WorldWideScience

Sample records for thermal anomalies observed

  1. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  2. Shallow Drilling In The Salton Sea Region, The Thermal Anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmark, R. L.; Kasameyer, P. W.; Younker, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    During two shallow thermal drilling programs, thermal measurements were obtained in 56 shallow (76.2 m) and one intermediate (457.3 m) depth holes located both onshore and offshore along the southern margin of the Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley, California. These data complete the surficial coverage of the thermal anomaly, revealing the shape and lateral extent of the hydrothermal system. The thermal data show the region of high thermal gradients to extend only a short distance offshore to the north of the Quaternary volcanic domes which are exposed along the southern shore of the Salton Sea. The thermal anomaly has an arcuate shape, about 4 km wide and 12 km long. Across the center of the anomaly, the transition zone between locations exhibiting high thermal gradients and those exhibiting regional thermal gradients is quite narrow. Thermal gradients rise from near regional (0.09 C/m) to extreme (0.83 C/m) in only 2.4 km. The heat flow in the central part of the anomaly is >600 mW/m{sup 2} and in some areas exceeds 1200 mW/m{sup 2}. The shape of the thermal anomaly is asymmetric with respect to the line of volcanoes previously thought to represent the center of the field, with its center line offset south of the volcanic buttes. There is no broad thermal anomaly associated with the magnetic high that extends offshore to the northeast from the volcanic domes. These observations of the thermal anomaly provide important constraints for models of the circulation of the hydrothermal system. Thermal budgets based on a simple model for this hydrothermal system indicate that the heat influx rate for local ''hot spots'' in the region may be large enough to account for the rate of heat flux from the entire Salton Trough.

  3. Thermal Expansion Anomaly Regulated by Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Kui; Wang, Yi; Shang, Shunli

    2014-11-01

    Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced thermal conductivity, and spin distributions.

  4. SEISMIC DISCRIMINATION OF THERMAL AND MAGNETIC ANOMALIES IN SUNSPOT UMBRAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, C.; Cally, P. S.; Rempel, M.

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to model sunspots based on helioseismic signatures need to discriminate between the effects of (1) a strong magnetic field that introduces time-irreversible, vantage-dependent phase shifts, apparently connected to fast- and slow-mode coupling and wave absorption and (2) a thermal anomaly that includes cool gas extending an indefinite depth beneath the photosphere. Helioseismic observations of sunspots show travel times considerably reduced with respect to equivalent quiet-Sun signatures. Simulations by Moradi and Cally of waves skipping across sunspots with photospheric magnetic fields of order 3 kG show travel times that respond strongly to the magnetic field and relatively weakly to the thermal anomaly by itself. We note that waves propagating vertically in a vertical magnetic field are relatively insensitive to the magnetic field, while remaining highly responsive to the attendant thermal anomaly. Travel-time measurements for waves with large skip distances into the centers of axially symmetric sunspots are therefore a crucial resource for discrimination of the thermal anomaly beneath sunspot umbrae from the magnetic anomaly. One-dimensional models of sunspot umbrae based on compressible-radiative-magnetic-convective simulations such as by Rempel et al. can be fashioned to fit observed helioseismic travel-time spectra in the centers of sunspot umbrae. These models are based on cooling of the upper 2-4 Mm of the umbral subphotosphere with no significant anomaly beneath 4.5 Mm. The travel-time reductions characteristic of these models are primarily a consequence of a Wilson depression resulting from a strong downward buoyancy of the cooled umbral medium.

  5. Thermal Radiation Anomalies Associated with Major Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Kafatos, Menas C.; Taylor, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments of remote sensing methods for Earth satellite data analysis contribute to our understanding of earthquake related thermal anomalies. It was realized that the thermal heat fluxes over areas of earthquake preparation is a result of air ionization by radon (and other gases) and consequent water vapor condensation on newly formed ions. Latent heat (LH) is released as a result of this process and leads to the formation of local thermal radiation anomalies (TRA) known as OLR (outgoing Longwave radiation, Ouzounov et al, 2007). We compare the LH energy, obtained by integrating surface latent heat flux (SLHF) over the area and time with released energies associated with these events. Extended studies of the TRA using the data from the most recent major earthquakes allowed establishing the main morphological features. It was also established that the TRA are the part of more complex chain of the short-term pre-earthquake generation, which is explained within the framework of a lithosphere-atmosphere coupling processes.

  6. Occurrence and Detectability of Thermal Anomalies on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, Paul O.; Christensen, Philip R.; Spencer, John R.; Abramov, Oleg; Howett, Carly; Mellon, Michael; Nimmo, Francis; Piqueux, Sylvain; Rathbun, Julie A.

    2017-10-01

    Endogenic activity is likely on Europa, given its young surface age of and ongoing tidal heating by Jupiter. Temperature is a fundamental signature of activity, as witnessed on Enceladus, where plumes emanate from vents with strongly elevated temperatures. Recent observations suggest the presence of similar water plumes at Europa. Even if plumes are uncommon, resurfacing may produce elevated surface temperatures, perhaps due to near-surface liquid water. Detecting endogenic activity on Europa is one of the primary mission objectives of NASA’s planned Europa Clipper flyby mission.Here, we use a probabilistic model to assess the likelihood of detectable thermal anomalies on the surface of Europa. The Europa Thermal Emission Imaging System (E-THEMIS) investigation is designed to characterize Europa’s thermal behavior and identify any thermal anomalies due to recent or ongoing activity. We define “detectability” on the basis of expected E-THEMIS measurements, which include multi-spectral infrared emission, both day and night.Thermal anomalies on Europa may take a variety of forms, depending on the resurfacing style, frequency, and duration of events: 1) subsurface melting due to hot spots, 2) shear heating on faults, and 3) eruptions of liquid water or warm ice on the surface. We use numerical and analytical models to estimate temperatures for these features. Once activity ceases, lifetimes of thermal anomalies are estimated to be 100 - 1000 yr. On average, Europa’s 10 - 100 Myr surface age implies a resurfacing rate of ~3 - 30 km2/yr. The typical size of resurfacing features determines their frequency of occurrence. For example, if ~100 km2 chaos features dominate recent resurfacing, we expect one event every few years to decades. Smaller features, such as double-ridges, may be active much more frequently. We model each feature type as a statistically independent event, with probabilities weighted by their observed coverage of Europa’s surface. Our results

  7. Pre-seismic anomalies from optical satellite observations: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhong-Hu; Zhao, Jing; Shan, Xinjian

    2018-04-01

    Detecting various anomalies using optical satellite data prior to strong earthquakes is key to understanding and forecasting earthquake activities because of its recognition of thermal-radiation-related phenomena in seismic preparation phases. Data from satellite observations serve as a powerful tool in monitoring earthquake preparation areas at a global scale and in a nearly real-time manner. Over the past several decades, many new different data sources have been utilized in this field, and progressive anomaly detection approaches have been developed. This paper reviews the progress and development of pre-seismic anomaly detection technology in this decade. First, precursor parameters, including parameters from the top of the atmosphere, in the atmosphere, and on the Earth's surface, are stated and discussed. Second, different anomaly detection methods, which are used to extract anomalous signals that probably indicate future seismic events, are presented. Finally, certain critical problems with the current research are highlighted, and new developing trends and perspectives for future work are discussed. The development of Earth observation satellites and anomaly detection algorithms can enrich available information sources, provide advanced tools for multilevel earthquake monitoring, and improve short- and medium-term forecasting, which play a large and growing role in pre-seismic anomaly detection research.

  8. Retrieving Temperature Anomaly in the Global Subsurface and Deeper Ocean From Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hua; Li, Wene; Yan, Xiao-Hai

    2018-01-01

    Retrieving the subsurface and deeper ocean (SDO) dynamic parameters from satellite observations is crucial for effectively understanding ocean interior anomalies and dynamic processes, but it is challenging to accurately estimate the subsurface thermal structure over the global scale from sea surface parameters. This study proposes a new approach based on Random Forest (RF) machine learning to retrieve subsurface temperature anomaly (STA) in the global ocean from multisource satellite observations including sea surface height anomaly (SSHA), sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA), sea surface salinity anomaly (SSSA), and sea surface wind anomaly (SSWA) via in situ Argo data for RF training and testing. RF machine-learning approach can accurately retrieve the STA in the global ocean from satellite observations of sea surface parameters (SSHA, SSTA, SSSA, SSWA). The Argo STA data were used to validate the accuracy and reliability of the results from the RF model. The results indicated that SSHA, SSTA, SSSA, and SSWA together are useful parameters for detecting SDO thermal information and obtaining accurate STA estimations. The proposed method also outperformed support vector regression (SVR) in global STA estimation. It will be a useful technique for studying SDO thermal variability and its role in global climate system from global-scale satellite observations.

  9. About the nature of regional thermal anomaly in the Semipalatinsk Test Site region revealed basing on remote space sensing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melent'ev, M.I.; Velikanov, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    A thermal anomaly, (more than 20,000 sq. km) discovered in the Semipalatinsk Test Site region in the pictures from space, is observed every year on certain days mainly in winter-spring season. Appearance of the thermal anomaly often coincides with days of intensive fall of atmospheric precipitation and possible thawing of snow cover together with decreasing of ozone concentration in atmosphere. The explanation of thermal anomaly in the Semipalatinsk Test Site region due to nuclear reaction caused by the energy of radionuclide radioactive decay deposited in a soil layer after ground and air nuclear explosions and radiolysis processes in soil solutions is given in this article. (author)

  10. Anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1985-08-01

    Anomalies have a diverse impact on many aspects of physical phenomena. The role of anomalies in determining physical structure from the amplitude for π 0 decay to the foundations of superstring theory will be reviewed. 36 refs

  11. An investigation of thermal anomalies in the Central American volcanic chain and evaluation of the utility of thermal anomaly monitoring in the prediction of volcanic eruptions. [Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, R. E. (Principal Investigator); Rose, W. I., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ground truth data collection proves that significant anomalies exist at 13 volcanoes within the test site of Central America. The dimensions and temperature contrast of these ten anomalies are large enough to be detected by the Skylab 192 instrument. The dimensions and intensity of thermal anomalies have changed at most of these volcanoes during the Skylab mission.

  12. MODVOLC2: A Hybrid Time Series Analysis for Detecting Thermal Anomalies Applied to Thermal Infrared Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppen, W. C.; Wright, R.; Pilger, E.

    2009-12-01

    We developed and tested a new, automated algorithm, MODVOLC2, which analyzes thermal infrared satellite time series data to detect and quantify the excess energy radiated from thermal anomalies such as active volcanoes, fires, and gas flares. MODVOLC2 combines two previously developed algorithms, a simple point operation algorithm (MODVOLC) and a more complex time series analysis (Robust AVHRR Techniques, or RAT) to overcome the limitations of using each approach alone. MODVOLC2 has four main steps: (1) it uses the original MODVOLC algorithm to process the satellite data on a pixel-by-pixel basis and remove thermal outliers, (2) it uses the remaining data to calculate reference and variability images for each calendar month, (3) it compares the original satellite data and any newly acquired data to the reference images normalized by their variability, and it detects pixels that fall outside the envelope of normal thermal behavior, (4) it adds any pixels detected by MODVOLC to those detected in the time series analysis. Using test sites at Anatahan and Kilauea volcanoes, we show that MODVOLC2 was able to detect ~15% more thermal anomalies than using MODVOLC alone, with very few, if any, known false detections. Using gas flares from the Cantarell oil field in the Gulf of Mexico, we show that MODVOLC2 provided results that were unattainable using a time series-only approach. Some thermal anomalies (e.g., Cantarell oil field flares) are so persistent that an additional, semi-automated 12-µm correction must be applied in order to correctly estimate both the number of anomalies and the total excess radiance being emitted by them. Although all available data should be included to make the best possible reference and variability images necessary for the MODVOLC2, we estimate that at least 80 images per calendar month are required to generate relatively good statistics from which to run MODVOLC2, a condition now globally met by a decade of MODIS observations. We also found

  13. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (2). Atmospheric radon anomaly observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, various geochemical precursors were observed in the aftershock area: chloride ion concentration, groundwater discharge rate, groundwater radon concentration and so on. Kobe Pharmaceutical University (KPU) is located about 25 km northeast from the epicenter and within the aftershock area. Atmospheric radon concentration had been continuously measured from 1984 at KPU, using a flow-type ionization chamber. The radon concentration data were analyzed using the smoothed residual values which represent the daily minimum of radon concentration with the exclusion of normalized seasonal variation. The radon concentration (smoothed residual values) demonstrated an upward trend about two months before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. The trend can be well fitted to a log-periodic model related to earthquake fault dynamics. As a result of model fitting, a critical point was calculated to be between 13 and 27 January 1995, which was in good agreement with the occurrence date of earthquake (17 January 1995). The mechanism of radon anomaly before earthquakes is not fully understood. However, it might be possible to detect atmospheric radon anomaly as a precursor before a large earthquake, if (1) the measurement is conducted near the earthquake fault, (2) the monitoring station is located on granite (radon-rich) areas, and (3) the measurement is conducted for more than several years before the earthquake to obtain background data. (author)

  14. Eigenstate Thermalization for Degenerate Observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anza, Fabio; Gogolin, Christian; Huber, Marcus

    2018-04-01

    Under unitary time evolution, expectation values of physically reasonable observables often evolve towards the predictions of equilibrium statistical mechanics. The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) states that this is also true already for individual energy eigenstates. Here we aim at elucidating the emergence of the ETH for observables that can realistically be measured due to their high degeneracy, such as local, extensive, or macroscopic observables. We bisect this problem into two parts, a condition on the relative overlaps and one on the relative phases between the eigenbases of the observable and Hamiltonian. We show that the relative overlaps are unbiased for highly degenerate observables and demonstrate that unless relative phases conspire to cumulative effects, this makes such observables verify the ETH. Through this we elucidate potential pathways towards proofs of thermalization.

  15. Thermal expansion anomaly and thermal conductivity of U3O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, B.

    1975-01-01

    The anomaly in the thermal expansion of U 3 O 8 and results of the thermal conductivity of this compound are described. U 3 O 8 powder heat treated at 1,223 K was consolidated by pressing and sintering in air at 1,223 and 1,373 K to a density of 66% and 80.8% TD. The O/U ratio was 2.67 and 2.63 respectively, the crystal structure being orthorhombic in both cases. For UOsub(2.63) the thermal linear expansion was measured in the temperature range 293 K-1,063 K in pressing direction and normal to it, while for UOsub(2.67) measurements were done parallel to the pressing direction. The curves of the linear thermal expansion from 373 K up to 623 K show negative values and above positive for the three curves. The results are related to known data of phase-transition-temperatures of the orthorhombic U 3 O 8 . Measurements of the thermal conductivity were done on UOsub(2.67). Because of the high porosity of the samples, known relationships for the porosity correction of the thermal conductivity were proved on alumina with 34 % porosity. The values of the thermal conductivity of UOsub(2.67) (corrected to zero porosity) show a very slight temperature dependence, they are about three times lower than those of the stoichiometric uranium dioxide in the same temperature range

  16. Geochemical and isotope-geochemical investigations on thermal waters from the Urach-Kirchheim thermal anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, B.

    1980-01-01

    To confirm possible circulation systems, the 18 O/ 16 O D/H isotope conditions of the surface waters and the thermal waters in the investigation area were determined. The circulation systems are due to crosswise anomalies, the geologic situation and a trough-shaped lowering of the permianbeds. A decisive influence of meteoric water could not be detected. A depletion in 18 O with increasing depth was established. Obviously, there has been interaction with water. The applicability of chemical thermometers was tested. (DG) [de

  17. MODIS/Aqua Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  18. MODIS/Terra Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  19. Advances in analysis of pre-earthquake thermal anomalies by analyzing IR satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Bryant, N.; Filizzola, C.; Pergola, N.; Taylor, P.; Tramutoli, V.

    Presented work addresses the possible relationship between tectonic stress, electro-chemical and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere and increasing infrared (IR) flux as part of a larger family of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena related to earthquake activity. Thermal infra-red (TIR) surveys performed by polar orbiting (NOAA/AVHRR, MODIS) and geosynchronous weather satellites (GOES, METEOSAT) seems to indicate the appearance (from days to weeks before the event) of "anomalous" space-time TIR transients associated with the place (epicentral area, linear structures and fault systems) and the time of occurrence of a number of major earthquakes with M>5 and focal depths no deeper than 50km. As Earth emitted in 8-14 microns range the TIR signal measured from satellite strongly vary depending on meteorological conditions and other factors (space-time changes in atmospheric transmittance, time/season, solar and satellite zenithal angles and etc) independent from seismic activity, a preliminary definition of "anomalous TIR signal" should be given. To provide reliable discrimination of thermal anomalous area from the natural events (seasonal changes, local morphology) new robust approach (RAT) has been recently proposed (and successfully applied in the field of the monitoring of the major environmental risks) that permits to give a statistically based definition of thermal info-red (TIR) anomaly and reduce of false events detection. New techniques also were specifically developed to assure the precise co-registration of all satellite scenes and permit accurate time-series analysis of satellite observations. As final results we present examples of most recent 2000/2004 worldwide strong earthquakes and the techniques used to capture the tracks of thermal emission mid-IR anomalies and methodology for practical future use of such phenomena in the early warning systems.

  20. Euro-African MAGSAT anomaly-tectonic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary satellite (MAGSAT) scalar magnetic anomaly data are compiled and differentially reduced to radial polarization by equivalent point source inversion for comparison with tectonic data of Africa, Europe and adjacent marine areas. A number of associations are evident to constrain analyses of the tectonic features and history of the region. The Precambrian shields of Africa and Europe exhibit varied magnetic signatures. All shields are not magnetic highs and, in fact, the Baltic shield is a marked minimum. The reduced-to-the-pole magnetic map shows a marked tendency for northeasterly striking anomalies in the eastern Atlantic and adjacent Africa, which is coincident to the track of several hot spots for the past 100 million years. However, there is little consistency in the sign of the magnetic anomalies and the track of the hot spots. Comparison of the radially polarized anomalies of Africa and Europe with other reduced-to-the-pole magnetic satellite anomaly maps of the Western Hemisphere support the reconstruction of the continents prior to the origin of the present-day Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era.

  1. Post-Metamorphic Thermal Anomaly across the Nacimiento Block, Central California: a Hydrothermal Overprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, B.; Hughes, J.; Lahfid, A.; Delchini, S.

    2017-12-01

    The thermal history of the Nacimiento block located within the Franciscan Complex (California, USA) has been previously proposed based on both vitrinite reflectance (Rm) and illite cristallinity methods (Underwood et al., 1995). These authors suggest that the Nacimiento block is locally perturbed by a thermal anomaly (up to 300ºC), probably caused by post-metamorphic hydrothermal activity linked to the emplacement of an Au-deposit: the Los Burros Gold deposit. Although both thermal anomaly and deposit seem spatially correlated, their relationship is still poorly constrained. Detailed geological and structural mapping within the Los Burros Mining District (LBMD) coupled with a thermal study was conducted to better understand processes responsible for the anomalous temperatures recorded near the deposit. The regional maximum temperature reached by metasediments from the Nacimiento block have been first investigated using the Raman Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Materials (RSCM) method. In addition, through careful fluid-inclusion and stable isotopes (O and C) studies on the deposit, the temperature and the potential source of the fluid responsible for the Los Burros Au-deposit emplacement were investigated. RSCM technique confirms the presence of a thermal anomaly in the range 260-320ºC near LBMD. However, our structural and petrographic results suggest that the thermal anomaly is not correlated to a post-metamorphic hydrothermal overprint but rather to a late, transpressive deformation uplifting buried metamorphic rocks.

  2. Time series analysis of infrared satellite data for detecting thermal anomalies: a hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppen, W. C.; Pilger, E.; Wright, R.

    2011-07-01

    We developed and tested an automated algorithm that analyzes thermal infrared satellite time series data to detect and quantify the excess energy radiated from thermal anomalies such as active volcanoes. Our algorithm enhances the previously developed MODVOLC approach, a simple point operation, by adding a more complex time series component based on the methods of the Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) algorithm. Using test sites at Anatahan and Kīlauea volcanoes, the hybrid time series approach detected ~15% more thermal anomalies than MODVOLC with very few, if any, known false detections. We also tested gas flares in the Cantarell oil field in the Gulf of Mexico as an end-member scenario representing very persistent thermal anomalies. At Cantarell, the hybrid algorithm showed only a slight improvement, but it did identify flares that were undetected by MODVOLC. We estimate that at least 80 MODIS images for each calendar month are required to create good reference images necessary for the time series analysis of the hybrid algorithm. The improved performance of the new algorithm over MODVOLC will result in the detection of low temperature thermal anomalies that will be useful in improving our ability to document Earth's volcanic eruptions, as well as detecting low temperature thermal precursors to larger eruptions.

  3. Insights on the cuprate high energy anomaly observed in ARPES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritz, B.; Johnston, S.; Devereaux, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been used to highlight an anomalously large band renormalization at high binding energies in cuprate superconductors: the high energy 'waterfall' or high energy anomaly (HEA). The anomaly is present for both hole- and electron-doped cuprates as well as the half-filled parent insulators with different energy scales arising on either side of the phase diagram. While photoemission matrix elements clearly play a role in changing the aesthetic appearance of the band dispersion, i.e. creating a 'waterfall'-like appearance, they provide an inadequate description for the physics that underlies the strong band renormalization giving rise to the HEA. Model calculations of the single-band Hubbard Hamiltonian showcase the role played by correlations in the formation of the HEA and uncover significant differences in the HEA energy scale for hole- and electron-doped cuprates. In addition, this approach properly captures the transfer of spectral weight accompanying doping in a correlated material and provides a unifying description of the HEA across both sides of the cuprate phase diagram. We find that the anomaly demarcates a transition, or cross-over, from a quasiparticle band at low binding energies near the Fermi level to valence bands at higher binding energy, assumed to be of strong oxygen character.

  4. Insights on the cuprate high energy anomaly observed in ARPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritz, B., E-mail: moritzb@slac.stanford.ed [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202 (United States); Johnston, S. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Devereaux, T.P. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Recently, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been used to highlight an anomalously large band renormalization at high binding energies in cuprate superconductors: the high energy 'waterfall' or high energy anomaly (HEA). The anomaly is present for both hole- and electron-doped cuprates as well as the half-filled parent insulators with different energy scales arising on either side of the phase diagram. While photoemission matrix elements clearly play a role in changing the aesthetic appearance of the band dispersion, i.e. creating a 'waterfall'-like appearance, they provide an inadequate description for the physics that underlies the strong band renormalization giving rise to the HEA. Model calculations of the single-band Hubbard Hamiltonian showcase the role played by correlations in the formation of the HEA and uncover significant differences in the HEA energy scale for hole- and electron-doped cuprates. In addition, this approach properly captures the transfer of spectral weight accompanying doping in a correlated material and provides a unifying description of the HEA across both sides of the cuprate phase diagram. We find that the anomaly demarcates a transition, or cross-over, from a quasiparticle band at low binding energies near the Fermi level to valence bands at higher binding energy, assumed to be of strong oxygen character.

  5. Thermal analysis of the Pioneer anomaly: A method to estimate radiative momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.; Francisco, F.; Gil, P. J. S.

    2008-01-01

    We present a methodology based on pointlike Lambertian sources that enables one to perform a reliable and comprehensive estimate of the overall thermally induced acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. We show, by developing a sensitivity analysis of the several parameters of the model, that one may achieve a valuable insight into the possible thermal origin of the so-called Pioneer anomaly.

  6. Detection of Cardiovascular Anomalies: An Observer-Based Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    In this thesis, a methodology for the detection of anomalies in the cardiovascular system is presented. The cardiovascular system is one of the most fascinating and complex physiological systems. Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases constitute one of the most important causes of mortality in the world. For instance, an estimate of 17.3 million people died in 2008 from cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, many studies have been devoted to modeling the cardiovascular system in order to better understand its behavior and find new reliable diagnosis techniques. The lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system proposed in [1] is restructured using a hybrid systems approach in order to include a discrete input vector that represents the influence of the mitral and aortic valves in the different phases of the cardiac cycle. Parting from this model, a Taylor expansion around the nominal values of a vector of parameters is conducted. This expansion serves as the foundation for a component fault detection process to detect changes in the physiological parameters of the cardiovascular system which could be associated with cardiovascular anomalies such as atherosclerosis, aneurysm, high blood pressure, etc. An Extended Kalman Filter is used in order to achieve a joint estimation of the state vector and the changes in the considered parameters. Finally, a bank of filters is, as in [2], used in order to detect the appearance of heart valve diseases, particularly stenosis and regurgitation. The first numerical results obtained are presented.

  7. The 2014-2015 warming anomaly in the Southern California Current System observed by underwater gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaba, Katherine D.; Rudnick, Daniel L.

    2016-02-01

    Large-scale patterns of positive temperature anomalies persisted throughout the surface waters of the North Pacific Ocean during 2014-2015. In the Southern California Current System, measurements by our sustained network of underwater gliders reveal the coastal effects of the recent warming. Regional upper ocean temperature anomalies were greatest since the initiation of the glider network in 2006. Additional observed physical anomalies included a depressed thermocline, high stratification, and freshening; induced biological consequences included changes in the vertical distribution of chlorophyll fluorescence. Contemporaneous surface heat flux and wind strength perturbations suggest that local anomalous atmospheric forcing caused the unusual oceanic conditions.

  8. THEMIS satellite observations of hot flow anomalies at Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hot flow anomalies (HFAs at Earth's bow shock were identified in Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms (THEMIS satellite data from 2007 to 2009. The events were classified as young or mature and also as regular or spontaneous hot flow anomalies (SHFAs. The dataset has 17 young SHFAs, 49 mature SHFAs, 15 young HFAs, and 55 mature HFAs. They span a wide range of magnetic local times (MLTs from approximately 7 to 16.5 MLT. The largest ratio of solar wind to HFA core density occurred near dusk and at larger distances from the bow shock. In this study, HFAs and SHFAs were observed up to 6.3 RE and 6.1 RE (Earth radii, respectively, upstream from the model bow shock. HFA–SHFA occurrence decreases with distance upstream from the bow shock. HFAs of the highest event core ion temperatures were not seen at the flanks. The ratio of HFA ion temperature increase to HFA electron temperature increase is highest around 12 MLT and slightly duskward. For SHFAs, (Tihfa∕Tisw/(Tehfa∕Tesw generally increased with distance from the bow shock. Both mature and young HFAs are more prevalent when there is an approximately radial interplanetary magnetic field. HFAs occur most preferentially for solar wind speeds from 550 to 600 km s−1. The correlation coefficient between the HFA increase in thermal energy density from solar wind values and the decrease in kinetic energy density from solar wind values is 0.62. SHFAs and HFAs do not show major differences in this study.

  9. Potential tank waste material anomalies located near the liquid observation wells: Model predicted responses of a neutron moisture detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finfrock, S.H.; Toffer, H.; Watson, W.T.

    1994-09-01

    Extensive analyses have been completed to demonstrate that a neutron moisture probe can be used to recognize anomalies in materials and geometry surrounding the liquid observation wells (LOWs). Furthermore, techniques can be developed that will permit the interpretation of detector readings, perturbed by the presence of anomalies, as more accurate moisture concentrations. This analysis effort extends the usefulness of a neutron moisture probe system significantly, especially in the complicated geometries and material conditions that may be encountered in the waste tanks. Both static-source and pulsed-source neutron probes were considered in the analyses. Four different detector configurations were investigated: Thermal and epithermal neutron detectors located in both the near and far field

  10. Information-theoretic equilibrium and observable thermalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzà, F.; Vedral, V.

    2017-03-01

    A crucial point in statistical mechanics is the definition of the notion of thermal equilibrium, which can be given as the state that maximises the von Neumann entropy, under the validity of some constraints. Arguing that such a notion can never be experimentally probed, in this paper we propose a new notion of thermal equilibrium, focused on observables rather than on the full state of the quantum system. We characterise such notion of thermal equilibrium for an arbitrary observable via the maximisation of its Shannon entropy and we bring to light the thermal properties that it heralds. The relation with Gibbs ensembles is studied and understood. We apply such a notion of equilibrium to a closed quantum system and show that there is always a class of observables which exhibits thermal equilibrium properties and we give a recipe to explicitly construct them. Eventually, an intimate connection with the Eigenstate Thermalisation Hypothesis is brought to light.

  11. Driving Roles of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Thermal Anomalies in Intensification and Persistence of the Arctic Superstorm in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Fu, Yunfei; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2017-10-01

    Intense synoptic-scale storms have been more frequently observed over the Arctic during recent years. Specifically, a superstorm hit the Arctic Ocean in August 2012 and preceded a new record low Arctic sea ice extent. In this study, the major physical processes responsible for the storm's intensification and persistence are explored through a series of numerical modeling experiments with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. It is found that thermal anomalies in troposphere as well as lower stratosphere jointly lead to the development of this superstorm. Thermal contrast between the unusually warm Siberia and the relatively cold Arctic Ocean results in strong troposphere baroclinicity and upper level jet, which contribute to the storm intensification initially. On the other hand, Tropopause Polar Vortex (TPV) associated with the thermal anomaly in lower stratosphere further intensifies the upper level jet and accordingly contributes to a drastic intensification of the storm. Stacking with the enhanced surface low, TPV intensifies further, which sustains the storm to linger over the Arctic Ocean for an extended period.

  12. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Coarse Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 5km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on...

  13. MODIS/Aqua Thermal Anomalies/Fire 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  14. MODIS/Aqua Thermal Anomalies/Fire Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  15. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on...

  16. MODIS/Terra Thermal Anomalies/Fire 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  17. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Coarse Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 5km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on...

  18. MODIS/Aqua Coarse Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 5km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  19. MODIS/Terra Coarse Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 5km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  20. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on...

  1. MODIS/Terra Thermal Anomalies/Fire Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  2. La prospection geothermique de surface au Maroc: hydrodynamisme, anomalies thermiques et indices de surfaceGeothermal prospecting in Morocco: hydrodynamics, thermal anomalies and surface indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarhloule, Y.; Lahrache, A.; Ben Abidate, L.; Khattach, D.; Bouri, S.; Boukdir, A.; Ben Dhia, H.

    2001-05-01

    Shallow geothermal prospecting ( < 700 m) has been performed in four zones in Morocco for which few deep data are available: northwestern basin, northeastern basin, Tadla Basin and Agadir Basin. These areas are different geologically and hydrogeologically. The temperature data from 250 wells at depths between 15 and 500 m have been analysed in order to estimate the natural geothermal gradient in these areas, to determine the principal thermal anomalies, to identify the main thermal indices and to characterise the recharge, discharge and potential mixing limits of the aquifers. The hydrostratigraphical study of each basin revealed several potential reservoir layers in which the Turonian carbonate aquifer (Tadal and Agadir Basins) and Liassic acquifer (Moroccan northwestern and northeastern basins) are the most important hot water reservoirs in Morocco. The recharge zones of each aquifer are characterised by high topography, high water potential, shallow cold water, low geothermal gradient and negative anomalies. The discharge zones are characterized by low topography, low piezometric level, high geothermal gradient, high temperature with hot springs and positive anomalies. The main thermal indices and the principal thermal anomalies that coincide with the artesian zones of the Turonian and Liassic aquifers have been identified.

  3. Multivariate anomaly detection for Earth observations: a comparison of algorithms and feature extraction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Flach

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, many processes at the Earth's surface are constantly monitored by multiple data streams. These observations have become central to advancing our understanding of vegetation dynamics in response to climate or land use change. Another set of important applications is monitoring effects of extreme climatic events, other disturbances such as fires, or abrupt land transitions. One important methodological question is how to reliably detect anomalies in an automated and generic way within multivariate data streams, which typically vary seasonally and are interconnected across variables. Although many algorithms have been proposed for detecting anomalies in multivariate data, only a few have been investigated in the context of Earth system science applications. In this study, we systematically combine and compare feature extraction and anomaly detection algorithms for detecting anomalous events. Our aim is to identify suitable workflows for automatically detecting anomalous patterns in multivariate Earth system data streams. We rely on artificial data that mimic typical properties and anomalies in multivariate spatiotemporal Earth observations like sudden changes in basic characteristics of time series such as the sample mean, the variance, changes in the cycle amplitude, and trends. This artificial experiment is needed as there is no gold standard for the identification of anomalies in real Earth observations. Our results show that a well-chosen feature extraction step (e.g., subtracting seasonal cycles, or dimensionality reduction is more important than the choice of a particular anomaly detection algorithm. Nevertheless, we identify three detection algorithms (k-nearest neighbors mean distance, kernel density estimation, a recurrence approach and their combinations (ensembles that outperform other multivariate approaches as well as univariate extreme-event detection methods. Our results therefore provide an effective workflow to

  4. Near Real Time website for IASI observations of atmospheric anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Catherine; Grainger, Don; Marsh, Kevin; Carboni, Elisa; Ventress, Lucy; Smith, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Rapid analysis of satellite observations of the state of the atmosphere and the contaminant levels within it can be used for pollution monitoring, forest fire detection and volcanic activity monitoring. There are numerous operational satellite instruments for which this is possible. The IASI instruments, currently flying on board the MetOp-A and MetOp-B satellite platforms, are used to produce Near Real Time (NRT) data using analysis algorithms developed by Oxford University. The data is then displayed on a website within 3 hours of measurement. This allows for the semi-continuous monitoring of the state of the atmosphere over most of the globe, both in daylight and at night. Global coverage is achieved 4 times per day, which is a significant advantage over most of the alternatives, either geostationary, giving limited spatial coverage, or UV instruments which are only able to observe during the daylight side of the orbit. The website includes flags for atmospheric contaminants detectable by IASI, including dust, biomass burning-derived species and volcanic ash and SO2. In the near future, the website will be developed to also include a quantitative estimate of the mass loading of SO2 contained within any volcanic cloud. Emissions of volcanic products, such as ash and SO2, are useful indicators of a change in the activity level of a volcano. Since many volcanoes are only monitored by remote sensing methods, such as satellite instruments, this can be the only such indicator available. These emissions are also dangerous to passing aircraft, causing damage to external surfaces of the plane and to the engines, sometimes leading to failure. Evacuation of regions surrounding volcanoes, and cessation or diversion of air traffic around actively erupting volcanoes is costly and highly disruptive but is sometimes required. Up to date information is of critical importance as to when to make these sensitive decisions. An archive of data will be available to allow for easy

  5. Ice Ih anomalies: Thermal contraction, anomalous volume isotope effect, and pressure-induced amorphization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Michael A.; Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So

    2016-05-01

    Ice Ih displays several anomalous thermodynamic properties such as thermal contraction at low temperatures, an anomalous volume isotope effect (VIE) rendering the volume of D2O ice greater than that of H2O ice, and a pressure-induced transition to the high-density amorphous (HDA) phase. Furthermore, the anomalous VIE increases with temperature, despite its quantum-mechanical origin. Here, embedded-fragment ab initio second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theory in the quasiharmonic approximation (QHA) is applied to the Gibbs energy of an infinite, proton-disordered crystal of ice Ih at wide ranges of temperatures and pressures. The quantum effect of nuclei moving in anharmonic potentials is taken into account from first principles without any empirical or nonsystematic approximation to either the electronic or vibrational Hamiltonian. MP2 predicts quantitatively correctly the thermal contraction at low temperatures, which is confirmed to originate from the volume-contracting hydrogen-bond bending modes (acoustic phonons). It qualitatively reproduces (but underestimates) the thermal expansion at higher temperatures, caused by the volume-expanding hydrogen-bond stretching (and to a lesser extent librational) modes. The anomalous VIE is found to be the result of subtle cancellations among closely competing isotope effects on volume from all modes. Consequently, even ab initio MP2 with the aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets has difficulty reproducing this anomaly, yielding qualitatively varied predictions of the sign of the VIE depending on such computational details as the choice of the embedding field. However, the temperature growth of the anomalous VIE is reproduced robustly and is ascribed to the librational modes. These solid-state MP2 calculations, as well as MP2 Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, find a volume collapse and a loss of symmetry and long-range order in ice Ih upon pressure loading of 2.35 GPa or higher. Concomitantly, rapid softening of

  6. Ice Ih anomalies: Thermal contraction, anomalous volume isotope effect, and pressure-induced amorphization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salim, Michael A.; Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So, E-mail: sohirata@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Ice Ih displays several anomalous thermodynamic properties such as thermal contraction at low temperatures, an anomalous volume isotope effect (VIE) rendering the volume of D{sub 2}O ice greater than that of H{sub 2}O ice, and a pressure-induced transition to the high-density amorphous (HDA) phase. Furthermore, the anomalous VIE increases with temperature, despite its quantum-mechanical origin. Here, embedded-fragment ab initio second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theory in the quasiharmonic approximation (QHA) is applied to the Gibbs energy of an infinite, proton-disordered crystal of ice Ih at wide ranges of temperatures and pressures. The quantum effect of nuclei moving in anharmonic potentials is taken into account from first principles without any empirical or nonsystematic approximation to either the electronic or vibrational Hamiltonian. MP2 predicts quantitatively correctly the thermal contraction at low temperatures, which is confirmed to originate from the volume-contracting hydrogen-bond bending modes (acoustic phonons). It qualitatively reproduces (but underestimates) the thermal expansion at higher temperatures, caused by the volume-expanding hydrogen-bond stretching (and to a lesser extent librational) modes. The anomalous VIE is found to be the result of subtle cancellations among closely competing isotope effects on volume from all modes. Consequently, even ab initio MP2 with the aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets has difficulty reproducing this anomaly, yielding qualitatively varied predictions of the sign of the VIE depending on such computational details as the choice of the embedding field. However, the temperature growth of the anomalous VIE is reproduced robustly and is ascribed to the librational modes. These solid-state MP2 calculations, as well as MP2 Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, find a volume collapse and a loss of symmetry and long-range order in ice Ih upon pressure loading of 2.35 GPa or higher. Concomitantly, rapid

  7. The 2014-2015 Warming Anomaly in the Southern California Current System: Glider Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaba, K. D.; Rudnick, D. L.

    2016-02-01

    During 2014-2015, basin-wide patterns of oceanic and atmospheric anomalies affected surface waters throughout the North Pacific Ocean. We present regional physical and biological effects of the warming, as observed by our autonomous underwater gliders in the southern California Current System (SCCS). Established in 2006, the California Glider Network provides sustained subsurface observations for monitoring the coastal effects of large-scale climate variability. Along repeat sections that extend to 350-500 km in offshore distance and 500 m in depth, Spray gliders have continuously occupied CalCOFI lines 66.7, 80, and 90 for nearly nine years. Following a sawtooth trajectory, the gliders complete each dive in approximately 3 hours and over 3 km. Measured variables include pressure, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, and velocity. For each of the three lines, a comprehensive climatology has been constructed from the multiyear timeseries. The ongoing surface-intensified warming anomaly, which began locally in early 2014 and persists through present, is unprecedented in the glider climatology. Reaching up to 5°C, positive temperature anomalies have been generally confined to the upper 50 m and persistent for over 20 months. The timing of the warming was in phase along each glider line but out of phase with equatorial SST anomalies, suggesting a decoupling of tropical and mid-latitude dynamics. Concurrent physical oceanographic anomalies included a depressed thermocline and high stratification. An induced biological response was apparent in the deepening of the subsurface chlorophyll fluorescence maximum. Ancillary atmospheric data from the NCEP North American Mesoscale (NAM) model indicate that a combination of surface forcing anomalies, namely high downward heat flux and weak wind stress magnitude, caused the unusual warm, downwelling conditions. With a strong El Niño event in the forecast for winter 2015-2016, our sustained glider network will

  8. Studies concerning average volume flow and waterpacking anomalies in thermal-hydraulics codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyczkowski, R.W.; Ching, J.T.; Mecham, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    One-dimensional hydrodynamic codes have been observed to exhibit anomalous behavior in the form of non-physical pressure oscillations and spikes. It is our experience that sometimes this anomaloous behavior can result in mass depletion, steam table failure and in severe cases, problem abortion. In addition, these non-physical pressure spikes can result in long running times when small time steps are needed in an attempt to cope with anomalous solution behavior. The source of these pressure spikes has been conjectured to be caused by nonuniform enthalpy distribution or wave reflection off the closed end of a pipe or abrupt changes in pressure history when the fluid changes from subcooled to two-phase conditions. It is demonstrated in this paper that many of the faults can be attributed to inadequate modeling of the average volume flow and the sharp fluid density front crossing a junction. General corrective models are difficult to devise since the causes of the problems touch on the very theoretical bases of the differential field equations and associated solution scheme. For example, the fluid homogeneity assumption and the numerical extrapolation scheme have placed severe restrictions on the capability of a code to adequately model certain physical phenomena involving fluid discontinuities. The need for accurate junction and local properties to describe phenomena internal to a control volume often points to additional lengthy computations that are difficult to justify in terms of computational efficiency. Corrective models that are economical to implement and use are developed. When incorporated into the one-dimensional, homogeneous transient thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code, RELAP4, they help mitigate many of the code's difficulties related to average volume flow and water-packing anomalies. An average volume flow model and a critical density model are presented. Computational improvements due to these models are also demonstrated

  9. High energy electron and proton observations in the South Atlantic geomagnetic anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Nagata, K.; Kohno, T.; Murakami, H.

    1988-01-01

    The method developed by researchers of cooperation agreement between Japan and Brazil, to observe high energy particles in the South Atlantic Geomagnetic Anomaly, is described. The energy spectra and pitch angle distributions of electrons and protons, using silicon detectors of good energy resolution and two spectrometers with different geometrical factors, on board of the OHZORA satellite, were determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. Thermal anomalies detection before strong earthquakes (M > 6.0 using interquartile, wavelet and Kalman filter methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akhoondzadeh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal anomaly is known as a significant precursor of strong earthquakes, therefore Land Surface Temperature (LST time series have been analyzed in this study to locate relevant anomalous variations prior to the Bam (26 December 2003, Zarand (22 February 2005 and Borujerd (31 March 2006 earthquakes. The duration of the three datasets which are comprised of MODIS LST images is 44, 28 and 46 days for the Bam, Zarand and Borujerd earthquakes, respectively. In order to exclude variations of LST from temperature seasonal effects, Air Temperature (AT data derived from the meteorological stations close to the earthquakes epicenters have been taken into account. The detection of thermal anomalies has been assessed using interquartile, wavelet transform and Kalman filter methods, each presenting its own independent property in anomaly detection. The interquartile method has been used to construct the higher and lower bounds in LST data to detect disturbed states outside the bounds which might be associated with impending earthquakes. The wavelet transform method has been used to locate local maxima within each time series of LST data for identifying earthquake anomalies by a predefined threshold. Also, the prediction property of the Kalman filter has been used in the detection process of prominent LST anomalies. The results concerning the methodology indicate that the interquartile method is capable of detecting the highest intensity anomaly values, the wavelet transform is sensitive to sudden changes, and the Kalman filter method significantly detects the highest unpredictable variations of LST. The three methods detected anomalous occurrences during 1 to 20 days prior to the earthquakes showing close agreement in results found between the different applied methods on LST data in the detection of pre-seismic anomalies. The proposed method for anomaly detection was also applied on regions irrelevant to earthquakes for which no anomaly was detected

  11. Volcano Popocatepetl, Mexico: ULF geomagnetic anomalies observed at Tlamacas station during March–July, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kotsarenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the first results of ULF (Ultra Low Frequency geomagnetic anomalies observed at Tlamacas station (Long. 261.37, Lat. 19.07 located at 4 km near the volcano Popocatepetl (active volcano, Long. 261.37, Lat. 19.02 for the period March–July, 2005 and their analysis are presented. The geomagnetic data were collected with a 3-axial fluxgate magnetometer designed at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles, 1 Hz sampling rate frequency, GPS. Our analysis reveals some anomalies which are suspected to be generated by local volcanic origin: the EM background in the vicinity of the volcano is significantly noisier than in other reference stations; the sporadic strong noise-like geomagnetic activity observed in the H-component; locally generated geomagnetic pulsations (without preferred polarization are detected only at Tlamacas station.

  12. Direct correlation of observed phonon anomalies and maxima in the generalized susceptibilities of transition metal carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.J.; Freeman, A.B.

    1976-01-01

    The generalized susceptibility, chi(q), of both NbC and TaC determined from APW energy band calculations show large maxima to occur at precisely those q/sub max/ values at which soft phonon modes were observed by Smith. Maxima in chi(q) are predicted for other directions. The locus of these q/sub max/ values can be represented by a warped cube of dimension approximately 1.2(2π/a) in momentum space--in striking agreement with the soft mode surface proposed phenomenologically by Weber. In sharp contrast, the chi(q) calculated for both ZrC and HfC--for which no phonon anomalies have been observed--fall off in all symmetry directions away from the zone center. The phonon anomalies in the transition metal carbides are thus interpreted as due to an ''overscreening'' effect resulting from an anomalous increase of the response function of the conduction electrons

  13. Clinical Observation of Concomitant Congenital Heart Disease and Anomaly of the Urinary System in Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Limarenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the clinical observation of multiple malformations in a child: combination of congenital heart disease with an anomaly of the urinary system on the background of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia syndrome of maximum severity. This case report is of interest to pediatricians. Children with defects of the heart and urinary system often have other malformations, so in these patients it is important to conduct a full multisystem examination.

  14. A database for the monitoring of thermal anomalies over the Amazon forest and adjacent intertropical oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Muñoz, Juan C; Mattar, Cristian; Sobrino, José A; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2015-01-01

    Advances in information technologies and accessibility to climate and satellite data in recent years have favored the development of web-based tools with user-friendly interfaces in order to facilitate the dissemination of geo/biophysical products. These products are useful for the analysis of the impact of global warming over different biomes. In particular, the study of the Amazon forest responses to drought have recently received attention by the scientific community due to the occurrence of two extreme droughts and sustained warming over the last decade. Thermal Amazoni@ is a web-based platform for the visualization and download of surface thermal anomalies products over the Amazon forest and adjacent intertropical oceans using Google Earth as a baseline graphical interface (http://ipl.uv.es/thamazon/web). This platform is currently operational at the servers of the University of Valencia (Spain), and it includes both satellite (MODIS) and climatic (ERA-Interim) datasets. Thermal Amazoni@ is composed of the viewer system and the web and ftp sites with ancillary information and access to product download.

  15. Observation of high energy electrons and protons in the South Atlantic geomagnetic anomaly by Ohzora Satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakamoto, A.; Hasebe, N.; Kikuche, J.; Doke, T.

    1988-01-01

    Observed results of the high energy electrons (0.19 - 3.2 MeV) and protons (0.58 - 35 MeV) of the South Atlantic Geomagnetic Anomaly are presented. Two silicon Δ E-E telescopes on the ohzora satellite (EXOS-C, 1984-15A) were used to observe the high energy particle and the maximum intensity of electrons and protons. The powers of energy spectra above 1 MeV have different values from energy region below 1 MeV. The electron and proton intensities are greatest at pitch angle maximized at 90 0 . (author) [pt

  16. Observing Crustal Magnetic Anomalies in Remote Ocean Regions: Filling in the Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, B.; Kinsey, J. C.; Tominaga, M.; Tivey, M.

    2016-12-01

    The use of long duration ocean observing platforms is necessary for filling in broad gaps in the observational record of magnetic anomaly measurements in the ocean basins -- observations that are necessary for understanding a variety of geophysical processes. Such an instrument would need to gather 1000s of kilometers of magnetic data untended, requiring in-situ calibration methods and minimization of energy usage. In this work an autonomous underwater glider (AUG) has been equipped with a low power flux-gate magnetic sensor. Sensor integration was tested locally in shallow water followed by deep water trials to verify the calibration procedure in June of 2016. During this cruise a 160 kilometer magnetic tow was also collected across the East Coast Shelf Anomaly to the South-East of Cape Cod. Following these tests, the AUG was deployed such that it followed the trajectory of the towed magnetic survey to provide a baseline comparison against a known methodology. For these deployments an in-situ calibration procedure was used whereby the vehicle was commanded to perform descending and ascending spirals with its actuators at various discrete locations. When combined with a temperature model for the sensor the calibrated measurements were found to be in agreement with the towed data to within several 10's of nT. These comparative measurements demonstrate the utility of using directed long duration autonomous ocean observing platforms to gather medium wavelength crustal magnetic anomaly features. This ability is especially desirable for collecting measurements in remote ocean basins, such as the Southern Ocean, where presently only a few ship tracks exist and are likely to never be sampled by conventional research vessels surveys.

  17. Ionospheric Anomalies of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake with Multiple Observations during Magnetic Storm Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang

    2017-04-01

    Ionospheric anomalies linked with devastating earthquakes have been widely investigated by scientists. It was confirmed that GNSS TECs suffered from drastically increase or decrease in some diurnal periods prior to the earthquakes. Liu et al (2008) applied a TECs anomaly calculation method to analyze M>=5.9 earthquakes in Indonesia and found TECs decadence within 2-7 days prior to the earthquakes. Nevertheless, strong TECs enhancement was observed before M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake (Zhao et al 2008). Moreover, the ionospheric plasma critical frequency (foF2) has been found diminished before big earthquakes (Pulinets et al 1998; Liu et al 2006). But little has been done regarding ionospheric irregularities and its association with earthquake. Still it is difficult to understand real mechanism between ionospheric anomalies activities and its precursor for the huge earthquakes. The M9.0 Tohoku earthquake, happened on 11 March 2011, at 05:46 UT time, was recognized as one of the most dominant events in related research field (Liu et al 2011). A median geomagnetic disturbance also occurred accompanied with the earthquake, which makes the ionospheric anomalies activities more sophisticated to study. Seismic-ionospheric disturbance was observed due to the drastic activities of earth. To further address the phenomenon, this paper investigates different categories of ionospheric anomalies induced by seismology activity, with multiple data sources. Several GNSS ground data were chosen along epicenter from IGS stations, to discuss the spatial-temporal correlations of ionospheric TECs in regard to the distance of epicenter. We also apply GIM TEC maps due to its global coverage to find diurnal differences of ionospheric anomalies compared with geomagnetic quiet day in the same month. The results in accordance with Liu's conclusions that TECs depletion occurred at days quite near the earthquake day, however the variation of TECs has special regulation contrast to the normal quiet

  18. Some isotopic and geochemical anomalies observed in Mexico prior to large scale earthquakes and volcanic eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz R, S. de la; Armienta, M.A.; Segovia A, N.

    1992-05-01

    A brief account of some experiences obtained in Mexico, related with the identification of geochemical precursors of volcanic eruptions and isotopic precursors of earthquakes and volcanic activity is given. The cases of three recent events of volcanic activity and one large earthquake are discussed in the context of an active geological environment. The positive results in the identification of some geochemical precursors that helped to evaluate the eruptive potential during two volcanic crises (Tacana 1986 and Colima 1991), and the significant radon-in-soil anomalies observed during a volcanic catastrophic eruption (El Chichon, 1982) and prior to a major earthquake (Michoacan, 1985) are critically analysed. (Author)

  19. Some isotopic and geochemical anomalies observed in Mexico prior to large scale earthquakes and volcanic eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz R, S. de la; Armienta, M A; Segovia A, N

    1992-05-15

    A brief account of some experiences obtained in Mexico, related with the identification of geochemical precursors of volcanic eruptions and isotopic precursors of earthquakes and volcanic activity is given. The cases of three recent events of volcanic activity and one large earthquake are discussed in the context of an active geological environment. The positive results in the identification of some geochemical precursors that helped to evaluate the eruptive potential during two volcanic crises (Tacana 1986 and Colima 1991), and the significant radon-in-soil anomalies observed during a volcanic catastrophic eruption (El Chichon, 1982) and prior to a major earthquake (Michoacan, 1985) are critically analysed. (Author)

  20. Direct correlation of observed phonon anomalies and maxima in the generalized susceptibilities of transition metal carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.; Freeman, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    The generalized susceptibility, chi(q vector), of both NbC and TaC determined from APW energy band calculations show large maxima to occur at precisely those q vector/sub max/ values at which soft phonon modes were observed by Smith. Maxima in chi (q vector) are predicted for other directions. The locus of these q vector/sub max/ values can be represented by a warped cube of dimension approximately 1.2 (2π/a) in momentum space, in striking agreement with the soft mode surface proposed phenomenologically by Weber. In sharp contrast, the chi(q vector) calculated for both ZrC and HfC (for which no phonon anomalies have been observed) fall off in all symmetry directions away from the zone center. The phonon anomalies in the transition metal carbides are interpreted as due to an ''overscreening'' effect resulting from an anomalous increase of the response function of the conduction electrons. 8 figures, 41 references

  1. Modeling of the Foca-Uzunada magnetic anomaly and thermal structure in the gulf of Izmir, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Attila; Bilim, Funda; Cifci, Gunay; Okay, Seda

    2018-05-01

    The Gulf of Izmir (GoI) is one of the largest gulfs in the Aegean Sea, Turkey. There is a large magnetic anomaly extending in the NE-SW direction between Foca and Uzunada (Uzun Island) in the gulf. Previously, Curie Point Depth (CPD), geothermal gradient, heat-flow and radiogenic heat production maps of the onshore part of the Aegean region were constructed from the aeromagnetic data. In this study, the same maps except radiogenic heat production map are presented for the offshore part and the largest magnetic anomaly in the northern part of the gulf is focused, particularly. As a result, the thermal structure of GoI is clearly defined and according to the results of this study, CPD values were found from 7 km in the NE of Foca to 10 km through the south of the gulf. The geothermal gradient values vary between 50 and 80 °C/km. Maximum heat flow values around the anomaly are calculated as 200 and 215 mW/m2 according to the thermal conductivity coefficients of 2.5 W m-1 K-1 and 2.7 W m-1 K-1, respectively. Although the anomaly is located in the Izmir Gulf; CPD, geothermic gradient, heat flow anomalies are shifted through the north of Foca and Aliaga towns in the Candarli Bay. This prominent anomaly in the Gulf of Izmir is associated with the magmatics that were encountered at 969 m in the Foca-1 well although it was drilled about 2 km away from the outermost closed contour of the magnetic anomaly. The anomaly is also modeled three dimensionally (3D) in this study. In the model map, the top of the causative body is completely located in the outer part of the gulf, and is very shallow at about 0.5 km while its bottom is inclined through the west of Cigli and Menemen. From this viewpoint, it is possible to suggest that the causative body is inclined through the Foca Peninsula. However, its closed contours are in the NE direction, through the Candarli Bay. Top depth of the causative body is also calculated from the basement horizon on the seismic sections crossing this

  2. A comparison of classical and intelligent methods to detect potential thermal anomalies before the 11 August 2012 Varzeghan, Iran, earthquake (Mw = 6.4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoondzadeh, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a number of classical and intelligent methods, including interquartile, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM), have been proposed to quantify potential thermal anomalies around the time of the 11 August 2012 Varzeghan, Iran, earthquake (Mw = 6.4). The duration of the data set, which is comprised of Aqua-MODIS land surface temperature (LST) night-time snapshot images, is 62 days. In order to quantify variations of LST data obtained from satellite images, the air temperature (AT) data derived from the meteorological station close to the earthquake epicenter has been taken into account. For the models examined here, results indicate the following: (i) ARIMA models, which are the most widely used in the time series community for short-term forecasting, are quickly and easily implemented, and can efficiently act through linear solutions. (ii) A multilayer perceptron (MLP) feed-forward neural network can be a suitable non-parametric method to detect the anomalous changes of a non-linear time series such as variations of LST. (iii) Since SVMs are often used due to their many advantages for classification and regression tasks, it can be shown that, if the difference between the predicted value using the SVM method and the observed value exceeds the pre-defined threshold value, then the observed value could be regarded as an anomaly. (iv) ANN and SVM methods could be powerful tools in modeling complex phenomena such as earthquake precursor time series where we may not know what the underlying data generating process is. There is good agreement in the results obtained from the different methods for quantifying potential anomalies in a given LST time series. This paper indicates that the detection of the potential thermal anomalies derive credibility from the overall efficiencies and potentialities of the four integrated methods.

  3. Impact of incorrect oral habits on mastication anomalies in children and adolescents - literature review and own observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, Agnieszka; Cudziło, Dorota; Matthews-Kozanecka, Maja; Turska-Malińska, Renata

    Incorrect oral habits, such as dysfunctions and parafunctions, may lead to the development of mastication anomalies. The present analysis covered 15 publications from the years 2005-2015, examining the impact of harmful oral habits and dysfunctions on the development of mastication anomalies. Based on the literature review, it can be stated that malocclusion is common in populations worldwide, irrespective of the racial background. The malocclusion severity is related to harmful habits and dysfunctions co-occurring during individual development. The prevalence of malocclusion and dental anomalies related to parafunctions and dysfunctions has been observed to have a tendency to grow.

  4. Environmental Drivers of Variation in Bleaching Severity of Acropora Species during an Extreme Thermal Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia O. Hoogenboom

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High sea surface temperatures caused global coral bleaching during 2015–2016. During this thermal stress event, we quantified within- and among-species variability in bleaching severity for critical habitat-forming Acropora corals. The objective of this study was to understand the drivers of spatial and species-specific variation in the bleaching susceptibility of these corals, and to evaluate whether bleaching susceptibility under extreme thermal stress was consistent with that observed during less severe bleaching events. We surveyed and mapped Acropora corals at 10 sites (N = 596 around the Lizard Island group on the northern Great Barrier Reef. For each colony, bleaching severity was quantified using a new image analysis technique, and we assessed whether small-scale environmental variables (depth, microhabitat, competition intensity and species traits (colony morphology, colony size, known symbiont clade association explained variation in bleaching. Results showed that during severe thermal stress, bleaching of branching corals was linked to microhabitat features, and was more severe at reef edge compared with lagoonal sites. Bleaching severity worsened over a very short time-frame (~1 week, but did not differ systematically with water depth, competition intensity, or colony size. At our study location, within- and among-species variation in bleaching severity was relatively low compared to the level of variation reported in the literature. More broadly, our results indicate that variability in bleaching susceptibility during extreme thermal stress is not consistent with that observed during previous bleaching events that have ranged in severity among globally dispersed sites, with fewer species escaping bleaching during severe thermal stress. In addition, shaded microhabitats can provide a refuge from bleaching which provides further evidence of the importance of topographic complexity for maintaining the biodiversity and ecosystem

  5. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) - Global, 4 km, Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1985-2005 (NODC Accession 0044419)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for...

  6. Anomaly observed in Moessbauer spectra near the neel temperature of FeBr sub 2

    CERN Document Server

    Naili Di

    2003-01-01

    In several decades, iron(II) bromide (FeBr sub 2) has been investigated as a typical Ising-type antiferromagnet by several kinds of experimental techniques. By the Moessbauer measurements, it was normally observed that only the magnetic spectrum appeared just below Neel temperature in FeBr sub 2. However, we found the anomalous spectra, in which paramagnetic component coexisted with magnetic one near Neel temperature. For two kinds of single crystal FeBr sub 2 samples, IM and IIM, we determined the Moessbauer parameters of the observed spectra by the computer analyses: the relative absorption intensity I sub p of the paramagnetic component to the total absorption area of the best fitting spectrum and the value of the hyperfine field H sub h sub f of the magnetic component and values of the quadrupole splitting 1/2 centre dot e sup 2 qQ of the magnetic and the paramagnetic components. The temperature variation of H sub h sub f is unique and the same as that observed for the sample in which the anomaly was not ...

  7. Multi-instrument observations of midlatitude summer nighttime anomaly from satellite and ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Thampi, Smitha V.; Liu, Huixin; Lin, Charles

    "Midlatitude Summer Nighttime Anomaly (MSNA)" is a phenomenon that the nighttime elec-tron densities exceed the daytime values on almost all days in summer over latitudes of 33-34N of more. We recently found the MSNA over the northeast Asian region from multi-instrument observations. The observations include the tomography analysis based on the chain of digital beacon receivers at Shionomisaki (33.45N, 135.8E), Shigaraki (34.85N, 136.1E), and Fukui (36.06N,136E), the ionosonde network over Japan (especially data from Wakkanai (45.4N, 141.7E)), ground-based GPS TEC observations using the GEONET. Also from satellites, CHAMP in situ electron density measurements, and Formosat3/COSMIC (F3/C) occultation measurements are useful to confirm the presence of MSNA over this region. In the presen-tation we show detailed features of the MSNA based on these multi-instrument, and discuss importance of the neutral atmosphere as a driver of the phenomenon.

  8. Mapping temperature and radiant geothermal heat flux anomalies in the Yellowstone geothermal system using ASTER thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to use satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data to measure, map, and monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to help meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specifically, the goals were to: 1) address the challenges of remotely characterizing the spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in Yellowstone by using nighttime TIR data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and 2) estimate the temperature, geothermal radiant emittance, and radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone’s thermal areas (both Park wide and for individual thermal areas). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) acquired at night during January and February, 2010, were used to estimate surface temperature, radiant emittance, and radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone’s thermal features, produce thermal anomaly maps, and update field-based maps of thermal areas. A background subtraction technique was used to isolate the geothermal component of TIR radiance from thermal radiance due to insolation. A lower limit for the Yellowstone’s total radiant GHF was established at ~2.0 GW, which is ~30-45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical (Cl-flux) methods. Additionally, about 5 km2 was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. This work provides a framework for future satellite-based thermal monitoring at Yellowstone as well as exploration of other volcanic / geothermal systems on a global scale.

  9. OBSERVED ASTEROID SURFACE AREA IN THE THERMAL INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E.; Sonnett, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wright, E. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The rapid accumulation of thermal infrared observations and shape models of asteroids has led to increased interest in thermophysical modeling. Most of these infrared observations are unresolved. We consider what fraction of an asteroid’s surface area contributes the bulk of the emitted thermal flux for two model asteroids of different shapes over a range of thermal parameters. The resulting observed surface in the infrared is generally more fragmented than the area observed in visible wavelengths, indicating high sensitivity to shape. For objects with low values of the thermal parameter, small fractions of the surface contribute the majority of thermally emitted flux. Calculating observed areas could enable the production of spatially resolved thermal inertia maps from non-resolved observations of asteroids.

  10. Comparison of satellite altimetry sea level anomalies and hydrographic observations in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mir Calafat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Steric sea level (SSL computed from hydrographic observations in the Mediterranean Sea is compared against altimetric sea level anomalies (SLA at seasonal and inter-annual time scales for the period 1993-2008. SSL (referenced to 300 m is computed using two data sets: in situ profiles and gridded products obtained from interpolated observations. The impact of expendable/mechanical bathythermograph (XBT/MBT biases affecting some of the in situ profiles is investigated by comparing both corrected and uncorrected data. For the period 2003-2008 the mass component is estimated from GRACE observations and subtracted from SLA. The analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of profiles shows that the number of profiles with data below 300 m is a small percentage of the total and that their spatial coverage of the Mediterranean basin is very limited. This is an important handicap for regions where the contribution of the deep layers to SSL is significant. Overall, SSL and SLA are shown to be consistent in the Mediterranean at seasonal time scales, although the annual amplitude of the SSL from in situ profiles and interpolated data is considerably smaller than that of the SLA. The agreement at inter-annual time scales is less good. At some particular locations SSL computed from individual profiles is more correlated with SLA than the gridded products. At basin and sub-basin scales, however, interpolated and in situ observations provide similar results in terms of their correlation with observed SLA. The XBT/MBT bias corrections have little effect on the SSL at the time scales considered in this study.

  11. Observations in equatorial anomaly region of total electron content enhancements and depletions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dashora

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A GSV 4004A GPS receiver has been operational near the crest of the equatorial anomaly at Udaipur, India for some time now. The receiver provides the line-of-sight total electron content (TEC, the phase and amplitude scintillation index, σφ and S4, respectively. This paper presents the first results on the nighttime TEC depletions associated with the equatorial spread F in the Indian zone. The TEC depletions are found to be very well correlated with the increased S4 index. A new feature of low-latitude TEC is also reported, concerning the observation of isolated and localized TEC enhancements in the nighttime low-latitude ionosphere. The TEC enhancements are not correlated with the S4 index. The TEC enhancements have also been observed along with the TEC depletions. The TEC enhancements have been interpreted as the manifestation of the plasma density enhancements reported by Le et al. (2003.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Equatorial ionosphere; Ionospheric irregularities

  12. Corals and Their Microbiomes Are Differentially Affected by Exposure to Elevated Nutrients and a Natural Thermal Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient pollution can increase the prevalence and severity of coral disease and bleaching in ambient temperature conditions or during experimental thermal challenge. However, there have been few opportunities to study the effects of nutrient pollution during natural thermal anomalies. Here we present results from an experiment conducted during the 2014 bleaching event in the Florida Keys, USA, that exposed Agaricia sp. (Undaria and Siderastrea siderea corals to 3 types of elevated nutrients: nitrogen alone, phosphorous alone, and the combination of nitrogen and phosphorus. Overall, bleaching prevalence and severity was high regardless of treatment, but nitrogen enrichment alone both prolonged bleaching and increased coral mortality in Agaricia corals. At the same time, the elevated temperatures increased the prevalence of Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS, a disease typically associated with cold temperatures in Siderastrea siderea corals. However, nutrient exposure alone did not increase the prevalence or severity of disease, suggesting that thermal stress overwhelms the effects of nutrient pollution on this disease during such an extreme thermal event. Analysis of 78 Siderastrea siderea microbial metagenomes also showed that the thermal event was correlated with significant shifts in the composition and function of the associated microbiomes, and corals with DSS had microbiomes distinct from apparently healthy corals. In particular, we identified shifts in viral, archaeal, and fungal families. These shifts were likely driven by the extreme temperatures or other environmental co-variates occurring during the 2014 bleaching event. However, no microbial taxa were correlated with signs of DSS. Furthermore, although nutrient exposure did not affect microbial alpha diversity, it did significantly affect microbiome beta-diversity, an effect that was independent of time. These results suggest that strong thermal anomalies and local nutrient pollution both

  13. Salinity-induced stratification and the onset of hypoxia during the Holocene Thermal Maximum and the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadomanolaki, Nina; Dijkstra, Nikki; van Helmond, Niels; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Hagens, Mathilde; Kotthoff, Ulrich; Slomp, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    During the past ~8000 years the Baltic Sea has experienced three distinct intervals of hypoxia, of which the last one is still ongoing. These intervals are characterized by enhanced sedimentary organic matter burial and enrichment of redox-sensitive metals, such as molybdenum and iron. The first two of these intervals occurred during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), two phases with high temperatures and changed precipitation patterns. Studies focussing on the Holocene sedimentary record of the Baltic Sea aim at clarifying the causes of the initiation, evolution and termination of these hypoxic intervals, as well as their consequences. This information could help to potentially aid in finding solutions for the mitigation of present-day hypoxia in the Baltic Sea. The factors contributing to hypoxia development during the HTM and MCA are still debated. Here we present data from a core retrieved during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 347 in the Landsort Deep basin, the deepest basin of the Baltic Sea at 463m water depth. Sediments were analysed at a high resolution using inorganic geochemical and (mainly marine) palynological proxies. Dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblages and total elemental compositions provide clues on the role of salinity in enhancing stratification, ultimately causing hypoxia. During the onset of the HTM changes in salinity, as indicated by the palynology, closely follow changes in sedimentary organic carbon burial and trace metal concentrations. This suggests that stratification was an important cause of hypoxia during the HTM. In contrast, the palynology suggests that reduced stratification did not contribute to re-oxygenation during the termination of the HTM. We did not observe major changes in the palynology throughout the hypoxic interval of the MCA. Our results thus suggest that changes in salinity did not cause the onset and termination of hypoxia during the MCA.

  14. Information-theoretic equilibrium and observable thermalization

    OpenAIRE

    Anza, Fabio; Vedral, Vlatko

    2015-01-01

    To understand under which conditions thermodynamics emerges from the microscopic dynamics is the ultimate goal of statistical mechanics. Despite the fact that the theory is more than 100 years old, we are still discussing its foundations and its regime of applicability. A point of crucial importance is the definition of the notion of thermal equilibrium, which is given as the state that maximises the von Neumann entropy. Here we argue that it is necessary to propose a new way of describing th...

  15. The intermediate layers and associated tidal motions observed by a digisonde in the equatorial anomaly region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Lee

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This investigation presents an initial attempt to analyze a full year of daily ionosonde observations relevant to the determination of plasma densities, tidal structures, and ion transports in the equatorial anomaly region of the lower ionosphere. Particular focus is on the intermediate layers, their seasonal and diurnal variations, and cause-effect relationships. The ionogram database was recorded using a digisonde portable sounder (DPS at National Central University (NCU, 24 °58' N, 121°11' E during 1996. Statistical results indicate that the intermediate layers appear primarily during the daytime of the spring/winter months. The monthly median height characteristics reveal that the layers descend from high to low altitudes and different tidal motions control the layers in different months. Generally, the semi-diurnal and quarter-diurnal tides, which cause ionization convergence, are mainly in the spring/winter and summer/autumn months, respectively. Variations in the electron densities of the layers also indicate that the density increases could result from a great number of molecular and metallic ions. Furthermore, a novel approach to ionogram presentation is introduced to investigate the intermediate layers. This approach allows the DPS to characterize the detailed daily information of the intermediate layers.Key words. Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; ionospheric irregularities

  16. Outcome of assisted reproduction in women with congenital uterine anomalies: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, M; Richardson, A; Asif, S; Polanski, L; Parris-Larkin, M; Chandler, J; Fogg, L; Jassal, P; Thornton, J G; Raine-Fenning, N J

    2018-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of congenital uterine anomalies, including arcuate uterus, and their effect on reproductive outcome in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. Consecutive women referred for subfertility between May 2009 and November 2015 who underwent assisted reproduction were included in the study. As part of the initial assessment, each woman underwent three-dimensional transvaginal sonography. Uterine morphology was classified using the modified American Fertility Society (AFS) classification of congenital uterine anomalies proposed by Salim et al. If the external contour of the uterus was uniformly convex or had an indentation of Reproductive outcomes, including live birth, clinical pregnancy and preterm birth, were compared between women with a normal uterus and those with a congenital uterine anomaly. Subgroup analysis by type of uterine morphology and logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, body mass index, levels of anti-Müllerian hormone, antral follicle count and number and day of embryo transfer were performed. A total of 2375 women were included in the study, of whom 1943 (81.8%) had a normal uterus and 432 (18.2%) had a congenital uterine anomaly. The most common anomalies were arcuate (n = 387 (16.3%)) and subseptate (n = 16 (0.7%)) uterus. The rate of live birth was similar between women with a uterine anomaly and those with a normal uterus (35% vs 37%; P = 0.47). The rates of clinical pregnancy, mode of delivery and sex of the newborn were also similar between the two groups. Preterm birth before 37 weeks' gestation was more common in women with uterine anomalies than in controls (22% vs 14%, respectively; P = 0.03). Subgroup analysis by type of anomaly showed no difference in the incidence of live birth and clinical pregnancy for women with an arcuate uterus, but indicated worse pregnancy outcome in women with other major anomalies (P = 0.042 and 0.048, respectively). Congenital uterine anomalies as a whole, when

  17. Prevalence of dental anomalies among 7- to 35-year-old people in Hamadan, Iran in 2012-2013 as observed using panoramic radiographys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokri, A bbas; Poorolajal, Jalal; Khajeh, Samira; Faramarzi, Farhad; Kahnamoui, Hanieh Mogaver

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of all types and subtypes of dental anomalies among 7- to 35-year-old patients by using panoramic radiographs. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1649 people in Hamadan City, in 2012-2013. The prevalence of four types and 12 subtypes of dental anomalies was evaluated by two observers separately by using panoramic radiography. Dental anomalies were divided into four types: (a) shape (including fusion, taurodontism, and dens invagination); (b) number (including hypodontia, oligodontia, and hyperdontia); (c) structure (including amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta, and dentin dysplasia); and (d) position (including displacement, impaction, and dilacerations). The reliability between the two observers was 79.56% according to the Kappa statistics. The prevalence of dental anomalies diagnosed by panoramic radiographs was 29%. Anomalies of position and number were the most common types of abnormalities, and anomalies of shape and structure were the least in both genders. Anomalies of impaction (44.76%), dilacerations (21.11%), hypodontia (15.88%), taurodontism (9.29%), and hyperdontia (6.76%) were the most common subtypes of dental anomalies. The anomalies of shape and number were more common in the age groups of 7-12 years and 13-15 years, respectively, while the anomalies of structure and position were more common among the other age groups. Anomalies of tooth position were the most common type of dental anomalies, and structure anomalies were the least in this Iranian population. The frequency and type of dental anomalies vary within and between populations, confirming the role of racial factors in the prevalence of dental anomalies.

  18. Prevalence of dental anomalies among 7- to 35-year-old people in Hamadan, Iran in 2012-2013 as observed using panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Abbas; Poorolajal, Jalal; Khajeh, Samira; Faramarzi, Farhad; Kahnamoui, Hanieh Mogaver

    2014-03-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of all types and subtypes of dental anomalies among 7- to 35-year-old patients by using panoramic radiographs. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1649 people in Hamadan City, in 2012-2013. The prevalence of four types and 12 subtypes of dental anomalies was evaluated by two observers separately by using panoramic radiography. Dental anomalies were divided into four types: (a) shape (including fusion, taurodontism, and dens invagination); (b) number (including hypodontia, oligodontia, and hyperdontia); (c) structure (including amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta, and dentin dysplasia); and (d) position (including displacement, impaction, and dilacerations). The reliability between the two observers was 79.56% according to the Kappa statistics. The prevalence of dental anomalies diagnosed by panoramic radiographs was 29%. Anomalies of position and number were the most common types of abnormalities, and anomalies of shape and structure were the least in both genders. Anomalies of impaction (44.76%), dilacerations (21.11%), hypodontia (15.88%), taurodontism (9.29%), and hyperdontia (6.76%) were the most common subtypes of dental anomalies. The anomalies of shape and number were more common in the age groups of 7-12 years and 13-15 years, respectively, while the anomalies of structure and position were more common among the other age groups. Anomalies of tooth position were the most common type of dental anomalies, and structure anomalies were the least in this Iranian population. The frequency and type of dental anomalies vary within and between populations, confirming the role of racial factors in the prevalence of dental anomalies.

  19. Prevalence of dental anomalies among 7- to 35-year-old people in Hamadan, Iran in 2012-2013 as observed using panoramic radiographys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokri, A bbas; Poorolajal, Jalal; Khajeh, Samira; Faramarzi, Farhad; Kahnamoui, Hanieh Mogaver [Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of all types and subtypes of dental anomalies among 7- to 35-year-old patients by using panoramic radiographs. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1649 people in Hamadan City, in 2012-2013. The prevalence of four types and 12 subtypes of dental anomalies was evaluated by two observers separately by using panoramic radiography. Dental anomalies were divided into four types: (a) shape (including fusion, taurodontism, and dens invagination); (b) number (including hypodontia, oligodontia, and hyperdontia); (c) structure (including amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta, and dentin dysplasia); and (d) position (including displacement, impaction, and dilacerations). The reliability between the two observers was 79.56% according to the Kappa statistics. The prevalence of dental anomalies diagnosed by panoramic radiographs was 29%. Anomalies of position and number were the most common types of abnormalities, and anomalies of shape and structure were the least in both genders. Anomalies of impaction (44.76%), dilacerations (21.11%), hypodontia (15.88%), taurodontism (9.29%), and hyperdontia (6.76%) were the most common subtypes of dental anomalies. The anomalies of shape and number were more common in the age groups of 7-12 years and 13-15 years, respectively, while the anomalies of structure and position were more common among the other age groups. Anomalies of tooth position were the most common type of dental anomalies, and structure anomalies were the least in this Iranian population. The frequency and type of dental anomalies vary within and between populations, confirming the role of racial factors in the prevalence of dental anomalies.

  20. Permian-Triassic thermal anomaly of the active margin of South America as a result of plate kinematics reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, Nicolas; Jaillard, Etienne; Guillot, Stéphane; Martelat, Jean-Emmanuel; Braun, Jean

    2013-04-01

    From Permian to Triassic times, tectonic plate reorganization provoked Pangaea breakup, counterclockwise rotation of Gondwana, closing of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean and opening of the Neo-Tethys oceanic realm. Meanwhile, the switch from arc volcanism to widespread S-type magmatism along the western South American active margin around 275-265 Ma is symptomatic of the onset of a large-scale Permian-Triassic thermal anomaly (PTTA)affecting the whole margin. Here we report metamorphic and U-Pb geochronological results from the El Oro metamorphic complex in the forearc zone of southwestern Ecuador, which recorded the last step, at 230-225 Ma, of the PTTA. The change in the drift direction of Gondwana from north to east at ca. 270 Ma was related to plate reorganization and provoked the verticalization of the subducted Panthalassa slab. As the slab verticalized, strong heat advection produced a high heat flow beneath the active margin inducing the development of a huge thermal anomaly responsible for the PTTA, which lasted 30 Ma. This voluminous magmatic activity culminated at the Permian-Triassic boundary, and may have contributed to the degradation of life conditions on the Earth surface.

  1. The influence of regional surface soil moisture anomalies on forest fires in Siberia observed from satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, A [Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Balzter, H [Department of Geography, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); George, C, E-mail: ab@ipf.tuwien.ac.a [Earth Observation, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    Forest fires are frequent in the Siberian taiga and are predicted to increase in frequency as a result of increased fire risk under drought conditions, and prolonged fire seasons caused by climate change. There is, however, some uncertainty as to the extent to which drought influences forest fire frequency at a regional scale. Here, we present an analysis of satellite derived soil moisture anomaly data from ERS-1/2 (ERS: Earth Resources Satellite) scatterometer data and burned area maps from MODIS/AVHRR/ATSR (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer/Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer/Along-Track Scanning Radiometer) over Central Siberia for the years 1992-2000. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship of remotely sensed soil moisture deviations from the long-term mean and fire within the boreal biome on a sub-continental scale. Results show that wet surface soil moisture conditions limit the extent of burned area. They can prevent the outbreak of fires but the magnitude of a negative (dry) deviation does not determine the maximum size of fire affected areas. It is known from the literature, however, that an ignition is more likely to occur under low surface wetness conditions, such as those that we observed during July and August in both permafrost and non-permafrost regions. Although the burned area under drier conditions in July is lowest over non-permafrost, the actual number of fires is as high as over continuous permafrost. Approximately 80% of all events occurred under such conditions during that month. The fire size was below 50 km{sup 2} under moist conditions. Larger burned areas have in general not been detected when the surface wetness deviation exceeded +5%.

  2. The influence of regional surface soil moisture anomalies on forest fires in Siberia observed from satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, A; Balzter, H; George, C

    2009-01-01

    Forest fires are frequent in the Siberian taiga and are predicted to increase in frequency as a result of increased fire risk under drought conditions, and prolonged fire seasons caused by climate change. There is, however, some uncertainty as to the extent to which drought influences forest fire frequency at a regional scale. Here, we present an analysis of satellite derived soil moisture anomaly data from ERS-1/2 (ERS: Earth Resources Satellite) scatterometer data and burned area maps from MODIS/AVHRR/ATSR (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer/Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer/Along-Track Scanning Radiometer) over Central Siberia for the years 1992-2000. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship of remotely sensed soil moisture deviations from the long-term mean and fire within the boreal biome on a sub-continental scale. Results show that wet surface soil moisture conditions limit the extent of burned area. They can prevent the outbreak of fires but the magnitude of a negative (dry) deviation does not determine the maximum size of fire affected areas. It is known from the literature, however, that an ignition is more likely to occur under low surface wetness conditions, such as those that we observed during July and August in both permafrost and non-permafrost regions. Although the burned area under drier conditions in July is lowest over non-permafrost, the actual number of fires is as high as over continuous permafrost. Approximately 80% of all events occurred under such conditions during that month. The fire size was below 50 km 2 under moist conditions. Larger burned areas have in general not been detected when the surface wetness deviation exceeded +5%.

  3. Novel Hypomorphic Mutation in FANCD2 Gene Observed in a Fetus with Multiple Congenital Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Vazharova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies affect 1% to 2% of the newborns. The urinary tract and the kidneys are involved in 4-5% of the cases while upper-extremities abnormalities are present in 10%. Certain anomalies occur in isolation, whereas others are associated with systemic conditions. The prenatal detection of fetal anomalies compatible with life is a challenge for both the parents and the physician. The prognosis for the fetus/newborn and the reproductive decisions of the family largely depend on the causes underlying the disease. The reported case is of a G2P1 pregnant woman referred for routine ultrasound scan at 24 weeks of gestation (w.g.. The fetus had growth retardation, right kidney agenesis, bilateral absence of radial bones and thumbs, radial deviation of the wrists, and short humeri. Nuchal fold thickness was 5 mm and there was a single umbilical artery. After termination of pregnancy, SNP array genotyping and next-generation sequencing of targeted candidate-genes were performed trying to clarify the etiology of the fetal polymalformative syndrome. A new hypomorphic mutation in FANCD2 gene was found to underlie this fetal anomaly. The case illustrates that patients/families affected by rare monogenic disorders may benefit from application of modern technologies like microarrays and NGS.

  4. Observing a scale anomaly and a universal quantum phase transition in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovdat, O; Mao, Jinhai; Jiang, Yuhang; Andrei, E Y; Akkermans, E

    2017-09-11

    One of the most interesting predictions resulting from quantum physics, is the violation of classical symmetries, collectively referred to as anomalies. A remarkable class of anomalies occurs when the continuous scale symmetry of a scale-free quantum system is broken into a discrete scale symmetry for a critical value of a control parameter. This is an example of a (zero temperature) quantum phase transition. Such an anomaly takes place for the quantum inverse square potential known to describe 'Efimov physics'. Broken continuous scale symmetry into discrete scale symmetry also appears for a charged and massless Dirac fermion in an attractive 1/r Coulomb potential. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the universality of this quantum phase transition and to present convincing experimental evidence of its existence for a charged and massless fermion in an attractive Coulomb potential as realized in graphene.When the continuous scale symmetry of a quantum system is broken, anomalies occur which may lead to quantum phase transitions. Here, the authors provide evidence for such a quantum phase transition in the attractive Coulomb potential of vacancies in graphene, and further envision its universality for diverse physical systems.

  5. Interpreting anomalies observed in oxide semiconductor TFTs under negative and positive bias stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, J.W.; Nathan, A.; Barquinha, P.; Pereira, L.; Fortunato, E.; Martins, R.; Cobb, B.

    2016-01-01

    Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors can show anomalous behavior under bias stress. Two types of anomalies are discussed in this paper. The first is the shift in threshold voltage (VTH) in a direction opposite to the applied bias stress, and highly dependent on gate dielectric material. We

  6. Near-Curie magnetic anomaly at the Ni/C interface observed by Electron Holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Loris; Matteucci, Giorgio; Schofield, Marvin A

    2010-01-01

    We analyze with electron holography carried out in a transmission electron microscope the near-Curie behavior of magnetism at the edge of a Nickel thin film coated with Carbon. In-situ experiments with finely controlled variations of the sample temperature reveal an anomaly in the ferromagnetic...

  7. Can nuclear physics explain the anomaly observed in the internal pair production in the Beryllium-8 nucleus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilin Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently the experimentalists in Krasznahorkay (2016 [1] announced observing an unexpected enhancement of the e+–e− pair production signal in one of the 8Be nuclear transitions. The subsequent studies have been focused on possible explanations based on introducing new types of particle. In this work, we improve the nuclear physics modeling of the reaction by studying the pair emission anisotropy and the interferences between different multipoles in an effective field theory inspired framework, and examine their possible relevance to the anomaly. The connection between the previously measured on-shell photon production and the pair production in the same nuclear transitions is established. These improvements, absent in the original experimental analysis, should be included in extracting new particle's properties from the experiment of this type. However, the improvements can not explain the anomaly. We then explore the nuclear transition form factor as a possible origin of the anomaly, and find the required form factor to be unrealistic for the 8Be nucleus. The reduction of the anomaly's significance by simply rescaling our predicted event count is also investigated.

  8. Can nuclear physics explain the anomaly observed in the internal pair production in the Beryllium-8 nucleus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xilin; Miller, Gerald A.

    2017-10-01

    Recently the experimentalists in Krasznahorkay (2016) [1] announced observing an unexpected enhancement of the e+-e- pair production signal in one of the 8Be nuclear transitions. The subsequent studies have been focused on possible explanations based on introducing new types of particle. In this work, we improve the nuclear physics modeling of the reaction by studying the pair emission anisotropy and the interferences between different multipoles in an effective field theory inspired framework, and examine their possible relevance to the anomaly. The connection between the previously measured on-shell photon production and the pair production in the same nuclear transitions is established. These improvements, absent in the original experimental analysis, should be included in extracting new particle's properties from the experiment of this type. However, the improvements can not explain the anomaly. We then explore the nuclear transition form factor as a possible origin of the anomaly, and find the required form factor to be unrealistic for the 8Be nucleus. The reduction of the anomaly's significance by simply rescaling our predicted event count is also investigated.

  9. Prevalence of dental anomalies among 7- to 35-year-old people in Hamadan, Iran in 2012-2013 as observed using panoramic radiographs

    OpenAIRE

    Shokri, Abbas; Poorolajal, Jalal; Khajeh, Samira; Faramarzi, Farhad; Kahnamoui, Hanieh Mogaver

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of all types and subtypes of dental anomalies among 7- to 35-year-old patients by using panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1649 people in Hamadan City, in 2012-2013. The prevalence of four types and 12 subtypes of dental anomalies was evaluated by two observers separately by using panoramic radiography. Dental anomalies were divided into four types: (a) shape (including fusion, ta...

  10. Interpreting anomalies observed in oxide semiconductor TFTs under negative and positive bias stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Woo Jin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors can show anomalous behavior under bias stress. Two types of anomalies are discussed in this paper. The first is the shift in threshold voltage (VTH in a direction opposite to the applied bias stress, and highly dependent on gate dielectric material. We attribute this to charge trapping/detrapping and charge migration within the gate dielectric. We emphasize the fundamental difference between trapping/detrapping events occurring at the semiconductor/dielectric interface and those occurring at gate/dielectric interface, and show that charge migration is essential to explain the first anomaly. We model charge migration in terms of the non-instantaneous polarization density. The second type of anomaly is negative VTH shift under high positive bias stress, with logarithmic evolution in time. This can be argued as electron-donating reactions involving H2O molecules or derived species, with a reaction rate exponentially accelerated by positive gate bias and exponentially decreased by the number of reactions already occurred.

  11. Interpreting anomalies observed in oxide semiconductor TFTs under negative and positive bias stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jong Woo [LPICM, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris Saclay, 91128, Palaiseau (France); Nathan, Arokia, E-mail: an299@cam.ac.uk [Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Barquinha, Pedro; Pereira, Luís; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Cobb, Brian [Holst Centre/TNO, Eindhoven, 5656 AE (Netherlands)

    2016-08-15

    Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors can show anomalous behavior under bias stress. Two types of anomalies are discussed in this paper. The first is the shift in threshold voltage (V{sub TH}) in a direction opposite to the applied bias stress, and highly dependent on gate dielectric material. We attribute this to charge trapping/detrapping and charge migration within the gate dielectric. We emphasize the fundamental difference between trapping/detrapping events occurring at the semiconductor/dielectric interface and those occurring at gate/dielectric interface, and show that charge migration is essential to explain the first anomaly. We model charge migration in terms of the non-instantaneous polarization density. The second type of anomaly is negative V{sub TH} shift under high positive bias stress, with logarithmic evolution in time. This can be argued as electron-donating reactions involving H{sub 2}O molecules or derived species, with a reaction rate exponentially accelerated by positive gate bias and exponentially decreased by the number of reactions already occurred.

  12. Daily observations of the development of the ionospheric equatorial anomaly by means of differential Doppler shift method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.N.; Cheng, K.; Chen, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    The differential Doppler frequency shifts observed by receiving coherent radio signals at frequencies of 150 and 400 MHz transmitted from the polar orbiting satellites of U.S. Navy Navigation Satellite System have been used to deduce the latitudinal variations of the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) near the ionospheric equatorial anomaly crest region. All latitudinal variations of TEC thus obtained for each passage of an NNSS satellite are used to construct daily contour plots of TEC in a latitude versus local time coordinates. It has been shown that these contour plot of TEC can be used to investigate the behavior of TEC around equatorial anomaly crest region. Some results are presented and discussed. 18 references

  13. Observing the variation of asteroid thermal inertia with heliocentric distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozitis, B.; Green, S. F.; MacLennan, E.; Emery, J. P.

    2018-06-01

    Thermal inertia is a useful property to characterize a planetary surface, since it can be used as a qualitative measure of the regolith grain size. It is expected to vary with heliocentric distance because of its dependence on temperature. However, no previous investigation has conclusively observed a change in thermal inertia for any given planetary body. We have addressed this by using NEOWISE data and the Advanced Thermophysical Model to study the thermophysical properties of the near-Earth asteroids (1036) Ganymed, (1580) Betulia, and (276 049) 2002 CE26 as they moved around their highly eccentric orbits. We confirm that the thermal inertia values of Ganymed and 2002 CE26 do vary with heliocentric distance, although the degree of variation observed depends on the spectral emissivity assumed in the thermophysical modelling. We also confirm that the thermal inertia of Betulia did not change for three different observations obtained at the same heliocentric distance. Depending on the spectral emissivity, the variations for Ganymed and 2002 CE26 are potentially more extreme than that implied by theoretical models of heat transfer within asteroidal regoliths, which might be explained by asteroids having thermal properties that also vary with depth. Accounting for this variation reduces a previously observed trend of decreasing asteroid thermal inertia with increasing size, and suggests that the surfaces of small and large asteroids could be much more similar than previously thought. Furthermore, this variation can affect Yarkovsky orbital drift predictions by a few tens of per cent.

  14. Solar thermal barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    In 2015, the European Union saw its solar thermal market contract for the seventh year in a row. EurObserv'ER puts sales of solar thermal capacity installed for the heating market (hot water and space heating) at 1861 MWth, equivalent to a 2.7 million m"2 of collectors... a further 8.6% decrease on the previous year's poor performance. Combined solar thermal capacity installed to date in the EU stands at 34.3 GWth, or 49 million m"2 of collectors

  15. OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES OF THE CORONAL KINK INSTABILITY WITH THERMAL CONDUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, G. J. J.; Arber, T. D.; Srivastava, Abhishek K.

    2012-01-01

    It is known from numerical simulations that thermal conduction along magnetic field lines plays an important role in the evolution of the kink instability in coronal loops. This study presents the observational signatures of the kink instability in long coronal loops when parallel thermal conduction is included. The three-dimensional nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic equations are solved numerically to simulate the evolution of a coronal loop that is initially in an unstable equilibrium. The loop has length 80 Mm, width 8 Mm, and an initial maximum twist of Φ = 11.5π, where Φ is a function of the radius. The initial loop parameters are obtained from a highly twisted loop observed in the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) 171 Å wave band. Synthetic observables are generated from the data. These observables include spatial and temporal averaging to account for the resolution and exposure times of TRACE images. Parallel thermal conduction reduces the maximum local temperature by up to an order of magnitude. This means that different spectral lines are formed and different internal loop structures are visible with or without the inclusion of thermal conduction. However, the response functions sample a broad range of temperatures. The result is that the inclusion of parallel thermal conductivity does not have as large an impact on observational signatures as the order of magnitude reduction in the maximum temperature would suggest; the net effect is a blurring of internal features of the loop structure.

  16. Localization of thermal anomalies in electrical equipment using Infrared Thermography and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laib dit Leksir, Y.; Mansour, M.; Moussaoui, A.

    2018-03-01

    Analysis and processing of databases obtained from infrared thermal inspections made on electrical installations require the development of new tools to obtain more information to visual inspections. Consequently, methods based on the capture of thermal images show a great potential and are increasingly employed in this field. However, there is a need for the development of effective techniques to analyse these databases in order to extract significant information relating to the state of the infrastructures. This paper presents a technique explaining how this approach can be implemented and proposes a system that can help to detect faults in thermal images of electrical installations. The proposed method classifies and identifies the region of interest (ROI). The identification is conducted using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. The aim here is to capture the faults that exist in electrical equipments during an inspection of some machines using A40 FLIR camera. After that, binarization techniques are employed to select the region of interest. Later the comparative analysis of the obtained misclassification errors using the proposed method with Fuzzy c means and Ostu, has also be addressed.

  17. Acoustic and thermal anomalies in a liquid-glass transition of racemic S(+)-R(-) ketoprofen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomohiko; Takayama, Haruki; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kojima, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic and thermal properties of pharmaceutical racemic S(+)-R(-) ketoprofen were investigated in wide temperature range including glassy, supercooled liquid and liquid states by Brillouin scattering and temperature modulated DSC. Sound velocity and acoustic attenuation exhibited clear changes at 265 K indicating a liquid-glass transition and showed the typical structural relaxation above Tg. The high value of the fragility index m = 71 was determined by the dispersion of the complex heat capacity. New relaxation map was suggested in combination with previous study of dielectric measurement.

  18. Thermal Expansion Anomaly and Spontaneous Magnetostriction of Y2Fe14Al3 Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan-Ming, Hao; Xin-Yuan, Jiang; Chun-Jing, Gao; Yan-Zhao, Wu; Yan-Yan, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The structure and magnetic properties of Y 2 Fe 14 Al 3 compound are investigated by means of x-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The Y 2 Fe 14 Al 3 compound has a hexagonal Th 2 Ni 17 -type structure. Negative thermal expansion is found in Y 2 Fe 14 Al 3 compound in the temperature range from 403 to 491K by x-ray dilatometry. The coefficient of the average thermal expansion is α-bar = –2.54 × 10 −5 K −1 . The spontaneous magnetostrictive deformations from 283 to 470K are calculated by means of the differences between the experimental values of the lattice parameters and the corresponding values extrapolated from the paramagnetic range. The result shows that the spontaneous volume magnetostrictive deformation ω S decreases from 5.74 × 10 −3 to nearly zero with temperature increasing from 283 to 470 K, the spontaneous linear magnetostrictive deformation λ c along the c-axis is larger than the spontaneous linear magnetostrictive deformation λ a in basal-plane in the same temperature below 350 K

  19. Numerical simulation of multiple-physical fields coupling for thermal anomalies before earthquakes: A case study of the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake in southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    It has become a highly focused issue that thermal anomalies appear before major earthquakes. There are various hypotheses about the mechanism of thermal anomalies. Because of lacking of enough evidences, the mechanism is still require to be further researched. Gestation and occurrence of a major earthquake is related with the interaction of multi-physical fields. The underground fluid surging out the surface is very likely to be the reason for the thermal anomaly. This study tries to answer some question, such as how the geothermal energy transfer to the surface, and how the multiple-physical fields interacted. The 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake, is one of the largest evens in the last decade in China mainland. Remote sensing studies indicate that distinguishable thermal anomalies occurred several days before the earthquake. The heat anomaly value is more than 3 times the average in normal time and distributes along the Longmen Shan fault zone. Based on geological and geophysical data, 2D dynamic model of coupled stress, seepage and thermal fields (HTM model) is constructed. Then using the COMSOL multi-physics filed software, this work tries to reveal the generation process and distribution patterns of thermal anomalies prior to thrust-type major earthquakes. The simulation get the results: (1)Before the micro rupture, with the increase of compression, the heat current flows to the fault in the footwall on the whole, while in the hanging wall of the fault, particularly near the ground surface, the heat flow upward. In the fault zone, heat flow upward along the fracture surface, heat flux in the fracture zone is slightly larger than the wall rock;, but the value is all very small. (2)After the occurrence of the micro fracture, the heat flow rapidly collects to the faults. In the fault zones, the heat flow accelerates up along the fracture surfaces, the heat flux increases suddenly, and the vertical heat flux reaches to the maximum. The heat flux in the 3 fracture

  20. Provisional maps of thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, based on satellite thermal infrared imaging and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Heasler, Henry; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2014-01-01

    Maps that define the current distribution of geothermally heated ground are useful toward setting a baseline for thermal activity to better detect and understand future anomalous hydrothermal and (or) volcanic activity. Monitoring changes in the dynamic thermal areas also supports decisions regarding the development of Yellowstone National Park infrastructure, preservation and protection of park resources, and ensuring visitor safety. Because of the challenges associated with field-based monitoring of a large, complex geothermal system that is spread out over a large and remote area, satellite-based thermal infrared images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to map the location and spatial extent of active thermal areas, to generate thermal anomaly maps, and to quantify the radiative component of the total geothermal heat flux. ASTER thermal infrared data acquired during winter nights were used to minimize the contribution of solar heating of the surface. The ASTER thermal infrared mapping results were compared to maps of thermal areas based on field investigations and high-resolution aerial photos. Field validation of the ASTER thermal mapping is an ongoing task. The purpose of this report is to make available ASTER-based maps of Yellowstone’s thermal areas. We include an appendix containing the names and characteristics of Yellowstone’s thermal areas, georeferenced TIFF files containing ASTER thermal imagery, and several spatial data sets in Esri shapefile format.

  1. Observations of secondary oscillations in thermal grain boundary grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachenko, P.P.; Schneibel, J.H.; Zhang, W.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal grain boundary grooving by surface diffusion is accompanied not only by main maxima on either side of a groove, but also by secondary maxima and minima. We measure these oscillations in tungsten and give reasons why the observed secondary maxima and minima are larger than predicted

  2. Sunspot number recalibration: The ~1840–1920 anomaly in the observer normalization factors of the group sunspot number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliver Edward W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the normalization factors (k′-factors used to scale secondary observers to the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO reference series of the Hoyt & Schatten (1998a, 1998b group sunspot number (GSN. A time series of these k′-factors exhibits an anomaly from 1841 to 1920, viz., the average k′-factor for all observers who began reporting groups from 1841 to 1883 is 1.075 vs. 1.431 for those who began from 1884 to 1920, with a progressive rise, on average, during the latter period. The 1883–1884 break between the two subintervals occurs precisely at the point where Hoyt and Schatten began to use a complex daisy-chaining method to scale observers to RGO. The 1841–1920 anomaly implies, implausibly, that the average sunspot observer who began from 1841 to 1883 was nearly as proficient at counting groups as mid-20th century RGO (for which k′ = 1.0 by definition while observers beginning during the 1884–1920 period regressed in group counting capability relative to those from the earlier interval. Instead, as shown elsewhere and substantiated here, RGO group counts increased relative to those of other long-term observers from 1874 to ~1915. This apparent inhomogeneity in the RGO group count series is primarily responsible for the increase in k′-factors from 1884 to 1920 and the suppression, by 44% on average, of the Hoyt and Schatten GSN relative to the original Wolf sunspot number (WSN before ~1885. Correcting for the early “learning curve” in the RGO reference series and minimizing the use of daisy-chaining rectifies the anomalous behavior of the k′-factor series. The resultant GSN time series (designated GSN* is in reasonable agreement with the revised WSN (SN*; Clette & Lefèvre 2016 and the backbone-based group sunspot number (RGS; Svalgaard & Schatten 2016 but significantly higher than other recent reconstructions (Friedli, personal communication, 2016; Lockwood et al. 2014a, 2014b; Usoskin et al. 2016a. This result

  3. A rapid method to map the crustal and lithospheric thickness using elevation, geoid anomaly and thermal analysis. Application to the Gibraltar Arc System, Atlas Mountains and adjacent zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullea, J.; Fernàndez, M.; Zeyen, H.; Vergés, J.

    2007-02-01

    We present a method based on the combination of elevation and geoid anomaly data together with thermal field to map crustal and lithospheric thickness. The main assumptions are local isostasy and a four-layered model composed of crust, lithospheric mantle, sea water and the asthenosphere. We consider a linear density gradient for the crust and a temperature dependent density for the lithospheric mantle. We perform sensitivity tests to evaluate the effect of the variation of the model parameters and the influence of RMS error of elevation and geoid anomaly databases. The application of this method to the Gibraltar Arc System, Atlas Mountains and adjacent zones reveals the presence of a lithospheric thinning zone, SW-NE oriented. This zone affects the High and Middle Atlas and extends from the Canary Islands to the eastern Alboran Basin and is probably linked with a similarly trending zone of thick lithosphere constituting the western Betics, eastern Rif, Rharb Basin, and Gulf of Cadiz. A number of different, even mutually opposite, geodynamic models have been proposed to explain the origin and evolution of the study area. Our results suggest that a plausible slab-retreating model should incorporate tear and asymmetric roll-back of the subducting slab to fit the present-day observed lithosphere geometry. In this context, the lithospheric thinning would be caused by lateral asthenospheric flow. An alternative mechanism responsible for lithospheric thinning is the presence of a hot magmatic reservoir derived from a deep ancient plume centred in the Canary Island, and extending as far as Central Europe.

  4. Evaluating the SEVIRI Fire Thermal Anomaly Detection Algorithm across the Central African Republic Using the MODIS Active Fire Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick H. Freeborn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based remote sensing of active fires is the only practical way to consistently and continuously monitor diurnal fluctuations in biomass burning from regional, to continental, to global scales. Failure to understand, quantify, and communicate the performance of an active fire detection algorithm, however, can lead to improper interpretations of the spatiotemporal distribution of biomass burning, and flawed estimates of fuel consumption and trace gas and aerosol emissions. This work evaluates the performance of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI Fire Thermal Anomaly (FTA detection algorithm using seven months of active fire pixels detected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS across the Central African Republic (CAR. Results indicate that the omission rate of the SEVIRI FTA detection algorithm relative to MODIS varies spatially across the CAR, ranging from 25% in the south to 74% in the east. In the absence of confounding artifacts such as sunglint, uncertainties in the background thermal characterization, and cloud cover, the regional variation in SEVIRI’s omission rate can be attributed to a coupling between SEVIRI’s low spatial resolution detection bias (i.e., the inability to detect fires below a certain size and intensity and a strong geographic gradient in active fire characteristics across the CAR. SEVIRI’s commission rate relative to MODIS increases from 9% when evaluated near MODIS nadir to 53% near the MODIS scene edges, indicating that SEVIRI errors of commission at the MODIS scene edges may not be false alarms but rather true fires that MODIS failed to detect as a result of larger pixel sizes at extreme MODIS scan angles. Results from this work are expected to facilitate (i future improvements to the SEVIRI FTA detection algorithm; (ii the assimilation of the SEVIRI and MODIS active fire products; and (iii the potential inclusion of SEVIRI into a network of geostationary

  5. Thermally-induced ortho-para conversion anomaly in solid hydrogen under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, J K; Swenson, C A

    1979-01-01

    The spontaneous ortho-para conversion rate in solid hydrogen under pressure has been observed to increase by approximately an order of magnitude at temperatures greater than 0.08 theta/sub 0/ and for molar volumes less than 19.7 cm/sup 3/. This effect, which disappears upon cooling below these temperatures, cannot be understood in terms of present theoretical models. The heat capacity experiment (C/sub V/(V,T)) in which these effects were observed gives an equation of state for parahydrogen for pressures less than 2 kbar which agrees with previous high pressure work at 4.2/sup 0/K, and a T=O equilibrium molar volume of 23.20 +- 0.05 cm/sup 3/. 2 figures.

  6. Plasma barodiffusion in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions: application to observed yield anomalies in thermonuclear fuel mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Peter; Landen, O L; Robey, H F; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D

    2010-09-10

    The observation of large, self-generated electric fields (≥10(9)  V/m) in imploding capsules using proton radiography has been reported [C. K. Li, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 225001 (2008)]. A model of pressure gradient-driven diffusion in a plasma with self-generated electric fields is developed and applied to reported neutron yield deficits for equimolar D3He [J. R. Rygg, Phys. Plasmas 13, 052702 (2006)] and (DT)3He [H. W. Herrmann, Phys. Plasmas 16, 056312 (2009)] fuel mixtures and Ar-doped deuterium fuels [J. D. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)]. The observed anomalies are explained as a mild loss of deuterium nuclei near capsule center arising from shock-driven diffusion in the high-field limit.

  7. Detecting geothermal anomalies and evaluating LST geothermal component by combining thermal remote sensing time series and land surface model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, Mireia; Vaughan, R. Greg; Ettema, J.; Izquierdo-Verdiguier, E.; Hecker, C. A.; van der Meer, F.D.

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores for the first time the possibilities to use two land surface temperature (LST) time series of different origins (geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellite data and Noah land surface modelling, LSM), to detect geothermal anomalies and extract the geothermal component of LST, the LSTgt. We hypothesize that in geothermal areas the LSM time series will underestimate the LST as compared to the remote sensing data, since the former does not account for the geothermal component in its model.In order to extract LSTgt, two approaches of different nature (physical based and data mining) were developed and tested in an area of about 560 × 560 km2 centered at the Kenyan Rift. Pre-dawn data in the study area during the first 45 days of 2012 were analyzed.The results show consistent spatial and temporal LSTgt patterns between the two approaches, and systematic differences of about 2 K. A geothermal area map from surface studies was used to assess LSTgt inside and outside the geothermal boundaries. Spatial means were found to be higher inside the geothermal limits, as well as the relative frequency of occurrence of high LSTgt. Results further show that areas with strong topography can result in anomalously high LSTgt values (false positives), which suggests the need for a slope and aspect correction in the inputs to achieve realistic results in those areas. The uncertainty analysis indicates that large uncertainties of the input parameters may limit detection of LSTgt anomalies. To validate the approaches, higher spatial resolution images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data over the Olkaria geothermal field were used. An established method to estimate radiant geothermal flux was applied providing values between 9 and 24 W/m2 in the geothermal area, which coincides with the LSTgt flux rates obtained with the proposed approaches.The proposed approaches are a first step in estimating LSTgt

  8. Stress state and its anomaly observations in the vicinity of a fault in NanTroSEIZE Expedition 322

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Yu; Saito, Saneatsu; Kinoshita, Masataka

    2015-12-01

    To better understand the stress state and geological properties within the shallow Shikoku Basin, southwest of Japan, two sites, C0011A and C0011B, were drilled in open-ocean sediments using Logging While Drilling (LWD) and coring, respectively. Resistivity image logging was performed at C0011A from sea floor to 950 m below sea floor (mbsf). At C0011B, the serial coring was obtained in order to determine physical properties from 340 to 880 mbsf. For the LWD images, a notable breakout anomaly was observed at a depth of 615 m. Using resistivity images and a stress polygon, the potential horizontal principal stress azimuth and its magnitude within the 500-750 mbsf section of the C0011A borehole were constrained. Borehole breakout azimuths were observed for the variation by the existence of a fault zone at a depth of 615 mbsf. Out of this fracture zone, the breakout azimuth was located at approximately 109° ± 12°, subparallel to the Nankai Trough convergence vector (300-315°). Our calculations describe a stress drop was determined based on the fracture geometry. A close 90° (73° ± 12°) rotation implied a 100% stress drop, defined as a maximum shear stress drop equal to 1 MPa. The magnitude of the horizontal principal stresses near the fracture stress anomaly ranged between 49 and 52 MPa, and the bearing to the vertical stress (Sv = 52 MPa) was found to be within the normal-faulting stress regime. Low rock strength and a low stress level are necessary to satisfy the observations.

  9. Laser guide stars for daytime thermal IR observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Jacques M.

    2008-04-01

    In connection with the planning for Extremely Large Telescopes, I revisit a 2001 paper in which Cacciani and I describe the use of Sodium Laser Guide Stars (LGSs) for diffraction limited daytime astronomical observations. The enabling technology for seeing LGSs in broad daylight is the availability of very narrow band magneto-optical filters. Considering the dominance of the atmospheric scattering of sunlight at wavelengths below 3.5 μm, daytime use is only indicated for mid- and thermal IR observations. The launch of the 6.5 meter aperture James Web Space Telescope (JWST) appears to be assured and planned for 2013, preceding the most optimistic projections for the completion date of the first ELT. The projected thermal background of the JWST is very much less than that of ground-based telescopes so that any competing ground-based observations are limited to those parameters not covered by the JWST: angular resolution (requiring apertures > 6.5 meter) and spectral resolution (R>3000). I compare the benefits of daytime observations with Na-LGS equipped telescopes and interferometers at moderate latitudes and in the Antarctic (specifically Dome C). In both cases daytime observations extend the amount of observing time available for TIR observations. Antarctic observations have the advantage of having very good seeing during the daytime, significantly better than nighttime seeing. In contrast the seeing at moderate latitude sites significantly deteriorates during daytime resulting in lower quality observations than during nighttime. In addition Antarctic sites are less hostile to maintenance and operations during daytime (summer) observations as compared to nighttime (winter) observations.

  10. Can Lower Mantle Slab-like Seismic Anomalies be Explained by Thermal Coupling Between the Upper and Lower Mantles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cízková, H. (Hana); Cadek, O.; Berg, A.P. van den; Vlaar, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    Below subduction zones, high resolution seismic tomographic models resolve fast anomalies that often extend into the deep lower mantle. These anomalies are generally interpreted as slabs penetrating through the 660-km seismic discontinuity, evidence in support of whole-mantle convection. However,

  11. Seeded Growth of Ferrite Nanoparticles from Mn oxides : Observation of Anomalies in Magnetic Transitions

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon-Min; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2015-01-01

    . In MnFe2O4 NPs, spin glass-like state is observed with the decrease of magnetization below the blocking temperature due to the disordered spins during the freezing process. From these MnFe2O4 NPs, MnFe2O4@MnxFe1-xO core-shell NPs are prepared by seeded

  12. Direct observation of thermal disorder and decomposition of black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung Jo; Kim, Heejin; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Gyu

    2018-02-01

    Theoretical research has been devoted to reveal the properties of black phosphorus as a two-dimensional nanomaterial, but little attention has been paid for the experimental characterization. In this study, the thermal disorder and decomposition of black phosphorus were examined using in situ heating transmission electron microscopy experiments. We observed that the breaking of crystallographic symmetry begins at 380 °C under vacuum condition, followed by the phosphorus evaporates after long-term heating at 400 °C. This decomposition process can be initiated by the surficial vacancy and proceeds toward both interlayer ([010]) and intralayer ([001]) directions. The results on the thermal behavior of black phosphorus provide useful guidance for thin film deposition and fabrication processes with black phosphorus.

  13. Heat flow anomalies and their interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David S.; Rybach, Ladislaus

    1985-12-01

    More than 10,000 heat flow determinations exist for the earth and the data set is growing steadily at about 450 observations per year. If heat flow is considered as a surface expression of geothermal processes at depth, the analysis of the data set should reveal properties of those thermal processes. They do, but on a variety of scales. For this review heat flow maps are classified by 4 different horizontal scales of 10 n km (n = 1, 2, 3 and 4) and attention is focussed on the interpretation of anomalies which appear with characteristic dimensions of 10 (n - 1) km in the respective representations. The largest scale of 10 4 km encompasses heat flow on a global scale. Global heat loss is 4 × 10 13 W and the process of sea floor spreading is the principal agent in delivering much of this heat to the surface. Correspondingly, active ocean ridge systems produce the most prominent heat flow anomalies at this scale with characteristic widths of 10 3 km. Shields, with similar dimensions, exhibit negative anomalies. The scale of 10 3 km includes continent wide displays. Heat flow patterns at this scale mimic tectonic units which have dimensions of a few times 10 2 km, although the thermal boundaries between these units are sometimes sharp. Heat flow anomalies at this scale also result from plate tectonic processes, and are associated with arc volcanism, back arc basins, hot spot traces, and continental rifting. There are major controversies about the extent to which these surface thermal provinces reflect upper mantle thermal conditions, and also about the origin and evolution of the thermal state of continental lithosphere. Beginning with map dimensions of 10 2 km thermal anomalies of scale 10 1 km, which have a definite crustal origin, become apparent. The origin may be tectonic, geologic, or hydrologic. Ten kilometers is a common wavelength of topographic relief which drives many groundwater flow systems producing thermal anomalies. The largest recognized continental

  14. Seeded Growth of Ferrite Nanoparticles from Mn oxides : Observation of Anomalies in Magnetic Transitions

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon-Min

    2015-06-17

    A series of magnetically active ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) are prepared by using Mn oxide NPs as seeds. Verwey transition is identified in Fe3O4 NPs with an average diameter of 14.5 nm at 96 K, where a sharp drop of magnetic susceptibility occurs. In MnFe2O4 NPs, spin glass-like state is observed with the decrease of magnetization below the blocking temperature due to the disordered spins during the freezing process. From these MnFe2O4 NPs, MnFe2O4@MnxFe1-xO core-shell NPs are prepared by seeded growth. The structure of core is cubic spinels (Fd-3m), and shell is composed of iron-manganese oxide (MnxFe1-xO) with a rock salt structure (Fm-3m). Moiré fringes appear perpendicular to <110> directions on the cubic shape NPs through the plane-matched epitaxial growth. These fringes are due to the difference in their lattice spacings between MnFe2O4 and MnxFe1-xO. Exchange bias is observed in these MnFe2O4@MnxFe1-xO core-shell NPs with an enhanced coercivity as well as the shift of hysteresis along the field direction.

  15. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 2 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2008 (NODC Accession Number 0054501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for...

  16. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 4 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1981-10-31 to 2010-12-31 (NODC Accession 0087989)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for...

  17. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 3 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2009 (NODC Accession 0068999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for...

  18. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 2 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2008 (NODC Accession 0054501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for...

  19. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 5 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2012 (NCEI Accession 0126774)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Version 5 of the Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a global, 4 km, sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics dataset for...

  20. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 1 - Global, 4 km, Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1985-2005 (NODC Accession 0044419)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for...

  1. Pn-waves Travel-time Anomaly beneath Taiwan from Dense Seismic Array Observations and its Possible Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. Y.; Huang, B. S.; Ma, K. F.; Hsieh, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated travel times of Pn waves, which are of great important for understanding the Moho structure in Taiwan region. Although several high quality tomographic studies had been carried out, observations of Pn waves are still the most comprehensive way to elucidate the Moho structure. Mapping the Moho structure of Taiwan had been a challenging due to the small spatial dimension of Taiwan island with two subduction systems. To decipher the tectonic structure and understanding of earthquake hazard, the island of Taiwan have been implemented by several high density seismic stations, including 71 short-period stations of Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network (CWBSN) and 42 broardband stations of Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS). High quality seismic records of these stations would be used to identify precise Pn-wave arrival times. After station-elevation correction, we measure the difference between the observed and theoretical Pn arrivals from the IASPI 91 model for each station. For correcting uncertainties of earthquake location and origin time, we estimate relative Pn anomaly, ΔtPn , between each station and a reference station. The pattern of ΔtPn reflects the depth anomaly of Moho beneath Taiwan. In general, Pn waves are commonly observed from shallow earthquake at epicentral distance larger than 120 km. We search the global catalog since 2005 and the criteria are M > 5.5, focal depth 150 km. The 12 medium earthquakes from north Luzon are considered for analysis. We choose a station, TWKB, in the most southern point of Taiwan as the reference station due to that all events are from the south. The results indicate obvious different patterns of ΔtPn from different back-azimuths. The ΔtPn pattern of the events in the first group from the south south-east indicates that the Pn arrivals delay suddenly when the Pn waves pass through the Central Range, suggesting the Moho becomes deep rapidly. However, we cannot recognize the same pattern when

  2. Seismo-ionospheric anomalies and implications from recent GNSS observations in India and South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lithosphere and the atmosphere/ionosphere, continuously exchange energy through various coupling mechanisms. Earthquake creates waves of energy, e.g. direct shock acoustic waves (SAWs and Rayleigh wave induced acoustic waves (RAWs. In the event of an earthquake occurring beneath the sea, atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs are also generated. If the earthquake is large enough (Mw > 6, SAWs, RAWs and AGWs induce detectable ionospheric plasma perturbations. Inferring the seismological information from these seismo-ionospheric manifestations is the subject that pertains to ionospheric seismology. Both ground and satellite based advanced radio techniques are being used in monitoring ionospheric plasma perturbations. In this study, seismo-ionospheric anomalies and implications from recent GNSS observations in India and South-East Asia are discussed, mainly pertaining to the following. (1 From the ionospheric plasma response to 2015 Nepal earthquake, the estimated group velocity for Andaman and Indian shield regions are 2100 ms−1 and 3900 ms−1 respectively and validated from ground measurements. (2 Atmospheric acoustic resonance at 4.0 mHz and a train of wave packet of TEC variation resulting from the beat phenomenon observed at the site ‘umlh’ and (3 GNSS-based tsunami warning which is going to be promising tool in augmenting the existing tsunami warning systems.

  3. Observations of thermal and suprathermal tail ions from WIND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randol, B. M.; Christian, E. R.; Wilson, L. B., III

    2016-12-01

    The velocity distribution function (VDF) of solar wind protons (as well as other ion populations) is comprised of a thermal Maxwellian core and an accelerated suprathermal tail, beginning at around 1 keV in the frame co-moving with solar wind bulk velocity. The form of the suprathermal tail is a power law in phase space density, f, vs. speed, v, such that f / vγ, where γ is the power law index. This commonly observed index is of particular interest because no traditional theory predicts its existence. We need more data in order to test these theories. The general shape is of interest because it is kappa-like. We show combined observations from three different instruments on the WIND spacecraft: 3DP/PLSP, STICS, and 3DP/SST/Open. These data stretch from 102 to 107 eV in energy, encompassing both the thermal and suprathermal proton populations. We show further evidence for this kappa-like distribution and report on our progress on fitting of empirical functions to these data.

  4. On the electric field transient anomaly observed at the time of the Kythira M=6.9 earthquake on January 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Varley

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of the Earth's electromagnetic fields prior to the occurrence of strong seismic events has repeatedly revealed cases were transient anomalies, often deemed as possible earthquake precursors, were observed on electromagnetic field recordings of surface, atmosphere and near space carried out measurements. In an attempt to understand the nature of such signals several models have been proposed based upon the exhibited characteristics of the observed anomalies and different possible generation mechanisms, with electric earthquake precursors (EEP appearing to be the main candidates for short-term earthquake precursors. This paper discusses the detection of a ULF electric field transient anomaly and its identification as a possible electric earthquake precursor accompanying the Kythira M=6.9 earthquake occurred on the 8 January 2006.

  5. ALMA Thermal Observations of a Proposed Plume Source Region on Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumbo, Samantha K.; Brown, Michael E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Butler, Bryan J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We present a daytime thermal image of Europa taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. The imaged region includes the area northwest of Pwyll Crater, which is associated with a nighttime thermal excess seen by the Galileo Photopolarimeter Radiometer and with two potential plume detections. We develop a global thermal model of Europa and simulate both the daytime and nighttime thermal emission to determine if the nighttime thermal anomaly is caused by excess endogenic heat flow, as might be expected from a plume source region. We find that the nighttime and daytime brightness temperatures near Pwyll Crater cannot be matched by including excess heat flow at that location. Rather, we can successfully model both measurements by increasing the local thermal inertia of the surface.

  6. Comparison of satellite-derived LAI and precipitation anomalies over Brazil with a thermal infrared-based Evaporative Stress Index for 2003-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Martha C.; Zolin, Cornelio A.; Hain, Christopher R.; Semmens, Kathryn; Tugrul Yilmaz, M.; Gao, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Shortwave vegetation index (VI) and leaf area index (LAI) remote sensing products yield inconsistent depictions of biophysical response to drought and pluvial events that have occurred in Brazil over the past decade. Conflicting reports of severity of drought impacts on vegetation health and functioning have been attributed to cloud and aerosol contamination of shortwave reflectance composites, particularly over the rainforested regions of the Amazon basin which are subject to prolonged periods of cloud cover and episodes of intense biomass burning. This study compares timeseries of satellite-derived maps of LAI from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Mapping Mission (TRMM) with a diagnostic Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) retrieved using thermal infrared remote sensing over South America for the period 2003-2013. This period includes several severe droughts and floods that occurred both over the Amazon and over unforested savanna and agricultural areas in Brazil. Cross-correlations between absolute values and standardized anomalies in monthly LAI and precipitation composites as well as the actual-to-reference evapotranspiration (ET) ratio used in the ESI were computed for representative forested and agricultural regions. The correlation analyses reveal strong apparent anticorrelation between MODIS LAI and TRMM precipitation anomalies over the Amazon, but better coupling over regions vegetated with shorter grass and crop canopies. The ESI was more consistently correlated with precipitation patterns over both landcover types. Temporal comparisons between ESI and TRMM anomalies suggest longer moisture buffering timescales in the deeper rooted rainforest systems. Diagnostic thermal-based retrievals of ET and ET anomalies, such as used in the ESI, provide independent information on the impacts of extreme hydrologic events on vegetation health in comparison with VI and precipitation-based drought

  7. Electrical resistivity anomaly observed in and around the epicentral area prior to the T'angshan Earthquake of 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Y L; Ch' ien, F Y

    1978-07-01

    Before the T'angshan earthquake, magnitude 7.8 on 28 July 1976, 9 of the 14 resistivity stations located within the region of Peking, Tientsin, and T'angshan recorded gradual decreases in apparent electrical resistivity for a period of 2 to 3 years. The anomalous region as deduced from the records of these nine stations has a semimajor axis of about 150 km surrounding the epicenter, and yet two of the stations located very close to the epicenter recorded rapidly decreasing apparent resistivity anomaly during a period of more than two months immediately before the earthquake. From results of some field measurements in situ of the apparent resistivity-decrease due to compression of rock or soil layers near the earth's surface, the linear compressional strain of shallow layers in and around the epicentral area was estimated to be about 3 x 10/sup -5/. Compressional strain of much the same order of magnitude was observed by base line survey before the T'angshan earthquake.

  8. Sulfates on Mars: TES Observations and Thermal Inertia Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. D.; Mustard, J. F.

    2001-05-01

    The high resolution thermal emission spectra returned by the TES spectrometer on the MGS spacecraft have allowed the mapping of a variety of minerals and rock types by different sets of researchers. Recently, we have used a linear deconvolution approach to compare sulfate-palagonite soil mixtures created in the laboratory with Martian surface spectra. This approach showed that a number of areas on Mars have spectral properties that match those of sulfate-cemented soils (but neither loose powder mixtures of sulfates and soils nor sand-sized grains of disaggregated crusted soils). These features do not appear to be caused by atmospheric or instrumental effects and are thus believed to be related to surface composition and texture. The distribution and physical state of sulfate are important pieces of information for interpreting surface processes on Mars. A number of different mechanisms could have deposited sulfate in surface layers. Some of these include evaporation of standing bodies of water, aerosol deposition of volcanic gases, hydrothermal alteration from groundwater, and in situ interaction between the atmosphere and soil. The areas on Mars with cemented sulfate signatures are spread across a wide range of elevations and are generally large in spatial scale. Some of the areas are associated with volcanic regions, but many are in dark red plains that have previously been interpreted as duricrust deposits. Our current work compares the distribution of sulfate-cemented soils as mapped by the spectral deconvolution approach with thermal inertia maps produced from both Viking and MGS-TES. Duricrust regions, interpreted from intermediate thermal inertia values, are large regions thought to be sulfate-cemented soils similar to coherent, sulfate-rich materials seen at the Viking lander sites. Our observations of apparent regions of cemented sulfate are also large in spatial extent. This scale information is important for evaluating formation mechanisms for the

  9. Midwives’ perceptions of communication during videotaped counseling for prenatal anomaly tests: How do they relate to clients’ perceptions and independent observations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Pereboom, M.T.R.; Spelten, E.R.; Hutton, E.K.; Dulmen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to provide insight into Dutch midwives’ self-evaluation of prenatal counseling for anomaly screening in real life practice and, the degree of congruence of midwives’ self-assessments with clients’ perceptions and with observed performance. Methods: Counseling sessions

  10. Detecting geothermal anomalies and evaluating LST geothermal component by combining thermal remote sensing time series and land surface model data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, M.; Vaughan, R. G.; Ettema, J.; Izquierdo-Verdiguier, E.; Hecker, C. A.; van der Meer, F. D.

    This paper explores for the first time the possibilities to use two land surface temperature (LST) time series of different origins (geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellite data and Noah land surface modelling, LSM), to detect geothermal anomalies and extract the geothermal component of

  11. Detecting geothermal anomalies and evaluating LST geothermal component by combining thermal remote sensing time series and land surface model data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, M.; Vaughan, R. G.; Ettema, J.; Izquierdo-Verdiguier, E.; Hecker, C. A.; van der Meer, F. D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores for the first time the possibilities to use two land surface temperature (LST) time series of different origins (geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellite data and Noah land surface modelling, LSM), to detect geothermal anomalies and extract the geothermal component of

  12. Thermally-Driven Mantle Plumes Reconcile Hot-spot Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D.; Davies, J.

    2008-12-01

    Hot-spots are anomalous regions of magmatism that cannot be directly associated with plate tectonic processes (e.g. Morgan, 1972). They are widely regarded as the surface expression of upwelling mantle plumes. Hot-spots exhibit variable life-spans, magmatic productivity and fixity (e.g. Ito and van Keken, 2007). This suggests that a wide-range of upwelling structures coexist within Earth's mantle, a view supported by geochemical and seismic evidence, but, thus far, not reproduced by numerical models. Here, results from a new, global, 3-D spherical, mantle convection model are presented, which better reconcile hot-spot observations, the key modification from previous models being increased convective vigor. Model upwellings show broad-ranging dynamics; some drift slowly, while others are more mobile, displaying variable life-spans, intensities and migration velocities. Such behavior is consistent with hot-spot observations, indicating that the mantle must be simulated at the correct vigor and in the appropriate geometry to reproduce Earth-like dynamics. Thermally-driven mantle plumes can explain the principal features of hot-spot volcanism on Earth.

  13. Spitzer observations of the thermal emission from WASP-43b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Hardin, Matthew; Bowman, Oliver; Nymeyer, Sarah [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Anderson, David R.; Hellier, Coel; Smith, Alexis M. S. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Cameron, Andrew Collier, E-mail: jasmina@physics.ucf.edu [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    WASP-43b is one of the closest-orbiting hot Jupiters, with a semimajor axis of a = 0.01526 ± 0.00018 AU and a period of only 0.81 days. However, it orbits one of the coolest stars with a hot Jupiter (T {sub *} = 4520 ± 120 K), giving the planet a modest equilibrium temperature of T {sub eq} = 1440 ± 40 K, assuming zero Bond albedo and uniform planetary energy redistribution. The eclipse depths and brightness temperatures from our jointly fit model are 0.347% ± 0.013% and 1670 ± 23 K at 3.6 μm and 0.382% ± 0.015% and 1514 ± 25 K at 4.5 μm. The eclipse timings improved the estimate of the orbital period, P, by a factor of three (P = 0.81347436 ± 1.4 × 10{sup –7} days) and put an upper limit on the eccentricity (e=0.010{sub −0.007}{sup +0.010}). We use our Spitzer eclipse depths along with four previously reported ground-based photometric observations in the near-infrared to constrain the atmospheric properties of WASP-43b. The data rule out a strong thermal inversion in the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b. Model atmospheres with no thermal inversions and fiducial oxygen-rich compositions are able to explain all the available data. However, a wide range of metallicities and C/O ratios can explain the data. The data suggest low day-night energy redistribution in the planet, consistent with previous studies, with a nominal upper limit of about 35% for the fraction of energy incident on the dayside that is redistributed to the nightside.

  14. Ogoya old copper mine as a monitoring station for various fields of earth sciences and radon anomaly observed at Tatsunokuchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komura, Kazuhisa; Wataguchi, Teru; Yamazaki, Seiji [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    To utilize the tunnel of old Ogoya mine for measurement of low-level radioactivity, the intensity of cosmic ray have been determined at various points in the tunnel and basic data regarding radon level, wind velocity and temperature have been collected. Here, recent studies made in the underground laboratory in the tunnel were briefly outlined. The reciprocal of radon activity was found to be closely correlated with wind velocity. The mean activity was ca. 25 Bq/m{sup 3}, slightly higher than that in an ordinal house at the wind velocity of 0.4 m/sec and it was highest in the conditions of no wind. Thus, the tunnel was found to be suitable for the measurement of low-level radioactivity. Then, the effects of radon on the background level for the Ge-detector set in the underground laboratory were investigated and an attempt for their elimination was made using nitrogen gas. The peak counting rates of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi, both of which are daughter nuclides of radon were remarkably reduced by introducing the gas. Further, the radon level of the atmosphere upon the ground was determined using a radon detector with electrostatic trap aiming to catch the abnormality in radon level, which is regarded as an omen of earthquake. Thus, it was suggested that the radon anomaly observed in Tatsunokuchi during from Aug. 31 to Sep. 12 might be associated with the earthquake with a magnitude of 3.2 occurred 9 Km apart from the town on September 10. (M,N.)

  15. Global gravitational anomalies and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Subham Dutta; David, Justin R. [Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C. V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-12-21

    We investigate the constraints imposed by global gravitational anomalies on parity odd induced transport coefficients in even dimensions for theories with chiral fermions, gravitinos and self dual tensors. The η-invariant for the large diffeomorphism corresponding to the T transformation on a torus constraints the coefficients in the thermal effective action up to mod 2. We show that the result obtained for the parity odd transport for gravitinos using global anomaly matching is consistent with the direct perturbative calculation. In d=6 we see that the second Pontryagin class in the anomaly polynomial does not contribute to the η-invariant which provides a topological explanation of this observation in the ‘replacement rule’. We then perform a direct perturbative calculation for the contribution of the self dual tensor in d=6 to the parity odd transport coefficient using the Feynman rules proposed by Gaumé and Witten. The result for the transport coefficient agrees with that obtained using matching of global anomalies.

  16. Gravitational anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutwyler, H; Mallik, S

    1986-12-01

    The effective action for fermions moving in external gravitational and gauge fields is analyzed in terms of the corresponding external field propagator. The central object in our approach is the covariant energy-momentum tensor which is extracted from the regular part of the propagator at short distances. It is shown that the Lorentz anomaly, the conformal anomaly and the gauge anomaly can be expressed in terms of the local polynomials which determine the singular part of the propagator. (There are no coordinate anomalies). Except for the conformal anomaly, for which we give explicit representations only in dless than or equal to4, we consider an arbitrary number of dimensions.

  17. Antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests: an exploratory video-observational study about client-midwife communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Hutton, E.K.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Spelten, E.R.; Kuiper, F.; Pereboom, M.T.; Dulmen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests is conceptualised as having both Health Education (HE) and Decision-Making Support (DMS) functions. Building and maintaining a client-midwife relation (CMR) is seen as a necessary condition for enabling these two counselling functions.

  18. Antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests: An exploratory video-observational study about client-midwife communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Hutton, E.K.; Gitsels–van der Wal, J.T.; Spelten, E.R.; Kuiper, F.; Pereboom, M.T.R.; van Dulmen, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests is conceptualised as having both Health Education (HE) and Decision-Making Support (DMS) functions. Building and maintaining a client-midwife relation (CMR) is seen as a necessary condition for enabling these two counselling functions.

  19. Antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests: an exploratory video-observational study about client-midwife communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Hutton, E.K.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Spelten, E.R.; Kuiper, F.; Pereboom, M.T.R.; Dulmen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    Objective: antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests is conceptualised as having both Health Education (HE) and Decision-Making Support (DMS) functions. Building and maintaining a client–midwife relation (CMR) is seen as a necessary condition for enabling these two counselling functions.

  20. Thermal, atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies around the time of the Colima M7.8 earthquake of 21 January 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Pulinets

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the possible relationship of anomalous variations of different atmospheric and ionospheric parameters observed around the time of a strong earthquake (Mw 7.8 which occurred in Mexico (state of Colima on 21 January 2003. These variations are interpreted within the framework of the developed model of the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere coupling. The main attention is focused on the processes in the near ground layer of the atmosphere involving the ionization of air by radon, the water molecules' attachment to the formed ions, and the corresponding changes in the latent heat. Model considerations are supported by experimental measurements showing the local diminution of air humidity one week prior to the earthquake, accompanied by the anomalous thermal infrared (TIR signals and surface latent heat flux (SLHF and anomalous variations of the total electron content (TEC registered over the epicenter of the impending earthquake three days prior to the main earthquake event. Statistical processing of the data of the GPS receivers network, together with various other atmospheric parameters demonstrate the possibility of an early warning of an impending strong earthquake.

  1. The Earth Observing System AM Spacecraft - Thermal Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, D.; Fredley, J.; Scott, C.

    1993-01-01

    Mission requirements for the EOS-AM Spacecraft intended to monitor global changes of the entire earth system are considered. The spacecraft is based on an instrument set containing the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). Emphasis is placed on the design, analysis, development, and verification plans for the unique EOS-AM Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) aimed at providing the required environments for all the onboard equipment in a densely packed layout. The TCS design maximizes the use of proven thermal design techniques and materials, in conjunction with a capillary pumped two-phase heat transport system for instrument thermal control.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Inter-Relationship between Anomalies and Trends of Temperature, Moisture, Cloud Cover and OLR as Observed by AIRS/AMSU on Aqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula

    2009-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the advanced IR/MW atmospheric sounding system launched on EOS Aqua in May 2002. Products derived from AIRS/AMSU by the AIRS Science Team include surface skin temperature and atmospheric temperature profiled; atmospheric humidity profiles, fractional cloud clover and cloud top pressure, and OLR. Products covering the period September 2002 through the present have been derived from AIRS/AMSU using the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm. In this paper, we will show results covering the time period September 2006 - November 2008. This time period is marked by a substantial warming trend of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical land surface skin temperatures, as well as pronounced El Nino - La Nina episodes. These both influence the spatial and temporal anomaly patterns of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles, as well as of cloud cover and Clear Sky and All Sky OLR. The relationships between temporal and spatial anomalies of these parameters over this time period, as determined from AIRS/AMSU observations, will be shown with particular emphasis on which contribute significantly to OLR anomalies in each of the tropics and extra-tropics. Results will also be shown to evaluate the anomalies and trends of temperature profiles and OLR as determined from analysis of AIRS/AMSU data. Global and regional trends during the 6 1/3 year time period are not necessarily indicative of what has happened in the past, or what may happen in the future. Nevertheless, the inter-relationships of spatial and temporal anomalies of atmospheric geophysical parameters with those of surface skin temperature are indicative of climate processes, and can be used to test the performance of climate models when driven by changes in surface temperatures.

  3. Holonomy anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagger, J.; Nemeschansky, D.; Yankielowicz, S.

    1985-05-01

    A new type of anomaly is discussed that afflicts certain non-linear sigma models with fermions. This anomaly is similar to the ordinary gauge and gravitational anomalies since it reflects a topological obstruction to the reparametrization invariance of the quantum effective action. Nonlinear sigma models are constructed based on homogeneous spaces G/H. Anomalies arising when the fermions are chiral are shown to be cancelled sometimes by Chern-Simons terms. Nonlinear sigma models are considered based on general Riemannian manifolds. 9 refs

  4. The extended algebra of observables for Dirac fields and the trace anomaly of their stress-energy tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dappiagi, Claudio; Hack, Thomas-Paul; Pinamonti, Nicola [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2009-03-15

    We discuss from scratch the classical structure of Dirac spinors on an arbitrary globally hyperbolic, Lorentzian spacetime, their formulation as a locally covariant quantum field theory, and the associated notion of a Hadamard state. Eventually, we develop the notion of Wick polynomials for spinor fields, and we employ the latter to construct a covariantly conserved stress-energy tensor suited for back-reaction computations. We explicitly calculate its trace anomaly in particular. (orig.)

  5. The extended algebra of observables for Dirac fields and the trace anomaly of their stress-energy tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dappiagi, Claudio; Hack, Thomas-Paul; Pinamonti, Nicola

    2009-03-01

    We discuss from scratch the classical structure of Dirac spinors on an arbitrary globally hyperbolic, Lorentzian spacetime, their formulation as a locally covariant quantum field theory, and the associated notion of a Hadamard state. Eventually, we develop the notion of Wick polynomials for spinor fields, and we employ the latter to construct a covariantly conserved stress-energy tensor suited for back-reaction computations. We explicitly calculate its trace anomaly in particular. (orig.)

  6. Experimental Observation of Anisotropic Adler-Bell-Jackiw Anomaly in Type-II Weyl Semimetal WTe1.98 Crystals at the Quasiclassical Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yang-Yang; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Deng, W. Y.; Yao, Shu-Hua; Chen, Y. B.; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Shan-Tao; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhang, Lei; Tian, Mingliang; Sheng, L.; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-03-01

    The asymmetric electron dispersion in type-II Weyl semimetal theoretically hosts anisotropic transport properties. Here, we observe the significant anisotropic Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly in the Fermi-level delicately adjusted WTe1.98 crystals. Quantitatively, CW , a coefficient representing the intensity of the ABJ anomaly along the a and b axis of WTe1.98 are 0.030 and 0.051 T-2 at 2 K, respectively. We found that the temperature-sensitive ABJ anomaly is attributed to a topological phase transition from a type-II Weyl semimetal to a trivial semimetal, which is verified by a first-principles calculation using experimentally determined lattice parameters at different temperatures. Theoretical electrical transport study reveals that the observation of an anisotropic ABJ along both the a and b axes in WTe1.98 is attributed to electrical transport in the quasiclassical regime. Our work may suggest that electron-doped WTe2 is an ideal playground to explore the novel properties in type-II Weyl semimetals.

  7. Anomalies of the photo-response and thermal boundary resistance of a YBaCuO/YSZ structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonch-Osmolovskii, M.M.; Galkina, T.I.; Golovashkin, A.I.; Dovydenko, K.Yu.; Klokov, A.Yu.; Krasnosvobodtsev, S.I.; Oktyabrskii, S.R.; Romanov, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    The photoresponse of a YBaCuO/ZrO 2 bolometric structure was measured under modulated (λ = 630 nm) and pulsed (τ ∼ 7-8 ns; λ = 337 nm) laser excitation. The shape of the measured photoresponse was interpreted by a thermal model; nevertheless, the pulse amplitude for vanishing YBaCuO film resistance was 5-6 times greater than predicted; the thermal boundary resistance R Bd between YBaCuO and YSZ was evaluated ≅ 10 -2 K x cm 2 /Watt, which is considerably larger than estimated theoretically for the similar situation of YBaCuO/MgO. (orig.)

  8. Prenatal detection of structural cardiac defects and presence of associated anomalies: a retrospective observational study of 1262 fetal echocardiograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mone, Fionnuala; Walsh, Colin; Mulcahy, Cecelia; McMahon, Colin J; Farrell, Sinead; MacTiernan, Aoife; Segurado, Ricardo; Mahony, Rhona; Higgins, Shane; Carroll, Stephen; McParland, Peter; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to document the detection of fetal congenital heart defect (CHD) in relation to the following: (1) indication for referral, (2) chromosomal and (3) extracardiac abnormalities. All fetal echocardiograms performed in our institution from 2007 to 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Indication for referral, cardiac diagnosis based on the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases tenth revision criteria and the presence of chromosomal and extracardiac defects were recorded. Of 1262 echocardiograms, 287 (22.7%) had CHD. Abnormal anatomy scan in pregnancies originally considered to be at low risk of CHD was the best indicator for detecting CHD (91.2% of positive cardiac diagnoses), compared with other indications of family history (5.6%) or maternal medical disorder (3.1%). Congenital anomalies of the cardiac septa comprised the largest category (n = 89), within which atrioventricular septal defects were the most common anomaly (n = 36). Invasive prenatal testing was performed for 126 of 287 cases, of which 44% (n = 55) had a chromosomal abnormality. Of 232 fetuses without chromosomal abnormalities, 31% had an extracardiac defect (n = 76). Most CHDs occur in pregnancies regarded to be at low risk, highlighting the importance of a routine midtrimester fetal anatomy scan. Frequent association of fetal CHD and chromosomal and extracardiac pathology emphasises the importance of thorough evaluation of any fetus with CHD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Solar thermal barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    In 2008, the European solar thermal market put on a strong spurt only to mark time in 2009 with about 4.2 million m 2 installed, which is 443708 m 2 less year-on-year. The economic crisis has had a ripple effect on the European market in the shape of the Euro crisis at the beginning of May, so the slump seems set to continue on into 2010

  10. Non-thermal plasma mills bacteria: Scanning electron microscopy observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunov, O.; Churpita, O.; Zablotskii, V.; Jäger, A.; Dejneka, A.; Deyneka, I. G.; Meshkovskii, I. K.; Syková, E.; Kubinová, Š.

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal plasmas hold great promise for a variety of biomedical applications. To ensure safe clinical application of plasma, a rigorous analysis of plasma-induced effects on cell functions is required. Yet mechanisms of bacteria deactivation by non-thermal plasma remain largely unknown. We therefore analyzed the influence of low-temperature atmospheric plasma on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate that both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains in a minute were completely destroyed by helium plasma. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were not affected by the same treatment. Furthermore, histopathological analysis of hematoxylin and eosin–stained rat skin sections from plasma–treated animals did not reveal any abnormalities in comparison to control ones. We discuss possible physical mechanisms leading to the shred of bacteria under non-thermal plasma irradiation. Our findings disclose how helium plasma destroys bacteria and demonstrates the safe use of plasma treatment for MSCs and skin cells, highlighting the favorability of plasma applications for chronic wound therapy

  11. Non-thermal plasma mills bacteria: scanning electron microscopy observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg; Churpita, Olexandr; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Deyneka, I.G.; Meshkovskii, I.K.; Jäger, Aleš; Syková, Eva; Kubinová, Šárka; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 5 (2015), "053703-1"-"053703-5" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA MŠk LO1309 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100101219; SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : non-thermal plasma * plasma medicine * bacteria * cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.142, year: 2015

  12. Detecting ecosystem performance anomalies for land management in the upper colorado river basin using satellite observations, climate data, and ecosystem models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, B.K.

    2010-01-01

    This study identifies areas with ecosystem performance anomalies (EPA) within the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) during 2005-2007 using satellite observations, climate data, and ecosystem models. The final EPA maps with 250-m spatial resolution were categorized as normal performance, underperformance, and overperformance (observed performance relative to weather-based predictions) at the 90% level of confidence. The EPA maps were validated using "percentage of bare soil" ground observations. The validation results at locations with comparable site potential showed that regions identified as persistently underperforming (overperforming) tended to have a higher (lower) percentage of bare soil, suggesting that our preliminary EPA maps are reliable and agree with ground-based observations. The 3-year (2005-2007) persistent EPA map from this study provides the first quantitative evaluation of ecosystem performance anomalies within the UCRB and will help the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) identify potentially degraded lands. Results from this study can be used as a prototype by BLM and other land managers for making optimal land management decisions. ?? 2010 by the authors.

  13. Pattern of clefts and dental anomalies in six-year-old children: a retrospective observational study in western Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sæle, Paul; Østhus, Eirik; Ådalen, Sondre; Nasir, Elwalid F; Mustafa, Manal

    2017-03-01

    Clefts of the lip and/or palate (CL/P) are the most common congenital disorders of the head and neck. In Norway, the incidence is 1.9/1000 live births. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and distribution of various types of clefts and dental anomalies in patients treated by the cleft lip and palate (CLP) team in Bergen, Norway. The material comprised the records of patients 6 years of age, examined by the CLP team in Bergen from spring 1993 to autumn 2012, incomplete records were excluded. The records of 989 patients were analysed, using frequencies and Chi-square test to compare differences in percentages between groups. The gender distribution was 58.8% male and 41.2% female. Isolated cleft palate (CP) was the most common condition (39.5%). Clefts of the lip, jaw and palate (CLP) constituted (30%) of cases and (30.5%) had isolated cleft lip (CL). The frequencies of agenesis, supernumerary and peg-shaped teeth were (36.5%), (17.8%) and (7.5%), respectively. Over 50% of the study population were diagnosed with one or more malocclusion. Of the CLP patients, 61.4% had Angle Class III occlusion. Statistical analysis disclosed a positive association of agenesis with Class III occlusion (OR =1.8, p≤ 0.001). The findings supported the hypothesis that the distribution of dental anomalies and occlusal disorders varied among patients with CL, CP and CLP. In patients with cleft, there is a twofold chance to get Class III malocclusion in the presence of agenesis.

  14. Observed Local Soil Moisture-Atmosphere Feedbacks within the Context of Remote SST Anomalies: Lessons From Recent Droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, A. B.; Dirmeyer, P.; Lawrence, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The existence and possible transition from positive to negative soil moisture-atmosphere feedbacks is explored in this presentation using collocated flux tower measurements (Ameriflux) and atmospheric profiles from reanalysis. The focus is on the series of physical processes that lead to these local feedbacks connecting remote sea surface temperature changes (SST anomalies) to local soil moisture and boundary layer responses. Seasonal and Agricultural droughts are particularly useful test beds for examining these feedback processes because they are typically characterized by prolonged stretches of rain-free days followed by some termination condition. To quantify the full process-chain across these distinct spatial scales, complimentary information from several well-established land-atmosphere coupling metrics are used including, but not limited to, Mixing Diagram approaches, Soil Moisture Memory, and the Heated Condensation Framework. Preliminary analysis shows that there may be transitions from negative and positive soil moisture-atmosphere feedbacks as droughts develop. This is largely instigated by persistent atmospheric forcing that initially promotes increased surface latent heat flux, which limits boundary layer depth and dry air entrainment. However, if stagnant synoptic conditions continue eventually soil moisture is depleted to the point of shutting off surface latent heat flux producing deep boundary layers and increased dry air entrainment thus deepening drought stress. A package of standardized Fortran 90 modules called the Coupling Metrics Toolkit (CoMeT; https://github.com/abtawfik/coupling-metrics) used to calculate these land-atmosphere coupling metrics is also briefly presented.

  15. Comprehensive study of temperature anomalies on of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbotin, S.B.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Dmitropavlenko, V.N.; Ajdarkhanov, A.O.; Duchkov, A.D.; Kazantsev, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997 by the space images data in the Semipalatinsk test site area a mysterious anomaly thermal zone with square about 20 thousand sq. km. with soil temperature 10-15 degrees above than on the adjacent areas was found. The results of 1996-1999 observation confirm the presence of steady temperature anomalies. A number of scientists are suggesting that the increased temperature zones are related with conducted nuclear tests. These temperature anomalies related with objects of nuclear explosions conduction and its have limited distribution the spatially attached to nuclear explosions cavities. Anomalies are the sequent of residual manifestation of long-time geothermal activity in the underground nuclear explosions epicenters. In 2001 in the frameworks of joint program 'Comprehensive study of thermal anomalies on the territory of the former Semipalatinsk test site' the direct measurements of soils on the five sections which were selected by the results of space images

  16. Predictable anomalies of process parameters on failure mode of internal structures in RPV by transient thermal-hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Akira; Mori, Michitsugu; Kanemoto, Shigeru; Konishi, Hideo

    1997-01-01

    A study has been conducted to evaluate how process parameters will exhibit the change in the event of the troubles related to reactor internal by using transient thermal-hydraulic analysis codes (RETRAN3D-MOD002, etc.). In the present study, the following six events are analytically investigated: 1) a leak from the upper plenum; 2) a leak from the middle part of a shroud; 3) a leak from the lower plenum; 4) a leak from the riser pipe for the jet-pump; 5) the blockage of the jet-pump nozzle; and 6) a leak from the jet-pump diffuser. The results by analyses indicated that the leak from the upper plenum resulted in increasing in the inlet temperature of primary loop recirculation (PLR) and in the differential pressure at the core support plate, and decreasing in the neutron flux (reactor power). Similar analyses were made for the five other events to identify the pattern of relevant process parameter variation in each event. (author)

  17. THERMAL AND CHEMICAL EVOLUTIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS OBSERVED WITH SUZAKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Sato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the properties of the intracluster medium (ICM of galaxy clusters to outer regions observed with Suzaku. The observed temperature dropped by about ~30% from the central region to the virial radius of the clusters. The derived entropy profile agreed with the expectation from simulations within r500, while the entropy profile in r > r500 indicated a flatter slope than the simulations. This would suggest that the cluster outskirts were out of hydrostatic equilibrium. As for the metallicity, we studied the metal abundances from O to Fe up to ~0.5 times the virial radius of galaxy groups and clusters. Comparing the results with supernova nucleosynthesis models, the number ratio of type II to Ia supernovae is estimated to be ~3.5. We also calculated not only Fe, but also O and Mg mass-to-light ratios (MLRs with K-band luminosity. The MLRs in the clusters had a similar feature.

  18. DOWN'S ANOMALY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

    BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

  19. AIRS-Observed Interrelationships of Anomaly Time-Series of Moist Process-Related Parameters and Inferred Feedback Values on Various Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Gyula I.; Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena

    2011-01-01

    In the beginning, a good measure of a GMCs performance was their ability to simulate the observed mean seasonal cycle. That is, a reasonable simulation of the means (i.e., small biases) and standard deviations of TODAY?S climate would suffice. Here, we argue that coupled GCM (CG CM for short) simulations of FUTURE climates should be evaluated in much more detail, both spatially and temporally. Arguably, it is not the bias, but rather the reliability of the model-generated anomaly time-series, even down to the [C]GCM grid-scale, which really matter. This statement is underlined by the social need to address potential REGIONAL climate variability, and climate drifts/changes in a manner suitable for policy decisions.

  20. Distribution and solar wind control of compressional solar wind-magnetic anomaly interactions observed at the Moon by ARTEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halekas, J. S.; Poppe, A. R.; Lue, C.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.

    2017-06-01

    A statistical investigation of 5 years of observations from the two-probe Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) mission reveals that strong compressional interactions occur infrequently at high altitudes near the ecliptic but can form in a wide range of solar wind conditions and can occur up to two lunar radii downstream from the lunar limb. The compressional events, some of which may represent small-scale collisionless shocks ("limb shocks"), occur in both steady and variable interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, with those forming in steady IMF well organized by the location of lunar remanent crustal magnetization. The events observed by ARTEMIS have similarities to ion foreshock phenomena, and those observed in variable IMF conditions may result from either local lunar interactions or distant terrestrial foreshock interactions. Observed velocity deflections associated with compressional events are always outward from the lunar wake, regardless of location and solar wind conditions. However, events for which the observed velocity deflection is parallel to the upstream motional electric field form in distinctly different solar wind conditions and locations than events with antiparallel deflections. Consideration of the momentum transfer between incoming and reflected solar wind populations helps explain the observed characteristics of the different groups of events.Plain Language SummaryWe survey the environment around the Moon to determine when and where strong amplifications in the charged particle density and magnetic field strength occur. These structures may be some of the smallest shock waves in the solar system, and learning about their formation informs us about the interaction of charged particles with small-scale magnetic fields throughout the solar system and beyond. We find that these compressions occur in an extended region downstream from the lunar dawn and dusk regions and

  1. Thermal conductivity of supercooled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, John W; Holten, Vincent; Sengers, Jan V; Anisimov, Mikhail A

    2013-04-01

    The heat capacity of supercooled water, measured down to -37°C, shows an anomalous increase as temperature decreases. The thermal diffusivity, i.e., the ratio of the thermal conductivity and the heat capacity per unit volume, shows a decrease. These anomalies may be associated with a hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point in supercooled water below the line of homogeneous nucleation. However, while the thermal conductivity is known to diverge at the vapor-liquid critical point due to critical density fluctuations, the thermal conductivity of supercooled water, calculated as the product of thermal diffusivity and heat capacity, does not show any sign of such an anomaly. We have used mode-coupling theory to investigate the possible effect of critical fluctuations on the thermal conductivity of supercooled water and found that indeed any critical thermal-conductivity enhancement would be too small to be measurable at experimentally accessible temperatures. Moreover, the behavior of thermal conductivity can be explained by the observed anomalies of the thermodynamic properties. In particular, we show that thermal conductivity should go through a minimum when temperature is decreased, as Kumar and Stanley observed in the TIP5P model of water. We discuss physical reasons for the striking difference between the behavior of thermal conductivity in water near the vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid critical points.

  2. Direct observation of free-exciton thermalization in quantum-well structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Umlauff, M.; Hoffmann, J.; Kalt, H.

    1998-01-01

    We report on a direct observation of free-exciton thermalization in quantum-well structures. A narrow energy distribution of free 1s excitons is created in ZnSe-based quantum wells by emission of one LO phonon after optical excitation of the continuum stales with picosecond laser pulses. The subs......We report on a direct observation of free-exciton thermalization in quantum-well structures. A narrow energy distribution of free 1s excitons is created in ZnSe-based quantum wells by emission of one LO phonon after optical excitation of the continuum stales with picosecond laser pulses...

  3. Thermal and Nonthermal Emissions of a Composite Flare Derived from NoRH and SDO Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongwoo; White, Stephen M.; Jing, Ju; Liu, Chang; Masuda, Satoshi; Chae, Jongchul

    2017-12-01

    Differential emission measure (DEM) derived from the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lines of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory is used in the analysis of a solar flare observed by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH). The target was a composite event consisting of an impulsive flare, SOL2015-06-21T01:42 (GOES class M2.0), and a gradual flare, SOL2015-06-21T02:36 (M2.6), for which separation of thermal plasma heating from nonthermal particle acceleration was of major interest. We have calculated the thermal free-free intensity maps with the AIA-derived DEM and compared them against the observed NoRH maps to attribute the difference to the nonthermal component. In this way, we were able to locate three distinct sources: the major source with thermal and nonthermal components mixed, a nonthermal source devoid of thermal particles, and a thermal source lacking microwave emission. Both the first and the second nonthermal sources produced impulsively rising 17 GHz intensities and moved away from the local magnetic polarization inversion lines in correlation with the flare radiation. In contrast, the thermal sources stay in fixed locations and show temporal variations of the temperature and emission measure uncorrelated with the flare radiation. We interpret these distinct properties as indicating that nonthermal sources are powered by magnetic reconnection and thermal sources passively receive energy from the nonthermal donor. The finding of these distinct properties between thermal and nonthermal sources demonstrates the microwave and EUV emission measure combined diagnostics.

  4. Dyonic anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henningson, Mans; Johansson, Erik P.G.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the problem of coupling a dyonic p-brane in d=2p+4 space-time dimensions to a prescribed (p+2)-form field strength. This is particularly subtle when p is odd. For the case p=1, we explicitly construct a coupling functional, which is a sum of two terms: one which is linear in the prescribed field strength, and one which describes the coupling of the brane to its self-field and takes the form of a Wess-Zumino term depending only on the embedding of the brane world-volume into space-time. We then show that this functional is well-defined only modulo a certain anomaly, related to the Euler class of the normal bundle of the brane world-volume

  5. Analysis of thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets using magnetic domain observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezawa, Masaaki; Ikeda, Soichiro; Morimoto, Yuji; Kabashima, Hisayuki

    2016-01-01

    We used magnetic domain observation to statistically observe the thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets at elevated temperatures up to 150 °C. Simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred adjacent grains occurred at 90 °C because of the magnetic interaction among the grains beyond grain boundaries in the Dysprosium (Dy)-free low-coercivity magnet. Conversely, simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred grains did not occur in the Dy-added high-coercivity magnets, and the demagnetizing ratio steadily increased with temperature. Furthermore, the addition of Dy induced high thermal stability by eliminating the simultaneous thermal demagnetization, which was caused by the magnetic interaction among the grains.

  6. Analysis of thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets using magnetic domain observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takezawa, Masaaki, E-mail: take@ele.kyutech.ac.jp; Ikeda, Soichiro; Morimoto, Yuji [Department of Applied Science for Integrated System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1 Sensui-cho, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan); Kabashima, Hisayuki [Mazda Motor Corporation,3-1, Shinchi, Fuchu-cho, Aki-gun Hiroshima 730-8670 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    We used magnetic domain observation to statistically observe the thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets at elevated temperatures up to 150 °C. Simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred adjacent grains occurred at 90 °C because of the magnetic interaction among the grains beyond grain boundaries in the Dysprosium (Dy)-free low-coercivity magnet. Conversely, simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred grains did not occur in the Dy-added high-coercivity magnets, and the demagnetizing ratio steadily increased with temperature. Furthermore, the addition of Dy induced high thermal stability by eliminating the simultaneous thermal demagnetization, which was caused by the magnetic interaction among the grains.

  7. The reactor antineutrino anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haser, Julia; Buck, Christian; Lindner, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Major discoveries were made in the past few years in the field of neutrino flavour oscillation. Nuclear reactors produce a clean and intense flux of electron antineutrinos and are thus an essential neutrino source for the determination of oscillation parameters. Most currently the reactor antineutrino experiments Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO have accomplished to measure θ{sub 13}, the smallest of the three-flavour mixing angles. In the course of these experiments two anomalies emerged: (1) the reanalysis of the reactor predictions revealed a deficit in experimentally observed antineutrino flux, known as the ''reactor antineutrino anomaly''. (2) The high precision of the latest generation of neutrino experiments resolved a spectral shape distortion relative to the expected energy spectra. Both puzzles are yet to be solved and triggered new experimental as well as theoretical studies, with the search for light sterile neutrinos as most popular explanation for the flux anomaly. This talk outlines the two reactor antineutrino anomalies. Discussing possible explanations for their occurrence, recent and upcoming efforts to solve the reactor puzzles are highlighted.

  8. Characterization of Jupiter's Atmosphere from Observation of Thermal Emission by Juno and Ground-Based Supporting Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, G. S.; Momary, T.; Tabataba-Vakili, F.; Janssen, M. A.; Hansen, C. J.; Bolton, S. J.; Li, C.; Adriani, A.; Mura, A.; Grassi, D.; Fletcher, L. N.; Brown, S. T.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Greathouse, T. K.; Kasaba, Y.; Sato, T. M.; Stephens, A.; Donnelly, P.; Eichstädt, G.; Rogers, J.

    2017-12-01

    Ground-breaking measurements of thermal emission at very long wavelengths have been made by the Juno mission's Microwave Radiometer (MWR). We examine the relationship between these and other thermal emission measurements by the Jupiter Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) at 5 µm and ground-based supporting observations in the thermal infrared that cover the 5-25 µm range. The relevant ground-based observations of thermal emission are constituted from imaging and scanning spectroscopy obtained at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), the Gemini North Telescope, the Subaru Telescope and the Very Large Telescope. A comparison of these results clarifies the physical properties responsible for the observed emissions, i.e. variability of the temperature field, the cloud field or the distribution of gaseous ammonia. Cross-references to the visible cloud field from Juno's JunoCam experiment and Earth-based images are also useful. This work continues an initial comparison by Orton et al. (2017, GRL 44, doi: 10.1002/2017GL073019) between MWR and JIRAM results, together with ancillary 5-µm IRTF imaging and with JunoCam and ground-based visible imaging. These showed a general agreement between MWR and JIRAM results for the 5-bar NH3 abundance in specific regions of low cloud opacity but only a partial correlation between MWR and 5-µm radiances emerging from the 0.5-5 bar levels of the atmosphere in general. Similar to the latter, there appears to be an inconsistent correlation between MWR channels sensitive to 0.5-10 bars and shorter-wavelength radiances in the "tails" of 5-µm hot spots , which may be the result of the greater sensitivity of the latter to particulate opacity that could depend on the evolution history of the particular features sampled. Of great importance is the interpretation of MWR radiances in terms of the variability of temperature vs. NH3 abundances in the 0.5-5 bar pressure range. This is particularly important to understand MWR results in

  9. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    27545 MWth: the EU's solar thermal base to date at the end of 2011. After two years of sharp decline, the European solar thermal market is bottoming out. The EurObserv'ER survey findings are that the installation figure fell just 1.9% in comparison with 2010, giving a newly-installed collector area of 3.7 million m 2 . The concentrated solar power sector has been forging ahead alongside the heat production applications, and at the end of 2011 installed capacity passed the one gigawatt mark in Spain for the first time with 1157.2 MWe

  10. The colour of thermal noise in classical Brownian motion: a feasibility study of direct experimental observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg-Soerensen, Kirstine; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    One hundred years after Einstein modelled Brownian motion, a central aspect of this motion in incompressible fluids has not been verified experimentally: the thermal noise that drives the Brownian particle, is not white, as in Einstein's simple theory. It is slightly coloured, due to hydrodynamics and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. This theoretical result from the 1970s was prompted by computer simulation results in apparent violation of Einstein's theory. We discuss how a direct experimental observation of this colour might be carried out by using optical tweezers to separate the thermal noise from the particle's dynamic response to it. Since the thermal noise is almost white, very good statistics is necessary to resolve its colour. That requires stable equipment and long recording times, possibly making this experiment one for the future only. We give results for experimental requirements and for stochastic errors as functions of experimental window and measurement time, and discuss some potential sources of systematic errors

  11. Experimental observations of thermal mixing characteristics in T-junction piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mei-Shiue, E-mail: chenms@mx.nthu.edu.tw; Hsieh, Huai-En; Ferng, Yuh-Ming; Pei, Bau-Shi

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The effects of flow velocity ratio on thermal mixing phenomenon are the major parameters. • The flow velocity ratio (V{sub b}/V{sub m}) is greater than 13.6, reverse flow occurs. • The flow velocity ratio is greater than 13.7, a “good” mixing quality is achieved. - Abstract: The T-junction piping is frequently used in many industrial applications, including the nuclear plants. For a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) inject cold water into the primary loops if a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) happens. Inappropriate mixing of the two streams with significant temperature different at a junction may cause strong thermal stresses to the downstream structures in the reactor vessel. The downstream structures may be damaged. This study is an experimental investigation into the thermal mixing effect occurring at a T-junction. A small-scale test facility was established to observe the mixing effect of flows with different temperature. Thermal mixing effect with different flow rates in the main and branch pipes are investigated by measuring the temperature distribution along the main pipe. In test condition I, we found that lower main pipe flow rate leads to better mixing effect with constant branch pipe flow rate. And in conditions II and III, higher injection flow velocity would enhance the turbulence effect which results in better thermal mixing. The results will be useful for applications with mixing fluids with different temperature.

  12. The Response of Equatorial Ionization Anomaly in 120°E to the Geomagnetic Storm of 18 August 2003 at Different Altitudes From Multiple Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weihua; Zhu, Zhengping; Xiong, Chao; Chang, Shanshan

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the variations of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in 120°E region during the 17-20 August 2003 storm are investigated from measurements of satellites at different altitudes from Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP), Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), scientific satellite of the Republic of China (ROCSAT-1), and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program missions. The results showed that (1) at CHAMP and GRACE altitudes, the EIA was inhibited before the storm sudden commencement (SSC) and also during the storm recovery phase, but it was enhanced significantly during the storm main phase of the storm. (2) The variations of EIA strength and interhemispheric density asymmetry of the two crests were similar at CHAMP and GRACE altitudes, while the location asymmetry of the two crests was different at CHAMP and GRACE altitudes. (3) The irregularities and long-duration scintillation were recorded before the SSC of the storm, when the EIA was inhibited. The irregularities at different altitudes and short-duration scintillation were observed during the main phase of the storm, when the EIA was enhanced significantly. (4) The EIA enhancement can be attributed to the enhanced electric field due to prompt penetration interplanetary electric fields and the storm time neutral wind, while the suppression of EIA on 17 August can be attributed to the absence of the equatorward neutral wind, which varied with the altitudes. The EIA inhibition during the recovery phase may be caused mainly by the neutral wind. Our results suggest that the neutral wind is the crucial factor causing the variations in EIA and the occurrence of scintillation.

  13. Chiral anomalies and differential geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumino, B.

    1983-10-01

    Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references

  14. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-05-01

    The European concentrated solar power plant market is steeling itself for tough time ahead. The number of projects under construction is a pittance compared with 2012 that was an excellent year for installations (an additional 802.5 MW of capacity recorded). This drop is the result of the moratorium on renewable energy power plants introduced by the Spanish government. The European solar thermal market is hardly any more encouraging. EurObserv'ER holds that it slipped for the fourth year in a row (it dropped 5.5% between 2011 and 2012). The newly-installed solar thermal collector surface area in the EU now stands at 3.4 million m 2 , far short of its 2008 installation record of 4.6 million m 2

  15. The Annual Cycle of Water Vapor on Mars as Observed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spectra taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) have been used to monitor the latitude, longitude, and seasonal dependence of water vapor for over one full Martian year (March 1999-March 2001). A maximum in water vapor abundance is observed at high latitudes during mid-summer in both hemispheres, reaching a maximum value of approximately 100 pr-micrometer in the north and approximately 50 pr-micrometer in the south. Low water vapor abundance (water vapor. The latitudinal and seasonal dependence of the decay of the northern summer water vapor maximum implies cross-equatorial transport of water to the southern hemisphere, while there is little or no corresponding transport during the decay of the southern hemisphere summer maximum. The latitude-longitude dependence of annually-averaged water vapor (corrected for topography) has a significant positive correlation with albedo and significant negative correlations with thermal inertia and surface pressure. Comparison of TES results with those retrieved from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD) experiments shows some similar features, but also many significant differences. The southern hemisphere maximum observed by TES was not observed by MAWD and the large latitudinal gradient in annually-averaged water vapor observed by MAWD does not appear in the TES results.

  16. Ion Thermalization and Electron Heating across Quasi-Perpendicular Shocks Observed by the MMS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. J.; Wilson, L. B., III; Wang, S.; Bessho, N.; Figueroa-Vinas, A.; Lai, H.; Russell, C. T.; Schwartz, S. J.; Hesse, M.; Moore, T. E.; Burch, J.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Ergun, R.; Dorelli, J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Paterson, W. R.; Lavraud, B.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.

    2017-12-01

    Collisionless shocks often involve intense plasma heating in space and astrophysical systems. Despite decades of research, a number of key questions concerning electron and ion heating across collisionless shocks remain unanswered. We `image' 20 supercritical quasi-perpendicular bow shocks encountered by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft with electron and ion distribution functions to address how ions are thermalized and how electrons are heated. The continuous burst measurements of 3D plasma distribution functions from MMS reveal that the primary thermalization phase of ions occurs concurrently with the main temperature increase of electrons as well as large-amplitude wave fluctuations. Approaching the shock from upstream, the ion temperature (Ti) increases due to the reflected ions joining the incoming solar wind population, as recognized by prior studies, and the increase of Ti precedes that of the electrons. Thermalization in the form of merging between the decelerated solar wind ions and the reflected component often results in a decrease in Ti. In most cases, the Ti decrease is followed by a gradual increase further downstream. Anisotropic, energy-dependent, and/or nongyrotropic electron energization are observed in association with large electric field fluctuations in the main electron temperature (Te) gradient, motivating a renewed scrutiny of the effects from the electrostatic cross-shock potential and wave fluctuations on electron heating. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are carried out to assist interpretations of the MMS observations. We assess the roles of instabilities and the cross-shock potential in thermalizing ions and heating electrons based on the MMS measurements and PIC simulation results. Challenges will be posted for future computational studies and laboratory experiments on collisionless shocks.

  17. Diagnosing Soil Moisture Anomalies and Neglected Soil Moisture Source/Sink Processes via a Thermal Infrared-based Two-Source Energy Balance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, C.; Crow, W. T.; Anderson, M. C.; Yilmaz, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric processes, especially those that occur in the surface and boundary layer, are significantly impacted by soil moisture (SM). Due to the observational gaps in the ground-based monitoring of SM, methodologies have been developed to monitor SM from satellite platforms. While many have focused on microwave methods, observations of thermal infrared land surface temperature (LST) also provides a means of providing SM information. One particular TIR SM method exploits surface flux predictions retrieved from the Atmosphere Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model. ALEXI uses a time-differential measurement of morning LST rise to diagnose the partitioning of net radiation into surface energy fluxes. Here an analysis will be presented to study relationships between three SM products during a multi-year period (2000-2013) from an active/passive microwave dataset (ECV), a TIR-based model (ALEXI), and a land surface model (Noah) over the CONUS. Additionally, all three will be compared against in-situ SM observations from the North American Soil Moisture Database. The second analysis will focus on the use of ALEXI towards diagnosing SM source/sink processes. Traditional soil water balance modeling is based on one-dimensional (vertical-only) water flow, free drainage at the bottom of the soil column, and neglecting ancillary inputs due to processes such as irrigation. However, recent work has highlighted the importance of secondary water source (e.g., irrigation, groundwater extraction, inland wetlands, lateral flows) and sink (e.g., tile drainage in agricultural areas) processes on the partitioning of evaporative and sensible heat fluxes. ALEXI offers a top-down approach for mapping areas where SM source/sink processes have a significant impact on the surface energy balance. Here we present an index, ASSET, that is based on comparisons between ALEXI latent heat flux (LE) estimates and LE predicted by a free-drainage prognostic LSM lacking irrigation, groundwater and tile

  18. Multi-Wavelength Observations of Asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom: Visible, Infrared, and Thermal Spectroscopy Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Beth Ellen; Shepard, M.; Bus, S. J.; Vilas, F.; Rivkin, A. S.; Lim, L.; Lederer, S.; Jarvis, K.; Shah, S.; McConnochie, T.

    2004-01-01

    The August 2003 apparition of asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom brought together a collaboration of observers with the goal of obtaining rotationally resolved multiwavelength spectra at each of 5 facilities: infrared spectra at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (Clark and Shepard), radar images at Arecibo (Shepard and Clark), thermal infrared spectra at Palomar (Lim, McConnochie and Bell), visible spectra at McDonald Observatory (Vilas, Lederer and Jarvis), and visible lightcurves at Ondrojev Observatory (Pravec). The radar data was to be used to develop a high spatial resolution physical model to be used in conjunction with spectral data to investigate compositional and textural properties on the near surface of Ra Shalom as a function of rotation phase. This was the first coordinated multi-wavelength investigation of any Aten asteroid. There are many reasons to study near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 2100 Ra-Shalom: 1) It has a controversial classification (is it a C- or K-type object)? 2) There would be interesting dynamical ramifications if Ra-Shalom is a K-type because most K-types come from the Eos family and there are no known dynamical pathways from Eos to the Aten population. 3) The best available spectra obtained previously may indicate a heterogeneous surface (most asteroids appear to be fairly homogeneous). 4) Ra-Shalom thermal observations obtained previously indicated a lack of regolith, minimizing the worry of space weathering effects in the spectra. 5) Radar observations obtained previously hinted at interesting surface structures. 6) Ra-Shalom is one of the largest Aten objects. And 7) Ra-Shalom is on a short list of proposed NEAs for spacecraft encounters and possible sample returns. Preliminary results from the visible, infrared, and thermal spectroscopy measurements will be presented here.

  19. Aeromagnetic anomalies over faulted strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys are now an industry standard and they commonly detect anomalies that are attributed to faults within sedimentary basins. However, detailed studies identifying geologic sources of magnetic anomalies in sedimentary environments are rare in the literature. Opportunities to study these sources have come from well-exposed sedimentary basins of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico and Colorado. High-resolution aeromagnetic data from these areas reveal numerous, curvilinear, low-amplitude (2–15 nT at 100-m terrain clearance) anomalies that consistently correspond to intrasedimentary normal faults (Figure 1). Detailed geophysical and rock-property studies provide evidence for the magnetic sources at several exposures of these faults in the central Rio Grande rift (summarized in Grauch and Hudson, 2007, and Hudson et al., 2008). A key result is that the aeromagnetic anomalies arise from the juxtaposition of magnetically differing strata at the faults as opposed to chemical processes acting at the fault zone. The studies also provide (1) guidelines for understanding and estimating the geophysical parameters controlling aeromagnetic anomalies at faulted strata (Grauch and Hudson), and (2) observations on key geologic factors that are favorable for developing similar sedimentary sources of aeromagnetic anomalies elsewhere (Hudson et al.).

  20. Road Anomalies Detection System Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nuno; Shah, Vaibhav; Soares, João; Rodrigues, Helena

    2018-06-21

    Anomalies on road pavement cause discomfort to drivers and passengers, and may cause mechanical failure or even accidents. Governments spend millions of Euros every year on road maintenance, often causing traffic jams and congestion on urban roads on a daily basis. This paper analyses the difference between the deployment of a road anomalies detection and identification system in a “conditioned” and a real world setup, where the system performed worse compared to the “conditioned” setup. It also presents a system performance analysis based on the analysis of the training data sets; on the analysis of the attributes complexity, through the application of PCA techniques; and on the analysis of the attributes in the context of each anomaly type, using acceleration standard deviation attributes to observe how different anomalies classes are distributed in the Cartesian coordinates system. Overall, in this paper, we describe the main insights on road anomalies detection challenges to support the design and deployment of a new iteration of our system towards the deployment of a road anomaly detection service to provide information about roads condition to drivers and government entities.

  1. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF A SOLAR CORONAL CAVITY OBSERVED WITH THE X-RAY TELESCOPE ON HINODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Katharine K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St. MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gibson, Sarah E. [HAO/NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Kucera, Therese A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hudson, Hugh S. [Space Sciences Laboratories, University of California, Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kano, Ryouhei, E-mail: kreeves@cfa.harvard.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-02-20

    Coronal cavities are voids in coronal emission often observed above high latitude filament channels. Sometimes, these cavities have areas of bright X-ray emission in their centers. In this study, we use data from the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Hinode satellite to examine the thermal emission properties of a cavity observed during 2008 July that contains bright X-ray emission in its center. Using ratios of XRT filters, we find evidence for elevated temperatures in the cavity center. The area of elevated temperature evolves from a ring-shaped structure at the beginning of the observation, to an elongated structure two days later, finally appearing as a compact round source four days after the initial observation. We use a morphological model to fit the cavity emission, and find that a uniform structure running through the cavity does not fit the observations well. Instead, the observations are reproduced by modeling several short cylindrical cavity 'cores' with different parameters on different days. These changing core parameters may be due to some observed activity heating different parts of the cavity core at different times. We find that core temperatures of 1.75 MK, 1.7 MK, and 2.0 MK (for July 19, July 21, and July 23, respectively) in the model lead to structures that are consistent with the data, and that line-of-sight effects serve to lower the effective temperature derived from the filter ratio.

  2. Thermal Analysis of MIRIS Space Observation Camera for Verification of Passive Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk-Hang Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We conducted thermal analyses and cooling tests of the space observation camera (SOC of the multi-purpose infrared imaging system (MIRIS to verify passive cooling. The thermal analyses were conducted with NX 7.0 TMG for two cases of attitude of the MIRIS: for the worst hot case and normal case. Through the thermal analyses of the flight model, it was found that even in the worst case the telescope could be cooled to less than 206°K. This is similar to the results of the passive cooling test (~200.2°K. For the normal attitude case of the analysis, on the other hand, the SOC telescope was cooled to about 160°K in 10 days. Based on the results of these analyses and the test, it was determined that the telescope of the MIRIS SOC could be successfully cooled to below 200°K with passive cooling. The SOC is, therefore, expected to have optimal performance under cooled conditions in orbit.

  3. Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity observed in few-layer black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhe; Maassen, Jesse; Deng, Yexin; Du, Yuchen; Garrelts, Richard P.; Lundstrom, Mark S; Ye, Peide D.; Xu, Xianfan

    2015-01-01

    Black phosphorus has been revisited recently as a new two-dimensional material showing potential applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Here we report the anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity of suspended few-layer black phosphorus measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The armchair and zigzag thermal conductivities are ∼20 and ∼40 W m−1 K−1 for black phosphorus films thicker than 15 nm, respectively, and decrease to ∼10 and ∼20 W m−1 K−1 as the film thickness is reduced, exhibiting significant anisotropy. The thermal conductivity anisotropic ratio is found to be ∼2 for thick black phosphorus films and drops to ∼1.5 for the thinnest 9.5-nm-thick film. Theoretical modelling reveals that the observed anisotropy is primarily related to the anisotropic phonon dispersion, whereas the intrinsic phonon scattering rates are found to be similar along the armchair and zigzag directions. Surface scattering in the black phosphorus films is shown to strongly suppress the contribution of long mean-free-path acoustic phonons. PMID:26472191

  4. concentrated solar power and solar thermal Barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-05-01

    European concentrated solar power capacity remained stable in 2014 and will probably post a negligible increase in 2015. Construction work on a number of new facilities in Italy that are scheduled for commissioning in 2016 and 2017 could commence in the second half of the year. The European solar thermal market for producing heat, domestic hot water and heating has not found the recipe for recovery. According to EurObserv'ER, the market contracted by a further 3.7% from its 2013 level which is the sixth decrease in a row

  5. Momentum-Resolved Observation of Thermal and Quantum Depletion in a Bose Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.; Bouton, Q.; Cayla, H.; Qu, C.; Aspect, A.; Westbrook, C. I.; Clément, D.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the single-atom-resolved measurement of the distribution of momenta ℏk in a weakly interacting Bose gas after a 330 ms time of flight. We investigate it for various temperatures and clearly separate two contributions to the depletion of the condensate by their k dependence. The first one is the thermal depletion. The second contribution falls off as k-4, and its magnitude increases with the in-trap condensate density as predicted by the Bogoliubov theory at zero temperature. These observations suggest associating it with the quantum depletion. How this contribution can survive the expansion of the released interacting condensate is an intriguing open question.

  6. Thermal instability observations during ramp tests in the Studsvik R2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roennberg, G.; Kjaer-Pedersen, N.

    1984-01-01

    A series of ramp tests on ENC-built BWR fuel from the Big Rock Point reactor was performed in September 1982 in the Studsvik R2 Reactor. The tests involved segmented rods with a burnup of 18 MWd/KgU, and constituted part of the Fuel Performance Improvement Program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy. Rods of different designs were tested. The reference design had solid, dished pellets and was unpressurized. The alternative designs were annular pellets and sphere-pac. Some of the rods with annular pellets were prepressurized, and some were not. During the ramp tests the rod power is controlled by a helium depressurization loop which causes a strictly linear power ramp versus time. The thermal output of the test rig is measured calorimetrically, the data immediately being recorded on a strip chart and later processed by a computer. Furthermore, elongation detectors permit the immediate recording of the rod length variation versus time. For some of the rods the thermal output went constant for a fraction of a minute after reaching a certain value, then continued to rise, while the helium depressurization continued to proceed linearly with time. For the duration of this plateau of the thermal output curve the slope of the elongation detector signal was significantly higher than before, but fell back to its original value after the plateau. This observation was made only for the reference rods. None of the annular rods, with or without prepressurization, nor the sphere-pac rods, showed the effect. When observed, the effect occurred at about 40 kw/m. The effect is attributed to fission gas release rapidly being enhanced by thermal feedback. The increase in stored energy associated with the temperature rise in the fuel causes the delay in thermal output. The larger available internal volume and/or the prepressurization of the annular rods, and the lack of a distinct fuel-clad gap for the sphere-pac rods prevented the effect from occurring in those other

  7. The Near-Earth Encounter of Asteroid 308635 (2005 YU55): Thermal IR Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, J. P.; Moskovitz, N. A.; Busch, M. W.; Yang, B.; Granvik, M.

    2012-10-01

    The near-Earth approach (0.00217 AU, or 0.845 lunar distances) of the C-type asteroid 308635 (2005 YU55) in November 2011 presented a rare opportunity for detailed observations of a low-albedo NEA in this size range. As part of a multi-telescope campaign to measure visible and infrared spectra and photometry, we obtained mid-infrared ( 8 to 22 micron) photometry and spectroscopy of 2005 YU55 using Michelle [1] on the Gemini North telescope on UT November 9 and 10, 2011. An extensive radar campaign [2] together with optical lightcurves [3,4] established the rotation state of YU55. In addition, the radar imaging resulted in a shape model for the asteroid, detection of numerous boulders on its surface, and a preliminary estimate of its equatorial diameter at 380 +/- 20 m. In a preliminary analysis, applying the radar and lightcurve-derived parameters to a rough-surface thermophysical model fit to the Gemini/Michelle thermal emission photometry results in a thermal inertia range of approximately 500 to 1500 J m-2 s-1/2 K-1, with the low-thermal-inertia solution corresponding to the small end of the radar size range and vice versa. Updates to these results will be presented and modeling of the thermal contribution to the measured near-infrared spectra from Palomar/Triplespec and IRTF/SpeX will also be discussed. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of observatory staff and the support of the NASA NEOO program (LFL and JPE), the Carnegie fellowship (NAM), and NASA AES, NSF, and the NRAO Jansky Fellowship (MWB). [1] De Buizer, J. and R. Fisher, Proc. Hris (2005), pp. 84-87. [2] Busch, M.W. et al., ACM (2012), abstract #6179. [3] Warner, B., MPBull 39 (2), 84 [4] Pravec, P.

  8. Observing golden-mean universality class in the scaling of thermal transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Daxing

    2018-02-01

    We address the issue of whether the golden-mean [ψ =(√{5 }+1 ) /2 ≃1.618 ] universality class, as predicted by several theoretical models, can be observed in the dynamical scaling of thermal transport. Remarkably, we show strong evidence that ψ appears to be the scaling exponent of heat mode correlation in a purely quartic anharmonic chain. This observation seems to somewhat deviate from the previous expectation and we explain it by the unusual slow decay of the cross correlation between heat and sound modes. Whenever the cubic anharmonicity is included, this cross correlation gradually dies out and another universality class with scaling exponent γ =5 /3 , as commonly predicted by theories, seems recovered. However, this recovery is accompanied by two interesting phase transition processes characterized by a change of symmetry of the potential and a clear variation of the dynamic structure factor, respectively. Due to these transitions, an additional exponent close to γ ≃1.580 emerges. All this evidence suggests that, to gain a full prediction of the scaling of thermal transport, more ingredients should be taken into account.

  9. Observations Of General Learning Patterns In An Upper-Level Thermal Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, David E.

    2009-11-01

    I discuss some observations from using interactive-engagement instructional methods in an upper-level thermal physics course over a two-year period. From the standpoint of the subject matter knowledge of the upper-level students, there was a striking persistence of common learning difficulties previously observed in students enrolled in the introductory course, accompanied, however, by some notable contrasts between the groups. More broadly, I comment on comparisons and contrasts regarding general pedagogical issues among different student sub-populations, for example: differences in the receptivity of lower- and upper-level students to diagrammatic representations; varying receptivity to tutorial-style instructional approach within the upper-level population; and contrasting approaches to learning among physics and engineering sub-populations in the upper-level course with regard to use of symbolic notation, mathematical equations, and readiness to employ verbal explanations.

  10. Kohn anomalies in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flatte, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The detailed behavior of phonon dispersion curves near momenta which span the electronic Fermi sea in a superconductor is presented. An anomaly, similar to the metallic Kohn anomaly, exists in a superconductor's dispersion curves when the frequency of the photon spanning the Fermi sea exceeds twice the superconducting energy gap. This anomaly occurs at approximately the same momentum but is stronger than the normal-state Kohn anomaly. It also survives at finite temperature, unlike the metallic anomaly. Determination of Fermi-surface diameters from the location of these anomalies, therefore, may be more successful in the superconducting phase than in the normal state. However, the superconductor's anomaly fades rapidly with increased phonon frequency and becomes unobservable when the phonon frequency greatly exceeds the gap. This constraint makes these anomalies useful only in high-temperature superconductors such as La 1.85 Sr 0.15 CuO 4

  11. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick; Park, A Young

    2010-01-01

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  12. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  13. Comparison of theoretical estimates and experimental measurements of fatigue crack growth under severe thermal shock conditions (part one - experimental observations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, D.; Green, D.; Parker, R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment in which a severe thermal cycle comprising of alternate upshocks and downshocks has been applied to an axisymmetric feature with an internal, partial penetration weld and crevice. The direction of cracking and crack growth rate were observed experimentally and detailed records made of the thermal cycle. A second part to the paper, reported separately, compares a linear elastic fracture mechanics assessment of the cracking to the experimental observations

  14. The Density of Mid-sized Kuiper Belt Objects from ALMA Thermal Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Michael E. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd., Pasadena CA 91125 (United States); Butler, Bryan J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Rd., Socorro NM 87801 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The densities of mid-sized Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) are a key constraint in understanding the assembly of objects in the outer solar system. These objects are critical for understanding the currently unexplained transition from the smallest KBOs with densities lower than that of water, to the largest objects with significant rock content. Mapping this transition is made difficult by the uncertainties in the diameters of these objects, which maps into an even larger uncertainty in volume and thus density. The substantial collecting area of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array allows significantly more precise measurements of thermal emission from outer solar system objects and could potentially greatly improve the density measurements. Here we use new thermal observations of four objects with satellites to explore the improvements possible with millimeter data. We find that effects due to effective emissivity at millimeter wavelengths make it difficult to use the millimeter data directly to find diameters and thus volumes for these bodies. In addition, we find that when including the effects of model uncertainty, the true uncertainties on the sizes of outer solar system objects measured with radiometry are likely larger than those previously published. Substantial improvement in object sizes will likely require precise occultation measurements.

  15. Towards improved knowledge of geology and global thermal regime from Swarm satellites magnetic gradient observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravat, Dhananjay; Olsen, Nils; Sabaka, Terence

    Gradients of magnetic field have higher spatial resolution than the fields themselves and are helpful in improving the resolution of downward continued satellite magnetic anomaly maps (Kotsiaros et al., 2015, Geophys. J. Int.; Sabaka et al., 2015, Geophys. J. Int.). Higher spatial resolution and ...

  16. Characteristics of uranium geological anomaly in Northern Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinwu; Cheng Danping

    2001-01-01

    The geological anomaly characteristics of uranium deposit region in northern Guangdong are discussed on the aspects of uranium source, structure and thermal activity. Uranium deposits usually occur in the uranium-rich background field. Structure activity provides favourable places for the transportation and precipitation of uranium. Uranium deposits are formed in the central and edge of frequent thermal activity. The assembled entropy anomaly field is the synthetical display for above three anomaly. The biggest assembled entropy anomaly is the most favourable space field for forming uranium deposit

  17. On the nature of anomalies in temperature dependence of the OKh18N1OT steel yield strength after thermal cycling in the low temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, E.M.; Lavrent'ev, F.F.; Kurmanova, T.N.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated were structural transformations in 0Kh18N10T steel as a result of heating and cooling and of deformation within the range of temperatures between 300 and 77 K, the quantity relationships between the said transformations and the variation of the yield limit with the temperature. The studies were conducted by metallography and mechanical test methods. It was shown that an increase in the number of heating and cooling cycles correlates with a loss in strength of the steel while deformation at 77 K. This anomaly in the temperature relationship of the yield limit is related to the appearance in the course of deformation of α-martensite with a BCC lattice. Deformation at 300 K increases the amount ea of epsilon-martensite, a decrses the effectve size of grain and, in consequence, increases the yield limit. The relationship between the yield limit and the grain size at the temperature of 300 K is described adequately by the Hall-Petch equation

  18. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-05-01

    638,4 MWe The CSP plant electrical generating capacity in the EU at the end of 2010 As could be expected, the recession cast long shadows over the European solar thermal market throughout 2010. For the second year running, new installations for hot water production and space heating (collectors) decreased. According to the EurObserv'ER survey the newly-assigned surface area was 3.8 million m2 in 2010, down from 4.2 million m2 in 2009 and 4.6 million m2 in 2008. At the same time, the European high-temperature solar sector related to electricity production has been taking shape alongside the heat-producing applications, with 638.4 MW already installed. Spain accounts for almost all of this capacity, and a further five EU countries, mostly Mediterranean, intend to develop the sector

  19. Observation of thermal quench induced by runaway electrons in magnetic perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, MunSeong; Seo, Dongcheol; Kim, Junghee

    2018-04-01

    Experimental observations in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) plasmas show that a loss of pre-disruptive runaway electrons can induce a rapid radiative cooling of the plasma, by generating impurity clouds from the first wall. The synchrotron radiation image shows that the loss of runaway electrons occurs from the edge region when the resonant magnetic perturbation is applied on the plasma. When the impact of the runaway electrons on the wall is strong enough, a sudden drop of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal occurs with the characteristic plasma behaviors such as the positive spike and following decay of the plasma current, Dα spike, big magnetic fluctuation, etc. The visible images at this runaway loss show an evidence of the generation of impurity cloud and the following radiative cooling. When the runaway beam is located on the plasma edge, thermal quenches are expected to occur without global destruction of the magnetic structure up to the core.

  20. Direct Observation of the Phenomenology of a Solid Thermal Explosion Using Time-Resolved Proton Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Romero, J. J.; Asay, B. W.; Schwartz, C. L.; Saunders, A.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Hogan, G.; Nedrow, P.; Murray, M. M.; Thompson, T. N.; McNeil, W.; Rightley, P.; Marr-Lyon, M.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new phenomenology for burn propagation inside a thermal explosion based on dynamic radiography. Radiographic images were obtained of an aluminum cased solid cylindrical sample of a plastic bonded formulation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. The phenomenology observed is ignition followed by cracking in the solid accompanied by the propagation of a radially symmetric front of increasing proton transmission. This is followed by a further increase in transmission through the sample, ending after approximately 100 μs. We show that these processes are consistent with the propagation of a convective burn front followed by consumption of the remaining solid by conductive particle burning

  1. Time-resolved observation of thermally activated rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Wan; Sung, Baekman; Kim, Jongwoo; Kwon, Soyoung; Kim, Bongsu; Jhe, Wonho

    2015-01-01

    The capillary-condensed liquid bridge is one of the most ubiquitous forms of liquid in nature and contributes significantly to adhesion and friction of biological molecules as well as microscopic objects. Despite its important role in nanoscience and technology, the rupture process of the bridge is not well understood and needs more experimental works. Here, we report real-time observation of rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge in ambient condition. During slow and stepwise stretch of the nanobridge, we measured the activation time for rupture, or the latency time required for the bridge breakup. By statistical analysis of the time-resolved distribution of activation time, we show that rupture is a thermally activated stochastic process and follows the Poisson statistics. In particular, from the Arrhenius law that the rupture rate satisfies, we estimate the position-dependent activation energies for the capillary-bridge rupture

  2. Thermal field emission observation of single-crystal LaB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, H.; Harada, K.; Shimizu, R.

    1990-01-01

    TFE (thermal field emission) properties of LaB 6 left-angle 100 right-angle and left-angle 310 right-angle single crystals were investigated by emission pattern observation. It was found that field evaporation with the tip temperature held at ∼1500 degree C is very useful to get a clean pattern of fourfold symmetry. Each of four bright spots in the clean pattern was presumed to correspond to left-angle 310 right-angle emission. It is proposed, as the most appropriate operating condition, to use the left-angle 310 right-angle LaB 6 tip at a temperature ∼1000 degree C in vacuum of 10 -9 Torr region, promising a new TF emitter of high brightness and stability for practical use

  3. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    The European concentrated solar plant market is set to mark time for a year following efforts to complete construction on 350 MW of CSP capacity in Spain in 2013. The spotlight has switched to Italy which could re-launch the European market within a couple of years. The European solar thermal market for heat and hot water production and space heating, is shrinking all the time. EurObserv'ER reports that the market is in its fifth successive year of contraction in the European Union. It now posts a 10.5% decline on its 2012 performance having struggled to install just over 3 million m 2 of collectors in 2013

  4. Advanced analysis of thermal data observed in subsurface wells unmasks the ancient climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Kutasov, Izzy

    2014-05-01

    temperature at the moment of time t = 0 years; z is the vertical depth and Γ is the geothermal gradient. It is also assumed that the host medium is homogeneous with constant thermal properties. Now the current (t = tx) subsurface temperature is (in case of warming): Tc(z,t = tx) = T0c +f (z), (2) where T0c is the current (at the time (date) of temperature logging) mean ground surface temperature; and f(z) is a function of depth that could be obtained from the field data. In some cases the value of T0c can be obtained by extrapolation of the function Tc to z = 0. However, in most cases, the value T0c can be estimated by trial and error method: Assuming an interval of values for T0c, calculating for each T0c value of the temperature profiles Tcfor various models of change in the ground surface temperature (GST) with time and, finally, finding a best match between calculated and field measured Tc profiles. In our study we found that a quadratic regression can be utilized to estimate the value of T0c = a0 (Kutasov et al., 2000): Tc(z,t = tx) = a0 + a1z +a2z2, (3) where a0, a1, and a2 are the coefficients. We will consider four different models (Eppelbaum et al., 2006). Apparently each of these models is more suitable (applicable) under concrete physical-geological conditions. In the first model we assumed that txC years ago the GSTvalue suddenly changed from T0 to T0c. The current temperature anomaly (the reduced temperature) is TR (z) = T0c + f(z) - T0 - Γ z (4) and the solution is ( ) TRC = TR = ΔT0Φ *(x) -;z- ,t = txC, 2 at (5) ΔT0 = T0c - T0, (6)

  5. An Investigation of the Ranges of Validity of Asteroid Thermal Models for Near-Earth Asteroid Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommert, M.; Jedicke, R.; Trilling, D. E.

    2018-02-01

    The majority of known asteroid diameters are derived from thermal-infrared observations. Diameters are derived using asteroid thermal models that approximate their surface temperature distributions and compare the measured thermal-infrared flux with model-dependent predictions. The most commonly used thermal model is the Near-Earth Asteroid Thermal Model (NEATM), which is usually perceived as superior to other models like the Fast-Rotating Model (FRM). We investigate the applicability of the NEATM and the FRM to thermal-infrared observations of Near-Earth Objects using synthetic asteroids with properties based on the real Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) population. We find the NEATM to provide more accurate diameters and albedos than the FRM in most cases, with a few exceptions. The modeling results are barely affected by the physical properties of the objects, but we find a large impact of the solar phase angle on the modeling results. We conclude that the NEATM provides statistically more robust diameter estimates for NEAs observed at solar phase angles less than ∼65°, while the FRM provides more robust diameter estimates for solar phase angles greater than ∼65°. We estimate that <5% of all NEA diameters and albedos derived up to date are affected by systematic effects that are of the same order of magnitude as the typical thermal model uncertainties. We provide statistical correction functions for diameters and albedos derived using the NEATM and FRM as a function of solar phase angle.

  6. Organic petrology of the Aptian-age section in the downdip Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Mississippi, USA: Observations and preliminary implications for thermal maturation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Brett J.; Hackley, Paul C.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Bove, Alana M.; Dulong, Frank T.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Scott, Krystina R.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies a thermal maturity anomaly within the downdip Mississippi Interior Salt Basin (MISB) of southern Mississippi, USA, through examination of bitumen reflectance data from Aptian-age strata (Sligo Formation, Pine Island Shale, James Limestone, and Rodessa Formation). U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reconnaissance investigations conducted in 2011–2012 examined Aptian-age thermal maturity trends across the onshore northern Gulf of Mexico region and indicated that the section in the downdip MISB is approaching the wet gas/condensate window (Ro~1.2%). A focused study in 2012–2013 used 6 whole core, one sidewall core, and 49 high-graded cutting samples (depth range of 13,000–16,500 ft [3962.4–5029.2 m] below surface) collected from 15 downdip MISB wells for mineralogy, fluid inclusion, organic geochemistry, and organic petrographic analysis. Based on native solid bitumen reflectance (Ro generally > 0.8%; interpreted to be post-oil indigenous bitumens matured in situ), Ro values increase regionally across the MISB from the southeast to the northwest. Thermal maturity in the eastern half of the basin (Ro range 1.0 to 1.25%) appears to be related to present-day burial depth and shows a gradual increase with respect to depth. To the west, thermal maturity continues to increase even as the Aptian section shallows structurally on the Adams County High (Ro range 1.4 to > 1.8%). After evaluating the possible thermal agents responsible for increasing maturity at shallower depths (i.e., igneous activity, proximity to salt, variations in regional heat flux, and uplift), we tentatively propose that either greater paleoheat flow or deeper burial coupled with uplift in the western part of the MISB could be responsible for the thermal maturity anomaly. Further research and additional data are needed to determine the cause(s) of the thermal anomaly.

  7. Determination of thermal diffusivity at low temperature using the two-beam phase-lag photoacoustic method with observation of phase-transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, M.P.P.

    1992-01-01

    This study consists of the determination of thermal diffusivity int he temperature range from 77 K to 300 K by the two-beam phase-lag photoacoustic method. Room temperature measurements of NTD (neutron transmutation doping) silicon suggest that the doping process does not affect its thermal properties. For the superconductor Y Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 - x it has been verified that the sample density affects its thermal diffusivity. The validity of the experimental method on the Li K SO 4 crystal has been examined by using the thermal diffusivity of a Li F crystal and an Y 2 O 3 ceramic, at room temperature. The behavior of the thermal diffusivity as a function of the temperature for the Li K SO 4 crystal shows two anomalies which correspond at phase-transitions of this crystal in the studied temperature range. (author)

  8. Branchial anomalies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Y; Ifeacho, S; Tweedie, D; Jephson, C G; Albert, D M; Cochrane, L A; Wyatt, M E; Jonas, N; Hartley, B E J

    2011-08-01

    Branchial cleft anomalies are the second most common head and neck congenital lesions seen in children. Amongst the branchial cleft malformations, second cleft lesions account for 95% of the branchial anomalies. This article analyzes all the cases of branchial cleft anomalies operated on at Great Ormond Street Hospital over the past 10 years. All children who underwent surgery for branchial cleft sinus or fistula from January 2000 to December 2010 were included in this study. In this series, we had 80 patients (38 female and 42 male). The age at the time of operation varied from 1 year to 14 years. Amongst this group, 15 patients had first branchial cleft anomaly, 62 had second branchial cleft anomaly and 3 had fourth branchial pouch anomaly. All the first cleft cases were operated on by a superficial parotidectomy approach with facial nerve identification. Complete excision was achieved in all these first cleft cases. In this series of first cleft anomalies, we had one complication (temporary marginal mandibular nerve weakness. In the 62 children with second branchial cleft anomalies, 50 were unilateral and 12 were bilateral. In the vast majority, the tract extended through the carotid bifurcation and extended up to pharyngeal constrictor muscles. Majority of these cases were operated on through an elliptical incision around the external opening. Complete excision was achieved in all second cleft cases except one who required a repeat excision. In this subgroup, we had two complications one patient developed a seroma and one had incomplete excision. The three patients with fourth pouch anomaly were treated with endoscopic assisted monopolar diathermy to the sinus opening with good outcome. Branchial anomalies are relatively common in children. There are three distinct types, first cleft, second cleft and fourth pouch anomaly. Correct diagnosis is essential to avoid inadequate surgery and multiple procedures. The surgical approach needs to be tailored to the type

  9. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  10. Global magnetic anomaly and aurora of Neptune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    The large offset and tilt of Neptune's dipole magnetic field combine to create a global magnetic anomaly, analogous to but much more important than Earth's South Atlantic Anomaly. Energetic particle precipitation loss within the Neptune anomaly creates atmospheric drift shadows within which particle fluxes are greatly reduced. The energetic particle dropout observed by Voyager near closest approach occurred near the predicted times when Voyager passed within the atmospheric drift shadow. Extremely soft, structured bursts of ions and electrons within the drift shadow may result from plasma wave-induced pitch angle scattering of trapped particles confined near the magnetic equator. The dropout does not necessarily imply that Voyager passed through an Earth-like discrete auroral zone, as earlier reported. The ion and electron fluxes observed within the dropout period correspond to particles that must precipitate to Neptune's atmosphere within the anomaly region. This anomaly precipitation can account for a major portion of the ultraviolet emissions previously identified as Neptune aurora

  11. Thermal tides and studies to tune the mechanistic tidal model using UARS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Yudin

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Monthly simulations of the thermal diurnal and semidiurnal tides are compared to High-Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI and Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII wind and temperature measurements on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS. There is encouraging agreement between the observations and the linear global mechanistic tidal model results both for the diurnal and semidiurnal components in the equatorial and mid-latitude regions. This gives us the confidence to outline the first steps of an assimilative analysis/interpretation for tides, dissipation, and mean flow using a combination of model results and the global measurements from HRDI and WINDII. The sensitivity of the proposed technique to the initial guess employed to obtain a best fit to the data by tuning model parameters is discussed for the January and March 1993 cases, when the WINDII day and night measurements of the meridional winds between 90 and 110 km are used along with the daytime HRDI measurements. Several examples for the derivation of the tidal variables and decomposition of the measured winds into tidal and mean flow components using this approach are compared with previous tidal estimates and modeling results for the migrating tides. The seasonal cycle of the derived diurnal tidal amplitudes are discussed and compared with radar observation between 80 and 100 km and 40°S and 40°N.

  12. Thermal tides and studies to tune the mechanistic tidal model using UARS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Yudin

    Full Text Available Monthly simulations of the thermal diurnal and semidiurnal tides are compared to High-Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI and Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII wind and temperature measurements on the Upper-Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS. There is encouraging agreement between the observations and the linear global mechanistic tidal model results both for the diurnal and semidiurnal components in the equatorial and mid-latitude regions. This gives us the confidence to outline the first steps of an assimilative analysis/interpretation for tides, dissipation, and mean flow using a combination of model results and the global measurements from HRDI and WINDII. The sensitivity of the proposed technique to the initial guess employed to obtain a best fit to the data by tuning model parameters is discussed for the January and March 1993 cases, when the WINDII day and night measurements of the meridional winds between 90 and 110 km are used along with the daytime HRDI measurements. Several examples for the derivation of the tidal variables and decomposition of the measured winds into tidal and mean flow components using this approach are compared with previous tidal estimates and modeling results for the migrating tides. The seasonal cycle of the derived diurnal tidal amplitudes are discussed and compared with radar observation between 80 and 100 km and 40°S and 40°N.

  13. THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SOLAR FLARES OVER THREE SOLAR CYCLES USING GOES X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Daniel F.; Gallagher, Peter T.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Dennis, Brian R.; Kim Tolbert, A.; Schwartz, Richard A.; Alex Young, C.

    2012-01-01

    Solar flare X-ray emission results from rapidly increasing temperatures and emission measures in flaring active region loops. To date, observations from the X-Ray Sensor (XRS) on board the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) have been used to derive these properties, but have been limited by a number of factors, including the lack of a consistent background subtraction method capable of being automatically applied to large numbers of flares. In this paper, we describe an automated Temperature and Emission measure-Based Background Subtraction method (TEBBS), that builds on the methods of Bornmann. Our algorithm ensures that the derived temperature is always greater than the instrumental limit and the pre-flare background temperature, and that the temperature and emission measure are increasing during the flare rise phase. Additionally, TEBBS utilizes the improved estimates of GOES temperatures and emission measures from White et al. TEBBS was successfully applied to over 50,000 solar flares occurring over nearly three solar cycles (1980-2007), and used to create an extensive catalog of the solar flare thermal properties. We confirm that the peak emission measure and total radiative losses scale with background subtracted GOES X-ray flux as power laws, while the peak temperature scales logarithmically. As expected, the peak emission measure shows an increasing trend with peak temperature, although the total radiative losses do not. While these results are comparable to previous studies, we find that flares of a given GOES class have lower peak temperatures and higher peak emission measures than previously reported. The TEBBS database of flare thermal plasma properties is publicly available at http://www.SolarMonitor.org/TEBBS/.

  14. Global gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, E.

    1985-01-01

    A general formula for global gauge and gravitational anomalies is derived. It is used to show that the anomaly free supergravity and superstring theories in ten dimensions are all free of global anomalies that might have ruined their consistency. However, it is shown that global anomalies lead to some restrictions on allowed compactifications of these theories. For example, in the case of O(32) superstring theory, it is shown that a global anomaly related to π 7 (O(32)) leads to a Dirac-like quantization condition for the field strength of the antisymmetric tensor field. Related to global anomalies is the question of the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field. It is argued that the relevant gravitational instantons are exotic spheres. It is shown that the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field is always even in ten dimensional supergravity. (orig.)

  15. Branchial anomalies: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sampath Chandra; Azeez, Arun; Thada, Nikhil Dinaker; Rao, Pallavi; Bacciu, Andrea; Prasad, Kishore Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To find out the incidence of involvement of individual arches, anatomical types of lesions, the age and sex incidence, the site and side of predilection, the common clinical features, the common investigations, treatment, and complications of the different anomalies. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. Design. A 10 year retrospective study. Participants. 30 patients with clinically proven branchial anomalies including patients with bilateral disease totaling 34 lesions. Main Outcome Measures. The demographical data, clinical features, type of branchial anomalies, and the management details were recorded and analyzed. Results and Observations. The mean age of presentation was 18.67 years. Male to female sex ratio was 1.27 : 1 with a male preponderance. Of the 34 lesions, maximum incidence was of second arch anomalies (50%) followed by first arch. We had two cases each of third and fourth arch anomalies. Only 1 (3.3%) patients of the 30 presented with lesion at birth. The most common pathological type of lesions was fistula (58.82%) followed by cyst. 41.18% of the lesions occurred on the right side. All the patients underwent surgical excision. None of our patients had involvement of facial nerve in first branchial anomaly. All patients had tracts going superficial to the facial nerve. Conclusion. Confirming the extent of the tract is mandatory before any surgery as these lesions pass in relation to some of the most vital structures of the neck. Surgery should always be the treatment option. injection of dye, microscopic removal and inclusion of surrounding tissue while excising the tract leads to a decreased incidence of recurrence.

  16. Branchial Anomalies: Diagnosis and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Arun; Thada, Nikhil Dinaker; Rao, Pallavi; Prasad, Kishore Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To find out the incidence of involvement of individual arches, anatomical types of lesions, the age and sex incidence, the site and side of predilection, the common clinical features, the common investigations, treatment, and complications of the different anomalies. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. Design. A 10 year retrospective study. Participants. 30 patients with clinically proven branchial anomalies including patients with bilateral disease totaling 34 lesions. Main Outcome Measures. The demographical data, clinical features, type of branchial anomalies, and the management details were recorded and analyzed. Results and Observations. The mean age of presentation was 18.67 years. Male to female sex ratio was 1.27 : 1 with a male preponderance. Of the 34 lesions, maximum incidence was of second arch anomalies (50%) followed by first arch. We had two cases each of third and fourth arch anomalies. Only 1 (3.3%) patients of the 30 presented with lesion at birth. The most common pathological type of lesions was fistula (58.82%) followed by cyst. 41.18% of the lesions occurred on the right side. All the patients underwent surgical excision. None of our patients had involvement of facial nerve in first branchial anomaly. All patients had tracts going superficial to the facial nerve. Conclusion. Confirming the extent of the tract is mandatory before any surgery as these lesions pass in relation to some of the most vital structures of the neck. Surgery should always be the treatment option. injection of dye, microscopic removal and inclusion of surrounding tissue while excising the tract leads to a decreased incidence of recurrence. PMID:24772172

  17. Anomaly-free models for flavour anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Tunney, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    We explore the constraints imposed by the cancellation of triangle anomalies on models in which the flavour anomalies reported by LHCb and other experiments are due to an extra U(1)^' gauge boson Z^' . We assume universal and rational U(1)^' charges for the first two generations of left-handed quarks and of right-handed up-type quarks but allow different charges for their third-generation counterparts. If the right-handed charges vanish, cancellation of the triangle anomalies requires all the quark U(1)^' charges to vanish, if there are either no exotic fermions or there is only one Standard Model singlet dark matter (DM) fermion. There are non-trivial anomaly-free models with more than one such `dark' fermion, or with a single DM fermion if right-handed up-type quarks have non-zero U(1)^' charges. In some of the latter models the U(1)^' couplings of the first- and second-generation quarks all vanish, weakening the LHC Z^' constraint, and in some other models the DM particle has purely axial couplings, weakening the direct DM scattering constraint. We also consider models in which anomalies are cancelled via extra vector-like leptons, showing how the prospective LHC Z^' constraint may be weakened because the Z^' → μ ^+ μ ^- branching ratio is suppressed relative to other decay modes.

  18. First branchial groove anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M; Hickey, S; Joseph, G

    2000-06-01

    First branchial groove anomalies are very rare. We report a case of a first branchial groove anomaly presented as an infected cyst in an 11-month-old child. Management of such lesions is complicated because of their close association with the facial nerve. Surgical management must include identification and protection of the facial nerve. Embryology and facial nerve disposition in relation to the anomaly are reviewed.

  19. Infiltration route analysis using thermal observation devices (TOD) and optimization techniques in a GIS environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Soonam; Heo, Joon; Han, Soohee; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2010-01-01

    Infiltration-route analysis is a military application of geospatial information system (GIS) technology. In order to find susceptible routes, optimal-path-searching algorithms are applied to minimize the cost function, which is the summed result of detection probability. The cost function was determined according to the thermal observation device (TOD) detection probability, the viewshed analysis results, and two feature layers extracted from the vector product interim terrain data. The detection probability is computed and recorded for an individual cell (50 m × 50 m), and the optimal infiltration routes are determined with A* algorithm by minimizing the summed costs on the routes from a start point to an end point. In the present study, in order to simulate the dynamic nature of a real-world problem, one thousand cost surfaces in the GIS environment were generated with randomly located TODs and randomly selected infiltration start points. Accordingly, one thousand sets of vulnerable routes for infiltration purposes could be found, which could be accumulated and presented as an infiltration vulnerability map. This application can be further utilized for both optimal infiltration routing and surveillance network design. Indeed, dynamic simulation in the GIS environment is considered to be a powerful and practical solution for optimization problems. A similar approach can be applied to the dynamic optimal routing for civil infrastructure, which requires consideration of terrain-related constraints and cost functions.

  20. Volcanic Eruption Observations from an Elevated Point of the Stromboli Using Thermal Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, V.; Gagnon, M. A.; Marcotte, F.; Gouhier, M.; Smekens, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Many urban areas are located near active volcanoes around the world. Therefore, scientific research on different indicators of imminent eruptions is carried out on an ongoing basis. Due to the hazardous and unpredictable behavior of volcanoes, remote sensing technologies are normally preferred for investigations. Over the years, the Telops Hyper-Cam, a high-performance infrared hyperspectral camera, has established itself as a reference tool for investigating gas clouds over large distances. In order to illustrate the benefits of standoff infrared hyperspectral imaging for characterizing volcanic processes, many different measurements were carried out from an elevated point ( 800 m) of the Stromboli volcano (Italy) by researchers from the Université Blaise-Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand, France). The Stromboli volcano is well known for its periodic eruptions of small magnitude containing various proportions of ash, lava and gases. Imaging was carried out at a relatively high spectral and spatial resolution before and during eruptions from the North-East (NE) craters. Both sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur tetrafluoride (SiF4) could be successfully identified within the volcano's plume from their distinct spectral features. During the passive degassing phase, a total amount of 3.3 kg of SO2 and 0.8 g of SiF4 were estimated. A violent eruption from NE1 crater was then observed and a total of 45 g and and 7 g of SO2 and SiF4 were estimated respectively. These results are in good agreement with previous work using a UV-SO2 camera. Finally, a smaller eruption from NE2 crater was observed. Total amounts of 3 kg and 17 g of SO2 and SiF4 were estimated respectively. Quantitative chemical maps for both gases will be presented. The results show that standoff thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging provides unique insights for a better understanding of volcanic eruptions.

  1. Residual generator for cardiovascular anomalies detection

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Tadjine, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using observer-based approaches for cardiovascular anomalies detection and isolation. We consider a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system that can be written in a form of nonlinear state

  2. Dental Anomalies: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jahanimoghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental anomalies are usual congenital malformation that can happen either as isolated findings or as a part of a syndrome. Developmental anomalies influencing the morphology exists in both deciduous and permanent dentition and shows different forms such as gemination, fusion, concrescence, dilaceration, dens evaginatus (DE, enamel pearls, taurodontism or peg-shaped laterals. All These anomalies have clinical significance concerning aesthetics, malocclusion and more necessary preparing of the development of dental decays and oral diseases. Through a search in PubMed, Google, Scopus and Medline, a total of eighty original research papers during 1928-2016 were found with the keywords such as dental anomaly, syndrome, tooth and hypodontia. One hundred review titles were identified, eighty reviews were retrieved that were finally included as being relevant and of sufficient quality. In this review, dental anomalies including gemination, fusion, concrescence, dilaceration, dens invaginatus, DE, taurodontism, enamel pearls, fluorosis, peg-shaped laterals, dentinal dysplasia, regional odontodysplasia and hypodontia are discussed. Diagnosing dental abnormality needs a thorough evaluation of the patient, involving a medical, dental, familial and clinical history. Clinical examination and radiographic evaluation and in some of the cases, specific laboratory tests are also needed. Developmental dental anomalies require careful examination and treatment planning. Where one anomaly is present, clinicians should suspect that other anomalies may also be present. Moreover, careful clinical and radiographical examination is required. Furthermore, more complex cases need multidisciplinary planning and treatment.

  3. Branchial cleft anomalies: CT evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seok, Eul Hye; Park, Chan Sup [College of Medicine, Inha University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the CT findings of a variety of branchial cleft anomalies in the head and neck area. We reviewed the CT findings of 16 patients with neck lesion pathologically proved as branchial cleft anomalies. There were two first and 12 second branchial cleft cysts, one first and one second branchial cleft sinuses. Two cases of first branchial cleft cysts were manifested as thin-walled, cystic masses at auricular area. One first branchial cleft sinus was an external opening type and manifested as an ill-defined, enhancing solid lesion at posterior auricular area. All 12 cases of second branchial cleft cysts demonstrated a typical location, displacing the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly, the carotid artery and internal jugular vein complex medially and the submandibular gland anteriorly. Eight cases of second branchial cleft cysts were seen as fluid-filled, round or ovoid-shaped cysts, and 3 cases of them were seen as irregular-shaped cysts. In one case, suppurative adenopathy with loss of soft tissue planes around the cyst was observed. One case of second branchial cleft sinus was manifested as a tubular-shaped, enhancing lesion at submental area and containing external opening site draining into the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. We conclude that CT provides important diagnostic and therapeutic information in patients with a neck mass believed to be a branchial cleft anomaly, as it can differentiate various forms of the branchial anomalies by their characteristic location and shape.

  4. Branchial cleft anomalies: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seok, Eul Hye; Park, Chan Sup

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the CT findings of a variety of branchial cleft anomalies in the head and neck area. We reviewed the CT findings of 16 patients with neck lesion pathologically proved as branchial cleft anomalies. There were two first and 12 second branchial cleft cysts, one first and one second branchial cleft sinuses. Two cases of first branchial cleft cysts were manifested as thin-walled, cystic masses at auricular area. One first branchial cleft sinus was an external opening type and manifested as an ill-defined, enhancing solid lesion at posterior auricular area. All 12 cases of second branchial cleft cysts demonstrated a typical location, displacing the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly, the carotid artery and internal jugular vein complex medially and the submandibular gland anteriorly. Eight cases of second branchial cleft cysts were seen as fluid-filled, round or ovoid-shaped cysts, and 3 cases of them were seen as irregular-shaped cysts. In one case, suppurative adenopathy with loss of soft tissue planes around the cyst was observed. One case of second branchial cleft sinus was manifested as a tubular-shaped, enhancing lesion at submental area and containing external opening site draining into the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. We conclude that CT provides important diagnostic and therapeutic information in patients with a neck mass believed to be a branchial cleft anomaly, as it can differentiate various forms of the branchial anomalies by their characteristic location and shape

  5. Clinical Study of Second Branchial Cleft Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2018-03-30

    The objective of this study was to review the clinical characteristics and surgical treatment outcomes of second branchial cleft anomalies, and to evaluate the usefulness and accuracy of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of branchial cleft cysts. A retrospective chart review was performed at Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital from January 2010 to December 2016. Among 25 patients with second branchial cleft anomalies, in 23 patients (92.0%), these anomalies presented as cysts, and in the remaining 2 patients (8.0%), these anomalies presented as fistulas. Fine-needle aspiration cytology had a diagnostic sensitivity of 100%, a positive-predictive value of 100%, and accuracy of 100% for diagnosing second branchial cleft cyst. All patients of second branchial cleft anomalies were treated surgically under general anesthesia. No recurrence of second branchial cleft anomalies was observed. Branchial cleft cysts were the most common type of second branchial cleft anomalies. Preoperative FNAC is a useful and accurate method for preoperative evaluation of branchial cleft cysts. Surgical excision of second branchial cleft anomalies is the treatment of choice without any complications and with no recurrence.

  6. Atmospheric circulation patterns and phenological anomalies of grapevine in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cola, Gabriele; Alilla, Roberta; Dal Monte, Giovanni; Epifani, Chiara; Mariani, Luigi; Parisi, Simone Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a fundamental crop for Italian agriculture as testified by the first place of Italy in the world producers ranking. This justify the importance of quantitative analyses referred to this crucial crop and aimed to quantify meteorological resources and limitations to development and production. Phenological rhythms of grapevine are strongly affected by surface fields of air temperature which in their turn are affected by synoptic circulation. This evidence highlights the importance of an approach based on dynamic climatology in order to detect and explain phenological anomalies that can have relevant effects on quantity and quality of grapevine production. In this context, this research is aimed to study the existing relation among the 850 hPa circulation patterns over the Euro-Mediterranean area from NOAA Ncep dataset and grapevine phenological fields for Italy over the period 2006-2013, highlighting the main phenological anomalies and analyzing synoptic determinants. This work is based on phenological fields with a standard pixel of 2 km routinely produced from 2006 by the Iphen project (Italian Phenological network) on the base of phenological observations spatialized by means of a specific algorithm based on cumulated thermal resources expressed as Normal Heat Hours (NHH). Anomalies have been evaluated with reference to phenological normal fields defined for the Italian area on the base of phenological observations and Iphen model. Results show that relevant phenological anomalies observed over the reference period are primarily associated with long lasting blocking systems driving cold air masses (Arctic or Polar-Continental) or hot ones (Sub-Tropical) towards the Italian area. Specific cases are presented for some years like 2007 and 2011.

  7. The effects of sea surface temperature anomalies on oceanic coral reef systems in the southwestern tropical Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, B. P.; Costa, M. B. S. F.; Coxey, M. S.; Gaspar, A. L. B.; Veleda, D.; Araujo, M.

    2013-06-01

    In 2010, high sea surface temperatures that were recorded in several parts of the world and caused coral bleaching and coral mortality were also recorded in the southwest Atlantic Ocean, between latitudes 0°S and 8°S. This paper reports on coral bleaching and diseases in Rocas Atoll and Fernando de Noronha archipelago and examines their relationship with sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies recorded by PIRATA buoys located at 8°S30°W, 0°S35°W, and 0°S23°W. Adjusted satellite data were used to derive SST climatological means at buoy sites and to derive anomalies at reef sites. The whole region was affected by the elevated temperature anomaly that persisted through 2010, reaching 1.67 °C above average at reef sites and 1.83 °C above average at buoys sites. A significant positive relationship was found between the percentage of coral bleaching that was observed on reef formations and the corresponding HotSpot SST anomaly recorded by both satellite and buoys. These results indicate that the warming observed in the ocean waters was followed by a warming at the reefs. The percentage of bleached corals persisting after the subsidence of the thermal stress, and disease prevalence increased through 2010, after two periods of thermal stress. The in situ temperature anomaly observed during the 2009-2010 El Niño event was equivalent to the anomaly observed during the 1997-1998 El Niño event, explaining similar bleaching intensity. Continued monitoring efforts are necessary to further assess the relationship between bleaching severity and PIRATA SST anomalies and improve the use of this new dataset in future regional bleaching predictions.

  8. Geothermal Anomaly Mapping Using Landsat ETM+ Data in Ilan Plain, Northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hai-Po; Chang, Chung-Pai; Dao, Phuong D.

    2018-01-01

    Geothermal energy is an increasingly important component of green energy in the globe. A prerequisite for geothermal energy development is to acquire the local and regional geothermal prospects. Existing geophysical methods of estimating the geothermal potential are usually limited to the scope of prospecting because of the operation cost and site reachability in the field. Thus, explorations in a large-scale area such as the surface temperature and the thermal anomaly primarily rely on satellite thermal infrared imagery. This study aims to apply and integrate thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing technology with existing geophysical methods for the geothermal exploration in Taiwan. Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery is used to retrieve the land surface temperature (LST) in Ilan plain. Accuracy assessment of satellite-derived LST is conducted by comparing with the air temperature data from 11 permanent meteorological stations. The correlation coefficient of linear regression between air temperature and LST retrieval is 0.76. The MODIS LST product is used for the cross validation of Landsat derived LSTs. Furthermore, Landsat ETM+ multi-temporal brightness temperature imagery for the verification of the LST anomaly results were performed. LST Results indicate that thermal anomaly areas appear correlating with the development of faulted structure. Selected geothermal anomaly areas are validated in detail by field investigation of hot springs and geothermal drillings. It implies that occurrences of hot springs and geothermal drillings are in good spatial agreement with anomaly areas. In addition, the significant low-resistivity zones observed in the resistivity sections are echoed with the LST profiles when compared with in the Chingshui geothermal field. Despite limited to detecting the surficial and the shallow buried geothermal resources, this work suggests that TIR remote sensing is a valuable tool by providing an effective way of mapping

  9. Observation of SO2 degassing at Stromboli volcano using a hyperspectral thermal infrared imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekens, Jean-François; Gouhier, Mathieu

    2018-05-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) imaging is a common tool for the monitoring of volcanic activity. Broadband cameras with increasing sampling frequency give great insight into the physical processes taking place during effusive and explosive event, while Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) methods provide high resolution spectral information used to assess the composition of volcanic gases but are often limited to a single point of interest. Continuing developments in detector technology have given rise to a new class of hyperspectral imagers combining the advantages of both approaches. In this work, we present the results of our observations of volcanic activity at Stromboli volcano with a ground-based imager, the Telops Hyper-Cam LW, when used to detect emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) produced at the vent, with data acquired at Stromboli volcano (Italy) in early October of 2015. We have developed an innovative technique based on a curve-fitting algorithm to quickly extract spectral information from high-resolution datasets, allowing fast and reliable identification of SO2. We show in particular that weak SO2 emissions, such as inter-eruptive gas puffing, can be easily detected using this technology, even with poor weather conditions during acquisition (e.g., high relative humidity, presence of fog and/or ash). Then, artificially reducing the spectral resolution of the instrument, we recreated a variety of commonly used multispectral configurations to examine the efficiency of four qualitative SO2 indicators based on simple Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD). Our results show that quickly changing conditions at the vent - including but not limited to the presence of summit fog - render the establishment of meaningful thresholds for BTD indicators difficult. Building on those results, we propose recommendations on the use of multispectral imaging for SO2 monitoring and routine measurements from ground-based instruments.

  10. Observations of the thermal environment on Red Sea platform reefs: a heat budget analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, K. A.

    2011-03-11

    Hydrographic measurements were collected on nine offshore reef platforms in the eastern Red Sea shelf region, north of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The data were analyzed for spatial and temporal patterns of temperature variation, and a simple heat budget analysis was performed with the goal of advancing our understanding of the physical processes that control temperature variability on the reef. In 2009 and 2010, temperature variability on Red Sea reef platforms was dominated by diurnal variability. The daily temperature range on the reefs, at times, exceeded 5°C-as large as the annual range of water temperature on the shelf. Additionally, our observations reveal the proximity of distinct thermal microclimates within the bounds of one reef platform. Circulation on the reef flat is largely wave driven. The greatest diurnal variation in water temperature occurs in the center of larger reef flats and on reefs protected from direct wave forcing, while smaller knolls or sites on the edges of the reef flat tend to experience less diurnal temperature variability. We found that both the temporal and spatial variability in water temperature on the reef platforms is well predicted by a heat budget model that includes the transfer of heat at the air-water interface and the advection of heat by currents flowing over the reef. Using this simple model, we predicted the temperature across three different reefs to within 0.4°C on the outer shelf using only information about bathymetry, surface heat flux, and offshore wave conditions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Parameterization and Observability Analysis of Scalable Battery Clusters for Onboard Thermal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    which includes the current from regenerative braking . Repeated UAC cycles are used as the model input to generate the surface temperature Ts to test...battery thermal dynamics is the key to an effective thermal management system and to main- tain safety, performance, and life longevity of these Li-Ion...the current and surface temperature of the battery, which are the commonly mea- sured signals in a vehicle battery management system . It is shown that

  12. Introduction to anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Gaume, L.

    1986-01-01

    These lectures are dedicated to the study of the recent progress and implications of anomalies in quantum field theory. In this introduction the author recapitulates some of the highlights in the history of the subject. The outline of these lectures is as follows: Section II contains a quick review of spinors in Euclidean and Minkowski space, some other group theory results relevant for the computation of anomalies in various dimensions, and an exposition of the index theorem. Section III starts the analysis of fermion determinants and chiral effective actions by deriving the non-Abelian anomaly from index theory. Using the results of Section II, the anomaly cancellation recently discovered by Green and Schwarz will be presented in Section IV as well as the connection of these results of Section III with the descent equations and the Wess-Zumino-Witten Lagrangians. Section V contains the generalization of anomalies to σ-models and some of its application in string theory. Section VI will deal with the anomalies from the Hamiltonian point of view. An exact formula for the imaginary part of the effective action for chiral fermions in the presence of arbitrary external gauge and gravitational fields will be derived in Section VII, and used in Section VIII for the study of global anomalies. 85 references

  13. Anomalies on orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew G.; Georgi, Howard

    2001-03-16

    We discuss the form of the chiral anomaly on an S1/Z2 orbifold with chiral boundary conditions. We find that the 4-divergence of the higher-dimensional current evaluated at a given point in the extra dimension is proportional to the probability of finding the chiral zero mode there. Nevertheless the anomaly, appropriately defined as the five dimensional divergence of the current, lives entirely on the orbifold fixed planes and is independent of the shape of the zero mode. Therefore long distance four dimensional anomaly cancellation ensures the consistency of the higher dimensional orbifold theory.

  14. Skyrmions and anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1987-02-01

    The author summarizes the works presented at the meeting on skyrmions and anomalies. He divides the principal issues of this workshop into five categories: QCD effective lagrangians, chiral bags and the Cheshire cat principle, strangeness problem, phenomenology, mathematical structure

  15. Anomaly Detection in Sequences

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a set of novel algorithms which we call sequenceMiner, that detect and characterize anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences that...

  16. Kohn anomaly in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, I.; Kepcija, N.; Dobardzic, E.; Damnjanovic, M.; Mohr, M.; Maultzsch, J.; Thomsen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Symmetry based analysis of the Kohn anomaly is performed. Kohn phonon frequencies and displacements are calculated by force constant method. It is shown that Kohn phonon vibrations cause electronic band gap opening.

  17. Anomalies in instanton calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmi, D.

    1995-01-01

    I develop a formalism for solving topological field theories explicitly, in the case when the explicit expression of the instantons is known. I solve topological Yang-Mills theory with the k=1 instanton of Belavin et al. and topological gravity with the Eguchi-Hanson instanton. It turns out that naively empty theories are indeed nontrivial. Many unexpected interesting hidden quantities (punctures, contact terms, nonperturbative anomalies with or without gravity) are revealed. Topological Yang-Mills theory with G=SU(2) is not just Donaldson theory, but contains a certain link theory. Indeed, local and non-local observables have the property of marking cycles. Moreover, from topological gravity one learns that an object can be considered BRST exact only if it is so all over the moduli space M , boundary included. Being BRST exact in any interior point of M is not sufficient to make an amplitude vanish. Presumably, recursion relations and hierarchies can be found to solve topological field theories in four dimensions, in particular topological Yang-Mills theory with G=SU(2) on R 4 and topological gravity with the full set of asymptotically locally Euclidean manifolds. ((orig.))

  18. Infrared observations of eclipses of Io, its thermophysical parameters, and the thermal radiation of the Loki volcano and environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, William M.; Kaminski, Charles

    1988-01-01

    Observations of Io during eclipses by Jupiter in 1981-1984 are reported. Data obtained at 3.45-30 microns using bolometer system No. 1 on the 3-m IRTF telescope at Mauna Kea are presented in extensive tables and graphs and analyzed by means of least-squares fitting of thermophysical models to the eclipse cooling and heating curves, thermal-radiation calculations for the Io volcanoes, and comparison with Voyager data. Best fits are obtained for a model comprising (1) a bright region with a vertically inhomogeneous surface and (2) a dark vertically homogeneous region with thermal inertia only about 0.1 times that of (1). Little evidence of volcanic-flux variability during the period is found, and the majority (but not all) of the excess thermal IR radiation in the sub-Jovian hemisphere is attributed to the Loki volcano and its lava lake.

  19. Algebraic structure of chiral anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stora, R.

    1985-09-01

    I will describe first the algebraic aspects of chiral anomalies, exercising however due care about the topological delicacies. I will illustrate the structure and methods in the context of gauge anomalies and will eventually make contact with results obtained from index theory. I will go into two sorts of generalizations: on the one hand, generalizing the algebraic set up yields e.g. gravitational and mixed gauge anomalies, supersymmetric gauge anomalies, anomalies in supergravity theories; on the other hand most constructions applied to the cohomologies which characterize anomalies easily extend to higher cohomologies. Section II is devoted to a description of the general set up as it applies to gauge anomalies. Section III deals with a number of algebraic set ups which characterize more general types of anomalies: gravitational and mixed gauge anomalies, supersymmetric gauge anomalies, anomalies in supergravity theories. It also includes brief remarks on σ models and a reminder on the full BRST algebra of quantized gauge theories

  20. Anomalies and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, Eckehard W.

    2006-01-01

    Anomalies in Yang-Mills type gauge theories of gravity are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the relation between the Dirac spin, the axial current j5 and the non-covariant gauge spin C. Using diagrammatic techniques, we show that only generalizations of the U(1)- Pontrjagin four-form F and F = dC arise in the chiral anomaly, even when coupled to gravity. Implications for Ashtekar's canonical approach to quantum gravity are discussed

  1. Fivebrane gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie

    2000-01-01

    Freed, Harvey, Minasian and Moore (FHMM) have proposed a mechanism to cancel the gravitational anomaly of the M-theory fivebrane coming from diffeomorphisms acting on the normal bundle. This procedure is based on a modification of the conventional M-theory Chern-Simons term. We apply the FHMM mechanism in the ten-dimensional type IIA theory. We then analyze the relation to the anomaly cancellation mechanism for the type IIA fivebrane proposed by Witten

  2. Prevalence of dental anomalies in Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh, Patil; Bharati, Doni; Sumita, Kaswan; Farzan, Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Developmental anomalies of the dentition are not infrequently observed by the dental practitioner. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in the Indian population. Study Design: A retrospective study of 4133 panoramic radiographs of patients, who attended the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital between September 2008 to December 2012 was done. The ages of the patients ranged from 13 to 38 year...

  3. The Holographic Weyl anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Henningson, M; Henningson, Mans; Skenderis, Kostas

    1998-01-01

    We calculate the Weyl anomaly for conformal field theories that can be described via the adS/CFT correspondence. This entails regularizing the gravitational part of the corresponding supergravity action in a manner consistent with general covariance. Up to a constant, the anomaly only depends on the dimension d of the manifold on which the conformal field theory is defined. We present concrete expressions for the anomaly in the physically relevant cases d = 2, 4 and 6. In d = 2 we find for the central charge c = 3 l/ 2 G_N in agreement with considerations based on the asymptotic symmetry algebra of adS_3. In d = 4 the anomaly agrees precisely with that of the corresponding N = 4 superconformal SU(N) gauge theory. The result in d = 6 provides new information for the (0, 2) theory, since its Weyl anomaly has not been computed previously. The anomaly in this case grows as N^3, where N is the number of coincident M5 branes, and it vanishes for a Ricci-flat background.

  4. Merging thermal and microwave satellite observations for a high-resolution soil moisture data product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many societal applications of soil moisture data products require high spatial resolution and numerical accuracy. Current thermal geostationary satellite sensors (GOES Imager and GOES-R ABI) could produce 2-16km resolution soil moisture proxy data. Passive microwave satellite radiometers (e.g. AMSR...

  5. Direct observation of the thermal demagnetization of magnetic vortex structures in nonideal magnetite recorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Trevor P.; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Kovács, András

    2016-01-01

    The thermal demagnetization of pseudo-single-domain (PSD) magnetite (Fe3O4) particles, which govern the magnetic signal in many igneous rocks, is examined using off-axis electron holography. Visualization of a vortex structure held by an individual Fe3O4 particle (~250nm in diameter) during in situ...

  6. Observations on thermally cycled 20% Cr/25% Ni/Nb stabilised stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobb, R.C.

    1984-06-01

    A variety of optical and electron techniques, such as optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis, have been used to study the morphology and composition of oxides formed on 20 Cr/25 Ni/Nb stainless steel during oxidation at 850 0 C and subsequent thermal cycling in simulated reactor gas. (author)

  7. Prevalence of dental anomalies in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Santosh; Doni, Bharati; Kaswan, Sumita; Rahman, Farzan

    2013-10-01

    Developmental anomalies of the dentition are not infrequently observed by the dental practitioner. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in the Indian population. A retrospective study of 4133 panoramic radiographs of patients, who attended the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital between September 2008 to December 2012 was done. The ages of the patients ranged from 13 to 38 years with a mean age of 21.8 years. The orthopantomographs (OPGs) and dental records were examined for any unusual finding such as congenitally missing teeth, impactions, ectopic eruption, supernumerary teeth, odontoma, dilacerations, taurodontism, dens in dente, germination and fusion, among others. 1519 (36.7%) patients had at least one dental anomaly. The congenitally missing teeth 673 (16.3%) had the highest prevalence, followed by impacted teeth 641 (15.5%), supernumerary teeth 51 (1.2%) and microdontia 41 (1.0%). Other anomalies were found at lower prevalence ranging from transposition 7 (0.1%) to ectopic eruption 30 (0.7%). The most prevalent anomaly in the Indian population was congenitally missing teeth (16.3%), and the second frequent anomaly was impacted teeth (15.5%), whereas, macrodontia, odontoma and transposition were the least frequent anomalies, with a prevalence of 0.2%, 0.2% and 0.1% respectively. While the overall prevalence of these anomalies may be low, the early diagnosis is imperative for the patient management and treatment planning. Key words:Dental anomaly, prevalence, panoramic radiography.

  8. Specificity Switching Pathways in Thermal and Mass Evaporation of Multicomponent Hydrocarbon Droplets: A Mesoscopic Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Rasoul; Luo, Kai H

    2017-07-10

    For well over one century, the Hertz-Knudsen equation has established the relationship between thermal - mass transfer coefficients through a liquid - vapour interface and evaporation rate. These coefficients, however, have been often separately estimated for one-component equilibrium systems and their simultaneous influences on evaporation rate of fuel droplets in multicomponent systems have yet to be investigated at the atomic level. Here we first apply atomistic simulation techniques and quantum/statistical mechanics methods to understand how thermal and mass evaporation effects are controlled kinetically/thermodynamically. We then present a new development of a hybrid method of quantum transition state theory/improved kinetic gas theory, for multicomponent hydrocarbon systems to investigate how concerted-distinct conformational changes of hydrocarbons at the interface affect the evaporation rate. The results of this work provide an important physical concept in fundamental understanding of atomistic pathways in topological interface transitions of chain molecules, resolving an open problem in kinetics of fuel droplets evaporation.

  9. Caldera unrest detected with seawater temperature anomalies at Deception Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocoso, M.; Prates, G.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Peci, L. M.; de Gil, A.; Rosado, B.; Páez, R.; Jigena, B.

    2018-04-01

    Increased thermal activity was detected to coincide with the onset of volcano inflation in the seawater-filled caldera at Deception Island. This thermal activity was manifested in pulses of high water temperature that coincided with ocean tide cycles. The seawater temperature anomalies were detected by a thermometric sensor attached to the tide gauge (bottom pressure sensor). This was installed where the seawater circulation and the locations of known thermal anomalies, fumaroles and thermal springs, together favor the detection of water warmed within the caldera. Detection of the increased thermal activity was also possible because sea ice, which covers the entire caldera during the austral winter months, insulates the water and thus reduces temperature exchange between seawater and atmosphere. In these conditions, the water temperature data has been shown to provide significant information about Deception volcano activity. The detected seawater temperature increase, also observed in soil temperature readings, suggests rapid and near-simultaneous increase in geothermal activity with onset of caldera inflation and an increased number of seismic events observed in the following austral summer.

  10. Quantum anomalies in nodal line semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Topological semimetals are a new class of condensed matter systems with nontrivial electronic structure topology. Their unusual observable properties may often be understood in terms of quantum anomalies. In particular, Weyl and Dirac semimetals, which have point band-touching nodes, are characterized by the chiral anomaly, which leads to the Fermi arc surface states, anomalous Hall effect, negative longitudinal magnetoresistance, and planar Hall effect. In this paper, we explore analogous phenomena in nodal line semimetals. We demonstrate that such semimetals realize a three-dimensional analog of the parity anomaly, which is a known property of two-dimensional Dirac semimetals arising, for example, on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator. We relate one of the characteristic properties of nodal line semimetals, namely, the drumhead surface states, to this anomaly, and derive the field theory, which encodes the corresponding anomalous response.

  11. Detecting and modeling persistent self-potential anomalies from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKague, H.L.; Kansa, E.; Kasameyer, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    Self-potential anomalies are naturally occurring, nearly stationary electric fields that are detected by measuring the potential difference between two points on (or in) the ground. SP anomalies arise from a number of causes: principally electrochemical reactions, and heat and fluid flows. SP is routinely used to locate mineral deposits, geothermal systems, and zones of seepage. This paper is a progress report on our work toward detecting explosion-related SP signals at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and in understanding the physics of these anomalies that persist and continue changing over periods of time that range from months to years. As background, we also include a brief description of how SP signals arise, and we mention their use in other areas such as exploring for geothermal resources and locating seepage through dams. Between the years 1988 and 1991, we surveyed the areas around seven underground nuclear tests for persistent SP anomalies. We not only detected anomalies, but we also found that various phenomena could be contributing to them and that we did not know which of these were actually occurring. We analyzed our new data with existing steady state codes and with a newly developed time-dependent thermal modeling code. Our results with the new code showed that the conductive decay of the thermal pulse from an underground nuclear test could produce many of the observed signals, and that others are probably caused by movement of fluid induced by the explosion. 25 refs

  12. Observation of thermal plumes from submerged discharges in the Great Lakes and their implications for modeling and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmars, J.D.; Paddock, R.A.; Frigo, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of thermal plumes from submerged discharges of power plant cooling waters into the Great Lakes provide the opportunity to view the mixing processes at prototype scales and to observe the effects of the ambient environment on those processes. Examples of thermal plume behavior in Great Lakes' ambient environments are presented to demonstrate the importance of measurements of the detailed structure of the ambient environment, as well as of the plumes, for interpretation of prototype data for modeling and monitoring purposes. The examples are drawn from studies by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at the Zion Nuclear PowerStation and the D. C. Cook Nuclear Plant on Lake Michigan and at the J. A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant on Lake Ontario. These studies included measurements of water temperatures from a moving boat which provide a quasi-synoptic view of the three-dimensional temperature structure of the thermal plume and ambient water environment. Additional measurements of water velocities, which are made with continuously recording, moored, and profiling current meters, and of wind provide data on the detailed structure of the ambient environment. The detailed structure of the ambient environment, in terms of current, current shear, variable winds, and temperature stratification, often influence greatly thermal plume behavior. Although predictive model techniques and monitoring objectives often ignore the detailed aspects of the ambient environment, useful interpretation of prototype data for model evaluation or calibration and monitoring purposes requires detailed measurement of the ambient environment. Examination of prototype thermal plume data indicates that, in several instances, attention to only the gross characteristics of the ambient environment can be misleading and could result in significant errors in model calibration and extrapolation of data bases gathered in monitoring observations

  13. Observations and Modeling of Thermal Structure in the Lower Atmosphere and the Upward Propagation of Tides into the Thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. J.; Kahre, M.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal tides are the atmospheric response to diurnally varying thermal forcing resulting from radiative and convective heat transfer from the surface and from aerosol and gaseous heating within the atmosphere. Tides include sun-synchronous (migrating) waves driven in response to solar heating and additional non-migrating waves resulting from longitudinal variations in the distributions of topography, dust aerosol and water ice clouds. The systematic spatial mapping of temperature over 5 Mars years by the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) has yielded a well-defined climatology of seasonally-varying temperature structures in the lower atmosphere, from 5 to 80 km. Tide theory and Mars global circulation model (MGCM) simulations are a fruitful framework for relating temperature observations to thermal forcing by aerosol fields [1]. The analysis of density and temperature fields derived from MAVEN IUVS and NGIMS observations have revealed the presence of predominantly zonal wave 2 and 3 features at altitudes of 100-170 km that are almost certainly non-migrating tides propagating upward from the lower atmosphere [2,3]. In this presentation we will use the MCS climatology and MGCM simulations to relate the density variations seen by MAVEN with the seasonally varying tide activity in the lower atmosphere. Large amplitude perturbations in density are most sensitive to the tide components with the longest vertical wavelengths in temperature, which are well resolved in MCS observations.

  14. RARE BRANCHIAL ARCH ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM Amongst the branchial arch anomalies third arch anomaly occurs rarely and more so the fourth arch anomalies. We present our experience with cases of rare branchial arch anomalies. PATIENTS AND METHODS From June 2006 to January 2016, cases having their external opening in the lower third of sternocleidomastoid muscle with the tract going through thyroid gland and directing to pyriform sinus (PFS or cysts with internal opening in the PFS were studied. RESULTS No fourth arch anomaly was encountered. One cyst with internal opening which later on formed a fistula, three fistulae from beginning and two sinuses were encountered. The main stay of diagnosis was the fistula in the PFS and the tract lying posterior to the internal carotid artery. Simple excision technique with a small incision around the external opening was done. There was no recurrence. CONCLUSION Third arch fistula is not very rare as it was thought. Internal fistula is found in most of the cases. Though radiological investigations are helpful, fistulae can be diagnosed clinically and during operation. Extensive operation of the neck, mediastinum and pharynx is not required.

  15. Trace anomaly and counterterms in designer gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberalesand Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Av. Padre Hurtado 750, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso,Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,14476 Golm (Germany); Choque, David [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,14476 Golm (Germany); Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María,Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Martínez, Cristián [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile)

    2016-03-17

    We construct concrete counterterms of the Balasubramanian-Kraus type for Einstein-scalar theories with designer gravity boundary conditions in AdS{sub 4}, so that the total action is finite on-shell and satisfy a well defined variational principle. We focus on scalar fields with the conformal mass m{sup 2}=−2l{sup −2} and show that the holographic mass matches the Hamiltonian mass for any boundary conditions. We compute the trace anomaly of the dual field theory in the generic case, as well as when there exist logarithmic branches of non-linear origin. As expected, the anomaly vanishes for the boundary conditions that are AdS invariant. When the anomaly does not vanish, the dual stress tensor describes a thermal gas with an equation of state related to the boundary conditions of the scalar field. In the case of a vanishing anomaly, we recover the dual theory of a massless thermal gas. As an application of the formalism, we consider a general family of exact hairy black hole solutions that, for some particular values of the parameters in the moduli potential, contains solutions of four-dimensional gauged N=8 supergravity and its ω-deformation. Using the AdS/CFT duality dictionary, they correspond to triple trace deformations of the dual field theory.

  16. Trace anomaly and counterterms in designer gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David; Martínez, Cristián

    2016-01-01

    We construct concrete counterterms of the Balasubramanian-Kraus type for Einstein-scalar theories with designer gravity boundary conditions in AdS_4, so that the total action is finite on-shell and satisfy a well defined variational principle. We focus on scalar fields with the conformal mass m"2=−2l"−"2 and show that the holographic mass matches the Hamiltonian mass for any boundary conditions. We compute the trace anomaly of the dual field theory in the generic case, as well as when there exist logarithmic branches of non-linear origin. As expected, the anomaly vanishes for the boundary conditions that are AdS invariant. When the anomaly does not vanish, the dual stress tensor describes a thermal gas with an equation of state related to the boundary conditions of the scalar field. In the case of a vanishing anomaly, we recover the dual theory of a massless thermal gas. As an application of the formalism, we consider a general family of exact hairy black hole solutions that, for some particular values of the parameters in the moduli potential, contains solutions of four-dimensional gauged N=8 supergravity and its ω-deformation. Using the AdS/CFT duality dictionary, they correspond to triple trace deformations of the dual field theory.

  17. Non-local Effects of Conformal Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Krzysztof A.; Nicolai, Hermann

    2018-03-01

    It is shown that the nonlocal anomalous effective actions corresponding to the quantum breaking of the conformal symmetry can lead to observable modifications of Einstein's equations. The fact that Einstein's general relativity is in perfect agreement with all observations including cosmological or recently observed gravitational waves imposes strong restrictions on the field content of possible extensions of Einstein's theory: all viable theories should have vanishing conformal anomalies. It is shown that a complete cancellation of conformal anomalies in D=4 for both the C^2 invariant and the Euler (Gauss-Bonnet) invariant can only be achieved for N-extended supergravity multiplets with N ≥ 5.

  18. Low Risk Anomalies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian; Zechner, Josef

    . Empirically, we find that option-implied ex-ante skewness is strongly related to ex-post residual coskewness and alphas. Beta- and volatility-based low risk anomalies are largely driven by a single principal component, which is in turn largely explained by skewness. Controlling for skewness renders the alphas......This paper shows that stocks' CAPM alphas are negatively related to CAPM betas if investors demand compensation for negative skewness. Thus, high (low) beta stocks appear to underperform (outperform). This apparent anomaly merely reflects compensation for residual coskewness ignored by the CAPM...... of betting-against-beta and -volatility insignificant....

  19. Positively deflected anomaly mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Nobuchika

    2002-01-01

    We generalize the so-called 'deflected anomaly mediation' scenario to the case where threshold corrections of heavy messengers to the sparticle squared masses are positive. A concrete model realizing this scenario is also presented. The tachyonic slepton problem can be fixed with only a pair of messengers. The resultant sparticle mass spectrum is quite different from that in the conventional deflected anomaly mediation scenario, but is similar to the one in the gauge mediation scenario. The lightest sparticle is mostly B-ino

  20. Congenital laryngeal anomalies,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Rutter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is essential for clinicians to understand issues relevant to the airway management of infants and to be cognizant of the fact that infants with congenital laryngeal anomalies are at particular risk for an unstable airway. Objectives: To familiarize clinicians with issues relevant to the airway management of infants and to present a succinct description of the diagnosis and management of an array of congenital laryngeal anomalies. Methods: Revision article, in which the main aspects concerning airway management of infants will be analyzed. Conclusions: It is critical for clinicians to understand issues relevant to the airway management of infants.

  1. IRIS , Hinode , SDO , and RHESSI Observations of a White Light Flare Produced Directly by Non-thermal Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung-Sun [Hinode Science Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Imada, Shinsuke [Institute for Space–Earth Environmental Research (ISEE), Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Watanabe, Kyoko [National Defense Academy of Japan, 1-10-20 Hashirimizu, Yokosuka 239-8686 (Japan); Bamba, Yumi [Hinode team, ISAS/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Brooks, David H., E-mail: ksun.lee@nao.ac.jp [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    An X1.6 flare occurred in active region AR 12192 on 2014 October 22 at 14:02 UT and was observed by Hinode , IRIS , SDO , and RHESSI . We analyze a bright kernel that produces a white light (WL) flare with continuum enhancement and a hard X-ray (HXR) peak. Taking advantage of the spectroscopic observations of IRIS and Hinode /EIS, we measure the temporal variation of the plasma properties in the bright kernel in the chromosphere and corona. We find that explosive evaporation was observed when the WL emission occurred, even though the intensity enhancement in hotter lines is quite weak. The temporal correlation of the WL emission, HXR peak, and evaporation flows indicates that the WL emission was produced by accelerated electrons. To understand the WL emission process, we calculated the energy flux deposited by non-thermal electrons (observed by RHESSI ) and compared it to the dissipated energy estimated from a chromospheric line (Mg ii triplet) observed by IRIS . The deposited energy flux from the non-thermal electrons is about (3–7.7) × 10{sup 10} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} for a given low-energy cutoff of 30–40 keV, assuming the thick-target model. The energy flux estimated from the changes in temperature in the chromosphere measured using the Mg ii subordinate line is about (4.6–6.7) × 10{sup 9} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}: ∼6%–22% of the deposited energy. This comparison of estimated energy fluxes implies that the continuum enhancement was directly produced by the non-thermal electrons.

  2. Present Status of b -> s l+ l- Anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoudi, Farvah; Neshatpour, Siavash

    2017-05-04

    We discuss the observed deviations in b -> s l+ l- processes from the Standard Model predictions and present global fits for the New Physics description of these anomalies. We further investigate the stability of the global fits under different theoretical assumptions and suggest strategies and a number of observables to clear up the source of the anomalies.

  3. THE EFFECT OF ELECTRON THERMAL PRESSURE ON THE OBSERVED MAGNETIC HELICITY IN THE SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovskii, S. A.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Smith, Charles W., E-mail: sergei.markovskii@unh.edu, E-mail: bernie.vasquez@unh.edu, E-mail: charles.smith@unh.edu [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Statistical analysis of magnetic helicity spectra in the solar wind at 1 au is carried out. A large database of the solar wind intervals assembled from Wind spacecraft magnetic and plasma data is used. The effect of the electron thermal pressure on the wavenumber position of the helicity signature, i.e., the peak of the spectrum, is studied. The position shows a statistically significant dependence on both the electron and proton pressures. However, the strongest dependence is seen when the two pressures are summed. These findings confirm that the generation of the magnetic helicity is associated with an increasing compressibility of the turbulent fluctuations at smaller kinetic scales. It is argued that instrumental artifacts do not contribute to the helicity signature.

  4. Remote observations of eruptive clouds and surface thermal activity during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P. W.; Lopez, T. M.; Ekstrand, A. L.; Dean, K. G.; Rinkleff, P.; Dehn, J.; Cahill, C. F.; Wessels, R. L.; Bailey, J. E.; Izbekov, P.; Worden, A.

    2013-06-01

    Volcanoes often erupt explosively and generate a variety of hazards including volcanic ash clouds and gaseous plumes. These clouds and plumes are a significant hazard to the aviation industry and the ground features can be a major hazard to local communities. Here, we provide a chronology of the 2009 Redoubt Volcano eruption using frequent, low spatial resolution thermal infrared (TIR), mid-infrared (MIR) and ultraviolet (UV) satellite remote sensing data. The first explosion of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano occurred on March 15, 2009 (UTC) and was followed by a series of magmatic explosive events starting on March 23 (UTC). From March 23-April 4 2009, satellites imaged at least 19 separate explosive events that sent ash clouds up to 18 km above sea level (ASL) that dispersed ash across the Cook Inlet region. In this manuscript, we provide an overview of the ash clouds and plumes from the 19 explosive events, detailing their cloud-top heights and discussing the variations in infrared absorption signals. We show that the timing of the TIR data relative to the event end time was critical for inferring the TIR derived height and true cloud top height. The ash clouds were high in water content, likely in the form of ice, which masked the negative TIR brightness temperature difference (BTD) signal typically used for volcanic ash detection. The analysis shown here illustrates the utility of remote sensing data during volcanic crises to measure critical real-time parameters, such as cloud-top heights, changes in ground-based thermal activity, and plume/cloud location.

  5. Power coefficient anomaly in JOYO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H

    1980-12-15

    Operation of the JOYO experimental fast reactor with the MK-I core has been divided into two phases: (1) 50 MWt power ascension and operation; and (2) 75 MWt power ascension and operation. The 50 MWt power-up tests were conducted in August 1978. In these tests, the measured reactivity loss due to power increases from 15 MWt to 50 MWt was 0.28% ..delta.. K/K, and agreed well with the predicted value of 0.27% ..delta.. K/K. The 75 MWt power ascension tests were conducted in July-August 1979. In the process of the first power increase above 50 MWt to 65 MWt conducted on July 11, 1979, an anomalously large negative power coefficient was observed. The value was about twice the power coefficient values measured in the tests below 50 MW. In order to reproduce the anomaly, the reactor power was decreased and again increased up to the maximum power of 65 MWt. However, the large negative power coefficient was not observed at this time. In the succeeding power increase from 65 MWt to 75 MWt, a similar anomalous power coefficient was again observed. This anomaly disappeared in the subsequent power ascensions to 75 MWt, and the magnitude of the power coefficient gradually decreased with power cycles above the 50 MWt level.

  6. Assessing Asset Pricing Anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. de Groot (Wilma)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOne of the most important challenges in the field of asset pricing is to understand anomalies: empirical patterns in asset returns that cannot be explained by standard asset pricing models. Currently, there is no consensus in the academic literature on the underlying causes of

  7. Anomaly Busters II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The anomaly busters had struck on the first day of the Kyoto meeting with Yoji Totsuka of Tokyo speaking on baryon number nonjjonservation and 'related topics'. The unstable proton is a vital test of grand unified pictures pulling together the electroweak and quark/gluon forces in a single field theory

  8. Anomaly Busters II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-11-15

    The anomaly busters had struck on the first day of the Kyoto meeting with Yoji Totsuka of Tokyo speaking on baryon number nonjjonservation and 'related topics'. The unstable proton is a vital test of grand unified pictures pulling together the electroweak and quark/gluon forces in a single field theory.

  9. Echocardiography in Ebstein's anomaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Gussenhoven (Wilhelmina Johanna)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis the value of echocardiography is evaluated for the diagnosis of Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve. This congenital heart defect, first described in 1866 by Wilhelm Ebstein, is characterized by an apical displacement of the septal and inferior tricuspid valve

  10. Venus - Ishtar gravity anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Bills, B. G.; Mottinger, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    The gravity anomaly associated with Ishtar Terra on Venus is characterized, comparing line-of-sight acceleration profiles derived by differentiating Pioneer Venus Orbiter Doppler residual profiles with an Airy-compensated topographic model. The results are presented in graphs and maps, confirming the preliminary findings of Phillips et al. (1979). The isostatic compensation depth is found to be 150 + or - 30 km.

  11. Bolivian Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the country of Bolivia.Number of columns is 550 and number of rows is 900. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  12. Generalized zero point anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Jose Alexandre; Maia Junior, Adolfo

    1994-01-01

    It is defined Zero point Anomaly (ZPA) as the difference between the Effective Potential (EP) and the Zero point Energy (ZPE). It is shown, for a massive and interacting scalar field that, in very general conditions, the renormalized ZPA vanishes and then the renormalized EP and ZPE coincide. (author). 3 refs

  13. Minnesota Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1.5 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Minnesota. Number of columns is 404 and number of rows is 463. The order of the data is from the lower left to...

  14. Magnetic anomalies in the Cosmonauts Sea, off East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogi, Y.; Hanyu, T.; Fujii, M.

    2017-12-01

    Identification of magnetic anomaly lineations and fracture zone trends in the Southern Indian Ocean, are vital to understanding the breakup of Gondwana. However, the magnetic spreading anomalies and fracture zones are not clear in the Southern Indian Ocean. Magnetic anomaly lineations in the Cosmonauts Sea, off East Antarctica, are key to elucidation of separation between Sri Lanka/India and Antarctica. No obvious magnetic anomaly lineations are observed from a Japanese/German aerogeophysical survey in the Cosmonauts Sea, and this area is considered to be created by seafloor spreading during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron. Vector magnetic anomaly measurements have been conducted on board the Icebreaker Shirase mainly to understand the process of Gondwana fragmentation in the Indian Ocean. Magnetic boundary strikes are derived from vector magnetic anomalies obtained in the Cosmonauts Sea. NE-SW trending magnetic boundary strikes are mainly observed along the several NW-SE oriented observation lines with magnetic anomaly amplitudes of about 200 nT. These NE-SW trending magnetic boundary strikes possibly indicate M-series magnetic anomalies that can not be detected from the aerogeophysical survey with nearly N-S observation lines. We will discuss the magnetic spreading anomalies and breakup process between Sri Lanka/India and Antarctica in the Cosmonauts Sea.

  15. Mechanisms of upper-ocean thermal variability in a 1970-1988 simulation and observations

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Arthur J.; Cayan, Daniel R.; White, Warren B.

    1996-01-01

    EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): Variations in temperature that occurred in the North Pacific thermocline (250 to 400 meters) during the 1970s and 1980s are described in both a numerical simulation and XBT observations.

  16. Dental anomalies in primary dentition and their corresponding permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, R R; Fonseca, J A C; Paula, L M; Acevedo, A C; Mestrinho, H D

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this paper are to estimate the prevalence of dental anomalies in primary dentition in a sample of 2- to 5-year-old Brazilian preschool children, determine their distribution, and investigate their occurrence in the succedaneous teeth of the sample compared with a control group of children with no dental anomalies in the primary dentition. The one-stage sample comprised 1,718 two to five-year-old children with fully erupted primary dentition clinically examined for dental anomalies. All children presenting dental anomalies underwent panoramic radiographs. Descriptive statistics were performed for the studied variables. A control group matched by sex and age was studied to compare the prevalence ratio for dental anomalies in the permanent dentition. The prevalence of dental anomalies in the primary dentition was 1.8 %, with no significant statistical difference between sexes. Double teeth were the most frequently observed. Dental anomalies on the succedaneous permanent teeth were diagnosed in 54.8 % of the children with affected primary dentition. The prevalence ratio (PR) for dental anomalies in the succedaneous permanent teeth was 17.1 (confidence interval (CI) 5.33-54.12) higher compared with the control group, higher in children with bilateral anomalies (PR = 31.2, CI 10.18-94.36). An association between anomalies of the permanent dentition and the presence of dental anomalies in primary teeth was observed, especially when they occur bilaterally. The results in the present study have a clinical relevance in the diagnosis of children with dental anomalies in primary dentition. Early identification of these anomalies can aid the dentist in planning dental treatment at the appropriate time.

  17. Effect of personal and microclimatic variables on observed thermal sensation from a field study in southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Eduardo L.; Rossi, Francine A. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba PR (Brazil)

    2011-03-15

    Urban climate, which is influenced by land use patterns, heat-generating activities, and the physical texture of urban fabric, has a great impact on outdoor comfort as well as on a building's energy consumption. A climate-responsive urban planning can provide optimal, comfortable thermal conditions not only for the permanence of humans in outdoor spaces but also reducing the need of air conditioning systems in buildings. The purpose of this article is to present results of an outdoor comfort research with passers-by in downtown Curitiba, Brazil (25 31'S, 917m elevation). Urban locations have been monitored regarding standard comfort variables: air temperature and humidity, wind speed and globe temperature. Alongside the quantitative assessment of comfort conditions, a survey of pedestrian's thermal comfort perception according to ISO 10551 was carried out on each monitoring campaign by means of questionnaires with the local population. As a whole, from fourteen monitoring campaigns using a couple of weather stations, beginning on January 9 through August 12, 1654 valid comfort votes were obtained. In this paper, we perform a data consistency check, evaluating the relationship between personal (gender and age of respondents) and objective, microclimatic (comfort variables) factors on observed thermal sensation. (author)

  18. Non-thermal emission in the core of Perseus: results from a long XMM-Newton observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molendi, S.; Gastaldello, F.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a long XMM-Newton observation of the core of the Perseus cluster to validate claims of a non-thermal component discovered with Chandra. From a meticulous analysis of our dataset, which includes a detailed treatment of systematic errors, we find the 2-10 keV surface brightness of the non-thermal component to be less than about 5 × 10-16 erg~cm-2 s-1 arcsec-2. The most likely explanation for the discrepancy between the XMM-Newton and Chandra estimates is a problem in the effective area calibration of the latter. Our EPIC-based magnetic field lower limits do not disagree with Faraday rotation measure estimates on a few cool cores and with a minimum energy estimate on Perseus. In the not too distant future Simbol-X may allow detection of non-thermal components with intensities more than 10 times lower than those that can be measured with EPIC; nonetheless even the exquisite sensitivity within reach for Simbol-X might be insufficient to detect the IC emission from Perseus.

  19. Evidence of a metal-rich surface for the Asteroid (16) Psyche from interferometric observations in the thermal infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Alexis; Delbo, Marco; Carry, Benoit; Ligori, Sebastiano

    2013-09-01

    We describe the first determination of thermal properties and size of the M-type Asteroid (16) Psyche from interferometric observations obtained with the Mid-Infrared Interferometric Instrument (MIDI) of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer. We used a thermophysical model to interpret our interferometric data. Our analysis shows that Psyche has a low macroscopic surface roughness. Using a convex 3-D shape model obtained by Kaasalainen et al. (Kaasalainen, M., Torppa, J., Piironen, J. [2002]. Icarus 159, 369-395), we derived a volume-equivalent diameter for (16) Psyche of 247 ± 25 km or 238 ± 24 km, depending on the possible values of surface roughness. Our corresponding thermal inertia estimates are 133 or 114 J m-2 s-0.5 K-1, with a total uncertainty estimated at 40 J m-2 s-0.5 K-1. They are among the highest thermal inertia values ever measured for an asteroid of this size. We consider this as a new evidence of a metal-rich surface for the Asteroid (16) Psyche.

  20. Solid and liquid thermal expansion and structural observations in the quasicrystalline Cd84Yb16 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, M.J.; Lograsso, T.A.; Sordelet, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of single-grain Cd 84 Yb 16 samples aligned along the twofold and fivefold axes has been followed from 300 to 1050 K using high-energy synchrotron X-rays. The quasicrystal phase is stable up to its melting temperature of 914 K and has a large linear thermal expansion of 37.1 ppm K -1 over this temperature range. The samples melt congruently over a temperature range of less than 1 K. The liquid is 7% less dense than the solid and, upon cooling from the melt, the quasicrystal phase directly solidifies within a 1 K interval. The amount of undercooling achieved, about 5-25 K, was dependent on the cooling rate. The total scattering function of the liquid is consistent with a dilute liquid Cd structure. These results agree with suggestions that the structure of the liquid must undergo reordering in order to form the solid phases. However, there is no compelling evidence for icosahedral short-range order in the liquid prior to the formation of the quasicrystalline structure.

  1. Experimental observation of thermal-hydraulic behavior in PCCS horizontal heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masaya; Nakamura, Hideo; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Rumi; Tokuma, Hideaki

    2003-01-01

    A series of thermal-hydraulic experiments have been performed using a prototypical-scale experimental facility simulating a horizontal heat exchanger of a Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) for next generation BWRs. The influences of multi-dimensional boiling flow in secondary water pool on primary flow in parallel tubes are investigated. The experimental results at postulated accident conditions; 0.7 MPa, steam flow rate equivalent to 1% core power with 1% non-condensable gas, show that steam condensation completes in almost the same heat transfer length in all the instrumented tubes. The secondary heat transfer coefficient is relatively small at the lower portion in the tube bundle when the flow regime is bubbly flow, and increases with elevation as the flow regime turns into churn-like flow. The primary steam flow distribution among tubes is rather insensitive to such a variation in the secondary heat transfer coefficient, since the contribution of the secondary heat transfer to the local heat resistance is 30% or less at postulated accident conditions. The influence of steam flow rate is insensitive too, while the contribution of the secondary heat transfer coefficient increases at low pressure conditions. (author)

  2. Algebraic study of chiral anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chiral anomalies; gauge theories; bundles; connections; quantum field ... The algebraic structure of chiral anomalies is made globally valid on non-trivial bundles by the introduction of a fixed background connection. ... Current Issue : Vol.

  3. Ferret Workflow Anomaly Detection System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Timothy J; Bryant, Stephany

    2005-01-01

    The Ferret workflow anomaly detection system project 2003-2004 has provided validation and anomaly detection in accredited workflows in secure knowledge management systems through the use of continuous, automated audits...

  4. Congenital anomalies in Primorsky region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, P; Voronin, S; Golokhvast, K

    2015-01-01

    has increased dramatically since 2000. This was due to the beginning of activities of medicogenetic service since 1998: the legal framework and information database were created, the flow of pregnant women was formed actively, and invasive prenatal diagnosis was introduced.Incidence of congenital anomalies has a reliable statistical association (chi-square) with bioclimatic zones and ecological situation. The high level of pathology is observed in both teenagers and children in the critical environmental situation areas, where there are enterprises of coal, mining and chemical industry, ship repair, construction, engineering sites, and areas with intensive chemical use and improvement of agriculture. For the most part these are cities and districts of the region where more than a half of the major manufacturing plants of the 1st and 2nd hazard classes are located. Exceeding the maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) of harmful substances in the air, soil, and water in these areas often reaches tenfold. It should be noted that in the territories with the critical environmental situation a relatively high level of malformations is observed in adolescents in the continental bioclimatic zone, and in children - on the coast, suggesting the influence of different climatic factors. Also a high level of the same congenital anomalies was revealed in children in bioclimatic zones of the coast and transition zones with the intense environmental situation.According to the results of the regression analysis, the varying degrees of influence of ecological and hygienic factors on the incidence of congenital anomalies were determined. In children, up to 77.3% of the spread of pathology depends on the complex of parameters of the environment; the proportion of the influence of sanitary and hygienic indicators is 63.1%, and natural and climatic indicators - 14.2%. Such factors as the characteristics of the soil condition, the level of air pollution, chemical pollution and adverse

  5. Observations of Orion in all four 18 cm OH Thermal Absoprtion Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amber M.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Troland, Thomas; Sarma, Anuj; Greisen, Eric

    2018-01-01

    We present results obtained with Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) D-configuration observations of the 18 cm OH absorption lines in the Orion Veil; a sheet of material 2-4 pc in front of the Trapezium stars. The goals of these observations were to (a) measure the magnetic field through the Zeeman effect using the 18 cm OH mainlines at 1665 and 1667 MHz and compare the results with those obtained with the pre upgrade VLA, (b) observe all four 18 cm OH lines (the two mainlines and the two satellite lines at 1612 and 1720 MHz) to infer physical conditions in the absorbing regions. For the first goal, we found that the more recent measurements are comparable to the earlier published results. To achieve the second goal, we plan to use the Cloudy spectral synthesis code to model physical conditions based upon observations of all four 18 cm OH lines. We also anticipate using Cloudy to assess the viability of a model previously applied to the M17 PDR in which the magnetic field of the Veil is in hydrostatic equilibrium with radiation pressure of stellar uv from the Trapezium.

  6. Prevalence of dental anomalies in Saudi orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jabaa, Aljazi H; Aldrees, Abdullah M

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies and study the association of these anomalies with different types of malocclusion in a random sample of Saudi orthodontic patients. Six hundred and two randomly selected pretreatment records including orthopantomographs (OPG), and study models were evaluated. The molar relationship was determined using pretreatment study models, and OPG were examined to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies among the sample. The most common types of the investigated anomalies were: impaction followed by hypodontia, microdontia, macrodontia, ectopic eruption and supernumerary. No statistical significant correlations were observed between sex and dental anomalies. Dental anomalies were more commonly found in class I followed by asymmetric molar relation, then class II and finally class III molar relation. No malocclusion group had a statistically significant relation with any individual dental anomaly. The prevalence of dental anomalies among Saudi orthodontic patients was higher than the general population. Although, orthodontic patients have been reported to have high rates of dental anomalies, orthodontists often fail to consider this. If not detected, dental anomalies can complicate dental and orthodontic treatment; therefore, their presence should be carefully investigated during orthodontic diagnosis and considered during treatment planning.

  7. Macroscopic observation of thermal behavior of concentrated solution of coal extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masao Suzuki; Koyo Norinaga; Masashi Iino [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials

    2004-11-01

    The solvent extracts of Upper Freeport and Illinois No.6 coals were mixed with N-methyl-2-pyrolidinone (NMP) and annealed at 353 K to produce the gelatinous materials. Differential scanning calorimetric measurements revealed that the materials can hold significant amounts of nonfreezable NMP (as much as 3 g NMP per 1 g coal extracts) which disperse in the materials on a molecular scale, indicating the materials are not phase separated. The thermal behaviors were measured macroscopically as a function of the extract concentration using a needle penetrometer during heating from 223 to 360 K. The penetration-temperature curves were analyzed to estimate the apparent viscosity ({eta}{sub a}). During the penetrations, {eta}{sub a} was decreased very rapidly, approximately four orders of the magnitude by a temperature increase of 20 K, suggesting that the coal extracts-NMP mixtures undergoes a gel to sol transition. The heats of dissociation of crosslinks ({Delta}H{sub m}) were estimated by applying Eldridge-Ferry equation. The {Delta}H{sub m} of coal extracts-NMP mixtures was relatively small, i.e. approximately 10 kJ/mol, whereas the ?Hm of polyvinyl alcohol-NMP gel in which the hydrogen bonds contribute the formation of the physical network structures, was about 65 kJ/mol. Not the specific interaction such as hydrogen bonds, but weak interactions such as van der Waals force were likely to contribute the formation of the coal extracts-NMP gel. 28 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Paleoarchean and Cambrian observations of the geodynamo in light of new estimates of core thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarduno, John; Bono, Richard; Cottrell, Rory

    2015-04-01

    Recent estimates of core thermal conductivity are larger than prior values by a factor of approximately three. These new estimates suggest that the inner core is a relatively young feature, perhaps as young as 500 million years old, and that the core-mantle heat flux required to drive the early dynamo was greater than previously assumed (Nimmo, 2015). Here, we focus on paleomagnetic studies of two key time intervals important for understanding core evolution in light of the revisions of core conductivity values. 1. Hadean to Paleoarchean (4.4-3.4 Ga). Single silicate crystal paleointensity analyses suggest a relatively strong magnetic field at 3.4-3.45 Ga (Tarduno et al., 2010). Paleointenity data from zircons of the Jack Hills (Western Australia) further suggest the presence of a geodynamo between 3.5 and 3.6 Ga (Tarduno and Cottrell, 2014). We will discuss our efforts to test for the absence/presence of the geodynamo in older Eoarchean and Hadean times. 2. Ediacaran to Early Cambrian (~635-530 Ma). Disparate directions seen in some paleomagnetic studies from this time interval have been interpreted as recording inertial interchange true polar wander (IITPW). Recent single silicate paleomagnetic analyses fail to find evidence for IITPW; instead a reversing field overprinted by secondary magnetizations is defined (Bono and Tarduno, 2015). Preliminary analyses suggest the field may have been unusually weak. We will discuss our on-going tests of the hypothesis that this interval represents the time of onset of inner core growth. References: Bono, R.K. & Tarduno, J.A., Geology, in press (2015); Nimmo, F., Treatise Geophys., in press (2015); Tarduno, J.A., et al., Science (2010); Tarduno, J.A. & Cottrell, R.D., AGU Fall Meeting (2014).

  9. A New Method for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.N.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  10. Branchial Cleft Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Neil; Mustard, Robert A.

    1966-01-01

    The embryology, anatomy and pathology of branchial cleft anomalies are discussed and 87 cases reviewed. The most frequent anomaly was branchial cleft cyst, of which there were 77 cases. Treatment in all cases consisted of complete excision. There were five cases of external branchial sinus and five cases of complete branchial fistula. Sinograms were helpful in demonstrating these lesions. Excision presented little difficulty. No proved case of branchiogenic carcinoma has been found in the Toronto General Hospital. Five cases are described in which the original diagnosis was branchiogenic carcinoma—in four of these a primary tumour has already been found. The authors believe that the diagnosis of branchiogenic carcinoma should never be accepted until repeated examinations over a period of at least five years have failed to reveal a primary tumour. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5901161

  11. In situ observation of thermal relaxation of interstitial-vacancy pair defects in a graphite gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urita, Koki; Suenaga, Kazu; Iijima, Sumio; Sugai, Toshiki; Shinohara, Hisanori

    2005-01-01

    Direct observation of individual defects during formation and annihilation in the interlayer gap of double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWNT) is demonstrated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The interlayer defects that bridge two adjacent graphen layers in DWNT are stable for a macroscopic time at the temperature below 450 K. These defects are assigned to a cluster of one or two interstitial-vacancy pairs (I-V pairs) and often disappear just after their formation at higher temperatures due to an instantaneous recombination of the interstitial atom with vacancy. Systematic observations performed at the elevated temperatures find a threshold for the defect annihilation at 450-500 K, which, indeed, corresponds to the known temperature for the Wigner energy release

  12. In situ observation of thermal relaxation of interstitial-vacancy pair defects in a graphite gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urita, Koki; Suenaga, Kazu; Sugai, Toshiki; Shinohara, Hisanori; Iijima, Sumio

    2005-04-22

    Direct observation of individual defects during formation and annihilation in the interlayer gap of double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWNT) is demonstrated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The interlayer defects that bridge two adjacent graphen layers in DWNT are stable for a macroscopic time at the temperature below 450 K. These defects are assigned to a cluster of one or two interstitial-vacancy pairs (I-V pairs) and often disappear just after their formation at higher temperatures due to an instantaneous recombination of the interstitial atom with vacancy. Systematic observations performed at the elevated temperatures find a threshold for the defect annihilation at 450-500 K, which, indeed, corresponds to the known temperature for the Wigner energy release.

  13. The FU Orionis outburst as a thermal accretion event: Observational constraints for protostellar disk models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K. R.; Lin, D. N. C.; Hartmann, L. W.; Kenyon, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    The results of the time-dependent disk models developed in Bell & Lin are compared with observed properties of FU Orionis variables. Specific models are fit to the light curves of Fu Ori, V1515 Cyg, and V1057 Cyg. The slow risetime of V1515 Cyg can be matched by a self-regulated outburst model. The rapid risetimes of FU Ori and V1057 Cyg can be fitted with the application of modest perturbations to the disk surface density. Model disks display spectral features characteristic of observed objects. The color evolution of V1057 Cyg is naturally explained if mass flux drops in the inner disk (r less than 1/4 AU) while remaining steady in the outer disk. The decrease in optical line width (rotational velocity) observed during the decay of V1057 Cyg may be accounted for by an outward-propagating ionization front. We predict that before final decay to the quiescent phase, short-wavelength line widths (lambda less than 1.5 microns) will again increase. It is suggested that FU Orionis outbursts primarily occur to systems during the embedded phase with ages less than several times 10(exp 5) yr.

  14. Muon g−2 in anomaly mediated SUSY breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Debtosh; Yokozaki, Norimi [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma,Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2015-08-24

    Motivated by two experimental facts, the muon g−2 anomaly and the observed Higgs boson mass around 125 GeV, we propose a simple model of anomaly mediation, which can be seen as a generalization of mixed modulus-anomaly mediation. In our model, the discrepancy of the muon g−2 and the Higgs boson mass around 125 GeV are easily accommodated. The required mass splitting between the strongly and weakly interacting SUSY particles are naturally achieved by the contribution from anomaly mediation. This model is easily consistent with SU(5) or SO(10) grand unified theory.

  15. Muon g−2 in anomaly mediated SUSY breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Debtosh; Yokozaki, Norimi

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by two experimental facts, the muon g−2 anomaly and the observed Higgs boson mass around 125 GeV, we propose a simple model of anomaly mediation, which can be seen as a generalization of mixed modulus-anomaly mediation. In our model, the discrepancy of the muon g−2 and the Higgs boson mass around 125 GeV are easily accommodated. The required mass splitting between the strongly and weakly interacting SUSY particles are naturally achieved by the contribution from anomaly mediation. This model is easily consistent with SU(5) or SO(10) grand unified theory.

  16. Penile Anomalies in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the impact and outcomes of both treatment and underlying condition of penile anomalies in adolescent males. Major congenital anomalies (such as exstrophy/epispadias are discussed, including the psychological outcomes, common problems (such as corporal asymmetry, chordee, and scarring in this group, and surgical assessment for potential surgical candidates. The emergence of new surgical techniques continues to improve outcomes and potentially raises patient expectations. The importance of balanced discussion in conditions such as micropenis, including multidisciplinary support for patients, is important in order to achieve appropriate treatment decisions. Topical treatments may be of value, but in extreme cases, phalloplasty is a valuable option for patients to consider. In buried penis, the importance of careful assessment and, for the majority, a delay in surgery until puberty has completed is emphasised. In hypospadias patients, the variety of surgical procedures has complicated assessment of outcomes. It appears that true surgical success may be difficult to measure as many men who have had earlier operations are not reassessed in either puberty or adult life. There is also a brief discussion of acquired penile anomalies, including causation and treatment of lymphoedema, penile fracture/trauma, and priapism.

  17. Penile anomalies in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dan; Woodhouse, Christopher

    2011-03-07

    This article considers the impact and outcomes of both treatment and underlying condition of penile anomalies in adolescent males. Major congenital anomalies (such as exstrophy/epispadias) are discussed, including the psychological outcomes, common problems (such as corporal asymmetry, chordee, and scarring) in this group, and surgical assessment for potential surgical candidates. The emergence of new surgical techniques continues to improve outcomes and potentially raises patient expectations. The importance of balanced discussion in conditions such as micropenis, including multidisciplinary support for patients, is important in order to achieve appropriate treatment decisions. Topical treatments may be of value, but in extreme cases, phalloplasty is a valuable option for patients to consider. In buried penis, the importance of careful assessment and, for the majority, a delay in surgery until puberty has completed is emphasised. In hypospadias patients, the variety of surgical procedures has complicated assessment of outcomes. It appears that true surgical success may be difficult to measure as many men who have had earlier operations are not reassessed in either puberty or adult life. There is also a brief discussion of acquired penile anomalies, including causation and treatment of lymphoedema, penile fracture/trauma, and priapism.

  18. Morphological anomalies in Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes inopinatus collected from tick-borne encephalitis natural foci in Central Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia; Bestehorn, Malena; Bröker, Michael

    2017-01-01

    in Germany, Slovakia and Denmark. A total of 278 (1.9%) out of 14,602 nymph and adult ticks showed morphological anomalies. The anomalies were divided into general anomalies (body asymmetry) and local anomalies (anomalies of appendages, malformation of capitulum, exoskeleton anomalies and anal groove......, palps and exoskeleton. Anal groove deformation was observed in three females and three nymphs. In 2016, the frequency of anomalies in I. inopinatus was found five times higher (9.3%) than in I. ricinus (1.9%). This is the first report of anomaly (ectromely, leg atrophy, idiosoma deformation) in flagged...

  19. In-situ observation of crack propagation in thermally sprayed coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mušálek, R.; Kovářík, O.; Matějíček, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 7 (2010), s. 1807-1811 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : coating fracture * in-situ observation * alumina * stainless steel * plasma spraying Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.135, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=GatewayURL&_method=citationSearch&_uoikey=B6TVV-4YTFBCY-5&_origin=SDEMFRHTML&_version=1&md5=896533bcc989ebaa374ff209558fbcf1

  20. Anomaly General Circulation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarra, Antonio

    The feasibility of the anomaly model is assessed using barotropic and baroclinic models. In the barotropic case, both a stationary and a time-dependent model has been formulated and constructed, whereas only the stationary, linear case is considered in the baroclinic case. Results from the barotropic model indicate that a relation between the stationary solution and the time-averaged non-linear solution exists. The stationary linear baroclinic solution can therefore be considered with some confidence. The linear baroclinic anomaly model poses a formidable mathematical problem because it is necessary to solve a gigantic linear system to obtain the solution. A new method to find solution of large linear system, based on a projection on the Krylov subspace is shown to be successful when applied to the linearized baroclinic anomaly model. The scheme consists of projecting the original linear system on the Krylov subspace, thereby reducing the dimensionality of the matrix to be inverted to obtain the solution. With an appropriate setting of the damping parameters, the iterative Krylov method reaches a solution even using a Krylov subspace ten times smaller than the original space of the problem. This generality allows the treatment of the important problem of linear waves in the atmosphere. A larger class (nonzonally symmetric) of basic states can now be treated for the baroclinic primitive equations. These problem leads to large unsymmetrical linear systems of order 10000 and more which can now be successfully tackled by the Krylov method. The (R7) linear anomaly model is used to investigate extensively the linear response to equatorial and mid-latitude prescribed heating. The results indicate that the solution is deeply affected by the presence of the stationary waves in the basic state. The instability of the asymmetric flows, first pointed out by Simmons et al. (1983), is active also in the baroclinic case. However, the presence of baroclinic processes modifies the

  1. Constraints on Circumstellar Dust Grain Sizes from High Spatial Resolution Observations in the Thermal Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemhof, E. E.; Danen, R. M.; Gwinn, C. R.

    1996-01-01

    We describe how high spatial resolution imaging of circumstellar dust at a wavelength of about 10 micron, combined with knowledge of the source spectral energy distribution, can yield useful information about the sizes of the individual dust grains responsible for the infrared emission. Much can be learned even when only upper limits to source size are available. In parallel with high-resolution single-telescope imaging that may resolve the more extended mid-infrared sources, we plan to apply these less direct techniques to interpretation of future observations from two-element optical interferometers, where quite general arguments may be made despite only crude imaging capability. Results to date indicate a tendency for circumstellar grain sizes to be rather large compared to the Mathis-Rumpl-Nordsieck size distribution traditionally thought to characterize dust in the general interstellar medium. This may mean that processing of grains after their initial formation and ejection from circumstellar atmospheres adjusts their size distribution to the ISM curve; further mid-infrared observations of grains in various environments would help to confirm this conjecture.

  2. A study of dental anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sook; Kim, Jae Duck

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of dental anomalies in 600 normal persons (male:363, female:237) at age 14 to 39 years, through history taking, oral examination, and radiographic observations of subjects. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The prevalence of individual dental anomalies were as follows; Congenitally missing teeth 7%; supernumerary teeth 1.33%; ectopic eruption 8.50%; transposition 0.33%; rotation 23.67%; microdontia 11.16% (peg lateral is 5.33%; third molar 5.83%); prolonged retention of deciduous teeth 1.33%; crowding 49.83%; and spacing 15.17%. 2. Alterations in numbers of teeth : The most frequently missing teeth were mandibular lateral incisors, followed by mandibular second premolars and maxillary second premolars. In numbers of congenitally missing teeth per person, 52.38% had one missing tooth and 30.95% had two missing teeth. In supernumerary teeth, there was higher rate in male than in female. Most supernumerary teeth were mesiodens of median area in maxilla and the eruption pattern of that teeth generally was unerupted state. 3. In transposition, exchange of position of teeth involved the canine and first premolar. 4. Congenital missing rate of permanent successors in prolonged retention of deciduous teeth was 69.23%. 5. Crowding and spacing had respectively higher rate in mandible and in maxilla.

  3. Generative adversarial networks for anomaly detection in images

    OpenAIRE

    Batiste Ros, Guillem

    2018-01-01

    Anomaly detection is used to identify abnormal observations that don t follow a normal pattern. Inthis work, we use the power of Generative Adversarial Networks in sampling from image distributionsto perform anomaly detection with images and to identify local anomalous segments within thisimages. Also, we explore potential application of this method to support pathological analysis ofbiological tissues

  4. Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter, James L

    2014-10-29

    According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage.

  5. SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome and dental anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Camacho, Oscar Francisco; Fuerte-Flores, Bertha Irene; Ricardez-Marcial, Edgar F; Zenteno, Juan Carlos

    2015-11-01

    SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome is an uncommon autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutations in the SOX2 gene and clinically characterized by severe eye malformations (anophthalmia/microphthalmia) and extraocular anomalies mainly involving brain, esophagus, and genitalia. In this work, a patient with the SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome and exhibiting a novel dental anomaly is described. SOX2 genotyping in this patient revealed an apparently de novo c.70del20 deletion, a commonly reported SOX2 mutation. A review of the phenotypic variation observed in patients carrying the recurrent SOX2 c.70del20 mutation is presented. Although dental anomalies are uncommonly reported in the SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome, we suggest that a dental examination should be performed in patients with SOX2 mutations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Thermal infrared sounding observations of lower atmospheric variances at Mars and their implications for gravity wave activity: a preliminary examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, N. G.

    2017-12-01

    It has been recognized for over two decades that the mesoscale statistical variance observed by Earth-observing satellites at temperature-sensitive frequencies above the instrumental noise floor is a measure of gravity wave activity. These types of observation have been made by a variety of satellite instruments have been an important validation tool for gravity wave parameterizations in global and mesoscale models. At Mars, the importance of topographic and non-topographic sources of gravity waves for the general circulation is now widely recognized and the target of recent modeling efforts. However, despite several ingenious studies, gravity wave activity near hypothetical lower atmospheric sources has been poorly and unsystematically characterized, partly because of the difficulty of separating the gravity wave activity from baroclinic wave activity and the thermal tides. Here will be presented a preliminary analysis of calibrated radiance variance at 15.4 microns (635-665 cm-1) from nadir, off-nadir, and limb observations by the Mars Climate Sounder on board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The overarching methodology follows Wu and Waters (1996, 1997). Nadir, off-nadir, and lowest detector limb observations should sample variability with vertical weighting functions centered high in the lower atmosphere (20-30 km altitude) and full width half maximum (FWHM) 20 km but be sensitive to gravity waves with different horizontal wavelengths and slightly different vertical wavelengths. This work is supported by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program (NNX14AM32G). References Wu, D.L. and J.W. Waters, 1996, Satellite observations of atmospheric variances: A possible indication of gravity waves, GRL, 23, 3631-3634. Wu D.L. and J.W. Waters, 1997, Observations of Gravity Waves with the UARS Microwave Limb Sounder. In: Hamilton K. (eds) Gravity Wave Processes. NATO ASI Series (Series I: Environmental Change), vol 50. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

  7. Factors Influencing the Formation of Corrosive Conditions in Puget Sound and the Extreme Conditions Observed During Summer 2015 Associated with the NE Pacific Warm Anomaly (a.k.a. The Blob)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alin, S. R.; Curry, B.; Newton, J.; Feely, R. A.; Sutton, A.

    2016-02-01

    Puget Sound is a complex glacial estuarine system that receives input from many rivers and streams, in addition to runoff from the urban and agricultural environments surrounding the southern part of the Salish Sea ecosystem. A series of glacial sills restrict estuarine circulation such that intrusions of seawater only occur episodically, resulting in long residence times in some parts of the basin. Through survey cruises and stationary time-series, we have observed the dynamic biogeochemical cycles in various sub-basins of Puget Sound since 2008. Areas of Puget Sound with restricted circulation may experience conditions of high pCO2, low pH, and low aragonite saturation state throughout the year. Historically, the highest pCO2 and lowest pH and aragonite saturation states have been observed in early fall in Hood Canal. Upwelling of dense, nutrient- and CO2-rich but oxygen-poor water along the coast provides the marine source water for Puget Sound's deep waters. We estimate that marine waters entering Puget Sound via the Strait of Juan de Fuca are now corrosive 95% of the time, representing a 26% increase in frequency since the preindustrial era. Both river inputs and intense primary production in surface waters drive remineralization in deep waters of Puget Sound basins, contributing to the formation of corrosive conditions in waters below the productive surface. In addition, we estimate that regionally enhanced atmospheric CO2 content may result in an increase in CO2 uptake in the region. In 2015 many features of the seasonal carbon cycle were accelerated relative to earlier years, as a result of the influence of the NE Pacific warm anomaly. In southern Hood Canal, the surface spring bloom began weeks earlier than usual, and in July, we saw the lowest estimated pH and aragonite saturation values in deep waters observed to date in Washington marine environments, which was about two months earlier than historical seasonal minima in pH and aragonite saturation.

  8. Experimental observations and modelling of thermal history within a steel plate during water jet impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.D.; Fraser, D.; Samarasekera, I.V.; Lockhart, G.T.

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate heat transfer of steel plates under a water jet impingement and to further simulate runout table operation in a hot strip mill, a full-scale pilot runout table facility was designed and constructed at the University of British Columbia (UBC). This paper describes the experimental details, data acquisition and data handling techniques for steel plates during water jet impingement by one circular water jet from an industrial header. Recorded visual observations at the impinging surface were obtained. The effects of cooling water temperature and impingement velocity on the heat transfer from a steel plate were studied. A two-dimensional finite element method-based transient inverse heat conduction model was developed. With the help of the model, heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients along the impinging surface under various cooling conditions were calculated. The microstructural evolution of the steel plate was also investigated for the varying cooling conditions. Samples were obtained from each plate, polished, etched and then photographed. (author)

  9. VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF DG TAU'S RADIO JET: A HIGHLY COLLIMATED THERMAL OUTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, C.; Mutel, R. L.; Gayley, K. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52240 (United States); Guedel, M. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Ray, T. [Astronomy and Astrophysics Section, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Skinner, S. L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Schneider, P. C. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-03-20

    The active young protostar DG Tau has an extended jet that has been well studied at radio, optical, and X-ray wavelengths. We report sensitive new Very Large Array (VLA) full-polarization observations of the core and jet between 5 GHz and 8 GHz. Our high angular resolution observation at 8 GHz clearly shows an unpolarized inner jet with a size of 42 AU (0.''35) extending along a position angle similar to the optical-X ray outer jet. Using our nearly coeval 2012 VLA observations, we find a spectral index {alpha} = +0.46 {+-} 0.05, which combined with the lack of polarization is consistent with bremsstrahlung (free-free) emission, with no evidence for a non-thermal coronal component. By identifying the end of the radio jet as the optical depth unity surface, and calculating the resulting emission measure, we find that our radio results are in agreement with previous optical line studies of electron density and consequent mass-loss rate. We also detect a weak radio knot at 5 GHz located 7'' from the base of the jet, coincident with the inner radio knot detected by Rodriguez et al. in 2009 but at lower surface brightness. We interpret this as due to expansion of post-shock ionized gas in the three years between observations.

  10. Atomic scale observation of phase transformation in long term thermally aged duplex stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novy, St.

    2009-01-01

    Embrittlement study of duplex stainless steels is a very important in order to predict the lifetime of primary circuits of nuclear power plant. Ferrite steels aged over 20 years, on-site, in laboratory and at different temperatures was analyzed by tomographic probe atom to assess the trend of aging of these materials with very long times. A more prospective work was also carried out, the aim was to model the decomposition of ferrite from austenitic-ferritic steels. The simulation of the decomposition of these steels are very complex, we initiated preliminary work in modelling the Fe-Cr alloys, because the decomposition of Fe and Cr in these steels is the main cause of their fragility. To validate the parameters used in simulation, an experimental study of the decomposition of an alloy Fe-20% at. Cr aged at 500 C was performed. This experimental study has shown that a non-classical germination (NCG) is involved in this alloy. The performed simulations on the same alloy at the same temperature, did not reproduce the progressive enrichment of precipitated phase a' (characteristic of NCG). The study of steels, aged over 20 years, has confirmed that the steel aged in laboratory are representative to steel aged in site ( T ≤350 C). Moreover, it has been shown that the G-phase (intermetallic precipitation at the interface a/a' phases) does not influence the embrittlement of the ferrite and the difference of thermo-mechanical treatment is not determinant of the variance decomposition observed in these steels. (author)

  11. Combining Observations in the Reflective Solar and Thermal Domains for Improved Mapping of Carbon, Water and Energy FLuxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houborg, Rasmus; Anderson, Martha; Kustas, Bill; Rodell, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the utility of integrating remotely sensed estimates of leaf chlorophyll (C(sub ab)) into a thermal-based Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model that estimates land-surface CO2 and energy fluxes using an analytical, light-use-efficiency (LUE) based model of canopy resistance. Day to day variations in nominal LUE (LUE(sub n)) were assessed for a corn crop field in Maryland U.S.A. through model calibration with CO2 flux tower observations. The optimized daily LUE(sub n) values were then compared to estimates of C(sub ab) integrated from gridded maps of chlorophyll content weighted over the tower flux source area. Changes in Cab exhibited a curvilinear relationship with corresponding changes in daily calibrated LUE(sub n) values derived from the tower flux data, and hourly water, energy and carbon flux estimation accuracies from TSEB were significantly improved when using C(sub ab) for delineating spatio-temporal variations in LUE(sub n). The results demonstrate the synergy between thermal infrared and shortwave reflective wavebands in producing valuable remote sensing data for monitoring of carbon and water fluxes.

  12. First branchial cleft anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fallouji, M. A.; Butler, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl presented with a cystic swelling since birth behind the ramus of the right mandible and diagnosed clinically as a dermoid cyst. Surgical exploration, however, showed that it was closely related to the external auditory canal, with an extension running medially behind the parotid gland and ending in the bony middle ear. The facial nerve was closely related to the deep part of the cyst. Such an anatomical position indicates that this was a first branchial cleft anomaly. Surgical excision of the cyst was performed. PMID:6622327

  13. Observation of room temperature ferromagnetism in ZnTe:Cr films grown onto glass substrate by thermal evaporation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soundararajan, D; Mangalaraj, D; Nataraj, D [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore -641 046 (India); Dorosinskii, L [National Institute of Metrology (TUBITAK -UME), P.K. 54, 41470, Gebze -Kocaeli (Turkey); Santoyo-Salazar, J, E-mail: dorosins@ume.tubitak.gov.t [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2009-03-01

    ZnTe and ZnTe:Cr films were prepared onto glass substrates using thermal evaporation method. Structural properties of the prepared samples were analyzed using X-ray diffractometer, and the presence of ZnCrTe phase was identified along with poor crystallinity. Composition analysis was done using XPS and the Cr content in the film was found to be 0.05 atomic percent. Transmittance spectra were recorded using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The valence state of Cr in ZnTe:Cr film is determined to be +2 using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Magnetic moment data as a function of magnetic field were recorded using Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer at temperatures 5, 77 and 300 K. The results showed minority ferromagnetic behavior even at room temperature. Magnetic domains were observed using Magnetic Force Microscopy and the average value of domain size is 3.7 nm.

  14. Observation of transverse spin Nernst magnetoresistance induced by thermal spin current in ferromagnet/non-magnet bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Jun; Jeon, Chul-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Guk; Lee, Jae Wook; Surabhi, Srivathsava; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Park, Byong-Guk

    2017-11-09

    Electric generation of spin current via spin Hall effect is of great interest as it allows an efficient manipulation of magnetization in spintronic devices. Theoretically, pure spin current can be also created by a temperature gradient, which is known as spin Nernst effect. Here, we report spin Nernst effect-induced transverse magnetoresistance in ferromagnet/non-magnetic heavy metal bilayers. We observe that the magnitude of transverse magnetoresistance in the bilayers is significantly modified by heavy metal and its thickness. This strong dependence of transverse magnetoresistance on heavy metal evidences the generation of thermally induced pure spin current in heavy metal. Our analysis shows that spin Nernst angles of W and Pt have the opposite sign to their spin Hall angles. Moreover, our estimate implies that the magnitude of spin Nernst angle would be comparable to that of spin Hall angle, suggesting an efficient generation of spin current by the spin Nernst effect.

  15. The Relationship Between Surface Temperature Anomaly Time Series and those of OLR, Water Vapor, and Cloud Cover as Observed Using Nine Years of AIRS Version-5 Level-3 Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Outline: (1) Comparison of AIRS and CERES anomaly time series of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and OLR(sub CLR), i.e. Clear Sky OLR (2) Explanation of recent decreases in global and tropical mean values of OLR (3) AIRS "Short-term" Longwave Cloud Radiative Feedback -- A new product

  16. System and method for anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Chad

    2010-06-15

    A system and method for detecting one or more anomalies in a plurality of observations is provided. In one illustrative embodiment, the observations are real-time network observations collected from a stream of network traffic. The method includes performing a discrete decomposition of the observations, and introducing derived variables to increase storage and query efficiencies. A mathematical model, such as a conditional independence model, is then generated from the formatted data. The formatted data is also used to construct frequency tables which maintain an accurate count of specific variable occurrence as indicated by the model generation process. The formatted data is then applied to the mathematical model to generate scored data. The scored data is then analyzed to detect anomalies.

  17. Einstein, Entropy and Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtes, Daniel; Oberheim, Eric

    2006-11-01

    This paper strengthens and defends the pluralistic implications of Einstein's successful, quantitative predictions of Brownian motion for a philosophical dispute about the nature of scientific advance that began between two prominent philosophers of science in the second half of the twentieth century (Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend). Kuhn promoted a monistic phase-model of scientific advance, according to which a paradigm driven `normal science' gives rise to its own anomalies, which then lead to a crisis and eventually a scientific revolution. Feyerabend stressed the importance of pluralism for scientific progress. He rejected Kuhn's model arguing that it fails to recognize the role that alternative theories can play in identifying exactly which phenomena are anomalous in the first place. On Feyerabend's account, Einstein's predictions allow for a crucial experiment between two incommensurable theories, and are an example of an anomaly that could refute the reigning paradigm only after the development of a competitor. Using Kuhn's specification of a disciplinary matrix to illustrate the incommensurability between the two paradigms, we examine the different research strategies available in this peculiar case. On the basis of our reconstruction, we conclude by rebutting some critics of Feyerabend's argument.

  18. A Critique of Size-Related Anomalies.

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, Jonathan B

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that the size-related regularities in asset prices should not be regarded as anomalies. Indeed, the opposite result is demonstrated. Namely, a truly anomalous regularity would be if an inverse relation between size and return was not observed. We show theoretically (1) that the size-related regularities should be observed in the economy and (2) why size will in general explain the part of the cross-section of expected returns left unexplained by an incorrectly specified as...

  19. Start-up of Cirus after refurbishment outage and observations during approach to criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Tej; Singh, Kanchhi; Sengupta, S.N.

    2004-10-01

    The report presents various physics related aspects of the startup of Cirus reactor after the prolonged refurbishment outage. The special nuclear instrumentation scheme adopted to ensure safe startup of the reactor is described. Salient observations made and physics measurements carried out during various approaches to criticality are covered. One of the significant observations concerned a major reactivity anomaly during the approach to criticality. After due investigations the cause of the anomaly was attributed to the inadvertent wetting of the graphite reflector which houses the reactor regulating and protection system ion chambers. The report also includes salient observations during raising of reactor power to high levels. The wet reflector also resulted in a significant difference measured between the thermal and neutronic power of the reactor. In view of the reactivity anomaly, the core reactivity variation with time was closely followed and compared with computations. As expected the reactivity anomaly reduced gradually with time. (author)

  20. Congenital anomalies of the limbs in mythology and antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Markatos, Konstantinos; Nikolaou, Vasilios; Gartziou-Tatti, Ariadne; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2018-04-01

    Congenital anomalies of the limbs have been observed since ancient human civilizations, capturing the imagination of ancient physicians and people. The knowledge of the era could not possibly theorize on the biologic aspects of these anomalies; however, from the very beginning of civilization the spiritual status of people attempted to find a logical explanation for the existence of such cases. The next logical step of the spiritual and religious system of the ancients was to correlate these anomalies with the Gods and to attribute them to a different level of existence in order to rationalize their existence. In these settings, the mythology and religious beliefs of ancient civilizations comprised several creatures that were related to the observed congenital anomalies in humans. The purpose of this historic review is to summarize the depiction of congenital anomalies of the limbs in mythology and antiquity, to present several mythological creatures with resemblance to humans with congenital anomalies of the limbs, to present the atmosphere of the era concerning the congenital anomalies, and to theorize on the anomaly and medical explanation upon which such creatures were depicted. Our aim is to put historic information in one place, creating a comprehensive review that the curious reader would find interesting and enjoyable.

  1. Thermal refugia against coral bleaching throughout the northern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Osman, Eslam O.

    2017-10-17

    Tropical reefs have been impacted by thermal anomalies caused by global warming that induced coral bleaching and mortality events globally. However, there have only been very few recordings of bleaching within the Red Sea despite covering a latitudinal range of 15° and consequently it has been considered a region that is less sensitive to thermal anomalies. We therefore examined historical patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) and associated anomalies (1982–2012) and compared warming trends with a unique compilation of corresponding coral bleaching records from throughout the region. These data indicated that the northern Red Sea has not experienced mass bleaching despite intensive Degree Heating Weeks (DHW) of >15°C-weeks. Severe bleaching was restricted to the central and southern Red Sea where DHWs have been more frequent, but far less intense (DHWs <4°C-weeks). A similar pattern was observed during the 2015–2016 El Niño event during which time corals in the northern Red Sea did not bleach despite high thermal stress (i.e. DHWs >8°C-weeks), and bleaching was restricted to the central and southern Red Sea despite the lower thermal stress (DHWs < 8°C-weeks). Heat stress assays carried out in the northern (Hurghada) and central (Thuwal) Red Sea on four key reef-building species confirmed different regional thermal susceptibility, and that central Red Sea corals are more sensitive to thermal anomalies as compared to those from the north. Together, our data demonstrate that corals in the northern Red Sea have a much higher heat tolerance than their prevailing temperature regime would suggest. In contrast, corals from the central Red Sea are close to their thermal limits, which closely match the maximum annual water temperatures. The northern Red Sea harbours reef-building corals that live well below their bleaching thresholds and thus we propose that the region represents a thermal refuge of global importance.

  2. Thermal refugia against coral bleaching throughout the northern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Osman, Eslam O.; Smith, David J.; Ziegler, Maren; Kü rten, Benjamin; Conrad, Constanze; El-Haddad, Khaled M.; Voolstra, Christian R.; Suggett, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Tropical reefs have been impacted by thermal anomalies caused by global warming that induced coral bleaching and mortality events globally. However, there have only been very few recordings of bleaching within the Red Sea despite covering a latitudinal range of 15° and consequently it has been considered a region that is less sensitive to thermal anomalies. We therefore examined historical patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) and associated anomalies (1982–2012) and compared warming trends with a unique compilation of corresponding coral bleaching records from throughout the region. These data indicated that the northern Red Sea has not experienced mass bleaching despite intensive Degree Heating Weeks (DHW) of >15°C-weeks. Severe bleaching was restricted to the central and southern Red Sea where DHWs have been more frequent, but far less intense (DHWs <4°C-weeks). A similar pattern was observed during the 2015–2016 El Niño event during which time corals in the northern Red Sea did not bleach despite high thermal stress (i.e. DHWs >8°C-weeks), and bleaching was restricted to the central and southern Red Sea despite the lower thermal stress (DHWs < 8°C-weeks). Heat stress assays carried out in the northern (Hurghada) and central (Thuwal) Red Sea on four key reef-building species confirmed different regional thermal susceptibility, and that central Red Sea corals are more sensitive to thermal anomalies as compared to those from the north. Together, our data demonstrate that corals in the northern Red Sea have a much higher heat tolerance than their prevailing temperature regime would suggest. In contrast, corals from the central Red Sea are close to their thermal limits, which closely match the maximum annual water temperatures. The northern Red Sea harbours reef-building corals that live well below their bleaching thresholds and thus we propose that the region represents a thermal refuge of global importance.

  3. Atomki anomaly and the Secluded Dark Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The Atomiki anomaly can be interpreted as a new light vector boson. If such a new particle exists, it could be a mediator between the Standard Model sector and the dark sector including the dark matter. We discussed some simple effective models with these particles. In the models, the secluded dark matter models are good candidates to satisfy the thermal relic abundance. In particular, we found that the dark matter self-interaction can be large enough to solve the small scale structure puzzle...

  4. On the metal-rich surfaces of (16) Psyche and other M-type asteroids from interferometric observations in the thermal infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbo, Marco; Matter, A.; Gundlach, B.; Blum, J.

    2013-10-01

    Asteroids belonging to the spectroscopic M-type exhibit a quasi featureless and moderately red reflectance spectrum and a geometric visible albedo between 0.1 and 0.3. These asteroids were initially thought to be metallic cores of differentiated asteroids that were exposed to space by a catastrophic disruption by impacts. Later, this view has been challenged by the detection of silicates and hydration spectroscopic bands on these bodies. Unveiling the physical properties of the surfaces of these asteroids, and identifying their meteorite analogs is a challenge from remote-sensing observations. Nevertheless, these are crucial problems, important for estimating the number of asteroids that underwent differentiation in the early phases of the formation of our solar system. The thermal inertia is a sensitive indicator for the presence of metal in the regolith on the surfaces of asteroids. We developed a new thermophysical model that allow us to derive the value of the thermal inertia from interferometric observations in the thermal infrared. We report on our investigation of the thermal inertia of M-type asteroids, including the asteroids (16) Psyche, for which we obtained a thermal inertia value anomalously high compared to the thermal inertia values of other asteroids in the same size range. From the thermal inertia and model of heat conductivity that accounts for different values of the packing fraction (a measure of the degree of compaction of the regolith particles) the regolith grain size is derived.

  5. Low Risk Anomalies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian; Zechner, Josef

    This paper shows theoretically and empirically that beta- and volatility-based low risk anomalies are driven by return skewness. The empirical patterns concisely match the predictions of our model that endogenizes the role of skewness for stock returns through default risk. With increasing downside...... risk, the standard capital asset pricing model (CAPM) increasingly overestimates expected equity returns relative to firms' true (skew-adjusted) market risk. Empirically, the profitability of betting against beta/volatility increases with firms' downside risk, and the risk-adjusted return differential...... of betting against beta/volatility among low skew firms compared to high skew firms is economically large. Our results suggest that the returns to betting against beta or volatility do not necessarily pose asset pricing puzzles but rather that such strategies collect premia that compensate for skew risk...

  6. Water radon anomaly fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, H.

    1980-01-01

    A striking aspect of water radon levels in relation to earthquakes is that before the Tangshan quake there was a remarkable synchronicity of behavior of many wells within 200 km of Tangshan. However, for many wells anomalous values persisted after the earthquake, particularly outside the immediate region of the quake. It is clear that radon may be produced by various processes; some candidates are pressure, shear, vibration, temperature and pressure, mixing of water-bearing strata, breakdown of mineral crystal structure, and the like, although it is not clear which of these are primary. It seems that a possible explanation of the persistence of the anomaly in the case of Tangshan may be that the earthquake released strain in the vicinity of Tangshan but increased it further along the geological structures involved, thus producing a continued radon buildup.

  7. Nolen-Schiffer anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieper, S.C.; Wiringa, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Argonne v 18 potential contains a detailed treatment of the pp, pn and nn electromagnetic potential, including Coulomb, vacuum polarization, Darwin Foldy and magnetic moment terms, all with suitable form factors and was fit to pp and pn data using the appropriate nuclear masses. In addition, it contains a nuclear charge-symmetry breaking (CSB) term adjusted to reproduce the difference in the experimental pp and nn scattering lengths. We have used these potential terms to compute differences in the binding energies of mirror isospin-1/2 nuclei (Nolen-Schiffer [NS] anomaly). Variational Monte Carlo calculations for the 3 He- 3 H system and cluster variational Monte Carlo for the 15 O- 15 N and 17 F- 17 O systems were made. In the first case, the best variational wave function for the A = 3 nuclei was used. However, because our 16 O wave function does not reproduce accurately the 16 O rms radius, to which the NS anomaly is very sensitive, we adjusted the A = 15 and A = 17 wave functions to reproduce the experimental density profiles. Our computed energy differences for these three systems are 0.757 ± .001, 3.544 ± .018 and 3.458 ± .040 MeV respectively, which are to be compared with the experimental differences of 0.764, 3.537, and 3.544 MeV. Most of the theoretical uncertainties are due to uncertainties in the experimental rms radii. The nuclear CSB potential contributes 0.066, 0.188, and 0.090 MeV to these totals. We also attempted calculations for A = 39 and A = 41. However, in these cases, the experimental uncertainties in the rms radius make it impossible to extract useful information about the contribution of the nuclear CSB potential

  8. Tau anomaly and vectorlike families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, K.S.; Pati, J.C.; Zhang, X.

    1992-01-01

    The implications of a recently indicated increase in τ lifetime are discussed. It is stressed that the available experimental constraints (from δρ,ε 3 , and N ν , etc.) are satisfied most naturally if the indicated τ anomaly is attributed to the mixing of the τ family with a heavy vectorlike family Q L, R ' with masses ∼200 GeV to 2 TeV, which is a doublet of SU(2) R and singlet of SU(2) L , rather than with a heavy fourth family with standard chiral couplings. L↔R symmetry would imply that Q L, R ' is accompanied by the parity-conjugate family Q L, R which is a doublet of SU(2) L and singlet of SU(2) R . Two such vectorlike families, together with an increase in τ τ , are, in fact, crucial predictions of a recently proposed supersymmetric composite model that possesses many attractive features, in particular, explanations of the origin of diverse scales and family replication. In the context of such a model, it is noted that 3 an increase in τ τ due to mixing involving vectorlike families will necessarily imply a correlated decrease in neutrino counting N ν from the CERN e + e- collider LEP from 3. Such a decrease in N ν would be absent, however, if the τ anomaly is attributed to a mixing involving a standard fourth family with chiral couplings. Because of the seesaw nature of the mass matrix of the three chiral and two vectorlike families, that arises naturally in the model, departures from universality in the first two families as well as in bar bb and τ + τ - channels (linked to down flavors) are strongly suppressed, in accord with observations

  9. Observed and modelled effects of auroral precipitation on the thermal ionospheric plasma: comparing the MICA and Cascades2 sounding rocket events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, K. A.; Gayetsky, L.; Fernandes, P. A.; Zettergren, M. D.; Lessard, M.; Cohen, I. J.; Hampton, D. L.; Ahrns, J.; Hysell, D. L.; Powell, S.; Miceli, R. J.; Moen, J. I.; Bekkeng, T.

    2012-12-01

    Auroral precipitation can modify the ionospheric thermal plasma through a variety of processes. We examine and compare the events seen by two recent auroral sounding rockets carrying in situ thermal plasma instrumentation. The Cascades2 sounding rocket (March 2009, Poker Flat Research Range) traversed a pre-midnight poleward boundary intensification (PBI) event distinguished by a stationary Alfvenic curtain of field-aligned precipitation. The MICA sounding rocket (February 2012, Poker Flat Research Range) traveled through irregular precipitation following the passage of a strong westward-travelling surge. Previous modelling of the ionospheric effects of auroral precipitation used a one-dimensional model, TRANSCAR, which had a simplified treatment of electric fields and did not have the benefit of in situ thermal plasma data. This new study uses a new two-dimensional model which self-consistently calculates electric fields to explore both spatial and temporal effects, and compares to thermal plasma observations. A rigorous understanding of the ambient thermal plasma parameters and their effects on the local spacecraft sheath and charging, is required for quantitative interpretation of in situ thermal plasma observations. To complement this TRANSCAR analysis we therefore require a reliable means of interpreting in situ thermal plasma observation. This interpretation depends upon a rigorous plasma sheath model since the ambient ion energy is on the order of the spacecraft's sheath energy. A self-consistent PIC model is used to model the spacecraft sheath, and a test-particle approach then predicts the detector response for a given plasma environment. The model parameters are then modified until agreement is found with the in situ data. We find that for some situations, the thermal plasma parameters are strongly driven by the precipitation at the observation time. For other situations, the previous history of the precipitation at that position can have a stronger

  10. In-Flight Diagnosis and Anomaly Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In flight diagnosis and anomaly detection is a difficult challenge that requires sufficient observation and real-time processing of health information. Our approach...

  11. Multiple tooth anomalies in a nonsyndromic patient with class II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-10

    Oct 10, 2014 ... Dental anomalies in number, size, position, or structure are also important ... During clinical observation, it was noticed that the patient ..... a true diagnose and better clinical management. ... Pediatrics 2005;115:e615‑9. 20.

  12. Thermal processes of thermokarst lakes in the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia - observations and modeling (Lena River Delta, Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boike, J.; Georgi, C.; Kirilin, G.; Muster, S.; Abramova, K.; Fedorova, I.; Chetverova, A.; Grigoriev, M.; Bornemann, N.; Langer, M.

    2015-10-01

    Thermokarst lakes are typical features of the northern permafrost ecosystems, and play an important role in the thermal exchange between atmosphere and subsurface. The objective of this study is to describe the main thermal processes of the lakes and to quantify the heat exchange with the underlying sediments. The thermal regimes of five lakes located within the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia (Lena River Delta) were investigated using hourly water temperature and water level records covering a 3-year period (2009-2012), together with bathymetric survey data. The lakes included thermokarst lakes located on Holocene river terraces that may be connected to Lena River water during spring flooding, and a thermokarst lake located on deposits of the Pleistocene Ice Complex. Lakes were covered by ice up to 2 m thick that persisted for more than 7 months of the year, from October until about mid-June. Lake-bottom temperatures increased at the start of the ice-covered period due to upward-directed heat flux from the underlying thawed sediment. Prior to ice break-up, solar radiation effectively warmed the water beneath the ice cover and induced convective mixing. Ice break-up started at the beginning of June and lasted until the middle or end of June. Mixing occurred within the entire water column from the start of ice break-up and continued during the ice-free periods, as confirmed by the Wedderburn numbers, a quantitative measure of the balance between wind mixing and stratification that is important for describing the biogeochemical cycles of lakes. The lake thermal regime was modeled numerically using the FLake model. The model demonstrated good agreement with observations with regard to the mean lake temperature, with a good reproduction of the summer stratification during the ice-free period, but poor agreement during the ice-covered period. Modeled sensitivity to lake depth demonstrated that lakes in this climatic zone with mean depths > 5 m develop

  13. Axial anomaly at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, S.; Gupte, Neelima; Srinivasan, V.

    1985-01-01

    The Jackiw-Bardeen-Adler anomaly for QED 4 and QED 2 are calculated at finite temperature. It is found that the anomaly is independent of temperature. Ishikawa's method [1984, Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 53 1615] for calculating the quantised Hall effect is extended to finite temperature. (author)

  14. Anomaly mediation deformed by axion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Kazunori, E-mail: kazunori@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)

    2013-05-13

    We show that in supersymmetric axion models the axion supermultiplet obtains a sizable F-term due to a non-supersymmetric dynamics and it generally gives the gaugino masses comparable to the anomaly mediation contribution. Thus the gaugino mass relation predicted by the anomaly mediation effect can be significantly modified in the presence of axion to solve the strong CP problem.

  15. Novel topological invariants and anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, M.; Sugimasa, N.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that novel topological invariants are associated with a class of Dirac operators. Trace formulas which are similar to but different from Callias's formula are derived. Implications of these topological invariants to anomalies in quantum field theory are discussed. A new class of anomalies are calculated for two models: one is two dimensional and the other four dimensional

  16. Gravitational anomalies in the solar system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2015-02-01

    Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known matter-energy distributions have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in either cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century, and technology itself. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: (a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia. (b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab). (c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon. (d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox. (e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun. (f) The Flyby Anomaly. (g) The Pioneer Anomaly. (h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit.

  17. Calcium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.; Papanastassiou, D.A.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1978-01-01

    We report isotopic anomalies in Ca which were found in two Ca-Al-rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite. These inclusions previously had been shown to contain special anomalies for Mg and O which were attributed to fractionation and unknown nuclear effects. The Ca data, when corrected for mass fractionation by using 40 Ca/ 44 Ca as a standard, show nonlinear isotopic effects in 48 Ca of +13.5 per mil and in 42 Ca of +1.7 per mil for one sample. The second sample shows a 48 Ca depletion of -2.9 per mil, but all other isotopes are normal. Samples with large excesses in 26 Mg show no Ca anomalies. The effects demonstrate that isotopic anomalies exist for higher-atomic-number refractory elements in solar-system materials and do not appear to be readily explainable by a simple model. The correlation of O, Mg, and Ca results on the same inclusions requires the addition and preservation in the solar system of components from idverse nucleosynthetic sources. Observed anomalous Mg and Ca compositions for coexisting mineral phases are uniform within each inclusion, and require initial isotopic homogeneity within an inclusion but the preservation of wide variations between inclusions. Assuming formation of these inclusions by condensation from a gaseous part of the solar nebula, this implies isotopic heterogeneity on a scale of 10-10 2 km within the nebula

  18. Distribution, Management Difficulty and Outcome of Branchial Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, M A; Sultana, M T; Ahmed, S

    2018-01-01

    Branchial arch anomalies are one of the most common congenital anomalies of the neck. Developmental anomalies of the branchial apparatus account for 17% of all pediatric cervical masses. This study aimed to focus on proper diagnosis of branchial anomaly and describe occurrence, presentation, management and outcome of usual and unusual types. This ten-year prospective observational study was conducted from November 2005 to November 2015 including 2-year postoperative follow-up of the patients in Department of ENT, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Total 89 patients were enrolled for this study. Information was recorded on Clinical examination, relevant investigation, Per-operative findings and Histo-pathological findings. After receiving Histo-pathological findings 61 cases were proved as branchial arch anomalies. Ultrasonography and Histopathology was done for every patient. Fistulogram and sinogram was done for patient of fistula and sinus respectively. CT scan was needed for 9 patients, MRI for 3 patients and 12 patient undergone FNAC. Outcomes of those patients were described in terms of Hospital stay, Complications and Follow up studies. Data analysis was done by Standard Statistical Method.Presentation of a number of participant's mimics Branchial arch anomalies; 4.91% was syndromal. Second branchial arch anomalies were the highest. Management was exclusively surgical. Recurrence rate was about 6.56%. Surgery is the tool for diagnosis, treatment, preventing complications, avoiding carcinoma for branchial arch anomalies.

  19. Turtle carapace anomalies: the roles of genetic diversity and environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Velo-Antón

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic anomalies are common in wild populations and multiple genetic, biotic and abiotic factors might contribute to their formation. Turtles are excellent models for the study of developmental instability because anomalies are easily detected in the form of malformations, additions, or reductions in the number of scutes or scales.In this study, we integrated field observations, manipulative experiments, and climatic and genetic approaches to investigate the origin of carapace scute anomalies across Iberian populations of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis. The proportion of anomalous individuals varied from 3% to 69% in local populations, with increasing frequency of anomalies in northern regions. We found no significant effect of climatic and soil moisture, or climatic temperature on the occurrence of anomalies. However, lower genetic diversity and inbreeding were good predictors of the prevalence of scute anomalies among populations. Both decreasing genetic diversity and increasing proportion of anomalous individuals in northern parts of the Iberian distribution may be linked to recolonization events from the Southern Pleistocene refugium.Overall, our results suggest that developmental instability in turtle carapace formation might be caused, at least in part, by genetic factors, although the influence of environmental factors affecting the developmental stability of turtle carapace cannot be ruled out. Further studies of the effects of environmental factors, pollutants and heritability of anomalies would be useful to better understand the complex origin of anomalies in natural populations.

  20. Effects of varying environmental conditions on emissivity spectra of bulk lunar soils: Application to Diviner thermal infrared observations of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Patterson, W. R.; Pieters, C. M.; Mustard, J. F.; Bowles, N. E.; Paige, D. A.; Glotch, T. D.; Thompson, C.

    2017-02-01

    Currently, few thermal infrared measurements exist of fine particulate (samples (e.g. minerals, mineral mixtures, rocks, meteorites, and lunar soils) measured under simulated lunar conditions. Such measurements are fundamental for interpreting thermal infrared (TIR) observations by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (Diviner) onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter as well as future TIR observations of the Moon and other airless bodies. In this work, we present thermal infrared emissivity measurements of a suite of well-characterized Apollo lunar soils and a fine particulate (sample as we systematically vary parameters that control the near-surface environment in our vacuum chamber (atmospheric pressure, incident solar-like radiation, and sample cup temperature). The atmospheric pressure is varied between ambient (1000 mbar) and vacuum (radiation is varied between 52 and 146 mW/cm2, and the sample cup temperature is varied between 325 and 405 K. Spectral changes are characterized as each parameter is varied, which highlight the sensitivity of thermal infrared emissivity spectra to the atmospheric pressure and the incident solar-like radiation. Finally spectral measurements of Apollo 15 and 16 bulk lunar soils are compared with Diviner thermal infrared observations of the Apollo 15 and 16 sampling sites. This comparison allows us to constrain the temperature and pressure conditions that best simulate the near-surface environment of the Moon for future laboratory measurements and to better interpret lunar surface compositions as observed by Diviner.

  1. The gravity anomaly of Mount Amiata; different approaches for understanding anomaly source distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, C.; Barchi, M. R.; Heyde, I.; Pauselli, C.; Vetere, F.; Cannata, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the gravity anomaly signal beneath Mount Amiata and its surroundings have been analysed to reconstruct the subsurface setting. In particular, the work focuses on the investigation of the geological bodies responsible for the Bouguer gravity minimum observed in this area.

  2. Interstellar depletion anomalies and ionization potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabak, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Satellite observations indicate that (1) most elements are depleted from the gas phase when compared to cosmic abundances, (2) some elements are several orders of magnitude more depleted than others, and (3) these depletions vary from cloud to cloud. Since the most likely possibility is that the 'missing' atoms are locked into grains, depletions occur either by accretion onto core particles in interstellar clouds or earlier, during the period of primary grain formation. If the latter mechanism is dominant, then the most important depletion parameter is the condensation temperature of the elements and their various compounds. However, this alone is not sufficient to explain all the observed anomalies. It is shown that electrostatic effects - under a wide variety of conditions- can enormously enhance the capture cross-section of the grain. It is suggested that this mechanism can also account for such anomalies as the apparent 'overabundance' of the alkali metals in the gas phase. (orig.)

  3. Thermal remote sensing of water under flooded vegetation: New observations of inundation patterns for the ‘Small’ Lake Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, M.; Lemoalle, J.; Bader, J.-C.; Tweed, S.; Mofor, L.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryLake Chad at the border of the Sahara desert in central Africa, is well known for its high sensitivity to hydroclimatic events. Gaps in in situ data have so far prevented a full assessment of the response of Lake Chad to the ongoing prolonged drought that started in the second half of the 20th century. Like many other wetlands and shallow lakes, the 'Small' Lake Chad includes large areas of water under aquatic vegetation which needs to be accounted for to obtain the total inundated area. In this paper, a methodology is proposed that uses Meteosat thermal maximum composite data (Tmax) to account for water covered by aquatic vegetation and provide a consistent monthly time series of total inundated area estimates for Lake Chad. Total inundation patterns in Lake Chad were reconstructed for a 15-yr period (1986-2001) which includes the peak of the drought (86-91) and therefore provides new observations on the hydrological functioning of the 'Small' Lake Chad. During the study period, Lake Chad remained below 16,400 km 2 (third quartile ˜8800 km 2). The variability of the inundated area observed in the northern pool (standard deviation σnorthern pool = 1980 km 2) is about 60% greater than that of the southern pool ( σsouthern pool = 1250 km 2). The same methodology could be applied to other large wetlands and shallow lakes in semi-arid or arid regions elsewehere using Meteosat (e.g. Niger Inland Delta, Sudd in Sudan, Okavango Delta) and other weather satellites (e.g., floodplains of the Lake Eyre Basin in Australia and Andean Altiplano Lakes in South America).

  4. The hydrogen anomaly problem in neutron Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik B.

    2018-03-01

    Neutron Compton scattering (also called ‘deep inelastic scattering of neutrons’, DINS) is a method used to study momentum distributions of light atoms in solids and liquids. It has been employed extensively since the start-up of intense pulsed neutron sources about 25 years ago. The information lies primarily in the width and shape of the Compton profile and not in the absolute intensity of the Compton peaks. It was therefore not immediately recognized that the relative intensities of Compton peaks arising from scattering on different isotopes did not always agree with values expected from standard neutron cross-section tables. The discrepancies were particularly large for scattering on protons, a phenomenon that became known as ‘the hydrogen anomaly problem’. The present paper is a review of the discovery, experimental tests to prove or disprove the existence of the hydrogen anomaly and discussions concerning its origin. It covers a twenty-year-long history of experimentation, theoretical treatments and discussions. The problem is of fundamental interest, since it involves quantum phenomena on the subfemtosecond time scale, which are not visible in conventional thermal neutron scattering but are important in Compton scattering where neutrons have two orders of magnitude times higher energy. Different H-containing systems show different cross-section deficiencies and when the scattering processes are followed on the femtosecond time scale the cross-section losses disappear on different characteristic time scales for each H-environment. The last section of this review reproduces results from published papers based on quantum interference in scattering on identical particles (proton or deuteron pairs or clusters), which have given a quantitative theoretical explanation both regarding the H-cross-section reduction and its time dependence. Some new explanations are added and the concluding chapter summarizes the conditions for observing the specific quantum

  5. Reconstruction of gap-free time series satellite observations of land surface temperature to model spectral soil thermal admittance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghafarian Malamiri, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    The soil thermal properties (soil thermal conductivity, soil heat capacity and soil diffusivity) are the main parameters in the applications that need quantitative information on soil heat transfer. Conventionally, these properties are either measured in situ or estimated by semi-empirical models

  6. Thermal emission before earthquakes by analyzing satellite infra-red data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Taylor, P.; Bryant, N.; Pulinets, S.; Freund, F.

    2004-05-01

    Satellite thermal imaging data indicate long-lived thermal anomaly fields associated with large linear structures and fault systems in the Earth's crust but also with short-lived anomalies prior to major earthquakes. Positive anomalous land surface temperature excursions of the order of 3-4oC have been observed from NOAA/AVHRR, GOES/METEOSAT and EOS Terra/Aqua satellites prior to some major earthquake around the world. The rapid time-dependent evolution of the "thermal anomaly" suggests that is changing mid-IR emissivity from the earth. These short-lived "thermal anomalies", however, are very transient therefore there origin has yet to be determined. Their areal extent and temporal evolution may be dependent on geology, tectonic, focal mechanism, meteorological conditions and other factors.This work addresses the relationship between tectonic stress, electro-chemical and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere and increasing mid-IR flux as part of a larger family of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena related to seismic activity.We still need to understand better the link between seismo-mechanical processes in the crust, on the surface, and at the earth-atmospheric interface that trigger thermal anomalies. This work serves as an introduction to our effort to find an answer to this question. We will present examples from the strong earthquakes that have occurred in the Americas during 2003/2004 and the techniques used to record the thermal emission mid-IR anomalies, geomagnetic and ionospheric variations that appear to associated with impending earthquake activity.

  7. Global aspects of gauge anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation discusses the global aspects of gauge anomalies in even dimensions. After a very brief description of local gauge anomalies, the possible global gauge anomalies for various gauge theories are discussed using homotopy theory. One of the main results obtained in a general formula for the SU(n - k) global gauge anomaly coefficient in arbitrary 2n dimensions. The result is expressed in terms of the James number of the Stiefel manifold SU(n + 1)/SU(n - k) and the generalized Dynkin indices. From this, the possibilities of SU(n), SU(n - 1), and SU(2) global gauge anomalies in arbitrary 2n dimensions have been determined. We have also determined the possibilities of global gauge anomalies for the gauge groups SP(2N) and SO(N) in certain general dimensions, as well as for the exceptional gauge groups in specific dimensions. Moreover, several general propositions are formulated and proved which are very useful in the study of global gauge anomalies

  8. Assessments of thermal antinociceptive effects of butorphanol and human observer effect on quantitative evaluation of analgesia in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Gregory J; Robertson, Sheilah A

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether butorphanol induces thermal antinociception in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) and assess the human observer effect on quantitative evaluation of butorphanol-induced analgesia. 6 juvenile green iguanas. Skin temperature was recorded, and then a direct increasing heat stimulus was applied to the lateral aspect of the tail base of each iguana. Temperature of the stimulus at which the iguana responded (thermal threshold) was measured before and for 8 hours after IM injection of either butorphanol tartrate (1.0 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Six experiments (butorphanol [n = 3] and saline solution [3]) were conducted with the observer in the iguanas' field of vision, and 11 experiments (butorphanol [n = 5] and saline solution [6]) were conducted with the observer hidden from their view. The interval between treatments or tests was ≥ 1 month. Temperature difference between thermal threshold and skin temperature when iguanas were administered saline solution did not differ from temperature difference when iguanas were administered butorphanol regardless of whether the observer was or was not visible. Temperature difference between thermal threshold and skin temperature was significantly lower when iguanas were tested without the observer in visual range, compared with the findings obtained when iguanas were tested with an observer in view, at multiple times after either treatment. Intramuscular administration of 1.0 mg of butorphanol/kg did not induce thermal antinociception in juvenile green iguanas. The visible presence of an observer appeared to influence the results of noxious stimulus testing in this reptile species.

  9. An introduction to gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Gaume', L.

    1984-01-01

    The outline of these lectures is as follows: We will first analyze the abelian anomaly from the point of view of the Atiyah-Singer index theorem. This is clearly not the first time that this analysis has been carried out, but it will give us a chance of introducing a general method of computing anomalies based on supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Then we will present the general strategy for identifying and computing the anomalies in the energy-momentum tensor and what can be learned from them

  10. Gravitational Anomaly and Transport Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsteiner, Karl; Megias, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

  11. Novel quantum criticality in CeRu2Si2 near absolute zero observed by thermal expansion and magnetostriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, J; Abe, S; Takahashi, D; Segawa, Y; Komai, Y; Tsujii, H; Matsumoto, K; Suzuki, H; Onuki, Y

    2008-12-19

    We report linear thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements for CeRu2Si2 in magnetic fields up to 52.6 mT and at temperatures down to 1 mK. At high temperatures, this compound showed Landau-Fermi-liquid behavior: The linear thermal expansion coefficient and the magnetostriction coefficient were proportional to the temperature and magnetic field, respectively. In contrast, a pronounced non-Fermi-liquid effect was found below 50 mK. The negative contribution of thermal expansion and magnetostriction suggests the existence of an additional quantum critical point.

  12. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. All grid cells within the rectangular data area (from 61 to 66 degrees North latitude and...

  13. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....

  14. On renormalization of axial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.; Teryaev, O.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that multiplicative renormalization of the axial singlet current results in renormalization of the axial anomaly in all orders of perturbation theory. It is a necessary condition for the Adler - Bardeen theorem being valid. 10 refs.; 2 figs

  15. Situs anomalies on prenatal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, Stefan F.; Brugger, Peter C.; Nemec, Ursula; Bettelheim, Dieter; Kasprian, Gregor; Amann, Gabriele; Rimoin, David L.; Graham, John M.; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Situs anomalies refer to an abnormal organ arrangement, which may be associated with severe errors of development. Due regard being given to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US), this study sought to demonstrate the in utero visualization of situs anomalies on MRI, compared to US. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 12 fetuses with situs anomalies depicted on fetal MRI using prenatal US as a comparison modality. With an MRI standard protocol, the whole fetus was assessed for anomalies, with regard to the position and morphology of the following structures: heart; venous drainage and aorta; stomach and intestines; liver and gallbladder; and the presence and number of spleens. Results: Situs inversus totalis was found in 3/12 fetuses; situs inversus with levocardia in 1/12 fetuses; situs inversus abdominis in 2/12 fetuses; situs ambiguous with polysplenia in 3/12 fetuses, and with asplenia in 2/12 fetuses; and isolated dextrocardia in 1/12 fetuses. Congenital heart defects (CHDs), vascular anomalies, and intestinal malrotations were the most frequent associated malformations. In 5/12 cases, the US and MRI diagnoses were concordant. Compared to US, in 7/12 cases, additional MRI findings specified the situs anomaly, but CHDs were only partially visualized in six cases. Conclusions: Our initial MRI results demonstrate the visualization of situs anomalies and associated malformations in utero, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Using a standard protocol, MRI may identify additional findings, compared to US, which confirm and specify the situs anomaly, but, with limited MRI visualization of fetal CHDs.

  16. Dimensional reduction in anomaly mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyda, Ed; Murayama, Hitoshi; Pierce, Aaron

    2002-01-01

    We offer a guide to dimensional reduction in theories with anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Evanescent operators proportional to ε arise in the bare Lagrangian when it is reduced from d=4 to d=4-2ε dimensions. In the course of a detailed diagrammatic calculation, we show that inclusion of these operators is crucial. The evanescent operators conspire to drive the supersymmetry-breaking parameters along anomaly-mediation trajectories across heavy particle thresholds, guaranteeing the ultraviolet insensitivity

  17. Effects of local mass anomalies in Eoetvoes-like experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmadge, C.; Aronson, S.H.; Fischbach, E.

    1986-01-01

    We consider in detail the effects of local mass anomalies in Eoetvoes-like experiments. It is shown that in the presence of an intermediate-range non-gravitational force, the dominant contributions to both the sign and magnitude of the Eoetvoes anomaly may come from nearby masses and not from the earth as a whole. This observation has important implications in the design and interpretation of future experiments, and in the formulation of unified theories incorporating new intermediate-range forces

  18. Space weather and space anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A large database of anomalies, registered by 220 satellites in different orbits over the period 1971-1994 has been compiled. For the first time, data from 49 Russian Kosmos satellites have been included in a statistical analysis. The database also contains a large set of daily and hourly space weather parameters. A series of statistical analyses made it possible to quantify, for different satellite orbits, space weather conditions on the days characterized by anomaly occurrences. In particular, very intense fluxes (>1000 pfu at energy >10 MeV of solar protons are linked to anomalies registered by satellites in high-altitude (>15000 km, near-polar (inclination >55° orbits typical for navigation satellites, such as those used in the GPS network, NAVSTAR, etc. (the rate of anomalies increases by a factor ~20, and to a much smaller extent to anomalies in geostationary orbits, (they increase by a factor ~4. Direct and indirect connections between anomaly occurrence and geomagnetic perturbations are also discussed.

  19. Climatic anomalies in Northern South China Sea during 1986-1987 El Nino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Tegu (Academia Sinica, Beijing (China)); Zhou Qiang

    1990-05-01

    In this paper, the climatic anomalies in Northern South China Sea (NSCS) during 1986-1987 El Nino were analyzed according to meteorological and hydrographic observation data. The results showed that the most apparent anomalies were: (1) continuously weaker monsoon strength, (2) continuously much higher South China Sea High Pressure strength; (3) in 1987 only six typhoons occurred in NSCS (four less than normal), with the first typhoon occurring on 25 June, (about one month later than usual); (4) positive air temperature anomaly, negative annual precipitation and evaporation anomaly; (5) sea surface temperature and surface salinity anomaly was positive; (6) monthly mean sea level was 1 to 10cm lower than normal.

  20. Anomalous Radon Levels in Thermal Water as an Indicator of Seismic Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmazek, B.; Gregoric, A.; Vaupotic, J.; Kobal, I.

    2008-01-01

    Radon can be transported effectively from deep layers of the Earth to the surface by carrier gases and by water. This transport is affected by phenomena accompanying seismic events. If radon is therefore monitored shortly before or during an earthquake, at a thermal water spring, an anomaly, i. e. a sudden increase or decrease in radon level, may be observed. Thermal springs and ground waters in Slovenia have therefore been systematically surveyed for radon. The work presented here is a continuation of our previous radon monitoring related to seismic activity carried out on weekly analyses during 1981-82 in thermal waters of the Ljubljana basin. In this paper, we focus on radon anomalies in thermal springs at Hotavlje and Bled in the period from October 2005 to September 2007

  1. Optical spectral weight anomalies and strong correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toschi, A.; Capone, M.; Ortolani, M.; Calvani, P.; Lupi, S.; Castellani, C.

    2007-01-01

    The anomalous behavior observed in the optical spectral weight (W) of the cuprates provides valuable information about the physics of these compounds. Both the doping and the temperature dependences of W are hardly explained through conventional estimates based on the f-sum rule. By computing the optical conductivity of the doped Hubbard model with the Dynamical Mean Field Theory, we point out that the strong correlation plays a key role in determining the basic features of the observed anomalies: the proximity to a Mott insulating phase accounts simultaneously for the strong temperature dependence of W and for its zero temperature value

  2. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  3. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong

    2002-01-01

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  4. Toward Baseline Software Anomalies in NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layman, Lucas; Zelkowitz, Marvin; Basili, Victor; Nikora, Allen P.

    2012-01-01

    In this fast abstract, we provide preliminary findings an analysis of 14,500 spacecraft anomalies from unmanned NASA missions. We provide some baselines for the distributions of software vs. non-software anomalies in spaceflight systems, the risk ratings of software anomalies, and the corrective actions associated with software anomalies.

  5. Coronary Artery Anomalies in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Scansen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies represent a disease spectrum from incidental to life-threatening. Anomalies of coronary artery origin and course are well-recognized in human medicine, but have received limited attention in veterinary medicine. Coronary artery anomalies are best described in the dog, hamster, and cow though reports also exist in the horse and pig. The most well-known anomaly in veterinary medicine is anomalous coronary artery origin with a prepulmonary course in dogs, which limits treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis. A categorization scheme for coronary artery anomalies in animals is suggested, dividing these anomalies into those of major or minor clinical significance. A review of coronary artery development, anatomy, and reported anomalies in domesticated species is provided and four novel canine examples of anomalous coronary artery origin are described: an English bulldog with single left coronary ostium and a retroaortic right coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and transseptal left coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and absent left coronary artery with a prepulmonary paraconal interventricular branch and an interarterial circumflex branch; and a mixed-breed dog with tetralogy of Fallot and anomalous origin of all coronary branches from the brachiocephalic trunk. Coronary arterial fistulae are also described including a coronary cameral fistula in a llama cria and an English bulldog with coronary artery aneurysm and anomalous shunting vessels from the right coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk. These examples are provided with the intent to raise awareness and improve understanding of such defects.

  6. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  7. An Entropy-Based Network Anomaly Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Bereziński

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning and statistics. One of the data mining tasks is anomaly detection which is the analysis of large quantities of data to identify items, events or observations which do not conform to an expected pattern. Anomaly detection is applicable in a variety of domains, e.g., fraud detection, fault detection, system health monitoring but this article focuses on application of anomaly detection in the field of network intrusion detection.The main goal of the article is to prove that an entropy-based approach is suitable to detect modern botnet-like malware based on anomalous patterns in network. This aim is achieved by realization of the following points: (i preparation of a concept of original entropy-based network anomaly detection method, (ii implementation of the method, (iii preparation of original dataset, (iv evaluation of the method.

  8. Fusion and normalization to enhance anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, R.; Atkinson, G.; Antoniades, J.; Baumback, M.; Chester, D.; Edwards, J.; Goldstein, A.; Haas, D.; Henderson, S.; Liu, L.

    2009-05-01

    This study examines normalizing the imagery and the optimization metrics to enhance anomaly and change detection, respectively. The RX algorithm, the standard anomaly detector for hyperspectral imagery, more successfully extracts bright rather than dark man-made objects when applied to visible hyperspectral imagery. However, normalizing the imagery prior to applying the anomaly detector can help detect some of the problematic dark objects, but can also miss some bright objects. This study jointly fuses images of RX applied to normalized and unnormalized imagery and has a single decision surface. The technique was tested using imagery of commercial vehicles in urban environment gathered by a hyperspectral visible/near IR sensor mounted in an airborne platform. Combining detections first requires converting the detector output to a target probability. The observed anomaly detections were fitted with a linear combination of chi square distributions and these weights were used to help compute the target probability. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) quantitatively assessed the target detection performance. The target detection performance is highly variable depending on the relative number of candidate bright and dark targets and false alarms and controlled in this study by using vegetation and street line masks. The joint Boolean OR and AND operations also generate variable performance depending on the scene. The joint SUM operation provides a reasonable compromise between OR and AND operations and has good target detection performance. In addition, new transforms based on normalizing correlation coefficient and least squares generate new transforms related to canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and a normalized image regression (NIR). Transforms based on CCA and NIR performed better than the standard approaches. Only RX detection of the unnormalized of the difference imagery in change detection provides adequate change detection performance.

  9. Effective Tolman temperature induced by trace anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eune, Myungseok; Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae

    2017-01-01

    Despite the finiteness of stress tensor for a scalar field on the four-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole in the Israel-Hartle-Hawking vacuum, the Tolman temperature in thermal equilibrium is certainly divergent on the horizon due to the infinite blue-shift of the Hawking temperature. The origin of this conflict is due to the fact that the conventional Tolman temperature was based on the assumption of a traceless stress tensor, which is, however, incompatible with the presence of the trace anomaly responsible for the Hawking radiation. Here, we present an effective Tolman temperature which is compatible with the presence of the trace anomaly by using the modified Stefan-Boltzmann law. Eventually, the effective Tolman temperature turns out to be finite everywhere outside the horizon, and so an infinite blue-shift of the Hawking temperature at the event horizon does not appear any more. In particular, it is vanishing on the horizon, so that the equivalence principle is exactly recovered at the horizon. (orig.)

  10. Effective Tolman temperature induced by trace anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eune, Myungseok [Sangmyung University, Department of Civil Engineering, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Gim, Yongwan [Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sogang University, Research Institute for Basic Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wontae [Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Despite the finiteness of stress tensor for a scalar field on the four-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole in the Israel-Hartle-Hawking vacuum, the Tolman temperature in thermal equilibrium is certainly divergent on the horizon due to the infinite blue-shift of the Hawking temperature. The origin of this conflict is due to the fact that the conventional Tolman temperature was based on the assumption of a traceless stress tensor, which is, however, incompatible with the presence of the trace anomaly responsible for the Hawking radiation. Here, we present an effective Tolman temperature which is compatible with the presence of the trace anomaly by using the modified Stefan-Boltzmann law. Eventually, the effective Tolman temperature turns out to be finite everywhere outside the horizon, and so an infinite blue-shift of the Hawking temperature at the event horizon does not appear any more. In particular, it is vanishing on the horizon, so that the equivalence principle is exactly recovered at the horizon. (orig.)

  11. Dental Anomalies in Permanent Teeth after Trauma in Primary Dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Pasini, Stefania; Majorana, Alessandra

    This retrospective study aims to evaluate the prevalence of dental anomalies in permanent teeth as a result of a trauma concerning the predecessor primary teeth. A total of 241 records of children (118 males and 123 females, mean age 3.62 ± 1.40) affected by trauma on primary teeth were analyzed. All patients were recalled to evaluate the status of the permanent successor teeth by clinical and radiographic investigations. Out of 241 patients, 106 patients (for a total of 179 traumatized primary teeth) presented at the recall. Dental anomalies on successor permanent teeth were detected in 21 patients (19.8%), for a total of 26 teeth (14.5%) and 28 anomalies. Anomalies of the eruptive process were the most observed disturbances (60.7%), followed by enamel hypoplasia (25%) and white spots (14.3%). A higher percentage of anomalies on permanent teeth was observed when trauma occurred at an age less than 36 months (38.5% of cases). Intrusive and extrusive luxation were related with the most cases of clinical disturbances in the successor permanent teeth. The results of this study highlight the risk of dental anomalies after a trauma in primary dentition, especially in early-aged children and in case of intrusive luxation.

  12. Analysis of Renal Anomalies in VACTERL Association

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Bridget K.; Khromykh, Alina; Martinez, Ariel F.; Carney, Tyler; Hadley, Donald W.; Solomon, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    VACTERL association refers to a combination of congenital anomalies that can include: Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, Renal anomalies (typically structural renal anomalies), and Limb anomalies. We conducted a description of a case series to characterize renal findings in a cohort of patients with VACTERL association. Out of the overall cohort, 48 patients (with at least 3 component features of VACTERL and who had ab...

  13. Signal anomaly detection and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, V.M.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Gloeckler, O.

    1988-08-01

    As part of a comprehensive signal validation system, we have developed a signal anomaly detector, without specifically establishing the cause of the anomaly. A signal recorded from process instrumentation is said to have an anomaly, if during steady-state operation, the deviation in the level of the signal, its root-mean-square (RMS) value, or its statistical distribution changes by a preset value. This deviation could be an unacceptable increase or a decrease in the quantity being monitored. An anomaly in a signal may be characterized by wideband or single-frequency noise, bias error, pulse-type error, nonsymmetric behavior, or a change in the signal bandwidth. Various signatures can be easily computed from data samples and compared against specified threshold values. We want to point out that in real processes, pulses can appear with different time widths, and at different rates of change of the signal. Thus, in characterizing an anomaly as a pulse-type, the fastest pulse width is constrained by the signal sampling interval. For example, if a signal is sampled at 100 Hz, we will not be able to detect pulses occurring at kHz rates. Discussion with utility and Combustion Engineering personnel indicated that it is not practical to detect pulses having a narrow time width. 9 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Radiologic analysis of congenital limb anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hong Jun; Kim, Ok Hwa; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Nam Ae

    1994-01-01

    Congenital limb anomalies are manifested in various degree of severity and complexity bearing conclusion for description and nomenclature of each anomaly. We retrospectively analyzed the roentgenograms of congenital limb anomalies for the purpose of further understanding of the radiologic manifestations based on the embryonal defect and also to find the incidence of each anomaly. Total number of the patients was 89 with 137 anomalies. Recently the uniform system of classification for congenital anomalies of the upper limb was adopted by International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand (IFSSH), which were categorized as 7 classifications. We used the IFSSH classification with some modification as 5 classifications; failure of formation of parts, failure of differentiation of parts, duplications, overgrowth and undergrowth. The patients with upper limb anomalies were 65 out of 89(73%), lower limb were 21(24%), and both upper and lower limb anomalies were 3(4%). Failure of formation was seen in 18%, failure of differentiation 39%, duplications 39%, overgrowth 8%, and undergrowth in 12%. Thirty-five patients had more than one anomaly, and 14 patients had intergroup anomalies. The upper limb anomalies were more common than lower limb. Among the anomalies, failure of differentiation and duplications were the most common types of congenital limb anomalies. Patients with failure of formation, failure of differentiation, and undergrowth had intergroup association of anomalies, but duplication and overgrowth tended to be isolated anomalies

  15. The relationship of thermospheric density anomaly with electron temperature, small-scale FAC, and ion up-flow in the cusp region, as observed by CHAMP and DMSP satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Kervalishvili

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present in a statistical study a comparison of thermospheric mass density enhancements (ρrel with electron temperature (Te, small-scale field-aligned currents (SSFACs, and vertical ion velocity (Vz at high latitudes around noon magnetic local time (MLT. Satellite data from CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload and DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program sampling the Northern Hemisphere during the years 2002–2005 are used. In a first step we investigate the distribution of the measured quantities in a magnetic latitude (MLat versus MLT frame. All considered variables exhibit prominent peak amplitudes in the cusp region. A superposed epoch analysis was performed to examine causal relationship between the quantities. The occurrence of a thermospheric relative mass density anomaly, ρrel >1.2, in the cusp region is defining an event. The location of the density peak is taken as a reference latitude (Δ MLat = 0°. Interestingly, all the considered quantities, SSFACs, Te, and Vz are co-located with the density anomaly. The amplitudes of the peaks exhibit different characters of seasonal variation. The average relative density enhancement of the more prominent density peaks considered in this study amounts to 1.33 during all seasons. As expected, SSFACs are largest in summer with average amplitudes equal to 2.56 μA m−2, decaying to 2.00 μA m−2 in winter. The event related enhancements of Te and Vz are both largest in winter (Δ Te =730 K, Vz =136 m s−1 and smallest in summer (Δ Te = 377 K, Vz = 57 m s−1. Based on the similarity of the seasonal behaviour we suggest a close relationship between these two quantities. A correlation analysis supports a linear relation with a high coefficient greater than or equal to 0.93, irrespective of season. Our preferred explanation is that dayside reconnection fuels Joule heating of the thermosphere causing air upwelling and at the same time heating of the electron gas that pulls up ions

  16. Thermal capacity of ternary oxide YBa2Cu3O7-y in 300-1100 K interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpataya, G.A.; Ozerova, Z.P.; Kolnovalova, I.A.; Lazarev, V.B.; Shaplygin, I.S.

    1991-01-01

    Thermal capacity of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-y samples with different thermal prehistory is measured using a differential scanning calorimeter within 300-1100 K interval. It is shown that the combination of thermal capacity temperature dependence curves in these samples demonstrates reversibility and temperature limits of oxygen absorption and release processes with the corresponding changes of the formular index by oxygen from 6.85-6.90 to 6.35 and vice versa. Thermal capacity anomaly, corresponding to the reversible structural transition from orthorhombic to tetragonal phase with the simultaneous oxygen loss is observed within 630-1000 K interval

  17. Graph anomalies in cyber communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vander Wiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisk, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-11

    Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

  18. Multiple Visceral and Peritoneal Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Prabhu S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral and peritoneal anomalies are frequently encountered during cadaveric dissections and surgical procedures of abdomen. A thorough knowledge of the same is required for the success of diagnostic, surgical and radiological procedures of abdomen. We report multiple peritoneal and visceral anomalies noted during dissection classes for medical undergraduates. The anomalies were found in an adult male cadaver aged approximately 70 years. The right iliac fossa was empty due to the sub-hepatic position of caecum and appendix. The sigmoid colon formed an inverted “U” shaped loop above the sacral promontory in the median position. It entered the pelvis from the right side and descended along the lateral wall of the pelvis. The sigmoid mesocolon was attached obliquely to the posterior abdominal wall, just above the sacral promontory. Further there was a cysto-colic fold of peritoneum extending from the right colic flexure. We discuss the clinical significance of the variations.

  19. Some examples of a differential calorimeter use for low temperature thermal effects measurement; Quelques exemples d'utilisation d'un calorimetre differentiel a puissance compensee pour des mesures d'anomalies thermiques a basses temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochirol, L; Bonjour, E

    1967-07-01

    The principle of a differential calorimeter is briefly described. The apparatus allows a direct and continuous determination of the differential heat-capacity between a sample and a reference, in the range 20 to 600 deg. K approximately. Some examples concerning measurements at low temperatures of reversible or non reversible thermal effects are given. They show the possibilities of the apparatus and are connected with: - detection and measurements of thermal effects associated to structural transformations in elastomers at low temperatures, - measurements of Wigner energy released after neutron irradiations at 77 deg. K for: recrystallized pyro-graphites; high purity iron, aluminium. [French] On decrit brievement le principe d'un calorimetre differentiel qui permet la determination directe et continue de la difference de chaleur specifique apparente entre un echantillon et une reference, dans une gamme de temperatures s'etendant de 20 a 600 deg. K environ. On donne quelques exemples de mesure a basses temperatures d'effets thermiques reversibles ou non reversibles. Ils montrent les possibilites de l'appareillage et concernent: - la detection et la mesure d'effets thermiques associes a des transformations structurales dans des elastomeres a basse temperature, - la mesure du degagement d'energie Wigner apres des irradiations neutroniques a 77 deg. K dans: des pyrographites recristallises; du fer de haute purete et de l'aluminium. (auteurs)

  20. Anomalies in Flavour physics

    CERN Document Server

    Chrzaszcz, Marcin Jakub

    2015-01-01

    LHCb is measuring more and more deviations in electroweak penguin measurements, both in the angular observables (like P5') and the branching fractions. Furthermore, there are strong hints of lepton universality breaking in semileptonic decays. This talk aims to present the results of these measurements and the implications for new physics. A result of a global fit will be presented.

  1. Effect of anomalous transport coefficients on the thermal structure of the storm time auroral ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontheim, E.G.; Ong, R.S.B.; Roble, R.G.; Mayr, H.G.; Hoegy, W.H.; Baron, M.J.; Wickwar, V.B.

    1978-01-01

    By analyzing an observed storm time auroral electron temperature profile it is shown that anomalous transport effects strongly influence the thermal structure of the disturbed auroral ionosphere. Such anomalous transport effects are a consequence of plasma turbulence, the existence of which has been established by a large number of observations in the auroral ionosphere. The electron and composite ion energy equations are solved with anomalous electron thermal conductivity and parallel electrical resistivity coefficients. The solutions are parameterized with respect to a phenomenological altitude-dependent anomaly coefficient A and are compared with an observed storm time electron temperature profile above Chatanika. The calculated temperature profile for the classical case (A=1)disagrees considerably with the measured profile over most of the altitude range up to 450km. It is shown that an anomaly coefficient with a sharp peak of the order of 10 4 centered aroung the F 2 peak is consistent with observations

  2. Effects of Short-Term Thermal Alteration on Organic Matter in Experimentally-Heated Tagish Lake Observed by Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Nakato, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Nakamura, T.; Kebukawa, Y.; Maisano, J.; Colbert, M.; Martinez, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites exhibit a wide range of aqueous and thermal alteration characteristics, while some are known to demonstrate mineralogical and petrologic evidence of having been thermally metamorphosed after aqueous alteration. This group of meteorites are commonly referred as thermally met-amorphosed carbonaceous chondrites (TMCCs), and their reflectance spectra show resemblances to that of C-type asteroids which typically have low albedos. This suggests that the surfaces of the C-type asteroids are also composed of both hydrous and dehydrated minerals, and thus TMCCs are among the best samples that can be studied in laboratory to reveal the true nature of the C-type asteroids. Although TMCCs are usually meteorites that were previously categorized as CI and CM chondrites, they are not strictly CI/CM because they exhibit isotopic and petrographic characteristics that significantly deviate from typical CI/CM. More appropriately, they are called CI-like and/or CM-like chondrites. Typical examples of TMCCs include the C2-ung/CM2TIV Belgica (B)-7904 and Yamato (Y) 86720. Thermal alteration is virtually complete in these meteorites and thus they are considered typical end-members of TMCCs exhibiting complete dehydration of matrix phyllosilicates. The estimated heating conditions are 10 to 103 days at 700 C to 1 to 100 hours at 890 C, i.e. short-term heating induced by impact and/or solar radiation. While the petrology and chemistry of TMCCs have only recently been extensively characterized, we have just begun to study in detail their organic contents. In order to understand how short-term heating affects the maturity of insoluble organic matter (IOM) in hydrous chondrites, we investigated experimentally-heated Tagish Lake meteorite using Raman spectroscopy, as the chemical and bulk oxygen isotopic compositions of the matrix of the carbonate (CO3)-poor lithology of the Tagish Lake (hereafter Tag) meteorite bears similarities to the TMCCs.

  3. Supersymmetric regulators and supercurrent anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, P.; Poggio, E.C.; Schnitzer, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The supercurrent anomalies of the supercurrent deltasub(μ) of the supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in Wess-Zumino gauge are computed using the supersymmetric dimensional regulator of Siegel. It is shown that γsub(μ)deltasup(μ) = 0 and deltasub(μ)deltasup(μ) unequal 0 in agreement with an earlier calculation based on the Adler-Rosenberg method. The problem of exhibiting the chiral anomaly and a regulator for local supersymmetry suggests that the interpretation of dimensional reduction in component language is incomplete. (orig.)

  4. Anomalies, Beta Functions, and GUT's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda, Alfredo; Diaz-Cruz, J. L.; Rojas, Alma D.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of supersymmetric Grand Unified theories it is possible to extend the minimal Higgs sectors of the models by introducing high dimension (anomaly free) representations. For example, in the minimal SU(5) supersymmetric Grand Unified Model, this is done to obtain phenomenological viable fermion mass relations and/or to solve the doublet-triplet splitting problem. In this work we explore models with different anomaly free combinations of SU(5) representations motivated by the flavour problem as well as their effect on perturbative validity of the gauge coupling evolution.

  5. Review on possible gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Xavier E

    2005-01-01

    This is an updated introductory review of 2 possible gravitational anomalies that has attracted part of the Scientific community: the Allais effect that occur during solar eclipses, and the Pioneer 10 spacecraft anomaly, experimented also by Pioneer 11 and Ulysses spacecrafts. It seems that, to date, no satisfactory conventional explanation exist to these phenomena, and this suggests that possible new physics will be needed to account for them. The main purpose of this review is to announce 3 other new measurements that will be carried on during the 2005 solar eclipses in Panama and Colombia (Apr. 8) and in Portugal (Oct.15)

  6. Observation of non-chemical equilibrium effect on Ar-CO2-H2 thermal plasma model by changing pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mamun, Sharif Abdullah; Tanaka, Yasunori; Uesugi, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    The authors developed a two-dimensional one-temperature chemical non-equilibrium (1T-NCE) model of Ar-CO 2 -H 2 inductively coupled thermal plasmas (ICTP) to investigate the effect of pressure variation. The basic concept of one-temperature model is the assumption and treatment of the same energy conservation equation for electrons and heavy particles. The energy conservation equations consider reaction heat effects and energy transfer among the species produced as well as enthalpy flow resulting from diffusion. Assuming twenty two (22) different particles in this model and by solving mass conservation equations for each particle, considering diffusion, convection and net production terms resulting from hundred and ninety eight (198) chemical reactions, chemical non-equilibrium effects were taken into account. Transport and thermodynamic properties of Ar-CO 2 -H 2 thermal plasmas were self-consistently calculated using the first-order approximation of the Chapman-Enskog method. Finally results obtained at atmospheric pressure (760 Torr) and at reduced pressure (500, 300 Torr) were compared with results from one-temperature chemical equilibrium (1T-CE) model. And of course, this comparison supported discussion of chemical non-equilibrium effects in the inductively coupled thermal plasmas (ICTP).

  7. Residual generator for cardiovascular anomalies detection

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using observer-based approaches for cardiovascular anomalies detection and isolation. We consider a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system that can be written in a form of nonlinear state-space representation. We show that residuals that are sensitive to variations in some cardiovascular parameters and to abnormal opening and closure of the valves, can be generated. Since the whole state is not easily available for measurement, we propose to associate the residual generator to a robust extended kalman filter. Numerical results performed on synthetic data are provided.

  8. Structure and Transport Anomalies in Soft Colloids

    KAUST Repository

    Srivastava, Samanvaya

    2013-04-01

    Anomalous trends in nanoparticle correlation and motion are reported in soft nanoparticle suspensions using static and dynamic x-ray scattering measurements. Contrary to normal expectations, we find that particle-particle correlations decrease and particle dynamics become faster as volume fraction rises above a critical particle loading associated with overlap. Our observations bear many similarities to the cascade of structural and transport anomalies reported for complex, network forming molecular fluids such as water, and are argued to share similar physical origins. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  9. Hot Flow Anomaly formation by magnetic deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onsager, T.G.; Thomsen, M.F.; Winske, D.

    1990-01-01

    Hot Flow Anomalies (HFAs) are localized plasma structures observed in the solar wind and magnetosheath near the Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock. The authors present 1-D hybrid computer simulations illustrating a formation mechanism for HFAs in which the single, hot, ion population results from a spatial separation of two counterstreaming ion beams. The higher-density, cooler regions are dominated by the background (solar wind) ions, and the lower-density, hotter, internal regions are dominated by the beam ions. The spatial separation of the beam and background is caused by the deflection of the ions in large amplitude magnetic fields which are generated by ion/ion streaming instabilities

  10. Frequency of developmental dental anomalies in the Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttal, Kruthika S; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G; Bhargava, Puneet; Bathi, Renuka J

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the frequency of developmental dental anomalies in the Indian population. This prospective study was conducted over a period of 1 year and comprised both clinical and radiographic examinations in oral medicine and radiology outpatient department. Adult patients were screened for the presence of dental anomalies with appropriate radiographs. A comprehensive clinical examination was performed to detect hyperdontia, talon cusp, fused teeth, gemination, concrescence, hypodontia, dens invaginatus, dens evaginatus, macro- and microdontia and taurodontism. Patients with syndromes were not included in the study. Of the 20,182 patients screened, 350 had dental anomalies. Of these, 57.43% of anomalies occurred in male patients and 42.57% occurred in females. Hyperdontia, root dilaceration, peg-shaped laterals (microdontia), and hypodontia were more frequent compared to other dental anomalies of size and shape. Dental anomalies are clinically evident abnormalities. They may be the cause of various dental problems. Careful observation and appropriate investigations are required to diagnose the condition and institute treatment.

  11. Sharing AIS Related Anomalies (SARA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    78 6.3.7 SQL Versus NoSQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 6.4 Data Processing...43 6.1 Overview of SQL and NoSQL differences, from [56]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 A.1 Description of the ship anomaly upload use...constraints must be considered. These requirements, however, can only be defined when lower level implementation decisions, such as SQL versus NoSQL

  12. Covariant Gauss law commutator anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, G.V.; Trugenberger, C.A.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1990-01-01

    Using a (fixed-time) hamiltonian formalism we derive a covariant form for the anomaly in the commutator algebra of Gauss law generators for chiral fermions interacting with a dynamical non-abelian gauge field in 3+1 dimensions. (orig.)

  13. Gaugino-assisted anomaly mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kribs, Graham D.

    2001-01-01

    I present a model of supersymmetry breaking mediated through a small extra dimension. Standard model matter multiplets and a supersymmetry-breaking (or 'hidden') sector are confined to opposite four-dimensional boundaries while gauge multiplets live in the bulk. The hidden sector does not contain a singlet and the dominant contribution to gaugino masses is via anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Scalar masses get contributions from both anomaly mediation and a tiny hard breaking of supersymmetry by operators on the hidden-sector boundary. These operators contribute to scalar masses at one loop and in most of parameter space, their contribution dominates. Thus it is easy to make all squared scalar masses positive. As no additional fields or symmetries are required below the Planck scale, this is among the simplest working models of anomaly mediation. The gaugino spectrum is left untouched and the phenomenology of the model is roughly similar to anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking with a universal scalar mass added. Finally, the main differences in the spectrum between this model and other approaches are identified. This talk is based on work [1] done in collaboration with David E. Kaplan

  14. Who is afraid of anomalies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaraman, R.

    1990-01-01

    There are situations where gauge symmetry comes into unavoidable conflict with quantum theory. Such situations are examples of what are called 'Anomalies' in quantum field theory. In these cases, although some form of gauge symmetry is present at the classical level, the process of quantisation necessarily destroys that symmetry. How to consistently treat such cases and obtain their novel features is discussed. (author)

  15. Gaugino-Assisted Anomaly Mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, David Elazzar; Kribs, Graham D.

    2000-01-01

    We present a model of supersymmetry breaking mediated through a small extra dimension. Standard model matter multiplets and a supersymmetry-breaking (or ''hidden'') sector are confined to opposite four-dimensional boundaries while gauge multiplets live in the bulk. The hidden sector does not contain a singlet and the dominant contribution to gaugino masses is via anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Scalar masses get contributions from both anomaly mediation and a tiny hard breaking of supersymmetry by operators on the hidden-sector boundary. These operators contribute to scalar masses at one loop and in most of parameter space, their contribution dominates. Thus it is easy to make all squared scalar masses positive. As no additional fields or symmetries are required below the Planck scale, we consider this the simplest working model of anomaly mediation. The gaugino spectrum is left untouched and the phenomenology of the model is roughly similar to anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking with a universal scalar mass added. We identify the main differences in the spectrum between this model and other approaches. We also discuss mechanisms for generating the μ term and constraints on additional bulk fields. (author)

  16. Anomaly-specified virtual dimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Yu; Paylor, Drew; Chang, Chein-I.

    2013-09-01

    Virtual dimensionality (VD) has received considerable interest where VD is used to estimate the number of spectral distinct signatures, denoted by p. Unfortunately, no specific definition is provided by VD for what a spectrally distinct signature is. As a result, various types of spectral distinct signatures determine different values of VD. There is no one value-fit-all for VD. In order to address this issue this paper presents a new concept, referred to as anomaly-specified VD (AS-VD) which determines the number of anomalies of interest present in the data. Specifically, two types of anomaly detection algorithms are of particular interest, sample covariance matrix K-based anomaly detector developed by Reed and Yu, referred to as K-RXD and sample correlation matrix R-based RXD, referred to as R-RXD. Since K-RXD is only determined by 2nd order statistics compared to R-RXD which is specified by statistics of the first two orders including sample mean as the first order statistics, the values determined by K-RXD and R-RXD will be different. Experiments are conducted in comparison with widely used eigen-based approaches.

  17. Descendants of the Chiral Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Jackiw, R.

    2000-01-01

    Chern-Simons terms are well-known descendants of chiral anomalies, when the latter are presented as total derivatives. Here I explain that also Chern-Simons terms, when defined on a 3-manifold, may be expressed as total derivatives.

  18. Anomaly detection in diurnal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mata, F.; Zuraniewski, P.W.; Mandjes, M.; Mellia, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present methodological advances in anomaly detection tailored to discover abnormal traffic patterns under the presence of seasonal trends in data. In our setup we impose specific assumptions on the traffic type and nature; our study features VoIP call counts, for which several

  19. Dental anomalies in Didelphis albiventris (Mammalia, Marsupialia, Didelphidae from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amelia Chemisquy

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dental anomalies have been investigated and reported for most orders of mammals, including marsupials. Previous works in Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840 only described one kind of malformation or just a few observations from some collections, thus the type and presence of anomalies for this species was underestimated. The aim of this contribution is to describe and analyze several dental anomalies found in specimens of Didelphis albiventris from Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. Dental anomalies were classified in three categories: supernumerary or missing teeth, morphological anomalies in size and shape, and teeth in unusual positions. We found 32 individuals of D. albiventris with anomalies out of 393 analyzed specimens (8.14%, some specimens with more than one anomaly. A similar proportion of specimens from Argentina and Uruguay presented anomalies, while in specimens from Brazil anomalies were less common. Anomalies were more commonly found in the upper toothrow and in molars, being supernumerary teeth and molars with unusual crown-shape the most common ones. The percentage of specimens with anomalies found for D. albiventris is higher than previously reported for the species, and other Didelphimorphia. Inbreeding and limited gene flow do not appear as possible explanations for the elevated percentage of anomalies, especially due to the ecological characteristics of Didelphis albiventris. Developmental instability and fluctuating asymmetry could be some of the causes for the anomalies found in this species, mostly since the habitat used by D. albiventris tends to be unstable and disturbed. Dental anomalies were mostly found in areas of the toothrow where occlusion is relaxed or does not prevent teeth from interlocking during mastication, and consequently have no functional value.

  20. Effect of rapid thermal annealing observed by photoluminescence measurement in GaAs1-xN x layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousbih, F.; Bouzid, S.B.; Hamdouni, A.; Chtourou, R.; Harmand, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    A set of GaAs 1-x N x samples with small nitrogen content were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) measurements as function of irradiance in order to investigate the effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on photoluminescence (PL) properties. The analysis of PL spectra as function of irradiance and nitrogen content shows that the PL spectra associated to the GaAs 1- x N x layers are the result of the nitrogen localized state recombination. The results are examined as a consequence of a rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The variation of the emission band peak energy (E p ), at 10 K as a function of irradiance, is fitted by a theoretical model taking into account two types of nitrogen localized states. The variation of the PL intensity versus irradiance in the range from 1.59 to 159 W/cm 2 for different GaAs 1-x N x samples confirm that the PL spectra result from the nitrogen localized state recombination

  1. Using Lava Tube Skylight Thermal Emission Spectra to Determine Lava Composition on Io: Quantitative Constraints for Observations by Future Missions to the Jovian System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A. G.

    2008-12-01

    Deriving the composition of Io's dominant lavas (mafic or ultramafic?) is a major objective of the next missions to the jovian system. The best opportunities for making this determination are from observations of thermal emission from skylights, holes in the roof of a lava tube through which incandescent lava radiates, and Io thermal outbursts, where lava fountaining is taking place [1]. Allowing for lava cooling across the skylight, the expected thermal emission spectra from skylights of different sizes have been calculated for laminar and turbulent tube flow and for mafic and ultramafic composition lavas. The difference between the resulting mafic and ultramafic lava spectra has been quantified, as has the instrument sensitivity needed to acquire the necessary data to determine lava eruption temperature, both from Europa orbit and during an Io flyby. A skylight is an excellent target to observe lava that has cooled very little since eruption (California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. AGD is supported by a grant from the NASA OPR Program. References: [1] Davies, A. G., 1996, Icarus, 124, 45-61. [2] Keszthelyi, L., et al., 2006, JGS, 163, 253-264. [3] Davies, A. G., 2007, Volcanism on Io, Cambridge University Press. [4] Keszthelyi, L., et al., 2007, Icarus, 192, 491-502. [5] Davies, A. G., et al., 2006, Icarus, 184, 460-477.

  2. Dental anomalies in Didelphis albiventris (Mammalia, Marsupialia, Didelphidae) from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Chemisquy, M. Amelia; Martin, Gabriel M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dental anomalies have been investigated and reported for most orders of mammals, including marsupials. Previous works in Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840 only described one kind of malformation or just a few observations from some collections, thus the type and presence of anomalies for this species was underestimated. The aim of this contribution is to describe and analyze several dental anomalies found in specimens of Didelphis albiventris from Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. Dental...

  3. An Analysis of Ionospheric Thermal Ions Using a SIMION-based Forward Instrument Model: In Situ Observations of Vertical Thermal Ion Flows as Measured by the MICA Sounding Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, P. A.; Lynch, K. A.; Zettergren, M. D.; Hampton, D. L.; Fisher, L. E.; Powell, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The MICA sounding rocket launched on 19 Feb. 2012 into several discrete, localized arcs in the wake of a westward traveling surge. In situ and ground-based observations provide a measured response of the ionosphere to preflight and localized auroral drivers. In this presentation we focus on in situ measurements of the thermal ion distribution. We observe thermal ions flowing both up and down the auroral field line, with upflows concentrated in Alfvénic and downward current regions. The in situ data are compared with recent ionospheric modeling efforts (Zettergren et al., this session) which show structured patterns of ion upflow and downflow consistent with these observations. In the low-energy thermal plasma regime, instrument response to the measured thermal ion population is very sensitive to the presence of the instrument. The plasma is shifted and accelerated in the frame of the instrument due to flows, ram, and acceleration through the payload sheath. The energies associated with these processes are large compared to the thermal energy. Rigorous quantitative analysis of the instrument response is necessary to extract the plasma properties which describe the full 3D distribution function at the instrument aperture. We introduce an instrument model, developed in the commercial software package SIMION, to characterize instrument response at low energies. The instrument model provides important insight into how we would modify our instrument for future missions, including fine-tuning parameters such as the analyzer sweep curve, the geometry factor, and the aperture size. We use the results from the instrument model to develop a forward model, from which we can extract anisotropic ion temperatures, flows, and density of the thermal plasma at the aperture. Because this plasma has transited a sheath to reach the aperture, we must account for the acceleration due to the sheath. Modeling of this complex sheath is being conducted by co-author Fisher, using a PIC code

  4. Measurement of macroscopic plasma parameters with a radio experiment: Interpretation of the quasi-thermal noise spectrum observed in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, P.; Hoang, S.; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Steinberg, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    The ISEE-3 SBH radio receiver has provided the first systematic observations of the quasi-thermal (plasma waves) noise in the solar wind plasma. The theoretical interpretation of that noise involves the particle distribution function so that electric noise measurements with long antennas provide a fast and independent method of measuring plasma parameters: densities and temperatures of a two component (core and halo) electron distribution function have been obtained in that way. The polarization of that noise is frequency dependent and sensitive to the drift velocity of the electron population. Below the plasma frequency, there is evidence of a weak noise spectrum with spectral index -1 which is not yet accounted for by the theory. The theoretical treatment of the noise associated with the low energy (thermal) proton population shows that the moving electrical antenna radiates in the surrounding plasma by Carenkov emission which becomes predominant at the low frequencies, below about 0.1 F sub P.

  5. Focal skin defect, limb anomalies and microphthalmia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, K.E.; Andersson, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    We describe two unrelated female patients with congenital single focal skin defects, unilateral microphthalmia and limb anomalies. Growth and psychomotor development were normal and no brain malformation was detected. Although eye and limb anomalies are commonly associated, clinical anophthalmia and

  6. Mesotron Decays and the Role of Anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Bardeen, William A.

    2007-01-01

    Puzzles associated with Yukawa's mesotron theory of nuclear interactions led to the discovery of "anomalies" in quantum field theory. I will discuss some of the remarkable consequences of these anomalies in the physics of elementary particles.

  7. Needs for reactivity anomaly monitoring in CRBRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    Two general classifications of reactivity anomalies are defined and explicit design criteria and operational philosophy for an anomaly monitoring system for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor are presented. (JWR)

  8. Congenital anomalies of the male urethra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Terry L.; Han, Bokyung; Little, Brent P.

    2007-01-01

    The spectrum of congenital anomalies of the male urethra is presented. The embryologic basis of each anomaly, when known, is discussed. Clinical and imaging features of each entity are presented. (orig.)

  9. The prevalence of specific dental anomalies in a group of Saudi cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kharboush, Ghada H; Al-Balkhi, Khalid M; Al-Moammar, Khalid

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and distribution of dental anomalies in a group of Saudi subjects with cleft lip and palate (CLP), to examine potential sex-based associations of these anomalies, and to compare dental anomalies in Saudi subjects with CLP with published data from other population groups. This retrospective study involved the examination of pre-treatment records obtained from three CLP centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in February and March 2010. The pre-treatment records of 184 subjects with cleft lip and palate were identified and included in this study. Pre-treatment maxillary occlusal radiographs of the cleft region, panoramic radiographs, and orthodontic study models of subjects with CLP were analyzed for dental anomalies. Orthopantomographs and occlusal radiographs may not be reliable for the accurate evaluation of root malformation anomalies. A total of 265 dental anomalies were observed in the 184 study subjects. Hypodontia was observed most commonly (66.8%), followed by microdontia (45.6%), intra-oral ectopic eruption (12.5%), supernumerary teeth (12.5%), intra-nasal ectopic eruption (3.2), and macrodontia (3.2%). No gender difference in the prevalence of these anomalies was observed. Dental anomalies were common in Saudi subjects with CLP type. This will complicate the health care required for the CL/P subjects. This study was conducted to epidemiologically explore the prevalence of dental anomalies among Saudi Arabian subjects with CLP.

  10. Geophysical Anomalies and Earthquake Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    Finding anomalies is easy. Predicting earthquakes convincingly from such anomalies is far from easy. Why? Why have so many beautiful geophysical abnormalities not led to successful prediction strategies? What is earthquake prediction? By my definition it is convincing information that an earthquake of specified size is temporarily much more likely than usual in a specific region for a specified time interval. We know a lot about normal earthquake behavior, including locations where earthquake rates are higher than elsewhere, with estimable rates and size distributions. We know that earthquakes have power law size distributions over large areas, that they cluster in time and space, and that aftershocks follow with power-law dependence on time. These relationships justify prudent protective measures and scientific investigation. Earthquake prediction would justify exceptional temporary measures well beyond those normal prudent actions. Convincing earthquake prediction would result from methods that have demonstrated many successes with few false alarms. Predicting earthquakes convincingly is difficult for several profound reasons. First, earthquakes start in tiny volumes at inaccessible depth. The power law size dependence means that tiny unobservable ones are frequent almost everywhere and occasionally grow to larger size. Thus prediction of important earthquakes is not about nucleation, but about identifying the conditions for growth. Second, earthquakes are complex. They derive their energy from stress, which is perniciously hard to estimate or model because it is nearly singular at the margins of cracks and faults. Physical properties vary from place to place, so the preparatory processes certainly vary as well. Thus establishing the needed track record for validation is very difficult, especially for large events with immense interval times in any one location. Third, the anomalies are generally complex as well. Electromagnetic anomalies in particular require

  11. Praenatalt diagnosticeret hydronefrose og andre urologiske anomalier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Jørgensen, Troels Munch; Rittig, Søren

    2006-01-01

    By renal ultrasound examination, urological anomalies may be demonstrated in 1-2% of fetuses and in about 0.5% of newborns. Boys have about twice the frequency of girls. Surgical treatment is indicated in about one fourth of these urological anomalies. If all pregnant women in Denmark were to hav...... in cases of urological anomalies and guidelines for post-natal diagnosis, follow-up and treatment of these anomalies, especially hydronephrosis....

  12. REFRACTIVE ANOMALIES OF AMBLYOPIC CHILDREN WITH AND WITHOUT STRABISMUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Otašević

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Refractive anomalies occur when the ratio of the refraction ability and the eye length is distrurbed. Amblyopia isunderstood as dimness of vision without detectable lesions of the eye.The aim of the paper is to analyze refractive anomalies occurring in amblyopic children without of with strabismus. The cards of the children suffering from amblyopia and of five of more years of age have been singled out. The number of children obtained in that way is 243. Under special observation were bilateral and unilateral amblyopias and refractive anomalies in children both with and without strabismus. Out of 243 children there are 153 without strabismus (the majority of them reported for examination at the age of seven and 90 with strabismus (the majority of them reported at the age of five. In both the groups bilateral and unilateral amblyopia was registered so that the overall number of the observed amblyopic eyes was 369. In the children without strabismus we mostly found light amblyopia while in the froup of children with strabismus we found, in a great number, medium serious amblyopia while the presence of serious amblypia was also detected. As for refractive anomalies in both the groups of amblyopic children the most freqent were hypermetropic astigmatism and hypermetropia. Because of refractive anomalies as well as with strabismus with small angle, amblyopias are often discovered only when sharpness if vision is being checked; therefore, of great importance are regular systematic examinations of vision sharpness of younger children.

  13. Expanding the spectrum of human ganglionic eminence region anomalies on fetal magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righini, Andrea; Parazzini, Cecilia; Izzo, Giana [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Cesaretti, Claudia [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Medical Genetics Unit, Fondazione I.R.C.C.S. Ca' Granda, Milan (Italy); Conte, Giorgio [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Department of Health Sciences, Milan (Italy); Frassoni, Carolina; Inverardi, Francesca [Fondazione I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Neurologico ' ' C. Besta' ' , Clinical Epileptology and Experimental Neurophysiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Bulfamante, Gaetano; Avagliano, Laura [San Paolo Hospital, Division of Human Pathology, Milan (Italy); Rustico, Mariangela [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Prenatal Diagnosis, Milan (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Ganglionic eminence (GE) is a transient fetal brain structure that harvests a significant amount of precursors of cortical GABA-ergic interneurons. Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of GE anomalies (i.e., cavitations) have already been reported associated with severe micro-lissencephaly. The purpose of this report was to illustrate the MR imaging features of GE anomalies in conditions other than severe micro-lissencephalies. Among all the fetuses submitted to prenatal MR imaging at our center from 2005 to 2014, we collected eight cases with GE anomalies and only limited associated brain anomalies. The median gestational age at the time of MR imaging was 21 weeks ranging from 19 to 29 weeks. Two senior pediatric neuroradiologists categorized the anomalies of the GE region in two groups: group one showing cavitation in the GE region and group two showing enlarged GE region. For each fetal case, associated cranial anomalies were also reported. Five out of the eight cases were included in group one and three in group two. Besides the GE region abnormality, all eight cases had additional intracranial anomalies, such as mild partial callosal agenesis, vermian hypoplasia and rotation, cerebellar hypoplasia, ventriculomegaly, enlarged subarachnoid spaces, molar tooth malformation. Ultrasound generally detected most of the associated intracranial anomalies, prompting the MR investigation; on the contrary in none of the cases, GE anomalies had been detected by ultrasound. Our observation expands the spectrum of human GE anomalies, demonstrating that these may take place also without associated severe micro-lissencephalies. (orig.)

  14. Association of Dental Anomalies with Different Types of Malocclusions in Pretreatment Orthodontic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwijendra, K S; Parikh, Vishal; George, Soja Sara; Kukkunuru, Gururam Tej; Chowdary, Gali Nagarjuna

    2015-06-01

    The study is planned to correlate the existence of dental anomalies with different types of malocclusion as the occurrence of anomalies is common in malocclusion. The present study was conducted among 430 patients with different types of malocclusion as 161 patients having Class I, 203 with Class II, and 66 with Class III malocclusion. The age of the patients ranged from 12 to 15 years. Diagnosis was done on the basis of history, clinical, cephalometric, radiographs, and dental cast examination. The level of significance was set at P = 0.05. Most common anomaly was rotation of teeth (18.80%), followed by hypodontia (10.90%), and least occurring was gemination, fusion, talon's cusp, and dilacerations. 31.4% showed one dental anomaly, whereas 11.9% exhibited two or more dental anomalies. The highest mean value of all the dental anomalies was seen with severe cases of malocclusion and also significant differences were observed according to gender. The present study investigated various dental anomalies in relation to malocclusion. It was found that 31.4% showed one dental anomaly, whereas 11.9% exhibited two or more dental anomalies. Hence, careful prior investigation of dental anomalies is necessary for better orthodontic treatment planning to reduce the complications.

  15. Expanding the spectrum of human ganglionic eminence region anomalies on fetal magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righini, Andrea; Parazzini, Cecilia; Izzo, Giana; Cesaretti, Claudia; Conte, Giorgio; Frassoni, Carolina; Inverardi, Francesca; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Avagliano, Laura; Rustico, Mariangela

    2016-01-01

    Ganglionic eminence (GE) is a transient fetal brain structure that harvests a significant amount of precursors of cortical GABA-ergic interneurons. Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of GE anomalies (i.e., cavitations) have already been reported associated with severe micro-lissencephaly. The purpose of this report was to illustrate the MR imaging features of GE anomalies in conditions other than severe micro-lissencephalies. Among all the fetuses submitted to prenatal MR imaging at our center from 2005 to 2014, we collected eight cases with GE anomalies and only limited associated brain anomalies. The median gestational age at the time of MR imaging was 21 weeks ranging from 19 to 29 weeks. Two senior pediatric neuroradiologists categorized the anomalies of the GE region in two groups: group one showing cavitation in the GE region and group two showing enlarged GE region. For each fetal case, associated cranial anomalies were also reported. Five out of the eight cases were included in group one and three in group two. Besides the GE region abnormality, all eight cases had additional intracranial anomalies, such as mild partial callosal agenesis, vermian hypoplasia and rotation, cerebellar hypoplasia, ventriculomegaly, enlarged subarachnoid spaces, molar tooth malformation. Ultrasound generally detected most of the associated intracranial anomalies, prompting the MR investigation; on the contrary in none of the cases, GE anomalies had been detected by ultrasound. Our observation expands the spectrum of human GE anomalies, demonstrating that these may take place also without associated severe micro-lissencephalies. (orig.)

  16. Fetal renal anomalies : diagnosis, management, and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen-Elias, Henrica Antonia Maria

    2004-01-01

    In two to three percent of fetuses structural anomalies can be found with prenatal ultrasound investigation. Anomalies of the urinary tract account for 15 to 20% of these anomalies with a detection rate of approximately of 90%. In Chapter 2, 3 and 4 we present reference curves for size and growth

  17. Limb body wall complex: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panduranga Chikkannaiah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present autopsy findings of a case of limb body wall complex (LBWC. The fetus had encephalocele, genitourinary agenesis, skeletal anomalies and body wall defects. The rare finding in our case is the occurrence of both cranial and urogenital anomalies. The presence of complex anomalies in this fetus, supports embryonal dysplasia theory of pathogenesis for LBWC.

  18. Anomaly coefficients: Their calculation and congruences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braden, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    A new method for the calculation of anomaly coefficients is presented. For su(n) some explicit and general expressions are given for these. In particular, certain congruences are discovered and investigated among the leading anomaly coefficients. As an application of these congruences, the absence of global six-dimensional gauge anomalies is shown

  19. Holographic entanglement entropy and gravitational anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, A.; Detournay, S.; Iqbal, N.; Perlmutter, E.

    2014-01-01

    We study entanglement entropy in two-dimensional conformal field theories with a gravitational anomaly. In theories with gravity duals, this anomaly is holographically represented by a gravitational Chern-Simons term in the bulk action. We show that the anomaly broadens the Ryu-Takayanagi minimal

  20. The prevalence of congenital anomalies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolk, Helen; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester

    2010-01-01

    EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) is the network of population-based registers of congenital anomaly in Europe, with a common protocol and data quality review, covering 1.5 million annual births in 22 countries. EUROCAT recorded a total prevalence of major congenital anomali...

  1. Holomorphic anomaly and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codesido, Santiago; Mariño, Marcos

    2018-02-01

    We show that the all-orders WKB periods of one-dimensional quantum mechanical oscillators are governed by the refined holomorphic anomaly equations of topological string theory. We analyze in detail the double-well potential and the cubic and quartic oscillators, and we calculate the WKB expansion of their quantum free energies by using the direct integration of the anomaly equations. We reproduce in this way all known results about the quantum periods of these models, which we express in terms of modular forms on the WKB curve. As an application of our results, we study the large order behavior of the WKB expansion in the case of the double well, which displays the double factorial growth typical of string theory.

  2. Anomaly Monitoring Method for Key Components of Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a fault diagnosis method for key components of satellite, called Anomaly Monitoring Method (AMM, which is made up of state estimation based on Multivariate State Estimation Techniques (MSET and anomaly detection based on Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT. On the basis of analysis failure of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs, we divided the failure of LIBs into internal failure, external failure, and thermal runaway and selected electrolyte resistance (Re and the charge transfer resistance (Rct as the key parameters of state estimation. Then, through the actual in-orbit telemetry data of the key parameters of LIBs, we obtained the actual residual value (RX and healthy residual value (RL of LIBs based on the state estimation of MSET, and then, through the residual values (RX and RL of LIBs, we detected the anomaly states based on the anomaly detection of SPRT. Lastly, we conducted an example of AMM for LIBs, and, according to the results of AMM, we validated the feasibility and effectiveness of AMM by comparing it with the results of threshold detective method (TDM.

  3. Vitellointestinal Duct Anomalies in Infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Kadian, Yogender Singh; Verma, Anjali; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Kajal, Pardeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitellointestinal duct (VID) or omphalomesenteric duct anomalies are secondary to the persistence of the embryonic vitelline duct, which normally obliterates by weeks 5–9 of intrauterine life. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a total of 16 patients of symptomatic remnants of vitellointestinal duct from period of Jan 2009 to May 2013. Results: Male to female ratio (M:F) was 4.3:1 and mean age of presentation was 2 months and their mode of presentation was: paten...

  4. Bifid rib: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythili Krishnan Rathinasabapathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of the bifid rib was found during routine bone study. The distal part of the osseous rib bifurcated into two divisions with an angle of 60°. Both divisions had their own costal cartilage. Bifid rib is a congenital abnormality of the rib cage and usually asymptomatic, often discovered incidentally on chest X-ray. Effects of this neuroskeletal anomaly can include respiratory difficulties and neurological limitations.

  5. One-dimensional modeling of thermal energy produced in a seismic fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konga, Guy Pascal; Koumetio, Fidèle; Yemele, David; Olivier Djiogang, Francis

    2017-12-01

    Generally, one observes an anomaly of temperature before a big earthquake. In this paper, we established the expression of thermal energy produced by friction forces between the walls of a seismic fault while considering the dynamic of a one-dimensional spring-block model. It is noted that, before the rupture of a seismic fault, displacements are caused by microseisms. The curves of variation of this thermal energy with time show that, for oscillatory and aperiodic displacement, the thermal energy is accumulated in the same way. The study reveals that thermal energy as well as temperature increases abruptly after a certain amount of time. We suggest that the corresponding time is the start of the anomaly of temperature observed which can be considered as precursory effect of a big seism. We suggest that the thermal energy can heat gases and dilate rocks until they crack. The warm gases can then pass through the cracks towards the surface. The cracks created by thermal energy can also contribute to the rupture of the seismic fault. We also suggest that the theoretical model of thermal energy, produced in seismic fault, associated with a large quantity of experimental data may help in the prediction of earthquakes.

  6. Identification of radon anomalies in soil gas using decision trees and neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmazek, B.; Dzeroski, S.; Torkar, D.; Vaupotic, J.; Kobal, I.

    2010-01-01

    The time series of radon ( 222 Rn) concentration in soil gas at a fault, together with the environmental parameters, have been analysed applying two machine learning techniques: (I) decision trees and (II) neural networks, with the aim at identifying radon anomalies caused by seismic events and not simply ascribed to the effect of the environmental parameters. By applying neural networks, 10 radon anomalies were observed for 12 earthquakes, while with decision trees, the anomaly was found for every earthquake, but, undesirably, some anomalies appeared also during periods without earthquakes. (authors)

  7. Anomaly mediation in superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Joseph P. [Rudolf Peierls Center for Theoretical Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Balliol College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Palti, Eran [Centre de Physique Theoretique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau (France)

    2010-08-15

    We study anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking in type IIB string theory and use our results to test the supergravity formula for anomaly mediated gaugino masses. We compute 1-loop gaugino masses for models of D3-branes on orbifold singularities with 3-form fluxes by calculating the annulus correlator of 3-form flux and two gauginos in the zero momentum limit. Consistent with supergravity expectations we find both anomalous and running contributions to 1-loop gaugino masses. For background Neveu-Schwarz H-flux we find an exact match with the supergravity formula. For Ramond-Ramond flux there is an off-shell ambiguity that precludes a full matching. The anomaly mediated gaugino masses, while determined by the infrared spectrum, arise from an explicit sum over UV open string winding modes. We also calculate brane-to-brane tree-level gravity mediated gaugino masses and show that there are two contributions coming from the dilaton and from the twisted modes, which are suppressed by the full T{sup 6} volume and the untwisted T{sup 2} volume respectively. (orig.)

  8. Anomalies, conformal manifolds, and spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomis, Jaume [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Hsin, Po-Shen [Department of Physics, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Komargodski, Zohar; Schwimmer, Adam [Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Seiberg, Nathan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Theisen, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,14476 Golm (Germany)

    2016-03-04

    The two-point function of exactly marginal operators leads to a universal contribution to the trace anomaly in even dimensions. We study aspects of this trace anomaly, emphasizing its interpretation as a sigma model, whose target space M is the space of conformal field theories (a.k.a. the conformal manifold). When the underlying quantum field theory is supersymmetric, this sigma model has to be appropriately supersymmetrized. As examples, we consider in some detail N=(2,2) and N=(0,2) supersymmetric theories in d=2 and N=2 supersymmetric theories in d=4. This reasoning leads to new information about the conformal manifolds of these theories, for example, we show that the manifold is Kähler-Hodge and we further argue that it has vanishing Kähler class. For N=(2,2) theories in d=2 and N=2 theories in d=4 we also show that the relation between the sphere partition function and the Kähler potential of M follows immediately from the appropriate sigma models that we construct. Along the way we find several examples of potential trace anomalies that obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions, but can be ruled out by a more detailed analysis.

  9. Airborne detection of magnetic anomalies associated with soils on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, W.E.; Beard, L.P.; Helm, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Reconnaissance airborne geophysical data acquired over the 35,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), TN, show several magnetic anomalies over undisturbed areas mapped as Copper Ridge Dolomite (CRD). The anomalies of interest are most apparent in magnetic gradient maps where they exceed 0.06 nT/m and in some cases exceed 0.5 nT/m. Anomalies as large as 25nT are seen on maps. Some of the anomalies correlate with known or suspected karst, or with apparent conductivity anomalies calculated from electromagnetic data acquired contemporaneously with the magnetic data. Some of the anomalies have a strong correlation with topographic lows or closed depressions. Surface magnetic data have been acquired over some of these sites and have confirmed the existence of the anomalies. Ground inspections in the vicinity of several of the anomalies has not led to any discoveries of manmade surface materials of sufficient size to generate the observed anomalies. One would expect an anomaly of approximately 1 nT for a pickup truck from 200 ft altitude. Typical residual magnetic anomalies have magnitudes of 5--10 nT, and some are as large as 25nT. The absence of roads or other indications of culture (past or present) near the anomalies and the modeling of anomalies in data acquired with surface instruments indicate that man-made metallic objects are unlikely to be responsible for the anomaly. The authors show that observed anomalies in the CRD can reasonably be associated with thickening of the soil layer. The occurrence of the anomalies in areas where evidences of karstification are seen would follow because sediment deposition would occur in topographic lows. Linear groups of anomalies on the maps may be associated with fracture zones which were eroded more than adjacent rocks and were subsequently covered with a thicker blanket of sediment. This study indicates that airborne magnetic data may be of use in other sites where fracture zones or buried collapse structures are of interest

  10. Familial testicular cancer and developmental anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrus, D.; Kuba, D.; Chrenova, S.; Matoska, J.

    1997-01-01

    Familial occurrence belongs to factors followed in etiology and pathogenesis of testicular germ-cell tumors. Association with abnormal testicular development, or with other risk factors is relatively frequent. In our material 650 patients had been treated for testicular cancer in the period of 1981-1995. Familial occurrence was observed 7-times (1.08), most frequently in combination with cryptorchidism. Individual families were analyzed in details, including HLA typing. On basis of the observations the supplementation of initial examination of each patient with suspicious testicular cancer with detailed familiar history aimed also at the occurrence of urogenital developmental anomalies and tumors has been recommended. The knowledge about familial tumor occurrence in the first-degree relatives in combination with thorough testicular self-examination is being considered of great importance in the secondary prevention. (author)

  11. Anomalies and the Large N Limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, A.; Akant, L.

    2003-01-01

    Operator algebra aspects of the Large N limit of Bosonic vector models are analyzed. It is shown that the Large N limit is a classical theory, and a general method, based on defromation quatization, for calculating the Poisson algebra of dynamical observables in the limiting classical theory is presented. The Poisson algebra of O(N) invariant observables of Bosonic vector models is constructed in this approach, and is shown to be a central extension of the Symplectic Lie algebra. The relation of the central term to anomalies is discussed. A comparision of the classical theories obtained in the Large N limit and that in the small (ℎ/2π) limit is also presented

  12. A rare anomaly: Double right coronary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Çayan Akkoyun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies are rare anomalies. Theseare usually asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally.Double right coronary artery (RCA is a rare coronaryartery anomaly. Although there is controversy aboutidentification and classification of double RCA, it is oftena benign condition, but it can be complicated by atherosclerosisand can lead to serious conditions such asmyocardial infarction (MI and may be accompanied byother anomalies. In our case, double RCA were detectedin coronary angiography for acute anterior MI, and in thenext session successful percutaneous coronary interventionwas performed.Key words: Coronary anomaly, coronary angiography,coronary stenosis

  13. Environmental effects of solar thermal power systems: ecological observations during construction of the Barstow 10 MWe pilot STPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, F.B. (ed.)

    1981-10-01

    The environmental monitoring plan used consists of comparisons of a few meteorological variables and changes in the states of a limited array of indicator species or assemblages of species of plants and animals. Observations inlude aerial photography of the site, saltation meter measurements downwind from the site to measure fluxes of windblown sand, measurements of airborne particulates and atmospheric pollutants, and baseline temperature profiles made at two sites near the heliostat field to measure micro-meteorological patterns. Observations were made of annual plants both in off-field plots and in heliostat field, of shrubs, birds, rodents, reptiles, and sensitive species listed as rare or endangered. (LEW)

  14. Observations of NEAs at Arecibo Observatory and NASA's IRTF: Combining Radar and Thermal Measurements to Better Understand NEA Physical Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolan, Michael C.; Vervack, R. J.; Howell, E. S.; Magri, C.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Taylor, P. A.; Mueller, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Benner, L. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    As we sample ever-smaller sizes of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), we see an increasing variation in the range of physical properties. Radar experiments show a diverse range of shapes, surface features, and rotation states among NEAs. Infrared observations of these objects are equally varied,

  15. Congenital anomalies of the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Hans G; Belman, A Barry

    2014-01-01

    The upper urinary tract forms as a consequence of the reciprocal inductive signals between the metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud. A clue to the timing of events leading to an abnormality of the upper urinary tract can be the presence also of associated anomalies of internal genitalia since separation of these systems occurs at about the 10th week of gestation. Prenatal sonography has facilitated the detection of urological abnormalities presenting with hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis suggests obstruction, but by itself cannot be equated with it. Instead, further radiographic imaging is required to delineate anatomy and function. Now, moreover, non-surgical management of CAKUT should be considered whenever possible. Despite the widespread use of prenatal screening sonography that usually identifies the majority of congenital anomalies of the urinary tract, many children still present with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Regardless of the etiology for the presentation, the goal of management is preservation of renal function through mitigation of the risk for recurrent UTI and/or obstruction. In the past many children underwent surgical repair aimed at normalization of the appearance of the urinary tract. Today, management has evolved such that in most cases surgical reconstruction is performed only after a period of observation - with or without urinary prophylaxis. The opinions presented in this section are not espoused by all pediatric urologists but represent instead the practice that has evolved at Children's National Medical Center (Washington DC) based significantly on information obtained by nuclear renography, in addition to sonography and contrast cystography.

  16. A common understanding of several cosmic ray anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamdagni, N.

    1986-12-01

    A common understanding of several Cosmic ray anomalies points to a threshold in the electromagnetic shower development. Above the threshold, the electromagnetic shower frequently contains hadrons. This anomalous shower development can explain the muon signal from Cygnus X-3 observed by underground detectors. (author)

  17. Anomaly driven signatures of extra U(1)'s

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Ruchayskiy, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    Anomaly cancellation between different sectors of a theory may mediate new interactions between gauge bosons. Such interactions lead to observable effects both at precision laboratory experiments and at accelerators. Such experiments may reveal the presence of hidden sectors or hidden extra dimensions.

  18. Massive pions, anomalies and baryons in holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenech, O. [Departament de Fisica and IFAE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Panico, G., E-mail: panico@phys.ethz.c [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Wulzer, A. [Institut de Theorie des Phenomenes Physiques, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-03-01

    We consider a holographic model of QCD, obtained by a very simple modification of the original construction, which describes at the same time the pion mass, the QCD anomalies and the baryons as topological solitons. We study in detail its phenomenological implications in both the mesonic and baryonic sectors and compare with the observations.

  19. Anomalies of ultrasound attenuation in metals under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galkin, A.A.; Datsko, O.I.; Varyukhin, V.N.; Pilipenko, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation was measured in polycrystal specimens of molybdenum, chromium and zinc under hydrostatic pressure up to 6 kbar. On the plot of ultrasound attenuation dependence on the pressure in molybdenum the maxima are observed under the pressure of 2 kbar. The anomaly of ultrasound attenuation is shown to connect only with brittle-ductile transtion

  20. Radio Occultation Bending Angle Anomalies During Tropical Cyclones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Neubert, Torsten; Syndergaard, Stig

    signature in radio occultation profiles in the tropical tropopause layer. Using tropical cyclone best track database and data from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC), we show that the bending angle anomaly of a GPS radio occultation signal is typically larger...

  1. A method of inversion of satellite magnetic anomaly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of finding a first approximation to a crustal magnetization distribution from inversion of satellite magnetic anomaly data is described. Magnetization is expressed as a Fourier Series in a segment of spherical shell. Input to this procedure is an equivalent source representation of the observed anomaly field. Instability of the inversion occurs when high frequency noise is present in the input data, or when the series is carried to an excessively high wave number. Preliminary results are given for the United States and adjacent areas.

  2. Stillbirth and congenital anomalies in migrants in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Gundlund, Anna; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted

    2016-01-01

    The risk of giving birth to a stillborn child or a child with severe congenital anomaly is higher for women who have immigrated to Europe as compared to the majority population in the receiving country. The literature, however, reveals great differences between migrant groups, even within migrants...... disparity is a result of the socioeconomic disadvantage most migrants face. Consanguinity has been considered as another cause for the increased stillbirth risk and the high risk of congenital anomaly observed in many migrant groups. Utilization and quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth...

  3. Is there a high-y anomaly in antineutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, M.; Knobloch, J.; May, J.; Paar, H.P.; Palazzi, P.; Schlatter, D.; Steinberger, J.; Suter, H.; Wahl, H.; Williams, E.G.H.; Eisele, F.; Geweniger, C.; Kleinknecht, K.; Spahn, G.; Wilutzki, H.; Dorth, W.; Dydak, F.; Hepp, V.; Tittel, K.; Wotschack, J.; Bloch, P.; Devaux, B.; Grimm, M.; Maillard, J.; Peyaud, B.; Rander, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Turlay, R.; Navarria, F.L.

    1977-01-01

    We have analyzed data taken in the CERN narrow-band neutrino and antineutrino beams with regard to the ''high-y anomaly'' observed by previous experiments at Fermilab. At neutrino energies between 30 and 200 GeV, the anti ν and ν charged-current cross-section ratios and muon-inelasticity distributions disagree with the earlier results. In particular, there is no evidence for energy-dependent effects in the antineutrino data which constitute an important aspect of the alleged anomaly

  4. Microstructural and electron-structural anomalies and high temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, L.; Huang, Z.J.; Bechtold, J.; Hor, P.H.; Chu, C.W.; Xue, Y.Y.; Sun, Y.Y.; Meng, R.L.; Tao, Y.K.

    1989-01-01

    Microstructural and electron-structural anomalies have been found to exist in all HYSs by x-ray diffraction and positron annihilation experiments. These anomalies are induced either by doping near the metal-insulator phase boundary at 300 K, or by cooling the HTSs below T c . This has been taken as evidence for a charge transfer between the CuO 2 -layers and their surroundings, which suggests the importance of charge transfers and implies the importance of charge fluctuations in HTS. Several new compounds with the T'- and T*-phases have been found. Further implications of these observations are discussed

  5. Algorithms for Anomaly Detection - Lecture 1

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The concept of statistical anomalies, or outliers, has fascinated experimentalists since the earliest attempts to interpret data. We want to know why some data points don’t seem to belong with the others: perhaps we want to eliminate spurious or unrepresentative data from our model. Or, the anomalies themselves may be what we are interested in: an outlier could represent the symptom of a disease, an attack on a computer network, a scientific discovery, or even an unfaithful partner. We start with some general considerations, such as the relationship between clustering and anomaly detection, the choice between supervised and unsupervised methods, and the difference between global and local anomalies. Then we will survey the most representative anomaly detection algorithms, highlighting what kind of data each approach is best suited to, and discussing their limitations. We will finish with a discussion of the difficulties of anomaly detection in high-dimensional data and some new directions for anomaly detec...

  6. Algorithms for Anomaly Detection - Lecture 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The concept of statistical anomalies, or outliers, has fascinated experimentalists since the earliest attempts to interpret data. We want to know why some data points don’t seem to belong with the others: perhaps we want to eliminate spurious or unrepresentative data from our model. Or, the anomalies themselves may be what we are interested in: an outlier could represent the symptom of a disease, an attack on a computer network, a scientific discovery, or even an unfaithful partner. We start with some general considerations, such as the relationship between clustering and anomaly detection, the choice between supervised and unsupervised methods, and the difference between global and local anomalies. Then we will survey the most representative anomaly detection algorithms, highlighting what kind of data each approach is best suited to, and discussing their limitations. We will finish with a discussion of the difficulties of anomaly detection in high-dimensional data and some new directions for anomaly detec...

  7. 6d, Coulomb branch anomaly matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intriligator, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    6d QFTs are constrained by the analog of 't Hooft anomaly matching: all anomalies for global symmetries and metric backgrounds are constants of RG flows, and for all vacua in moduli spaces. We discuss an anomaly matching mechanism for 6d theories on their Coulomb branch. It is a global symmetry analog of Green-Schwarz-West-Sagnotti anomaly cancellation, and requires the apparent anomaly mismatch to be a perfect square, . Then Δ I 8 is cancelled by making X 4 an electric/magnetic source for the tensor multiplet, so background gauge field instantons yield charged strings. This requires the coefficients in X 4 to be integrally quantized. We illustrate this for theories. We also consider the SCFTs from N small E8 instantons, verifying that the recent result for its anomaly polynomial fits with the anomaly matching mechanism.

  8. Coronary anomalies: what the radiologist should know*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Priscilla Ornellas; Andrade, Joalbo; Monção, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Coronary anomalies comprise a diverse group of malformations, some of them asymptomatic with a benign course, and the others related to symptoms as chest pain and sudden death. Such anomalies may be classified as follows: 1) anomalies of origination and course; 2) anomalies of intrinsic coronary arterial anatomy; 3) anomalies of coronary termination. The origin and the proximal course of anomalous coronary arteries are the main prognostic factors, and interarterial course or a coronary artery is considered to be malignant due its association with increased risk of sudden death. Coronary computed tomography angiography has become the reference method for such an assessment as it detects not only anomalies in origination of these arteries, but also its course in relation to other mediastinal structures, which plays a relevant role in the definition of the therapeutic management. Finally, it is essential for radiologists to recognize and characterize such anomalies. PMID:26379322

  9. Gravity anomalies, seismic structure and geothermal history of the Central Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissling, E.; Mueller, S.; Werner, D.

    1983-01-01

    A new interpretation of the gravity anomalies in the Swiss Alps from the geothermal point of view is presented. The regional gravity distribution is partly caused by the topography of the crust-mantle boundary. Taking 0.5 g/cm 3 as the average density contrast between crust and mantle the Bouguer map of Switzerland contains a residual field which indicates a density anomaly in the mantle. This finding, results from seismic surface-wave investigations, and P-wave travel time observations can be interpreted as a consequence of the genesis of the Alps. A kinematic model of the Alps has been constructed simulating the mass displacements during the last 40 m.y. In this two-dimensional model the subsidence of cold mantle material is taken into consideration forming a ''lithospheric root''. Based on this kinematic model the temperature distribution in the moving medium can be calculated, taking into account the radiogenic heat sources. From the calculated temperatures field at present time the thermally induced density deviation can be determined. This density effect can explain the residual gravity field with a maximum value of about + 50 mgal

  10. WIMPless dark matter from non-Abelian hidden sectors with anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Shadmi, Yael

    2011-01-01

    In anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking models, superpartner masses are proportional to couplings squared. Their hidden sectors therefore naturally contain WIMPless dark matter, particles whose thermal relic abundance is guaranteed to be of the correct size, even though they are not weakly interacting massive particles. We study viable dark matter candidates in WIMPless anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking models with non-Abelian hidden sectors and highlight unusual possibilities that emerge in even the simplest models. In one example with a pure SU(N) hidden sector, stable hidden gluinos freeze out with the correct relic density, but have an extremely low, but natural, confinement scale, providing a framework for self-interacting dark matter. In another simple scenario, hidden gluinos freeze out and decay to visible Winos with the correct relic density, and hidden glueballs may either be stable, providing a natural framework for mixed cold-hot dark matter, or may decay, yielding astrophysical signals. Last, we present a model with light hidden pions that may be tested with improved constraints on the number of nonrelativistic degrees of freedom. All of these scenarios are defined by a small number of parameters, are consistent with gauge coupling unification, preserve the beautiful connection between the weak scale and the observed dark matter relic density, and are natural, with relatively light visible superpartners. We conclude with comments on interesting future directions.

  11. Beta decay anomalies and the 17-keV conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hime, A.

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in pursuance of the 17-keV neutrino are reviewed. Several different experiments found anomalies in β decay spectra which were consistently interpreted as evidence for a heavy neutrino. On the other hand, recent null results definitively rule out the existence of a 17-keV neutrino, as well as escaping criticisms applicable to earlier experiments. While missing links remain, it seems that any strong evidence for a 17-keV neutrino has vanished. Specifically, the anomalies observed in 35 S and 63 Ni spectra at Oxford can be reinterpreted in terms of electron scattering effects. In addition, the discrepancy amongst internal bremsstrahlung measurements has an instrumental origin, and recent results disfavour a 17-keV neutrino. Anomalies persist in the low energy region of the tritium spectrum which deserve further investigation

  12. The Recent Atlantic Cold Anomaly: Causes, Consequences, and Related Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josey, Simon A.; Hirschi, Joel J.-M.; Sinha, Bablu; Duchez, Aurélie; Grist, Jeremy P.; Marsh, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Cold ocean temperature anomalies have been observed in the mid- to high-latitude North Atlantic on interannual to centennial timescales. Most notably, a large region of persistently low surface temperatures accompanied by a sharp reduction in ocean heat content was evident in the subpolar gyre from the winter of 2013-2014 to 2016, and the presence of this feature at a time of pervasive warming elsewhere has stimulated considerable debate. Here, we review the role of air-sea interaction and ocean processes in generating this cold anomaly and place it in a longer-term context. We also discuss the potential impacts of surface temperature anomalies for the atmosphere, including the North Atlantic Oscillation and European heat waves; contrast the behavior of the Atlantic with the extreme warm surface event that occurred in the North Pacific over a similar timescale; and consider the possibility that these events represent a response to a change in atmospheric planetary wave forcing.

  13. Analysis of pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies before the global M = 7.0+ earthquakes in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Peng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies that occurred before the global M = 7.0+ earthquakes in 2010 are investigated using the total electron content (TEC from the global ionosphere map (GIM. We analyze the possible causes of the ionospheric anomalies based on the space environment and magnetic field status. Results show that some anomalies are related to the earthquakes. By analyzing the time of occurrence, duration, and spatial distribution of these ionospheric anomalies, a number of new conclusions are drawn, as follows: earthquake-related ionospheric anomalies are not bound to appear; both positive and negative anomalies are likely to occur; and the earthquake-related ionospheric anomalies discussed in the current study occurred 0–2 days before the associated earthquakes and in the afternoon to sunset (i.e. between 12:00 and 20:00 local time. Pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies occur mainly in areas near the epicenter. However, the maximum affected area in the ionosphere does not coincide with the vertical projection of the epicenter of the subsequent earthquake. The directions deviating from the epicenters do not follow a fixed rule. The corresponding ionospheric effects can also be observed in the magnetically conjugated region. However, the probability of the anomalies appearance and extent of the anomalies in the magnetically conjugated region are smaller than the anomalies near the epicenter. Deep-focus earthquakes may also exhibit very significant pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies.

  14. Multi-method, multi-scale geophysical observations in the Obsidian Pool Thermal Area, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, W. S.; Carr, B.; Pasquet, S.; Sims, K. W. W.; Dickey, K.

    2016-12-01

    Despite the prominence of Yellowstone as the world's most active hydrothermal province, relatively little is known about the plumbing systems that link deeper hydrothermal fluids to the charismatic hot springs, geysers and mud pots at the surface. We present the results of a multi-method, multi-scale geophysical investigation of the Obsidian Pool Thermal Area (OPTA) in Yellowstone National Park. OPTA hosts acid-sulfate hot springs and mud pots with relatively low pH. We present the results of seismic refraction, electrical resistivity, time-domain EM (TEM), soil conductivity meter (EMI), and GPR data acquired in July 2016. There is a strong contrast in physical properties in the upper 50 m of the subsurface between the low-lying hydrothermal area and surrounding hills: the hydrothermal area has much lower seismic velocities ( 1 km/s vs 3 km/s) and electrical resistivity ( 20 ohm-m vs 300 ohm-m). A prominent zone of very low resistivity (<10 ohm-m) exists at about 20 m depth beneath all hydrothermal features. Poisson's ratio, calculated from P-wave refraction tomography and surface wave inversions, shows low values beneath the "frying pan," where gas is emerging in small fumaroles, suggesting that Poisson's ratio is an effective "gas detector" in hydrothermal areas. Near-surface resistivity mapped from EMI shows a strong correlation with hydrothermal areas previously mapped by heat flow, with areas of high heat flow generally having low resistivity near the surface. Two exceptions are (1) the "frying pan," which shows a central area of high resistivity (corresponding to escaping gas) surrounding by a halo of low resistivity, and (2) a broad area of low resistivity connecting the hydrothermal centers to the lake, which may be clay deposits. TEM data penetrate up to 200 m in depth and suggest that a reservoir of hydrothermal fluids may underlie the entire area, including beneath the forested hills, at depths greater than 100 m, but that they rise toward the surface in

  15. Seasonal and Non-Seasonal Variations of Jupiter's Atmosphere from Observations of Thermal Emission, 1994-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, G.; Fletcher, L.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Greathouse, T.; Fisher, B.; Greco, J.; Wakefield, L.; Snead, E.; Boydstun, K.; Simon-Miller, A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed mid-infrared images of Jupiter's thermal emission, covering approx.1.5 Jovian years, acquired in discrete filters between 7.8 and 24.5 microns. The behavior of stratospheric (approx.10-mbar) and tropospheric (approx.100-400 mbar) temperatures is generally consistent with predictions of seasonal variability, with differences between 100-mbar temperatures +/-50-60deg from the equator on the order of +/-2. Removing this effect, there appear to be long-term quasi-periodic variability of tropospheric temperatures, whose amplitude, phase and period depend on latitude. The behavior of temperatures in the Equatorial Zone (EZ) suggests a approx.4-6-year period with amplitude of about +/-1-1.5 K in temperature. At mid-latitudes, the periodicity is more distinct with amplitudes around +/-1.5-2.5 K and 4-8 year periods. The 4.2-year variation of stratospheric temperatures known as the quasiquadrennial oscillation or "QQO" (Leovy et al. 1991, Nature 354, 380) continued during this period. There were no variations of zonal mean temperatures associated with any of the "global upheaval" events that have produced dramatic changes of jupiter's visible appearance and cloud cover, although there are colder discrete regions associated with updrafts, e.g. the early stages of the re-darkening ("revival") of the South Equatorial Belt (SEB) in late 2010. On the other hand increases in the visible albedos ("fades") of belts are accompanied by increases in the thickness of a 700-mbar cloud layer (most likely NH3 ice) and clouds at higher pressures, together with the mixing ratio of NH3 gas near 400 mbar (above its condensation level). These quantities decrease during re-darkening ("revival") episodes, during which we note discrete features that are exceptions to the general correlation between dark albedos and minimal cloudiness. In contrast to all these changes, the meridional distribution of the 240-mbar para-H2 fraction appears to be invariant in time.

  16. On observation of the downconversion mechanism in Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped tellurite glass using thermal and optical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, M.S.; Santos, F.A. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologias, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Yukimitu, K.; Moraes, J.C.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Departamento de Física e Química, Av. Brasil, 56, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Nunes, L.A.O. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 369, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Andrade, L.H.C. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Óptica e Fototérmica, Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Cidade Universitária de Dourados, CP 351, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Lima, S.M., E-mail: smlima@uems.br [Grupo de Espectroscopia Óptica e Fototérmica, Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Cidade Universitária de Dourados, CP 351, Dourados, MS (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    In this work we report the observed downconversion (DC) mechanism in Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+}-codoped tellurite glasses (in mol%, 80TeO{sub 2}–10Li{sub 2}O–10TiO{sub 2}). The samples were synthesized by the conventional melt-quenching method and then studied using optical spectroscopy and thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS). These characterizations enabled investigation of the radiative and nonradiative processes involved in energy transfer from erbium to ytterbium. The visible Er{sup 3+} fluorescence intensities decreased as a function of the Yb{sup 3+} concentration, and there was a corresponding increase in the ytterbium emission at around 980 nm. Simultaneously, there was a reduction in the heat-generated due nonradiative decays (∼21%) when ytterbium was added. This temperature change was measured by TLS measurements and the results corroborate with the indicated by spectroscopic interpretation. - Highlights: • Energy transfer from erbium to ytterbium in tellurite glass. • ∼56% of cross-relaxation efficiency from Er{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+}. • Downconversion effect in tellurite glasses. • Downconversion effect observation by thermal lens spectroscopy.

  17. Observation of ion confining potential enhancement due to thermal barrier potential formation and its scaling law in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Teruji; Nakashima, Yousuke; Foote, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    In the tandem mirror GAMMA 10, (i) the enhancement of the ion confining potential, φ c , only during the period of the thermal barrier potential φ b -formation, has been observed first by using not only end-loss-analysers (ELA's) of GAMMA 10 but an end-loss-ion-spectrometer (ELIS) installed from TMX-U. This results in strong end-loss-ion plugging with increased central cell density. (ii) The first experimental observation of the φ c vs φ b -scaling law is obtained, where φ c increases with φ b . This scaling law is consistently interpreted by Cohen's theories of the weak-ECH and the strong-ECH in the plug region. (iii) Good agreement of the plug potential measured with the ELA's and the ELIS is achieved. (author)

  18. ANALYSIS OF CORONAL RAIN OBSERVED BY IRIS , HINODE /SOT, AND SDO /AIA: TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS, KINEMATICS, AND THERMAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohutova, P.; Verwichte, E., E-mail: p.kohutova@warwick.ac.uk [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-10

    Coronal rain composed of cool plasma condensations falling from coronal heights along magnetic field lines is a phenomenon occurring mainly in active region coronal loops. Recent high-resolution observations have shown that coronal rain is much more common than previously thought, suggesting its important role in the chromosphere-corona mass cycle. We present the analysis of MHD oscillations and kinematics of the coronal rain observed in chromospheric and transition region lines by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) , the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), and the Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). Two different regimes of transverse oscillations traced by the rain are detected: small-scale persistent oscillations driven by a continuously operating process and localized large-scale oscillations excited by a transient mechanism. The plasma condensations are found to move with speeds ranging from few km s{sup −1} up to 180 km s{sup −1} and with accelerations largely below the free-fall rate, likely explained by pressure effects and the ponderomotive force resulting from the loop oscillations. The observed evolution of the emission in individual SDO /AIA bandpasses is found to exhibit clear signatures of a gradual cooling of the plasma at the loop top. We determine the temperature evolution of the coronal loop plasma using regularized inversion to recover the differential emission measure (DEM) and by forward modeling the emission intensities in the SDO /AIA bandpasses using a two-component synthetic DEM model. The inferred evolution of the temperature and density of the plasma near the apex is consistent with the limit cycle model and suggests the loop is going through a sequence of periodically repeating heating-condensation cycles.

  19. A comparison of the predicted and observed reaction rates of various neutron detectors in a thermal reactor spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardiman, J.P.; Maunders, E.J.

    1963-08-01

    A number of the detectors commonly used in integral neutron spectrum measurements have been irradiated in the pitch moderator position of a Calder Hall lattice where the detailed energy spectrum is known from time of flight measurements. Predicted and observed reaction rates are generally in good agreement although they are brought into better agreement by a small modification to the spectrum. The predicted cadmium ratios are quite sensitive to the value adopted for the effective cadmium cut off energy, values of which were determined for various detectors using the Ferranti Mercury computer. The values varied over a wide range, although in every case only 40 mil. cadmium filters were used. (author)

  20. Estimating the top altitude of optically thick ice clouds from thermal infrared satellite observations using CALIPSO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Yost, Chris R.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan

    2008-06-01

    The difference between cloud-top altitude Z top and infrared effective radiating height Z eff for optically thick ice clouds is examined using April 2007 data taken by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For even days, the difference ΔZ between CALIPSO Z top and MODIS Z eff is 1.58 +/- 1.26 km. The linear fit between Z top and Z eff , applied to odd-day data, yields a difference of 0.03 +/- 1.21 km and can be used to estimate Z top from any infrared-based Z eff for thick ice clouds. Random errors appear to be due primarily to variations in cloud ice-water content (IWC). Radiative transfer calculations show that ΔZ corresponds to an optical depth of ~1, which based on observed ice-particle sizes yields an average cloud-top IWC of ~0.015 gm-3, a value consistent with in situ measurements. The analysis indicates potential for deriving cloud-top IWC using dual-satellite data.

  1. Predicting yield-stress anomalies in L12 alloys: Ni3Ge-Fe3Ge pseudo-binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.B.; Johnson, D.D.; Smirnov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    The L1 2 -based pseudo-binary (Ni 1-c Fe c ) 3 Ge is an ideal system to study yield-strength anomaly and its origin as it has a solid-solution phase vs. c and Ni 3 Ge exhibits an anomaly while Fe 3 Ge does not. Using two ab initio electronic-structure techniques, we calculate the planar-fault energies on the γ-surface, i.e., antiphase boundaries (APB) and stacking faults, both complex and superlattice intrinsic (SISF), for (Ni 1-c Fe c ) 3 Ge as a function of c. Generally, we use the fault energies combined with elasticity theory to predict occurrence/loss of the yield-strength anomaly and show that the loss of anomaly occurs due to APB(1 1 1)-to-SISF(1 1 1) instability. Assessing the stability of APB(1 1 1) on the γ-surface within linear elasticity theory, we predict the transition from anomalous to normal temperature dependence of yield strength for c ∼≥ 0.35 (or 26 at.% Fe), as is observed, after which type-II, rather than type-I, dissociation is energetically favorable. Hence, first-principles calculations can predict reliably the existence/loss of anomalous yield-strength. Finally, we show that (0 0 1) and (1 1 1) APB energies of the binaries and pseudo-binaries agree quantitatively with measured values when chemical antisite disorder, intrinsic to the samples characterized, is included, whereas they are too large by a factor of two in perfect L1 2 . We investigate three types of disorder: thermal and off-stoichiometric antisites, as well as chemical disorder vs. Fe-content in pseudo-binaries

  2. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun

    2003-01-01

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review

  3. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review.

  4. Vertebral column anomalies in Indo-Pacific and Atlantic humpback dolphins Sousa spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Caroline R; Wang, John Y

    2016-08-09

    Conspicuous vertebral column abnormalities in humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) were documented for the first time during 3 photo-identification field studies of small populations in Taiwan, Senegal and Angola. Seven Taiwanese humpback dolphins S. chinensis taiwanensis with vertebral column anomalies (lordosis, kyphosis or scoliosis) were identified, along with 2 possible cases of vertebral osteomyelitis. There was evidence from several individuals photographed over consecutive years that the anomalies became more pronounced with age. Three Atlantic humpback dolphins S. teuszii were observed with axial deviations of the vertebral column (lordosis and kyphosis). Another possible case was identified in a calf, and 2 further animals were photographed with dorsal indents potentially indicative of anomalies. Vertebral column anomalies of humpback dolphins were predominantly evident in the lumbo-caudal region, but one Atlantic humpback dolphin had an anomaly in the cervico-thoracic region. Lordosis and kyphosis occurred simultaneously in several individuals. Apart from the described anomalies, all dolphins appeared in good health and were not obviously underweight or noticeably compromised in swim speed. This study presents the first descriptions of vertebral column anomalies in the genus Sousa. The causative factors for the anomalies were unknown in every case and are potentially diverse. Whether these anomalies result in reduced fitness of individuals or populations merits attention, as both the Taiwanese and Atlantic humpback dolphin are species of high conservation concern.

  5. Congenital anomalies among live births in a polluted area. A ten-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianicolo Emilio Antonio Luca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital anomalies and their primary prevention are a crucial public health issue. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of congenital anomalies in Brindisi, a city in southeastern Italy at high risk of environmental crisis. Methods This research concerned newborns up to 28 days of age, born between 2001 and 2010 to mothers resident in Brindisi and discharged with a diagnosis of congenital anomaly. We classified cases according to the coding system adopted by the European Network for the Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT. Prevalence rates of congenital anomalies in Brindisi were compared with those reported by EUROCAT. Logistic regression models were adapted to evaluate the association between congenital anomalies and municipality of residence of the mother during pregnancy. Results Out of 8,503 newborns we recorded 194 subjects with congenital anomalies (228.2/10,000 total births, 1.2 times higher than the one reported by the EUROCAT pool of registries. We observed 83 subjects with congenital heart diseases with an excess of 49.1%. Odds Ratios for congenital heart diseases significantly increased for newborns to mothers resident in Brindisi (OR 1.75 CI 95% 1.30-2.35. Conclusions Our findings indicated an increased prevalence of Congenital Anomalies (especially congenital heart diseases in the city of Brindisi. More research is needed in order to analyze the role of factors potentially involved in the causation of congenital anomalies.

  6. Characteristics of Total Electron Content (TEC) observed from a chain of stations near the northern crest of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) along 88.5°E meridian in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, K. S.; Das, A.; Ray, S.; Paul, A.

    2016-01-01

    The equatorial ionosphere presents some of the highest TEC values in the world coupled with observations of periodic structures. Total Electron Content (TEC) and scintillation data were analyzed from a chain of stations Calcutta (22.58°N, 88.38°E geographic; 32°N magnetic dip), Baharampore (24.09°N, 88.25°E geographic; 35°N magnetic dip) and Farakka (24.79°N, 87.89°E geographic; 36.04°N magnetic dip) situated almost same meridian (88.5°E) during September 2011 and March-April 2012 for elevation greater than 20° so that the ionosphere can be tracked from the 15.50°N south of Calcutta to 31.80°N north of Farakka. Periodic variation of TEC was noticed before TEC bite out, predominantly within a particular latitudinal swath (19°N ‒26°N) along 88.5°E meridian. No periodic structures were observed over the magnetic equator during the observation period on ionosonde records from the magnetic equator station Trivandrum and COSMIC, GRACE and C/NOFS electron density measurements. The present paper reports, perhaps for the first time from the Indian longitude sector, confinement of such periodic structures in TEC primarily within a latitude swath of 19.00-26.00 °N almost along the same longitude of 88.5 °E.

  7. A variant of the anomaly initialisation approach for global climate forecast models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Danila; Guemas, Virginie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; Hawkins, Ed; Nichols, Nancy; Carrassi, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    This work presents a refined method of anomaly initialisation (AI) applied to the ocean and sea ice components of the global climate forecast model EC-Earth, with the following particularities: - the use of a weight to the anomalies, in order to avoid the risk of introducing too big anomalies recorded in the observed state, whose amplitude does not fit the range of the internal variability generated by the model. - the AI of the temperature and density ocean state variables instead of the temperature and salinity. Results show that the use of such refinements improve the skill over the Arctic region, part of the North and South Atlantic, part of the North and South Pacific and the Mediterranean Sea. In the Tropical Pacific the full field initialised experiment performs better. This is probably due to a displacement of the observed anomalies caused by the use of the AI technique. Furthermore, preliminary results of an anomaly nudging experiment are discussed.

  8. Demeter high resolution observations of the ionospheric thermal plasma response to magnetospheric energy input during the magnetic storm of November 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution Demeter plasma and wave observations were available during one of the geomagnetic storms of November 2004 when the ionospheric footprint of the plasmasphere was pushed below 64 degrees in the midnight sector. We report here onboard observations of thermal/suprathermal plasma and HF electric field variations with a temporal resolution of 0.4 s, which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 3 km. Local perturbations of the plasma parameters at the altitude of 730 km are analysed with respect to the variation of the field-aligned currents, electron and proton precipitation and large-scale electric fields, measured in-situ by Demeter and by remote optical methods from the IMAGE/Polar satellites.

    Flow monitoring in the 21:00 and 24:00 MLT sectors during storm conditions reveals two distinct regions of O+ outflow, i.e. the region of the field-aligned currents, which often comprises few layers of opposite currents, and the region of velocity reversal toward dusk at sub-auroral latitudes. Average upward O+ velocities are identical in both local time sectors and vary between 200 and 450 m s−1, with an exception of a few cases of higher speed (~1000 m s−1 outflow, observed in the midnight sector. Each individual outflow event does not indicate any heating process of the thermal O+ population. On the contrary, the temperature of the O+, outflowing from auroral latitudes, is found to be even colder than that of the ambient ion plasma. The only ion population which is observed to be involved in the heating is the O+ with energies a few times higher than the thermal energy. Such a population was detected at sub-auroral latitudes in the region of duskward flow reversal. Its temperature raises up to a few eV inside the layer of sheared velocity.

    A deep decrease in the H+ density at heights and latitudes, where, according to the IRI model

  9. Demeter high resolution observations of the ionospheric thermal plasma response to magnetospheric energy input during the magnetic storm of November 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution Demeter plasma and wave observations were available during one of the geomagnetic storms of November 2004 when the ionospheric footprint of the plasmasphere was pushed below 64 degrees in the midnight sector. We report here onboard observations of thermal/suprathermal plasma and HF electric field variations with a temporal resolution of 0.4 s, which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 3 km. Local perturbations of the plasma parameters at the altitude of 730 km are analysed with respect to the variation of the field-aligned currents, electron and proton precipitation and large-scale electric fields, measured in-situ by Demeter and by remote optical methods from the IMAGE/Polar satellites. Flow monitoring in the 21:00 and 24:00 MLT sectors during storm conditions reveals two distinct regions of O+ outflow, i.e. the region of the field-aligned currents, which often comprises few layers of opposite currents, and the region of velocity reversal toward dusk at sub-auroral latitudes. Average upward O+ velocities are identical in both local time sectors and vary between 200 and 450 m s−1, with an exception of a few cases of higher speed (~1000 m s−1 outflow, observed in the midnight sector. Each individual outflow event does not indicate any heating process of the thermal O+ population. On the contrary, the temperature of the O+, outflowing from auroral latitudes, is found to be even colder than that of the ambient ion plasma. The only ion population which is observed to be involved in the heating is the O+ with energies a few times higher than the thermal energy. Such a population was detected at sub-auroral latitudes in the region of duskward flow reversal. Its temperature raises up to a few eV inside the layer of sheared velocity. A deep decrease in the H+ density at heights and latitudes, where, according to the IRI model, these ions are expected to comprise ~50% of the positive charge, indicates that the thermospheric balance

  10. Cryosphere: a kingdom of anomalies and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Vladimir; Gennadinik, Viktor; Kulmala, Markku; Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2018-05-01

    The cryosphere of the Earth overlaps with the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere over vast areas with temperatures below 0 °C and pronounced H2O phase changes. In spite of its strong variability in space and time, the cryosphere plays the role of a global thermostat, keeping the thermal regime on the Earth within rather narrow limits, affording continuation of the conditions needed for the maintenance of life. Objects and processes related to cryosphere are very diverse, due to the following basic reasons: the anomalous thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of H2O, the intermediate intensity of hydrogen bonds and the wide spread of cryogenic systems all over the Earth. However, these features attract insufficient attention from research communities. Cryology is usually understood as a descriptive discipline within physical geography, limited to glaciology and permafrost research. We emphasise its broad interdisciplinary landscape involving physical, chemical and biological phenomena related to the H2O phase transitions and various forms of ice. This paper aims to draw the attention of readers to the crucial importance of cryogenic anomalies, which make the Earth atmosphere and the entire Earth system very special, if not unique, objects in the universe.

  11. In-situ SCC observation on thermally-sensitized type 304 stainless steel irradiated to 1 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, J.; Nemoto, Y.; Tsukada, T.; Usami, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Hide, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa-ken (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is concerned as being one of the specific problems for water-cooled first wall/blanket components in the design activity of international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). To examine the crack initiation and growth behaviors of IASCC, in-situ observation on gage length of specimens was conducted during slow strain rate tests (SSRT) in high temperature water. Results from in-situ observation on Type 304 stainless steel (SS) irradiated to 1.0 x 10{sup 26} n/m{sup 2} have been reported already. Type 304 SS was subjected to a solution annealing (SA), a thermally sensitization (TS) or a cold working (CW, 20%) and irradiated to 1.0 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). After neutron irradiation, SSRT for the specimens was conducted in oxygenated high purity water at 561 K. The gage length of the specimen was observed through a window equipped on an autoclave during the SSRT. Subsequently, fracture surface examination was performed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In fracture surface examination of the specimens irradiated to 1.0 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}, almost entire intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) was exhibited for the TS material while mixtures of transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) and ductile dimple fracture were observed for the SA and the CW materials. Although crack initiation was observed immediately after maximum stress for the CW irradiated to 1.0 x 10{sup 26} n/m{sup 2}, crack initiation was observed immediately before maximum stress (99% of maximum stress) for the CW irradiated to 1.0 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} in in-situ observation. (authors)

  12. Titanium isotopic anomalies in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Lugmair, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    High-precision analyses of Ti are reported for samples from a variety of meteorite classes. The expanded data base for Allende inclusions still shows Ti isotope anomalies in every inclusion. All the coarse-grained inclusions give quite similar patterns, but fine-grained inclusions show more variable, and sometimes larger, anomalies. One inclusion, 3675A, was analyzed because others identified it as a possible 'FUN' inclusion due to its mass-fractionated Mg. This designation is supported by the significantly more complex Ti isotopic pattern for 3675A compared to all our other Allende inclusions. Available data fail to suggest that any particular Allende mineral phase, including a chromite-carbon fraction from an acid residue, is especially rich in anomalous Ti. We also find anomalous Ti in a bulk sample of a C1 chondrite and in matrix separates from C2 chondrites. The excesses of 50 Ti are smaller than for Allende inclusions, and subtle differences in Ti isotopic patterns tentatively suggest that parent materials for C1-C2 matrix and Allende inclusions are not directly related. Analyses of chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites did not yield clear evidence for anomalous Ti, but some 'larger than usual' deficits at 50/46 give encouragement for future work in this direction. (author)

  13. Corpuscular radiation and congenital anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shinji; Yajima, Akira

    1983-01-01

    Many explorations have been done by our antecessors to find out about the congenital anomalies which might be caused by X-ray or γ-ray and experimental teratological researches have also been done, with some results. However, there have been less systematic studies on corpuscular radiation. Neutron ray is a radioactive ray no electrically-charged equally as photon (X-ray, γ-ray). With an equal dosage of it as photon's, its localized energy is high so that it is different in RBE, OER, etc. In heavy charged particle (proton ray, He ion, Ne ion, π-meson ray), there is the characteristic that the energy increases at around the deepest spot within the range rather than at the point of injection into a system, which is called Bragg peak. The type and energy of this radiation reflected in the uniqueness in energy distribution, in ionization density and in LET makes it the most important radioactive biological parameter. At this paper, we shall review the types of radioactive rays and discuss the congenital anomalies (teratogenecity) including the experimental results obtained by application of our proton ray. (author)

  14. Axial anomalies of Lifshitz fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    We compute the axial anomaly of a Lifshitz fermion theory with anisotropic scaling z=3 which is minimally coupled to geometry in 3+1 space-time dimensions. We find that the result is identical to the relativistic case using path integral methods. An independent verification is provided by showing with spectral methods that the eta-invariant of the Dirac and Lifshitz fermion operators in three dimensions are equal. Thus, by the integrated form of the anomaly, the index of the Dirac operator still accounts for the possible breakdown of chiral symmetry in non-relativistic theories of gravity. We apply this framework to the recently constructed gravitational instanton backgrounds of Horava-Lifshitz theory and find that the index is non-zero provided that the space-time foliation admits leaves with harmonic spinors. Using Hitchin's construction of harmonic spinors on Berger spheres, we obtain explicit results for the index of the fermion operator on all such gravitational instanton backgrounds with SU(2)xU(1) isom...

  15. Global anomalies in chiral lattice gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, O.

    2000-07-01

    We study global anomalies in a new approach to chiral gauge theories on the lattice, which is based on the Ginsparg-Wilson relation. In this approach, global anomalies make it impossible to define consistently a fermionic measure for the functional integral. We show that a global anomaly occurs in an SU(2) theory if the fundamental representation is used for the fermion fields. The generalization to higher representations is also discussed. In addition we establish a close relation between global anomalies and the spectral flow of the Dirac operator and employ it in a numerical computation to prove the existence of the global SU(2) anomaly in a different way. This method is inspired by an earlier work of Witten who first discovered this type of anomalies in continuum field theory. (orig.)

  16. Renal anomalies in congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Hee; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Yoon, Yong Soo

    1987-01-01

    In general, the incidence of urinary tract anomalies in congenital heart disease is higher than that in general population. So authors performed abdominal cineradiography in 1045 infants and children undergoing cineangiographic examinations for congenital heart disease, as a screening method for the detection, the incidence, and the nature of associated urinary tract anomalies. The results were as follows: 1. The incidence of urinary tract anomaly associated with congenital heart disease was 4.1% (<2% in general population). 2. Incidence of urinary tract anomalies was 4.62% in 671 acyanotic heart diseases, 3.20% in 374 cyanotic heart diseases. 3. There was no constant relationship between the type of cardiac anomaly and the type of urinary tract anomaly

  17. Fatigue crack growth from handling surface anomalies in a nickel based superalloy at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourdin Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft engine manufacturers have to demonstrate that handling surface anomalies in sensitive areas of discs are not critical for in-service life of a component. Currently, the models used consider anomalies as long cracks propagating from the first cycle, which introduces a certain degree of conservatism when calculating the fatigue life of surface flaws. Preliminary studies have shown that the first stages of crack propagation from surface anomalies are responsible for the conservative results. Thus, the aim of the study is to characterize the crack propagation from typical surface anomalies and to establish a new crack growth model, which can account for the micro-propagation stage. To separate the effects of the geometry of the anomalies and the residual stress state after introduction of the surface flaws, two V-type anomalies are studied: scratches and dents. Different studies have shown that the residual stresses beneath the anomalies seem to control the fatigue life of samples exhibiting scratches and dents. In order to monitor the crack micro-propagation, a direct current potential drop technique, coupled with heat tints is used during fatigue tests at elevated temperature. Thermal treatments releasing the residual stresses are also used to decouple the effect of crack morphology and residual stresses.

  18. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumi, G.C.

    2001-01-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of Γ, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O 2 - ions, is presented in the Appendix

  19. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumi, G.C. [Lecco, (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of {gamma}, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O{sub 2} {sup -} ions, is presented in the Appendix.

  20. First branchial cleft anomalies: presentation, variability and safe surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdy, Emad A; Ashram, Yasmine A

    2013-05-01

    First branchial cleft (FBC) anomalies are uncommon. The aim of this retrospective clinical study is to describe our experience in dealing with these sporadically reported lesions. Eighteen cases presenting with various FBC anomalies managed surgically during an 8-year period at a tertiary referral medical institution were included. Ten were males (56 %) and eight females (44 %) with age range 3-18 years. Anomaly was right-sided in 12 cases (67 %). None were bilateral. Nine patients (50 %) had prior abscess incision and drainage procedures ranging from 1 to 9 times. Two also had previous unsuccessful surgical excisions. Clinical presentations included discharging tract openings in external auditory canal/conchal bowl (n = 9), periauricular (n = 6), or upper neck (n = 4); cystic postauricular, parotid or upper neck swellings (n = 5); and eczematous scars (n = 9). Three distinct anatomical types were encountered: sinuses (n = 7), fistulas (n = 6), and cysts (n = 5). Complete surgical excision required superficial parotidectomy in 11 patients (61 %). Anomaly was deep to facial nerve (FN) in three cases (17 %), in-between its branches in two (11 %) and superficial (but sometimes adherent to the nerve) in remaining cases (72 %). Continuous intraoperative electrophysiological FN monitoring was used in all cases. Two cases had postoperative temporary lower FN paresis that recovered within 2 months. No further anomaly manifestation was observed after 49.8 months' mean postoperative follow-up (range 10-107 months). This study has shown that awareness of different presentations and readiness to identify and protect FN during surgery is essential for successful management of FBC anomalies. Intraoperative electrophysiological FN monitoring can help in that respect.

  1. Gravity and isostatic anomaly maps of Greece produced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagios, E.; Chailas, S.; Hipkin, R. G.

    A gravity anomaly map of Greece was first compiled in the early 1970s [Makris and Stavrou, 1984] from all available gravity data collected by different Hellenic institutions. However, to compose this map the data had to be smoothed to the point that many of the smaller-wavelength gravity anomalies were lost. New work begun in 1987 has resulted in the publication of an updated map [Lagios et al., 1994] and an isostatic anomaly map derived from it.The gravity data cover the area between east longitudes 19° and 27° and north latitudes 32° and 42°, organized in files of 100-km squares and grouped in 10-km squares using UTM zone 34 coordinates. Most of the data on land come from the gravity observations of Makris and Stavrou [1984] with additional data from the Institute of Geology and Mining Exploration, the Public Oil Corporation of Greece, and Athens University. These data were checked using techniques similar to those used in compiling the gravity anomaly map of the United States, but the horizontal gradient was used as a check rather than the gravity difference. Marine data were digitized from the maps of Morelli et al. [1975a, 1975b]. All gravity anomaly values are referred to the IGSN-71 system, reduced with the standard Bouger density of 2.67 Mg/m3. We estimate the errors of the anomalies in the continental part of Greece to be ±0.9 mGal; this is expected to be smaller over fairly flat regions. For stations whose height has been determined by leveling, the error is only ±0.3 mGal. For the marine areas, the errors are about ±5 mGal [Morelli, 1990].

  2. Characteristics of Intracrater Thermal Anomalies in Southwestern Margaritifer Terra

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. L.; Hamilton, V. E.

    2005-03-01

    We use thermophysical properties, albedo, short wavelength emissivity, composition, and geomorphology to understand the formation of anomalously warm intracrater deposits in southwestern Margaritifer Terra.

  3. Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    . Thus, night-time analysis is the most suitable for thermal anomaly mapping of underground coal fires, although this is not always feasible. The heat of underground coal fires only progresses very slowly through conduction in the rock material. Anomalies of coal fires completely covered by solid unfractured bedrock are very weak and were only measured during the night. The thermal pattern of underground coal fires manifested on the surface during the daytime is thus the pattern of cracks and vents, which occur due to the volume loss underground and which support radiation and convective energy transport of hot gasses. Inside coal fire temperatures can hardly be measured and can only be recorded if the glowing coal is exposed through a wider crack in the overlaying bedrock. Direct coal fire temperatures measured ranged between 233 °C and 854 °C. The results presented can substantially support the planning of thermal mapping campaigns, analyses of coal fire thermal anomalies in remotely sensed data, and can provide initial and boundary conditions for coal fire related numerical modeling. In a second paper named "Thermal Characteristics of Coal Fires 2: results of measurements on simulated coal fires" [ Zhang J., Kuenzer C., Tetzlaff A., Oettl D., Zhukov B., Wagner W., 2007. Thermal Characteristics of Coal Fires 2: Result of measurements on simulated coal fires. Accepted for publication at Journal of Applied Geophysics. doi:10.1016/j.jappgeo.2007.08.003] we report about thermal characteristics of simulated coal fires simulated under simplified conditions. The simulated set up allowed us to measure even more parameters under undisturbed conditions — especially inside fire temperatures. Furthermore we could demonstrate the differences between open surface coal fires and covered underground coal fires. Thermal signals of coal fires in near range thermal remotely sensed imagery from an observing tower and from an airplane are presented and discussed.

  4. Anomalies and Hawking radiation from the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole with a global monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shuangqing; Peng Junjin

    2007-01-01

    We extend the work by Iso, Umetsu and Wilczek (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 151302) to derive the Hawking flux via gauge and gravitational anomalies of a most general two-dimensional non-extremal black hole spacetime with the determinant of its diagonal metric differing from unity √ (-g)1) ≠ 1 and use it to investigate Hawking radiation from the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole with a global monopole by requiring the cancellation of anomalies at the horizon. It is shown that the compensating energy-momentum and gauge fluxes required to cancel gravitational and gauge anomalies at the horizon are precisely equivalent to the (1 + 1)-dimensional thermal fluxes associated with Hawking radiation emanating from the horizon at the Hawking temperature. These fluxes are universally determined by the value of anomalies at the horizon

  5. On Newton-Cartan trace anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auzzi, Roberto [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Perugia,Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Baiguera, Stefano [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); Nardelli, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); TIFPA - INFN, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento,38123 Povo (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    We classify the trace anomaly for parity-invariant non-relativistic Schrödinger theories in 2+1 dimensions coupled to background Newton-Cartan gravity. The general anomaly structure looks very different from the one in the z=2 Lifshitz theories. The type A content of the anomaly is remarkably identical to that of the relativistic 3+1 dimensional case, suggesting the conjecture that an a-theorem should exist also in the Newton-Cartan context.

  6. Anomalies and modular invariance in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellekens, A.N.; Warner, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    All known anomaly cancellations of heterotic string theories are derived directly from one-loop modular invariance, and are shown to be related to a property of modular functions of weight 2. Using modular invariance infinite classes of anomaly free field theories are constructed in (8m+2) dimensions for any m. A generating function is obtained for the anomalies of string-related field theories in (8m+2) dimensions. (orig.)

  7. On Newton-Cartan trace anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzzi, Roberto; Baiguera, Stefano; Nardelli, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    We classify the trace anomaly for parity-invariant non-relativistic Schrödinger theories in 2+1 dimensions coupled to background Newton-Cartan gravity. The general anomaly structure looks very different from the one in the z=2 Lifshitz theories. The type A content of the anomaly is remarkably identical to that of the relativistic 3+1 dimensional case, suggesting the conjecture that an a-theorem should exist also in the Newton-Cartan context.

  8. Higher derivative regularization and chiral anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahama, Yoshinori.

    1985-02-01

    A higher derivative regularization which automatically leads to the consistent chiral anomaly is analyzed in detail. It explicitly breaks all the local gauge symmetry but preserves global chiral symmetry and leads to the chirally symmetric consistent anomaly. This regularization thus clarifies the physics content contained in the consistent anomaly. We also briefly comment on the application of this higher derivative regularization to massless QED. (author)

  9. Network anomaly detection a machine learning perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid rise in the ubiquity and sophistication of Internet technology and the accompanying growth in the number of network attacks, network intrusion detection has become increasingly important. Anomaly-based network intrusion detection refers to finding exceptional or nonconforming patterns in network traffic data compared to normal behavior. Finding these anomalies has extensive applications in areas such as cyber security, credit card and insurance fraud detection, and military surveillance for enemy activities. Network Anomaly Detection: A Machine Learning Perspective presents mach

  10. The Bramsche-Massiv anomalies - again an open question?; Die Anomalien vom Bramsche - wieder eine offene Frage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, H.J. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    An unsolved problem of regional geoscientific importance for Northern Germany is the question of the existence of the so-called 'Bramsche Massiv'. The high thermal maturity in the southern area of the Lower Saxony Basin, the CO{sub 2}-risk and missing reservoir properties are being regarded as an aftermath of this massif, that is supposed to have risen in the Upper Cretaceous period as mafic pluton at depths of about 6 km. The existence of a massif of similar nature, located between Schleswig-Holstein and Brandenburg and characterised by gravimetric and magnetic anomalies, the so-called 'East-Elbian Massiv', has in the meantime been credibly challenged. The anomalies lie in the area of the eastern centre of the Southern Permian Basin and are particularly distinct due to the local maxima of Pritzwalk in Northwest Brandenburg. The causes of the observed anomalies in the Pritzwalk area are no longer assumed to arise from depths of 6-10 km, but in accordance with more recent geophysical investigations arise in all probability from the lower crust at a depth of between 15 and 30 km. Furthermore, the analysis of the thermal development of the Lower Saxony Basin close to the 'Bramsche Massiv' demonstrated that the level of maturities along well holes is more likely to be explained by an increased subsidence rate with subsequent tectonic inversion and not due to the effect of an intrusion. An alternative and comparative interpretation of other co-existent geophysical and geological anomalies also coincides with the current prevailing interpretation challenging the existence of the 'Bramsche Massiv'. If this intrusion in the suspected form never existed, the regional CO{sub 2}-risk would have to be reassessed, the structural and thermal development of the southern edge of the Lower Saxony Basin would need to be judged differently and the existence of available and possible Mesozoic and Paleozoic gas reserves in the neighbouring areas

  11. Effect of attractive interactions on the water-like anomalies of a core-softened model potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Shashank; Gera, Tarun; Choudhury, Niharendu

    2013-12-28

    It is now well established that water-like anomalies can be reproduced by a spherically symmetric potential with two length scales, popularly known as core-softened potential. In the present study we aim to investigate the effect of attractive interactions among the particles in a model fluid interacting with core-softened potential on the existence and location of various water-like anomalies in the temperature-pressure plane. We employ extensive molecular dynamic simulations to study anomalous nature of various order parameters and properties under isothermal compression. Order map analyses have also been done for all the potentials. We observe that all the systems with varying depth of attractive wells show structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic anomalies. As many of the previous studies involving model water and a class of core softened potentials have concluded that the structural anomaly region encloses the diffusion anomaly region, which in turn, encloses the density anomaly region, the same pattern has also been observed in the present study for the systems with less depth of attractive well. For the systems with deeper attractive well, we observe that the diffusion anomaly region shifts toward higher densities and is not always enclosed by the structural anomaly region. Also, density anomaly region is not completely enclosed by diffusion anomaly region in this case.

  12. Major congenital anomalies in a Danish region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Birkelund, Anne Sofie

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the prevalence of congenital anomalies and changes over time in birth outcome, mortality and chronic maternal diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was based on population data from the EUROCAT registry covering the Funen County, Denmark, 1995...... mortality decreased significantly over time for cases with major congenital anomalies (p congenital anomaly cases, 8% had a registration of one of these chronic maternal diseases......: diabetes, epilepsy, mental disorder, thyroid disease, asthma, or inflammatory bowel disease. Medication for these conditions accounted for 46% of maternal drug use. CONCLUSION: Maternal morbidity and use of potentially teratogenic medication have increased among congenital anomaly cases. Foetal and infant...

  13. Characterizing the Diurnal Cycle of Land Surface Temperature and Evapotranspiration at High Spatial Resolution Using Thermal Observations from sUAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, D.; Drewry, D.; Johnson, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    The surface temperature of plant canopies is an important indicator of the stomatal regulation of plant water use and the associated water flux from plants to atmosphere (evapotranspiration (ET)). Remotely sensed thermal observations using compact, low-cost, lightweight sensors from small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) have the potential to provide surface temperature (ST) and ET estimates at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions, allowing us to characterize the intra-field diurnal variations in canopy ST and ET for a variety of vegetation systems. However, major challenges exist for obtaining accurate surface temperature estimates from low-cost uncooled microbolometer-type sensors. Here we describe the development of calibration methods using thermal chamber experiments, taking into account the ambient optics and sensor temperatures, and applying simple models of spatial non-uniformity correction to the sensor focal-plane-array. We present a framework that can be used to derive accurate surface temperatures using radiometric observations from low-cost sensors, and demonstrate this framework using a sUAS-mounted sensor across a diverse set of calibration and vegetation targets. Further, we demonstrate the use of the Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC) model for computing spatially explicit, high spatial resolution ET estimates across several well-monitored agricultural systems, as driven by sUAS acquired surface temperatures. STIC provides a physically-based surface energy balance framework for the simultaneous retrieval of the surface and atmospheric vapor conductances and surface energy fluxes, by physically integrating radiometric surface temperature information into the Penman-Monteith equation. Results of our analysis over agricultural systems in Ames, IA and Davis, CA demonstrate the power of this approach for quantifying the intra-field spatial variability in the diurnal cycle of plant water use at sub-meter resolutions.

  14. Dielectric anomaly and relaxation natures in a Zn-Cr pillar−layered metal−organic framework with cages and channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Chen; Yao, Zhi-Yuan; Liu, Shao-Xian; Luo, Hong-Bin [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering and College of Chemistry & Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zou, Yang, E-mail: zouyang@njtech.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering and College of Chemistry & Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Li, Li [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering and College of Chemistry & Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ren, Xiao-Ming, E-mail: xmren@njtech.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering and College of Chemistry & Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2017-06-15

    A bimetallic metal–organic framework (MOF) with the formula [Zn{sub 3}btc{sub 2}(Cr{sub 3}O(isonic){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(OH))]·(DMF){sub 15.5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 8} (H{sub 3}btc=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid; isonic=isonicotinicate) shows a pillar-layered structure. The monolayer consists of hexagon-like rings formed by the [Zn(isonic){sub 2}(btc){sub 2}] tetrahedral and the consecutive monolayers are pillared by trigonal–prismatic clusters of [Cr{sub 3}O(isonic){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(OH)]through the remaining binding sites of the Zn{sup 2+} ions. DMF and water molecules are confined in the cages and channels. TGA indicates that the lattice DMF and water molecules begin to be released at temperatures above 363 K. Dielectric measurements were carried out in the range of 173–363 K and 1–10{sup 7} Hz for three successive thermal cycles. The dielectric spectroscopy obtained in the first thermal cycle was different from that observed in the next two thermal cycles, while the dielectric spectra in the last two thermal cycles were almost identical. The dielectric nature of this MOF is discussed in detail for each thermal cycle. Since MOFs are unique host–guest systems in which the structure of the host framework is designable and the guests are exchangeable, it is no doubt those MOFs are materials with a variety of dielectric natures. This study gives a fresh impetus to achieve MOFs–based dielectric materials. - Graphical abstract: The bimetallic MOF [Zn{sub 3}btc{sub 2}(Cr{sub 3}O(isonic){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(OH))]·(DMF){sub 15.5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}1, shows a pillar-layered open-framework structure. The dielectric spectra of 1 are almost identical in the last two thermal cycles, whereas significantly different from that observed in the first thermal cycle. The novel dielectric anomaly associated with a stacked structure transformation of the disordered guests. - Highlights: • A bimetallic metal-organic framework shows a pillar-layered structure.

  15. [Double second branchial cleft anomaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Fernández, Noelia; Mallea-Cañizares, Ismael; Fernández-Julián, Enrique; De La Fuente-Arjona, Luís; Marco-Algarra, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Second branchial cleft anomalies are the most common of this type of neck masses. They can be classified in four types (Bailey/Proctor classification) according to their location. Type II is the most common, and related to vital neck structures such as the carotid artery and jugular vein. Cysts are the most frequent among them. Management consists of surgical excision of the cyst and tract by cervicotomy to avoid recurrence. We present an extremely rare case of a 32-year-old male who presented a sudden appearance of a right lateral neck mass that was identified by an image study as a double branchial cleft cyst. A review of simultaneous branchial cleft cyst in the literature is also made. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitellointestinal Duct Anomalies in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadian, Yogender Singh; Verma, Anjali; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Kajal, Pardeep

    2016-01-01

    Vitellointestinal duct (VID) or omphalomesenteric duct anomalies are secondary to the persistence of the embryonic vitelline duct, which normally obliterates by weeks 5-9 of intrauterine life. This is a retrospective analysis of a total of 16 patients of symptomatic remnants of vitellointestinal duct from period of Jan 2009 to May 2013. Male to female ratio (M:F) was 4.3:1 and mean age of presentation was 2 months and their mode of presentation was: patent VID in 9 (56.25%) patients, umbilical cyst in 2(12.25%), umbilical granuloma in 2 (12.25%), and Meckel diverticulum as content of hernia sac in obstructed umbilical hernia in 1 (6.25%) patient. Two patients with umbilical fistula had severe electrolyte disturbance and died without surgical intervention. Persistent VID may have varied presentations in infancy. High output umbilical fistula and excessive bowel prolapse demand urgent surgical intervention to avoid morbidity and mortality.

  17. GRAVITY ANOMALIES OF THE MOON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Pugacheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The source of gravity anomalies of the Moon are large mascons with a high mass concentration at a depth of volcanic plains and lunar Maria. New data on the gravitational field of the Moon were obtained from two Grail spacecrafts. The article presents the data of physical and mechanical properties of the surface soil layer of the lunar Maria and gives an assessment of the chemical composition of the soil. There have been calculated heterogeneity parameters of the surface macro-relief of the lunar Maria: albedo, soil density, average grain diameter of the particles forming the surface layer and the volume fraction occupied by particles. It can be assumed that mascons include rich KREEP rocks with a high content of thorium and iron oxide. Formation of mascons is connected with intensive development of basaltic volcanism on the Moon in the early periods of its existence.

  18. OceanXtremes: Oceanographic Data-Intensive Anomaly Detection and Analysis Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Anomaly detection is a process of identifying items, events or observations, which do not conform to an expected pattern in a dataset or time series. Current and...

  19. Co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and lumbar disc herniation with lumbosacral nerve root anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Tevfik; Turan, Yahya; Gülşen, İsmail; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are the leading cause of lumbar surgery failures. Although co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation is common, it is very rare to observe that a nerve root anomaly accompanies these lesions. A 49-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset right leg pain. Examinations revealed L5/S1 lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation. At preoperative period, he was also diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly. Following discectomy and root decompression, stabilization was performed. The complaints of the patient diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly at intraoperative period were improved at postoperative period. It should be remembered that in patients with lumbar disc herniation and spondylolysis, lumbar root anomalies may coexist when clinical and neurological picture is severe. Preoperative and perioperative assessments should be made meticulously to prevent neurological injury. PMID:25210343

  20. Co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and lumbar disc herniation with lumbosacral nerve root anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Yilmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are the leading cause of lumbar surgery failures. Although co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation is common, it is very rare to observe that a nerve root anomaly accompanies these lesions. A 49-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset right leg pain. Examinations revealed L5/S1 lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation. At preoperative period, he was also diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly. Following discectomy and root decompression, stabilization was performed. The complaints of the patient diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly at intraoperative period were improved at postoperative period. It should be remembered that in patients with lumbar disc herniation and spondylolysis, lumbar root anomalies may coexist when clinical and neurological picture is severe. Preoperative and perioperative assessments should be made meticulously to prevent neurological injury.