles on graphene sheets followed by magnesium-thermal reduction. The tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and flake graphite was used as original materials. On the one hand, the unique structure of as-obtained composite accommodated the large volume change to some extent. Simultaneously, it enhanced electronic conductivity during Li-ion insertion/extraction. The MR-Si/G composite is used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries, which shows high reversible capacity and ascendant cycling stability reach to 950 mAh·g-1 at a current density of 50 mA·g-1 after 60 cycles. These may be conducive to the further advancement of Si-based composite anode design.

  4. Electrochemical Characteristics of Layered Transition Metal Oxide Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries: Surface, Bulk Behavior, and Thermal Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chixia; Lin, Feng; Doeff, Marca M

    2018-01-16

    structural and chemical changes affect the charge distribution, the charge compensation mechanisms, and ultimately, the battery performance. Surface reconstruction, cathode/electrolyte interface layer formation, and oxygen loss are intimately related, making it difficult to disentangle the effects of each of these phenomena. They are driven by the different redox activities of Ni and O on the surface and in the bulk; there is a greater tendency for charge compensation to occur on oxygen anions at particle surfaces rather than on Ni, whereas the Ni in the bulk is more redox active than on the surface. Finally, our latest research efforts are directed toward understanding the thermal properties of NMCs, which is highly relevant to their safety in operating cells.

  5. Rocks, Clays, Water, and Salts: Highly Durable, Infinitely Rechargeable, Eminently Controllable Thermal Batteries for Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Rempel, Alan W.; Alexandra R. Rempel

    2013-01-01

    Materials that store the energy of warm days, to return that heat during cool nights, have been fundamental to vernacular building since ancient times. Although building with thermally rechargeable materials became a niche pursuit with the advent of fossil fuel-based heating and cooling, energy and climate change concerns have sparked new enthusiasm for these substances of high heat capacity and moderate thermal conductivity: stone, adobe, rammed earth, brick, water, concrete, and more recent...

  6. A chemo-mechanical model coupled with thermal effect on the hollow core–shell electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrode is a key component to remain durability and safety of lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries. Li-ion insertion/removal and thermal expansion mismatch may induce high stress in electrode during charging and discharging processes. In this paper, we present a continuum model based on COMSOL Multiphysics software, which involves thermal, chemical and mechanical behaviors of electrodes. The results show that, because of diffusion-induced stress and thermal mismatch, the electrode geometry plays an important role in diffusion kinetics of Li-ions. A higher local compressive stress results in a lower Li-ion concentration and thus a lower capacity when a particle is embedded another, which is in agreement with experimental observations. Keywords: Lithium-ion battery, Diffusion-induced stress, COMSOL, Chemo-mechanical, Electrode

  7. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal Models for Battery Crush; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad; Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbiki, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Propagation of failure in lithium-ion batteries during field events or under abuse is a strong function of the mechanical response of the different components in the battery. Whereas thermal and electrochemical models that capture the abuse response of batteries have been developed and matured over the years, the interaction between the mechanical behavior and the thermal response of these batteries is not very well understood. With support from the Department of Energy, NREL has made progress in coupling mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical lithium-ion models to predict the initiation and propagation of short circuits under external crush in a cell. The challenge with a cell crush simulation is to estimate the magnitude and location of the short. To address this, the model includes an explicit representation of each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc., and predicts their mechanical deformation under different crush scenarios. Initial results show reasonable agreement with experiments. In this presentation, the versatility of the approach for use with different design factors, cell formats and chemistries is explored using examples.

  8. Micro Calorimeter for Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As battery technology forges ahead and consumer demand for safer, more affordable, high-performance batteries grows, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has added a patented Micro Calorimeter to its existing family of R&D 100 Award-winning Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs). The Micro Calorimeter examines the thermal signature of battery chemistries early on in the design cycle using popular coin cell and small pouch cell designs, which are simple to fabricate and study.

  9. Novel Battery Management System with Distributed Wireless and Fiber Optic Sensors for Early Detection and Suppression of Thermal Runaway in Large Battery Packs, FY13 Q4 Report, ARPA-E Program: Advanced Management Protection of Energy Storage Devices (AMPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chang, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zumstein, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kovotsky, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Puglia, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dobley, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moore, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Osswald, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolf, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kaschmitter, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eaves, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-10-08

    at various temperatures, thereby enabling earlier warning of thermal runaway than possible with external sensors. Ultimately, the team plans to extend this work to include: (12) flexible wireless controllers, also using Bluetooth 4.0 standard, essential for balancing large-scale battery packs. LLNL received $925K for this project, and has $191K remaining after accomplishing these objectives.

  10. Purification process of natural graphite as anode for Li-ion batteries: chemical versus thermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghib, K.; Song, X.; Guerfi, A.; Rioux, R.; Kinoshita, K.

    The intercalation of Li ions in natural graphite that was purified by chemical and thermal processes was investigated. A new chemical process was developed that involved a mixed aqueous solution containing 30% H 2SO 4 and 30% NH xF y heated to 90 °C. The results of this process are compared to those obtained by heating the natural graphite from 1500 to 2400 °C in an inert environment (thermal process). The first-cycle coulombic efficiency of the purified natural graphite obtained by the chemical process is 91 and 84% after the thermal process at 2400 °C. Grinding the natural graphite before or after purification had no significant effect on electrochemical performance at low currents. However, grinding to a very small particle size before purification permitted optimization of the size distribution of the particles, which gives rise to a more homogenous electrode. The impurities in the graphite play a role as microabrasion agents during grinding which enhances its hardness and improves its mechanical properties. Grinding also modifies the particle morphology from a 2- to a 3-D structure (similar in shape to a potato). This potato-shaped natural graphite shows high reversible capacity at high current densities (about 90% at 1 C rate). Our analysis suggests that thermal processing is considerably more expensive than the chemical process to obtain purified natural graphite.

  11. Rocks, Clays, Water, and Salts: Highly Durable, Infinitely Rechargeable, Eminently Controllable Thermal Batteries for Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan W. Rempel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials that store the energy of warm days, to return that heat during cool nights, have been fundamental to vernacular building since ancient times. Although building with thermally rechargeable materials became a niche pursuit with the advent of fossil fuel-based heating and cooling, energy and climate change concerns have sparked new enthusiasm for these substances of high heat capacity and moderate thermal conductivity: stone, adobe, rammed earth, brick, water, concrete, and more recently, phase-change materials. While broadly similar, these substances absorb and release heat in unique patterns characteristic of their mineralogies, densities, fluidities, emissivities, and latent heats of fusion. Current architectural practice, however, shows little awareness of these differences and the resulting potential to match materials to desired thermal performance. This investigation explores that potential, illustrating the correspondence between physical parameters and thermal storage-and-release patterns in direct-, indirect-, and isolated-gain passive solar configurations. Focusing on heating applications, results demonstrate the superiority of water walls for daytime warmth, the tunability of granite and concrete for evening warmth, and the exceptional ability of phase-change materials to sustain near-constant heat delivery throughout the night.

  12. Thermal stress promotes host mitochondrial degradation in symbiotic cnidarians: are the batteries of the reef going to run out?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R Dunn

    Full Text Available The symbiotic relationship between cnidarians and their dinoflagellate symbionts, Symbiodinium spp, which underpins the formation of tropical coral reefs, can be destabilized by rapid changes to environmental conditions. Although some studies have concluded that a breakdown in the symbiosis begins with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation within the symbiont due to a decoupling of photosynthesis, others have reported the release of viable symbionts via a variety of host cell derived mechanisms. We explored an alternative model focused upon changes in host cnidarian mitochondrial integrity in response to thermal stress. Mitochondria are often likened to being batteries of the cell, providing energy in the form of ATP, and controlling cellular pathway activation and ROS generation. The overall morphology of host mitochondria was compared to that of associated symbionts under an experimental thermal stress using confocal and electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that hyperthermic stress induces the degradation of cnidarian host mitochondria that is independent of symbiont cellular deterioration. The potential sites of host mitochondrial disruption were also assessed by measuring changes in the expression of genes associated with electron transport and ATP synthesis using quantitative RT-PCR. The primary site of degradation appeared to be downstream of complex III of the electron transport chain with a significant reduction in host cytochrome c and ATP synthase expression. The consequences of reduced expression could limit the capacity of the host to mitigate ROS generation and maintain both organelle integrity and cellular energy supplies. The disruption of host mitochondria, cellular homeostasis, and subsequent cell death irrespective of symbiont integrity highlights the importance of the host response to thermal stress and in symbiosis dysfunction that has substantial implications for understanding how coral reefs will survive

  13. Control of internal and external short circuits in lithium batteries using a composite thermal switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Robert C.; Pickett, Jerome; Goebel, Franz

    1991-01-01

    A composite material has been developed, consisting of a blend of metal and fluorocarbon particles, which behaves as an electronic conductor at room temperature and which abruptly becomes an insulator at a predetermined temperature. This switching behavior results from the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the conductive and non-conductive portions of the composite. This material was applied as a thin film between the carbon cathode in Li/SOCl2 cells, and the metallic cathode current collector. Using test articles incorporating this feature it was shown that lithium cells externally heated or internally heated during a short circuit lost rate capability and the ability to overheat well below the melting point of lithium (180 C). Thus, during an internal or external cell short circuit, the potential for thermal runaway involving reactions of molten lithium is avoided.

  14. Parameterization and Observability Analysis of Scalable Battery Clusters for Onboard Thermal Management Paramétrage et analyse d’observabilité de clusters de batteries de taille variable pour une gestion thermique embarquée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xinfan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the battery surface temperature is commonly measured, the core temperature of a cell may be much higher hence more critical than the surface temperature. The core temperature of a battery, though usually unmeasured in commercial applications, can be estimated by an observer, based on a lumped-parameter battery thermal model and the measurement of the current and the surface temperature. Even with a closed loop observer based on the measured surface temperature, the accuracy of the core temperature estimation depends on the model parameters. For such purpose, an online parameterization methodology and an adaptive observer are designed for a cylindrical battery. The single cell thermal model is then scaled up to create a battery cluster model to investigate the temperature pattern of the cluster. The modeled thermal interconnections between cells include cell to cell heat conduction and convection to the surrounding coolant flow. An observability analysis is performed on the cluster before designing a closed loop observer for the pack. Based on the analysis, guidelines for determining the minimum number of required sensors and their exact locations are derived that guarantee the observability of all temperature states. Bien que la température de surface d’une batterie soit généralement mesurée, la température interne d’une cellule peut être beaucoup plus élevée donc plus critique que la température de surface. La température interne d’une batterie, pourtant normalement non mesurée dans les applications commerciales, peut être évaluée par un observateur, sur la base d’un modèle thermique de batterie à constantes localisées et à partir de la mesure du courant et de la température de surface. Même avec un observateur en boucle fermée basé sur la température de surface mesurée, la précision de l’estimation de la température interne dépend des constantes du modèle. Dans cette optique, une méthodologie de

  15. Identification of alkylated phosphates by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric investigations with different ionization principles of a thermally aged commercial lithium ion battery electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Waldemar; Kraft, Vadim; Grützke, Martin; Wagner, Ralf; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2015-05-15

    The thermal aging process of a commercial LiPF6 based lithium ion battery electrolyte has been investigated in view of the formation of volatile phosphorus-containing degradation products. Aging products were analyzed by GC-MS. Structure determination of the products was performed by support of chemical ionization MS in positive and negative modes. A fraction of the discovered compounds belongs to the group of fluorophosphates (phosphorofluoridates) which are in suspect of potential toxicity. This is well known for relative derivatives, e.g. diisopropyl fluorophosphate. Another fraction of the identified compounds belongs to the group of trialkyl phosphates. These compounds may provide a positive impact on the thermal and electrochemical performance of Li-based batteries as repeatedly described in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Arrhenius Equation-Based Cell-Health Assessment: Application to Thermal Energy Management Design of a HEV NiMH Battery Pack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyuan Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model-based cell-health-conscious thermal energy management method. An Arrhenius equation-based mathematical model is firstly identified to quantify the effect of temperature on the cell lifetime of a Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH battery pack. The cell aging datasets collected under multiple ambient temperatures are applied to extract the Arrhenius equation parameters. The model is then used as an assessment criterion and guidance for the thermal management design of battery packs. The feasibility and applicability of a pack structure with its cooling system, is then evaluated, and its design problems are studied by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis. The performance and eligibility of the design method is validated by both CFD simulations and experiments.

  17. Efficient Simulation and Abuse Modeling of Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Phenomena in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, Ahmad A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Chao [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Laboratories; Abraham, Daniel [Argonne National Laboratory; Dees, Dennis [Argonne National Laboratory; Yao, Pierre [Argonne National Laboratory

    2017-08-08

    NREL's Energy Storage team is exploring the effect of mechanical crush of lithium ion cells on their thermal and electrical safety. PHEV cells, fresh as well as ones aged over 8 months under different temperatures, voltage windows, and charging rates, were subjected to destructive physical analysis. Constitutive relationship and failure criteria were developed for the electrodes, separator as well as packaging material. The mechanical models capture well, the various modes of failure across different cell components. Cell level validation is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories.

  18. Economic and Environmental Analysis of Cool Thermal Energy Storage as an Alternative to Batteries for the Integration of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Matthew John

    2015-01-01

    The balance of the supply of renewable energy sources with electricity demand will become increasingly difficult with further penetration of renewable energy sources. Traditionally, large stationary batteries have been used to store renewable energy in excess of electricity demand and dispatch the stored energy to meet future electricity demand. Cool thermal energy storage is a feasible renewable energy balancing solution that has economic and environmental advantages over utility scale stati...

  19. Analysis of structural and thermal stability in the positive electrode for sulfide-based all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Otoyama, Misae; Mori, Yota; Mori, Shigeo; Morimoto, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    Sulfide-based all-solid-state batteries using a non-flammable inorganic solid electrolyte are promising candidates as a next-generation power source owing to their safety and excellent charge-discharge cycle characteristics. In this study, we thus focus on the positive electrode and investigated structural stabilities of the interface between the positive electrode active material LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) and the 75Li2S·25P2S5 (LPS) glass electrolyte after charge-discharge cycles via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To evaluate the thermal stability of the fabricated all-solid-state cell, in-situ TEM observations for the positive electrode during heating are conducted. As a result, structural and morphological changes are detected in the LPS glasses. Thus, exothermal reaction present in the NMC-LPS composite positive electrode after the initial charging is attributable to the crystallization of LPS glasses. On the basis of a comparison with crystallization behavior in single LPS glasses, the origin of exothermal reaction in the NMC-LPS composites is discussed.

  20. The acceleration intermediate phase (NiS and Ni3S2) evolution by nanocrystallization in Li/NiS2 thermal batteries with high specific capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chuanyu; Zhou, Lingping; Fu, Licai; Zhu, Jiajun; Li, Deyi; Yang, Wulin

    2017-06-01

    The intermediate phase of NiS2 is thought to be a bottleneck currently to improve the overall performance of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries because of its low conductivity and close formation enthalpy between NiS2 and the intermediate phase (NiS, Ni3S2, etc). For improving the discharge performances of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries, the nano NiS2 with an average size of 85 ± 5 nm is designated as a cathode material. The electrochemical measurements show that the specific capacity of nano NiS2 cathode is higher than micro NiS2. The nano NiS2 cathode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances with high specific capacities of 794 and 654 mAh g-1 at current density of 0.1 and 0.5 A cm-2 under a cut-off voltage of 0.5 V, respectively. These results show that the rapid intermediate phase evolution from the nanocrystallization can obviously enhance use efficiency of NiS2 and improve discharge performances of thermal batteries.

  1. A thermal and electrochemical properties research on gel polymer electrolyte membrane of lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Libo; Ma, Yue; Wang, Wentao; Xu, Yanping; You, Jun; Zhang, Yonghong

    2016-12-01

    N-methyl-N-propyl-piperidin-bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide/bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide lithium base/polymethyl methacrylate(PP13TFSI/LiTFSI/PMMA) gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) membrane was prepared by in situ polymerization. The physical and chemical properties were comprehensively discussed. The decomposition characteristics were emphasized by thermogravimetric (TG-DTG) method in the nitrogen atmosphere at the different heating rates of 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C min-1, respectively. The activation energy was calculated with the iso-conversional methods of Ozawa and Kissinger, Friedman, respectively, and the Coats-Redfern methods were adopted to employ the detailed mechanism of the electrolyte membrane. The equation f(α)=3/2[(1-α)1/3-1] was quite an appropriate kinetic mechanisms to describe the thermal decomposition process with an activation energy (Eα) of 184 kJ/mol and a pre-exponential factor (A) of 1.894×1011 were obtained.

  2. Thermal characterization of tetrabasic lead sulfate used in the lead acid battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferg, E. E.; Billing, D. G.; Venter, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The thermal production of 4PbO·PbSO4 was comprehensively studied and characterized for two syntheses routes, i.e. either heating 3PbO·PbSO4·H2O, or a mixture of 4PbO:PbSO4, in air to about 700 °C. In the 3PbO·PbSO4·H2O approach, the formation of an intermediate amorphous phase occurred at around 210 °C with the loss of H2O from the hydrated structure. Formation of 4PbO·PbSO4 initiated at around 270 °C with predominantly 4PbO·PbSO4 and 13% residual PbO·PbSO4 existing at 700 °C. With the synthesis route of mixing a stoichiometric ratio of 4PbO with PbSO4, an intermediate phase of PbO·PbSO4 formed at around 300 °C, before the 4PbO·PbSO4 phase started to form at around 500 °C. Upon further heating, 4PbO·PbSO4 was the predominant phase with 8% of PbO·PbSO4 remaining. Both samples decomposed upon further heating to 850 °C. Powder neutron diffraction studies of the final 4PbO·PbSO4 products from the two different synthesis routes showed similar crystallographic unit cell lattice parameters with slight differences in the PbO:PbSO4 contents. This could possibly be linked to differences observed in the microscopic crystallite shapes from the two synthesis routes.

  3. Online Parameterization of Lumped Thermal Dynamics in Cylindrical Lithium Ion Batteries for Core Temperature Estimation and Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    also increase over lifetime due to degradation. This is because the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) may grow in thickness [12], [13], [14] and reduce...identification and estimation of lithium ion batteries, and detection of imbalance in battery strings. Hector E. Perez received the B.S. degree in Me- chanical

  4. One-step separation by thermal treatment and cobalt acid-leaching from spent lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Deying

    2017-10-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are extensively used in portable storage devices and automobiles, therefore the environment and resource problems caused by spent lithium ion batteries have become increasingly severe. This paper focuses on the recovery process of spent lithium cobalt oxide active material and comes up with reasonable processes and the best conditions for cobalt leaching ultimately.

  5. A study of advanced magnesium-based hydride and development of a metal hydride thermal battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengshang

    Metal hydrides are a group of important materials known as energy carriers for renewable energy and thermal energy storage. A concept of thermal battery based on advanced metal hydrides is studied for heating and cooling of cabins in electric vehicles. The system utilizes a pair of thermodynamically matched metal hydrides as energy storage media. The hot hydride that is identified and developed is catalyzed MgH2 due to its high energy density and enhanced kinetics. TiV0.62Mn1.5, TiMn2, and LaNi5 alloys are selected as the matching cold hydride. A systematic experimental survey is carried out in this study to compare a wide range of additives including transitions metals, transition metal oxides, hydrides, intermetallic compounds, and carbon materials, with respect to their effects on dehydrogenation properties of MgH2. The results show that additives such as Ti and V-based metals, hydride, and certain intermetallic compounds have strong catalytic effects. Solid solution alloys of magnesium are exploited as a way to destabilize magnesium hydride thermodynamically. Various elements are alloyed with magnesium to form solid solutions, including indium and aluminum. Thermodynamic properties of the reactions between the magnesium solid solution alloys and hydrogen are investigated, showing that all the solid solution alloys that are investigated in this work have higher equilibrium hydrogen pressures than that of pure magnesium. Cyclic stability of catalyzed MgH2 is characterized and analyzed using a PCT Sievert-type apparatus. Three systems, including MgH2-TiH 2, MgH2-TiMn2, and MgH2-VTiCr, are examined. The hydrogenating and dehydrogenating kinetics at 300°C are stable after 100 cycles. However, the low temperature (25°C to 150°C) hydrogenation kinetics suffer a severe degradation during hydrogen cycling. Further experiments confirm that the low temperature kinetic degradation can be mainly related the extended hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reactions. Proof

  6. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.

    1992-06-04

    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  7. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  8. Enhanced Wettability and Thermal Stability of a Novel Polyethylene Terephthalate-Based Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Nanofiber Hybrid Membrane for the Separator of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunhong; Nagaishi, Tomoki; Shi, Jian; Lee, Hoik; Wong, Pok Yin; Sui, Jianhua; Hyodo, Kenji; Kim, Ick Soo

    2017-08-09

    In this study, a novel membrane for the separator in a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery was proposed via a mechanically pressed process with a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofiber subject and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) microfiber support. Important physical properties, such as surface morphology, wettability, and heat stability were considered for the PET-reinforced PVDF nanofiber (PRPN) hybrid separator. Images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the PRPN hybrid separator had a homogeneous pore size and high porosity. It can wet out in battery electrolytes completely and quickly, satisfying wettability requirements. Moreover, the electrolyte uptake was higher than that of dry-laid and wet-laid nonwovens. For heat stability, no shrink occurred even when the heating temperature reached 135 °C, demonstrating thermal and dimensional stability. Moreover, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that the PRPN hybrid separator possessed a shutdown temperature of 131 °C, which is the same as conventional separators. Also, the meltdown temperature reached 252 °C, which is higher than the shutdown temperature, and thus can protect against internal cell shorts. The proposed PRPN hybrid separator is a strong candidate material for utilization in Li-ion batteries.

  9. An improved high-power battery with increased thermal operating range: C-LiFePO4//C-Li4Ti5O12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghib, K.; Dontigny, M.; Guerfi, A.; Trottier, J.; Hamel-Paquet, J.; Gariepy, V.; Galoutov, K.; Hovington, P.; Mauger, A.; Groult, H.; Julien, C. M.

    2012-10-01

    The carbon-coated LiFePO4 and C-Li4Ti5O12 particles of 90 nm in diameter have been tested as active elements of electrodes of Li-ion batteries. The 18650-size cell using the usual electrolyte 1 mol L-1 LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethylene carbonate (DEC) displays a charge capacity of 650 mAh at low C-rate and retains more than 80% of rated capacity at 60C charge rate (1 min). 2032-size coin cells have been tested with different electrolytes: 1.5 mol L-1 lithium tetrafluoroborate LiBF4 in EC+ γ-butyrolactone (GBL), and 0.5 mol L-1 lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiN(CF3SO2)2, LiTFSI) + 1 mol L-1 LiBF4 in EC + GBL, aiming to replace the less stable LiPF6 salt. The LiTFSI-based electrolyte can be used owing to the low operating voltage that avoids the corrosion of the aluminum of the collector. This electrolyte shows the best results as the performance is even higher at 60 °C. The infrared images show that the temperature of the cell never reaches this temperature during cycling, making this battery a high-power battery with remarkable thermal stability. The maximum temperature reached by the cell is 34 °C at 40C-rate and 40 °C at 60C. The free EC-based electrolytes even operate at 80 °C by using 1 mol L-1 lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) in GBL or 1 mol L-1 LiFSI in PC + GBL, thus increasing importantly the operating temperature range for the battery. The carbon coated on LTO depresses the evolution of gases during charge discharge.

  10. Utilization of automotive shredder residues in a thermal process for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, N M; Belardi, G; Medici, F; Piga, L

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is the recovery by thermal treatment of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, on the basis of the different phase change temperatures of the two metal-bearing phases. ASR (Automotive Shredder Residue), containing 68% of carbon, was added to the mixture to act as a reductant to metallic Zn of the zinc-bearing phases. The mixture was subsequently heated in different atmospheres (air, CO2 and N2) and at different temperatures (900°C, 1000°C and 1200°C) and stoichiometric excess of ASR (300%, 600% and 900%). Characterization of the mixture and of the residues of thermal treatment was carried out by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA, SEM and XRD. The results show that recovery of 99% of zinc (grade 97%) is achieved at 1000°C in N2 with a stoichiometric excess of car-fluff of 900%. This product could be suitable for production of new batteries after refining by hydrometallurgical way. Recovery of Mn around 98% in the residue of the treatment is achieved at any temperature and atmosphere tested with a grade of 57% at 900% excess of car-fluff. This residue is enriched in manganese oxide and could be used in the production of iron-manganese alloys. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation on the fly ash thermal treatment on the performance of Lithium Ferriphosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}) battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febiolita, Bella; Khoirunnissak, Dewi; Purwanto, Agus, E-mail: aguspurw@gmail.com [Research Group of Battery & Advanced Material, Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Kentingan, Surakarta Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    Addition of the fly ash can be used to improve the capacity of LiFePO{sub 4} battery. Fly ash was added in Acethylene Black (AB) as 2% of the total weight of Acetylene Black (AB). The effects of temperature variation and fly ash characteristics were analyzed. Fly ash was prepared by heating at 50, 100, 150, and 250°C in muffle furnace for 5 hours and passed in 200 mesh screen prior to mixing it with other compounds. Lithium Ferriphospat (LiFePO{sub 4}), fly ash, Acethylene Black (AB), Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) as a binder and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent were mixed to be slurry. The slurry were coated, dried and hot pressed to make a cathode film. The performance of battery lithium was examined by eight channel battery analyzer. The composition of the fly ash was examined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and Fourier Tansform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The excellent performance was shown in the fly ash addition which were treated by heating at 150°C. The capacity of fly ash added LiFePO{sub 4} battery is 94.373 mAh/g, which is higher than that of without fly ash addition, i.e. 67.998 mAh/g.

  12. Effect of thermal treatment on the properties of electrospun LiFePO{sub 4}–carbon nanofiber composite cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Changhuan; Liang, Yinzheng; Yao, Lan; Qiu, Yiping, E-mail: ypqiu@dhu.edu.cn

    2015-04-05

    Graphical abstract: The composites prepared with the thermal treatment process of stabilization at 280 °C for 4 h with a heating rate of 2 °C min{sup −1} in air followed by carbonization at 800 °C for 14 h with a heating rate of 2 °C min{sup −1} in argon exhibit the optimal electrochemical properties. - Highlights: • Binder-free LiFePO{sub 4}–CNF composite cathode materials are prepared. • The conductive carbon and LiFePO{sub 4} formation take place simultaneously during thermal treatment. • The reaction behavior of the LiFePO{sub 4} precursors during thermal treatment are investigated. • Different thermal treatment processes would generate different electrochemical performance. • Cycling performance and rate capability are improved with a suitable thermal treatment condition. - Abstract: Binder-free LiFePO{sub 4}–carbon nanofiber (LiFePO{sub 4}–CNF) composites as lithium-ion battery cathode materials are fabricated by electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatments. The thermal decomposition behavior of the electrospun LiFePO{sub 4} precursor–polyacrylonitrile (LiFePO{sub 4} precursor–PAN) nanofiber composites and the reaction of the LiFePO{sub 4} precursors during thermal treatment are investigated. The effects of thermal treatment parameters such as heating rate, temperature, and duration for stabilization and carbonization on the microstructure, morphology, carbon content, crystal structure of the composites, and electrochemical performance of the resultant half-cell are also studied. When the electrospun LiFePO{sub 4} precursor–PAN nanofiber composites are first stabilized in air at 280 °C for 4 h with a heating rate of 2 °C min{sup −1} and then carbonized in argon at 800 °C for 14 h with a heating rate of 2 °C min{sup −1}, the obtained LiFePO{sub 4}–CNF composites exhibit optimal electrochemical properties in terms of a higher initial discharge capacity, more stable charge–discharge cycle behavior, and better rate

  13. Smart Battery Thermal Management for PHEV Efficiency Une gestion avancée de la thermique de la batterie basse tension de traction pour optimiser l’efficacité d’un véhicule hybride électrique rechargeable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefebvre L.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A smart battery thermal management is crucial for vehicle performances and battery lifetime targets achievements when electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are concerned. The thermal system needs to be designed and tuned in accordance and compromises with powertrain and vehicle requirements, battery pack architecture, environmental constraints, costs, weight, etc., in a process that will be described in the first part of this paper. Among the portfolio of battery thermal management technologies, these items will be illustrated by two examples: thermal management by cabin air and by refrigerant in a direct cooling, enlightening a decision process. A simplified battery thermo-electric simulation model, which the second part of our work focuses on, has been built, first for both thermal and energetic balance dimensioning of the battery thermal management system. Examples are given on these two perspectives. That simplified simulation model has also identified some promising thermal management strategies for improving vehicle efficiency and performances and battery lifetime. That is the task of the last part of this paper. Battery heating has shown opportunities for improving energy and power availability at cold conditions and, thus, electric drive availability and autonomy. Post-cooling the battery at the end of a journey and its pre-conditioning before the following journey, not only improve vehicle efficiency, electric drive availability and autonomy, but also enhance battery lifetime and compromises with cabin thermal comfort. Others promising strategies optimizing the relation between vehicle performances and battery lifetime are still under investigations. L’atteinte des performances et des prestations requises d’un véhicule électrique ou hybride électrique rechargeable nécessite un thermomanagement intelligent de la batterie basse tension de traction. Ce thermomanagement est incontournable pour respecter dans le même temps

  14. Influence of thermal-decomposition temperatures on structures and properties of V2O5 as cathode materials for lithium ion battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Submicron spherical V2O5 particles with a uniform size and a lower crystallinity were successfully synthesized by a chemical precipitation-thermal decomposition technique using the commercial V2O5 powders as starting material. The crystal structure and grain morphology of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Electrochemical testing such as discharge–charge cycling (CD and cyclic voltammetry (CV were employed in evaluating their electrochemical properties as cathode materials for lithium ion battery. Results reveal that the crystallinity and crystalline size of V2O5 particles increased when the thermal-decomposition temperature increased from 400 °C to 500 °C, and their adhesiveness was also synchronously increased. This indicate that the thermal-decomposition temperature palyed a significant influence on electrochemical properties of V2O5 cathodes. The V2O5 sample obtained at 400 °C delivered not only a high initial discharge capacity of 330 mA h g−1 and also the good cycle stability during 50 cycles due to its higher values of α in crystal structure and better dispersity in grain morphology.

  15. Preparation and performance of polymer electrolyte based on poly(vinylidene fluoride)/polysulfone blend membrane via thermally induced phase separation process for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiao; Cui, Zhenyu; Li, Jiangbo; Qin, Shuhao; Yan, Feng; Li, Jianxin

    2014-11-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/polysulfone (PVDF/PSF) blend microporous matrix of polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery is prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) technique. Because of only one parameter, i.e., the PSF/PVDF weight ratio, the membrane microstructure is conveniently controlled. The membrane formation mechanism of PVDF/PSF blend membranes is proposed with the assistance of a binary PSF/PVDF weight ratio-temperature phase diagram. In addition to studying the microstructure and mechanical properties of PVDF/PSF blend membrane, the relationship between properties of membrane, electrochemical performances of corresponding polymer electrolyte and membrane microstructure are also discussed in this paper. It is found that the addition of PSF not only increases ionic conductivity and electrochemical stable window of polymer electrolyte, but also markedly enhances charge-discharge performances of coin cell. The results reveal that PVDF/PSF blend microporous membranes prepared via TIPS technique can be used as polymer matrices of polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries.

  16. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  17. Evaluation of Palm PCRTM G1-12 System: a portable battery-operated PCR thermal cycler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aminah Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the basis of recombinant and other molecular biological techniques. Availability of cheap and robust PCR platforms enables the tests to be performed easily, even in resource constrained settings. Herein we compared the efficacy of a portable thermal cycler ( Palm PCRTM G1-12 System for rapid DNA amplification against the standard Peltier-based thermal cycler using plasmid DNA and genomic DNA in single and multiplex PCR experiments. Our study revealed that the Palm PCRTM G1-12 System could be a portable DNA amplification system to conduct various molecular techniques, especially in places where resources are limited.

  18. Effects of solvents and salt on the thermal stability of lithiated graphite used in lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qingsong, E-mail: pinew@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, No. 96, Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Sun Jinhua [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, No. 96, Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Chen Chunhua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2009-08-15

    The thermal stability of lithiated graphite in the presence of solvents, electrolytes and LiPF{sub 6} salt was studied using C80 micro-calorimeter. The presence of cyclic carbonates or linear carbonates increases the activity of Li{sub x}C{sub 6}-solvent coexisting system, especially for the Li{sub x}C{sub 6}-linear carbonates one. LiPF{sub 6} was detected that it increases the activity greatly of its coexisting system with lithiated graphite. The coexisting system of Li{sub x}C{sub 6} with the electrolyte of LiPF{sub 6}/ethylene carbonate + diethyl carbonate shows less thermal stability, which is attributed to the activity between diethyl carbonate and Li{sub x}C{sub 6}. This also agrees with the experiment result of Li{sub x}C{sub 6}-diethyl carbonate coexisting system.

  19. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  20. Paintable battery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary...

  1. Facile synthesis of ultrafine SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets via thermal decomposition of tin-octoate as anode for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinkai; Xie, Sanmu; Cao, Daxian; Lu, Xuan [Xi’an Jiaotong University, State Key Lab of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Center of Nanomaterials for Renewable Energy (CNRE), School of Electrical Engineering (China); Meng, Lingjie, E-mail: menglingjie@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Department of Chemistry, School of Science (China); Yang, Guidong [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China); Wang, Hongkang, E-mail: hongkang.wang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Xi’an Jiaotong University, State Key Lab of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Center of Nanomaterials for Renewable Energy (CNRE), School of Electrical Engineering (China)

    2016-09-15

    We demonstrate a facile synthesis of ultrafine SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles within graphene nanosheets (GNSs) via thermal decomposition of tin-octoate, in which tin-octoate is firstly blended with GNSs followed by annealing in air at a low temperature (350 °C) and a short time (1 h). As anode for lithium ion batteries, the SnO{sub 2}/GNSs displays superior cycle and rate performance, delivering reversible capacities of 803 and 682 mA h/g at current densities of 200 and 500 mA/g after 120 cycles, respectively, much higher than that of pure SnO{sub 2} and GNSs counterparts (143 and 310 mA h/g at 500 mA/g after 120 cycles, respectively). The enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to the ultrafine SnO{sub 2} nanoparticle size and introduction of GNSs. GNSs prevent the aggregation of the ultrafine SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles, which alleviate the stress and also provide more electrochemically active sites for lithium insertion and extraction. Moreover, GNSs with large specific surface area (~363 m{sup 2}/g) act as a good electrical conductor which greatly improves the electrode conductivity and also an excellent buffer matrix to tolerate the severe volume changes originated from the Li-Sn alloying-dealloying. This work provides a straight-forward synthetic approach for the design of novel composite anode materials with superior electrochemical performance.

  2. Facile synthesis of ultrafine SnO2 nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets via thermal decomposition of tin-octoate as anode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinkai; Xie, Sanmu; Cao, Daxian; Lu, Xuan; Meng, Lingjie; Yang, Guidong; Wang, Hongkang

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate a facile synthesis of ultrafine SnO2 nanoparticles within graphene nanosheets (GNSs) via thermal decomposition of tin-octoate, in which tin-octoate is firstly blended with GNSs followed by annealing in air at a low temperature (350 °C) and a short time (1 h). As anode for lithium ion batteries, the SnO2/GNSs displays superior cycle and rate performance, delivering reversible capacities of 803 and 682 mA h/g at current densities of 200 and 500 mA/g after 120 cycles, respectively, much higher than that of pure SnO2 and GNSs counterparts (143 and 310 mA h/g at 500 mA/g after 120 cycles, respectively). The enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to the ultrafine SnO2 nanoparticle size and introduction of GNSs. GNSs prevent the aggregation of the ultrafine SnO2 nanoparticles, which alleviate the stress and also provide more electrochemically active sites for lithium insertion and extraction. Moreover, GNSs with large specific surface area ( 363 m2/g) act as a good electrical conductor which greatly improves the electrode conductivity and also an excellent buffer matrix to tolerate the severe volume changes originated from the Li-Sn alloying-dealloying. This work provides a straight-forward synthetic approach for the design of novel composite anode materials with superior electrochemical performance.

  3. Thermal and oxidation stability of organo-fluorine compound-mixed electrolyte solutions for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Daiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Ohzawa, Yoshimi; Koh, Meiten; Yamauchi, Akiyoshi; Kagawa, Michiru; Aoyama, Hirokazu

    2013-12-01

    Thermal and oxidation stability of fluorine compound-mixed electrolyte solutions have been investigated. Charge/discharge behavior of natural graphite electrode has been also examined in the same electrolyte solutions. Fluorine compounds demonstrate much lower reactivity with metallic Li than ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate. Fluorine compound-mixed electrolyte solutions show the lower reactivity with LiC6 and the smaller exothermic peaks due to decomposition of electrolyte solutions and surface films than original solutions without fluorine compound. Oxidation currents are also smaller in fluorine compound-mixed electrolyte solutions than in original ones. First coulombic efficiencies in fluorine compound-mixed electrolyte solutions are similar to those in original ethylene carbonate-based solutions except one case. Mixing of fluorine compounds highly increase first coulombic efficiencies of natural graphite electrode in propylene carbonate-containing solution.

  4. Thermally fabricated MoS{sub 2}-graphene hybrids as high performance anode in lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.K., E-mail: sunil111954@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Kartick, B. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Choudhury, S. [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V. (IPF Dresden), Hohe Strasse 6, 01069, Dresden (Germany); Stamm, M. [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V. (IPF Dresden), Hohe Strasse 6, 01069, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Physical Chemistry of Polymer Materials, 01062, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    MoS{sub 2}-reduced graphene oxide (MoS{sub 2}-rGO: where rGO = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt%) hybrids have been fabricated using (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}MoS{sub 4} and graphite oxide as single source precursors of MoS{sub 2} and thermally exfoliated reduced graphene oxide respectively. These individual precursors were initially subjected to grinding for 30 min followed by heating at 1200 °C for 15 min and characterized. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed co-dispersion of MoS{sub 2} on thermally exfoliated graphite oxide. Electrochemical studies of these hybrids as anode materials showed that MoS{sub 2}-rGO (7 wt%) exhibited superior reversible capacity, cycling stability, enhanced rate performance (780 mAhg{sup −1}) and rate capability (880 mAhg{sup −1}) over pristine MoS{sub 2} and other hybrids. - Highlights: • MoS{sub 2}-graphene hybrids are synthesized by high temperature from individual precursors. • These hybrids have been used as anode material in LIB. • MoS{sub 2}-graphene (7 wt%) exhibited superior reversible capacity and cycling stability. • It showed high rate performance (780 mA h g{sup −1}) and rate capability (880 mA h g{sup −1}). • Enhanced performance at lower graphene makes it most attractive anode material in LIB.

  5. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  6. Automotive battery technology

    CERN Document Server

    Watzenig, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The use of electrochemical energy storage systems in automotive applications also involves new requirements for modeling these systems, especially in terms of model depth and model quality. Currently, mainly simple application-oriented models are used to describe the physical behavior of batteries. This book provides a step beyond of state-of-the-art modeling showing various different approaches covering following aspects: system safety, misuse behavior (crash, thermal runaway), battery state estimation and electrochemical modeling with the needed analysis (pre/post mortem). All this different approaches are developed to support the overall integration process from a multidisciplinary point-of-view and depict their further enhancements to this process.

  7. Improving the Performance Attributes of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Hot Climates through Key-Off Battery Cooling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sina Shojaei; Andrew McGordon; Simon Robinson; James Marco

    2017-01-01

    .... In addition, high battery temperature and the associated cooling requirements can cause poor passenger thermal comfort, while extreme battery temperatures can negatively impact the power output...

  8. Two-dimensional ion chromatography for the separation of ionic organophosphates generated in thermally decomposed lithium hexafluorophosphate-based lithium ion battery electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Vadim; Grützke, Martin; Weber, Waldemar; Menzel, Jennifer; Wiemers-Meyer, Simon; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2015-08-28

    A two-dimensional ion chromatography (IC/IC) technique with heart-cutting mode for the separation of ionic organophosphates was developed. These analytes are generated during thermal degradation of three different commercially available Selectilyte™ lithium ion battery electrolytes. The composition of the investigated electrolytes is based on 1M lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) dissolved in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate (50:50wt%, LP30), ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate (50:50wt%, LP40) and ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate (50:50wt%, LP50). The organophosphates were pre-separated from PF6(-) anion on the low capacity A Supp 4 column, which was eluted with a gradient step containing acetonitrile. The fraction containing analytes was retarded on a pre-concentration column and after that transferred to the high capacity columns, where the separation was performed isocratically. Different stationary phases and eluents were applied on the 2nd dimension for the investigation of retention times, whereas the highly promising results were obtained with a high capacitive A Supp 10 column. The organophosphates generated in LP30 and LP40 electrolytes could be separated by application of an aqueous NaOH eluent providing fast analysis time within 35min. For the separation of the organophosphates of LP50 electrolyte due to its complexity a NaOH eluent containing a mixture of methanol/H2O was necessary. In addition, the developed two dimensional IC method was hyphenated to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) using aqueous NaOH without organic modifiers. This proof of principle measurement was carried out for future quantitative investigation regarding the concentration of the ionic organophosphates. Furthermore, the chemical stability of several ionic organophosphates in water and acetonitrile at room temperature over a period of 10h was investigated. In both solvents no decomposition of the investigated analytes was observed and

  9. Design and simulation of liquid cooled system for power battery of PHEV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianpeng; Xu, Haijun; Xu, Xiaojun; Pan, Cunyun

    2017-09-01

    Various battery chemistries have different responses to failure, but the most common failure mode of a cell under abusive conditions is the generation of heat and gas. To prevent battery thermal abuse, a battery thermal management system is essential. An excellent design of battery thermal management system can ensure that the battery is working at a suitable temperature and keeps the battery temperature diffenence at 2-3 °C. This paper presents a thermal-elcetric coupling model for a 37Ah lithium battery using AMESim. A liquid cooled system of hybrid electric vehicle power battery is designed to control the battery temperature.A liquid cooled model of thermal management system is built using AMESim, the simulation results showed that the temperature difference within 3°C of cell in the pack.

  10. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  11. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  12. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  13. Real-time estimation of battery internal temperature based on a simplified thermoelectric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Li, Kang; Deng, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Li-ion batteries have been widely used in the EVs, and the battery thermal management is a key but challenging part of the battery management system. For EV batteries, only the battery surface temperature can be measured in real-time. However, it is the battery internal temperature that directly affects the battery performance, and large temperature difference may exist between surface and internal temperatures, especially in high power demand applications. In this paper, an online battery internal temperature estimation method is proposed based on a novel simplified thermoelectric model. The battery thermal behaviour is first described by a simplified thermal model, and battery electrical behaviour by an electric model. Then, these two models are interrelated to capture the interactions between battery thermal and electrical behaviours, thus offer a comprehensive description of the battery behaviour that is useful for battery management. Finally, based on the developed model, the battery internal temperature is estimated using an extended Kalman filter. The experimental results confirm the efficacy of the proposed method, and it can be used for online internal temperature estimation which is a key indicator for better real-time battery thermal management.

  14. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-05-03

    Utilization of public charging infrastructure is heavily dependent on user-specific travel behavior. The availability of fast chargers can positively affect the utility of battery electric vehicles, even given infrequent use. Estimated utilization rates do not appear frequent enough to significantly impact battery life. Battery thermal management systems are critical in mitigating dangerous thermal conditions on long distance tours with multiple fast charge events.

  15. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  16. Non-Intrusive Battery Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Non-intrusive battery health monitoring”, developed by Airbus Defence and Space (ADS in cooperation with the CIRIMAT-CNRS laboratory and supported by CNES, aims at providing a diagnosis of the battery ageing in flight, called State of Health (SOH, using only the post-treatment of the battery telemetries. The battery current and voltage telemetries are used by a signal processing tool on ground to characterize and to model the battery at low frequencies which allows monitoring the evolution of its degradation with great accuracy. The frequential behaviour estimation is based on inherent disturbances on the current during the nominal functioning of the battery. For instance, on-board thermal control or equipment consumption generates random disturbances on battery current around an average current. The battery voltage response to these current random disturbances enables to model the low frequency impedance of the battery by a signal processing tool. The re-created impedance is then compared with the evolution model of the low frequencies impedance as a function of the battery ageing to estimate accurately battery degradation. Hence, this method could be applied to satellites which are already in orbit and whose battery telemetries acquisition system fulfils the constraints determined in the study. This innovative method is an improvement of present state-of-the-art and is important to have a more accurate in-flight knowledge of battery ageing which is crucial for mission and operation planning and also for possible satellite mission extension or deorbitation. This method is patented by Airbus Defence and Space and CNES.

  17. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  18. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  19. Fiber optical sensors for enhanced battery safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jan; Nedjalkov, Antonio; Doering, Alexander; Angelmahr, Martin; Schade, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    Over the last years, battery safety becomes more and more important due to the wide spread of high-capacity lithium ion batteries applied in e.g. consumer electronics and electrical power storages for vehicles or stationary energy storage systems. However, for these types of batteries, malfunctions could be highly dangerous and all aspects of safety issues are not sufficiently considered, yet. Therefore, the improvement of the battery safety behavior is one of the most important issues discussed in actual research projects. In this paper the application of fiber optical sensors for enhanced battery safety is presented. The temperature is one of the most critical parameters indicating a failure of the cell, but even state-to-the-art battery management systems (BMS) are not able to monitor and interpret the distributed temperature field of a total battery storage system sufficiently. Furthermore, the volume expansion of the battery cell, which could be monitored by the strain on the cells' surfaces, is one additional parameter not considered up to now. Both parameters could be simultaneous monitored by fiber optical sensor arrays, consisting of discrete fiber Bragg grating (FBG) elements. The FBG sensors are directly attached on the surface of the cell, recording the temperature as well as the strain distribution highly accurate and close-meshed. Failures and malfunction such as overcharging, gassing, and thermal runaway can be early predicted and avoided to extend the battery lifetime and enhance the operational battery safety. Moreover, battery aging effects lead to variations in the volume change behavior which can be detected additionally. Hence, a battery fully equipped with fiber optical sensor arrays in combination with an appropriate BMS enables a safe and continuous utilization of the energy storage system even under harsh conditions like rapid charging.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Mn–ZnFe2O4 and Mn–ZnFe2O4/rGO nanocomposites from waste batteries for photocatalytic, electrochemical and thermal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylarappa, M.; Venkata Lakshmi, V.; Vishnu Mahesh, K. R.; Nagaswarupa, H. P.; Raghavendra, N.

    2017-11-01

    In the present paper, Mn–ZnFe2O4 and Mn–ZnFe2O4/rGO composites recovered from waste batteries using acid dissolution and ferrite processing were studied. The recovered Mn–ZnFe2O4 nanocomposites were decorated onto rGO using the facile hydrothermal method. The recovered material was characterized using x-ray powder diffraction to study the particle size and crystallinity. The morphology of the composites was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, and elements present in the materials were studied using energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The functional groups attached were observed using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Furthermore, the recovered composites were evaluated in thermal studies using thermal gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic thermal analysis. The material was used as a photocatalyst for the removal of acid orange 88 dye, and as an electrocatalyst. The decreased band gap energy for the Mn–ZnFe2O4/rGO composite was displayed in better photocatalytic activity for a given reaction. The electrochemical properties of Mn–ZnFe2O4 and Mn–ZnFe2O4/rGO have been investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with a paste-type electrode. The CV indicated the reversibility of the electrode reaction, and the EIS revealed that a decrease in the charge transfer resistance increases the double layer capacitance of the rGO/Mn–ZnFe2O4 electrode.

  1. Facile, mild and fast thermal-decomposition reduction of graphene oxide in air and its application in high-performance lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-li; Xu, Dan; Huang, Yun; Wu, Zhong; Wang, Li-min; Zhang, Xin-bo

    2012-01-25

    We firstly propose a facile, mild and effective thermal-decomposition strategy to prepare high-quality graphene at a low temperature of 300 °C in only 5 min under an ambient atmosphere. Applying the advantage of this strategy that provides an oxidizing atmosphere, pure V(2)O(5)/graphene composite is successfully synthesized and exerts excellent lithium storage properties. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  2. Electrothermal impedance spectroscopy measurement on high power LiMO2/Li4Ti5O12 battery cell with low bandwidth test setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    2015-01-01

    Modern lithium-ion batteries, like LiMO2/Li4Ti5O12 chemistry, are having very high power capability, which drives the need for precise thermal modelling of the battery. Battery thermal models are required to avoid possible safety issues (thermal runaways, high-temperature gradients) but also...

  3. Will Your Battery Survive a World With Fast Chargers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.

    2015-05-04

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that result could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's development of BLAST-V-the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles-to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. We present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. We find that the impact of realistic fast charging on battery degradation is minimal for most drivers, due to the low frequency of use. However, in the absence of active battery cooling systems, a driver's desired utilization of a BEV and fast charging infrastructure can result in unsafe peak battery temperatures. We find that active battery cooling systems can control peak battery temperatures to safe limits while allowing the desired use of the vehicle.

  4. Wireless Battery Management System of Electric Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ataur; Rahman, Mizanur; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2017-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are being developed and considered as the future transportation to reduce emission of toxic gas, cost and weight. The battery pack is one of the main crucial parts of the electric vehicle. The power optimization of the battery pack has been maintained by developing a two phase evaporative thermal management system which operation has been controlled by using a wireless battery management system. A large number of individual cells in a battery pack have many wire terminations that are liable for safety failure. To reduce the wiring problem, a wireless battery management system based on ZigBee communication protocol and point-to-point wireless topology has been presented. Microcontrollers and wireless modules are employed to process the information from several sensors (voltage, temperature and SOC) and transmit to the display devices respectively. The WBMS multistage charge balancing system offering more effective and efficient responses for several numbers of series connected battery cells. The concept of double tier switched capacitor converter and resonant switched capacitor converter is used for reducing the charge balancing time of the cells. The balancing result for 2 cells and 16 cells are improved by 15.12% and 25.3% respectively. The balancing results are poised to become better when the battery cells are increased.

  5. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skyllas-Kazacos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention.

  6. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention. PMID:24958177

  7. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Kim, Gi-heon; Shi, Ying; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-06-15

    It remains an open question how best to predict real-world battery lifetime based on accelerated calendar and cycle aging data from the laboratory. Multiple degradation mechanisms due to (electro)chemical, thermal, and mechanical coupled phenomena influence Li-ion battery lifetime, each with different dependence on time, cycling and thermal environment. The standardization of life predictive models would benefit the industry by reducing test time and streamlining development of system controls.

  8. Thermal Implications for Extreme Fast Charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-14

    Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today's market. Thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

  9. Development of cooling strategy for an air cooled lithium-ion battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongguang; Dixon, Regan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes a cooling strategy development method for an air cooled battery pack with lithium-ion pouch cells used in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The challenges associated with the temperature uniformity across the battery pack, the temperature uniformity within each individual lithium-ion pouch cell, and the cooling efficiency of the battery pack are addressed. Initially, a three-dimensional battery pack thermal model developed based on simplified electrode theory is correlated to physical test data. An analytical design of experiments (DOE) approach using Optimal Latin-hypercube technique is then developed by incorporating a DOE design model, the correlated battery pack thermal model, and a morphing model. Analytical DOE studies are performed to examine the effects of cooling strategies including geometries of the cooling duct, cooling channel, cooling plate, and corrugation on battery pack thermal behavior and to identify the design concept of an air cooled battery pack to maximize its durability and its driving range.

  10. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  11. Handbook of Battery Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besenhard, J. O.

    1999-04-01

    Batteries find their applications in an increasing range of every-day products: discmen, mobile phones and electric cars need very different battery types. This handbook gives a concise survey about the materials used in modern battery technology. The physico-chemical fundamentals are as well treated as are the environmental and recycling aspects. It will be a profound reference source for anyone working in the research and development of new battery systems, regardless if chemist, physicist or engineer.

  12. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  13. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when

  14. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when

  15. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  16. Lithium batteries. Lithiumbatterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahner, D.; Ludwig, G.; Bischoff, H.; Hauke, I.; Machill, S.; Siury, K.; Wiesener, K. (TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie)

    1992-01-01

    General rules on the method of operation of lithium batteries are worked out from the many commercially available lithium batteries or the systems examined by research, and some trends in development are indicated. It is shown from some selected research results that the the development of rechargeable lithium batteries is a demanding task for basic electrochemical research. (orig.).

  17. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.; Laberty- Robert, C.; Pellizon-Birelli, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  18. Further Cost Reduction of Battery Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Asif

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for batteries for energy storage is growing with the rapid increase in photovoltaics (PV and wind energy installation as well as electric vehicle (EV, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV. Electrochemical batteries have emerged as the preferred choice for most of the consumer product applications. Cost reduction of batteries will accelerate the growth in all of these sectors. Lithium-ion (Li-ion and solid-state batteries are showing promise through their downward price and upward performance trends. We may achieve further performance improvement and cost reduction for Li-ion and solid-state batteries through reduction of the variation in physical and electrical properties. These properties can be improved and made uniform by considering the electrical model of batteries and adopting novel manufacturing approaches. Using quantum-photo effect, the incorporation of ultra-violet (UV assisted photo-thermal processing can reduce metal surface roughness. Using in-situ measurements, advanced process control (APC can help ensure uniformity among the constituent electrochemical cells. Industrial internet of things (IIoT can streamline the production flow. In this article, we have examined the issue of electrochemical battery manufacturing of Li-ion and solid-state type from cell-level to battery-level process variability, and proposed potential areas where improvements in the manufacturing process can be made. By incorporating these practices in the manufacturing process we expect reduced cost of energy management system, improved reliability and yield gain with the net saving of manufacturing cost being at least 20%.

  19. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  20. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  1. Thermal Battery Systems for Ordnance Fuzing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    unanswered. the light of current knowledge and re- For example, recent termination of a CaCrO 4 quirements may be helpiul. manufacturing source...so few elec- .ind b king proceo , res.48 The DEB pellets are trochemical systems have been used or uAsuall) made from a homog( ieous powder, studied

  2. Active cooling of microvascular composites for battery packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pety, Stephen J.; Chia, Patrick X. L.; Carrington, Stephen M.; White, Scott R.

    2017-10-01

    Batteries in electric vehicles (EVs) require a packaging system that provides both thermal regulation and crash protection. A novel packaging scheme is presented that uses active cooling of microvascular carbon fiber reinforced composites to accomplish this multifunctional objective. Microvascular carbon fiber/epoxy composite panels were fabricated and their cooling performance assessed over a range of thermal loads and experimental conditions. Tests were performed for different values of coolant flow rate, channel spacing, panel thermal conductivity, and applied heat flux. More efficient cooling occurs when the coolant flow rate is increased, channel spacing is reduced, and thermal conductivity of the host composite is increased. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were also performed and correlate well with the experimental data. CFD simulations of a typical EV battery pack confirm that microvascular composite panels can adequately cool battery cells generating 500 W m-2 heat flux below 40 °C.

  3. Potassium Secondary Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-02-08

    Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium-ion batteries, potassium-O2 (or -air) and potassium-sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium-ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.

  4. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  6. Printed battery power management

    OpenAIRE

    Josefsson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Printed electronics and low power radio has evolved significantly in recent years. This has made it possible to implement electronic worn on the body or clothing. Printed batteries internal resistance is much higher compared to regular batteries. Unless a battery power management circuit is used, the radio peak current makes that the terminal voltage may drop to a level below the specified supply voltage for the radio, causing operation failure. A large capacitor solves this but a large surfa...

  7. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  8. Base fluid in improving heat transfer for EV car battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin-Abdun, Nazih A.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman, A. B.; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Adnan, Nazrul H.; Heng, R.; Kamarudin, H.; Zunaidi, I.

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of base fluid (as coolants) channeling inside the heat exchanger in the process of the increase in thermal conductivity between EV car battery and the heat exchanger. The analysis showed that secondary cooling system by means of water has advantages in improving the heat transfer process and reducing the electric power loss on the form of thermal energy from batteries. This leads to the increase in the efficiency of the EV car battery, hence also positively reflecting the performance of the EV car. The present work, analysis is performed to assess the design and use of heat exchanger in increasing the performance efficiency of the EV car battery. This provides a preface to the use this design for nano-fluids which increase and improve from heat transfer.

  9. Primary zinc-air batteries for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Bourland, Deborah S.; Merry, Glenn; Putt, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Prismatic HR and LC cells and batteries were built and tested, and they performed well with respect to the program goals of high capacity and high rate capability at specific energies. The HR batteries suffered reduced utilizations owing to dryout at the 2 and 3 A rates for the 50 C tests owing to the requirement for forced convection. The LC batteries suffered reduced utilizations under all conditions owing to the chimney effect at 1 G, although this effect would not occur at 0 G. An empirical model was developed which accurately predicted utilizations and average voltages for single cells, although thermal effects encountered during battery testing caused significant deviations, both positive and negative, from the model. Based on the encouraging results of the test program, we believe that the zinc-air primary battery of a flat, stackable configuration can serve as a high performance and safe power source for a range of space applications.

  10. CRADA final report: Technical assessment of roll-to-roll operation of lamination process, thermal treatment, and alternative carbon fiber precursors for low-cost, high-efficiency manufacturing of flow battery stacks and other energy devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Claus [ORNL; Madden, Thomas [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Wood III, David L [ORNL; Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Warrington, Curtis [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL; Manson, Hunter [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tekinalp, Halil L [ORNL; Smith, Mark A [ORNL; Lu, Yuan [ORNL; Loretz, Jeremy [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2015-09-23

    Among the various stationary-storage technologies under development, redox flow batteries (RFBs) offer the greatest potential to deliver inexpensive, scalable, and efficient grid-scale electrical-energy storage. Unlike traditional sealed batteries, in a flow battery power and energy are decoupled. Cell area and cell count in the stack determine the device power, and the chemical storage volume determines the total energy. Grid-scale energy-storage applications require megawatt-scale devices, which require the assembly of hundreds of large-area, bipolar cells per power plant. The cell-stack is the single system component with the largest impact on capital cost (due to the large number of highly engineered components) and operating costs (determined by overall round-trip efficiency).

  11. Recent developments in anode materials for lithium batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thackeray, M. M.; Vaughey, J. T.; Fransson, L. M.; Chemical Engineering; Angstrom Lab.

    2002-03-01

    Lithium-ion batteries, preferred for their high energy and power, also present several challenges. Of particular concern are unsafe conditions that can arise in lithium-ion cells that operate with a fully lithiated graphite electrode. If the cells in those batteries are overcharged, especially in large-scale applications, thermal runaway, venting, fire, and explosion could result. This paper examines research into alternative, intermetallic electrode materials.

  12. Smart materials for energy storage in Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf E Abdel-Ghany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced lithium-ion batteries contain smart materials having the function of insertion electrodes in the form of powders with specific and optimized electrochemical properties. Different classes can be considered: the surface modified active particles at either positive or negative electrodes, the nano-composite electrodes and the blended materials. In this paper, various systems are described, which illustrate the improvement of lithium-ion batteries in term of specific energy and power, thermal stability and life cycling.

  13. COPPERHEAD battery tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, W. J.

    1983-06-01

    The development of a tester for the control section battery of the M712 Cannon-Launched Guided Projectile has fulfilled a requirement for the automatic testing of a series of batteries. The tester is a self-contained instrument that is used with a shock test system to rapidly perform complete tests after an initial setup.

  14. Computing Battery Lifetime Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloth, L.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Jongerden, M.R.

    The usage of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  15. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  16. Batteries for terrestrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulin, T.M.

    1998-07-01

    Extensive research has been conducted in the design and manufacture of very long life vented and sealed maintenance free nickel-cadmium aircraft batteries. These batteries have also been used in a number of terrestrial applications with good success. This study presents an overview of the Ni-Cd chemistry and technology as well as detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the Ni-Cd couple for terrestrial applications. The performance characteristics of both sealed and vented Ni-Cd's are presented. Various charge algorithms are examined and evaluated for effectiveness and ease of implementation. Hardware requirements for charging are also presented and evaluated. The discharge characteristics of vented and sealed Ni-Cd's are presented and compared to other battery chemistries. The performance of Ni-Cd's under extreme environmental conditions is also compared to other battery chemistries. The history of various terrestrial applications is reviewed and some of the lessons learned are presented. Applications discussed include the NASA Middeck Payload Battery, Raytheon Aegis Missile System Battery, THAAD Launcher battery, and the Titan IV battery. The suitability of the Ni-Cd chemistry for other terrestrial applications such as electric vehicles and Uninterruptible Power Supply is discussed.

  17. The zinc bromine battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonshagen, B. [ZBB (Australia) Ltd., West Perth, WA (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The Zinc Bromine Battery electrolyte is essentially zinc bromide salt dissolved in water. Unlike the lead acid and most other batteries, the Zinc Bromine Battery uses electrodes that cannot and do not take part in the reactions but merely serve as substrates for the reactions. There is therefore no loss of performance, as in most re-chargeable batteries, from repeated cycling which causes electrode material deterioration. When the Zinc Bromine Battery is completely discharged all the metal zinc plated on the negative electrodes is dissolved in the electrolyte and again produced the next time the batter is charged. In the discharged state the battery can be shorted and left that way indefinitely. This paper presents an overview of large scale Zinc Bromine battery systems that are currently being commercialized as an economically attractive alternative to utility upgrades. Also outlined is how the battery can improve the viability of renewable energy and reduce diesel use in isolated grids and remote power installations. (author). 11 figs., 2 refs.

  18. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 1, Cell and battery safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J M

    1992-09-01

    This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD&D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH&S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

  20. Safer Batteries through Coupled Multiscale Modeling (ICCS 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, John A [ORNL; Allu, Srikanth [ORNL; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Kalnaus, Sergiy [ORNL; Kumar, Abhishek [ORNL; Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T [ORNL; Pannala, Dr. Sreekanth [Saudi Basic Industries Coropration (SABIC); Simunovic, Srdjan [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems, with performance and safety governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. We describe a new, open source computational environment for battery simulation known as VIBE - the Virtual Integrated Battery Environment. VIBE includes homogenized and pseudo-2D electrochemistry models such as those by Newman-Tiedemann-Gu (NTG) and Doyle- Fuller-Newman (DFN, a.k.a. DualFoil) as well as a new advanced capability known as AMPERES (Advanced MultiPhysics for Electrochemical and Renewable Energy Storage). AMPERES provides a 3D model for electrochemistry and full coupling with 3D electrical and thermal models on the same grid. VIBE/AMPERES has been used to create three-dimensional battery cell and pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical response under adverse conditions.

  1. Positive electrode for a lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-07

    A method for producing a lithium alkali transition metal oxide for use as a positive electrode material for lithium secondary batteries by a precipitation method. The positive electrode material is a lithium alkali transition metal composite oxide and is prepared by mixing a solid state mixed with alkali and transition metal carbonate and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain a small amount of alkali metal residual in the lithium transition metal composite oxide cathode material.

  2. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Electrical Safety Requirements for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1...

  3. Graphene-Based Composites as Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the superior mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, graphene was a perfect candidate to improve the performance of lithium ion batteries. Herein, we review the recent advances in graphene-based composites and their application as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. We focus on the synthesis methods of graphene-based composites and the superior electrochemical performance of graphene-based composites as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  4. The new generation of ABB's high energy batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartkopf, T. (ABB Hochenergiebatterie GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)); Birnbreier, H. (ABB Hochenergiebatterie GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    ABB have developed a new generation of high energy batteries using an improved cell design and a compact thermal enclosure Energy densities of more than 100 Wh/kg have been achieved. The production programme includes two standard batteries with 9,6 or 19.2 kWh energy content. Additional 6 different sizes of customers designed batteries have been built with energies up to 38 kWh in one bloc. (orig.)

  5. Graphene-Based Composites as Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Libao Chen; Ming Zhang; Weifeng Wei

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the superior mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, graphene was a perfect candidate to improve the performance of lithium ion batteries. Herein, we review the recent advances in graphene-based composites and their application as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. We focus on the synthesis methods of graphene-based composites and the superior electrochemical performance of graphene-based composites as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  6. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  7. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  8. Extending battery life: A low-cost practical diagnostic technique for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merla, Yu; Wu, Billy; Yufit, Vladimir; Brandon, Nigel P.; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo F.; Offer, Gregory J.

    2016-11-01

    Modern applications of lithium-ion batteries such as smartphones, hybrid & electric vehicles and grid scale electricity storage demand long lifetime and high performance which typically makes them the limiting factor in a system. Understanding the state-of-health during operation is important in order to optimise for long term durability and performance. However, this requires accurate in-operando diagnostic techniques that are cost effective and practical. We present a novel diagnosis method based upon differential thermal voltammetry demonstrated on a battery pack made from commercial lithium-ion cells where one cell was deliberately aged prior to experiment. The cells were in parallel whilst being thermally managed with forced air convection. We show for the first time, a diagnosis method capable of quantitatively determining the state-of-health of four cells simultaneously by only using temperature and voltage readings for both charge and discharge. Measurements are achieved using low-cost thermocouples and a single voltage measurement at a frequency of 1 Hz, demonstrating the feasibility of implementing this approach on real world battery management systems. The technique could be particularly useful under charge when constant current or constant power is common, this therefore should be of significant interest to all lithium-ion battery users.

  9. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  10. Loop Heat Pipe with Thermal Control Valve for Passive Variable Thermal Link Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Loop heat pipes (LHPs) can provide variable thermal conductance needed to maintain electronics and batteries on Lunar/Martian rovers/landers within desired...

  11. Thermal effects in supercapacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Guoping; Fisher, Timothy S

    2015-01-01

    This Brief reviews contemporary research conducted in university and industry laboratories on thermal management in electrochemical energy storage systems (capacitors and batteries) that have been widely used as power sources in many practical applications, such as automobiles, hybrid transport, renewable energy installations, power backup and electronic devices. Placing a particular emphasis on supercapacitors, the authors discuss how supercapacitors, or ultra capacitors, are complementing and  replacing, batteries because of their faster power delivery, longer life cycle and higher coulombic efficiency, while providing higher energy density than conventional electrolytic capacitors. Recent advances in both macro- and micro capacitor technologies are covered. The work facilitates systematic understanding of thermal transport in such devices that can help develop better power management systems.

  12. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  13. NREL Multiphysics Modeling Tools and ISC Device for Designing Safer Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.; Yang, Chuanbo

    2016-03-24

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed a portfolio of multiphysics modeling tools to aid battery designers better understand the response of lithium ion batteries to abusive conditions. We will discuss this portfolio, which includes coupled electrical, thermal, chemical, electrochemical, and mechanical modeling. These models can simulate the response of a cell to overheating, overcharge, mechanical deformation, nail penetration, and internal short circuit. Cell-to-cell thermal propagation modeling will be discussed.

  14. On Demand Internal Short Circuit Device Enables Verification of Safer, Higher Performing Battery Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcy, Eric; Keyser, Matthew

    2017-05-15

    The Internal Short Circuit (ISC) device enables critical battery safety verification. With the aluminum interstitial heat sink between the cells, normal trigger cells cannot be driven into thermal runaway without excessive temperature bias of adjacent cells. With an implantable, on-demand ISC device, thermal runaway tests show that the conductive heat sinks protected adjacent cells from propagation. High heat dissipation and structural support of Al heat sinks show high promise for safer, higher performing batteries.

  15. 20V, 40 Ah Lithium Ion Polymer Battery for the Spacesuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric; Wilburn, Monique; Hall, Dan; Roth, Peter; Das Gupta, Sankar; Jacobs, Jim; Bhola, Rakesh; Milicic, Gordan; Vandemeer, Dave

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Consider a new battery design for EMU. Results: a) Electrovaya s aerospace cell production line is improving, but must further improve to achieve acceptable reliability; b) Completed functional, vibration, and thermal cycling of LIB; c) So far, electrical safety tests have produced good results; d) Completed functional, vibration, thermal cycling, power quality and EMI of LIB Charger; e) Completed CDR on 9/23/04; and f) Manufacturing Readiness Review for flight cell/battery production scheduled for Dec 04.

  16. Battery Cell Balancing Optimisation for Battery Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, M. S.; Toha, S. F.; Kamisan, N. A.; Hashim, N. N. W. N.; Abdullah, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    Battery cell balancing in every electrical component such as home electronic equipment and electric vehicle is very important to extend battery run time which is simplified known as battery life. The underlying solution to equalize the balance of cell voltage and SOC between the cells when they are in complete charge. In order to control and extend the battery life, the battery cell balancing is design and manipulated in such way as well as shorten the charging process. Active and passive cell balancing strategies as a unique hallmark enables the balancing of the battery with the excellent performances configuration so that the charging process will be faster. The experimental and simulation covers an analysis of how fast the battery can balance for certain time. The simulation based analysis is conducted to certify the use of optimisation in active or passive cell balancing to extend battery life for long periods of time.

  17. Thermal Runaway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Catherino, Henry A

    2005-01-01

    During battery discharge, the heat generated is the sum of the Joule (resistive) and enthalpic (chemical) heating effects. Conversely, during battery charging, the heat generated is the Joule minus the enthalpic heating...

  18. Effects of mechanical stresses on lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoncheol

    Structural batteries are multifunctional materials that are expected to perform multiple roles, i.e. power generation and mechanical support. Properly realized, the concept can dramatically improve gravimetric properties by elimination of parasitic masses tolerated in conventional devices. However, the significant structural loads that such batteries would be expected to bear, given their multiple roles, would exceed those experienced by conventional batteries, and thus must be studied and understood in the context of device safety, lifetime and cost. Key sources of mechanical stresses were identified and quantified in this effort, including manufacturing-induced loads, thermal loads, kinetic loads and structural loads. It was found that stresses due to compression during electrode fabrication can be as large as 2000 MPa, thus having the potential to induce mechanical failure of constituent materials, while stresses induced by structural loads in an unmanned vehicle example studied, were less than 1 MPa. Thermal stresses were found in one embodiment, to exceed 100 MPa, largely due to mechanical confinement of batteries embedded for structural support. Supporting experiments were conceived in this work to study the effect of loads on electrochemical performance. A novel design of a structural battery was developed, to simultaneously conduct mechanical and electrochemical experiments. Diffusion coefficients were determined while various loadings were applied. Also, stresses exerted on the battery were observed while the battery was charged and discharged. Statistically meaningful correlation was not observed for diffusion coefficients with respect to stresses, but forces applied to carbon fiber significantly varied during charging/discharging of batteries, and the magnitude of variance of force was strongly correlated with the number of charges. Molecular dynamics simulations, finally, were performed to examine findings from experiments. Diffusion coefficients of

  19. Battery Wear from Disparate Duty-Cycles: Opportunities for Electric-Drive Vehicle Battery Health Management; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Earleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-10-01

    Electric-drive vehicles utilizing lithium-ion batteries experience wholly different degradation patterns than do conventional vehicles, depending on geographic ambient conditions and consumer driving and charging patterns. A semi-empirical life-predictive model for the lithium-ion graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum chemistry is presented that accounts for physically justified calendar and cycling fade mechanisms. An analysis of battery life for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles considers 782 duty-cycles from travel survey data superimposed with climate data from multiple geographic locations around the United States. Based on predicted wear distributions, opportunities for extending battery life including modification of battery operating limits, thermal and charge control are discussed.

  20. Used batteries - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    With colder weather drawing in, it is quite likely that older car batteries will fail. On this subject, the Safety Commission wishes to remind everyone that CERN is not responsible for the disposal of used batteries from private vehicles. So please refrain from abandoning them on pavements or around or inside buildings. Used batteries can be disposed of safely, free-of-charge and without any damage to the environment at waste disposal sites (déchetteries) close to CERN in both France (Ain and Haute-Savoie) and in the Canton of Geneva in Switzerland (Cheneviers). Since the average car battery lasts a number of years, this only represents a small effort on your part over the whole lifetime of your vehicle. Most people don't need reminding that car batteries contain concentrated sulphuric acid, which can cause severe burns. Despite this, we frequently find them casually dumped in scrap metal bins! For more information, please contact R. Magnier/SC-GS 160879 We all have a responsibility for safety and th...

  1. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  2. Mechanistic Modeling Framework for Predicting Extreme Battery Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffat, Harry K.; Geller, Anthony S.; R. Kee (CSM); S. Allu (ORNL)

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this project was to Address root cause and implications of thermal runaway of Li-ion batteries by delivering a software architecture solution that can lead to the development of predictive mechanisms that are based on identification of species.

  3. Optimizing Battery Usage and Management for Long Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-16

    This presentation discusses the impact of system design factors on battery aging and end of life. Topics include sizing of the SOC operating window, cell balancing and thermal management systems and their value in reducing pack degradation rates and cell imbalance growth over lifetime.

  4. Optimizing Battery Usage and Management for Long Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-16

    This presentation discusses the impact of system design factors on battery aging and end of life. Topics include sizing of the state-of-charge operating window, cell balancing, and thermal management systems and their value in reducing pack degradation rates and cell imbalance growth over lifetime.

  5. Mechanistic Modeling Framework for Predicting Extreme Battery Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Anthony S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this project are to address the root cause implications of thermal runaway of Li-ion batteries by delivering a software architecture solution that can lead to the development of predictive mechanisms that are based on identification of species.

  6. A Martian Air Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate an entirely new battery chemistry by developing A Martian Air Battery. Specifically the project will explore the concept of a Martian...

  7. Development of automotive battery systems capable of surviving modern underhood environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, John R.; Johnson, Richard T.

    The starting, lighting, and ignition (SLI) battery in today's automobile typically finds itself in an engine compartment that is jammed with mechanical, electrical, and electronic devices. The spacing of these devices precludes air movement and, thus, heat transfer out of the compartment. Furthermore, many of the devices, in addition to the internal combustion engine, actually generate heat. The resulting underhood environment is extremely hostile to thermally-sensitive components, especially the battery. All indications point to a continuation of this trend towards higher engine-compartment temperatures as future vehicles evolve. The impact of ambient temperature on battery life is clearly demonstrated in the failure-mode analysis conducted by the Battery Council International in 1990. This study, when combined with additional failure-mode analyses, vehicle systems simulation, and elevated temperature life testing, provides insight into the potential for extension of life of batteries. Controlled fleet and field tests are used to document and quantify improvements in product design. Three approaches to battery life extension under adverse thermal conditions are assessed, namely: (i) battery design; (ii) thermal management, and (iii) alternative battery locations. The advantages and disadvantages of these approaches (both individually and in combination) for original equipment and aftermarket applications are explored.

  8. Battery Management System—Balancing Modularization Based on a Single Switched Capacitor and Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter with the Auxiliary Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Daowd

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-based batteries are considered as the most advanced batteries technology, which can be designed for high energy or high power storage systems. However, the battery cells are never fully identical due to the fabrication process, surrounding environment factors and differences between the cells tend to grow if no measures are taken. In order to have a high performance battery system, the battery cells should be continuously balanced for maintain the variation between the cells as small as possible. Without an appropriate balancing system, the individual cell voltages will differ over time and battery system capacity will decrease quickly. These issues will limit the electric range of the electric vehicle (EV and some cells will undergo higher stress, whereby the cycle life of these cells will be shorter. Quite a lot of cell balancing/equalization topologies have been previously proposed. These balancing topologies can be categorized into passive and active balancing. Active topologies are categorized according to the active element used for storing the energy such as capacitor and/or inductive component as well as controlling switches or converters. This paper proposes an intelligent battery management system (BMS including a battery pack charging and discharging control with a battery pack thermal management system. The BMS user input/output interfacing. The battery balancing system is based on battery pack modularization architecture. The proposed modularized balancing system has different equalization systems that operate inside and outside the modules. Innovative single switched capacitor (SSC control strategy is proposed to balance between the battery cells in the module (inside module balancing, IMB. Novel utilization of isolated bidirectional DC/DC converter (IBC is proposed to balance between the modules with the aid of the EV auxiliary battery (AB. Finally an experimental step-up has been implemented for the validation of the

  9. High energy density aluminum battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  10. Impact resistant battery enclosure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo; Feng, Yuezhong; Chen, Weinong Wayne; Siegmund, Thomas Heinrich

    2017-10-31

    Battery enclosure arrangements for a vehicular battery system. The arrangements, capable of impact resistance include plurality of battery cells and a plurality of kinetic energy absorbing elements. The arrangements further include a frame configured to encase the plurality of the kinetic energy absorbing elements and the battery cells. In some arrangements the frame and/or the kinetic energy absorbing elements can be made of topologically interlocked materials.

  11. Joint Battery Industry Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-31

    batteries for 3 wheelchairs , commercial marine, commercial general aviation aircraft (corporate and private airplanes - not commercial jetliners), and...hour battery and pilot plan production. Wheelchairs are the designated preliminary test application for this battery with the hope of being able to...and Rockwell. ARPA also has contracted with Photovoltaics regarding research on solar charging batteries. 3 8.13.6 DOE 3 DOE is conducting research on

  12. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  13. Batteries, from Cradle to Grave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

  14. Battery switch for downhole tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  15. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  16. Batteries: Discharging the right product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sampson; Archer, Lynden A.

    2016-03-01

    The chemistry of the discharge products of metal-oxygen batteries is related to the battery's efficiency but knowledge of their formation mechanism is incomplete. Now, the initial discharge product in sodium-oxygen batteries is shown to be sodium superoxide, which undergoes dissolution and then transforms to sodium peroxide dihydrate.

  17. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, Richard E., E-mail: richard.e.lyon@faa.gov; Walters, Richard N.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • First measure of anaerobic failure energy of lithium ion batteries. • Novel and simple bomb calorimeter method developed and demonstrated. • Four different cathode chemistries examined. • Full range of charged capacity used as independent variable. • Failure energy identified as primary safety hazard. - Abstract: The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔH{sub f}, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential × charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔU{sub rxn}. The contribution of E and ΔU{sub rxn} to ΔH{sub f} was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells.

  18. Liquid Cooling of Tractive Lithium Ion Batteries Pack with Nanofluids Coolant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Xie, Huaqing; Yu, Wei; Li, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The heat generated from tractive lithium ion batteries during discharge-charge process has great impacts on the performances of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. How to solve the thermal abuse in tractive lithium ion batteries pack becomes more and more urgent and important for future development of electrical vehicles. In this work, TiO2, ZnO and diamond nanofluids are prepared and utilized as coolants in indirect liquid cooling of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. The results show that nanofluids present superior cooling performance to that of pure fluids and the diamond nanofluid presents relatively excellent cooling abilities than that of TiO2 and ZnO nanofluids. During discharge process, the temperature distribution of batteries in batteries pack is uniform and stable, due to steady heat dissipation by indirect liquid cooling. It is expected that nanofluids could be considered as a potential alternative for indirect liquid cooling in electrical vehicles.

  19. Weston Standard battery

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a Weston AOIP standard battery with its calibration certificate (1956). Inside, the glassware forms an "H". Its name comes from the British physicist Edward Weston. A standard is the materialization of a given quantity whose value is known with great accuracy.

  20. USED BATTERIES-REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Note from the TIS Division: Although it is not an obligation for CERN to collect, store and dispose of used batteries from private vehicles, they are often found abandoned on the site and even in the scrap metal bins. As well as being very dangerous (they contain sulphuric acid which is highly corrosive), this practise costs CERN a non-negligible amount of money to dispose of them safely. The disposal of used batteries in the host state could not be simpler, there are 'déchetteries' in neighbouring France at Saint-Genis, Gaillard and Annemasse as well as in other communes. In Geneva Canton the centre de traitement des déchets spéciaux, at Cheneviers on the river Rhône a few kilometers from CERN, will dispose of your batterie free of charge. So we ask you to use a little common sense and to help protect the environnement from the lead and acid in these batteries and even more important, to avoid the possibility of a colleague being seriously injured. It doesn't take m...

  1. Remote RF Battery Charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system

  2. FY14 Milestone: Simulated Impacts of Life-Like Fast Charging on BEV Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Burton, Evan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Smith, Kandler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Pesaran, Ahmad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center

    2014-09-01

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that results could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported NREL's development of BLAST-V 'the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles' to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. The authors present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. The primary challenge for BEV batteries operated in the presence of fast charging is controlling maximum battery temperature, which can be achieved with active battery cooling systems.

  3. The electrical performance of Ag Zn batteries for the Venus multi-probe mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palandati, C.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation of 5 Ah and 21 Ah Silver-Zinc batteries was made to determine their suitability to meet the energy storage requirements of the bus vehicle, 3 small probes and large probe for the Venus multi-probe mission. The evaluation included a 4 Ah battery for the small probe, a 21 Ah battery for the large probe, one battery of each size for the bus vehicle power, a periodic cycling test on each size battery and a wet stand test of charged and discharged cells of both cell designs. The study on the probe batteries and bus vehicle batteries included both electrical and thermal simulation for the entire mission. The effects on silver migration and zinc penetration of the cellophane separators caused by the various test parameters were determined by visual and X-ray fluorescence analysis. The 5 Ah batteries supported the power requirements for the bus vehicle and small probe. The 21 Ah large probe battery supplied the required mission power. Both probe batteries delivered in excess of 132 percent of rated capacity at the completion of the mission simulation.

  4. Damage of cells and battery packs due to ground impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yong; Wierzbicki, Tomasz; Sahraei, Elham; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2014-12-01

    The present paper documents a comprehensive study on the ground impact of lithium-ion battery packs in electric vehicles. With the purpose of developing generic methodology, a hypothetic global finite element model is adopted. The force-displacement response of indentation process simulated by the global FE model is cross-validated with the earlier analytical solutions. The punching process after the armor plate perforation, the ensuing crack propagation of the armor plate as well as the local deformation modes of individual battery cells are clearly predicted by the global modeling. A parametric study is carried out, and a few underlying rules are revealed, providing important clues on the design of protective structure of battery packs against ground impact. In the next step, detailed FE models at the level of a single battery cell and shell casing are developed and simulations are performed using boundaries and loading conditions taken from the global solution. In the detailed modeling the failure of individual components is taken into account, which is an important indicator of electric short circuit of a battery cell and possible thermal runaway. The damage modes and the deformation tolerances of components in the battery cell under various loading conditions are observed and compared.

  5. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Shi, Y.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-09-01

    Predictive models of Li-ion battery reliability must consider a multiplicity of electrochemical, thermal and mechanical degradation modes experienced by batteries in application environments. Complicating matters, Li-ion batteries can experience several path dependent degradation trajectories dependent on storage and cycling history of the application environment. Rates of degradation are controlled by factors such as temperature history, electrochemical operating window, and charge/discharge rate. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must be absorbed by overdesign and warranty costs. Degradation models are needed that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. Models should also provide engineering feedback for next generation battery designs. This presentation reviews both multi-dimensional physical models and simpler, lumped surrogate models of battery electrochemical and mechanical degradation. Models are compared with cell- and pack-level aging data from commercial Li-ion chemistries. The analysis elucidates the relative importance of electrochemical and mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms in real-world operating environments. Opportunities for extending the lifetime of commercial battery systems are explored.

  6. Modular Battery Charge Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell

  7. Fast and reversible thermoresponsive polymer switching materials for safer batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Lopez, Jeffrey; Li, Yuzhang; To, John W. F.; Liu, Nan; Wang, Chao; Andrews, Sean C.; Liu, Jia; Cui, Yi; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-01-01

    Safety issues have been a long-standing obstacle impeding large-scale adoption of next-generation high-energy-density batteries. Materials solutions to battery safety management are limited by slow response and small operating voltage windows. Here we report a fast and reversible thermoresponsive polymer switching material that can be incorporated inside batteries to prevent thermal runaway. This material consists of electrochemically stable graphene-coated spiky nickel nanoparticles mixed in a polymer matrix with a high thermal expansion coefficient. The as-fabricated polymer composite films show high electrical conductivity of up to 50 S cm-1 at room temperature. Importantly, the conductivity decreases within one second by seven to eight orders of magnitude on reaching the transition temperature and spontaneously recovers at room temperature. Batteries with this self-regulating material built in the electrode can rapidly shut down under abnormal conditions such as overheating and shorting, and are able to resume their normal function without performance compromise or detrimental thermal runaway. Our approach offers 103-104 times higher sensitivity to temperature changes than previous switching devices.

  8. Safety of lithium batteries in transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, Michael D.

    UN Document ["Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods Manual of Tests and Criteria", 3rd Revised Edition, 1999] outlines a test plan that is fundamental to the classification for transport of lithium batteries with metallic lithium, lithium alloy or lithium-ion intercalation electrodes. The tests can be divided into two categories: safety tests (internal and external short circuit, forced-over-discharge, charge) and environmental tests (reduced pressure, thermal, vibration and shock). These safety tests are intended to assess known unsafe behavior in abusive circumstances. This paper discusses the importance of environmental tests in the transport scenario and presents a discussion on how the existing safety tests provide only a false sense of security. Simple measures that prevent abuses in transport are suggested that would be more effective and ensure greater safety. A recent incident at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), where lithium cells in transit were abused and caused to burn, is now cited by some regulators as proof that safety testing is required. This paper describes how that logic is flawed. Testing would not have prevented the LAX incident. Therefore, continued promotion of and focus on safety testing is working against the ultimate goal of improved safety in transport. This paper concludes that effective regulations should promote and maximize safe transportation of lithium batteries through environmental testing and the elimination of unsafe circumstances that enable lithium batteries to become a hazard in transport.

  9. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  10. Development of an Experimental Testbed for Research in Lithium-Ion Battery Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ferdowsi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced electrochemical batteries are becoming an integral part of a wide range of applications from household and commercial to smart grid, transportation, and aerospace applications. Among different battery technologies, lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries are growing more and more popular due to their high energy density, high galvanic potential, low self-discharge, low weight, and the fact that they have almost no memory effect. However, one of the main obstacles facing the widespread commercialization of Li-ion batteries is the design of reliable battery management systems (BMSs. An efficient BMS ensures electrical safety during operation, while increasing battery lifetime, capacity and thermal stability. Despite the need for extensive research in this field, the majority of research conducted on Li-ion battery packs and BMS are proprietary works conducted by manufacturers. The available literature, however, provides either general descriptions or detailed analysis of individual components of the battery system, and ignores addressing details of the overall system development. This paper addresses the development of an experimental research testbed for studying Li-ion batteries and their BMS design. The testbed can be configured in a variety of cell and pack architectures, allowing for a wide range of BMS monitoring, diagnostics, and control technologies to be tested and analyzed. General considerations that should be taken into account while designing Li-ion battery systems are reviewed and different technologies and challenges commonly encountered in Li-ion battery systems are investigated. This testbed facilitates future development of more practical and improved BMS technologies with the aim of increasing the safety, reliability, and efficiency of existing Li-ion battery systems. Experimental results of initial tests performed on the system are used to demonstrate some of the capabilities of the developed research testbed. To the authors

  11. Crash Models for Advanced Automotive Batteries: A Review of the Current State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Allu, Srikanth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gorti, Sarma B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kalnaus, Sergiy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kumar, Abhishek [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pannala, Sreekanth [Saudi Arabia Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), Houston, TX (United States); Simunovic, Srdjan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Slattery, Stuart R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hsin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Safety is a critical aspect of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery design. Impact/crash conditions can trigger a complex interplay of mechanical contact, heat generation and electrical discharge, which can result in adverse thermal events. The cause of these thermal events has been linked to internal contact between the opposite electrodes, i.e. internal short circuit. The severity of the outcome is influenced by the configuration of the internal short circuit and the battery state. Different loading conditions and battery states may lead to micro (soft) shorts where material burnout due to generated heat eliminates contact between the electrodes, or persistent (hard) shorts which can lead to more significant thermal events and potentially damage the entire battery system and beyond. Experimental characterization of individual battery components for the onset of internal shorts is limited, since it is impractical to canvas all possible variations in battery state of charge, operating conditions, and impact loading in a timely manner. This report provides a survey of modeling and simulation approaches and documents a project initiated and funded by DOT/NHTSA to improve modeling and simulation capabilities in order to design tests that provide leading indicators of failure in batteries. In this project, ORNL has demonstrated a computational infrastructure to conduct impact simulations of Li-ion batteries using models that resolve internal structures and electro-thermo-chemical and mechanical conditions. Initial comparisons to abuse experiments on cells and cell strings conducted at ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) at Carderock MD for parameter estimation and model validation have been performed. This research has provided insight into the mechanisms of deformation in batteries (both at cell and electrode level) and their relationship to the safety of batteries.

  12. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  13. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, D.E.

    1983-08-01

    Research programs on lead-acid batteries are reported that cover active materials utilization, active material integrity, and some technical support projects. Processing problems were encountered and corrected. Components and materials, a lead-plastic composite grid, cell designs, and deliverables are described. Cell testing is discussed, as well as battery subsystems, including fuel gage, thermal management, and electrolyte circulation. (LEW)

  14. Report on Lithium Ion Battery Trade Studies to Support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Kissock, Barbara I.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the results of two system related analyses to support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project. The first study documents a trade study to determine the optimum Li-ion battery cell capacity for the ascent stage battery for the Altair lunar lander being developed under the Constellation Systems program. The battery cell capacity for the Ultra High Energy (UHE) Li-ion battery initially chosen as the target for development was 35 A-hr; this study concludes that a 19.4 A-hr cell capacity would be more optimum from a minimum battery mass perspective. The second study in this report is an assessment of available low temperature Li-ion battery cell performance data to determine whether lowering the operating temperature range of the Li-ion battery, in a rover application, could save overall system mass by eliminating thermal control system mass normally needed to maintain battery temperature within a tighter temperature limit than electronics or other less temperature sensitive components. The preliminary assessment for this second study indicates that the reduction in the thermal control system mass is negated by an increase in battery mass to compensate for the loss in battery capacity due to lower temperature operating conditions.

  15. Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery: Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery Climate Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-31

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a low-cost, compact, high-capacity, advanced thermoadsorptive battery (ATB) for effective climate control of EVs. The ATB provides both heating and cooling by taking advantage of the materials’ ability to adsorb a significant amount of water. This efficient battery system design could offer up as much as a 30% increase in driving range compared to current EV climate control technology. The ATB provides high-capacity thermal storage with little-to-no electrical power consumption. The ATB is also looking to explore the possibility of shifting peak electricity loads for cooling and heating in a variety of other applications, including commercial and residential buildings, data centers, and telecom facilities.

  16. Modular Battery Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert M (Inventor); Gonzalez, Marcelo C (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some embodiments of the present invention describe a battery including a plurality of master-less controllers. Each controller is operatively connected to a corresponding cell in a string of cells, and each controller is configured to bypass a fraction of current around the corresponding cell when the corresponding cell has a greater charge than one or more other cells in the string of cells.

  17. Polyvinyl alcohol battery separator containing inert filler. [alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol battery separator is disclosed. A particulate filler, inert to alkaline electrolyte of an alkaline battery, is incorporated in the separator in an amount of 1-20% by weight, based on the weight of the polyvinyl alcohol, and is dispersed throughout the product. Incorporation of the filler enhances performance and increases cycle life of alkaline batteries when compared with batteries containing a similar separator not containing filler. Suitable fillers include titanates, silicates, zirconates, aluminates, wood floor, lignin, and titania. Particle size is not greater than about 50 microns.

  18. Wireless battery management control and monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumstein, James M.; Chang, John T.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Kovotsky, Jack; Lavietes, Anthony; Trebes, James Edward

    2018-01-16

    A battery management system using a sensor inside of the battery that sensor enables monitoring and detection of various events in the battery and transmission of a signal from the sensor through the battery casing to a control and data acquisition module by wireless transmission. The detection of threshold events in the battery enables remedial action to be taken to avoid catastrophic events.

  19. A materials perspective on Li-ion batteries at extreme temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F.; Babu, Ganguli; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Kalaga, Kaushik; Sayed, Farheen N.; Kato, Keiko; Joyner, Jarin; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2017-08-01

    With the continuous upsurge in demand for energy storage, batteries are increasingly required to operate under extreme environmental conditions. Although they are at the technological forefront, Li-ion batteries have long been limited to room temperature, as internal phenomena during their operation cause thermal fluctuations. This has been the reason for many battery explosions in recent consumer products. While traditional efforts to address these issues focused on thermal management strategies, the performance and safety of Li-ion batteries at both low (60 °C) temperatures are inherently related to their respective components, such as electrode and electrolyte materials and the so-called solid-electrolyte interphases. This Review examines recent research that considers thermal tolerance of Li-ion batteries from a materials perspective, spanning a wide temperature spectrum (-60 °C to 150 °C). The structural stability of promising cathodes, issues with anode passivation, and the competency of various electrolyte, binder and current collectors are compared for their thermal workability. The possibilities offered by each of these cell components could extend the environmental frontiers of commercial Li-ion batteries.

  20. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting...

  1. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting will be held October 1-3, 2013, from...

  2. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  3. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  4. Vaporization Would Cool Primary Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Miyake, Robert N.

    1991-01-01

    Temperature of discharging high-power-density primary battery maintained below specified level by evaporation of suitable liquid from jacket surrounding battery, according to proposal. Pressure-relief valve regulates pressure and boiling temperature of liquid. Less material needed in cooling by vaporization than in cooling by melting. Technique used to cool batteries in situations in which engineering constraints on volume, mass, and location prevent attachment of cooling fins, heat pipes, or like.

  5. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  6. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  7. Paraffin Nanocomposites for Heat Management of Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Computational Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. N. Shirazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries are currently considered as vital components for advances in mobile technologies such as those in communications and transport. Nonetheless, Li-ion batteries suffer from temperature rises which sometimes lead to operational damages or may even cause fire. An appropriate solution to control the temperature changes during the operation of Li-ion batteries is to embed batteries inside a paraffin matrix to absorb and dissipate heat. In the present work, we aimed to investigate the possibility of making paraffin nanocomposites for better heat management of a Li-ion battery pack. To fulfill this aim, heat generation during a battery charging/discharging cycles was simulated using Newman’s well established electrochemical pseudo-2D model. We couple this model to a 3D heat transfer model to predict the temperature evolution during the battery operation. In the later model, we considered different paraffin nanocomposites structures made by the addition of graphene, carbon nanotubes, and fullerene by assuming the same thermal conductivity for all fillers. This way, our results mainly correlate with the geometry of the fillers. Our results assess the degree of enhancement in heat dissipation of Li-ion batteries through the use of paraffin nanocomposites. Our results may be used as a guide for experimental set-ups to improve the heat management of Li-ion batteries.

  8. Safety test results of compact sodium-sulfer batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kouji; Rachi, Hideki [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Oshima, Taku; Bito, Akihiro [NGK Insulators Ltd., Nagoya (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Sodium-sulfur batteries have been developed to provide load-leveling and stabilize the supply of electricity for electric utilities and large customers. However, concern for safety increases with the amount of sodium and sulfur required for commercial products. The latest (and largest) product is a 50 kW, 400 kWh battery module comprised of 384 cells, designated 'T5' cells. Safety is ensured by applying multiple levels of protection during design and manufacture, and confirmed by rigorous safety tests to verify performance during accident conditions that cause electrical, mechanical, thermal and chemical hazards. These tests have proven that the T5 cell and 50 kW battery module are adequately safe during such events for use in commercial applications. (orig.)

  9. Recovery Of Electrodic Powder From Spent Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on recycling process newly proposed to recover electrodic powder enriched in cobalt (Co and lithium (Li from spent lithium ion battery. In addition, this new process was designed to prevent explosion of batteries during thermal treatment under inert atmosphere. Spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs were heated over the range of 300°C to 600°C for 2 hours and each component was completely separated inside reactor after experiment. Electrodic powder was successfully recovered from bulk components containing several pieces of metals through sieving operation. The electrodic powder obtained was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA and furthermore image of the powder was taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was finally found that cobalt and lithium were mainly recovered to about 49 wt.% and 4 wt.% in electrodic powder, respectively.

  10. Advances in the recovering of spent lithium battery compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, S.; Ansart, F.; Laberty-Robert, C.; Portal, J.

    Advances in a process based on simple and environmentally compatible operations, aimed to the treatment and recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries, are reported in this paper. This process is safe, economic, and recovers as much of the battery materials as possible. It operates mainly in a selective dissolution in dilute acid, a chemical treatment of the filtrate and a thermal treatment of the solid residue. The validity of the process and its reproducibility have been evaluated at each step of the separation. This method involves very simple equipment and can be scaled-up for commercial production. Based on the projected quantities of lithium ion batteries available for recycling in the next few years, there is a significant market opportunity for a successful technology.

  11. A differential approach to microcomputer test battery development and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Osteen, M. K.; Turnage, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    The present microcomputer-based performance test battery emphasizes psychometric theory and utility for repeated-measures applications during extended exposure to various environmental stressors. In the menu that has been defined at the current state of this system's development, there are more than 30 'qualified' mental tests which stabilize in less than 10 min and possess test-retest reliabilities greater than 0.7 for a three-minute test/work period. The battery encompasses tests of cognition, information processing, psychomotor skill, memory, mood, etc. Several of the tests have demonstrated sensitivity to chemoradiotherapy, sleep loss, hypoxia, amphetamines, thermal stress, sensory deprivation, altitude, fatigue, and alcohol use. Recommendations are presented for 6-, 12-, and 22-min batteries.

  12. Characterization of vanadium flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project 'Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  13. Trends in Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswara Sarma Mallela

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future.

  14. Battery Post-Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Post-test diagnostics of aged batteries can provide additional information regarding the cause of performance degradation, which, previously, could be only inferred...

  15. Improving the Performance Attributes of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Hot Climates through Key-Off Battery Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Shojaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambient conditions can have a significant impact on the average and maximum temperature of the battery of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Given the sensitivity of the ageing mechanisms of typical battery cells to temperature, a significant variability in battery lifetime has been reported with geographical location. In addition, high battery temperature and the associated cooling requirements can cause poor passenger thermal comfort, while extreme battery temperatures can negatively impact the power output of the battery, limiting the available electric traction torque. Avoiding such issues requires enabling battery cooling even when the vehicle is parked and not plugged in (key-off, but the associated extra energy requirements make applying key-off cooling a non-trivial decision. In this paper, a representative plug-in parallel hybrid electric vehicle model is used to simulate a typical 24-h duty cycle to quantify the impact of hot ambient conditions on three performance attributes of the vehicle: the battery lifetime, passenger thermal comfort and fuel economy. Key-off cooling is defined as an optimal control problem in view of the duty cycle of the vehicle. The problem is then solved using the dynamic programming method. Controlling key-off cooling through this method leads to significant improvements in the battery lifetime, while benefiting the fuel economy and thermal comfort attributes. To further improve the battery lifetime, partial charging of the battery is considered. An algorithm is developed that determines the optimum combination of key-off cooling and the level of battery charge. Simulation results confirm the benefits of the proposed method.

  16. Identifying and Overcoming Critical Barriers to Widespread Second Use of PEV Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Both the market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and deployment of grid-connected energy storage systems are presently restricted by the high cost of batteries. Battery second use (B2U) strategies--in which a single battery first serves an automotive application, then is redeployed into a secondary market--could help address both issues by reducing battery costs to the primary (automotive) and secondary (electricity grid) users. This study investigates the feasibility of and major barriers to the second use of lithium-ion PEV batteries by posing and answering the following critical B2U questions: 1. When will used automotive batteries become available, and how healthy will they be? 2. What is required to repurpose used automotive batteries, and how much will it cost? 3. How will repurposed automotive batteries be used, how long will they last, and what is their value? Advanced analysis techniques are employed that consider the electrical, thermal, and degradation response of batteries in both the primary (automotive) and secondary service periods. Second use applications are treated in detail, addressing operational requirements, economic value, and market potential. The study concludes that B2U is viable and could provide considerable societal benefits due to the large possible supply of repurposed automotive batteries and substantial remaining battery life following automotive service. However, the only identified secondary market large enough to consume the supply of these batteries (utility peaker plant replacement) is expected to be a low margin market, and thus B2U is not expected to affect the upfront cost of PEVs.

  17. Optimised battery capacity utilisation within battery management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkins, S.; Rosca, B.; Jacob, J.; Hoedmaekers, E.

    2015-01-01

    Battery Management Systems (BMSs) play a key role in the performance of both hybrid and fully electric vehicles. Typically, the role of the BMS is to help maintain safety, performance, and overall efficiency of the battery pack. One important aspect of its operation is the estimation of the state of

  18. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  19. Multi-objective optimal design of lithium-ion battery packs based on evolutionary algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Bernardo; Gana, Felipe; Palma-Behnke, Rodrigo; Estévez, Pablo A.; Calderón-Muñoz, Williams R.; Orchard, Marcos E.; Reyes, Jorge; Cortés, Marcelo

    2014-12-01

    Lithium-battery energy storage systems (LiBESS) are increasingly being used on electric mobility and stationary applications. Despite its increasing use and improvements of the technology there are still challenges associated with cost reduction, increasing lifetime and capacity, and higher safety. A correct battery thermal management system (BTMS) design is critical to achieve these goals. In this paper, a general framework for obtaining optimal BTMS designs is proposed. Due to the trade-off between the BTMS's design goals and the complex modeling of thermal response inside the battery pack, this paper proposes to solve this problem using a novel Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) approach. A theoretical case of a module with 6 cells and a real case of a pack used in a Solar Race Car are presented. The results show the capabilities of the proposal methodology, in which improved designs for battery packs are obtained.

  20. A Review on Fault Mechanism and Diagnosis Approach for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Li-ion battery has attracted more and more attention as it is a promising storage device which has long service life, higher energy, and power density. However, battery ageing always occurs during operation and leads to performance degradation and system fault which not only causes inconvenience, but also risks serious consequences such as thermal runaway or even explosion. This paper reviews recent research and development of ageing mechanisms of Li-ion batteries to understand the origins and symptoms of Li-ion battery faults. Common ageing factors are covered with their effects and consequences. Through ageing tests, relationship between performance and ageing factors, as well as cross-dependence among factors can be quantified. Summary of recent research about fault diagnosis technology for Li-ion batteries is concluded with their cons and pros. The suggestions on novel fault diagnosis approach and remaining challenges are provided at the end of this paper.

  1. Bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakes, M.; Woortmeijer, R.; Schmal, D.

    Within the framework of the European project bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS), a new production route is being developed for the bipolar lead-acid battery. The performance targets are 500 W kg -1, 30 Wh kg -1 and 100 000 power-assist life cycles (PALCs). The operation voltage of the battery can be, according to the requirements, 12, 36 V or any other voltage. Tests with recently developed 4 and 12 V prototypes, each of 30 Ah capacity have demonstrated that the PALC can be operated using 10 C discharge and 9 C charge peaks. The tests show no overvoltage or undervoltage problems during three successive test periods of 16 h with 8 h rest in between. The temperature stabilizes during these tests at 40-45 °C using a thermal-management system. The bipolar lead acid battery is operated at an initial 50% state-of-charge. During the tests, the individual cell voltages display only very small differences. Tests are now in progress to improve further the battery-management system, which has been developed at the cell level, during the period no PALCs are run in order to improve the hybrid behaviour of the battery. The successful tests show the feasibility of operating the bipolar lead-acid battery in a hybrid mode. The costs of the system are estimated to be much lower than those for nickel-metal-hydride or Li-ion based high-power systems. An additional advantage of the lead-acid system is that recycling of lead-acid batteries is well established.

  2. In Situ Monitoring of Temperature inside Lithium-Ion Batteries by Flexible Micro Temperature Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Tang, Ming-Shao; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA), notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monit...

  3. Synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT)-entangled CuO nanotube networks via CNT-catalytic growth and in situ thermal oxidation as additive-free anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xia; Song, Bo; Cheng, Shisu; Xie, Yun; Shao, Yijiang; Sun, Yueming

    2017-11-13

    We demonstrated the utility of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a catalyst and conductive agent to synthesize CNT-entangled copper nanowire (CuNW-CNT) networks within a melted mixture of hexadecylamine and cetyltrimethy ammounium bromide. The CuNW-CNT networks were further in situ thermally oxidized into CuO nanotube-CNT (CuONT-CNT) with the high retention of network structure. The binder- and conducting-additive-free anodes constructed using the CuONT-CNT networks exhibited high performance, such as high capability (557.7 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (near 100%), good rate performance (385.5 mAh g-1 at 5 C and 310.3 mAh g-1 at 10 C), and long cycling life. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT)-entangled CuO nanotube networks via CNT-catalytic growth and in situ thermal oxidation as additive-free anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xia; Song, Bo; Cheng, Shisu; Xie, Yun; Shao, Yijiang; Sun, Yueming

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrated the utility of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a catalyst and conductive agent to synthesize CNT-entangled copper nanowire (CuNW-CNT) networks within a melted mixture of hexadecylamine and cetyltrimethy ammounium bromide. The CuNW-CNT networks were further in situ thermally oxidized into CuO nanotube-CNT (CuONT-CNT) with the high retention of network structure. The binder- and conducting-additive-free anodes constructed using the CuONT-CNT networks exhibited high performance, such as high capability (557.7 mAh g‑1 at 0.2 °C after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (near 100%), good rate performance (385.5 mAh g‑1 at 5 °C and 310.3 mAh g‑1 at 10 °C), and long cycling life.

  5. EXAFS studies of battery materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBreen, J.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used at extensively at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to study materials and electrodes of several battery systems. The power and the general applicability of the technique is illustrated by studies of several battery materials such as PEO-salt complexes, PbO{sub 2}, and in situ studies of mossy zinc deposition in alkaline electrolyte.

  6. EXAFS studies of battery materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBreen, J.

    1991-12-31

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used at extensively at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to study materials and electrodes of several battery systems. The power and the general applicability of the technique is illustrated by studies of several battery materials such as PEO-salt complexes, PbO{sub 2}, and in situ studies of mossy zinc deposition in alkaline electrolyte.

  7. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  8. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems or laptop computers is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed; however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a high

  9. Battery system with temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  10. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoxville, U. Tennessee; U. Texas Austin; U, McGill; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  11. Automotive Battery Modelling and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Hammad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of vehicle battery performance is typically addressed by testing the battery under specific operation conditions by using a model to represent the test results. Approaches for representing test results range from simple statistical models to neural networks to complex, physics-based models. Basing the model on test data could be problematical when testing becomes impractical with many years life time tests. So, real time estimation of battery performance, an important problem in automotive applications, falls into this area. In vehicles it is important to know the state of charge of the batteries in order to prevent vehicle stranding and to ensure that the full range of the vehicle operation is exploited. In this paper, several battery models have studied including analytical, electrical circuits, stochastic and electro- chemical models. Valve Regulated Lead Acid “VRLA” battery has been modelled using electric circuit technique. This model is considered in the proposed Battery Monitoring System “BMS”. The proposed BMS includes data acquisition, data analysis and prediction of battery performance under a hypothetical future loads. Based on these criteria, a microprocessor based BMS prototype had been built and tested in automotive Lab,. The tests show promising results that can be used in industrial applications

  12. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2013-01-01

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  13. Electrochemical performance of CuNCN for sodium ion batteries and comparison with ZnNCN and lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguia-Barrio, A.; Castillo-Martínez, E.; Klein, F.; Pinedo, R.; Lezama, L.; Janek, J.; Adelhelm, P.; Rojo, T.

    2017-11-01

    Transition metal carbodiimides (TMNCN) undergo conversion reactions during electrochemical cycling in lithium and sodium ion batteries. Micron sized copper and zinc carbodiimide powders have been prepared as single phase as confirmed by PXRD and IR and their thermal stability has been studied in air and nitrogen atmosphere. CuNCN decomposes at ∼250 °C into CuO or Cu while ZnNCN can be stable until 400 °C and 800 °C in air and nitrogen respectively. Both carbodiimides were electrochemically analysed for sodium and lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical Na+ insertion in CuNCN exhibits a relatively high reversible capacity (300 mAh·g-1) which still indicates an incomplete conversion reaction. This incomplete reaction confirmed by ex-situ EPR analysis, is partly due to kinetic limitations as evidenced in the rate capability experiments and in the constant potential measurements. On the other hand, ZnNCN shows incomplete conversion reaction but with good capacity retention and lower hysteresis as negative electrode for sodium ion batteries. The electrochemical performance of these materials is comparable to that of other materials which operate through displacement reactions and is surprisingly better in sodium ion batteries in comparison with lithium ion batteries.

  14. Battery Internal Temperature Estimation for LiFePO4 Battery Based on Impedance Phase Shift under Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangong Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An impedance-based temperature estimation method is investigated considering the electrochemical non-equilibrium with short-term relaxation time for facilitating the vehicular application. Generally, sufficient relaxation time is required for battery electrochemical equilibrium before the impedance measurement. A detailed experiment is performed to investigate the regularity of the battery impedance in short-term relaxation time after switch-off current excitation, which indicates that the impedance can be measured and also has systematical decrement with the relaxation time growth. Based on the discussion of impedance variation in electrochemical perspective, as well as the monotonic relationship between impedance phase shift and battery internal temperature in the electrochemical equilibrium state, an exponential equation that accounts for both measured phase shift and relaxation time is established to correct the measuring deviation caused by electrochemical non-equilibrium. Then, a multivariate linear equation coupled with ambient temperature is derived considering the temperature gradients between the active part and battery surface. Equations stated above are all identified with the embedded thermocouple experimentally. In conclusion, the temperature estimation method can be a valuable alternative for temperature monitoring during cell operating, and serve the functionality as an efficient implementation in battery thermal management system for electric vehicles (EVs and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs.

  15. A Mobile Battery Swapping Service for Electric Vehicles Based on a Battery Swapping Van

    OpenAIRE

    Sujie Shao; Shaoyong Guo; Xuesong Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for providing a mobile battery swapping service for electric vehicles (EVs) that is provided by a mobile battery swapping van. This battery swapping van can carry many fully charged batteries and drive up to an EV to swap a battery within a few minutes. First, a reasonable EV battery swapping architecture based on a battery swapping van is established in this paper. The function and role of each participant and the relationships between each participant ar...

  16. A novel phenomenological multi-physics model of Li-ion battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Samad, Nassim A.; Kim, Youngki; Siegel, Jason B.; Stefanopoulou, Anna G.; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2016-09-01

    A novel phenomenological multi-physics model of Lithium-ion battery cells is developed for control and state estimation purposes. The model can capture electrical, thermal, and mechanical behaviors of battery cells under constrained conditions, e.g., battery pack conditions. Specifically, the proposed model predicts the core and surface temperatures and reaction force induced from the volume change of battery cells because of electrochemically- and thermally-induced swelling. Moreover, the model incorporates the influences of changes in preload and ambient temperature on the force considering severe environmental conditions electrified vehicles face. Intensive experimental validation demonstrates that the proposed multi-physics model accurately predicts the surface temperature and reaction force for a wide operational range of preload and ambient temperature. This high fidelity model can be useful for more accurate and robust state of charge estimation considering the complex dynamic behaviors of the battery cell. Furthermore, the inherent simplicity of the mechanical measurements offers distinct advantages to improve the existing power and thermal management strategies for battery management.

  17. Organic Materials as Electrodes for Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-04

    finely ground pomegranate husk was extracted thrice using 60% ethanol in water, followed by acid hydrolysis in 5.0 % H2SO4 for 5 h and...are found to be very promising, with high thermal stability. Use of these materials with magnesium- and zinc -based batteries is expected to be...Results and Discussion a. Ellagic acid - based compounds (this part of the work has already been given in the first year report). Extraction and

  18. Heat pipe heat rejection system. [for electrical batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroliczek, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype of a battery heat rejection system was developed which uses heat pipes for more efficient heat removal and for temperature control of the cells. The package consists of five thermal mock-ups of 100 amp-hr prismatic cells. Highly conductive spacers fabricated from honeycomb panels into which heat pipes are embedded transport the heat generated by the cells to the edge of the battery. From there it can be either rejected directly to a cold plate or the heat flow can be controlled by means of two variable conductance heat pipes. The thermal resistance between the interior of the cells and the directly attached cold plate was measured to be 0.08 F/Watt for the 5-cell battery. Compared to a conductive aluminum spacer of equal weight the honeycomb/heat pipe spacer has approximately one-fifth of the thermal resistance. In addition, the honeycomb/heat pipe spacer virtually eliminates temperature gradients along the cells.

  19. Monitoring Thermal Conditions in Footwear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Moreno, Alejandra. A.; Lopez Vela, Martín; Alcalá Ochoa, Noe

    2006-09-01

    Thermal conditions inside the foot were evaluated on a volunteer subject. We have designed and constructed an electronic system which can monitors temperature and humidity of the foot inside the shoe. The data is stored in a battery-powered device for later uploading to a host computer for data analysis. The apparatus potentially can be used to provide feedback to patients who are prone to having skin breakdowns.

  20. Li-ion battery cooling system integrates in nano-fluid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lien; Lopez, Jorge; Lopez, Jesus; Uriostegui, Altovely; Barrera, Avery; Wiggins, Nathanial

    2017-02-01

    In this design challenge by the Texas Space Grant Consortium, the researchers design a cooling system for a lithium-ion battery. Lithium-ion batteries are an effective and reliable source of energy for small, portable devices. However, similar to other existing sources of energy, there is always a problem with overheating. The objective is to design a cooling system for lithium-ion batteries that will work in a zero gravity environment for orbital and interplanetary space systems. The system is to serve as a backup battery and a signal booster that can be incorporated into a spacesuit. The design must be able to effectively cool the batteries without the use of an atmosphere to carry away heat but also be a lightweight and reliable design. The design incorporates carbon nanotubes suspended in distilled water creating a nano-fluid environment. This design must include a failsafe in the event of thermal runaway, a problem common to lithium-ion batteries. This failsafe will completely shut off the system if the batteries reach a certain temperature. A cooling system that incorporates nano-fluids will achieve a lightweight and efficient way of cooling batteries.

  1. Generation management using batteries in wind farms. Economical and technical analysis for Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Dominguez-Navarro, Jose A. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    This paper presents an hourly management method for energy generated in grid-connected wind farms using battery storage (Wind-Batteries systems). The method proposed is analysed technically and economically. Electricity generation in wind farms does not usually coincide with the electrical demand curve. If the wind-power penetration becomes high in the Spanish electrical grid, energy management will become necessary for some wind farms. A method is proposed in this paper to adjust the generation curve to the demand curve by storing electrical energy in batteries during off-peak hours (low demand) and selling stored energy to the grid during peak hours (high demand). With the results obtained and reported in this paper, for a Wind-Batteries system to be economically as profitable as a Wind-Only system, the selling price of the energy provided by the batteries during peak hours should be between 22 and 66 cEUR/kWh, depending on the technology and cost of the batteries. Comparison with flexible thermal generation has been performed. Additionally, the results are compared with those obtained if using hydrogen (Wind-Hydrogen system, which uses an electrolyser, hydrogen tank, and fuel cell instead of batteries), concluding that the Wind-Batteries system is both economically and energetically far more suitable. (author)

  2. Generation management using batteries in wind farms: Economical and technical analysis for Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)], E-mail: rdufo@unizar.es; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)], E-mail: jlbernal@unizar.es; Dominguez-Navarro, Jose A. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)], E-mail: jadona@unizar.es

    2009-01-15

    This paper presents an hourly management method for energy generated in grid-connected wind farms using battery storage (Wind-Batteries systems). The method proposed is analysed technically and economically. Electricity generation in wind farms does not usually coincide with the electrical demand curve. If the wind-power penetration becomes high in the Spanish electrical grid, energy management will become necessary for some wind farms. A method is proposed in this paper to adjust the generation curve to the demand curve by storing electrical energy in batteries during off-peak hours (low demand) and selling stored energy to the grid during peak hours (high demand). With the results obtained and reported in this paper, for a Wind-Batteries system to be economically as profitable as a Wind-Only system, the selling price of the energy provided by the batteries during peak hours should be between 22 and 66 c Euro /kWh, depending on the technology and cost of the batteries. Comparison with flexible thermal generation has been performed. Additionally, the results are compared with those obtained if using hydrogen (Wind-Hydrogen system, which uses an electrolyser, hydrogen tank, and fuel cell instead of batteries), concluding that the Wind-Batteries system is both economically and energetically far more suitable.

  3. Chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2003-01-01

    A chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be used to accurately measure fluid flow rate in a microanalytical system. The thermal flow sensor can be operated in either constant temperature or constant power mode and variants thereof. The chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be fabricated with the same MEMS technology as the rest of the microanlaytical system. Because of its low heat capacity, low-loss, and small size, the chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor is fast and efficient enough to be used in battery-powered, portable microanalytical systems.

  4. Principles of an atomtronic battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zozulya, Alex A.; Anderson, Dana Z.

    2013-10-01

    An asymmetric atom trap is investigated as a means to implement a “battery” that supplies ultracold atoms to an atomtronic circuit. The battery model is derived from a scheme for continuous loading of a nondissipative atom trap proposed by Roos [C. F. Roos, P. Cren, D. Guery-Odelin, and J. Dalibard, Europhys. Lett.EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/epl/i2003-00211-3 61, 187 (2003)]. The trap is defined by longitudinal and transverse trap frequencies fz and f⊥ and corresponding trap energy heights Uz and U⊥. The battery's ability to supply power to a load is evaluated as a function of an input atom flux and power, Iin and Pin=Iin(1+ɛ)Uz, respectively, where ɛ is an excess fractional energy. For given trap parameters, the battery is shown to have a resonantly optimum value of ɛ. The battery behavior can be cast in terms of an equivalent circuit model; specifically, for fixed input flux and power the battery is modeled in terms of a Thévenin equivalent chemical potential and internal resistance. The internal resistance establishes the maximum power that can be supplied to a circuit, the heat that will be generated by the battery, and the noise that will be imposed on the circuit. We argue that any means of implementing a battery for atomtronics can be represented by a Thévenin equivalent and that its performance will likewise be determined by an internal resistance.

  5. Principles of an Atomtronic Battery

    CERN Document Server

    Zozulya, Alex A

    2013-01-01

    An asymmetric atom trap is investigated as a means to implement a "battery" that supplies ultracold atoms to an atomtronic circuit. The battery model is derived from a scheme for continuous loading of a non-dissipative atom trap proposed by Roos et al.(Europhysics Letters V61, 187 (2003)). The trap is defined by longitudinal and transverse trap frequencies and corresponding trap energy heights. The battery's ability to supply power to a load is evaluated as a function of an input atom flux and power. For given trap parameters and input flux the battery is shown to have a resonantly optimum value of input power. The battery behavior can be cast in terms of an equivalent circuit model; specifically, for fixed input flux and power the battery is modeled in terms of a Th\\'{e}venin equivalent chemical potential and internal resistance. The internal resistance establishes the maximum power that can be supplied to a circuit, the heat that will be generated by the battery, and that noise will be imposed on the circui...

  6. Aqueous lithium air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Petrov, Alexei; Goncharenko, Nikolay

    2017-05-23

    Aqueous Li/Air secondary battery cells are configurable to achieve high energy density and prolonged cycle life. The cells include a protected a lithium metal or alloy anode and an aqueous catholyte in a cathode compartment. The aqueous catholyte comprises an evaporative-loss resistant and/or polyprotic active compound or active agent that partakes in the discharge reaction and effectuates cathode capacity for discharge in the acidic region. This leads to improved performance including one or more of increased specific energy, improved stability on open circuit, and prolonged cycle life, as well as various methods, including a method of operating an aqueous Li/Air cell to simultaneously achieve improved energy density and prolonged cycle life.

  7. 46 CFR 169.668 - Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries. 169.668 Section 169.668 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 169.668 Batteries. (a) Each battery must be in a location that allows the gas generated in charging to... this section, a battery must not be located in the same compartment with a gasoline tank or gasoline...

  8. STS lithium/CF(x) battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnacek, Dee

    1991-01-01

    Lithium carbon fluoride batteries are used on Space Shuttle Rocket Boosters and external tanks. These batteries have been extremely successful in terms of mission reliability with the exception of cell yield variances. The function/system and battery descriptions are given. A description is given of the battery range safety system.

  9. Maximizing System Lifetime by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Bohnenkamp, H.C.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries over the load to exploit recovery properties usually extends the

  10. Advanced Carbon Fluorides For Primary Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guérin K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Li-CFx battery using a specific fluorinated nanocarbon as cathode material exhibits a capacity exceeding the expected theoretical value when used as an electrode material in primary lithium battery. Carbon nanodiscs were partially fluorinated by atomic fluorine released by thermal decomposition of TbF4, and the capacity of this material was up to 1180 mAh.g−1, whereas a theoretical value of 847 mAh.g−1 for the CF0.95 sample was calculated. The obtained value is also higher than the maximum one of 865 mAh.g−1 expected for CF1 carbon fluorides. The discharge mechanism was investigated using mainly SEM and solid state NMR in order to understand this “extracapacity”. Both the unfluorinated carbon and the LiF covering, which is formed outside the carbon lattice during the discharge mechanism, play a key role for the achievement of the extracapacity by the consumption of Li+ to form Li2F+ species stabilized by the carbon host structure formed after the electrochemical defluorination.

  11. Cell for making secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Steven J. (2336 California St., Berkeley, CA 94703); Liu, Meilin (1121C Ninth St., #29, Albany, CA 94710); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (910 Acalanes Rd., Lafayette, CA 94549)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145.degree. C. (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium triflate (PEO.sub.8 LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS).sub.n, and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte.

  12. Battery Ownership Model - Medium Duty HEV Battery Leasing & Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Ken; Smith, Kandler; Cosgrove, Jon; Prohaska, Robert; Pesaran, Ahmad; Paul, James; Wiseman, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this milestone report focuses on the economics of leasing versus owning batteries for medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles as well as various battery standardization scenarios. The work described in this report was performed by members of the Energy Storage Team and the Vehicle Simulation Team in NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center along with members of the Vehicles Analysis Team at Ricardo.

  13. PVDF-Alumina Nanocomposite Membrane for Li-Ion Batteries Capable of Operation from Room Temperature to 120 C with Enhanced Safety (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-27

    Springer Science+Business Media New York, New York; 1994). 5. Rao, Z. & Wang, S. A review of power battery thermal energy management. Renew ...drilling, grid storage, and engine sensors that could benefit from high temperature Li-ion batteries, but unfortunately conventional cells cannot be...sensors that could benefit from high temperature Li-ion batteries, but unfortunately conventional cells cannot be utilized mainly due to electrolyte

  14. Actinide oxide photodiode and nuclear battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykora, Milan; Usov, Igor

    2017-12-05

    Photodiodes and nuclear batteries may utilize actinide oxides, such a uranium oxide. An actinide oxide photodiode may include a first actinide oxide layer and a second actinide oxide layer deposited on the first actinide oxide layer. The first actinide oxide layer may be n-doped or p-doped. The second actinide oxide layer may be p-doped when the first actinide oxide layer is n-doped, and the second actinide oxide layer may be n-doped when the first actinide oxide layer is p-doped. The first actinide oxide layer and the second actinide oxide layer may form a p/n junction therebetween. Photodiodes including actinide oxides are better light absorbers, can be used in thinner films, and are more thermally stable than silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide.

  15. Prognostics in Battery Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Batteries represent complex systems whose internal state vari- ables are either inaccessible to sensors or hard to measure un- der operational conditions. This work...

  16. Polymer-Based Organic Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Simon; Wild, Andreas; Friebe, Christian; Häupler, Bernhard; Janoschka, Tobias; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2016-08-24

    The storage of electric energy is of ever growing importance for our modern, technology-based society, and novel battery systems are in the focus of research. The substitution of conventional metals as redox-active material by organic materials offers a promising alternative for the next generation of rechargeable batteries since these organic batteries are excelling in charging speed and cycling stability. This review provides a comprehensive overview of these systems and discusses the numerous classes of organic, polymer-based active materials as well as auxiliary components of the battery, like additives or electrolytes. Moreover, a definition of important cell characteristics and an introduction to selected characterization techniques is provided, completed by the discussion of potential socio-economic impacts.

  17. Rechargeable Aluminum-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Liu, Hansan [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reports on the development of rechargeable aluminum-ion batteries. A possible concept of rechargeable aluminum/aluminum-ion battery based on low-cost, earth-abundant Al anode, ionic liquid EMImCl:AlCl3 (1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloroaluminate) electrolytes and MnO2 cathode has been proposed. Al anode has been reported to show good reversibility in acid melts. However, due to the problems in demonstrating the reversibility in cathodes, alternate battery cathodes and battery concepts have also been presented. New ionic liquid electrolytes for reversible Al dissolution and deposition are needed in the future for replacing corrosive EMImCl:AlCl3 electrolytes.

  18. Flexible Hybrid Battery/Pseudocapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Paley, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Batteries keep devices working by utilizing high energy density, however, they can run down and take tens of minutes to hours to recharge. For rapid power delivery and recharging, high-power density devices, i.e., supercapacitors, are used. The electrochemical processes which occur in batteries and supercapacitors give rise to different charge-storage properties. In lithium ion (Li+) batteries, the insertion of Li+, which enables redox reactions in bulk electrode materials, is diffusion controlled and can be slow. Supercapacitor devices, also known as electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) store charge by adsorption of electrolyte ions onto the surface of electrode materials. No redox reactions are necessary, so the response to changes in potential without diffusion limitations is rapid and leads to high power. However, the charge in EDLCs is confined to the surface, so the energy density is lower than that of batteries.

  19. Composite materials for battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Yang, Junbing; Abouimrane, Ali; Ren, Jianguo

    2017-03-14

    A process for producing nanocomposite materials for use in batteries includes electroactive materials are incorporated within a nanosheet host material. The process may include treatment at high temperatures and doping to obtain desirable properties.

  20. Electroactive materials for rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiming; Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2015-04-21

    An as-prepared cathode for a secondary battery, the cathode including an alkaline source material including an alkali metal oxide, an alkali metal sulfide, an alkali metal salt, or a combination of any two or more thereof.

  1. Multiphysics Modelling of Sodium Sulfur Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jerry Hunter

    Due to global climate change and the desire to decrease greenhouse gas emissions, large scale energy storage has become a critical issue. Renewable energy sources such as wind and solar will not be a viable energy source unless the storage problem is solved. One of the practical and cost effective solutions for this problem is sodium sulfur batteries. These batteries are comprised of liquid electrode materials suspended in porous media and operate at relatively high temperatures (>300°C). The sodium anode and the sulfur/sodium-polysulfide cathode are separated by a solid electrolyte made of beta-alumina or NASICON material. Due to the use of porous materials in the electrodes, capillary pressure and the combination of capillary action and gravity become important. Capillary pressure has a strong dependence on the wetting phase (liquid electrode material) saturation; therefore sharp concentration gradients can occur between the inert gas and the electrode liquid, especially within the cathode. These concentration gradients can have direct impacts on the electrodynamics of the battery as they may produce areas of high electrical potential variation, which can decrease efficiency and even cause failures. Then, thermal management also becomes vital since the electrochemistry and material properties are sensitive to temperature gradients. To investigate these phenomena in detail and to attempt to improve upon battery design a multi-dimensional, multi-phase code has been developed and validated in this study. Then a porous media flow model is implemented. Transport equations for charge, mass and heat are solved in a time marching fashion using finite volume method. Material properties are calculated and updated as a function of time. The porous media model is coupled with the continuity equation and a separate diffusion equation for the liquid sodium in the melt. The total mass transport model is coupled with charge transport via Faraday's law. Results show that

  2. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Anders Bro; Andersen, Peter Bach; Sørensen, Thomas Meier; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for contr...

  3. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  4. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  5. Metal-air battery assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, R.K.; Van Voorhees, S.L.; Ferrel, T.

    1988-05-01

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the present technical status of the zinc-air, aluminum/air and iron/air batteries and assess their potential for use in an electric vehicle. In addition, this report will outline proposed research and development priorities for the successful development of metal-air batteries for electric vehicle application. 39 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  7. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  8. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. [Redesign of the Spacesuit Long Life Battery and the Personal Life Support System Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This fall I was working on two different projects that culminated into a redesign of the spacesuit LLB (long life battery). I also did some work on the PLSS (personal life support system) battery with EC. My first project was redlining the work instruction for completing DPAs (destructive physical analysis) on battery cells in the department. The purpose of this document is to create a standard process and ensure that the data in the same way no matter who carries out the analysis. I observed three DPAs, conducted one with help, and conducted two on my own all while taking notes on the procedure. These notes were used to write the final work instruction that will become is the department standard. My second project continued the work of the summer co-op before me. I was testing aluminum heat sinks for their ability to provide good thermal conduction and structural support during a thermal runaway event. The heat sinks were designed by the summer intern but there was not much time for testing before he left. We ran tests with a heater on the bottom of a trigger cell to try to drive thermal runaway and ensure that it will not propagate to adjacent cells. We also ran heat-to-vent tests in an oven to see if the assembly provided structural support and prevented sidewall rupture during thermal runaway. These tests were carried out at ESTA (energy systems test area) and are providing very promising results that safe, high performing (greater than 180 Wh/kg) designs are possible. My main project was a redesign of the LLB battery. Another summer intern did some testing and concluded that there was no simple fix to mitigate thermal runaway propagation hazards in the current design. The only option was a clean sheet redesign of the battery. I was given a volume and ideal energy density and the rest of the design was up to me. First, I created new heat sink banks in Creo using the information gathered in the metal heat sink tests from the summer intern. After this, I made

  10. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  11. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  12. Metallography of Battery Resistance Spot Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. E.; Johannes, L. B.; Gonzalez, D.; Yayathi, S.; Figuered, J. M.; Darcy, E. C.; Bilc, Z. M.

    2015-01-01

    Li-ion cells provide an energy dense solution for systems that require rechargeable electrical power. However, these cells can undergo thermal runaway, the point at which the cell becomes thermally unstable and results in hot gas, flame, electrolyte leakage, and in some cases explosion. The heat and fire associated with this type of event is generally violent and can subsequently cause damage to the surrounding system or present a dangerous risk to the personnel nearby. The space flight environment is especially sensitive to risks particularly when it involves potential for fire within the habitable volume of the International Space Station (ISS). In larger battery packs such as Robonaut 2 (R2), numerous Li-ion cells are placed in parallel-series configurations to obtain the required stack voltage and desired run-time or to meet specific power requirements. This raises a second and less obvious concern for batteries that undergo certification for space flight use: the joining quality at the resistance spot weld of battery cells to component wires/leads and battery tabs, bus bars or other electronic components and assemblies. Resistance spot welds undergo materials evaluation, visual inspection, conductivity (resistivity) testing, destructive peel testing, and metallurgical examination in accordance with applicable NASA Process Specifications. Welded components are cross-sectioned to ensure they are free of cracks or voids open to any exterior surface. Pore and voids contained within the weld zone but not open to an exterior surface, and are not determined to have sharp notch like characteristics, shall be acceptable. Depending on requirements, some battery cells are constructed of aluminum canisters while others are constructed of steel. Process specific weld schedules must be developed and certified for each possible joining combination. The aluminum canisters' positive terminals were particularly difficult to weld due to a bi-metal strip that comes ultrasonically

  13. Quantifying electric vehicle battery degradation from driving vs. vehicle-to-grid services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dai; Coignard, Jonathan; Zeng, Teng; Zhang, Cong; Saxena, Samveg

    2016-11-01

    The risk of accelerated electric vehicle battery degradation is commonly cited as a concern inhibiting the implementation of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. However, little quantitative evidence exists in prior literature to refute or substantiate these concerns for different grid services that vehicles may offer. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to quantify electric vehicle (EV) battery degradation from driving only vs. driving and several vehicle-grid services, based on a semi-empirical lithium-ion battery capacity fade model. A detailed EV battery pack thermal model and EV powertrain model are utilized to capture the time-varying battery temperature and working parameters including current, internal resistance and state-of-charge (SOC), while an EV is driving and offering various grid services. We use the proposed method to simulate the battery degradation impacts from multiple vehicle-grid services including peak load shaving, frequency regulation and net load shaping. The degradation impact of these grid services is compared against baseline cases for driving and uncontrolled charging only, for several different cases of vehicle itineraries, driving distances, and climate conditions. Over the lifetime of a vehicle, our results show that battery wear is indeed increased when vehicles offer V2G grid services. However, the increased wear from V2G is inconsequential compared with naturally occurring battery wear (i.e. from driving and calendar ageing) when V2G services are offered only on days of the greatest grid need (20 days/year in our study). In the case of frequency regulation and peak load shaving V2G grid services offered 2 hours each day, battery wear remains minimal even if this grid service is offered every day over the vehicle lifetime. Our results suggest that an attractive tradeoff exists where vehicles can offer grid services on the highest value days for the grid with minimal impact on vehicle battery life.

  14. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  15. Thigh burns from exploding e-cigarette lithium ion batteries: First case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, K J; Rose, A M; Khan, M A A; Quaba, O; Lowrie, A G

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarette (EC) use has risen meteorically over the last decade. The majority of these devices are powered by re-chargeable lithium ion batteries, which can represent a fire hazard if damaged, over-heated, over-charged or stored inappropriately. There are currently no reports in the medical literature of lithium ion battery burns related to EC use and no guidance on the appropriate management of lithium ion battery associated injuries. We report two individual cases of burn resulting from explosion of EC re-chargeable lithium ion batteries. Both patients required in-patient surgical management. We provide evidence that lithium ion battery explosions can be associated with mixed thermal and alkali chemical burns, resulting from the significant discharge of thermal energy and the dispersal of corrosive lithium ion compounds. We would recommend, as with other elemental metal exposures, caution in exposing lithium ion battery burns to water irrigation. Early and thorough cleaning and debridement of such burns, to remove residual lithium contamination, may limit the risk of burn wound extension and potentially improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannala, S., E-mail: spannala@sabic.com; Turner, J. A.; Allu, S.; Elwasif, W. R.; Kalnaus, S.; Simunovic, S.; Kumar, A.; Billings, J. J. [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Wang, H.; Nanda, J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. Gaining an understanding of the role of these processes as well as development of predictive capabilities for design of better performing batteries requires synergy between theory, modeling, and simulation, and fundamental experimental work to support the models. This paper presents the overview of the work performed by the authors aligned with both experimental and computational efforts. In this paper, we describe a new, open source computational environment for battery simulations with an initial focus on lithium-ion systems but designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This system has been used to create a three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. This paper also provides an overview of the experimental techniques to obtain crucial validation data to benchmark the simulations at various scales for performance as well as abuse. We detail some initial validation using characterization experiments such as infrared and neutron imaging and micro-Raman mapping. In addition, we identify opportunities for future integration of theory, modeling, and experiments.

  17. Technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery as a substitute dry battery for motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniyati, Indah; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Zakaria, Roni; Kadir, Evizal Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Dry battery on a motorcycle has a rapid rate of voltage drop, life time is not too long, and a long charging time. These are problems for users of dry battery for motorcycle. When the rate in the voltage decreases, the energy storage in the battery is reduced, then at the age of one to two years of battery will be dead and cannot be used, it makes the user should replace the battery. New technology development of a motorcycle battery is lithium ion battery. Lithium ion battery has a specification that has been tested and possible to replace dry battery. Characteristics of lithium ion battery can answer the question on the dry battery service life, the rate of decrease in voltage and charging time. This paper discusses about the technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery for motorcycle battery. Our proposed methodology of technical feasibility by using a goldsmith commercialization model of the technical feasibility and reconfirm the technical standard using the national standard of motorcycle battery. The battery has been through all the stages of the technical feasibility of the goldsmith model. Based on the results of the study, lithium ion batteries have the minimum technical requirements to be commercialized and has been confirmed in accordance with the standard motorcycle battery. This paper results that the lithium ion battery is visible to commercialized by the technical aspect.

  18. Evaluation of Batteries for Safe Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Williard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries are shipped worldwide with many limitations implemented to ensure safety and to prevent loss of cargo. Many of the transportation guidelines focus on new batteries; however, the shipment requirements for used or degraded batteries are less clear. Current international regulations regarding the air transport of lithium-ion batteries are critically reviewed. The pre-shipping tests are outlined and evaluated to assess their ability to fully mitigate risks during battery transport. In particular, the guidelines for shipping second-use batteries are considered. Because the electrochemical state of previously used batteries is inherently different from that of new batteries, additional considerations must be made to evaluate these types of cells. Additional tests are suggested that evaluate the risks of second-use batteries, which may or may not contain incipient faults.

  19. Sustainability Impact of Nanomaterial Enhanced Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganter, Matthew

    Energy storage devices are becoming an integral part of sustainable energy technology adoption, particularly, in alternative transportation (electric vehicles) and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind which are intermittent). The most prevalent technology exhibiting near-term impact are lithium ion batteries, especially in portable consumer electronics and initial electric vehicle models like the Chevy Volt and Nissan Leaf. However, new technologies need to consider the full life-cycle impacts from material production and use phase performance to the end-of-life management (EOL). This dissertation investigates the impacts of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries throughout the life cycle and develops strategies to improve each step in the process. The embodied energy of laser vaporization synthesis and purification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was calculated to determine the environmental impact of the novel nanomaterial at beginning of life. CNTs were integrated into lithium ion battery electrodes as conductive additives, current collectors, and active material supports to increase power, energy, and thermal stability in the use phase. A method was developed to uniformly distribute CNT conductive additives in composites. Cathode composites with CNT additives had significant rate improvements (3x the capacity at a 10C rate) and higher thermal stability (40% reduction in exothermic energy released upon overcharge). Similar trends were also measured with CNTs in anode composites. Advanced free-standing anodes incorporating CNTs with high capacity silicon and germanium were measured to have high capacities where surface area reduction improved coulombic efficiencies and thermal stability. A thermal stability plot was developed that compares the safety of traditional composites with free-standing electrodes, relating the results to thermal conductivity and surface area effects. The EOL management of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries was studied and a novel

  20. Charged Polymer-Coated Separators by Atmospheric Plasma-Induced Grafting for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mina; Kim, Dong-Won; Kim, Yeong-Cheol

    2016-10-05

    A simple and fast method of atmospheric plasma-induced grafting was applied over a polyethylene membrane to enhance its performance as a separator for lithium-ion batteries. The process of grafting has formed a thin, durable, and uniform layer on the surface of the porous membrane. The charges of grafted polymers affected the performance of batteries in many ways besides the change of hydrophilicity. Negative charges in polymers improve the capacity retention of batteries and the uniformity of the SEI layer. On the other hand, the electrostatic attraction between different charges contributed to small increases of thermal stability and mechanical strength of separators. Polyampholyte was grafted by using the mixtures of monomers, and the composition of the grafted layer was optimized. The formation of stable uniform SEI layers and the marked improvement in capacity retention were observed in the full cell tests of the lithium battery with the polyampholyte-grafted separators when the polyampholyte has a negative net charge.

  1. In Situ Monitoring of Temperature inside Lithium-Ion Batteries by Flexible Micro Temperature Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA, notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monitoring of temperature inside a lithium-ion secondary battery must be developed. In this work, flexible micro temperature sensors were integrated into a lithium-ion secondary battery using the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS process for monitoring temperature in situ.

  2. The basic chemistry of gas recombination in lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Oxygen-recombination chemistry has been wedded to traditional lead-acid battery technology to produce so-called sealed, or valve-regulated, lead-acid products. Early attempts to incorporate recombination into lead-acid batteries were unsuccessful because of excessive cost, size, and/or complexity, and none were effectively commercialized. Over the past 20 years, recombination systems have been developed and are under going an extensive program of definition and refinement at many battery companies. This paper presents the basic chemistry of oxygen recombination in lead-acid cells and briefly compares it with the more highly developed nickel-cadmium system, which also operates on the oxygen cycle. Aspects of gas and thermal management relevant to valve-regulated lead-acid batteries are discussed in some detail.

  3. Accelerating Development of EV Batteries Through Computer-Aided Engineering (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Program has launched the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) project to work with national labs, industry and software venders to develop sophisticated software. As coordinator, NREL has teamed with a number of companies to help improve and accelerate battery design and production. This presentation provides an overview of CAEBAT, including its predictive computer simulation of Li-ion batteries known as the Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) model framework. MSMD's modular, flexible architecture connects the physics of battery charge/discharge processes, thermal control, safety and reliability in a computationally efficient manner. This allows independent development of submodels at the cell and pack levels.

  4. Project Milestone. Analysis of Range Extension Techniques for Battery Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, Ahmad [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This report documents completion of the July 2013 milestone as part of NREL’s Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy. The objective was to perform analysis on range extension techniques for battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This work represents a significant advancement over previous thru-life BEV analyses using NREL’s Battery Ownership Model, FastSim,* and DRIVE.* Herein, the ability of different charging infrastructure to increase achievable travel of BEVs in response to real-world, year-long travel histories is assessed. Effects of battery and cabin thermal response to local climate, battery degradation, and vehicle auxiliary loads are captured. The results reveal the conditions under which different public infrastructure options are most effective, and encourage continued study of fast charging and electric roadway scenarios.

  5. Air Force Phillips Laboratory Battery Program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Shaun

    1992-02-01

    Battery development and testing efforts at Phillips Laboratory fall into three main categories: nickel hydrogen, sodium sulfur, and solid state batteries. Nickel hydrogen work is broken down into a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Life Test Program, a LEO Pulse Test Program, and a Hydrogen Embrittlement Investigation. Sodium sulfur work is broken down into a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) Battery Flight Test and a Hot Launch Evaluation. Solid state polymer battery work consists of a GEO Battery Development Program, a Pulse Power Battery Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR), and an in-house evaluation of current generation laboratory cells. An overview of the program is presented.

  6. Controllers for Battery Chargers and Battery Chargers Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, John (Inventor); Kersten, Rene (Inventor); Pepper, Michael (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A controller for a battery charger that includes a power converter has parametric sensors for providing a sensed Vin signal, a sensed Vout signal and a sensed Iout signal. A battery current regulator (BCR) is coupled to receive the sensed Iout signal and an Iout reference, and outputs a first duty cycle control signal. An input voltage regulator (IVR) receives the sensed Vin signal and a Vin reference. The IVR provides a second duty cycle control signal. A processor receives the sensed Iout signal and utilizes a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm, and provides the Vin reference to the IVR. A selection block forwards one of the first and second duty cycle control signals as a duty cycle control signal to the power converter. Dynamic switching between the first and second duty cycle control signals maximizes the power delivered to the battery.

  7. Lead batteries. Citations from the Engineering Index data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-07-01

    Worldwide research on lead battery components, charging, corrosion, and testing is cited. The majority of studies concern battery use in electric vehicles. Studies on lead recovery from battery scrap and air pollution at battery factories are also included.

  8. A terracotta bio-battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Folusho F; Weigele, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Terracotta pots were converted into simple, single chamber, air-cathode bio-batteries. This bio-battery design used a graphite-felt anode and a conductive graphite coating without added catalyst on the exterior as a cathode. Bacteria enriched from river sediment served as the anode catalyst. These batteries gave an average OCV of 0.56 V ± 0.02, a Coulombic efficiency of 21 ± 5%, and a peak power of 1.06 mW ± 0.01(33.13 mW/m(2)). Stable current was also produced when the batteries were operated with hay extract in salt solution. The bacterial community on the anode of the batteries was tested for air tolerance and desiccation resistance over a period ranging from 2 days to 2 weeks. The results showed that the anode community could survive complete drying of the electrolyte for several days. These data support the further development of this technology as a potential power source for LED-based lighting in off-grid, rural communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of Vanadium Flow Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, Henrik W.; Krog Ekman, Claus; Gehrke, Oliver

    This report summarizes the work done at Risø-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project “Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries” (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery...... has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risø DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration...... of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses...

  10. Portable Battery Charger Berbasis Sel Surya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhi Anto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A type of solar battery charger is introduced in this paper. This equipment functions as a medium size rechargeable battery that is needed to move culinary merchants and coastal fishermen living in area which is not supplied by electrical networks. The equipment consists of solar module mounted onto portable mechanical construction, a 12-V 7.5-Ah lead acid battery and charge controller. Solar module charges the battery through charge controller and then the battery can be discharged to power on electric lamps for lightening culinary wagon or fisherman’s boat at night. Charge controller charges the battery with float charging which is implemented by maintaining 13.5 Volt between battery terminals and limiting the charging current to 1.5 Amperes. Charge controller circuit is based on adjustable linear voltage regulator LM338. The battery is of sealed lead acid type. This type of battery is maintenance free and more hygiene than other types of lead acid battery. The field experiment of charging the baterry of 50% residual capacity from 8 am to 4 pm under sunny weather shows that the solar module has charged the battery to its full capacity under battery safe charging conditions.Keywords: portable solar battery charger, float charging, LM338

  11. Nonflammable perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes for lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dominica H C; Thelen, Jacob L; Fu, Yanbao; Devaux, Didier; Pandya, Ashish A; Battaglia, Vincent S; Balsara, Nitash P; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2014-03-04

    The flammability of conventional alkyl carbonate electrolytes hinders the integration of large-scale lithium-ion batteries in transportation and grid storage applications. In this study, we have prepared a unique nonflammable electrolyte composed of low molecular weight perfluoropolyethers and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt. These electrolytes exhibit thermal stability beyond 200 °C and a remarkably high transference number of at least 0.91 (more than double that of conventional electrolytes). Li/LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cells made with this electrolyte show good performance in galvanostatic cycling, confirming their potential as rechargeable lithium batteries with enhanced safety and longevity.

  12. Exploring zinc coordination in novel zinc battery electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Mega; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R

    2014-06-14

    The coordination of zinc ions by tetraglyme has been investigated here to support the development of novel electrolytes for rechargeable zinc batteries. Zn(2+) reduction is electrochemically reversible from tetraglyme. The spectroscopic data, molar conductivity and thermal behavior as a function of zinc composition, between mole ratios [80 : 20] and [50 : 50] [tetraglyme : zinc chloride], all suggest that strong interactions take place between chloro-zinc complexes and tetraglyme. Varying the concentration of zinc chloride produces a range of zinc-chloro species (ZnClx)(2-x) in solution, which hinder full interaction between the zinc ion and tetraglyme. Both the [70 : 30] and [50 : 50] mixtures are promising electrolyte candidates for reversible zinc batteries, such as the zinc-air device.

  13. Horizontal high speed stacking for batteries with prismatic cans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, Andrew L.; Lin, Yhu-Tin; Turner, III, Raymond D.

    2016-06-14

    A system and method for stacking battery cells or related assembled components. Generally planar, rectangular (prismatic-shaped) battery cells are moved from an as-received generally vertical stacking orientation to a generally horizontal stacking orientation without the need for robotic pick-and-place equipment. The system includes numerous conveyor belts that work in cooperation with one another to deliver, rotate and stack the cells or their affiliated assemblies. The belts are outfitted with components to facilitate the cell transport and rotation. The coordinated movement between the belts and the components promote the orderly transport and rotation of the cells from a substantially vertical stacking orientation into a substantially horizontal stacking orientation. The approach of the present invention helps keep the stacked assemblies stable so that subsequent assembly steps--such as compressing the cells or attaching electrical leads or thermal management components--may proceed with a reduced chance of error.

  14. Nonflammable perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dominica H. C.; Thelen, Jacob L.; Fu, Yanbao; Devaux, Didier; Pandya, Ashish A.; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Balsara, Nitash P.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    The flammability of conventional alkyl carbonate electrolytes hinders the integration of large-scale lithium-ion batteries in transportation and grid storage applications. In this study, we have prepared a unique nonflammable electrolyte composed of low molecular weight perfluoropolyethers and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt. These electrolytes exhibit thermal stability beyond 200 °C and a remarkably high transference number of at least 0.91 (more than double that of conventional electrolytes). Li/LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cells made with this electrolyte show good performance in galvanostatic cycling, confirming their potential as rechargeable lithium batteries with enhanced safety and longevity. PMID:24516123

  15. New generation MOSFET design for battery powered portable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb Roy, Sukhendu; Sodhi, Ritu; Sapp, Steven

    2012-10-01

    This article reviews some of challenges that the Power MOSFET designers need to address to meet the ever growing market demand for reducing power consumption in battery-powered portable applications. The critical power MOSFET design parameters such as threshold voltage (Vth), drain-source breakdown voltage (BVdss), on-resistance (Rdson), package footprint, gate-drive voltage, and Figure of Merit (FOM) have been discussed. It has been highlighted that the scaling features and ultra-low on-resistance of the Trench Power MOSFETs can be advantageously utilized for powerloss management. The MOSFET design requirements in battery protection circuits and load switches have been presented. It has been emphasized that the Power MOSFET designers need to trade-off between on-resistance and maximum current capability in smaller footprint packages. The merits of Wafer Level Chip Scale Package (WLCSP) in achieving minimum foot print, ultra-low on-resistance, and improved thermal characteristics have been discussed.

  16. Representative-Sandwich Model for Mechanical-Crush and Short-Circuit Simulation of Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-07-28

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently the state-of-the-art power sources for a variety of applications, from consumer electronic devices to electric-drive vehicles (EDVs). Being an energized component, failure of the battery is an essential concern, which can result in rupture, smoke, fire, or venting. The failure of Lithium-ion batteries can be due to a number of external abusive conditions (impact/crush, overcharge, thermal ramp, etc.) or internal conditions (internal short circuits, excessive heating due to resistance build-up, etc.), of which the mechanical-abuse-induced short circuit is a very practical problem. In order to better understand the behavior of Lithium-ion batteries under mechanical abuse, a coupled modeling methodology encompassing the mechanical, thermal and electrical response has been developed for predicting short circuit under external crush.

  17. Internal cooling of a lithium-ion battery using electrolyte as coolant through microchannels embedded inside the electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Shahabeddin K.; He, Ya-Ling; Zhang, Yuwen

    2015-10-01

    Two and three dimensional transient thermal analysis of a prismatic Li-ion cell has been carried out to compare internal and external cooling methods for thermal management of Lithium Ion (Li-ion) battery packs. Water and liquid electrolyte have been utilized as coolants for external and internal cooling, respectively. The effects of the methods on decreasing the temperature inside the battery and also temperature uniformity were investigated. The results showed that at the same pumping power, using internal cooling not only decreases the bulk temperature inside the battery more than external cooling, but also decreases the standard deviation of the temperature field inside the battery significantly. Finally, using internal cooling decreases the intersection angle between the velocity vector and the temperature gradient which according to field synergy principle (FSP) causes to increase the convection heat transfer.

  18. A low-cost lead-acid battery with high specific-energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    the cost of forming a corrosion-resistant coating on the grids by a sputtering process is likely to be high. Similar studies to develop high specific energy lead- acid batteries have also been reported.7–12 More re- cently, Shivashankar et al13,14 have employed a cost- effective, thermally activated chemical reaction process.

  19. Chemical Fabrication and Electrochemical Characterization of Graphene Nanosheets Using a Lithium Battery Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Aaron J.; Huang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has opened up new opportunities for scientific and technological innovations because of its astonishing electrical, mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties. For instance, graphene-based nanocomposites have found extensive applications in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) as scientists and engineers seek to achieve superior electrochemical…

  20. Ionic liquids and derived materials for lithium and sodium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiwei; Zhang, Zhaoqiang; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Xing, Huabin; Dai, Sheng

    2018-02-02

    The ever-growing demand for advanced energy storage devices in portable electronics, electric vehicles and large scale power grids has triggered intensive research efforts over the past decade on lithium and sodium batteries. The key to improve their electrochemical performance and enhance the service safety lies in the development of advanced electrode, electrolyte, and auxiliary materials. Ionic liquids (ILs) are liquids consisting entirely of ions near room temperature, and are characterized by many unique properties such as ultralow volatility, high ionic conductivity, good thermal stability, low flammability, a wide electrochemical window, and tunable polarity and basicity/acidity. These properties create the possibilities of designing batteries with excellent safety, high energy/power density and long-term stability, and also provide better ways to synthesize known materials. IL-derived materials, such as poly(ionic liquids), ionogels and IL-tethered nanoparticles, retain most of the characteristics of ILs while being endowed with other favourable features, and thus they have received a great deal of attention as well. This review provides a comprehensive review of the various applications of ILs and derived materials in lithium and sodium batteries including Li/Na-ion, dual-ion, Li/Na-S and Li/Na-air (O2) batteries, with a particular emphasis on recent advances in the literature. Their unique characteristics enable them to serve as advanced resources, medium, or ingredient for almost all the components of batteries, including electrodes, liquid electrolytes, solid electrolytes, artificial solid-electrolyte interphases, and current collectors. Some thoughts on the emerging challenges and opportunities are also presented in this review for further development.

  1. Alternator control for battery charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  2. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  3. Li-ion Battery Aging Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set has been collected from a custom built battery prognostics testbed at the NASA Ames Prognostics Center of Excellence (PCoE). Li-ion batteries were run...

  4. Validation of Battery Safety for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Presentation covers: (1) Safety Certification Process at NASA (2) Safety Testing for Lithium-ion Batteries (3) Limitations Observed with Li-ion Batteries in High Voltage and High Capacity Configurations.

  5. Practical Methods in Li-ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela

    to parameterize battery models based solely on manufacturer’s datasheets • Manuscript II presents a parameterization method for battery models based on the notion of direct current resistance • Manuscript III proposes a battery electric vehicle design that combines fixed and swappable packs • Manuscript IV......This thesis presents, as a collection of papers, practical methods in Li-ion batteries for simplified modeling (Manuscript I and II), battery electric vehicle design (III), battery management system testing (IV and V) and balancing system control (VI and VII). • Manuscript I tackles methodologies...... develops a battery system model for battery management system testing on a hardware-in-the-loop simulator • Manuscript V extends the previous work, introducing theoretical principles and presenting a practical method to develop ad hoc software and strategies for testing • Manuscript VI presents...

  6. Materials science: Pulley protection in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Matthew T.

    2017-09-01

    High-energy battery electrodes can break apart during operation. Conventional rope-and-pulley systems have inspired the development of a polymer that holds electrodes together at the molecular scale, enabling durable batteries to be made.

  7. Market for nickel-cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putois, F.

    Besides the lead/acid battery market, which has seen a tremendous development linked with the car industry, the alkaline rechargeable battery market has also been expanded for more than twenty years, especially in the field of portable applications with nickel-cadmium batteries. Today, nickel-cadmium batteries have to face newcomers on the market, such as nickel-metal hydride, which is another alkaline couple, and rechargeable lithium batteries; these new battery systems have better performances in some areas. This work illustrates the status of the market for nickel-cadmium batteries and their applications. Also, for two major applications—the cordless tool and the electric vehicles—the competitive situation of nickel-cadmium batteries; facing new systems such as nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion cells are discussed.

  8. 78 FR 6845 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  9. 78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  10. Battery Peak Power Shaving Strategy to Prolong Battery Life for Electric Buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.H.; Rosea, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a battery peak power shaving strategy for battery electric buses. The developed strategy restricts the battery charge/discharge power when the propulsion power demand is high to avoid high deterioration of the battery capacity during operation. Without reducing the propulsion

  11. 77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  12. The ingestible thermal monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Hogrefe, Arthur F.; Lesho, Jeffery C.

    1988-03-01

    A thermal monitoring system for measuring body core temperatures was developed that contains an ingestible pill which is both commandable and rechargeable, and which uses magnetic induction for command and telemetry as well as for recharging. The pill electronics consist of a battery power source, a crystal-controlled oscillator that drives a small air coil, and a command detection circuit. The resulting 262-kHz magnetilc field can be easily detected from a distance of 1 m. The pill oscillator functions at voltages less than 1 V, supplied by a single Ni-Cd battery, which must be recharged after 72 h of continuous transmission. The pill can be recalibrated periodically to compensate for long-term drift.

  13. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of the...

  14. Survey of rechargeable battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    We have reviewed rechargeable battery technology options for a specialized application in unmanned high altitude aircraft. Consideration was given to all rechargeable battery technologies that are available commercially or might be available in the foreseeable future. The LLNL application was found to impose very demanding performance requirements which cannot be met by existing commercially available battery technologies. The most demanding requirement is for high energy density. The technology that comes closest to providing the LLNL requirements is silver-zinc, although the technology exhibits significant shortfalls in energy density, charge rate capability and cyclability. There is no battery technology available ``off-the-shelf` today that can satisfy the LLNL performance requirements. All rechargeable battery technologies with the possibility of approaching/meeting the energy density requirements were reviewed. Vendor interviews were carried out for all relevant technologies. A large number of rechargeable battery systems have been developed over the years, though a much smaller number have achieved commercial success and general availability. The theoretical energy densities for these systems are summarized. It should be noted that a generally useful ``rule-of-thumb`` is that the ratio of packaged to theoretical energy density has proven to be less than 30%, and generally less than 25%. Data developed for this project confirm the usefulness of the general rule. However, data shown for the silver-zinc (AgZn) system show a greater conversion of theoretical to practical energy density than would be expected due to the very large cell sizes considered and the unusually high density of the active materials.

  15. Thermal comfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available wider range of temperature limits, saving energy while still satisfying the majority of building occupants. It is also noted that thermal comfort varies significantly between individuals and it is generally not possible to provide a thermal environment...

  16. Effects of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2015-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC level 2 EVSE, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kW charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals. Battery tests include constant-current discharge capacity, electric vehicle pulse power characterization test, and low peak power tests. The on-road testing was carried out through 70,000 miles, at which point the final battery tests were performed. The data collected over 70,000 miles of driving, charging, and rest are analyzed, including the resulting thermal conditions and power and cycle demands placed upon the battery. Battery performance metrics including capacity, internal resistance, and power capability obtained from laboratory testing throughout the test program are analyzed. Results are compared within and between the two groups of vehicles. Specifically, the impacts on battery performance, as measured by laboratory testing, are explored as they relate to battery usage and variations in conditions encountered, with a primary focus on effects due to the differences between AC level 2 and DC fast charging. The contrast between battery performance degradation and the effect on vehicle performance is also explored.

  17. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi; Arul Manuel Stephan

    2015-01-01

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polyme...

  18. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  19. Ion-batterier - "The Next Generation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Martin; Becker, Jacob; Shen, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på.......Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på....

  20. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...

  1. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  2. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  3. Heat Transfer in the LCCM Thermal Reserve Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    micrometer ) 0.510 33 Used the eight #69 Scotch tape end strips on the mica disks at the two mandrel ends to tape the Fiberfrax wrap in place...uncompressed height at 1.212 in. with the vernier calipers. 27.359 Shaved a blank Min-k disk 0.75 in. diameter to 0.055 in.–0.062 in. and 0.118 g mass. Cut...970 F ~2.640 in. – 2.648 in. x ~1.128 in. – 1.158 in. x ~0.0201 in. – 0.0203 in. (thickness measured by hand held micrometer ) 0.484 Cut an

  4. Zirconium Powder Characterization and Process Improvement for Thermal Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    reaction products which by direct ignition or after ammonia precipitation or hydrolytic decomposition result in zirconia. Another technique uses caustic...rate was determined by percent incident light transmission through the sample as a function of time using colorimeter . Initially, leaching experiments...briefed in the hazards of working with zirconium powder and the preventive measures to be taken. Additionally, five detection and alarm devices should

  5. A Battery Power Bank with Series-Connected Buck–Boost-Type Battery Power Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsi Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The operation of a battery power bank with series-connected buck–boost-type battery power modules (BPMs was investigated in this study. Each BPM consisted of a battery pack with an associated buck–boost converter for individually controlling battery currents. With a proposed discharging scenario, load voltage regulation with charge equalization among batteries was performed by controlling the battery currents in accordance with their state-of-charges (SOCs estimated by real-time battery-loaded voltages detected under the same operating condition. In addition, the fault tolerance was executed to isolate exhausted or faulty batteries from the battery power bank without interrupting the system operation. Experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the discharging scenario for a laboratory battery power bank with four series buck–boost BPMs.

  6. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  7. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Verbitskiy, E.; Ayeb, A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2003-01-01

    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical–chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation.

  8. 33 CFR 183.420 - Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batteries. 183.420 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Electrical Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.420 Batteries. (a) Each installed battery must not move more than one inch in any direction when a pulling force of...

  9. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shimul Kumar Dam

    Impedance spectroscopy; grid connection; battery converter; state of charge; health monitoring. 1. Introduction. Batteries play an important role as energy storage devices for renewable energy sources, electric vehicle and many other applications. A battery bank is interfaced to load through a power converter, which controls ...

  10. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  11. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spangler, Scott Wilmer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  12. A rechargeable carbon-oxygen battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable battery and a method to operate a rechargeable battery having high efficiency and high energy density for storing energy. The battery stores electrical energy in the bonds of carbon and oxygen atoms by converting carbon dioxide into solid carbon and oxygen....

  13. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  14. Circuit prevents overcharging of secondary cell batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, T. J.; Potter, N. H.; Sizemore, K. O.

    1966-01-01

    Circuit prevents battery cell overcharging by detecting and reducing the charging voltage to the open-circuit voltage of the battery when this current falls to a predetermined value. The voltage control depends on the fact that the charging current falls significantly when the battery nears its fully charged state.

  15. Graphene Thermal Properties: Applications in Thermal Management and Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie D. Renteria

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the thermal properties of graphene, few-layer graphene and graphene nanoribbons, and discuss practical applications of graphene in thermal management and energy storage. The first part of the review describes the state-of-the-art in the graphene thermal field focusing on recently reported experimental and theoretical data for heat conduction in graphene and graphene nanoribbons. The effects of the sample size, shape, quality, strain distribution, isotope composition, and point-defect concentration are included in the summary. The second part of the review outlines thermal properties of graphene-enhanced phase change materials used in energy storage. It is shown that the use of liquid-phase-exfoliated graphene as filler material in phase change materials is promising for thermal management of high-power-density battery parks. The reported experimental and modeling results indicate that graphene has the potential to outperform metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and other carbon allotropes as filler in thermal management materials.

  16. Modeling of Li-Ion Battery Packs as Basis for Design of Battery Thermal Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu

    . The shortcomings of safety were reflected in the recent accidents, where fires and explosions were reported in cell phones, electric cars, laptops, e-hovers and even airplanes. The goal of this thesis is to generate knowledge, understanding and methods to ensure safety in Li-ion cells and packs. For achieving...

  17. Canadian consumer battery baseline study : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    This report provided information about the estimated number of consumer and household batteries sold, re-used, stored, recycled, and disposed each year in Canada. The report discussed the ways in which different batteries posed risks to human health and the environment, and legislative trends were also reviewed. Data used in the report were obtained from a literature review as well as through a series of interviews. The study showed that alkaline batteries are the most common primary batteries used by Canadians, followed by zinc carbon batteries. However, lithium primary batteries are gaining in popularity, and silver oxide and zinc air button cell batteries are also used in applications requiring a flat voltage and high energy. Secondary batteries used in laptop computers, and cell phones are often made of nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal-hydroxide, and lithium ion. Small sealed lead batteries are also commonly used in emergency lighting and alarm systems. Annual consumption statistics for all types of batteries were provided. Results of the study showed that the primary battery market is expected to decline. Total units of secondary batteries are expected to increase to 38.6 million units by 2010. The report also used a spreadsheet model to estimate the flow of consumer batteries through the Canadian waste management system. An estimated 347 million consumer batteries were discarded in 2004. By 2010, it is expected that an estimated 494 million units will be discarded by consumers. The study also considered issues related to lead, cadmium, mercury, and nickel disposal and the potential for groundwater contamination. It was concluded that neither Canada nor its provinces or territories have initiated legislative or producer responsibility programs targeting primary or secondary consumer batteries. 79 refs., 37 tabs., 1 fig.

  18. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.

    2011-07-25

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries.

  19. Phthalocyanines in batteries and supercapacitors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oni, J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available of their lower cost. This review article looks through a very narrow window of the applications of phthalocyanines in batteries and supercapacitors as a means of improving the qualities such as cycle property, energy density, capacity, open circuit voltage, etc...

  20. A nanoview of battery operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schougaard, Steen Brian

    2016-01-01

    The redox-active materials in lithium-ion batteries have relatively poor electronic and ionic conduction and may experience stress from charge-discharge volume changes, so their formulation into structures with nanosized features is highly desirable. On page 566 of this issue, Lim et al. (1...

  1. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Lee, Seok Woo; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries. PMID:21788483

  2. The Science of Battery Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; McCarty, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Sugar, Joshua Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Talin, Alec A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Hayden, Carl C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Hudak, Nicholas S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Research and Development; Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanostructure Physics; McDaniel, Anthony H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Hydrogen and Combustion Technology; Tenney, Craig M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Biological Systems; Zavadil, Kevin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  3. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  4. Battery Fault Detection with Saturating Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor); Graika, Jason R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A battery monitoring system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells. Windings of the transformers are driven with an excitation waveform whereupon signals are responsively detected, which indicate a health of the battery. In one embodiment, excitation windings and sense windings are separately provided for the plurality of transformers such that the excitation waveform is applied to the excitation windings and the signals are detected on the sense windings. In one embodiment, the number of sense windings and/or excitation windings is varied to permit location of underperforming battery cells utilizing a peak voltage detector.

  5. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  6. Enabling fast charging - A battery technology gap assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Dufek, Eric J.; Pesaran, Ahmad; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Hardy, Keith; Keyser, Matthew; Kreuzer, Cory; Markel, Anthony; Meintz, Andrew; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Nelson, Paul A.; Robertson, David C.; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Vijayagopal, Ram; Zhang, Jiucai

    2017-11-01

    The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable/validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.

  7. Computational Design of Batteries from Materials to Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Chuanbo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Usseglio Viretta, Francois L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Li, Qibo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Finegan, Donal [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, Ahmad A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yao, Koffi (Pierre) [Argonne National Laboratory; Abraham, Daniel [Argonne National Laboratory; Dees, Dennis [Argonne National Laboratory; Jansen, Andy [Argonne National Laboratory; Mukherjee, Partha [Texas A& M University; Mistry, Aashutosh [Texas A& M University; Verma, Ankit [Texas A& M University; Lamb, Josh [Sandia National Laboratories; Darcy, Eric [NASA

    2017-09-01

    Computer models are helping to accelerate the design and validation of next generation batteries and provide valuable insights not possible through experimental testing alone. Validated 3-D physics-based models exist for predicting electrochemical performance, thermal and mechanical response of cells and packs under normal and abuse scenarios. The talk describes present efforts to make the models better suited for engineering design, including improving their computation speed, developing faster processes for model parameter identification including under aging, and predicting the performance of a proposed electrode material recipe a priori using microstructure models.

  8. Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Dufek, Eric J.; Pesaran, Ahmad; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Hardy, Keith; Keyser, Matthew; Kreuzer, Cory; Markel, Anthony; Meintz, Andrew; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Nelson, Paul A.; Robertson, David C.; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Vijayagopal, Ram; Zhang, Jiucai

    2017-11-01

    The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable / validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.

  9. Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Dufek, Eric J.; Pesaran, Ahmad; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Hardy, Keith; Keyser, Matthew; Kreuzer, Cory; Markel, Anthony; Meintz, Andrew; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Nelson, Paul A.; Robertson, David C.; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Vijayagopal, Ram; Zhang, Jiucai

    2017-11-01

    The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable/validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.

  10. Comparing the net cost of CSP-TES to PV deployed with battery storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Jennie; Mehos, Mark; Denholm, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Concentrated solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) is a unique source of renewable energy in that its energy can be shifted over time and it can provide the electricity system with dependable generation capacity. In this study, we provide a framework to determine if the benefits of CSP-TES (shiftable energy and the ability to provide firm capacity) exceed the benefits of PV and firm capacity sources such as long-duration battery storage or conventional natural gas combustion turbines (CTs). The results of this study using current capital cost estimates indicate that a combination of PV and conventional gas CTs provides a lower net cost compared to CSP-TES and PV with batteries. Some configurations of CSP-TES have a lower net cost than PV with batteries for even the lowest battery cost estimate. Using projected capital cost targets, however, some configurations of CSP-TES have a lower net cost than PV with either option for even the lowest battery cost estimate. The net cost of CSP-TES varies with configuration, and lower solar multiples coupled with less storage are more attractive at current cost levels, due to high component costs. However, higher solar multiples show a lower net cost using projected future costs for heliostats and thermal storage materials.

  11. Determination of the Optimum Heat Transfer Coefficient and Temperature Rise Analysis for a Lithium-Ion Battery under the Conditions of Harbin City Bus Driving Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the heat problems that occur during the operation of power batteries, especially thermal runaway, which usually take place in high temperature environments. The study was conducted on a ternary polymer lithium-ion battery. In addition, a lumped parameter thermal model was established to analyze the thermal behavior of the electric bus battery system under the operation conditions of the driving cycles of the Harbin city electric buses. Moreover, the quantitative relationship between the optimum heat transfer coefficient of the battery and the ambient temperature was investigated. The relationship between the temperature rise (Tr, the number of cycles (c, and the heat transfer coefficient (h under three Harbin bus cycles have been investigated at 30 °C, because it can provide a basis for the design of the battery thermal management system. The results indicated that the heat transfer coefficient that meets the requirements of the battery thermal management system is the cubic power function of the ambient temperature. Therefore, if the ambient temperature is 30 °C, the heat transfer coefficient should be at least 12 W/m2K in the regular bus lines, 22 W/m2K in the bus rapid transit lines, and 32 W/m2K in the suburban lines.

  12. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  13. NANO-BATTERY TECHNOLOGY FOR EV-HEV PANEL: A PIONEERING STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataur Rahman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global trends toward CO2 reduction and resource efficiency have significantly increased the importance of lightweight materials for automobile original equipment manufacturers (OEM. CO2 reduction is a fundamental driver for a more lightweight automobile. The introduction of Electrical Vehicles (EVs is one initiative towards this end. However EVs are currently facing several weaknesses: limited driving range, battery pack heaviness, lack of safety and thermal control, high cost, and overall limited efficiency. This study presents a panel-style nano-battery technology built into an EV with CuO filler solid polymer electrolyte (SPE sandwiched by carbon fiber (CF and lithium (Li plate. In addition to this, an aluminum laminated polypropylene film is used as the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC shield. The proposed battery body panel of the EV would reduce the car weight by about 20%, with a charge and discharge capacity of 1.5 kWh (10% of car total power requirement, and provide the heat insulation for the car which would save about 10% power consumption of the air conditioning system. Therefore, the EV would be benefited by 30% in terms of energy reduction by using the proposed body. Furthermore, the proposed body is considered environmental-friendly since it is recyclable for use in a new product. However, the main limiting factors of the SPE are its thermal behavior and moderate ionic conductivity at low temperatures. The SPE temperature is maintained by controlling the battery panel charging/discharge rate. It is expected that the proposed panel-style nano-battery use in an EV would save up to 6.00 kWh in battery energy, equivalent to 2.81 liters of petrol and prevent 3.081 kg of CO2 emission for a travel distance of 100 km. KEYWORDS: epoxy resin; carbon fiber; lithium thin plate; energy generation; solid electrolyte battery

  14. Degradation Mechanisms and Lifetime Prediction for Lithium-Ion Batteries -- A Control Perspective: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2015-07-29

    Predictive models of Li-ion battery lifetime must consider a multiplicity of electrochemical, thermal, and mechanical degradation modes experienced by batteries in application environments. To complicate matters, Li-ion batteries can experience different degradation trajectories that depend on storage and cycling history of the application environment. Rates of degradation are controlled by factors such as temperature history, electrochemical operating window, and charge/discharge rate. We present a generalized battery life prognostic model framework for battery systems design and control. The model framework consists of trial functions that are statistically regressed to Li-ion cell life datasets wherein the cells have been aged under different levels of stress. Degradation mechanisms and rate laws dependent on temperature, storage, and cycling condition are regressed to the data, with multiple model hypotheses evaluated and the best model down-selected based on statistics. The resulting life prognostic model, implemented in state variable form, is extensible to arbitrary real-world scenarios. The model is applicable in real-time control algorithms to maximize battery life and performance. We discuss efforts to reduce lifetime prediction error and accommodate its inevitable impact in controller design.

  15. The Mechanical Response of Multifunctional Battery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo

    The current state of the art in the field of the mechanical behavior of electric vehicle (EV) battery cells is limited to quasi-static analysis. The lack of published data in the dynamic mechanical behavior of EV battery cells blinds engineers and scientists with the uncertainty of what to expect when EVs experience such unexpected events as intrusions to their battery systems. To this end, the recent occurrences of several EVs catching fire after hitting road debris even make this topic timelier. In order to ensure the safety of EV battery, it is critical to develop quantitative understanding of battery cell mechanical behavior under dynamic compressive loadings. Specifically, the research focuses on the dynamic mechanical loading effect on the standard "18650" cylindrical lithium-ion battery cells. In the study, the force-displacement and voltage-displacement behavior of the battery cells were analyzed experimentally at two strain rates, two state-of-charges, and two unit-cell configurations. The results revealed the strain rate sensitivity of their mechanical responses with the solid sacrificial elements. When the hollow sacrificial cells are used, on the other hand, effect was negligible up to the point of densification strength. Also, the high state-of-charge appeared to increase the stiffness of the battery cells. The research also revealed the effectiveness of the sacrificial elements on the mechanical behavior of a unit cell that consists of one battery cell and six sacrificial elements. The use of the sacrificial elements resulted in the delayed initiation of electric short circuit. Based on the analysis of battery behavior at the cell level, granular battery assembly, a battery pack, was designed and fabricated. The behavior of the granular battery assembly was analyzed both quasistatically and dynamically. Building on the results of the research, various research plans were proposed. Through conducting the research, we sought to answer the following

  16. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wunjun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2013-12-03

    Methods of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electroytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one or .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  17. MW-assisted synthesis of SVO for ICD primary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beninati, Sabina; Fantuzzi, Matteo; Mastragostino, Marina; Soavi, Francesca [UCI, Scienze Chimiche, Radiochimiche e Metallurgiche, Universita di Bologna, Via San Donato 15, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2006-06-19

    An Ag{sub 2}V{sub 4}O{sub 11} (SVO) cathode material prepared by microwave (MW)-assisted solid-state synthesis (MW-SVO) was developed for lithium primary batteries for implantable cardioverter/defibrillators (ICDs). This paper presents the results of physical-chemical and electrochemical characterizations of MW-SVO as well as those of SVO prepared by conventional thermal route (T-SVO). A specific effect of MWs which accelerates the synthesis reaction and contributes to yield a material of different morphology and degree of crystallinity compared with those of T-SVO was observed. The results of pulsed electrochemical tests carried out at 37{sup o}C in operative conditions of ICDs on Li/MW-SVO batteries with cathode mass loading sized for practical use are also reported. These tests demonstrated that MW-SVO can be used for high performing lithium primary battery delivering in few seconds the specific energy values required by ICD application. (author)

  18. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2015-04-07

    A method of preparing a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite for a cathode in a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery comprising thermally expanding graphite oxide to yield graphene layers, mixing the graphene layers with a first solution comprising sulfur and carbon disulfide, evaporating the carbon disulfide to yield a solid nanocomposite, and grinding the solid nanocomposite to yield the graphene-sulfur nanocomposite. Rechargeable-lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter of less than 50 nm.

  19. Modelling and simulation of lead-acid battery pack powering electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burzyński Damian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents aspects of modelling and simulation of energy storages based on the example of a lead-acid battery pack for powering an electric vehicle. The most frequently used energy storages, with particular emphasis on the difficulties in their proper selection for mobile equipment, was discussed. The mathematical model of the leadacid battery and the relations describing its respective parameters was also presented. A selected energy storage was subjected to detailed analysis with regards to the electrical and thermal parameters while powering an electric vehicle during an standard driving cycle in an urban area. The simulation was performed in the Matlab Simulink environment.

  20. Automatic Battery Swap System for Home Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatic battery swap system for the prolonged activities of home robots. A battery swap station is proposed to implement battery off-line recharging and on-line exchanging functions. It consists of a loading and unloading mechanism, a shifting mechanism, a locking device and a shell. The home robot is a palm-sized wheeled robot with an onboard camera and a removable battery case in the front. It communicates with the battery swap station wirelessly through ZigBee. The influences of battery case deflection and robot docking deflection on the battery swap operations have been investigated. The experimental results show that it takes an average time of 84.2s to complete the battery swap operations. The home robot does not have to wait several hours for the batteries to be fully charged. The proposed battery swap system is proved to be efficient in home robot applications that need the robots to work continuously over a long period.

  1. Development of a Battery-Free Solar Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Bergeron, David J., III

    2000-01-01

    Recent technology developments and a systems engineering design approach have led to the development of a practical battery-free solar refrigerator as a spin-off of NASA's aerospace refrigeration research. Off-grid refrigeration is a good application of solar photovoltaic (PV) power if thermal storage is incorporated and a direct connection is made between the cooling system and the PV panel. This was accomplished by integrating water as a phase-change material into a well insulated refrigerator cabinet and by developing a microprocessor based control system that allows direct connection of a PV panel to a variable speed compressor. This second innovation also allowed peak power-point tracking from the PV panel and elimination of batteries from the system. First a laboratory unit was developed to prove the concept and then a commercial unit was produced and deployed in a field test. The laboratory unit was used to test many different configurations including thermoelectric, Stirling and vapor compression cooling systems. The final configuration used a vapor compression cooling cycle, vacuum insulation, a passive condenser, an integral evaporator/ thermal storage tank, two 77 watt PV panels and the novel controller mentioned above. The system's only moving part was the variable speed BD35 compressor made by Danfoss. The 365 liter cabinet stayed cold with as little as 274 watt-hours per day average PV power. Battery-free testing was conducted for several months with very good results. The amount of thermal storage, size of compressor and power of PV panels connected can all be adjusted to optimize the design for a given application and climate. In the commercial unit, the high cost of the vacuum insulated refrigerator cabinet and the stainless steel thermal storage tank were addressed in an effort to make the technology commercially viable. This unit started with a 142 liter, mass-produced chest freezer cabinet that had the evaporator integrated into its inner walls

  2. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-02-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  3. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    vessels. Heretofore, electrically actuated hydraulic pumps have been used for this purpose. By eliminating the demand for electrical energy for pumping, the use of the thermally actuated hydraulic pumps could prolong the intervals between battery charges, thus making it possible to greatly increase the durations of undersea exploratory missions.

  4. Simulative method for determining the optimal operating conditions for a cooling plate for lithium-ion battery cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua; Hinterberger, Michael; Hable, Peter; Koehler, Juergen

    2014-12-01

    Extended battery system lifetime and reduced costs are essential to the success of electric vehicles. An effective thermal management strategy is one method of enhancing system lifetime increasing vehicle range. Vehicle-typical space restrictions favor the minimization of battery thermal management system (BTMS) size and weight, making their production and subsequent vehicle integration extremely difficult and complex. Due to these space requirements, a cooling plate as part of a water-glycerol cooling circuit is commonly implemented. This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model and multi-objective analysis technique for determining the thermal effect of coolant flow rate and inlet temperature in a cooling plate-at a range of vehicle operating conditions-on a battery system, thereby providing a dynamic input for one-dimensional models. Traditionally, one-dimensional vehicular thermal management system models assume a static heat input from components such as a battery system: as a result, the components are designed for a set coolant input (flow rate and inlet temperature). Such a design method is insufficient for dynamic thermal management models and control strategies, thereby compromising system efficiency. The presented approach allows for optimal BMTS design and integration in the vehicular coolant circuit.

  5. A Mobile Battery Swapping Service for Electric Vehicles Based on a Battery Swapping Van

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujie Shao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach for providing a mobile battery swapping service for electric vehicles (EVs that is provided by a mobile battery swapping van. This battery swapping van can carry many fully charged batteries and drive up to an EV to swap a battery within a few minutes. First, a reasonable EV battery swapping architecture based on a battery swapping van is established in this paper. The function and role of each participant and the relationships between each participant are determined, especially their changes compared with the battery charging service. Second, the battery swapping service is described, including the service request priority and service request queuing model. To provide the battery swapping service efficiently and effectively, the battery swapping service request scheduling is analyzed well, and a minimum waiting time based on priority and satisfaction scheduling strategy (MWT-PS is proposed. Finally, the battery swapping service is simulated, and the performance of MWT-PS is evaluated in simulation scenarios. The simulation results show that this novel approach can be used as a reference for a future system that provides reasonable and satisfying battery swapping service for EVs.

  6. Enhanced mechanical, thermal, and electric properties of graphene aerogels via supercritical ethanol drying and high-temperature thermal reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yehong; Zhou, Shanbao; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Guangdong; Li, Yongxia; Zhang, Xinghong; Han, Wenbo

    2017-05-03

    Graphene aerogels with high surface areas, ultra-low densities and thermal conductivities have been prepared to exploit their wide applications from pollution adsorption to energy storage, supercapacitor, and thermal insulation. However, the low mechanical properties, poor thermal stability and electric conductivity restrict these aerogels' applications. In this paper, we prepared mechanically strong graphene aerogels with large BET surface areas, low thermal conductivities, high thermal stability and electric conductivities via hydrothermal reduction and supercritical ethanol drying. Annealing at 1500 °C resulted in slightly increased thermal conductivity and further improvement in mechanical properties, oxidation temperature and electric conductivity of the graphene aerogel. The large BET surface areas, together with strong mechanical properties, low thermal conductivities, high thermal stability and electrical conductivities made these graphene aerogels feasible candidates for use in a number of fields covering from batteries to sensors, electrodes, lightweight conductor and insulation materials.

  7. Measuring and Monitoring Battery Status

    OpenAIRE

    Owona, Ignace Flavien

    2014-01-01

    Embedded systems are the most widespread technologies today. These technologies include hardware and software. We may meet them from simple household appliances such as the washing machine and microwave oven to more sophisticated appliances such as aircraft, medical appliances, and automobiles not to mention mobile phones, TVs and radio receivers, leisure gadgets, etc. This project thesis goal is the measurement and the monitoring of the discharge of the battery used as the energy supplier in...

  8. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  9. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  10. Electrode materials for rechargeable battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2015-09-08

    A positive electrode is disclosed for a non-aqueous electrolyte lithium rechargeable cell or battery. The electrode comprises a lithium containing material of the formula Na.sub.yLi.sub.xNi.sub.zMn.sub.1-z-z'M.sub.z'O.sub.d, wherein M is a metal cation, x+y>1, 0replace sodium ions of a precursor material with lithium ions.

  11. Modelling Venting and Pressure Build-up in a 18650 LCO Cell during Thermal Runaway (ABSTRACT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian; White, Ralph

    may lead to fires and explosions. To prevent this, it is therefore important to model thermal runaway considering different events such as venting and the pressure development inside the battery cell, which makes the main purpose of this paper. A model consisting of the different decomposition....... By fitting the activation energies, and measuring experimentally the mass of the ejecta during thermal runaway, the model is compared and validated against an extensive experiment performed by Golukbov et al. [1] during oven heating. When analysing the results, it is found that by including the venting......Li-ion batteries are a very popular type of electric storage devices that possess high energy density when compared to the other battery chemistries. Due to this property, when operating under abusive conditions such as high ambient temperature, the batteries can experience thermal runaway, which...

  12. Batteries for electric road vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, John B; Braga, M Helena

    2018-01-15

    The dependence of modern society on the energy stored in a fossil fuel is not sustainable. An immediate challenge is to eliminate the polluting gases emitted from the roads of the world by replacing road vehicles powered by the internal combustion engine with those powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries must be safe and competitive in cost, performance, driving range between charges, and convenience. The competitive performance of an electric car has been demonstrated, but the cost of fabrication, management to ensure safety, and a short cycle life have prevented large-scale penetration of the all-electric road vehicle into the market. Low-cost, safe all-solid-state cells from which dendrite-free alkali-metal anodes can be plated are now available; they have an operating temperature range from -20 °C to 80 °C and they permit the design of novel high-capacity, high-voltage cathodes providing fast charge/discharge rates. Scale-up to large multicell batteries is feasible.

  13. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng; Amine, Khalil

    2017-08-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented.

  14. 46 CFR 111.15-30 - Battery chargers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery chargers. 111.15-30 Section 111.15-30 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-30 Battery chargers. Each battery charger enclosure must meet § 111.01-9. Additionally, each charger must be suitable for...

  15. Model-based energy analysis of battery powered systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime naturally depends on the battery's capacity and on the rate at which the battery is discharged. However, it also depends on the usage pattern, i.e., the workload, of the battery. When a battery is

  16. Thermoelectric unipolar spin battery in a suspended carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhan; Fang, Tie-Feng; He, Wan-Xiu; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2017-04-01

    A quantum dot formed in a suspended carbon nanotube exposed to an external magnetic field is predicted to act as a thermoelectric unipolar spin battery which generates pure spin current. The built-in spin flip mechanism is a consequence of the spin-vibration interaction resulting from the interplay between the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and the vibrational modes of the suspended carbon nanotube. On the other hand, utilizing thermoelectric effect, the temperature difference between the electron and the thermal bath to which the vibrational modes are coupled provides the driving force. We find that both magnitude and direction of the generated pure spin current are dependent on the strength of spin-vibration interaction, the sublevel configuration in dot, the temperatures of electron and thermal bath, and the tunneling rate between the dot and the pole. Moreover, in the linear response regime, the kinetic coefficient is non-monotonic in the temperature T and it reaches its maximum when {{k}\\text{B}}T is about one phonon energy. The existence of a strong intradot Coulomb interaction is irrelevant for our spin battery, provided that high-order cotunneling processes are suppressed.

  17. Thermoelectric unipolar spin battery in a suspended carbon nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhan; Fang, Tie-Feng; He, Wan-Xiu; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2017-04-26

    A quantum dot formed in a suspended carbon nanotube exposed to an external magnetic field is predicted to act as a thermoelectric unipolar spin battery which generates pure spin current. The built-in spin flip mechanism is a consequence of the spin-vibration interaction resulting from the interplay between the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and the vibrational modes of the suspended carbon nanotube. On the other hand, utilizing thermoelectric effect, the temperature difference between the electron and the thermal bath to which the vibrational modes are coupled provides the driving force. We find that both magnitude and direction of the generated pure spin current are dependent on the strength of spin-vibration interaction, the sublevel configuration in dot, the temperatures of electron and thermal bath, and the tunneling rate between the dot and the pole. Moreover, in the linear response regime, the kinetic coefficient is non-monotonic in the temperature T and it reaches its maximum when [Formula: see text] is about one phonon energy. The existence of a strong intradot Coulomb interaction is irrelevant for our spin battery, provided that high-order cotunneling processes are suppressed.

  18. Experimental investigation and simulation of temperature distributions in a 16Ah-LiMnNiCoO2 battery during rapid discharge rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, S.; Dincer, I.; Agelin-Chaab, M.; Fraser, R.; Fowler, M.

    2017-03-01

    It is very important to have quantitative data regarding the temperature distributions of lithium-ion batteries at different discharge rates in order to design thermal management systems and also for battery thermal modellers. In this paper, the surface temperature distributions on a superior lithium polymer battery (SLPB) with lithium manganese nickel cobalt oxide (LiMnNiCoO2) cathode material (16 Ah capacity) at C/8, C/4, C/2, 1C, 2C, and 3C discharge rates are presented. Additionally, a battery thermal model is developed for this battery using a neural network approach with the Bayesian Regularization method and the simulated results are compared with experimental results in terms of temperature and voltage profiles at C/8, C/4, C/2, 1C, 2C, and 3C discharge rates. Thermal images, which were also captured during experiments with an IR camera at various discharge rates, and are reported in the paper. The results of this study show that the increased discharge rates between C/8 and 3C results in increased surface temperature distributions on the principal surface of the battery and decreased discharge capacity.

  19. A Battery Power Bank with Series-Connected Buck-Boost-Type Battery Power Modules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsung-Hsi Wu; Chin-Sien Moo; Chih-Hao Hou

    2017-01-01

    .... With a proposed discharging scenario, load voltage regulation with charge equalization among batteries was performed by controlling the battery currents in accordance with their state-of-charges (SOCs...

  20. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.