Full Text Available Yaginumena maculosa (Yoshida and Ono 2000 of Theridiidae and Clubiona corrugata (Bösenberg and Strand 1906 of Clubionidae are reported for the first time from Korea with taxonomic illustrations.
Araujo, Douglas; Maia, Ulysses Madureira; Brescovit, Antonio Domingos
In this paper we present, for the first time, cytogenetical data on Latrodectus gr. curacaviensis (Theridiidae) from Brazil, as well as the first data on meiosis and sex chromosome system of this genus. Testes were submitted to colchicine, hypotonic, and fixation treatment, and chromosomal preparations were stained with Giemsa solution. The analysis showed 2n=26 telo/acrocentric chromosomes in spermatogonial metaphases. Metaphase I exhibited 12 autosomal bivalents and two sex chromosome univalents (12II + X(1)X(2)). All bivalents revealed one terminal chiasma. Metaphases II confirmed the sex chromosome system, showing 12 autosomes or 12 autosomes plus two X chromosomes, respectively. Male karyotype prevailing in theridiids is formed by 2n=22 chromosomes, including sex chromosome system X(1)X(2) in all species. The Latrodectus species of the geometricus clade analyzed until now showed smaller diploid number (2nfemale symbol=16 and 2nfemale symbol=18) than the species of the mactans clade (2nfemale symbol=24 and 2nfemale symbol=26). Thus, according to the chromosome number, the examined Latrodectus species seems to be related to the mactans clade.
Full Text Available First records of the synanthropic spiders Steatoda grossa for Saxony as well as Nesticodes rufipes and Uloborus plumipes for Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Araneae, Theridiidae, Uloboridae
Ault, Jeffrey G; Felt, Kristen D; Doan, Ryan N; Nedo, Alexander O; Ellison, Cassondra A; Paliulis, Leocadia V
During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes join together to form bivalents. Through trial and error, bivalents achieve stable bipolar orientations (attachments) on the spindle that eventually allow the segregation of homologous chromosomes to opposite poles. Bipolar orientations are stable through tension generated by poleward forces to opposite poles. Unipolar orientations lack tension and are stereotypically not stable. The behavior of sex chromosomes during meiosis I in the male black widow spider Latrodectus mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae) challenges the principles governing such a scenario. We found that male L. mactans has two distinct X chromosomes, X 1 and X 2 . The X chromosomes join together to form a connection that is present in prometaphase I but is lost during metaphase I, before the autosomes disjoin at anaphase I. We found that both X chromosomes form stable unipolar orientations to the same pole that assure their co-segregation at anaphase I. Using micromanipulation, immunofluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy, we studied this unusual chromosome behavior to explain how it may fit the current dogma of chromosome distribution during cell division.
Full Text Available With its incredible strength and toughness, spider dragline silk is widely lauded for its impressive material properties. Dragline silk is composed of two structural proteins, MaSp1 and MaSp2, which are encoded by members of the spidroin gene family. While previous studies have characterized the genes that encode the constituent proteins of spider silks, nothing is known about the physical location of these genes. We determined karyotypes and sex chromosome organization for the widow spiders, Latrodectus hesperus and L. geometricus (Araneae, Theridiidae. We then used fluorescence in situ hybridization to map the genomic locations of the genes for the silk proteins that compose the remarkable spider dragline. These genes included three loci for the MaSp1 protein and the single locus for the MaSp2 protein. In addition, we mapped a MaSp1 pseudogene. All the MaSp1 gene copies and pseudogene localized to a single chromosomal region while MaSp2 was located on a different chromosome of L. hesperus. Using probes derived from L. hesperus, we comparatively mapped all three MaSp1 loci to a single region of a L. geometricus chromosome. As with L. hesperus, MaSp2 was found on a separate L. geometricus chromosome, thus again unlinked to the MaSp1 loci. These results indicate orthology of the corresponding chromosomal regions in the two widow genomes. Moreover, the occurrence of multiple MaSp1 loci in a conserved gene cluster across species suggests that MaSp1 proliferated by tandem duplication in a common ancestor of L. geometricus and L. hesperus. Unequal crossover events during recombination could have given rise to the gene copies and could also maintain sequence similarity among gene copies over time. Further comparative mapping with taxa of increasing divergence from Latrodectus will pinpoint when the MaSp1 duplication events occurred and the phylogenetic distribution of silk gene linkage patterns.
Full Text Available El importante avance de la degradación de bosques en la Provincia Biogeográfica del Chaco, Argentina, conlleva una pérdida importante de su poco conocida biodiversidad. Se realizó un estudio de la fauna de arañas en dos bosques de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina, correspondientes al Distrito Oriental Húmedo del Chaco, en las localidades de Laguna Brava y El Perichón. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales entre los años 2001 y 2002. Las arañas recolectadas (2 067 individuos de 33 familias y 226 especies/morfoespecies fueron obtenidas por golpeteo del estrato arbustivo y tamizado de hojarasca. Las familias Araneidae, Anyphaenidae, Salticidae y Theridiidae fueron las más abundantes en los dos bosques. El gremio de arañas "constructoras de telas orbiculares" presentó el mayor número de individuos (n=382 y el de "cazadoras al acecho" la mayor riqueza (S=56. En Laguna Brava se observó mayor abundancia en el verano (n=287 y primavera (n=273 y en el Perichón en invierno (n=315. La riqueza específica y el valor de los índices de diversidad, fueron mayores en Laguna Brava (S=134, H´=4.23, E=0.86, D=0.023 que en El Perichón (S=127, H´=4.08, E=0.84, D=0.029. La similitud entre ambos bosques fue MH=0.611.Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae associated with two degraded forests in the humid Chaco of Corrientes, Argentina. The advancing degradation of the forest in the biogeographic Chaco province (Argentina produces an important loss of its little known biodiversity. We studied the spider biodiversity in two forests of Corrientes, Argentina’s "Distrito Oriental Húmedo del Chaco": Laguna Brava and El Perichón. Seasonal samplings of foliage and fallen leaves between 2001 and 2002 produced 2 067 individuals from 33 families and 226 species/ morphospecies. The families Araneidae, Anyphaenidae, Salticidae and Theridiidae were the most abundant in both forests. The "orb weavers" guild had the highest number of specimens (n=382 and "stalkers" the
Full Text Available Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park is a tropical low land rain forest. This region has high diversity of arthropods, i.e. spider. The aims of this study was to analyze the Community structure of spiders of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae in various types of habitat at Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park North Sulawesi. Sampling was carried out at three habitat types, namely primary, secondary, and farm. The research was conducted from March to May 2014 by using pitfall trap (to collect spiders that move on the ground and sweep net (to collect the spideron vegetation canopy. The number of spiders obtained during the study of was 1267 speciments. The specimens collected are consists 15 families, 71 genera, and 129 morphospecies. The Family which most individual abundance is family Tetragnathidae and the least was Ctenizidae. Salticidae were the most common family of species (30 species, while the least were Agelenidae, Ctenidae and Ctenizidae where each family has one species. Abundance, richness, diversity and evenness of species was higher in the farm, while the lowest in the secondary forest. The highest similarity index of spider communities was between primary forests and secondary forests. The results of this research can be used as a diversity database of spiders for conservation strategies in North Sulawesi.
The ability of spiderlings of the widow spider Latrodectus hesperus (Araneae: Theridiidae) to pass through different size mesh screen: implications for exclusion from air intake ducts and greenhouses.
Vetter, Richard S; Flanders, Christopher P; Rust, Michael K
Experiments tested the ability of newly emerged spiderlings of a black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus Chamberlin & Ivie (Araneae: Theridiidae), to crawl through brass screen of various mesh size. The purpose was to determine whether immatures of these medically important spiders could be excluded from buildings. In horizontal orientation, black widow spiderlings were able to easily pass through mesh with openings of 0.83 mm and were prevented from passing in four of five tests with mesh of 0.59-mm openings. Spiderlings also readily pass through 0.83-mm mesh in vertical orientation. Our laboratory studies indicate that the mesh size sufficient for exclusion is too small for practical use in most cases, although there are some specialized situations where such small mesh might be useful. The results are discussed in regard to actual conditions found in typical commercial building situations.
Full Text Available We report three spider species, namely, Argyrodes nephilae Taczanowski, 1872, A. argentatus O.P.-Cambridge, 1880 and A. flavescens O.P.-Cambridge, 1880 from the family Theridiidae from Andhra Pradesh for the first time. A. nephilae constitutes the first record of this species from India. All the species have been recorded from the webs of Araneidae spiders.
Full Text Available As part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida in the Grassland Biome, foliage-dwelling and grass-dwelling spiders (Arachnida: Araneae were collected in the Erfenis Dam Nature Reserve in the central Free State Province from November 2005 to August 2007. Foliage-dwelling spiders were collected from three common tree or shrub species (Acacia karroo, Searsia ciliata and Searsia lancea and grass-dwellers from four contrasting grasslands (uniform Themeda triandra, mixed, weedy and woodland grasslands. From the grass layer, 1649 spiders were collected, representing 15 families and 82 species, whilst 496 tree-dwelling spiders were collected that represented 17 families and 52 species. There was some overlap in the fauna of the two strata, resulting in a total of 108 species from 18 families being collected. The Araneidae, Philodromidae, Salticidae and Thomisidae were consistently the most abundant in all grassland types and tree species, although Salticidae were scarce on A. karroo. Assemblage analysis indicates high similarity and overlap in the fauna of the four grassland types, suggesting that the structural complexity of grasslands has a limited effect on species composition. In contrast, the foliage-dwelling assemblages were more distinct, with only some overlap between the faunas of S. ciliata and A. karroo, suggesting a stronger vegetation structural effect in shaping arboreal spider assemblages. The isolation of trees and shrubs within the extensive grassy habitat may contribute to the more unique fauna and lower species richness of the woody vegetation. Conservation implications: This study uncovered a rich diversity of plant-dwelling spiders from central South Africa. Grassland faunas show considerable temporal variation and some variability in microhabitat preferences, and sampling protocols should take this into account when spiders are considered in management plans and biodiversity surveys in reserves and private land.
Full Text Available As part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida in the Grassland Biome, foliage-dwelling and grass-dwelling spiders (Arachnida: Araneae were collected in the Erfenis Dam Nature Reserve in the central Free State Province from November 2005 to August 2007. Foliage-dwelling spiders were collected from three common tree or shrub species (Acacia karroo, Searsia ciliata and Searsia lancea and grass-dwellers from four contrasting grasslands (uniform Themeda triandra, mixed, weedy and woodland grasslands. From the grass layer, 1649 spiders were collected, representing 15 families and 82 species, whilst 496 tree-dwelling spiders were collected that represented 17 families and 52 species. There was some overlap in the fauna of the two strata, resulting in a total of 108 species from 18 families being collected. The Araneidae, Philodromidae, Salticidae and Thomisidae were consistently the most abundant in all grassland types and tree species, although Salticidae were scarce on A. karroo. Assemblage analysis indicates high similarity and overlap in the fauna of the four grassland types, suggesting that the structural complexity of grasslands has a limited effect on species composition. In contrast, the foliage-dwelling assemblages were more distinct, with only some overlap between the faunas of S. ciliata and A. karroo, suggesting a stronger vegetation structural effect in shaping arboreal spider assemblages. The isolation of trees and shrubs within the extensive grassy habitat may contribute to the more unique fauna and lower species richness of the woody vegetation. Conservation implications: This study uncovered a rich diversity of plant-dwelling spiders from central South Africa. Grassland faunas show considerable temporal variation and some variability in microhabitat preferences, and sampling protocols should take this into account when spiders are considered in management plans and biodiversity surveys in reserves and private land.
Pérez-de La Cruz, Manuel; Sánchez-Soto, Saúl; Ortíz-García, Carlos F; Zapata-Mata, Raúl; Cruz-Pérez, Aracely de la
The aim of this work was to know the diversity of insects captured by weaver spiders in a plantation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) of 6 ha in the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The study was carried out from July 2004 to June 2005 by means biweekly samples of the insects captured on the spiders webs. The total of 3,041 webs of 54 species of spiders belonging to seven families (Araneidae, Theridiidae, Tetragnathidae, Uloboridae, Pholcidae, Dyctinidae and Linyphiidae) were revised. We found 1,749 specimens belonging to 10 orders of insects, represented by 93 families, the majority of Coleoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera that constituted 74% of the identified families. The biggest number of specimens of all orders was captured by Araneidae, except of Isoptera, whose specimens were captured mainly by the family Theridiidae. The index of diversity (H'), evenness (J') and similarity (Is), applied to know the diversity of families of insects captured among families of spiders, varied from 0.00 to 3.24, 0.00 to 0.81, and 0.04 to 0.522, respectively. We conclude that there is a wide diversity of insects predated by the weaver spiders in the cocoa agroecosystem, and that there are species that can be promising for the biological control of pests.
Antonio D. Brescovit
Full Text Available The female of Zimiromus hortenciae Buckup & Brescovit, 1993 is described for the first time and Trachyzelotes kulczynskii (Bösemberg, 1902, a species introduced from Europe, is recorded for the first time on the island of Fernando de Noronha, state of Pernambuco. The latter, along with T. lyonneti (Audouim, 1826 recorded from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, is the second species of this genus to be reported from Brazil. The spiders were collected with pitfall traps in five points of the island. Ecological data showed that Gnaphosidae was the fifth best sampled spider family, with 179 specimens, belonging to two species, T. kulczynskii and Z. hortenciae. Trachyzelotes kulczynskii was the most abundant with 118 adults while Z. hortenciae was represented by only 21 adults. Both species were collected during the dry and wet seasons but T. kulczynskii was more abundant during the wet season while Z. hortenciae was more abundant during the dry season. The male:female ratio for the dry season was similar for both species but in the wet season it was three times higher for T. kulczynskii.A fêmea de Zimiromus hortenciae Buckup & Brescovit, 1993 é descrita pela primeira vez. Trachyzelotes kulczynskii (Bösemberg, 1902, uma espécie de origem européia, é registrada pela primeira vez na Ilha de Fernando de Noronha, no estado de Pernambuco. Junto com T. lyonneti (Audouin, 1826, já registrado para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, é a segunda espécie do gênero introduzida no Brasil. As aranhas foram coletadas com armadilhas de solo em cinco pontos da ilha e os dados ecológicos detectados para Gnaphosidae foram de que esta foi a quinta família melhor amostrada dentre Araneae, com 179 espécimes de duas espécies, T. kulczynskii e Z. hortenciae. Trachyzelotes kulczynskii foi mais abundante com 118 adultos enquanto Z. hortenciae teve 21 adultos coletados. Ambas foram coletadas nas estações seca e chuvosa, sendo que T. kulczynskii foi mais
Leandro D. Battirola
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes the composition and temporal variation of the spider assemblage (Arachnida: Araneae associated with canopies of Vochysia divergens Pohl. (Vochysiaceae in the northern region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Three V. divergens plants were sampled in 2004, at each seasonal period of the northern Pantanal (high water, receding water, dry season and rising water, using thermonebulization of the canopies with insecticide, totaling 396 m2 of sampled canopies. Analysis of abundance and richness of spider families were based on Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS and Variance Analysis (ANOVA and MANOVA. A total of 7,193 spiders were collected (6,330 immatures; 88.0%; 863 adults, 12.0% distributed in 30 families. Araneidae (1,676 individuals, Anyphaenidae (1,631 individuals, Salticidae (1,542 individuals and Pisauridae (906 individuals, were predominant, representing 80.0% of the sample. Ten different guilds were registered: aerial hunters, orb-weavers, nocturnal aerial runners and diurnal space web weavers dominated, sharing most ecological niches. The spider assemblage is affected by changes in the habitat structure, especially by the seasonal hydrological regime and variations in the phenology of V. divergens . The assemblage is composed of different groups of spiders. The dominant taxa and behavioral guilds differ in the different seasonal periods. Spiders were more abundant during the dry and rising water seasons, most likely reflecting a greater supply of potential prey, associated with new foliage and flowering at the canopy. The displacement of soil dwelling spiders to the trunks and canopies before and during the seasonal floods can change the structure and composition of the canopy assemblages. Oonopidae, Gnaphosidae and Caponiidae, were more frequent during the rising and high water seasons, which indicates that these taxa use the canopies of V. divergens as a refuge during the seasonal flooding in the Pantanal.
Anna S. Dippenaar-Schoeman
Full Text Available A check list of the spider species of the Karoo National Park collected over a period of 10 years is presented. Thirty-eight families, represented by 102 genera and 116 species have been collected. Of these species, 76 (66.4 were wanderers and 39 (33.6 web builders. The Araneidae have the highest number of species (14 followed by the Thomisidae (10 and the Gnaphosidae (8, while 14 families are represented by a single species. Information on spider guilds, their habitat preference and web types is provided. This study forms part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA.
Susan M. Dippenaar
Full Text Available As part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA, spiders were collected from all the field layers in the Polokwane Nature Reserve (Limpopo Province, South Africa over a period of a year (2005–2006 using four collecting methods. Six habitat types were sampled: Acacia tortillis open savanna; A. rehmanniana woodland, false grassland, riverine and sweet thorn thicket, granite outcrop; and Aloe marlothii thicket. A total of 13 821 spiders were collected (using sweep netting, tree beating, active searching and pitfall trapping represented by 39 families, 156 determined genera and 275 species. The most diverse families are the Thomisidae (42 spp., Araneidae (39 spp. and Salticidae (29 spp.. A total of 84 spp. (30.5% were web builders and 191 spp. (69.5% wanderers. In the Polokwane Nature Reserve, 13.75% of South African species are presently protected.
Full Text Available By virtue of its geological history and geographical location the Soutpansberg constitutes a refuge for a high diversity of organisms. The Western Soutpansberg forms part of the Savanna Biome and is presently the area with the highest concentration of Natural Heritage Sites in South Africa. A unique private initiative is under way to improve its national and international conservation status in a bid to conserve the mountain. A checklist of the spider species of the Western Soutpansberg collected over a five-year period is presented. Forty-six families, represented by 109 genera and 127 species have been collected. Of the species collected, 81 (64 % were wandering spiders and 46 (36 % web builders. The Thomisidae have the highest number of species (15 followed by the Araneidae and the Salticidae with 10 species each. Ninety-six genera are represented by a single species. Ninety six percent of the species collected are new records for the area. This survey is the first for the area and forms part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA.
The present study deals with the spermatozoa and spermiogenesis of Liphistius cf. phuketensis, a representative of the most primitive and enigmatic spider group Mesothelae. The general organization of the spermatozoa is very similar to the condition known from Amblypygi supporting a sister-group relationship between Araneae and Amblypygi. Besides plesiomorphic characters such as, e.g., an elongated and corkscrew shaped nucleus, the sperm cells are characterized by several apomorphic characters, e.g., the giant body and conspicuous membranous areas which are formed at the end of spermiogenesis. As the transfer form, coenospermia are formed at the end of spermiogenesis, which strongly supports the idea that this type of sperm aggregation is the primitive transfer form within spiders. A very remarkable character of the spermatozoa of some groups of arachnids is the coiling of the main cell organelles at the end of spermiogenesis. Previously, the Mesothelae were believed to be the only spider group which does not show a complete coiling of the main cell organelles. With the present study the first evidence of a complete coiling of spermatozoa within this primitive spider group could be documented, indicating that this character is part of the ground pattern of spider spermatozoa. Consequently, the incomplete coiling seems to be a synapomorphy of certain species of Mesothelae, which sheds new light on the discussion of the phylogenetic relationships of this group.
Full Text Available En las últimas décadas se ha dado un interés creciente en el uso de enemigos naturales para controlar plagas de insectos, como arañas. Se estudió una comunidad de arañas en Argentina mediante un muestreo cada dos semanas durante el periodo 2004-2006 en lotes de una hectárea. En el estrato del suelo las arañas fueron colectadas con redes de arrastre y trampas de caída. Se recolecto un total de 6 229 ejemplares (15 familias y 50 especies. Siete familias se encuentran en el estrato herbáceo, las más abundantes fueron: Thomisidae (n=2 012, 32.30%, Araneidae (n=1 516, 24.33% y Oxyopidae (n=604, 9.70%. El suelo habían 14 familias, principalmente: Lycosidae (n=629, 10.10% y Linyphiidae (n=427, 6.85%. Predominaron las arañas cazadoras: por emboscadas (32.99%, al acecho (11.77%, corredoras de suelo (10.84% y tejedoras orbiculares (27.56%. Los índices de diversidad fueron: H´=2.97, Dsp=0.11 y J=0.79, evidenciando una comunidad de arañas moderadamente diversa, con predominio de Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus, Lycosa poliostoma and L. erythrognatha. Las arañas estuvieron presentes durante el desarrollo fenológico del cultivo con picos de abundancia en primavera y verano.Spider community (Arachnida, Araneae of alfalfa crops (Medicago sativa in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Over the last decades there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural enemies to control pest insects, including spiders. We studied a spider community in Argentina by sampling every two weeks during 2004-2006 in one-hectare lots. Soil stratum spiders were collected using nets and pitfall traps. A total of 6229 specimens were collected (15 families and 50 species. Seven families were found in the herbal stratum, the most abundant were Thomisidae (n=2012, 32.30%, Araneidae (n=1516, 24.33% and Oxyopidae (n=604, 9.70%. The soil had 14 families, mainly: Lycosidae (n=629, 10.10% and Linyphiidae (n=427, 6.85%. Hunting spiders predominated: ambushers (32
Full Text Available Se estudió la composición y diversidad de la comunidad de arañas de la Reserva provincial iberá, Corrientes, Argentina. Se realizaron capturas en bosque y pastizal en Colonia Pellegrini, Paraje Galarza y Estancia Rincón por medio de las técnicas de muestreo: trampas "pit-fall", tamizado, golpeteo de follaje, observación directa y red de arrastre. Las arañas se agruparon en gremios y se compiló un inventario. La similitud entre localidades y unidades ambientales se midió con el índice de Jaccard, y se calcularon los índices de diversidad de Shannon, equitabilidad, dominancia de Berger-Parker, y la diversidad beta y gamma. Para estimar la riqueza de especies se utilizó Chao 1, Chao 2, Jackknife 1 y 2. En total se recolectaron 4 138 arañas, se identificaron 33 familias y 150 especies de Araneomorphae, y dos familias y dos especies de Mygalomorphae. Cinco especies son nuevos registros para Argentina y 11 para la provincia de Corrientes. Araneidae fue la familia más abundante (39.8%, seguida por Salticidae (10.9%, Anyphaenidae (7.9%, Tetragnathidae (7.4%, Lycosidae (5.5%, y las restantes familias representaron menos del 5% de la captura total. El gremio de arañas tejedoras de telas orbiculares fue el de mayor abundancia y riqueza de especies. Entre las unidades ambientales, la mayor abundancia, riqueza y diversidad se verificó en el bosque de Colonia Pellegrini y en el pastizal de Paraje Galarza. La diversidad a fue alta, representó el 89% de la diversidad gamma, y la diversidad ß constituyó el 11% restante. Según los diferentes índices se capturó entre el 67% y el 97% de las especies que están presentes en la Reserva.Composition of the Araneae (Arachnida fauna of the provincial Iberá Reserve, Corrientes, Argentina. A survey of the spider community composition and diversity was carried out in grasslands and woods in three localities: Colonia Pellegrini, Paraje Galarza and Estancia Rincón (iberá province Reserve. Pit fall
Stefan H. Foord
Full Text Available The aim of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA is to document the Arachnida fauna of South Africa. One of the focus areas of SANSA is to survey protected areas to obtain species-specific information, and species distribution patterns for Red Data assessments. Here, we provide the first checklist of the spider species of Lekgalameetse Nature Reserve (LNR in the Limpopo province of South Africa collected during five surveys between 2009 and 2016 using methods targeting both the ground and field layers. Forty-five families, represented by 168 genera and 268 species, have been collected so far. The most species-rich families were the Salticidae (41 spp. and Araneidae (38 spp., followed by the Thomisidae (33 spp., while 11 families were represented by one species. Information on spider guilds, endemicity value and conservation status are provided. The LNR protects approximately 12.2% of the total South African spider fauna. Two species, Hasarinella distincta Haddad & Wesołowska, 2013 (Salticidae and Ballomma legala Jocqué & Henrard, 2015 (Zodariidae, are presently known to be endemic to the reserve.Conservation implications: The LNR falls within the Savanna Biome in the Limpopo province. Only five spider species were previously known from the reserve and 263 spp. are reported from the reserve for the first time. Thirteen species are possibly new to science and 2 species represent new distribution records for South Africa.
Liu, Jie; May-Collado, Laura J; Pekár, Stano; Agnarsson, Ingi
Cobweb spiders (Theridiidae) are highly diverse from the perspective of species richness, morphological diversity, variety of web architecture, and behavioral repertoires. The family includes over 50% of social spiders, a behavioral rarity among the order, and members of the family are furthermore the subject of research on venom, silk biomechanics, kleptoparasitism and web building, among other traits. Theridiidae is one of the most abundant groups of spiders, and thus key insect predators in many different ecosystems and is among relatively few spider families that show high degree of myrmecophagy. Modern comparative studies on all these fronts are best buttressed on a phylogenetic foundation. Our goal here is to offer a revised, dated, phylogenetic hypothesis for the family by summarizing previously published data from multiple molecular and morphological studies through data-mining, and adding novel data from several genera. We also test the hypothesis that the origin and diversification of cobweb spiders coincides with that of ants on which many species specialize as prey. The new phylogeny is largely congruent with prior studies and current taxonomy and should provide a useful tool for theridiid classification and for comparative analyses. Nevertheless, we also highlight the limitations of currently available data-the state of the art in Theridiidae phylogenetics-offering weak support for most of the deeper nodes in the phylogeny. Thus the need is clear for modern phylogenomic approaches to obtain a more solid understanding, especially of relationships among subfamilies. We recover the monophyly of currently recognized theridiid subfamilies with the exception of some enigmatic 'pholcommatines' (Styposis, Phoroncidia) and putative 'hadrotarsines' (Audifia, Tekellina) whose placement is uncertain in our analyses. Theridiidae dates back some 100 mya to the Cretaceous, a period of diversification in flowering plants and many groups of insects, including ants. The
Renan Castro Santana
Full Text Available Spiders are a diverse group and are considered to be good bioindicators due to their sensitivity to variation in biotic and abiotic factors. Despite this the taxonomy of the Araneae is poorly known, particularly in the tropical and subtropical regions. The use of spider guilds can improve our understanding of the dynamics of spider communities, and in this paper we analyse the influence of climatic factors on guilds and species dominance of spiders within the leaf litter layer of a semi-deciduous forest in the tropical savanna Cerrado, Brazil. The study site was Parque Ecológico Jatobá Centenário, a fragment of 90ha, in Morrinhos, Goiás, Brazil. Spiders were sampled from November 2006 to August 2007 using pitfall traps that remained open for seven days on each of four occasions. Overall 4139 spiders from 35 families and 118 species were collected. The main families were Salticidae (28%, Linyphiidae (27%, Lycosidae (12% and Theridiidae (11%. In terms of richness the main families were: Theridiidae, Salticidae, Corinnidae and Araneidae, with 18, 16, 15 and 13 species respectively. The overall Shannon-Wiener (H’ diversity was 3.6. The rainy season showed higher values than the dry season for abundance (2,868 and 1,271 respectively, richness (100 and 71 and diversity (3,296 and 3,237. The families Theridiidae, Corinnidae and Salticidae presented more species in both dry and wet seasons. Observed climatic variation (rainfall, humidity and temperature between seasons influenced the community structure of ground-dwelling spiders.
Full Text Available The South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA was initiated to make an inventory of the arachnid fauna of South Africa. Various projects are underway to prepare inventories of the spider fauna of the different floral biomes and provinces of South Africa. During April and May 2004 five different collecting methods were sed to sample spiders from four slopes on Sovenga Hill, an inselberg situated in the Savanna Biome, near Polokwane, in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. A total of 793 specimens represented by 29 families, 62 genera and 76 species were recorded over the twomonth period. The Thomisidae was the most abundant (n = 167 representing 21.1 % of all spiders sampled, followed by the Gnaphosidae (n = 101 with 12.7 % and the Lycosidae (n = 77 with 9.7 %. The most abundant species was a thomisid Tmarus comellini Garcia-Neto (n = 82, representing 10.3 % of the total, followed by a clubionid Clubiona godfreyi Lessert (n = 66 with 8.3 %. The Thomisidae was the most species-rich family with 12 species, followed by the Gnaphosidae with 11 species and the Araneidae with 10 species. Of the species collected 83.9 % were wandering spiders and 16.1 % web builders. This is the first quantitative survey of the Savanna Biome in the Polokwane area.
Full Text Available Effect of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae as predators of insect pest in alfalfa crops (Medicago sativa (Fabaceae in Argentina. Spiders are predators that reduce insect pest populations in agroecosystems. Trials were conducted to measure the selectivity against different insect preys, the daily consumption, effect of predators alone and together with a known number of preys, and the indirect effect of predators on vegetation. For this, experimental units (1x1m were used covered with a fine plastic mesh. Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus and Araneus sp. were used as generalist predators, and aphids, weevils, locusts, chrysomelids and Lepidoptera larvae as their potential preys. Among the preys offered, the spiders preferred Lepidoptera larvae compared to the other two pests groups (weevils and aphids. The maximum consumption rate was of 93.33% for Lepidoptera larvae, 25.33% for aphids and 11.67% for weevils. The Q Index values for the three species of spiders showed a positive selectivity only for defoliating larvae. O. salticus showed the highest values of consumption rates while Rachiplusia nu was the most consumed. The maximum value of consumption in 24 hours was showed by O. salticus on R. nu (C=2.8. The association of several species of predatory spiders increased the total number of insects captured, and also showed that the addition of spiders caused a decrease in the number of leaves damaged by the effect of lepidopterous larvae. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1651-1662. Epub 2011 December 01Las arañas son depredadoras capaces de reducir las poblaciones de insectos plaga en agroecosistemas. Para medir la selectividad frente a distintas presas, se realizaron ensayos de consumo diario, efecto de los depredadores aisladamente y en conjunto sobre el número de presas y efecto indirecto de los depredadores sobre la vegetación; se utilizaron jaulas experimentales de 1x1m cubiertas con una fina malla plástica. Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus y
Christie, Andrew E; Chi, Megan
The public deposition of large transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) datasets for the Araneae (true spiders) provides a resource for determining the structures of the native neuropeptides present in members of this chelicerate order. Here, the Araneae TSA data were mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts using the recently deduced neuropeptide precursors from the Western black widow Latrodectus hesperus as query templates. Neuropeptide-encoding transcripts from five spiders, Latrodectus tredecimguttatus, Stegodyphus mimosarum, Stegodyphus lineatus, Stegodyphus tentoriicola and Acanthoscurria geniculata, were identified, including ones encoding members of the allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, allatotropin, CAPA/periviscerokinin/pyrokinin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/ion transport peptide, diuretic hormone 31, diuretic hormone 44, eclosion hormone, FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP), GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide, orcokinin, proctolin, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide (TRP) families. A total of 156 distinct peptides were predicted from the precursor proteins deduced from the S. mimosarum transcripts, with 65, 26, 21 and 12 peptides predicted from those deduced from the A. geniculata, L. tredecimguttatus, S. lineatus and S. tentoriicola sequences, respectively. Among the peptides identified were variant isoforms of FLP, orcokinin and TRP, peptides whose structures are similar to ones previously identified from L. hesperus. The prediction of these atypical peptides from multiple spiders suggests that they may be broadly conserved within the Araneae rather than being species-specific variants. Taken collectively, the data described here greatly expand the number of known Araneae neuropeptides, providing a foundation for future functional studies of peptidergic signaling in this important Chelicerate order. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Charles R. Haddad
Full Text Available As part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA in conserved areas, arachnids were collected in the De Hoop Nature Reserve in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The survey was carried out between 1999 and 2007, and consisted of five intensive surveys between two and 12 days in duration. Arachnids were sampled in five broad habitat types, namely fynbos, wetlands, i.e. De Hoop Vlei, Eucalyptus plantations at Potberg and Cupido’s Kraal, coastal dunes near Koppie Alleen and the intertidal zone at Koppie Alleen. A total of 274 species representing five orders, 65 families and 191 determined genera were collected, of which spiders (Araneae were the dominant taxon (252 spp., 174 genera, 53 families. The most species rich families collected were the Salticidae (32 spp., Thomisidae (26 spp., Gnaphosidae (21 spp., Araneidae (18 spp., Theridiidae (16 spp. and Corinnidae (15 spp.. Notes are provided on the most commonly collected arachnids in each habitat.Conservation implications: This study provides valuable baseline data on arachnids conserved in De Hoop Nature Reserve, which can be used for future assessments of habitat transformation, alien invasive species and climate change on arachnid biodiversity.
Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775) was recorded from Germany. The species was most likely introduced with cargo from Chicago, USA. Characters of the single female are illustrated for future identification.
Full Text Available Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775 was recorded from Germany. The species was most likely introduced with cargo from Chicago, USA. Characters of the single female are illustrated for future identification.
Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775) was recorded from Germany. The species was most likely introduced with cargo from Chicago, USA. Characters of the single female are illustrated for future identification.
Melina Soledad Almada
Full Text Available Las arañas tienen un valor potencial considerable por su rol depredador de insectos, estas son plagas de la agricultura. Durante la campaña agrícola 2005/06, en INTA Reconquista, Santa Fe (Argentina se estudio la composición de arañas presentes en cultivos de algodón transgénico y convencional, mediante un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con tres repeticiones y tres tratamientos: algodón transgénico Bt (ALBt, algodón convencional sin control químico (ALCSC y con control químico (ALCCC. Semanalmente, se capturaron arañas, con una red entomológica de arrastre, paño vertical de 1m y trampas de caída. Asimismo se recolectaron 1 255 ejemplares (16 familias y 32 especies. Siete familias se presentaron en los tres tratamientos, donde predomino Thomisidae (n=1 051, 84.04% y Araneidae (n=83, 6.64%. El gremio cazadoras por emboscada (n=1 053, 83.91%, “Tejedoras de telas orbiculares” (n=85, 6.77% y “Cazadoras al acecho” (n=53, 4.22% fueron las más abundantes. No hubo diferencias significativas en los índices de diversidad entre tratamientos. Las arañas se presentaron durante todo el ciclo del cultivo, con picos en las semanas de floración y madurez de las capsulas, además la mayor abundancia la encontramos en el ALBt. Este trabajo constituye el primer registro sobre la comunidad de arañas en cultivos de algodón para Argentina.Arachnofauna (Araneae: Araneae in transgenic and conventional cotton crops (Gossypiumhirsutum in the North of Santa Fe, Argentina. Spiders have considerable potential importance for their role as predators to some pests in agricultural systems. The composition of spiders in transgenic and conventional cotton at the Research Station of INTA Reconquista (Santa Fe was studied during the 2005-2006 season. The experiment was a complete randomized block design with three replications and three treatments: transgenic Bt cotton (ALBt, conventional cotton without chemical control (ALCSC, and
Full Text Available A glândula peçonhenta de Latrodectus mactans compõe-se: 1. De um saco formado por uma membrana de tecido conjuntivo peritonial, que se projeta proximalmente no ducto de peçonha. 2. De um manto externo, formado por 40-45 feixes musculares, circundando 3/4 da glândula, helicoidalmente. Os feixes inserem-se nas extremidades apical e basal da membrana sarcoperitonial; sua contração impele a peçonha, através do ducto, para as garras. 3. Do epitélio glandular, composto: a de células da glândula principal, b de células da glândula auxiliar, c de célula da glândula situada à entrada do ducto. As células das glândulas principal e auxiliar, juntas, formam uma unidade glandular de natureza ragiócrina. A secreção das células da glândula auxiliar passa, através das membranas celulares, para o interior das células glandulares principais, deslocando-se, juntamente com a secreção destas, para o pólo apical, a que ambas confluem, formando uma substância viscosa, fortemente condensada em virtude da eliminação de certos líquidos. Após a formação de 8 a 10 destas porções de secreções, os dois tipos de células esgotam-se; não se dá a regeneração ou substituição por outras células. A quantidade de peçonha, uma vez produzida, é armazenada na cavidade da glândula, sendo suficiente para tôda a vida do animal. As células da glândula situada á entrada do ducto, ou glândula lipócrina, produzem uma substãncia lipóide. Esta substância dissolve uma porção de corpúsculos das secreções segregadas pelas células principais e auxiliares. O líquido resultante é inoculado no tecido da prêsa ou do inimigo, por contração do manto muscular. Ao mesmo tempo, novas porções da peçonha armazenada são transportadas no sentido proximal e dissolvidas no líquido lipóide, preparando-se, assim, nova peçonha para outra picada. As formas das células e os pormenores histológicos estão explicados nas figuras que acompanham êste texto. Os músculos da glândula, ao contrário do que afirmam outros autores, verificamos serem de natureza "tetãnica", apresentando uma estriação transversal, típica. Certas zonas, porém, ricas em sarcoplasma, possuem propriedades "tônicas", mantendo-se sempre em certo grau de contratura que provoca a tensão adequada na membrana sarcoperitonial, o que permite um efeito imediato da contração da parte tetânica, no momento da picada.
Van Keer, Johann
Full Text Available The previously unknown male of Steatoda ephippiata (Thorell, 1875 is described from recently collected material in Tunisia. Some new distribution records for the species are added and all known records are mapped.
Marques, Maria Aparecida L.; Buckup, Erica Helena; Rodrigues, Everton Nei Lopes
Neopisinus gen. nov. é proposto com designação da espécie-tipo Neopisisnus fiapo sp. nov., com base em ambos os sexos, do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Neopisinus distingue-se de todos os gêneros de Spintharinae pelo palpo do macho com enorme condutor trífido, com duas projeções afiladas e uma com ápice bifurcado; pela forma característica da apófise tegular de theridioideos com um lobo terminal e outro dorsal. Nas fêmeas, epígino com aberturas inconspícuas junto à fenda transversal no terço ant...
Clark, W.H. (Albertson College of Idaho, Caldwell (United States) Univ. of Idaho, Moscow (United States)); Blom, P.E. (Univ. of Idaho, Moscow (United States))
Spiders are known predators of ants. Pressure exerted by consistent spider predation can alter the behavior of ant colonies (MacKay 1982) and may be a selective pressure contributing to the seed-harvesting behavior of Pogonomyrmex (MacKay and MacKay 1984). The authors observed the spider Euryopis formosa Banks (Araneae: Theridiidae) capture and transport workers of the harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex salinus Olsen [Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Myrmicinae]) in southeastern Idaho. Additional observations revealed a crab spider of the genus Xysticus preying on P. salinus and the presence of a chloropid fly (Incertella) that may have been parasitizing the moribund prey subdued by the spider.
Full Text Available The spider family Selenopidae Simon occurs worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions, currently containing nearly 200 species in five genera. We relimit and revise the family to include four new genera and 27 new species from Australia and Asia. The family Selenopidae is redefined, as are the genera Anyphops Benoit, Garcorops Corronca, Hovops Benoit, Selenops Latreille, and Siamspinops Dankittipakul and Corronca, to accommodate the new genera and to correct previous errors in the definition. The species of Selenops that occur throughout India and China are also reviewed. Three species occur in China: S. bursarius Karsch, also known from Japan, Korea and Taiwan, S. ollarius Zhu, Sha, and Chen, and S. radiatus Latreille, the type of the genus and most widespread selenopid. Selenops cordatus Zhu, Sha, and Chen is recognized as a junior synonym of S. radiatus, syn. n. Amamanganops gen. n. is monotypic, with A. baginawa sp. n., and is known only from the Philippine island of Mindoro. Godumops gen. n. is monotypic, with G. careus sp. n., and is known only from Papua New Guinea. Karaops gen. n. occurs throughout Australia and has 24 species: K. australiensis (L. Koch comb. n., K. gangarie sp. n., K. monteithi sp. n., K. alanlongbottomi sp. n., K. keithlongbottomi sp. n., K. larryoo sp. n., K. jarrit sp. n., K. marrayagong sp. n., K. raveni sp. n., K. badgeradda sp. n., K. burbidgei sp. n., K. karrawarla sp. n., K. julianneae sp. n., K. martamarta sp. n., K. manaayn sp. n., K. vadlaadambara sp. n., K. pilkingtoni sp. n., K. deserticola sp. n., K. ngarutjaranya sp. n., K. francesae sp. n., K. toolbrunup sp. n., the type species K. ellenae sp. n., K. jenniferae sp. n., and K. dawara sp. n. The genus Makdiops gen. n. contains five species from India and Nepal: M. agumbensis (Tikader, comb. n., the type of the genus M. mahishasura sp. n., M. montigenus (Simon, comb. n., M. nilgirensis (Reimoser comb. n., and M. shiva sp. n. The genus Pakawops gen. n. is monotypic and contains P. formosanus (Kayashima comb. n. known only from Taiwan. Finally, Selenops aculeatus Simon is transferred to the genus Siamspinops, forming the new combination S. aculeatus (Simon comb. n. The distribution and diversity of the Australasian selenopid fauna is discussed. Keys are provided to all of the selenopid genera and to the species of Karaops and Makdiops.
In this study, some additions were made on arachnofauna in Turkey. We recorded Drassodex Murphy, 2007 genus and six gnaphosid species: Drassodex hypocrita (Simon, 1878), Drassodes cupreus (Blackwall, 1834), Echemus angustifrons (Westring, 1861), Setaphis gomerae (Schmidt, 1981), Trachyzelotes fuscipes (L.
Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.
Full Text Available This paper presents some results of a forest ecology research project by the University of Munich’s faculty of Forestry, involving the comparison of forests designed to reflect varying degrees of naturalness. Spiders on the ground and on trunks in four different forests in the Hienheimer Forst were caught with 24 ground photo eclectors, 8 arboreal eclectors and with 40 pitfall traps. Habitat requirements were measured and analysed with particular attention to forest soil. Abiotic parameters and the structure of the litter layer were recorded. The most frequent spiders were the Linyphiidae, Agelenidae and Amaurobidae.63 species of the family Linyphiidae were caught. One half of the Linyphiidae-species could be found on trunks of oak and spruce (eclector fauna. In terms of the number of spider species and in the portion of rare and endangered species there were almost no differences between commercial forest areas and conservation areas. The differences are not as great as the original classification according to closeness to the natural state had led us to expect.
Wijnhoven, H.; Koomen, P.
Nemastoma bimaculatum in The Netherlands (Arachnida: Opilionida). All records of Nemastoma bimaculatum (Fabricius, 1775) from The Netherlands are summarized. The identification is discussed as well as some findings at a new locality, a forest on a lateral moraine, near Nijmegen.
Full Text Available The widow spider genus Latrodectus Walckenaer, 1805, in India is represented by three species L. erythromelas Schmidt & Klaas, 1991, L. geometricus C.L. Koch, 1841 and L. hasselti Thorell, 1870. In this paper, we report the occurrence of Lactrodectus elegans Thorell, 1898 for the first time from India. We provide additional information on taxonomy and natural history based on the specimens collected from Manipur.
Full Text Available Records of Nesticodes rufipes (Lucas, 1846 from Saxony, Germany are presented. The three females of Nesticodes rufipes were found associated with the zoo trade in the cities of Chemnitz and Plauen in cricket boxes. Female genitalia are illustrated.
Vetter, Richard S; Vincent, Leonard S; Danielsen, Douglas W R; Reinker, Kathryn I; Clarke, Daniel E; Itnyre, Amelia A; Kabashima, John N; Rust, Michael K
The brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, has become newly established in southern California during the first decade of the 21st century. Brown widows and egg sacs were collected within the urban Los Angeles Basin using timed searches. We also collected and compared the abundance and distribution of the native western black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus Chamberlin & Ivie, to brown widows. Brown widows were very common around urban structures especially outside homes, in parks, under playground equipment, in plant nurseries and landscaping areas, greatly outnumbering native western black widows, and were very rare or nonexistent in garages, agricultural crops, and natural areas. Western black widows predominated in xeric habitats and were less prevalent around homes. Neither species was found in the living space of homes. In southern California, envenomation risk exists because brown widows are now common in urban areas and the spiders hide where people place their fingers and exert pressure to move objects (e.g., under the curled lip of potted plants, in the recessed handle of plastic trash bins). Nonetheless, brown widow spider bites are less toxic than those of native western black widow spiders and, hence, if they are displacing black widows, overall widow envenomation risk may actually be lower than before brown widow establishment.
Ozone fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of Western black widow spider (BWS), Latrodectus hesperus (Chamberlin and Ivie), in fresh table grapes destined for export from California USA. Mature adult female black widow spiders were contained in separate gas-permeable cages within a flo...
Vink, Cor J; Sirvid, Phillip J; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba
New Zealand has two endemic widow spiders, Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 and L. atritus Urquhart, 1890. Both species face many conservation threats and are actively managed. The species status of the Latrodectus spiders of New Zealand was assessed using molecular (COI, ITS1, ITS2) and morpholog...
Romero, Fernando; Altieri, Elena; Urrutia, Mauricio; Jara, Jorge
The venoms of Latrodectus sp. have been reported to induce contraction probably mediated by adrenergic and cholinergic transmitters. We have demonstrated that the venom of Chilean Latrodectus mactans contains neurotoxins that induce a contraction partially independent of transmitters release. Transmembrane mobility of Na+ and Ca2+ ions and more specifically, the increase of cytoplasmic calcium concentration are responsible for tonic contraction in smooth muscle. Calcium may enter the cell by several ways, such as the voltage-dependent Ca2+ L-type channels and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. This study aimed to examine the participation of this exchanger in the tonic contraction of smooth muscle in vas deferent of rat induced by the venom of the Chilean spider L. mactans. Blockers of Na+ channels (amiloride) and Ca2+ L-type channels (nifedipine), and a stimulator of the exchanger (modified Tyrode, Na+ 80 mM) were used. Simultaneously, variations of the cytoplasmic concentration of Ca2+ were registered by microfluorimetry (Fura-2 indicator) in the presence of nifedipine. In presence of amiloride, dose-dependent inhibition of venom-induced contraction was observed, suggesting the participation of voltage-dependent Ca2+ L-type channels. The contraction was only partially inhibited by nifedipine and the Ca2+ cytoplasmic concentration increased, as assessed by the microfluorimetric registration. Finally, the venom-induced contraction increased in the presence of modified Tyrode, probably due to the action of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Taken together, our results support the idea that the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger is active and may be, at least in part, responsible for the contraction induced by the venom of Chilean L. mactans.
Dias, Maria de Fátima da Rocha; Brazil, Tania Kobler
Latrodectus gr. mactans is responsible for 28% of ali accidents provoked by spiders in state of Bahia, Brazil (1980-1990), which makes necessary the study of its manejament. The spiders were captured in Ondina, Salvador, and in Baxio, Esplanada (Bahia, Brazil); they were mantained in captivity, with food supply weekly (Atta sp., larva of Tenebrio sp. and Drosophila melanogaster) with three hours/ offers observation time, during march/95 to april/96. In captivity, the spiders accepted two kind...
Fernando Romero M.
Full Text Available El veneno de arañas del género Latrodectus induce contracción de músculo liso de mamíferos, postulándose como posible mecanismo la liberación de mediadores adrenérgicos y colinérgicos. El veneno de Latrodectus mactans de Chile contiene neurotoxinas que inducen actividad contráctil en músculo liso en forma parcialmente independiente de actividades adrenérgicas y colinérgicas, lo que deja abiertas interrogantes sobre el mecanismo de acción del veneno. La respuesta tónica en músculo liso depende de la movilidad de los iones sodio (Na+ y calcio (Ca2+ y, más es-pecíficamente, de la concentración de Ca2+ citoplasmático. Una de las vías de ingreso del calcio al músculo liso, además de los canales tipo L de Ca2+ , es el intercambiador Na+/Ca2+ . En el presente trabajo se estudia la posible participación de este intercambiador en la respuesta tónica inducida por el veneno sobre músculo liso del conducto deferente de rata, en un modelo de órgano aislado. Utilizando bloqueadores de canales de Na+ (amiloride y Ca2+ (nifedipina y una solución estimuladora del intercambiador (Tyrode pobre en sodio, se realizaron registros de tensión isométrica inducida por el veneno. Simultáneamente al uso de nifedipina, se registraron las variaciones de la [Ca2+] citoplasmática mediante microfluorimetría. Se observó que la inhibición de la contracción en presencia de amiloride depende de su concentración, mostrando una participación de los canales de Ca2+ dependientes de voltaje en la contracción. En presencia de nifedipina, la contracción inducida por el veneno sólo fue parcialmente inhibida, y la microfluorimetría mostró un aumento de la concentración de Ca2+ citoplasmático en presencia del bloqueador, lo que indica una participación de otros mecanismos para el ingreso de Ca2+ a la célula. Por último, al disminuir la concentración de Na+ extracelular se estimuló la contracción tónica en un 30.7%, atribuible, al menos en parte, al intercambiador Na+/Ca2+ . Estos resultados permiten proponer que el intercambiador Na+/Ca2+ se encuentra activo durante la contracción tónica inducida por el veneno de L. mactans de Chile y podría ser uno de los responsables del desarrollo de tensión.The venoms of Latrodectus sp. have been reported to induce contraction probably mediated by adrenergic and cholinergic transmitters. We have demonstrated that the venom of Chilean Latrodectus mactans contains neurotoxins that induce a contraction partially independent of transmitters release. Transmembrane mobility of Na+ and Ca2+ ions and more specifically, the increase of cytoplasmic calcium concentration are responsible for tonic contraction in smooth muscle. Calcium may enter the cell by several ways, such as the voltage-dependent Ca2+ L-type channels and the Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger. This study aimed to examine the participation of this exchanger in the tonic contraction of smooth muscle in vas deferent of rat induced by the venom of the Chilean spider L. mactans. Blockers of Na+ channels (amiloride and Ca2+ L-type channels (nifedipine, and a stimulator of the exchanger (modified Tyrode, Na+ 80 mM were used. Simultaneously, variations of the cytoplasmic concentration of Ca2+ were registered by microfluorimetry (Fura-2 indicator in the presence of nifedipine. In presence of amiloride, dose-dependent inhibition of venom-induced contraction was observed, suggesting the participation of voltage-dependent Ca2+ L-type channels. The contraction was only partially inhibited by nifedipine and the Ca2+ cytoplasmic concentration increased, as assessed by the microfluorimetric registration. Finally, the venom-induced contraction increased in the presence of modified Tyrode, probably due to the action of the Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger. Taken together, our results support the idea that the Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger is active and may be, at least in part, responsible for the contraction induced by the venom of Chilean L. mactans.
Garb, Jessica E; González, Alda; Gillespie, Rosemary G
The spider genus Latrodectus includes the widely known black widows, notorious because of the extreme potency of their neurotoxic venom. The genus has a worldwide distribution and comprises 30 currently recognized species, the phylogenetic relationships of which were previously unknown. Several members of the genus are synanthropic, and are increasingly being detected in new localities, an occurrence attributed to human mediated movement. In particular, the nearly cosmopolitan range of the brown widow, Latrodectus geometricus, is a suspected consequence of human transport. Although the taxonomy of the genus has been examined repeatedly, the recognition of taxa within Latrodectus has long been considered problematic due to the difficulty associated with identifying morphological features exhibiting discrete geographic boundaries. This paper presents, to our knowledge, the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the Latrodectus genus and is generated from DNA sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I. We recover two well-supported reciprocally monophyletic clades within the genus: (1) the geometricus clade, consisting of Latrodectus rhodesiensis from Africa, and its is sister species, the cosmopolitan L. geometricus, and (2) the mactans clade containing all other Latrodectus species sampled, including taxa occurring in Africa, the Middle East, Iberian Peninsula, Australia, New Zealand, and North and South America. Recovery of the geometricus and mactans clades is consistent with previous designations of species groups within the genus based on female genitalic morphology. All L. geometricus sampled, consisting of specimens from Africa, Argentina, North America, and Hawaii, were recovered as a strongly supported monophyletic group with minimal amounts of genetic divergence, corroborating the hypothesis that human transport has recently expanded the range of this species.
Full Text Available The spider collection (Arachnida: Araneae from Albania and Kosovo in the Senckenberg Research Institute, Frankfurt am Main is reviewed. A total of 122 adult specimens were found belonging to 73 species. Records of 48 species for Albania and 28 species for Kosovo, 20 of them new to Kosovo, are presented. Furthermore there are seven new country records for Albania: Platnickina nigropunctata, Erigone remota, Tenuiphantes tenebricola, Pardosa agrestis, Callobius claustrarius and Zelotes femellus. Additionally, Pardosa cavannae is the first record for the Balkan Peninsula. So far 381 species are known for Albania. A total of 106 species is known from Kosovo now; a list of the 86 spider species formerly known to Kosovo is included.
Full Text Available Arachnids (Chelicerata: Arachnida were collected in the Ndumo Game Reserve (Maputaland, South Africa during 11 collecting trips in the period 2000–2006. Sampling was undertaken by various methods in eight broad habitat types: Acacia tortilis savanna; Acacia xanthophloea (fever tree forests; deciduous broadleaf woodland; Ficus (wild fig tree forests; floodplain vegetation; riparian forest; sand forest; and subtropical bush. In total, 457 species of arachnids were collected, representing six orders, 59 families and 240 determined genera. The most diverse order was the Araneae (46 families, 431 spp., followed by the Pseudoscorpiones (6 families, 12 spp., Scorpiones (3 families, 8 spp., Opiliones (2 families, 3 spp., Solifugae (1 family, 2 spp. and Amblypygi (a single species. The most diverse families all belonged to the Araneae: Salticidae (82 spp., Thomisidae (56 spp. and Araneidae (38 spp.. The spider diversity is the highest recorded from any protected area in South Africa so far, and represents approximately 22 % of the country’s spider fauna. The habitat and guild associations of each species are provided.
Marco Antonio Desales-Lara
Full Text Available La construcción de ciudades constituye la transformación más drástica, fundamental e irreversible de los sistemas naturales, reemplazando todo componente biótico y abiótico original del lugar. Entre los artrópodos que han podido adaptarse a los ambientes urbanos se encuentran las arañas. Se encontraron 41 especies en el interior de 12 casas de 2 niveles de la ciudad de Toluca, ubicadas en 4 ambientes con diferente grado de urbanización, durante el periodo de septiembre del 2009 a agosto del 2010. Por primera vez se empleó un método sistematizado para recolecta de arañas en el interior de las viviendas. La diversidad de arañas fue diferente en cada uno de los ambientes muestreados; el índice de Shannon (H' mostró que la diversidad de arañas es mayor en las casas que presentan jardín en el ambiente urbano, por lo que no se apoya la hipótesis del disturbio intermedio. El número de arañas encontradas fue mayor en el primer nivel de las viviendas que en el segundo, por lo que se proponen 3 hipótesis para explicar esta diferencia. Se propone la prueba de Olmstead-Tukey para determinar los 4 niveles de sinantropismo (N. S., ya que la prueba engloba valores utilizados en los índices de densidad e infestación (ocupación.City-building is the most drastic, fundamental and irreversible transformation of natural environments, replacing all original biotic and abiotic components of the site. Spiders are among the arthropods that have become adapted to urban environments. We found 41 species within 12 two-story houses of the city of Toluca, located in 4 environments with different degrees of urbanization, during the period September 2009-August 2010. For the first time a systematic method was used to collect spiders inside houses with even collecting efforts. The diversity of spiders is different in each of the sampled environments, the Shannon index (H ' indicated that the diversity of spiders was higher in houses with gardens in the urban environment, so it does not support the hypothesis of intermediate disturbance. The number of spiders found is higher on the first level of houses than on the second, and 3 hypotheses are proposed to explain this difference. The Olmstead-Tukey test is proposed to determine the 4 levels of synanthropism (N. S., since the test includes values used in the density and infestation rates (occupation.
Hammen, van der L.
A comparative study is made of four chelicerate classes: Apatellata (Solifugae and Pseudoscorpionida), Arachnida s. str. (both groups of Uropygi, i.e. Holopeltida and Schizomida, Amblypygi and Araneida), Scorpionida and Xiphosura. Methods, principles and terminology, adopted in this paper,
Comportamento e dieta alimentar de uma espécie de Latrodectus do grupo Mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae em cativeiro Behavior and diet supply of Latrodectus group Mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae in captivity
Maria de Fátima da Rocha Dias
Full Text Available Latrodectus gr. mactans is responsible for 28% of ali accidents provoked by spiders in state of Bahia, Brazil (1980-1990, which makes necessary the study of its manejament. The spiders were captured in Ondina, Salvador, and in Baxio, Esplanada (Bahia, Brazil; they were mantained in captivity, with food supply weekly (Atta sp., larva of Tenebrio sp. and Drosophila melanogaster with three hours/ offers observation time, during march/95 to april/96. In captivity, the spiders accepted two kinds of food: Atta sp., which seems to be the major item of its diet in natural conditions, and larva of Tenebrio sp., which is not available in natural conditions. Drosophila melanogaster was systematically rejected. The feeding behavior iscomposed by four distinct steps: (1 imrnobilization, (2 inoculation, (3 second immobilization and (4 ingestion. Two kinds of social alimentary behavior are descri-bed. The results indicated that larvae of Tenebrio sp. can be an alternative supply for successfull maintenance of this specie in captivity.
Avalos, Gilberto; Damborsky, Miryam P; Bar, María E; Oscherov, Elena B; Porcel, E
A survey of the spider community composition and diversity was carried out in grasslands and woods in three localities: Colonia Pellegrini, Paraje Galarza and Estancia Rinc6n (Iberá province Reserve). Pit fall traps, leaf litter sifting, foliage beating, hand collecting and sweep nets were used. Shannon's diversity index, evenness, Berger-Parker's dominance index, beta and gamma diversity were calculated, and a checklist of spider fauna was compiled. Species richness was estimated by Chao 1, Chao 2, first and second order Jack-knife. A total of 4,138 spiders grouped into 150 species from 33 families of Araneomorphae and two species from two families of Mygalomorphae were collected. Five species are new records for Argentina and eleven for Corrientes province. Araneidae was the most abundant family (39.8%), followed by Salticidae (10.9%), Anyphaenidae (7.9%), Tetragnathidae (7.4%), and Lycosidae (5.5%). The other families represented less than 5% of the total catch. The web-builder guild had the highest number of specimens and the highest richness index. The abundance, observed richness, Shannon diversity and evenness indexes were highest in Colonia Pellegrini woodland and Paraje Galarza grassland. Alpha diversity represented 89% of the gamma; the remaining 11% corresponded to beta diversity. According to the indexes, between 67% and 97% of the existing spider fauna was represented in the collected specimens from Iberá.
C. K. Adarsh
Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to document spider diversity in Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Idukki District, Kerala State in southern India. The study was conducted from October to November 2012. A total of 101 species of spiders belonging to 65 genera from 29 families were identified from the sanctuary. This accounted for 6.98% of Indian spider species, 17.81% of Indian spider genera and 48.33% of the spider families of India. The dominant families were Lycosidae (11 species and Araneidae (10. Two endemic genera of Indian spiders such as Annandaliella and Neoheterophrictus were found at Chinnar, each representing one species each, and belonging to the family Theraphosidae. A guild structure analysis of the spiders revealed seven feeding guilds such as orb weavers, stalkers, ground runners, foliage runners, sheet web builders, space web builders and ambushers.
Full Text Available The Swartberg Nature Reserve is situated in the Large Swartberg mountain range, in the Oudtshoorn district of the Western Cape Province. Spiders were collected from the reserve over a 10-year period. This is one of the inventory projects of the South African National Survey (SANSA for spiders of the Succulent Karoo Biome. A total of 45 families comprising 136 genera and 186 species were collected, all which are new records for the area. This represents about 9.4 of the total known South African spider fauna. Of the spiders collected 142 species (76.5 were wanderers and 44 (23.5 web dwellers. The plant dwellers comprised 43.3 of the total number of species and the ground dwellers 56.7 . The Gnaphosidae was the most diverse family represented by 33 species, followed by the Salticidae with 23 and Thomisidae with 15. Ten species are possibly new to science and the Filistatidae is a first record for South Africa. An annotated checklist with information on the guilds, habitat preference and web types are provided.
Sachin P. Ranade
Full Text Available The emergence of a mermithid worm from a huntsman spider Heteropoda venatoria was witnessed at Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal. It appears to be a first record of the spider family Sparassidae serving as a host for a member of the family Mermithidae.
Full Text Available The araneoid spider family Micropholcommatidae Hickman, previously containing 34 southern-temperate species in eight genera, is relimited and revised at the generic level to include 18 genera from Australia, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and Chile. Three subfamilies are proposed, and a new phylogenetic hypothesis for the family is presented as a result of two morphological cladistic analyses, used to test the phylogenetic position and phylogeny of the known micropholcommatid taxa. These cladistic analyses inferred a monophyletic Micropholcommatidae, belonging to the diverse araneoid symphytognathidan lineage, with the families Anapidae, Symphytognathidae and Micropholcommatidae further united by the newly proposed 'EbCY' clade. The genus Teutoniella Brignoli, previously included in the Micropholcommatidae, was found to be most closely related to an undescribed genus from South Africa, together forming a distinctive ‘teutoniellid’ lineage within the EbCY clade. The subfamily Micropholcommatinae Hickman, new rank contains the bulk of micropholcommatid diversity, with three tribes, 15 genera and 45 described species. The micropholcommatine tribe Micropholcommatini Hickman, new rank includes the nominate genus Micropholcomma Crosby & Bishop, along with three additional genera from Australasia and Chile: Micropholcomma has eight species, including the type, M. caeligenum Crosby & Bishop, and M. junee sp. n.; Pua Forster is monotypic, with P. novaezealandiae Forster; Tricellina Forster & Platnick is also monotypic, with T. gertschi (Forster & Platnick; and Austropholcomma gen. n. has two species, including the type A. florentine sp. n., and A. walpole sp. n. The micropholcommatine tribe Textricellini Hickman, new rank is a diverse and distinctive lineage, including all species previously described in the genus Textricella Hickman, which is hereby recognised as a junior generic synonym of Eterosonycha Butler syn. n.; the 20 previously described species of Textricella are thus transferred into Eterosonycha or other newly described genera. The Textricellini includes 10 genera from Australasia and Chile: Eterosonycha has four species, including the type E. alpina Butler (=Textricella parva Hickman syn. n., E. complexa (Forster, E. aquilina sp. n. and E. ocellata sp. n.; Epigastrina gen. n. has three species, including the type E. fulva (Hickman, E. loongana sp. n. and E. typhlops sp. n.; Guiniella gen. n. is monotypic, with G. tropica (Forster; Raveniella gen. n. has three species, including the type R. luteola (Hickman, R. hickmani (Forster and R. peckorum sp. n.; Rayforstia gen. n. has 12 species, including the type R. vulgaris (Forster, the two new species R. lordhowensis sp. n. and R. raveni sp. n., and the nine additional species R. antipoda (Forster, R. insula (Forster, R. mcfarlanei (Forster, R. plebeia (Forster, R. propinqua (Forster, R. salmoni (Forster, R. scuta (Forster, R. signata (Forster and R. wisei (Forster; Normplatnicka gen. n. has three species, including the type N. lamingtonensis (Forster, N. chilensis sp. n. and N. barrettae sp. n.; Eperiella gen. n. has two species, including the type E. alsophila sp. n., and E. hastings sp. n.; Algidiella gen. n. is monotypic, with A. aucklandica (Forster; Taliniella gen. n. has two species, including the type T. nigra (Forster, and T. vinki sp. n.; and Tinytrella gen. n. is monotypic, with T. pusilla (Forster. The micropholcommatine tribe Patelliellini trib. n. includes only one monotypic genus, Patelliella gen. n., represented by the enigmatic species Patelliella adusta sp. n. from Lord Howe Island. The subfamily Taphiassinae subfam. n. includes two genera of distinctive, heavily punctate Micropholcommatidae from Australasia: Taphiassa Simon has six species, including the type T. impressa Simon, T. punctata (Forster, T. castanea sp. n., T. globosa sp. n., T. magna sp. n. and T. robertsi sp. n.; the genus Parapua Forster, erected by Forster (1959 for P. punctata, is hereby recognised as a junior generic synonym of Taphiassa (syn. n.. The endemic Tasmanian genus Olgania Hickman has five species, including the type O. excavata Hickman, O. cracroft sp. n., O. eberhardi sp. n., O. troglodytes sp. n. and O. weld sp. n. The subfamily Gigiellinae subfam. n. includes only one genus from south-eastern Australia and Chile, Gigiella gen. n., described for the two species G. milledgei sp. n. and G. platnicki sp. n. The distribution, diversity and Gondwanan biogeography of the Micropholcommatidae are discussed, and natural history information is provided where known; webs and egg sacs of Taphiassinae are described for the first time. Species level monographic coverage is provided for those faunas of conservation or biogeographic significance, including the largely undescribed Western Australian fauna, the Lord Howe Island fauna, the Tasmanian cave fauna and the southern Chilean fauna, with other species of conservation or biogeographic importance also described. In total, 26 new species, 12 new genera, one new tribe and two new subfamilies are described, taking the total documented micropholcommatid fauna to 58 species.
Crews, Sarah C.; Harvey, Mark S.
Abstract We relimit and revise the family Selenopidae to include four new genera and 27 new species from Australia and the Oriental Region. The family is redefined, as are the genera Anyphops Benoit, Garcorops Corronca, Hovops Benoit, Selenops Latreille, and Siamspinops Dankittipakul & Corronca, to accommodate the new genera and to correct previous inconsistencies in the diagnoses and definitions of the aforementioned genera. The species of Selenops that occur throughout India and China are also reviewed. Three species occur in China: Selenops bursarius Karsch 1879, also known from Japan, Korea and Taiwan, Selenops ollarius Zhu, Sha, & Chen 1990, and Selenops radiatus Latreille 1819, the type of the genus and most widespread selenopid. Selenops cordatus Zhu, Sha & Chen syn. n. is recognized as a junior synonym of Selenops radiatus. Amamanganops gen. n. is monotypic, with Amamanganops baginawa sp. n. (♀; from the Philippines). Godumops gen. n. is monotypic, with Godumops caritus sp. n. (♂; from Papua New Guinea). Karaops gen. n. occurs throughout Australia and includes 24 species. A new combination is proposed for Karaops australiensis (L. Koch 1875) comb. n. (ex. Selenops), and the new species: Karaops gangarie sp. n. (♀, ♂), Karaops monteithi sp. n. (♀), Karaops alanlongbottomi sp. n. (♂), Karaops keithlongbottomi sp. n. (♂), Karaops larryoo sp. n. (♂), Karaops jarrit sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops marrayagong sp. n. (♀), Karaops raveni sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops badgeradda sp. n. (♀), Karaops burbidgei sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops karrawarla sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops julianneae sp. n. (♀), Karaops martamarta sp. n. (♀), Karaops manaayn sp. n. (♀, ♂), Karaops vadlaadambara sp. n. (♀, ♂), Karaops pilkingtoni sp. n. (♀, ♂), Karaops deserticola sp. n. (♀), Karaops ngarutjaranya sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops francesae sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops toolbrunup sp. n. (♀, ♂), the type species Karaops ellenae sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops jenniferae sp. n. (♀), and Karaops dawara sp. n. (♀).The genus Makdiops gen. n. contains five species from India and Nepal. A new combination is proposed for Makdiops agumbensis (Tikader 1969), comb. n., Makdiops montigenus (Simon 1889), comb. n., Makdiops nilgirensis (Reimoser 1934) comb. n.,(ex. Selenops). Also, there are two new species the type of the genus Makdiops mahishasura sp. n. (♀; from India), and Makdiops shiva sp. n. (♀). The genus Pakawops gen. n. is monotypic. A new combination is proposed for Pakawops formosanus (Kayashima 1943) comb. n. (ex. Selenops), known only from Taiwan. A new combination is proposed for Siamspinops aculeatus (Simon)comb. n. (ex. Selenops). The distribution and diversity of the studied selenopid fauna is discussed. Finally, keys are provided to all of the selenopid genera and to the species of Karaops gen. n.and Makdiops gen. n. PMID:21738435
Abstract The study of parasitoids and their hosts suffers from a lack of reliable taxonomic data. We use a combination of morphological characters and DNA sequences to produce taxonomic determinations that can be verified with reference to specimens in an accessible collection and DNA barcode sequences posted to the Barcode of Life database (BOLD). We demonstrate that DNA can be successfully extracted from consumed host spiders and the shed pupal case of a wasp using non-destructive methods. We found Acrodactyla quadrisculpta to be a parasitoid of Tetragnatha montana; Zatypota percontatoria and Zatypota bohemani both are parasitoids of Neottiura bimaculata. Zatypota anomala is a parasitoid of an as yet unidentified host in the family Dictynidae, but the host species may be possible to identify in the future as the library of reference sequences on BOLD continues to grow. The study of parasitoids and their hosts traditionally requires specialized knowledge and techniques, and accumulating data is a slow process. DNA barcoding could allow more professional and amateur naturalists to contribute data to this field of study. A publication venue dedicated to aggregating datasets of all sizes online is well suited to this model of distributed science. PMID:24723780
Ćurčić Božidar P.
Full Text Available A total of 46 species from 14 families: Pholcidae (2, Dysderidae (3 Eresidae (1, Linyphiidae (11, Tetragnathidae (3, Araneidae (4, Lycosidae (5, Agelenidae (4, Amaurobiidae (2, Liocranidae (1, Gnaphosidae (2 Philodromidae (1, Thomisidae (2 and Salticidae (5 were established from 29 localities in Serbia. Five species: Dysderocrates silvestris Deeleman-Reinhold (Dysderidae, Centromerus obenbergeri (Kulczyński, 1897 (Linyphiidae, Trochosa hispanica Simon, 1870, Trochosa spinipalpis (O. P.-Cambridge (Lycosidae and Philodromus praedatus O. P.-Cambridge are new to the Serbian spider fauna; the most diverse is the family Linyphiidae which is represented by 11 species. At the time, the spiders of Serbia are represented by 633 species, belonging to 224 genera and 36 families.
Results: Results showed the occurrence of the red-back spider, L. hasselti from Bandar Abbas, southern port of Iran. Two female specimens were found. The spider had specific morphological characters including black color with an obvious orange to red longitudinal strip on its upper parts of abdomen. Conclusion: Although the specimens were collected from south of the country, however since the region is an important harbor and port and goods come form different parts of world we assume the possibility of arrival from its origin and native breeding sites of the world. Therefore further investigation is needed to clarify the presence of this species in different parts of Iran.
Whitehouse, M E
Argyrodes antipodiana is a kleptoparasitic spider that builds its own web around the webs of other, larger host species. Males are more prone to have contests on webs of conspecific females than on webs of conspecific males. Males are also more likely to escalate interactions when on the females' webs than on males' webs, consistent with predictions from game theory models. Yet, in nearly half the tests, males on females' webs did not escalate. Instead of just being "sampling error", these failures to escalate may reflect the contest losers' abilities to gain copulations by "sneaking", an alternative mating tactic which enables males to obtain access to a female, not by fighting, but by exploiting the dominant male's dilemma of whether to mate or fight. Copyright © 1991. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Rodrigues, Everton Nei Lopes; Brescovit, Antonio D
The theridiid genus Thymoites Keyserling, 1884 is distributed worldwide. Spiders of this genus are mainly known from the Neotropical Region, but are poorly studied in Brazil. In this paper nine new species of Thymoites are described from Brazil, one from the state of Alagoas: Thymoites murici n. sp.; two from São Paulo: T. bocaina n. sp., T. ilhabela n. sp. and T. taiobeiras n. sp. from states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo; one from the state of Santa Catarina: Thymoites tabuleiro n. sp.; and, three from state of Rio Grande do Sul: Thymoites cristal n. sp., T. camaqua n. sp. and T. piratini n. sp., all based on males and females; and one from the state of Rio de Janeiro: T. pinheiral n. sp. based on male. The male of Thymoites puer (Mello-Leitão, 1941) and the female of T. melloleitaoni (Bristowe, 1938) are here described and illustrated for the first time. Additionally, new records from Brazil are provided for Thymoites ilvan Levi, 1964 for state of Santa Catarina; T. iritus Levi, 1964 for state of Goiás; T. piarco (Levi, 1959) for state of Amazonas; and, T. struthio (Simon, 1895) for Bolivia.
Full Text Available Background: Due to importance and fatal affect of Red-back spiders, Latrodectus hasselti, a faunistic survey for presence of this spider in Bandar Abbas has been conducted. This animal is considerably the most medically importance spiders all over the world.Methods: Live adult spider specimens were collected from Bandar Abbas town using hand catch conventional method and transferred to the laboratory throughout the summer of 2008. They were identified based on morphological characteristics and taxonomic keys and confirmed by some external experts.Results: Results showed the occurrence of the red-back spider, L. hasselti from Bandar Abbas, southern port of Iran. Two female specimens were found. The spider had specific morphological characters including black color with an obvious orange to red longitudinal strip on its upper parts of abdomen. Conclusion: Although the specimens were collected from south of the country, however since the region is an important harbor and port and goods come form different parts of world we assume the possibility of arrival from its origin and native breeding sites of the world. Therefore further investigation is needed to clarify the presence of this species in different parts of Iran.
de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael; Lanari, Laura Cecilia; Laskowicz, Rodrigo Daniel; Costa de Oliveira, Vanessa; Irazu, Lucia Elvira; González, Alda; Giambelluca, Luis; Nicolai, Néstor; Barragán, Javier Hugo; Ramallo, Leticia; López, Raúl Alfredo; Lopardo, Jorge; Jensen, Oscar; Larrieu, Edmundo; Calabró, Arnoldo; Vurcharchuc, Miriam Guadalupe; Lago, Néstor Rubén; García, Susana Isabel; de Titto, Ernesto Horacio; Damín, Carlos Fabián
"Black widow" spiders belong to the genus Latrodectus and are one of the few spiders in the world whose bite can cause severe envenomation in humans and domestic animals. In Argentina, these spiders are distributed throughout the country and are responsible for the highest number of bites by spiders of toxicological sanitary interest. Here, we studied the toxicity and some biochemical and immunochemical characteristics of eighteen venom samples from Latrodectus spiders from eight different provinces of Argentina, and the neutralization of some of these samples by two therapeutic antivenoms used in the country for the treatment of envenomation and by a anti-Latrodectus antivenom prepared against the venom of Latrodectus mactans from Mexico. We observed important toxicity in all the samples studied and a variation in the toxicity of samples, even in those from the same region and province and even in the same Latrodectus species from the same region. The therapeutic antivenoms efficiently neutralized all the venoms studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seasonal patterns of parasitism of the tropical spiders Theridion evexum (Araneae, Theridiidae and Allocyclosa bifurca (Araneae, Araneidae by the wasps Zatypota petronae and Polysphincta gutfreundi (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae
Full Text Available The rates of parasitism of Theridion evexum by the parasitoid wasp Zatypota petronae, and Allocyclosa bifurca by Polysphincta gutfreundi, were followed for two years. Parasitism of T. evexum was very low (mean 1.39+1.8%, and restricted to nearly seven months of the year. Parasitism of A. bifurca was higher (mean 7.8+7.6%, and did not show a seasonal pattern. Reproduction of the host spider T. evexum was highly seasonal, with only one, highly coordinated generation per year, while adults of A. bifurca were present year round. Short-term autocorrelation on parasitism rates over time at different sites suggest that P. gutfreundi tend to return to the same sites to hunt hosts over periods of a few weeks. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 749-754. Epub 2008 June 30.Las tasas de parasitismo de Theridion evexum por la avispa parasitoide Zatypota petronae y de Allocyclosa bifurca por Polysphincta gutfreundi fueron estudiadas durante dos años. El parasitismo en T. evexum fue muy bajo (promedio 1.39+1.8% y restringido a aproximadamente siete meses del año. El parasitismo en A. bifurca fue más alto (promedio 7.8+7.6% y no mostró un claro patrón estacional. La reproducción de la araña hospedera T. evexum fue muy estacional, con solamente una generación por año, mientras que los adultos de A. bifurca estuvieron presentes todo el año. Autocorrelaciones de las tasas de parasitismo entre censos consecutivos en diferentes sitios sugiere que P. gutfreundi tiende a retornar a los mismos sitios para parasitar las arañas hospederas durante algunas semanas.
Full Text Available Comprising more than 6500 species, Opiliones is the third most diverse order of Arachnida, after the megadiverse Acari and Araneae. The database referred here is part 1 of 12 of a project containing an intended worldwide checklist of species and subspecies of Opiliones as Darwin Core archives, and it includes the superfamilies Travunioidea and Triaenonychoidea. These two superfamilies are often treated together under the denomination of Insidiatores. In this Part 1, a total of 571 species and subspecies are listed. Briggsidae and Cladonychiidae are both downgraded to subfamilies of Travuniidae. Peltonychia Roewer, 1935 is an available name and senior synonym of Hadziana Roewer, 1935 and is herein revalidated. Seven genera of Triaenonychidae described by Lawrence between 1931 and 1933 originally failed to comply ICZN rules for availability (Art. 13.3. All of them only became available when Staręga (1992 designated a type species for each. Therefore, the correct authorships of Austromontia Lawrence, 1931, Biacumontia Lawrence, 1931, Graemontia Lawrence, 1931, Larifugella Lawrence, 1933, Mensamontia Lawrence, 1931, Monomontia Lawrence, 1931 and Rostromontia Lawrence, 1931 are all Staręga, 1992. Fumontana Shear, 1977, originally referred only to subfamily Triaenonychinae (as opposed to Soerensenellinae then and not corresponding to present Triaenonychinae, not to any tribe (which in turn correspond to modern subfamilies is herein included in the subfamily Triaenonychinae. Picunchenops Maury, 1988 originally not included in any tribe of Triaenonychidae, is herein included in the subfamily Triaenonychinae. Trojanella Karaman, 2005, originally ranked as Travunioidea incertae sedis, is herein included in the Travuniidae Travuniinae. Nuncia ovata Roewer, 1915 (synonymized with Triaenonyx cockayni Hogg, 1920 by Forster (1954, but with inverted precedence is here combined as Nuncia coriacea ovata Roewer, 1915 as correct senior synonym instead of
Helsdingen, van P.J.
Catalogue of the Dutch spiders (Araneae) This new catalogue is a revised edition of the catalogue of the spiders of the Netherlands of 1980. Newly published faunistic records have been added. A total of 640 species names pass in review, 20 of which (in brackets) concern former records now removed,
Kostanjšek, Rok; Kuntner, Matjaž
Abstract The research of the spider fauna of Slovenia dates back to the very beginning of binomial nomenclature, and has gone through more and less prolific phases with authors concentrating on taxonomy, faunistics, ecology and zoogeographic reviews. Although the body of published works is remarkable for a small nation, the faunistic data has remained too scattered for a thorough understanding of regional biotic diversity, for comparative and ecological research, and for informed conservation purposes. A national checklist is long overdue. Here, a critical review of all published records in any language is provided. The species list currently comprises 738 species, is published online at http://www.bioportal.si/katalog/araneae.php under the title Araneae Sloveniae, and will be updated in due course. This tool will fill the void in cataloguing regional spider faunas and will facilitate further araneological research in central and southern Europe. PMID:25632258
Full Text Available The research of the spider fauna of Slovenia dates back to the very beginning of binomial nomenclature, and has gone through more and less prolific phases with authors concentrating on taxonomy, faunistics, ecology and zoogeographic reviews. Although the body of published works is remarkable for a small nation, the faunistic data has remained too scattered for a thorough understanding of regional biotic diversity, for comparative and ecological research, and for informed conservation purposes. A national checklist is long overdue. Here, a critical review of all published records in any language is provided. The species list currently comprises 738 species, is published online at http://www.bioportal.si/katalog/araneae.php under the title Araneae Sloveniae, and will be updated in due course. This tool will fill the void in cataloguing regional spider faunas and will facilitate further araneological research in central and southern Europe.
Full Text Available The first record of Menemerus fagei Berland & Millot 1941 (Araneae, Salticidae from the Maltese Islands is reported and discussed. It is the 20th jumping spider species for Malta and a new record for Europe.
Diversidad de arañas (Arachnida: Araneae asociadas con viviendas de la ciudad de México (Zona Metropolitana Spider diversity (Arachnida: Araneae associated with houses in México city (Metropolitan area
César Gabriel Durán-Barrón
Full Text Available La ecología urbana es un área de investigación relativamente reciente. Los ecosistemas urbanos son aquellos definidos como ambientes dominados por el hombre. Con el proceso de urbanización, insectos y arácnidos silvestres aprovechan los nuevos microhábitats que las viviendas humanas ofrecen. Se revisaron arañas recolectadas dentro de 109 viviendas durante los años de 1985 a 1986, 1996 a 2001 y 2002 a 2003. Se cuantificaron 1 196 organismos , los cuales se determinaron hasta especie. Se obtuvo una lista de 25 familias, 52 géneros y 63 especies de arañas sinantrópicas. Se utilizaron 3 índices (ocupación, densidad y estacionalidad y un análisis de intervalos para sustentar la siguiente clasificación: accidentales (índice de densidad de 0-0.9, ocasionales (1-2.9, frecuentes (3.0-9.9 y comunes (10 en adelante. Se comparan las faunas de arañas sinantrópicas de 5 países del Nuevo Mundo.Urban ecology is a relatively new area of research, with urban ecosystems being defined as environments dominated by humans. Insects and arachnids are 2 groups that successfully exploit the habitats offered by human habitations. We analyzed the occurrence and densities of spiders found in houses in México City. We used material collected between 1985 and 2003. We recorded 1 196 spiders from 109 houses. The list includes 25 families, 52 genera and 63 species of synanthropic spiders. Indices of ocupation, density and seasonality, as well as rank analyses were used to make the following classification of synanthropism: accidental (density index 0-0.9, occasional (1-2.9, frequent (3.0-9.9 and common (10 or more. The synanthropic spider faunas of 5 New World countries are compared.
Trap and soil monolith sampled edaphic spiders (arachnida: araneae in Araucaria angustifolia forest Aranhas (arachnida: araneae edáficas amostradas por armadilhas e monólitos de solo em florestas com Araucaria angustifolia
Full Text Available Forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze trees are endangered in Brazil, and information on the diversity of soil spider families associated to these environments is practically inexistent. The present study was set up to evaluate the abundance and diversity of soil spider families in natural and reforested Araucaria forests, impacted or not by fire, and to identify the most efficient method to collect these organisms. The study was conducted in four areas: native forest with predominance of Araucaria (NF; Araucaria reforestation (R; Araucaria reforestation submitted to an accidental fire (RF; and native grass pasture with native Araucaria and submitted to an intense accidental fire (NPF. Considering both sampling methods (Monolith and Pitfall traps, 20 spider families were identified. The pitfall trap method was more effective as it captured 19 out of the 20 recorded families, while the Monolith method extracted only ten spider families. Spider family abundance and Shannon's diversity index (H were affected by the employed collection method; the values for these attributes were always higher for the NF and lower for the NPF. Correspondence analysis (CA showed a spatial separation among spider familiy assemblages from the different studied areas. It is suggested that changes in the abundance of soil spider families in Araucaria forests are mainly caused by recurrent human intervention over the last few years.As florestas com Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze estão ameaçadas de extinção no Brasil, e são praticamente inexistentes as informações sobre a diversidade de famílias de aranhas de solo associadas nestes ambientes. O estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar, em florestas com araucária naturais e reflorestadas, impactadas ou não pela queima acidental, a abundância e diversidade de famílias de aranhas, além de identificar o método mais eficiente para coletar estes organismos. O estudo foi conduzido em quatro áreas: floresta nativa com predominância de araucária (NF; reflorestamento de araucária (R; reflorestamento de araucária submetido a incêndio acidental (RF; e pastagem natural com araucárias nativas e ocorrência de incêndio acidental (NPF. Considerando os dois métodos de amostragem (Monólito e armadilhas de solo, foram identificadas 20 famílias de aranhas associadas às áreas. O método das armadilhas de solo foi mais eficiente, capturando 19 das 20 famílias registradas, enquanto o do Monólito extraiu apenas dez destas famílias de aranhas. A abundância de famílias de aranhas e o índice de diversidade de Shannon (H foram afetados pelo método de coleta utilizado, sendo os valores destes atributos sempre superiores na NF e inferiores na NPF. A análise de correspondência (AC demonstrou que existe separação espacial entre as áreas estudadas. Sugere-se que as modificações na abundância de famílias de aranhas de solo sejam provocadas principalmente pelas intervenções antrópicas que as florestas de araucária vêm sofrendo nos últimos anos.
Full Text Available The present paper contains faunistical data obtained by the joint research of Babeş-Bolyai and Szeged University. 44 species of 15 families were identified from Lacul Dracului marsh-complex (Harghita Mountains. Meioneta similis (Kulczynski 1926 is new for the Romanian fauna. Furthermore the occurrences of two questionable species [Kaestneria pullata (O.P.-Cambridge, 1863 and Trichoncus saxicola (O.P.- Cambridge, 1861] are proved.
Full Text Available Marion Island, the larger of the Prince Edward Islands, lies in the sub-Antarctic biogeographic region in the southern Indian Ocean. From previous surveys, four spider species are known from Marion. The last survey was undertaken in 1968. During this study a survey was undertaken over a period of four weeks on the island to determine the present spider diversity and to record information about the habitat preferences and general behaviour of the species present. Three collection methods (active search, Tullgren funnels and pitfall traps were used, and spiders were sampled from six habitat sites. A total of 430 spiders represented by four families were collected, Myro kerguelenesis crozetensis Enderlein, 1909 and M. paucispinosus Berland, 1947 (Desidae, Prinerigone vagans (Audouin, 1826 (Linyphiidae, Cheiracanthium furculatum Karsch, 1879 (Miturgidae and an immature Salticidae. The miturgid and salticid are first records. Neomaso antarticus (Hickman, 1939 (Linyphiidae was absent from samples, confirming that the species might have been an erroneous record.
Jason E Bond
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The infraorder Mygalomorphae (i.e., trapdoor spiders, tarantulas, funnel web spiders, etc. is one of three main lineages of spiders. Comprising 15 families, 325 genera, and over 2,600 species, the group is a diverse assemblage that has retained a number of features considered primitive for spiders. Despite an evolutionary history dating back to the lower Triassic, the group has received comparatively little attention with respect to its phylogeny and higher classification. The few phylogenies published all share the common thread that a stable classification scheme for the group remains unresolved. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We report here a reevaluation of mygalomorph phylogeny using the rRNA genes 18S and 28S, the nuclear protein-coding gene EF-1γ, and a morphological character matrix. Taxon sampling includes members of all 15 families representing 58 genera. The following results are supported in our phylogenetic analyses of the data: (1 the Atypoidea (i.e., antrodiaetids, atypids, and mecicobothriids is a monophyletic group sister to all other mygalomorphs; and (2 the families Mecicobothriidae, Hexathelidae, Cyrtaucheniidae, Nemesiidae, Ctenizidae, and Dipluridae are not monophyletic. The Microstigmatidae is likely to be subsumed into Nemesiidae. Nearly half of all mygalomorph families require reevaluation of generic composition and placement. The polyphyletic family Cyrtaucheniidae is most problematic, representing no fewer than four unrelated lineages. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these analyses we propose the following nomenclatural changes: (1 the establishment of the family Euctenizidae (NEW RANK; (2 establishment of the subfamily Apomastinae within the Euctenizidae; and (3 the transfer of the cyrtaucheniid genus Kiama to Nemesiidae. Additional changes include relimitation of Domiothelina and Theraphosoidea, and the establishment of the Euctenizoidina clade (Idiopidae + Euctenizidae. In addition to these changes, we propose a "road map" for future sampling across the infraorder with the aim of solving many remaining questions that hinder mygalomorph systematics.
Dhruv A. Prajapati
Full Text Available We report a checklist of spiders based on a survey made from August 2013 to July 2014 in Gujarat University Campus, an urban area located in the middle of Ahmadabad City, Gujarat State. A total of 77 species of spiders belonging to 53 genera and 20 families of spiders were recorded from the study area represented by 31.74% of the total 63 families reported from India. Salticidae was found to be the most dominant family with 18 species from 14 genera. Guild structure analysis revealed six feeding guilds, namely stalkers, orb-web builders, space-web builders, ambushers, foliage hunters and ground runners. Stalkers and orb-web builders were the most dominant feeding guilds representing 28.58% and 20.78% respectively among all studied guilds. Species Eilica tikaderi (Platnick, 1976 is reported for the first time from Gujarat with additional description and detailed genitalic illustrations.
Raub, Florian; Höfer, Hubert; Scheuermann, Ludger
The data presented here have been collected in the southern part of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) in the state of Paraná, Brazil within a bilateral scientific project (SOLOBIOMA). The project aimed to assess the quality of secondary forests of different regeneration stages in comparison with old-growth forests with regard to diversity of soil animals and related functions. The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot of biological diversity with an exceptionally high degree of endemic species, extending over a range of 3,500 km along the coast of Brazil. The anthropogenic pressure in the region is very high with three of the biggest cities of Brazil (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Curitiba) lying in its extension. An evaluation of the value of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation is becoming more and more important due to the complete disappearance of primary forests. In 2005, we sampled spiders in 12 sites of three successional stages (5-8, 10-15, 35-50 yr old, three replicates of each forest stage) and old-growth forests (> 100 yr untouched, also three replicates). All sites were inside a private nature reserve (Rio Cachoeira Nature Reserve). We repeated the sampling design and procedure in 2007 in a second private reserve (Itaqui Nature Reserve). The two nature reserves are within about 25 km of each other within a well preserved region of the Mata Atlântica, where the matrix of the landscape mosaic is still forest. A widely accepted standard protocol was used in a replicated sampling design to apply statistical analyses to the resulting data set and allow for comparison with other studies in Brazil. Spiders were sorted to family level and counted; the adult spiders further identified to species if possible or classified as morphospecies with the help of several spider specialists. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.
Full Text Available En las últimas décadas se ha dado un interés creciente en el uso de enemigos naturales para controlar plagas de insectos, como arañas. Se estudió una comunidad de arañas en Argentina mediante un muestreo cada dos semanas durante el periodo 2004-2006 en lotes de una hectárea. En el estrato del suelo las arañas fueron colectadas con redes de arrastre y trampas de caída. Se recolecto un total de 6 229 ejemplares (15 familias y 50 especies. Siete familias se encuentran en el estrato herbáceo, las más abundantes fueron: Thomisidae (n=2 012, 32.30%, Araneidae (n=1 516, 24.33% y Oxyopidae (n=604, 9.70%. El suelo habían 14 familias, principalmente: Lycosidae (n=629, 10.10% y Linyphiidae (n=427, 6.85%. Predominaron las arañas cazadoras: por emboscadas (32.99%, al acecho (11.77%, corredoras de suelo (10.84% y tejedoras orbiculares (27.56%. Los índices de diversidad fueron: H´=2.97, Dsp=0.11 y J=0.79, evidenciando una comunidad de arañas moderadamente diversa, con predominio de Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus, Lycosa poliostoma and L. erythrognatha. Las arañas estuvieron presentes durante el desarrollo fenológico del cultivo con picos de abundancia en primavera y verano.
Full Text Available Epigeic spiders were sampled using pitfall traps during one year in an anthropogenic open site within the city of Karlsruhe (Alter Flugplatz Karlsruhe. The area, historically used as a military parade ground and airport, is protected as a Special Area of Conservation (SAC within the Natura 2000 network of the EU and since 2010 as a German nature reserve. We were interested in the diversity, assemblage structure and distribution of spider species within the area and investigated three different plant formations: sparse grass-dominated vegetation with frequent open sand patches (sandy turf, closed grassland dominated by the mat-grass (Nardus stricta and ruderal vegetation with blackberry bushes. 123 species were identified from these captures, including many specialists of xerothermic habitats and rare and endangered species like Alopecosa striatipes, Agroeca lusatica, Haplodrassus dalmatensis, Styloctetor romanus, Typhochrestus simoni and Xysticus striatipes as well as extremely rare species of unclassified red list status like Mysmenella jobi, Theonoe minutissima and Zora parallela. The three investigated habitat types were quite similar concerning α-diversity, while measures of β-diversity indicated a strong species turnover. By performing an ecological habitat analysis (using autecological data on spiders essential differences between the three habitat types could not be discovered, especially not between mat-grass and sandy turf. However, analysing the guild structures showed that different ways of using habitat resources dominated in the different habitat types. For Nardus-grassland several species could be identified as indicator species. While many xero- and photophiles live in the open grassland, the stenotopic psammophiles of inland dunes in the region were not found. The ruderal area houses a mix of grassland- and forest species.
Miller, Jeremy; Belgers, J. Dick; Beentjes, Kevin; Zwakhals, Kees; van Helsdingen, Peter
Abstract The study of parasitoids and their hosts suffers from a lack of reliable taxonomic data. We use a combination of morphological characters and DNA sequences to produce taxonomic determinations that can be verified with reference to specimens in an accessible collection and DNA barcode sequences posted to the Barcode of Life database (BOLD). We demonstrate that DNA can be successfully extracted from consumed host spiders and the shed pupal case of a wasp using non-destructive methods. ...
Full Text Available The study of parasitoids and their hosts suffers from a lack of reliable taxonomic data. We use a combination of morphological characters and DNA sequences to produce taxonomic determinations that can be verified with reference to specimens in an accessible collection and DNA barcode sequences posted to the Barcode of Life database (BOLD. We demonstrate that DNA can be successfully extracted from consumed host spiders and the shed pupal case of a wasp using non-destructive methods. We found Acrodactyla quadrisculpta to be a parasitoid of Tetragnatha montana; Zatypota percontatoria and Z. bohemani both are parasitoids of Neottiura bimaculata. Zatypota anomala is a parasitoid of an as yet unidentified host in the family Dictynidae, but the host species may be possible to identify in the future as the library of reference sequences on BOLD continues to grow. The study of parasitoids and their hosts traditionally requires specialized knowledge and techniques, and accumulating data is a slow process. DNA barcoding could allow more professional and amateur naturalists to contribute data to this field of study. A publication venue dedicated to aggregating datasets of all sizes online is well suited to this model of distributed science.
Establishment of the Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) and Infestation of its Egg Sacs by a Parasitoid, Philolema latrodecti (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), in French Polynesia and the Cook Islands.
Marie, Jérôme; Vetter, Richard S
This paper presents two newly established species for French Polynesia: the invasive brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, and its potential biocontrol agent, the parasitoid wasp, Philolema latrodecti (Fullaway). The brown widow spider was recorded from the island of Moorea in 2006 and, since that discovery, the occurrence of this species has expanded to two of the five archipelagos of French Polynesia including the main island of Tahiti and four of the Cook Islands. Although the tropical climate contributes to the establishment of L. geometricus, a biotic factor, P. latrodecti, may restrain population from demographic explosion. This eurytomid wasp is present in French Polynesia and is a parasitoid that has been used in biological control of the southern black widow Latrodectus mactans (F.) in Hawaii. This wasp could become a significant limiting factor for L. geometricus distribution on these islands, as it was found in 31% of the Tahitian brown widow spider egg sacs that were dissected. However, thus far, the wasp was only found on Tahiti in association with the brown widow spider. Although the brown widow is generally considered to be less toxic than its black widow relatives, it remains of medical concern in French Polynesia because reactions to its bites can, at times, be severe. The spider remains of public concern because it is a novel species; it has the word widow in its name and dark morphs are mistaken as black widows. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available An overlooked error in the correlation of new scientific names with the spider images on plate 4 in Carl Wilhelm Hahn’s sixth instalment of his book ”Monographie der Spinnen” led to the notion that at least two of the spiders illustrated on plate 4 cannot be identified and their names are nomina dubia. Here, I draw attention to the fact that, if the names are re-aligned to the images in a meaningful way, then at least three spiders on plate 4 can be identified. Theridion rufipes sensu Hahn is a synonym of Gongylidium rufipes (Linnaeus, 1758 (syn. conf.. In particular, the previous nomen dubium Theridion tibiale Hahn, 1831 is a senior synonym of Lasaeola tristis (Hahn, 1833 (syn. nov.. Evidence is presented that the junior synonym is in prevailing usage and the senior synonym is therefore regarded as nomen oblitum.
Usmanov, P B; Kazakov, I; Kalikulov, D; Atakuziev, B U; Yukelson LYa; Tashmukhamedov, B A
It is known that Steatoda (Lityphantes) paykulliana and Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus spider venoms are toxic to mammals and insects. These venoms act presynaptically eliciting massive release of transmitters. They also form channels in bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) that are selective for cations. Venoms of both spider species were fractionated by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column. The fraction obtained were tested on neuromuscular preparations of frog and locust and on BLM. A fraction of low molecular weight components (about 5000 daltons and less) was disclosed. This fraction showed presynaptic and channel-forming effects similar to those of crude venoms and of high molecular weight toxin fractions, obtained simultaneously from these venoms. It was shown that channels formed in BLM by crude venoms and its different fractions are identical. Also, it was found that the low molecular weight channel-forming component is a construction element of high molecular weight toxins. On the basis of data obtained a toxin structure model of the Theridiidae family spider venoms was proposed.
Full Text Available A check list of the Pseudoscorpiones of the class Arachnida of South Africa is presented. A total of 135 species and 10 subspecies of pseudoscorpions are known from South Africa, represented by seven superfamilies, 15 families and 65 genera. This represents about 4.4 of the world fauna. Of the 135 species, 97 species (73 are known only from South Africa, 33 species have a wider distribution pattern throughout the Afrotropical Region and three are cosmopolitan. This study forms part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA.
Simplifying understory complexity in oil palm plantations is associated with a reduction in the density of a cleptoparasitic spider,Argyrodes miniaceus(Araneae: Theridiidae), in host (Araneae: Nephilinae) webs.
Spear, Dakota M; Foster, William A; Advento, Andreas Dwi; Naim, Mohammad; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Luke, Sarah H; Snaddon, Jake L; Ps, Sudharto; Turner, Edgar C
Expansion of oil palm agriculture is currently one of the main drivers of habitat modification in Southeast Asia. Habitat modification can have significant effects on biodiversity, ecosystem function, and interactions between species by altering species abundances or the available resources in an ecosystem. Increasing complexity within modified habitats has the potential to maintain biodiversity and preserve species interactions. We investigated trophic interactions between Argyrodes miniaceus, a cleptoparasitic spider, and its Nephila spp . spider hosts in mature oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia. A. miniaceus co-occupy the webs of Nephila spp . females and survive by stealing prey items caught in the web. We examined the effects of experimentally manipulated understory vegetation complexity on the density and abundance of A. miniaceus in Nephila spp . webs. Experimental understory treatments included enhanced complexity, standard complexity, and reduced complexity understory vegetation, which had been established as part of the ongoing Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function in Tropical Agriculture (BEFTA) Project. A. miniaceus density ranged from 14.4 to 31.4 spiders per square meter of web, with significantly lower densities found in reduced vegetation complexity treatments compared with both enhanced and standard treatment plots. A. miniaceus abundance per plot was also significantly lower in reduced complexity than in standard and enhanced complexity plots. Synthesis and applications : Maintenance of understory vegetation complexity contributes to the preservation of spider host-cleptoparasite relationships in oil palm plantations. Understory structural complexity in these simplified agroecosystems therefore helps to support abundant spider populations, a functionally important taxon in agricultural landscapes. In addition, management for more structurally complex agricultural habitats can support more complex trophic interactions in tropical agroecosystems.
Spiders (Araneae) occur in high abundance in all terrestrial ecosystems including agro-ecosystems. They are a very heterogeneous group of animals with different hunting tactics and therefore they play very different ecological roles. At family level these tactics are rather similar thus
Růžička, Vlastimil; Laška, V.; Mikula, J.; Tuf, I.H.
Roč. 39, č. 2 (2011), s. 355-357 ISSN 0161-8202 Grant - others:National Research Programme II(CZ) 2B06101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Araneae * soil profile * troglomorphisms Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.626, year: 2011
Sobre o gênero Phoroncidia: nova espécie, ecologia e descrição do macho de P. reimoseri com novas ocorrências para o sul do Brasil (Araneae, Theridiidae On the genus Phoroncidia: new species, ecology and description of the male of P. reimoseri and new records for southern Brazil (Araneae, Theridiidae
Everton Nei Lopes Rodrigues
Full Text Available Phoroncidia piratini sp. nov. do estado do Rio Grande do Sul é descrita e ilustrada, com base em espécimes de ambos os sexos. O macho de P. reimoseri Levi, 1964 é descrito e ilustrado pela primeira vez e novos registros são fornecidos. Dados ecológicos de ambas as espécies são apresentados.Phoroncidia piratini sp. nov. from state of Rio Grande do Sul is described and illustrated, based on males and females. The male of P. reimoseri Levi, 1964 is described and illustrated for the first time and new records are provided. Ecological data are presented for both species.
PAUL A. SELDEN
Full Text Available A new and well-preserved fossil whip scorpion (Arachnida: Uropygi: Thelyphonida is described from the Late Carboniferous of the Carnic Alps, Friuli, Italy. It is referred to Parageralinura marsiglioi n. sp. The new specimen is the first Carboniferous arachnid to be described from mainland Italy and is possibly the youngest Palaeozoic thelyphonid.
Melina Soledad Almada; María Ana Sosa; Alda Gonzalez
Las arañas tienen un valor potencial considerable por su rol depredador de insectos, estas son plagas de la agricultura. Durante la campaña agrícola 2005/06, en INTA Reconquista, Santa Fe (Argentina) se estudio la composición de arañas presentes en cultivos de algodón transgénico y convencional, mediante un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con tres repeticiones y tres tratamientos: algodón transgénico Bt (ALBt), algodón convencional sin control químico (ALCSC) y con control q...
Melina Soledad Almada
Full Text Available Las arañas tienen un valor potencial considerable por su rol depredador de insectos, estas son plagas de la agricultura. Durante la campaña agrícola 2005/06, en INTA Reconquista, Santa Fe (Argentina se estudio la composición de arañas presentes en cultivos de algodón transgénico y convencional, mediante un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con tres repeticiones y tres tratamientos: algodón transgénico Bt (ALBt, algodón convencional sin control químico (ALCSC y con control químico (ALCCC. Semanalmente, se capturaron arañas, con una red entomológica de arrastre, paño vertical de 1m y trampas de caída. Asimismo se recolectaron 1 255 ejemplares (16 familias y 32 especies. Siete familias se presentaron en los tres tratamientos, donde predomino Thomisidae (n=1 051, 84.04% y Araneidae (n=83, 6.64%. El gremio cazadoras por emboscada (n=1 053, 83.91%, “Tejedoras de telas orbiculares” (n=85, 6.77% y “Cazadoras al acecho” (n=53, 4.22% fueron las más abundantes. No hubo diferencias significativas en los índices de diversidad entre tratamientos. Las arañas se presentaron durante todo el ciclo del cultivo, con picos en las semanas de floración y madurez de las capsulas, además la mayor abundancia la encontramos en el ALBt. Este trabajo constituye el primer registro sobre la comunidad de arañas en cultivos de algodón para Argentina.
Full Text Available To date, only morphological and anatomical descriptions of microwhip scorpions (Arachnida: Palpigradi have been published. This very rare group is enigmatic not only in its relationships to other arachnids, but especially due to the fact that these animals dwell only underground (in caves, soil, and interstitial spaces. We observed the curious feeding habit of the microwhip scorpion Eukoenenia spelaea over the course of one year in Ardovská Cave, located in Slovakia's Karst region. We chose histology as our methodology in studying 17 specimens and based it upon Masson's triple staining, fluorescent light and confocal microscopy. Single-celled cyanobacteria (blue-green algae were conspicuously predominant in the gut of all studied palpigrades. Digestibility of the consumed cyanobacteria was supported by the presence of guanine crystals, glycogen deposits and haemocytes inside the palpigrade body. Cyanobacteria, the oldest cellular organisms on Earth, are very resistant to severe conditions in caves, including even darkness. Therefore, the cyanobacteria are able to survive in dark caves as nearly heterotrophic organisms and are consumed by cave palpigrades. Such feeding habit is extraordinary within the almost wholly predacious orders of the class Arachnida, and particularly so due to the type of food observed.
Smrž, Jaroslav; Kováč, Ĺubomír; Mikeš, Jaromír; Lukešová, Alena
To date, only morphological and anatomical descriptions of microwhip scorpions (Arachnida: Palpigradi) have been published. This very rare group is enigmatic not only in its relationships to other arachnids, but especially due to the fact that these animals dwell only underground (in caves, soil, and interstitial spaces). We observed the curious feeding habit of the microwhip scorpion Eukoenenia spelaea over the course of one year in Ardovská Cave, located in Slovakia's Karst region. We chose histology as our methodology in studying 17 specimens and based it upon Masson's triple staining, fluorescent light and confocal microscopy. Single-celled cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) were conspicuously predominant in the gut of all studied palpigrades. Digestibility of the consumed cyanobacteria was supported by the presence of guanine crystals, glycogen deposits and haemocytes inside the palpigrade body. Cyanobacteria, the oldest cellular organisms on Earth, are very resistant to severe conditions in caves, including even darkness. Therefore, the cyanobacteria are able to survive in dark caves as nearly heterotrophic organisms and are consumed by cave palpigrades. Such feeding habit is extraordinary within the almost wholly predacious orders of the class Arachnida, and particularly so due to the type of food observed.
Full Text Available Most soil and leaf litter invertebrates lack efficient inventory methods. We evaluated the efficiency of the pitfall traps (or Barber method and Winkler extractor (or Winkler method in a beech forest on limestone in southwestern Romania using harvestmen (Arachnida: Opilionidae as target group. The aim was to test if the relative abundance, species richness and species composition differ between the two methods. The harvestmen relative abundance and species richness were different when assessed by the two sampling methods. Winkler extractor captured greater numbers of harvestmen than pitfall traps, whereas pitfall traps caught more harvestmen species. Harvestmen assemblages as determined by Winkler method were found to be more similar with natural harvestmen assemblages. If the aim of the study is to analyse the community patterns Winkler extractor could be more efficient then pitfall traps. Our study suggests that the choice of the sampling method should be applied depending on the type of the investigation.
Salvatierra, Lidianne; Tourinho, Ana Lúcia
Ricinulei is an order of Arachnida composed of rare and little known species. The species of Ricinulei possess a rich variety of fine integumentary structures that have been poorly investigated in a few species. Besides, several structures are still undescribed and their function not yet addressed. In this paper we provide a detailed study of the integumentary morphology of Cryptocellus bordoni Dumitresco and Jurvara-Bals, 1976 using Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy. We describe and present photos of the new and already known fine integumentary structures. We compare the new structures to those previously described for other Ricinulei species and discuss their taxonomic implications and the placement of C. bordoni in the genus Cryptocellus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial genomes are widely utilized for phylogenetic and population genetic analyses among animals. In addition to sequence data the mitochondrial gene order and RNA secondary structure data are used in phylogenetic analyses. Arachnid phylogeny is still highly debated and there is a lack of sufficient sequence data for many taxa. Ricinulei (hooded tickspiders are a morphologically distinct clade of arachnids with uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Results The first complete mitochondrial DNA genome of a member of the Ricinulei, Pseudocellus pearsei (Arachnida: Ricinulei was sequenced using a PCR-based approach. The mitochondrial genome is a typical circular duplex DNA molecule with a size of 15,099 bp, showing the complete set of genes usually present in bilaterian mitochondrial genomes. Five tRNA genes (trnW, trnY, trnN, trnL(CUN, trnV show different relative positions compared to other Chelicerata (e.g. Limulus polyphemus, Ixodes spp.. We propose that two events led to this derived gene order: (1 a tandem duplication followed by random deletion and (2 an independent translocation of trnN. Most of the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern except tRNA-Glu where the TψC-arm is missing. In phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference using concatenated amino acid and nucleotide sequences of protein-coding genes the basal relationships of arachnid orders remain unresolved. Conclusion Phylogenetic analyses (ML, MP, BI of arachnid mitochondrial genomes fail to resolve interordinal relationships of Arachnida and remain in a preliminary stage because there is still a lack of mitogenomic data from important taxa such as Opiliones and Pseudoscorpiones. Gene order varies considerably within Arachnida – only eight out of 23 species have retained the putative arthropod ground pattern. Some gene order changes are valuable characters in phylogenetic analysis of
Klußmann-Fricke, B-J; Wirkner, C S
Although the circulatory system of arthropods has long been considered as rather simple, recent studies have demonstrated that in certain arthropod taxa, such as Malacostraca, some Chilopoda and also many Chelicerata, the vascular systems in particular are rather complex. Furthermore, a recent study has revealed that the prosomal ganglion of scorpions and spiders is supplied by an intricate network of arteries, the complexity of which bears a close resemblance to that of vertebrate capillary systems. In this study, we analyzed the hemolymph vascular systems of various species of Pedipalpi (i.e., Amblypygi and Uropygi). By combining modern techniques, such as MicroCT and cLSM, with computer-based 3D-reconstruction, we were able to produce comprehensive visualizations and descriptions of the vascular systems. Despite the lack of well-corroborated phylogenetic hypotheses on arachnid relationships and the controversial assertion of relationships between the pulmonate arachnids, we aim to elucidate the evolution of complex vascular systems in Arachnida. By comparing these highly complex vascular systems not only with each other, but also with other pulmonate arachnids, we found numerous detailed correspondences in the general branching pattern as well as in the supply patterns of the prosomal ganglion. We argue that these numerous and detailed correspondences by their absence in other arachnids i.e. aplumonates, support Arachnopulmonata. J. Morphol. 277:1084-1103, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Foelix, R F; Chu-Wang, I W; Beck, L
The sensory organs on the tarsi of the antenniform first legs of the whip spider Admetus pumilio C. L. Koch (Amblypygi, Arachnida) were examined with the scanning and transmission electron microscope. At least four different types of hair sensilla were found: (1) thick-walled bristles, which have the characteristics of contact chemoreceptors (several chemoreceptive dendrites in the lumen plus two mechanoreceptors at the base); (2) short club sensilla, innervated by 4-6 neurons which terminate in a pore on the tip; they are possibly humidity receptors; (3) porous sensilla, which are either innervated by 20-25 neurons and have typical pore tubules, or they have 40-45 neurons but no pore tubules; both types are considered to be olfactory; (4) rod sensilla occur in clusters near segmental borders; they are innervated by only one large dendrite which branches inside the lumen. Other tarsal receptors are the claws, which correspond to contact chemoreceptors, and the pit organ which resembles the tarsal organ of spiders. Compared to other arthropod sensilla, the contact chemoreceptors are very similar to those of spiders, while the porous sensilla correspond structurally to olfactory receptors in insects; the club and rod sensilla seem to be typical for amblypygids.
Hebets, Eileen A; Gering, Eben J; Bingman, Verner P; Wiegmann, Daniel D
Arthropods are renowned for their navigational capabilities, with numerous examples known from insects and crustaceans. Early studies of amblypygids (Class Arachnida, Order Amblypygi) also suggest complex nocturnal navigation, despite their apparent lack of visual adaptations to the low-light conditions of a tropical understory. In a series of two studies, we use the tropical amblypygid, Phrynus pseudoparvulus, to assess their nocturnal homing ability. Our first experiment displaced and tracked resident and nonresident individuals. Resident individuals, displaced up to 4.5 m from their home refuges and released onto their home tree, were more likely to return to their previously occupied refuge than were nonresident individuals that were collected from trees outside the study area and released at the same locations. In a follow-up study, we displaced amblypygids longer distances (6-8.7 m) from their home trees and tracked them by telemetry. These individuals returned to home trees, typically within 1-3 nights, often via indirect paths. Taken together, our results provide evidence that P. pseudoparvulus are able to navigate home, often taking indirect routes, and can do so through a mechanism other than path integration.
Santer, Roger D; Hebets, Eileen A
The ability of animals to learn and remember underpins many behavioural actions and can be crucial for survival in certain contexts, for example in finding and recognising a habitual refuge. The sensory cues that an animal learns in such situations are to an extent determined by its own sensory specialisations. Whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi) are nocturnal and possess uniquely specialised sensory systems that include elongated 'antenniform' forelegs specialised for use as chemo- and mechanosensory feelers. We tested the tactile learning abilities of the whip spider Phrynus marginemaculatus in a maze learning task with two tactile cues of different texture--one associated with an accessible refuge, and the other with an inaccessible refuge. Over ten training trials, whip spiders got faster and more accurate at finding the accessible refuge. During a subsequent test trial where both refuges were inaccessible, whip spiders searched for significantly longer at the tactile cue previously associated with the accessible refuge. Using high-speed cinematography, we describe three distinct antenniform leg movements used by whip spiders during tactile examination. We discuss the potential importance of tactile learning in whip spider behaviour and a possible role for their unique giant sensory neurons in accessing tactile information.
Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Anadón, Araceli; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio
Abstract There are significant gaps in accessible knowledge about the distribution and phenology of Iberian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Harvestmen accessible datasets in Iberian Peninsula are unknown, an only two other datasets available in GBIF are composed exclusively of harvestmen records. Moreover, only a few harvestmen data from Iberian Peninsula are available in GBIF network (or in any network that allows public retrieval or use these data). This paper describes the data associated with the Opiliones kept in the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo, Spain (hosted in the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas), filling some of those gaps. The specimens were mainly collected from the northern third of the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection, dating back to the early 20th century, belongs to the P. Franganillo Collection. The dataset documents the collection of 16,455 specimens, preserved in 3,772 vials. Approximately 38% of the specimens belong to the family Sclerosomatidae, and 26% to Phalangidae; six other families with fewer specimens are also included. Data quality control was incorporated at several steps of digitisation process to facilitate reuse and improve accuracy. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format, allowing public retrieval, use and combination with other biological, biodiversity of geographical variables datasets. PMID:24146596
Full Text Available This dataset provides information on specimens of harvestmen (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Opiliones collected in French Guiana. Field collections have been initiated in 2012 within the framework of the CEnter for the Study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: www.labex-ceba.fr/en/. This dataset is a work in progress. Occurrences are recorded in an online database stored at the EDB laboratory after each collecting trip and the dataset is updated on a monthly basis. Voucher specimens and associated DNA are also stored at the EDB laboratory until deposition in natural history Museums. The latest version of the dataset is publicly and freely accessible through our Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://220.127.116.11:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=harvestmen_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3c9e2297-bf20-4827-928e-7c7eefd9432c.
Full Text Available Acanthoscurria sacsayhuaman sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae is described based on a male from Cusco, Peru. The new species is characterized by the absence of stridulatory bristles on retrolateral face of palpal trochanter. Moreover, it can be distinguished by morphology of the male palpal bulb and tibial apophysis of the first pair of legs. The genus is recorded for the first time for Peru.
Farzana Khan Perveen
Full Text Available The spiders (Arthropoda: Arachnida have a hard cephalothorax and soft abdomen. They are environmental indicators and play an important role in biological control of pests and vectors. The present study was conducted to prepare the key for the first recorded spider fauna during June 2013-July 2014 in 6 quadrates of Sheringal, i.e., Daramdala, Doki, Guryaal, Samang, Shahoor and Sia-Sheringal, Dir Upper (DU, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP, Pakistan. During the present research, 10 species belong to 7 families, and 10 genera were recorded. The family Sparassidae was the largest among collected families (nSparassidae=19, its body was larger than others, abdomen was narrow at posterior, cephalothorax region was broad and brown, chelicearae were forwarded, legs were strong, body have hairs grey to brown and they were harmless and speedy. Gnphosidae family was the smallest among collected families (nGnphosidae=3, their eyes were heterogeneous, their inner margin of chelicerae were with a wide serrated lamina, posterior row of eyes were much longer than anterior, with lateral rounded maxillae. While the family Hersiliidae was the unique in collected families (nHersiliidae=6, as they are known as two-tail spiders, they have enlarged spinnerets, their male grow up to 8 mm and female up to 10 mm, they have 2 tails and are mimic with host plants. It was concluded that the majority of the collected species belong to the family Sparassidae. It is recommended that further research may be conducted on arboreal and aquatic species of spiders in Sheringal, KP, Pakistan.
Arachnida: Araneae) in a central South African grassland habitat · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ... Nesting ecology of Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca in north-eastern Algeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
Cactaceae) invasion on beetle and spider diversity in Kruger National Park, South Africa Abstract · Vol 43, No 2 (2008) - Articles Micro-scale heterogeneity of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in the Soutpansberg, South Africa: A comparative survey ...
Full Text Available A detailed morphological account of the male copulatory organs of three species of ground spiders, Sergiolus capulatus, Herpyllus propinquus and Callilepis pluto (Araneae, Gnaphosidae, is presented. The large sclerites (subtegulum, tegulum and embolus appear to be homologous in all spiders. Sergiolus and Zelanda have a plesiomorphic palp organization. The increased complexity in the male bulb organization creates a locking mechanism that fixes the male palp position during intercourse in Callilepis, as well as in Encoptarthria, Trachyzelotes and Zelotes. The palp of Herpyllus, together with Anzacia, Drassodes and Intruda, demonstrates progressive modification of the male bulb.
Horváth, R.; Elek, Zoltán; Lövei, Gabor L
Spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied over two years by pitfall trapping along an urbanisation gradient of forested habitats (rural forest - suburban forest fragment - urban forest fragment) in a Danish town, using the Globenet protocol. During the two years, we collected 4340 individuals of 90...... species, with money spiders (Linyphiidae) and wolf spiders (Lycosidae) being most numerous. One species, Ero aphana, was new to the Danish fauna. In 2004, 45-47 species were captured in the habitats in various stages of urbanisation, while in 2005 (with a smaller collection effort), 28 (urban) - 37 (rural...
Full Text Available During last 10 years, based on personal collectings, 21 species from 14 genera of Salticidae (Araneae are recorded from vicinity of Jagodina: Ballus chalybeius, Carrhotus xanthogramma, Evarcha arcuata, Evarcha falcata, Heliophanus auratus, Heliophanus cupreus, Heliophanus flavipes, Heliophanus kochii, Icius hamatus, Icius subinermis, Leptorchestes berolinensis, Macaroeris nidicolens, Marpissa muscosa, Marpissa nivoyi, Mendoza canestrinii, Pellenes tripunctatus, Phintella castriesiana, Phlegra fasciata, Pseudeuophrys erratica, Pseudeuophrys lanigera, Salticus scenicus. All those species are provided with habitat notes and global distribution. New records for the spider fauna of Serbia are Heliophanus kochii (Simon 1868, Icius subinermis (Simon, 1937, Marpissa nivoyi (Lucas, 1846 and Mendoza canestrinii (Ninni, 1868.
Korenko, Stanislav; Michalková, Veronika; Zwakhals, Kees; Pekár, Stano
Current knowledge about polysphinctine parasite wasps' interactions with their spider hosts is very fragmented and incomplete. This study presents the host specificity of Zatypota percontatoria (Müller) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and its adaptation to varying host availability. Two years of field observations show that Z. percontatoria is a stenophagous parasitoid that parasitizes only five closely related web-building spiders of the family Theridiidae (Araneae). Within the Theridiidae it a...
Pekár, Stano; Coddington, Jonathan A; Blackledge, Todd A
Stenophagy (narrow diet breadth) represents an extreme of trophic specialization in carnivores, but little is known about the forces driving its evolution. We used spiders, the most diversified group of terrestrial predators, to investigate whether stenophagy (1) promoted diversification; (2) was phylogenetically conserved and evolutionarily derived state; and (3) was determined either by geographical distribution and foraging guild. We used published data on the prey of almost 600 species. Six categories of stenophagy were found: myrmecophagy, araneophagy, lepidopterophagy, termitophagy, dipterophagy, and crustaceophagy. We found that the species diversity of euryphagous genera and families was similar to stenophagous genera and families. At the family level, stenophagy evolved repeatedly and independently. Within families, the basal condition was oligophagy or euryphagy. Most types of stenophagy were clearly derived: myrmecophagy in Zodariidae; lepidopterophagy in Araneidae; dipterophagy in Theridiidae. In contrast, araneophagy was confined to basal and intermediate lineages, suggesting its ancestral condition. The diet breadth of species from the tropics and subtropics was less diverse than species from the temperate zone. Diet breadth was lower in cursorial spiders compared to web-building species. Thus, the evolution of stenophagy in spiders appears to be complex and governed by phylogeny as well as by ecological determinants. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Carvalho,Leonardo Sousa; Avelino,Marcelo Thiago Lima
Quatro fitofisionomias do Bioma Cerrado (mata dos cocais, mata seca semi-decídua primária, mata seca semi-decídua secundária e cerrado típico) na Fazenda Nazareth (Município de José de Freitas, Piauí) foram amostradas utilizando-se guarda-chuva entomológico e armadilhas de queda. Os indivíduos coletados a partir do protocolo estruturado e aqueles coletados previamente na área de estudo (amostragens ocasionais com armadilhas de interceptação e queda) foram identificados unificadamente. Um tota...
Full Text Available Faunistic records of spiders (Araneae in the Nature Monument Jesličky (South Moravia, Czech Republic are presented. Spiders were collected by pitfall trapping in 2009 and by sweeping of the herb vegetation in 2011. During the both periods a total of 847 specimens were collected, from which 617 adult spiders were determined. We found 88 species belonging to 20 families. Seven species listed on the Red List of Invertebrates of the Czech Republic were recorded: Titanoeca schineri L. Koch, 1872, Scotina celans (Blackwall, 1841, Haplodrassus dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866, Ozyptila pullata (Thorell, 1875, Ozyptila simplex (O.P-Cambridge, 1862 and Marpissa nivoyi (Lucas, 1846. To the most significant finding belongs a very rare and endangered (EN Micaria guttulata (C. L. Koch, 1839. A significant and rich finding of bioindicators of the well preserved steppe habitats Atypus piceus (Sulzer, 1776, Eresus kollari Rossi, 1846 and Alopecosa sulzeri (Pavesi, 1873 are to be mentioned.
Rodrigo Souza Santos
Full Text Available Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones are arachnids with wide geographical distribution, most species being recorded in Neotropical regions. These organisms have low dispersal ability, a high degree of endemism and are sensitive to environmental change; they also participate in the cycling of soil organic matter, since the eating habits of many species are detritivorous. Given the importance of these organisms, the aim of this work was to search for harvestmen fauna in a forest fragment located in the town of Plácido de Castro in the Brazilian state of Acre. Two methods were used for capture: pitfall traps (passive capture arranged along two transects, and free night searches (active collection. The pitfall traps consisted of a 500 mL plastic cup containing a 1% formaldehyde solution and drops of neutral detergent, and were collected weekly. Monthly active collections were carried out by four people over one hour. The following species of harvestmen were captured: Paecilaema marajoara, Paraprotus quadripunctatus, Taito kakera and Cynorta sp. (Cosmetidae; Geaya sp. (Sclerosomatidae; and four adults and one immature insect of the family Manaosbiidae. All the harvestmen recorded in this survey were captured during the free night-searches. This is the first report of the genera Geaya and Cynorta, and the species P. quadripunctatus, in the State of Acre. = Os opiliões (Arachnida: Opiliones são aracnídeos com ampla distribuição geográfica, sendo a maior parte das espécies registradas na região Neotropical. Esses organismos possuem baixa capacidade de dispersão, alto grau de endemismo e sensibilidade às mudanças ambientais, também participam da ciclagem da matéria orgânica do solo, visto que muitas espécies possuem o hábito alimentar detritívoro. Dada a importância desses organismos, objetivou-se com esse trabalho prospectar a fauna de opiliões em remanescente florestal localizado no município de Plácido de Castro, AC. Foram utilizados
Fahrein, Kathrin; Masta, Susan E; Podsiadlowski, Lars
Amblypygi (whip spiders) are terrestrial chelicerates inhabiting the subtropics and tropics. In morphological and rRNA-based phylogenetic analyses, Amblypygi cluster with Uropygi (whip scorpions) and Araneae (spiders) to form the taxon Tetrapulmonata, but there is controversy regarding the interrelationship of these three taxa. Mitochondrial genomes provide an additional large data set of phylogenetic information (sequences, gene order, RNA secondary structure), but in arachnids, mitochondrial genome data are missing for some of the major orders. In the course of an ongoing project concerning arachnid mitochondrial genomics, we present the first two complete mitochondrial genomes from Amblypygi. Both genomes were found to be typical circular duplex DNA molecules with all 37 genes usually present in bilaterian mitochondrial genomes. In both species, gene order is identical to that of Limulus polyphemus (Xiphosura), which is assumed to reflect the putative arthropod ground pattern. All tRNA gene sequences have the potential to fold into structures that are typical of metazoan mitochondrial tRNAs, except for tRNA-Ala, which lacks the D arm in both amblypygids, suggesting the loss of this feature early in amblypygid evolution. Phylogenetic analysis resulted in weak support for Uropygi being the sister group of Amblypygi.
Full Text Available Five species were recorded for the first time in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany: Psilochorus simoni (Berland, 1911 (Pholcidae, Ero aphana (Walckenaer, 1802 (Mimetidae, Panamomops mengei Simon, 1926 (Linyphiidae, Archaeodictyna consecuta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872 (Dictynidae. Nigma walckenaeri (Roewer, 1951 (Dictynidae is not considered to be rare, but a record is published from this region for the first time. A new northernmost distribution point for Theridion boesenbergi Strand, 1914 (Theridiidae was recorded. Notes on other species rarely found in Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony are also provided.
Full Text Available The male of Hymenoepimecis japi (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Pimplinae is described and illustrated. The specimen was collected in a modified web (cocoon web of Leucauge roseosignata (Araneae, Tetragnathidae made in a laboratory. Both, host and parasitoid were collected in Reserva Biológica Serra do Japi, located in Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil.
Hormiga, Gustavo; Scharff, Nikolaj
Laetesia raveni n. sp. (Araneae, Linyphiidae), is described based on specimens collected in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia). This new linyphiid species is of bright green colour, and it seems to have a preference to build its webs almost exclusively on two plant species, namely Calamus...
Full Text Available Since the number of microorganisms that are resistant to antibiotics has been increasing steadily, the need for combating these pathogens requires new pharmaceutical agents. To produce these substances, new models have been developed in recent decades. In our study, the venom of Agelena labyrinthica (Clerck, 1757 (Araneae: Agelenidae was tested against ten bacterial strains, specifically, testing 1/100, 1/10 and 1/1 fractions of diluted venom against these bacteria. While the 1/100 dilution was successful in only one of ten bacterial strains, the 1/10 and the 1/1 were effective on six of ten bacterial strains. The most effective results, among these three different concentrations, were observed on Bacillus subtilis. The other five strains that were also sensitive to the dilutions showed similar inhibition zones. Morphological alterations on bacterial cells and comparison with normal cells were accomplished by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The venom-treated cells, due to their loss of cytoplasm, shrank and presented cell wall depression.
Jiang, Xinyi; Zhao, Yao; Yan, Qian; Li, Changchun; Jiang, Qinghong; Yun, Yueli; Peng, Yu
According to sexual selection theory, age affects the preference of mate choice, and this preference ultimately influences the fecundity of the female. Pardosa pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae) is a valued predator in many cropping systems. By determining oviposition rate, egg hatching rate, and also the number and carapace width of the 2nd instar spiderlings of the F 1 generation, we explored the effects of age on fecundity of the female spider. There were no significant effects of age on courtship duration, sexual cannibalism rate, mating rate, oviposition rate, egg hatching rate, or the number and carapace width of 2nd instar spiderings of P. pseudoannulata. However, age had a significant effect on courtship latency, courtship intensity, and mating duration of the spider. Courtship latency decreased significantly with an increase in the age of the male, and courtship intensity of the low-age male increased with increasing female age. Increasing age of male and female spiders was associated with significantly prolonged mating duration. The results indicated that low-age male spiders were more inclined to mate with high-age females, and age had no significant effect on sexual cannibalism rate or the fecundity of the female. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gossner, Martin M.; Simons, Nadja K.; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H. O.; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W.
Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors’ experience.
Fischer, Marta Luciane; Vasconcellos-Neto, João
A survey was done of the environments and substrata occupied by Loxosceles intermedia Mello-Leitão, 1934 and Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet, 1849) (Araneae: Sicariidae) in urban woods and anthropic constructions in Curitiba. In total, 2,099 trees, 364 decaying logs as well as stones and roots, built-up areas, and wasteland in six urban parks and 60 residences were inspected. In total, 1,775 m2 of vegetation was inspected, but spiders and their vestiges were collected only in and around buildings in urban parks and residences. L. intermedia was more common than L. laeta and occurred both indoors and outdoors, whereas L. laeta was more common indoors in wooden houses. The two species did not occur in the same microhabitats, although both preferred paper, wood, and construction materials. Spiders collected in urban parks were heavier than those collected in residences, although only males collected in urban parks were larger than those from residences. The lack of vestiges indicative of a previous occupation in the urban parks suggested that both species occupied primarily the anthropic environment where they found numerous substrata that offered thermal isolation and suitable conditions for web fixation, ecdysis, and reproduction.
Full Text Available The non-mimetic Afrotropical spider genus Cambalida Simon, 1909, placed within a subfamily of predominantly ant-mimicking spiders (Araneae: Corinnidae: Castianeirinae, is revised. Three species are transferred from Castianeira Keyserling, 1879 to Cambalida: C. deminuta (Simon, 1909, comb. n., C. fulvipes (Simon, 1896, comb. n. and C. loricifera (Simon, 1885, comb. n.. A fourth species, C. fagei (Caporiacco, 1939, comb. n., is transferred from Brachyphaea Simon, 1895 to Cambalida. Two species, Castianeira depygata Strand, 1916, syn. n. and C. mestrali Lessert, 1921, syn. n., are considered junior synonyms of C. fulvipes. The males of C. deminuta and C. loricifera are redescribed and their unknown females are described for the first time. The female and male of C. fulvipes and C. coriacea Simon, 1909 are also redescribed. The type material of the type species of the genus, C. insulana Simon, 1909 from Pagalu (Annobon Island, is lost, and only immature specimens have been subsequently collected from a nearby island. The species is regarded as a nomen dubium until fresh adult material can be collected. A replacement name, Cambalida simoni nom. n. is proposed for Cambalida fulvipes Simon, 1909, the latter being a secondary junior homonym of Cambalida fulvipes (Simon, 1896. The type material of this species is also lost and it is too considered nomen dubium. The following new species are described: C. compressa sp. n. from West Africa, C. dippenaarae sp. n. from southern Africa, C. griswoldi sp. n. and C. lineata sp. n. from Madagascar, and C. unica sp. n. from Cameroon. Notes are provided on the biology of each species and the distribution of the genus in the Afrotropical Region.
Full Text Available Crassignatha danaugirangensis sp. n. (Araneae: Symphytognathidae was discovered during a tropical ecology field course held at the Danau Girang Field Centre in Sabah, Malaysia. A taxonomic description and accompanying ecological study were completed as course activities. To assess the ecology of this species, which belongs to the ground-web-building spider community, three habitat types were surveyed: riparian forest, recently inundated riverine forest, and oil palm plantation. Crassignatha danaugirangensis sp. n. is the most abundant ground-web-building spider species in riparian forest; it is rare or absent from the recently inundated forest and was not found in a nearby oil palm plantation. The availability of this taxonomic description may help facilitate the accumulation of data about this species and the role of inundated riverine forest in shaping invertebrate communities.
Garcilazo-Cruz, Uriel; Alvarez-Padilla, Fernando
Reproduction in arthropods is an interesting area of research where intrasexual and intersexual mechanisms have evolved structures with several functions. The mating plugs usually produced by males are good examples of these structures where the main function is to obstruct the female genitalia against new sperm depositions. In spiders several types of mating plugs have been documented, the most common ones include solidified secretions, parts of the bulb or in some extraordinary cases the mutilation of the entire palpal bulb. Here, we describe the first case of modified setae, which are located on the cymbial dorsal base, used directly as a mating plug for the Order Araneae in the species Maeotasetastrobilaris sp. n. In addition the taxonomic description of Maeotasetastrobilaris sp. n. is provided and based on our findings the geographic distribution of this genus is extended to the Northern hemisphere.
Pedroso, Denis Rafael; Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira
Abstract A new species of Harmonicon F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 (Araneae, Dipluridae) is described, from a medium-sized lateritic cave in Parauapebas, Pará, Brazil. The male holotype and only specimen known of H. cerberus sp. n. was found near the entrance of Pequiá cave. This taxon is the fourth species described and the southernmost record for the genus. The new species displays some troglomorphic characteristics, such as reduction and merging of the posterior median and both pairs of lateral eyes and pale yellow to light brown coloration. Both characters are diagnostic when compared to the normal separated eyes and reddish to dark brown of other Harmonicon species. Other diagnostic characteristics are isolated, long, rigid setae distal to the lyra and the shape of the copulatory bulb. This is the second troglomorphic mygalomorph species from Brazil and the first from the Amazonian region. PMID:24715775
Full Text Available Reproduction in arthropods is an interesting area of research where intrasexual and intersexual mechanisms have evolved structures with several functions. The mating plugs usually produced by males are good examples of these structures where the main function is to obstruct the female genitalia against new sperm depositions. In spiders several types of mating plugs have been documented, the most common ones include solidified secretions, parts of the bulb or in some extraordinary cases the mutilation of the entire palpal bulb. Here, we describe the first case of modified setae, which are located on the cymbial dorsal base, used directly as a mating plug for the Order Araneae in the species Maeota setastrobilaris sp. n. In addition the taxonomic description of M. setastrobilaris sp. n. is provided and based on our findings the geographic distribution of this genus is extended to the Northern hemisphere.
Full Text Available In 2006-2007 we carried out faunal investigations in the vernal, estival and autumnal seasons in the scientific reserve "Codrul Secular Giumalău" using quantitative sampling methods. We identified 189 species of Coleoptera, 70 of Collembola and 20 of Araneae. Of these, 11 phytophagous, 18 myceto/xylo-mycetophagous, 9 mixophagous, 18 xylo- and cambio-xylemophagous, 38 saproxylophagous, 125 (55 Coleoptera, 70 Collembola detritivorous (sapro-, copro- and necrophagous, 60 (40 Coleoptera, 20 Aranea predators/parasitoids. Hymenaphorura polonica Pomorski, 1990 (Collembola, and Leiodes rhaeticus Erichson, 1845 (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, are recorded for the first time in the Romanian fauna. The rare species and characteristic species for the old primeval spruce forests are analysed for each studied taxonomic group. The species richness and faunal diversity from the Giumalău primeval spruce forest are compared with those of other very well preserved forests from the Carpathians scientific reserves (Codrul Secular Slătioara, Pietrosul Rodnei. The species abundances were used to compute the similarity indexes between the sampled sectors of forest and to perform Cluster Analysis. We observed that the dead wood in the 2nd-6th phases of decomposition has a great influence not only on the saproxylic species but also on the soil fauna like ground beetles (Carabidae that use the logs as ecologic microrefuges (winter refugees or diurnal refugees. The structure of the soil fauna is influenced by wood extraction from the forest ecosystem or by natural perturbations, this consisting in the appearance of opportunistic species as Orchesella pontica (Collembola and in decreasing of species richness of Carabidae (Coleoptera.
Full Text Available In 2006-2007 we carried out faunal investigations in the vernal, estival and autumnal seasons in the scientific reserve "Codrul Secular Giumalãu" using quantitative sampling methods. We identified 189 species of Coleoptera, 70 of Collembola and 20 of Araneae. Of these, 11 phytophagous, 18 myceto/xylo-mycetophagous,9 mixophagous, 18 xylo- and cambio-xylemophagous, 38 saproxylophagous,125 (55 Coleoptera, 70 Collembola detritivorous (sapro-, copro- andnecrophagous, 60 (40 Coleoptera, 20 Aranea predators/parasitoids. Hymenaphorura polonica Pomorski, 1990 (Collembola, and Leiodes rhaeticus Erichson, 1845 (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, are recorded for the first time in the Romanian fauna. The rare species and characteristic species for the old primeval spruce forests are analysed for each studied taxonomic group. The species richness and faunal diversity from the Giumalãu primeval spruce forest are compared with those of other very well preserved forests from the Carpathians scientific reserves (Codrul Secular Slãtioara,Pietrosul Rodnei. The species abundances were used to compute the similarity indexes between the sampled sectors of forest and to perform Cluster Analysis. We observed that the dead wood in the 2nd-6th phases of decomposition has a great influence not only on the saproxylic species but also on the soil fauna like ground beetles(Carabidae that use the logs as ecologic microrefuges (winter refugees or diurnal refugees. The structure of the soil fauna is influenced by wood extraction from the forest ecosystem or by natural perturbations, this consisting in the appearance of opportunistic species as Orchesella pontica (Collembola and in decreasing ofspecies richness of Carabidae (Coleoptera.
Maya-Morales, Julieta; Jiménez, María Luisa
The Western Hemisphere genus Novalena Chamberlin & Ivie 1942 (Araneae: Agelenidae) is revised. The genus now includes a total of 53 species, of which 40 are new species from USA, Mexico, Guatemala, and Costa Rica: N. ajusco sp. nov. (♀), N. alamo sp. nov. (♂), N. alvarezi sp. nov. (♀), N. atzimbo sp. nov. (♀), N. bosencheve sp. nov. (♂), N. chamberlini sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. cieneguilla sp. nov. (♀), N. cintalapa sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. clara sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. comaltepec sp. nov. (♀), N. creel sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. dentata sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. divisadero sp. nov. (♀), N. durango sp. nov. (♀), N. franckei sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. garnica sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. gibarrai sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. irazu sp. nov. (♀), N. iviei sp. nov. (♂), N. ixtlan sp. nov. (♂), N. jiquilpan sp. nov. (♀), N. leonensis sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. mexiquensis sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. oaxaca sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. paricutin sp. nov. (♀), N. perote sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. plata sp. nov. (♀), N. poncei sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. popoca sp. nov. (♀), N. prieta sp. nov. (♀), N. puebla sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. punta sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. rothi sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. saltoensis sp. nov. (♀), N. sinaloa sp. nov. (♀), N. tacana sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. triunfo sp. nov. (♀), N. valdezi sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. victoria sp. nov. (♀), and N. volcanes sp. nov. (♀). Nine are previously described species: N. annamae (Gertsch & Davis 1940), N. attenuata (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge 1902), N. bipartita (Kraus 1955), N. calavera Chamberlin & Ivie 1942, N. costata (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge 1902), N. laticava (Kraus 1955), N. orizaba (Banks 1898), N. shlomitae (García-Villafuerte 2009), and N. simplex (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge 1902). Four new synonyms are proposed: N. pina Chamberlin & Ivie 1942 = N. intermedia (Chamberlin & Gertsch 1930); N. idahoana (Gertsch 1934) and N. wawona Chamberlin & Ivie 1942 = N. lutzi (Gertsch 1933); N. tolucana (Gertsch & Davis 1940) = N. approximata
Items 651 - 675 of 1840 ... ... fire on the ground-dwelling spider assemblages (Arachnida: Araneae) in a central South African grassland habitat, Abstract. Charles R. Haddad, Stefan H. Foord, René Fourie, Anna S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. Vol 25, No 2 (1990), Effects of alien woody plant invasion on the birds of Mountain Fynbos ...
Using pitfall traps, wandering spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) were sampled in a nested design from three different localities in the mountainous arid ecosystem of South Sinai at low, middle, and high altitudes. Habitat type and altitude were clearly different among the three localities. Spider diversity per trap varied spatially ...
Micro-scale heterogeneity of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in the Soutpansberg, South Africa: A comparative survey and inventory in representative habitats · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S.H. Foord, M.M. Mafadza, A.S. Dippenaar-Schoeman, B.J. Van ...
Michalik, P; Gray, M R; Alberti, G
Spermatozoa and spermiogenesis of the prithine filistatid spider Wandella orana are described. The spider produces coenospermia, i.e. sperm aggregations that include several single sperm cells commonly surrounded by a secretion sheath. One sectioned coenospermium in W. orana contains at least five spermatozoa. During copulation many coenospermia are transferred into the female. Coenospermia are regarded as a peculiar transfer form of sperm which occurs in early derivative spiders such as Liphistiomorphae and Mygalomorphae. The only exception which was found in Araneomorphae until now was the filistatine spider Filistata insidiatrix. Our observation is the second case and supports the view that Filistatidae represent an early derivative taxon. Furthermore, the individual sperm cells show characteristics which also may be regarded as being plesiomorphic. There is a cone-shaped acrosomal vacuole, a very long acrosomal filament, a rather stout nucleus and a small implantation fossa. The axoneme shows the 9x2+3 pattern of microtubules which is synapomorphic in Megoperculata (Uropygi, Amblypygi and Araneae). The finding of coenospermia in two distant taxa of Filistatidae may have consequences for phylogenetic and systematic considerations.
Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K
In a previous experimental study, recluse spiders Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch and Mulaik and Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet) (Araneae: Sicariidae) preferred small cardboard refugia covered with conspecific silk compared with never-occupied refugia. Herein, we investigated some factors that might be responsible for this preference using similar cardboard refugia. When the two Loxosceles species were given choices between refugia previously occupied by their own and by the congeneric species, neither showed a species-specific preference; however, each chose refugia coated with conspecific silk rather than those previously inhabited by a distantly related cribellate spider, Metaltella simoni (Keyserling). When L. laeta spiders were offered refugia that were freshly removed from silk donors compared with heated, aged refugia from the same silk donor, older refugia were preferred. Solvent extracts of L. laeta silk were chosen approximately as often as control refugia when a range of solvents (methylene chloride:methanol, water, and hexane) were used. However, when acetone was used on similar silk, there was a statistical preference for the control, indicating that there might be a mildly repellent aspect to acetone-washed silk. Considering the inability to show attraction to chemical aspects of fresh silk, it seems that physical attributes may be more important for selection and that there might be repellency to silk of a recently vacated spider. These findings are discussed in regard to pest management strategies to control recluse spiders.
Rubio, Gonzalo D.
Full Text Available The spider diversity from yungas vegetation in northwestern Argentina is studied, integrating two levels: local (α diversity, community structures and a projection at regional level of diversity (β diversity. Twenty six sites in Salta Province were sampled, representing different ambient/altitudinal strata of yungas sensu stricto (SP= pedemontane rainforest, SM= montane rainforest and BM= montane forest, yungas sensu lato (Cc-s= yungas central and southern sectors connectivity areas, YT= transitional yungas, and Chaco Serrano sites (ChS as contrast. The sampling was carried out seasonally for one year taking 10 samples of vegetation with G-Vac method. A total of 6412 spiders, 188 species and 34 families were obtained (only yungas. Theridiidae, Anyphaenidae and Linyphiidae were dominant. The highest richness was observed in Araneidae, Salticidae and Theridiidae. >em>Chibchea salta (Pholcidae, Dubiaranea msp111 (Linyphiidae and Mysmena msp110 (Mysmenidae were dominant species. Relevant differences in species composition and abundance highlighted two groups of environment (Cc-s+SP+YT+ChS vs. (SM+BM. Dictynidae, Oxyopidae and Philodromidae are associated with lower altitudinal floors (Cc-s, YT, ChS. The greatest species richness and diversity were recorded in SP and YT. The highest similarity was recorded in SM and BM; the major differences were observed in Cc-s and ChS compared with the other ambient, except with SP. Complementarity and similarity indices and coefficients revealed high β diversity in the region. Thus, it is suggested that besides reinforcing protection in transitional levels Yungas (the most disturbed and diverse habitats for spiders, conservation management in the area should be directed towards promoting natural spatial heterogeneity of Yungas, giving special emphasis to habitat mosaics that constitute each different stratum.Se estudia la diversidad de arañas de vegetación de las yungas del noroeste argentino, integrando dos
Brescovit, Antonio D.; Taucare-Ríos, Andrés; Magalhaes, Ivan L. F.; Santos, Adalberto J.
Brescovit, Antonio D., Taucare-Ríos, Andrés, Magalhaes, Ivan L. F., Santos, Adalberto J. (2017): On Chilean Loxosceles (Araneae: Sicariidae): first description of the males of L. surca and L. coquimbo, new records of L. laeta and three remarkable new species from coastal deserts. European Journal of Taxonomy 388: 1-20, DOI: https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2017.388
Four new species of the spider genus Nesticella Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1980 from Laos, Thailand and Myanmar and the first description of the male of Nesticella yui Wunderlich & Song, 1995 with a proposed new diagnostic character for the family Nesticidae Simon, 1894 (Arachnida, Araneae).
Grall, Elena; Jäger, Peter
During various expeditions to Laos between 2003 and 2012 and one expedition to Myanmar in 2014, spiders of the family Nesticidae were collected inside and outside of caves. This was the first time this family was encountered in Laos. All specimens belong to the genus Nesticella Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1980. Four species have been recognized as being new to science, which are described in this paper: Nesticella beccus n. sp. (male, female; LAOS: Bolikhamsay Province, Luang Prabang Province, Huaphan Province, Khammouan Province, THAILAND: Mae Hong Son Province), Nesticella laotica n. sp. (male, female; LAOS: Vientiane Province, Huaphan Province, Luang Prabang Province, Bolikhamsay Province), Nesticella foelixi n. sp. (male; LAOS: Bolikhamsay Province) and Nesticella michaliki n. sp. (male, female; MYANMAR: Chin State). The male of Nesticella yui Wunderlich & Song, 1995 is described for the first time and it is the first record for Laos. Results from a first micro-computed tomography analysis of a female copulatory organ for this genus are provided. This analysis proves that female Nesticella exhibit a complex functional receptaculum, which is highly complex within the genus. The presence of a special type of leg setae (pipette setae) in males is proposed as diagnostic for the family Nesticidae.
Full Text Available A new species of Harmonicon F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 (Araneae, Dipluridae is described, from a medium-sized lateritic cave in Parauapebas, Pará, Brazil. The male holotype and only specimen known of H. cerberus sp. n. was found near the entrance of Pequiá cave. This taxon is the fourth species described and the southernmost record for the genus. The new species displays some troglomorphic characteristics, such as reduction and merging of the posterior median and both pairs of lateral eyes and pale yellow to light brown coloration. Both characters are diagnostic when compared to the normal separated eyes and reddish to dark brown of other Harmonicon species. Other diagnostic characteristics are isolated, long, rigid setae distal to the lyra and the shape of the copulatory bulb. This is the second troglomorphic mygalomorph species from Brazil and the first from the Amazonian region.
Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Bertani, Rogério
The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n. , Caribena gen. n. , and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum's margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818), Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n. , Avicularia lynnae sp. n. , and Avicularia caei sp. n. . Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to
Caroline Sayuri Fukushima
Full Text Available The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n., Caribena gen. n., and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818, Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 stat. n., A. minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920, Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, A. hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n., A. lynnae sp. n., and A. caei sp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to accommodate former
Shear, W A; Bonamo, P M; Grierson, J D; Rolfe, W D; Smith, E L; Norton, R A
A new fossil site near Gilboa, New York, is one of only three where fossils of terrestrial arthropods of Devonian age have been found. The new Gilboan fauna is younger than the other two but richer in taxa. Fragmentary remains and nearly whole specimens assigned to Eurypterida, Arachnida (Trigonotarbida, Araneae, Amblypygi, and Acari), Chilopoda [Craterostigmatomorpha(?) and Scuterigeromorpha(?)], and tentatively to Insecta (Archaeognatha) have been found. The centipedes and possible insects may represent the earliest records known for these groups.
Nedvěd, Oldřich; Pekár, S.; Bezděčka, P.; Líznarová, E.; Řezáč, M.; Schmitt, M.; Sentenská, L.
Roč. 56, č. 4 (2011), s. 539-550 ISSN 1386-6141 Grant - others:Czech Science Foundation(CZ) 206/09P521; Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic(CZ) MZE 0002700603 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : invasive species * neobiota * non-indigenous species Subject RIV: EH - Ecology , Behaviour Impact factor: 1.927, year: 2011
Full Text Available Pseudoscorpions, given their resemblance to scorpions, have attracted human attention since the time of Aristotle, although they are much smaller and lack the sting and elongated tail. These arachnids have a long evolutionary history but their origins and phylogenetic affinities are still being debated. Here, we summarise their fossil record based on a comprehensive review of the literature and data contained in other sources. Pseudoscorpions are one of the oldest colonisers of the land, with fossils known since the Middle Devonian (ca. 390 Ma. The only arachnid orders with an older fossil record are scorpions, harvestmen and acariform mites, plus two extinct groups. Pseudoscorpions do not fossilise easily, and records from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic consist almost exclusively of amber inclusions. Most Mesozoic fossils come from Archingeay and Burmese ambers (Late Cretaceous and those from the Cenozoic are primarily from Eocene Baltic amber, although additional fossils from, for example, Miocene Dominican and Mexican ambers, are known. Overall, 16 of the 26 families of living pseudoscorpions have been documented from fossils and 49 currently valid species are recognised in the literature. Pseudoscorpions represent a case of morphological stasis and even the Devonian fossils look rather modern. Indeed, most amber fossils are comparable to Recent groups despite a major gap in the fossil record of almost 250 Myr. Baltic amber inclusions indicate palaeofauna inhabiting much warmer climates than today and point to climatic shifts in central Europe since the Eocene. They also indicate that some groups (e.g. Feaellidae and Pseudogarypidae had much wider Eocene distributions. Their present-day occurrence is relictual and highlights past extinction events. Faunas from younger tropical amber deposits (e.g. Dominican and Mexican amber are comparable to Recent ones. Generally, there is a strong bias in the amber record towards groups that live under tree bark, whereas those from litter habitats are underrepresented. We also discuss challenges in interpreting fossils: their cryptic morphology warranting novel techniques of morphological reconstruction, the massive gap in the fossil record between the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic, and problems with the classification of (historically old amber material. Finally, we discuss aspects of the palaeoecology and biology of the fossils compared with the Recent fauna, such as phoresy.
Giribet, Gonzalo; Sharma, Prashant P
Opiliones are one of the largest arachnid orders, with more than 6,500 species in 50 families. Many of these families have been erected or reorganized in the last few years since the publication of The Biology of Opiliones. Recent years have also seen an explosion in phylogenetic work on Opiliones, as well as in studies using Opiliones as test cases to address biogeographic and evolutionary questions more broadly. Accelerated activity in the study of Opiliones evolution has been facilitated by the discovery of several key fossils, including the oldest known Opiliones fossil, which represents a new, extinct suborder. Study of the group's biology has also benefited from rapid accrual of genomic resources, particularly with respect to transcriptomes and functional genetic tools. The rapid emergence and utility of Phalangium opilio as a model for evolutionary developmental biology of arthropods serve as demonstrative evidence of a new area of study in Opiliones biology, made possible through transcriptomic data.
Horus is an olpiid pseudoscorpion of which nine species have been described from southern Africa; a tenth, debatable species was described from the Ivory Coast. The two most widely distributed species are H. granulatus and H. obscurus, the former occurring especially in the west and the other in the east, but their ...
Hammen, van der L.
Since 1964 I have been publishing a series of extensive descriptions and morphological studies of various groups of mites. Although this type of work is rather time-devouring, it enlarges our knowledge considerably as to structures hitherto generally neglected. At the same time, however, we must not
Nascimento, Elynton Alves DO; Bocakova, Milada
Neolinoptes gen. n. is erected to replace Linoptes Gorham, 1884, preoccupied by Linoptes Menge, 1854 (Arachnida: Araneae). Consequently, Neolinoptes imbrex (Gorham, 1884) comb. n., N. amazonicus (Pic, 1923) comb. n., N. atronotatus (Pic, 1922) comb. n., N. atripennis (Pic, 1932) comb. n. are proposed. Calocladon rubidum Gorham, 1884 is transferred to Neolinoptes. Lycomorphon iwokrama sp. n. is proposed as new to science and the genus is recorded from Guyana for the first time. Additionally, Falsocaenia irregularis var. germaini Pic, 1931 is elevated to species rank and past confusion on F. irregularis discussed. New data on geographical distribution of Falsocaenia paranana (Pic, 1922) are presented.
Phylogenetic reconstruction of the wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) using sequences from the 12S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and NADH1 genes: implications for classification, biogeography, and the evolution of web building behavior.
Murphy, Nicholas P; Framenau, Volker W; Donnellan, Stephen C; Harvey, Mark S; Park, Yung-Chul; Austin, Andrew D
Current knowledge of the evolutionary relationships amongst the wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) is based on assessment of morphological similarity or phylogenetic analysis of a small number of taxa. In order to enhance the current understanding of lycosid relationships, phylogenies of 70 lycosid species were reconstructed by parsimony and Bayesian methods using three molecular markers; the mitochondrial genes 12S rRNA, NADH1, and the nuclear gene 28S rRNA. The resultant trees from the mitochondrial markers were used to assess the current taxonomic status of the Lycosidae and to assess the evolutionary history of sheet-web construction in the group. The results suggest that a number of genera are not monophyletic, including Lycosa, Arctosa, Alopecosa, and Artoria. At the subfamilial level, the status of Pardosinae needs to be re-assessed, and the position of a number of genera within their respective subfamilies is in doubt (e.g., Hippasa and Arctosa in Lycosinae and Xerolycosa, Aulonia and Hygrolycosa in Venoniinae). In addition, a major clade of strictly Australasian taxa may require the creation of a new subfamily. The analysis of sheet-web building in Lycosidae revealed that the interpretation of this trait as an ancestral state relies on two factors: (1) an asymmetrical model favoring the loss of sheet-webs and (2) that the suspended silken tube of Pirata is directly descended from sheet-web building. Paralogous copies of the nuclear 28S rRNA gene were sequenced, confounding the interpretation of the phylogenetic analysis and suggesting that a cautionary approach should be taken to the further use of this gene for lycosid phylogenetic analysis.
Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Hernandes, Fabio A
Twelve larvae of unidentified species of Odontacarus Ewing, 1929 (Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) were found parasitising an adult male whip spider Charinus brasilianus Weygoldt (Charinidae) in Santa Teresa, mountainous region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. These larvae occurred in the intersegmental membrane of prosoma and legs. This is the first report of ectoparasitic mites infecting a charinid whip spider and the first record of leeuwenhoekiid mites parasitising an invertebrate host. We suggest that future studies are essential to understand the reasons why these events of parasitism are so rare in the order Amblypygi.
Korenko, Stanislav; Michalková, Veronika; Zwakhals, Kees; Pekár, Stano
Current knowledge about polysphinctine parasite wasps' interactions with their spider hosts is very fragmented and incomplete. This study presents the host specificity of Zatypota percontatoria (Müller) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and its adaptation to varying host availability. Two years of field observations show that Z. percontatoria is a stenophagous parasitoid that parasitizes only five closely related web-building spiders of the family Theridiidae (Araneae). Within the Theridiidae it attacks only species belonging to a small group of species, here called the "Theridion" group. These hosts have a similar biology, but are available at different levels of abundance and at different sizes over the season. Laboratory experiments showed that this wasp species ignores linyphiid, araneid or dictynid spiders and accepts only theridiid spiders of the "Theridion" group. In the field study, wasp females preferred older juvenile and sub-adult female spider instars with intermediate body size. Only 5% of the parasitized spiders were males. Parasitism in the natural population of theridiid spiders was on average 1.3%. Parasitism was most frequent on two species, Theridion varians Hahn in 2007 and Neottiura bimaculata Linnaeus in 2008. The parasitization rate was positively correlated with spider abundance. The wasp responded adaptively to seasonal changes in host abundance and host body size and shifted host preference according to the availability of suitable hosts during, as well as between, seasons. In spring and summer the highest percentage of parasitism was on T. varians and in autumn it was on N. bimaculata.
Gonçalves, Maria Fátima; Pereira, José Alberto
Arthropods are part of important functional groups in soil food webs. Recognizing these arthropods and understanding their function in the ecosystem as well as when they are active is essential to understanding their roles. In the present work, the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods is examined in olive groves in the northeast region of Portugal during the spring. Five classes of arthropods were found: Chilopoda, Malacostraca, Entognatha, Insecta, and Arachnida. Captures were numerically dominated by Collembola within Entognatha, representing 70.9% of total captures. Arachnida and Insecta classes represented about 20.4 and 9.0%, respectively. Among the predatory arthropods, the most representative groups were Araneae and Opiliones from Arachnida, and Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae from Insecta. From the Formicidae family, Tetramorium semilaeve (Andre 1883), Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856), and Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier 1792) were the most representative ant species. Arthropods demonstrated preference during the day, with 74% of the total individuals recovered in this period, although richness and similarity were analogous during the day and night. PMID:22943295
Gonçalves, Maria Fátima; Pereira, José Alberto
Arthropods are part of important functional groups in soil food webs. Recognizing these arthropods and understanding their function in the ecosystem as well as when they are active is essential to understanding their roles. In the present work, the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods is examined in olive groves in the northeast region of Portugal during the spring. Five classes of arthropods were found: Chilopoda, Malacostraca, Entognatha, Insecta, and Arachnida. Captures were numerically dominated by Collembola within Entognatha, representing 70.9% of total captures. Arachnida and Insecta classes represented about 20.4 and 9.0%, respectively. Among the predatory arthropods, the most representative groups were Araneae and Opiliones from Arachnida, and Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae from Insecta. From the Formicidae family, Tetramorium semilaeve (Andre 1883), Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856), and Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier 1792) were the most representative ant species. Arthropods demonstrated preference during the day, with 74% of the total individuals recovered in this period, although richness and similarity were analogous during the day and night.
Full Text Available The checklist contains informations about all species of spiders in Lithuania recorded in 1930-1991 and includes a bibliography of the spider fauna of Lithuania. A total of 233 spider species is known from Lithuania.
Zonstein, Sergei; Marusik, Yuri M
This checklist records 631 spider species and subspecies belonging to 49 families in Israel. Species distributions are given in both generalised (by main geographic areas of the country) and detailed (by localities) form. Twenty-seven records are considered as doubtful and another ten are based on misidentifications. A historical survey is provided. Each record is presented in its original combination. The list is dominated by members of the families Gnaphosidae and Salticidae (20.0% and 17.1% of total species, respectively). The level of regional endemism exceeds 37.0%.
The checklist contains information about all species of spiders in Lithuania recorded in 1930-1992 and includes a bibliography of the spider fauna of Lithuania. A total of 233 spider species is known from Lithuania.
This is the first detailed report on the natural prey and the prey-capture tactics of a Palpimanus sp. from Entebbe (Uganda). Although this species fed occasionally on insects, its dominant prey in the field was other spiders, especially jumping spiders (Salticidae) and their eggs. Encounters between Palpimanus sp. and ...
Hector M.O. Gonzalez-Filho
Full Text Available The Neotropical Sasoninae Neodiplothele Mello-Leitão, 1917 is revised and now includes eight species. Neodiplothele can be distinguished from other Sasoninae by the absence of the posterior median spinnerets and differs Neotropical relatives as Cosmopelma by the absence of cuspules on coxae of leg I and Paracenobiopelma by the absence of cuspules on the labium. The male of N. irregularis Mello-Leitão, 1917 and N. picta Vellard, 1924 are described and illustrated for the first time. Neodiplothele leonardosi Mello-Leitão, 1939 is considered a junior synonym of N. irregularis. Five new species are described from Brazil: N. aureus sp. nov. from the states of Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, and Minas Gerais, N. itabaiana sp. nov. from Sergipe, N. martinsi sp. nov. from Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Minas Gerais, N. indicattii sp. nov. from Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo, N. caucaia sp. nov. from Ceará, Goiás, and Mato Grosso do Sul. Two informal groups are proposed based on genitalia morphology: irregularis group and picta group. An identification key and new distribution records for all known species are given.
Marco A. Benamú
Full Text Available Estudios realizados en cultivos de soja transgénica en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, revelaron que Alpaida veniliae es una de las especies más abundantes dentro del gremio de arañas orbiculares. Esta especie es un eficaz enemigo natural de las plagas de insectos de este cultivo. En el presente estudio se llevó a cabo un análisis descriptivo y cuantitativo de la conducta sexual (cortejo, cópula y post-cópula de A. veniliae. Las arañas fueron recolectadas en cultivos de soja transgénica ubicados en Chivilcoy (35º01’ S - 60º06’ W, (Buenos Aires, Argentina y criadas en condiciones de laboratorio. A partir de la formación de 20 parejas (con hembras vírgenes, se observaron las unidades de comportamiento de machos y hembras, en términos de posturas y movimientos, incluyendo los detalles de su duración y frecuencia en todas las etapas del apareamiento. El cortejo exhibió el mayor número y la mayor duración de las unidades de comportamiento en ambos sexos. La secuencia de unidades fue 16 en el macho y nueve en la hembra, siendo la frecuencia de repeticiones de las unidades significativamente mayor en el macho. La cópula fue breve y el macho usó un solo palpo transfiriendo esperma a una sola espermateca de la hembra. Hubo dos unidades de comportamiento en el macho y una en la hembra. Durante la post-cópula el macho tuvo tres y la hembra dos unidades de comportamiento. La duración media de todo el comportamiento sexual fue 541.90±123.1 segundos para el macho y 338.20±74.1 segundos para la hembra. La hembra de A. veniliae sólo excepcionalmente aceptó una segunda cópula con el mismo u otro macho, lo que indica una monogamia estricta. En el 46% de las cópulas observadas la hembra canibalizó al macho al terminar la misma. Debido a que a partir de este momento dejan de producir feromonas sexuales, se vuelven no receptivas y provocan una reducción del cortejo del macho. El alto costo del cortejo del macho, incluyendo el riesgo de canibalismo, reforzaría la selectividad de éstos hacia las hembras receptivas vírgenes.
Full Text Available A female specimen of the cribellate spider species Badumna longinqua (L. Koch, 1867 was found in a 'do-it-yourself-store' in Berlin. The species is of Australian origin and has been introduced into New Zealand, Japan, Uruguay and California. This is the first record of a representative of the family Desidae from Europe. B. longinqua lives in and around houses and is apparently capable of establishing itself in Europe.
Full Text Available Based on the examination of over 23,000 specimens, distribution, frequency/dominance, morphometric data and ecology of the East German false scorpions are presented. Most samples were collected by the authors, the rest are from Museums and other persons. 38 species were recorded. The preferred habitats and strata of the most species are described. Phoresy was observed for Allochernes peregrinus, Lamprochernes chyzeri, L. nodosus and Pselaphochernes scorpioides. Nine species live in ant nests. Zoogeographic aspects of the species assemblage are discussed in the world wide context. Distribution limits of four species run across the area of investigation.
Full Text Available A checklist of german arachnids (spiders, harvestmen, pseudoscorpions is presented here for the first time. 956 species of spiders, 45 species of harvestmen and 45 species of pseudoscorpions are listed. Important junior synonyms are given. References are cited for the species established in Germany.
Platen, Ralph; Blick, Theo; Bliss, Peter; Drogla, Reiner; Malten, Andreas; Martens, Jochen
A checklist of german arachnids (spiders, harvestmen, pseudoscorpions) is presented here for the first time. 956 species of spiders, 45 species of harvestmen and 45 species of pseudoscorpions are listed. Important junior synonyms are given. References are cited for the species established in Germany.
Drogla, Reiner; Lippold, Klaus
On the knowledge of the pseudoscorpion fauna of East Germany. Based on the examination of over 23. 000 specimens, distribution, frequency/dominance, morphometric data and ecology of the East German false scorpions are presented. Most samples were collected by the authors, the rest are from museums and other persons. 38 species were recorded The preferred habitats and strata of the most species are described. Phoresy was observed for Allochernes peregrinus, Lamprochernes chyzeri, L. nodosus an...
Wolff, Jonas O; Seiter, Michael; Gorb, Stanislav N
Whip spiders (Amblypygi) are a small, cryptic order of arachnids mainly distributed in the tropics. Some basal lineages (families Charinidae and Charontidae) have adhesive pads on the tips of their six walking legs. The present study describes the macro- and ultrastructure of these pads and investigates their contact mechanics and adhesive strength on smooth and rough substrates. Furthermore, the structure of the pretarsus and its kinematics are compared in Charon cf. grayi (with an adhesive pad) and Phrynus longipes (without an adhesive pad). The adhesive pads exhibit an elaborate structure with a unique combination of structural features of smooth and hairy foot pads including a long transversal contact zone performing lateral detachment, a thick internally-branched cuticle with longitudinal ribs and hexagonal surface microstructures with spatulate keels. The contact area of the pads on smooth glass is discontinuous due to the spatulate microstructures with a discontinuous detachment, which could be observed in vivo by high speed videography at a rate of up to 10,000 fps. Adhesive strength was measured with vertical whole animal pull-off tests, obtaining mean values between 55 and 200 kPa. The occurrence of viscous lipid secretions between microstructures was occasionally observed, which, however, seems not to be a necessity for good foothold. The results are discussed in relation to the whip spider's ecology and evolution. Structure-function relationships of the adhesive pads are compared to those of insects and vertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; Benedetti, Alípio Rezende; de Vasconcelos, Eduardo Gomes; Hara, Marcos Ryotaro
As part of an ongoing revision of the family Gonyleptidae, we have identified many species that are synonyms of previously described species or misplaced in this family. This article summarizes these findings, adding previously unavailable information or correcting imprecise observations to justify the presented taxonomic changes. THE FOLLOWING NEW FAMILIAL OR SUBFAMILIAL ASSIGNMENTS ARE PROPOSED: Nemastygnus Roewer, 1929 and Taulisa Roewer, 1956 are transferred to Agoristenidae, Agoristeninae; Napostygnus Roewer, 1929 to Cranaidae; Ceropachylinus peruvianus Roewer, 1956 and Pirunipygus Roewer, 1936 are transferred to Gonyleptidae, Ampycinae; Gyndesops Roewer, 1943, Haversia Roewer, 1913 and Oxapampeus Roewer, 1963 are transferred to Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae. The following generic synonymies are proposed for the family Gonyleptidae: Acanthogonyleptes Mello-Leitão, 1922 = Centroleptes Roewer, 1943; Acrographinotus Roewer, 1929 = Unduavius Roewer, 1929; Gonyleptes Kirby, 1819 = Collonychium Bertkau, 1880; Mischonyx Bertkau, 1880 = Eugonyleptes Roewer, 1913 and Gonazula Roewer, 1930; Parampheres Roewer, 1913 = Metapachyloides Roewer, 1917; Pseudopucrolia Roewer, 1912 = Meteusarcus Roewer, 1913; Haversia Roewer, 1913 = Hoggellula Roewer, 1930. The following specific synonymies are proposed for the family Gonyleptidae: Acanthogonyleptes singularis (Mello-Leitão, 1935) = Centroleptes flavus Roewer, 1943, syn. n.; Geraeocormobius sylvarum Holmberg, 1887 = Discocyrtus serrifemur Roewer, 1943, syn. n.; Gonyleptellus bimaculatus (Sørensen, 1884) = Gonyleptes cancellatus Roewer,1917, syn. n.; Gonyleptes atrus Mello-Leitão, 1923 = Weyhia brieni Giltay, 1928, syn. n.; Gonyleptes fragilis Mello-Leitão, 1923 = Gonyleptes banana Kury, 2003, syn. n.; Gonyleptes horridus Kirby, 1819 = Collonychium bicuspidatum Bertkau, 1880, syn. n., Gonyleptes borgmeyeri Mello-Leitão, 1932, syn. n., Gonyleptes curvicornis Mello-Leitão, 1932, syn. n., Metagonyleptes hamatus Roewer, 1913, syn. n. and Paragonyleptes simoni Roewer, 1930, syn. n.; Gonyleptes pustulatus Sørensen, 1884 = Gonyleptes guttatus Roewer, 1917, syn. n.; Haversia defensa (Butler, 1876) = Sadocus vallentini Hogg, 1913, syn. n.; Liogonyleptoides minensis (Piza, 1946) = Currala bahiensis Soares, 1972, syn. n.; Megapachylus grandis Roewer, 1913 = Metapachyloides almeidai Soares & Soares, 1946, syn. n.; Mischonyx cuspidatus (Roewer, 1913) = Gonazula gibbosa Roewer, 1930 syn. n.; Mischonyx scaber (Kirby, 1819) = Xundarava holacantha Mello-Leitão, 1927, syn. n.; Parampheres tibialis Roewer, 1917 = Metapachyloides rugosus Roewer, 1917, syn. n.; Parapachyloides uncinatus (Sørensen, 1879) = Goyazella armata Mello-Leitão, 1931, syn. n.; Pseudopucrolia mutica (Perty, 1833) = Meteusarcus armatus Roewer, 1913, syn. n.THE FOLLOWING NEW COMBINATIONS ARE PROPOSED: Acrographinotus ornatus (Roewer, 1929), comb. n. (ex Unduavius); Gonyleptellus bimaculatus (Sørensen, 1884),comb. n. (ex Gonyleptes);Gonyleptes perlatus (Mello-Leitão, 1935), comb. n. (exMoojenia);Mischonyx scaber (Kirby, 1819), comb. n. (ex Gonyleptes); and Neopachyloides peruvianus (Roewer, 1956), comb. n. (ex Ceropachylus). The following species of Gonyleptidae, Gonyleptinae are revalidated: Gonyleptes atrus Mello-Leitão, 1923 and Gonyleptes curvicornis (Roewer, 1913).
Full Text Available As part of an ongoing revision of the family Gonyleptidae, we have identified many species that are synonyms of previously described species or misplaced in this family. This article summarizes these findings, adding previously unavailable information or correcting imprecise observations to justify the presented taxonomic changes.The following new familial or subfamilial assignments are proposed: Nemastygnus Roewer, 1929 and Taulisa Roewer, 1956 are transferred to Agoristenidae, Agoristeninae; Napostygnus Roewer, 1929 to Cranaidae; Ceropachylinus peruvianus Roewer, 1956 and Pirunipygus Roewer, 1936 are transferred to Gonyleptidae, Ampycinae; Gyndesops Roewer, 1943, Haversia Roewer, 1913 and Oxapampeus Roewer, 1963 are transferred to Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae.The following generic synonymies are proposed for the family Gonyleptidae: Acanthogonyleptes Mello-Leitão, 1922 = Centroleptes Roewer, 1943; Acrographinotus Roewer, 1929 = Unduavius Roewer, 1929; Gonyleptes Kirby, 1819 = Collonychium Bertkau, 1880; Mischonyx Bertkau, 1880 = Eugonyleptes Roewer, 1913 and Gonazula Roewer, 1930; Parampheres Roewer, 1913 = Metapachyloides Roewer, 1917; Pseudopucrolia Roewer, 1912 = Meteusarcus Roewer, 1913; Haversia Roewer, 1913 = Hoggellula Roewer, 1930.The following specific synonymies are proposed for the family Gonyleptidae: Acanthogonyleptes singularis (Mello-Leitão, 1935 = Centroleptes flavus Roewer, 1943, syn. n.; Geraeocormobius sylvarum Holmberg, 1887 = Discocyrtus serrifemur Roewer, 1943, syn. n.; Gonyleptellus bimaculatus (Sørensen, 1884 = Gonyleptes cancellatus Roewer, 1917, syn. n.; Gonyleptes atrus Mello-Leitão, 1923 = Weyhia brieni Giltay, 1928, syn. n.; Gonyleptes fragilis Mello-Leitão, 1923 = Gonyleptes banana Kury, 2003, syn. n.; Gonyleptes horridus Kirby, 1819 = Collonychium bicuspidatum Bertkau, 1880, syn. n., Gonyleptes borgmeyeri Mello-Leitão, 1932, syn. n., Gonyleptes curvicornis Mello-Leitão, 1932, syn. n., Metagonyleptes hamatus Roewer, 1913, syn. n. and Paragonyleptes simoni Roewer, 1930, syn. n.; Gonyleptes pustulatus Sørensen, 1884 = Gonyleptes guttatus Roewer, 1917, syn. n.; Haversia defensa (Butler, 1876 = Sadocus vallentini Hogg, 1913, syn. n.; Liogonyleptoides minensis (Piza, 1946 = Currala bahiensis Soares, 1972, syn. n.; Megapachylus grandis Roewer, 1913 = Metapachyloides almeidai Soares & Soares, 1946, syn. n.; Mischonyx cuspidatus (Roewer, 1913 = Gonazula gibbosa Roewer, 1930 syn. n.; Mischonyx scaber (Kirby, 1819 = Xundarava holacantha Mello-Leitão, 1927, syn. n.; Parampheres tibialis Roewer, 1917 = Metapachyloides rugosus Roewer, 1917, syn. n.; Parapachyloides uncinatus (Sørensen, 1879 = Goyazella armata Mello-Leitão, 1931, syn. n.; Pseudopucrolia mutica (Perty, 1833 = Meteusarcus armatus Roewer, 1913, syn. n.The following new combinations are proposed: Acrographinotus ornatus (Roewer, 1929, comb. n. (ex Unduavius; Gonyleptellus bimaculatus (Sørensen, 1884, comb. n. (ex Gonyleptes; Gonyleptes perlatus (Mello-Leitão, 1935, comb. n. (ex Moojenia; Mischonyx scaber (Kirby, 1819, comb. n. (ex Gonyleptes; and Neopachyloides peruvianus (Roewer, 1956, comb. n. (ex Ceropachylus.The following species of Gonyleptidae, Gonyleptinae are revalidated: Gonyleptes atrus Mello-Leitão, 1923 and Gonyleptes curvicornis (Roewer, 1913.
Jorge Alexander Quirós-Rodríguez
Full Text Available Durante un estudio de la fauna de artrópodos asociada a montículos de detritos de hormigas de la especie Atta colombica Guérin-Méneville, 1844 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae en la hacienda Santa Isabel, corregimiento de Patio Bonito en el departamento de Córdoba, se encontraron representantes de la familia Cheiridiidae. Por tanto, estos pseudoescorpiones se convierten en el primer reporte de la familia para Colombia y por primera vez se registra su presencia en detritus de hormigas. Así mismo, este reporte, amplía su distribución conocida para Suramérica.
Mar 9, 1992 ... Hewitt, were caught only on the plains. 'Heuweltjies' had the second highest diversity and only one species, Blossia sp. nov., appeared to be .... LOVEGROVE, B.G. & SIEGFRIED, W.R. 1989. Spacing and origin(s) of Mirna-like earth mounds in the western Cape. Province of South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci.
Hammen, van der L.
In the first part of the present series (Van der Hammen, 1966), I estimated the extent of my studies on Opilioacarida at two papers, each paper dealing with a representative of one genus. Since the publication of this first part, however, new material has been placed at my disposal, enabling me to
Settepani, Virginia; Grinsted, Lena; Pedersen, Jørgen Granfeldt
specialization, but in distinctly different ways: Stegodyphus sarasinorum showed behavioural asymmetries at the individual level, that is, individual spiders that had attacked prey once were more likely to attack prey again, independent of their body size or hunger level. In contrast, Anelosimus eximius showed...... no individual specialization, but showed differentiation according to instar, where adult and subadult females were more likely to engage in prey attack than were juveniles. We found no evidence for division of labour between prey attack and web maintenance. Different solutions to achieve task differentiation...
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es comunicar una lista de la artropodofauna que se encuentra en los nidos de cotorra (Myiopsitta monachus monachus en distintas localidades de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se colectó un nido y 43 camas de material vegetal fresco que las cotorras depositan en las cámaras de cría. Se extrajeron los artrópodos, que se identificaron bajo lupa binocular y se caracterizaron por su nicho trófico. Se encontraron especies de la clase Arachnida (Acarina, Pseudoescorpionida y Araneae, principalmente depredadoras y hematófagas; mientras que dentro de la clase Insecta se encontraron especies hematófagas, depredadoras, detritívoras, fitófagas, nectarívoras, y xilófagas. Los órdenes más representados fueron Diptera (8 familias y Coleoptera (12 familias. El resto de las especies pertenecieron a los órdenes Collembola, Psocoptera, Hymenoptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera y Lepidoptera.The objective of this work is to communicate a list of artropodofauna which is in Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus monachus nests at several localities in Buenos Aires province. One nest and 43 beds of fresh green material that the Monk Parakeets deposited in the breeding chamber were collected. Arthropods were extracted, identified under binocular microscope, and characterized by their diets. Species were found whitin class Arachnida (Acarina, Pseudoescorpionida and Araneae, mainly predators and hematophagous. Within class Insecta, were found blood-sucking species, predators, detritivores, phytophagous, nectarivorous, and xilophagous, among others. The orders most represented were Diptera (8 families and Coleoptera (12 families. The rest of the species belonged to the orders Collembola, Psocoptera, Hymenoptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera and Lepidoptera.
Marco A. Benamú
Full Text Available Estudios realizados en cultivos de soja transgénica en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, revelaron que Alpaida veniliae es una de las especies más abundantes dentro del gremio de arañas orbiculares. Esta especie es un eficaz enemigo natural de las plagas de insectos de este cultivo. En el presente estudio se llevó a cabo un análisis descriptivo y cuantitativo de la conducta sexual (cortejo, cópula y post-cópula de A. veniliae. Las arañas fueron recolectadas en cultivos de soja transgénica ubicados en Chivilcoy (35º01’ S - 60º06’ W, (Buenos Aires, Argentina y criadas en condiciones de laboratorio. A partir de la formación de 20 parejas (con hembras vírgenes, se observaron las unidades de comportamiento de machos y hembras, en términos de posturas y movimientos, incluyendo los detalles de su duración y frecuencia en todas las etapas del apareamiento. El cortejo exhibió el mayor número y la mayor duración de las unidades de comportamiento en ambos sexos. La secuencia de unidades fue 16 en el macho y nueve en la hembra, siendo la frecuencia de repeticiones de las unidades significativamente mayor en el macho. La cópula fue breve y el macho usó un solo palpo transfiriendo esperma a una sola espermateca de la hembra. Hubo dos unidades de comportamiento en el macho y una en la hembra. Durante la post-cópula el macho tuvo tres y la hembra dos unidades de comportamiento. La duración media de todo el comportamiento sexual fue 541.90±123.1 segundos para el macho y 338.20±74.1 segundos para la hembra. La hembra de A. veniliae sólo excepcionalmente aceptó una segunda cópula con el mismo u otro macho, lo que indica una monogamia estricta. En el 46% de las cópulas observadas la hembra canibalizó al macho al terminar la misma. Debido a que a partir de este momento dejan de producir feromonas sexuales, se vuelven no receptivas y provocan una reducción del cortejo del macho. El alto costo del cortejo del macho, incluyendo el riesgo de canibalismo, reforzaría la selectividad de éstos hacia las hembras receptivas vírgenes.Studies in transgenic soybean crops in Buenos Aires province, Argentina, revealed that Alpaida veniliae is one of the most abundant species in the guild of orb web spiders. This species is an effective natural enemy of insect pests affecting this crop. In the present study we carried out a descriptive and quantitative analysis of sexual behavior (courtship, mating and post-mating of A. veniliae. The spiders were collected in transgenic soybean crops located in Chivilcoy (35º01’ S - 60º06’ W, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and reared under laboratory conditions. Based on observations of 20 couples (with virgin females, behavioral units of male and female in terms of postures and movements, including details on duration and frequency, were described at all stages of sexual activity (courtship, mating and post-mating. Courtship exhibited the greatest number and duration of behavioral units in both sexes. Male and female had a sequence of 16 and nine units, respectively, being the frequency of repetitions of the units significantly higher in the male. Mating was brief and males used a single palp to fill only one of the female spermathecae, after which the female became unreceptive. Mating had two behavioral units in the male and only one in the female. During post-mating males had three and females two behavioral units. The average duration of the whole sexual behavior was 541.90±123.1 seconds for the male and 338.20±74.1 seconds for the female. Alpaida veniliae females rarely accept a second mating with the same or another male (remating, indicating a strict monogamy. In 46% of observed mating, the female cannibalized the male after it. Females became unattractive after mating, since stop producing sex pheromones, causing a reduction of the male vibratory courtship. The high cost of courtship, including the risk of cannibalism, would reinforce the selectivity of males towards receptive virgin females.
Canals, Mauricio; Arriagada, Nicolás; Solís, Rigoberto
In Chile, all necrotic arachnidism is attributed to the Chilean recluse spider, Loxosceles laeta Nicolet, a species that shares the microenvironmental habitats with the spitting spider Scytodes globula Nicolet. The latter species has been proposed as a potential predator of L. laeta. For this research, we studied the interaction between both species during individual encounters to assess the possibility of population regulation of L. laeta cohorts exposed to this potential predator. We found that in most encounters S. globula prevailed. Also, S. globula preys on spiderlings of L. laeta, with a population effect on cohorts of this species. These findings suggest that S. globula may be influencing L. laeta populations in central Chile. The population regulation of L. laeta by predation would be important because this species, in the absence of predators, has a high reproductive rate, and it can maintain populations of large size. However according to our results, although S. globula may aid in the reduction of both spiderling and adult L. laeta populations, and perhaps other Loxosceles species, it is insufficient for biological control of Loxosceles species. Its presence together with other control measures such as hygiene of the rooms can help to decrease loxoscelism incidence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available The spider Latrodectus mirabilis (Holmberg, 1876 is commonly found in cereals crops of central Argentina. We studied its diet composition at the field and capture rate on leaf-cutting ants based on laboratory experiments. This study comprises the first approach that documents the diet of L. mirabilis in wheat and oat fields of central Argentina. We identified 1,004 prey items collected from its webs during the last phenological stages of both cereal crops. The prey composition was variable but the spiders prey mainly on ants (Formicidae, Hymenoptera, who represented more than 86% of the total. Meanwhile, in the capture rate experiences we registered a high proportion of ants captured by spiders at the beginning of experiences, capturing the half of the ants from total in the first four hours. Summarizing, we reported a polyphagous diet of this spider species in wheat and oat fields. Ants were the most important prey item of this spider, as found in other Latrodectus spiders around the world.
Coronato-Ribeiro, Amanda; Pinto-Da-Rocha, Ricardo; Rheims, Cristina Anne
A catalogue of the Opiliones types of the "Instituto Butantan", São Paulo, Brazil is given, surveying the collection after severe fire damaged in 2010. Of a total of 91 species with type material listed for the collection, 69 could be located, and 22 are considered lost. The species are arranged according to their families and genera. The collection of Salvador de Toledo Piza Jr., housed at the Museu de Zoologia "Luiz de Queiroz", was donated to the Instituto Butantan in 2009. These types received a new accession number and are listed under this new affiliation for the first time.
Full Text Available The arachnofauna was studied at five stony debris sites in northern Bohemia. In Central Europe, the northern and montane species inhabiting cold places live not only on mountain tops and peat bogs but also on the lower edges of boulder debris, where air streaming through the system of inner compartments gives rise to an exceedingly cold microclimate. At such cold sites, spiders can live either on bare stones (Bathyphantes simillimus, Wubanoides uralensis, or in the rich layers of moss and lichen (Diplocentria bidentata. Kratochviliella bicapitata exhibits a diplostenoecious occurence in stony debris and on the tree bark. Latithorax faustus and Theonoe minutissima display diplostenoecious occurence in stony debris and on peat bogs. The occurence of the species Scotina celans in the Czech Republic was documented for the first time.
Miller, Jeremy; Rahmadi, Cahyo
Abstract A new troglomorphic spider from caves in Central Java, Indonesia, is described and placed in the ctenid genus Amauropelma Raven, Stumkat & Gray, until now containing only species from Queensland, Australia. Only juveniles and mature females of the new species are known. We give our reasons for placing the new species in Amauropelma, discuss conflicting characters, and make predictions about the morphology of the as yet undiscovered male that will test our taxonomic hypothesis. The description includes DNA barcode sequence data. PMID:22303127
Full Text Available The canopy spiders of the floodplain forest in Leipzig have become a focus of ecological studies in recent years. In 2006 we sampled 30 tree canopies in the ‘Burgaue’ nature reserve with pyrethrum knock-down fogging, recording 502 adult spiders belonging to 48 species and 11 families. Based on these data and the results of a previous fogging study, the studied spider community was dominated by forest and forest-edge species with a preference for the shrub and canopy strata as well as by spiders of the web spider feeding guild. The community structure was typical for arboreal spider communities from northern temperate forests but very different from communities in the tropics. Species richness and evenness were similar to the old growth near-primary Białowieża Forest in Poland. The checklist of 96 canopy spider species of the floodplain forest of Leipzig includes 54 additions to the spider fauna of Leipzig and vicinity by recent canopy studies and eight first canopy records for Leipzig from our field work. The theridiid Dipoena torva (Thorell, 1875 was recorded for the first time in Saxony. The floodplain forest of Leipzig sustains a large and species-rich arboreal spider community and is thus a valuable habitat for a large proportion of endangered species (12%.
Full Text Available Nopyllus gen. nov. is proposed to include Apopyllus isabelae Brescovit & Lise, 1993 and Nopyllus vicente sp. nov. from southern Brazil. Nopyllus gen. nov. is close to Apodrassodes Vellard, 1924 and Apopyllus Platnick & Shadab, 1984, can be distinguished from both genera by the absence of a dorsal abdominal scutum in males, the absence of a median apophysis on bulb, the curved, narrow and reniform cymbium, and by the presence of a very conspicuous cymbial basal projection.
Full Text Available One specimen of the jumping spider Evarcha jucunda was discovered in the fruit department of a general store in Gießen, Germany. The species has obviously been introduced with transported fruit from mediterranean countries.
Sue Yeon Lee
Full Text Available Three Linyphiid spiders, Caviphantes pseudosaxetorum Wunderlich, 1979, Erigone edentata Saito and Ono, 2001, and Savignia kawachiensis Oi, 1960, are reported for the first time from Korea with taxonomic illustrations and redescription. In this study, the genus Caviphantes Oi, 1960 is also newly recorded to Korean spider fauna.
Vanessa M.J. Lee
Full Text Available Ballooning, a mode of aerial dispersal in spiders, is an innate behavior that requires appropriate physiological and meteorological conditions. Although only rarely reported in the golden orbweb spiders, family Nephilidae, the large geographic distributions of most nephilids—in particular of Nephila species—would imply that these spiders likely routinely disperse by ballooning in spite of giant female sizes. Here we study ballooning behavior in the golden orbweb spider Nephila pilipes (Fabricius, 1793. Specifically, we test for the propensity of spiderlings to deploy ballooning as a dispersal mechanism. We subjected a total of 59 first-instar spiderlings to a wind experiment at two wind speeds (2.17 ± 0.02 m s-1 and 3.17 ± 0.02 m s-1 under laboratory conditions. Under an average wind speed of 3.17 m s-1, none of the spiderlings exhibited pre-ballooning or ballooning behavior. However, at an average wind speed of 2.17 m s-1, 53 (89.8% spiderlings showed pre-ballooning behavior, and 17 (32.1% of the pre-ballooners ultimately ballooned. Our results concur with prior reports on spiderlings of other families that pre-ballooning behavior is a requirement for ballooning to occur. Furthermore, although we cannot rule out other dispersal mechanisms such as synanthropic spread, our findings suggest that the widespread N. pilipes uses ballooning to colonize remote oceanic islands.
Since establishing the wolf spider genus Wadicosa Zyuzin, 1985 (Zyuzin 1985), eleven species have been accepted in it, either by transfer from Lycosa Latreille, 1804 or Pardosa C.L. Koch, 1847 or by original designation (WSC 2017). However, according to Kronestedt (1987), additional species wait to be formally transferred to Wadicosa. The genus is restricted to the Old World, with one species, Wadicosa jocquei Kronestedt, 2015, recently described from Madagascar and surrounding islands.
Full Text Available Five new species of Nesticus Thorell, 1869 are described: N. potreiro, N. taim from southern Brazil; N. brignolii from southern Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay; N. calilegua from southern Brazil and Argentina and N. ramirezi, from Argentina. The male palpus and female epyginum of N. brasiliensis Brignoli, 1979 are illustrated. Described species were collected in epigean habitats, in shrubs, leaf-litter, under stones, bricks, tiles or debris.
Růžička, Vlastimil; Klimeš, Leoš
Roč. 33, č. 2 (2005), s. 280-289 ISSN 0161-8202 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : scree slopes * environmental factors * ice formation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.557, year: 2005
INTRODUCTION In this paper the species of spiders belonging to the families Lycosidae and Pisauridae, known from the Netherlands, are described and figured. In addition a number of species, which possibly may occur in the Netherlands though they have not yet been found here hitherto, are mentioned
Richardson, Barry J
The Australian fauna includes large numbers of undescribed, tiny, litter-living, jumping spiders. In this paper four monotypic new genera (Ananeon howardensis n. g. n. sp., Barraina anfracta n. g. n.sp., Frewena maculata n.g. n.s., and Pungalina weiri n.g, n.sp.) are described. Two species (Neon taylori n.sp. and Neon australis n. sp.) representing the two distinctive morphological patterns found in Australian species of this genus are also described. The former, similar in the morphology of the palp and genitalia to that found in many species from eastern Australia, is most similar in morphology to N. sumatranus Logunov 1998 from Indonesia and N. kovblyuki Logunov 2004 from the Crimea. The latter, and other similar species from South Australia and Western Australia, has palp morphology and fringing on L1 very similar to that seen in N. nojimai Ikeda 1995 from Japan.
Costa, Erika L S; Ruiz, Gustavo R S
The genus Scopocira Simon, 1900 is revised and six valid species are redescribed and illustrated: S. carinata Crane, 1945, S. dentichelis Simon, 1900, S. fuscimana (Mello-Leitão, 1941), S. histrio Simon, 1900, S. melanops (Taczanowski, 1871) and S. tenella Simon, 1900. The following synonymies are established: S. vivida (Peckham & Peckham, 1901) = S. histrio Simon, 1900 syn. nov.; S. panamena Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 = S. dentichelis Simon, 1900 syn. nov. The males of S. fuscimana (Mello-Leitão, 1941) and S. melanops (Taczanowski, 1871) are described and illustrated for the first time. Both sexes of S. abaporu sp. nov., S. bicornia sp. nov., S. cepa sp. nov., S. cyrili sp. nov. and S. kunai sp. nov., and males of S. crotalica sp. nov., S. pterodactyla sp. nov. and S. sciosciae sp. nov., all eight from South America, are described and illustrated, increasing the present member list up to 14 species. Record maps are given. Scopocira atypica Mello-Leitão, 1922 is considered species inquirenda.
Nørgaard, Thomas; Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Henschel, Joh R
At night the Namib Desert spider Leucorchestris arenicola performs long-distance homing across its sand dune habitat. By disabling all or pairs of the spiders' eight eyes we found that homing ability was severely reduced when vision was fully abolished. Vision, therefore, seems to play a key role...... in the nocturnal navigational performances of L. arenicola. After excluding two or three pairs of eyes, the spiders were found to be able to navigate successfully using only their lateral eyes or only their anterior median eyes. Measurement of the eyes' visual fields showed that the secondary eyes combined have...... a near full (panoramic) view of the surroundings. The visual fields of the principal eyes overlap almost completely with those of the anterior lateral eyes. Electroretinogram recordings indicate that each eye type contains a single photopigment with sensitivity peaking at approximately 525 nm...
Apneumonella jacobsoni n. sp. is described (♀, ♂ unknown; typ. loc.: Fort de Kock, Sumatra, Indonesia); this species, which can be distinguished from all other known Telemids by general morphology, genitalia, chelicerae, etc., is provisionally included in Apneumonella; the differential characters
Full Text Available Pandava laminata (Thorell, 1878 was recorded for the first time from Germany at the Cologne Zoo. The species was most likely introduced with plants or cargo from Southeast Asia. Characters important for identification at species, genus and family level are listed and partly illustrated.
J.I. De Wet
Full Text Available The African genus Ceratogyrus of the family Theraphosidae is revised, with notes of its natural history. Seven species are recognised and distinguished in a key. Six species, namely C. bechuanicus Pocock, C. brachycephalus Hewitt, C. darlingii Pocock, C. dolichocephalus Hewitt, C. marshalli Pocock and C. sanderi Strand are redescribed and figured, C. cornuatus is newly described and figured and C. schultzei Pocock is synonymized with C. bechuanicus. Lectotypes are designated for four species namely, C. brachycephalus, C. darlingii, C. dolichocephalus and C. marshalli. Distributional data is given for all seven species.
Full Text Available Twenty one jumping spider species from South Yunnan are reported, diagnosed, described and illustrated; 19 of them are described as new: Afraflacilla ballarini Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂, Agorius tortilis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀, Bavia exilis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂, Carrhotus kevinlii Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀, Carrhotus sarahcrewsae Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂, Chinattus wengnanensis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀, Chinophrys mengyangensis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀, Cocalus menglaensis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀, Cosmophasis xiaolonghaensis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀, Cytaea yunnanensis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂, Gedea pinguis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂, Gelotia zhengi Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂, Icius bamboo Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂, Nannenus menghaiensis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀, Pancorius latus Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂, Phintella lepidus Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀, Phintella sancha Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂, Ptocasius paraweyersi Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀, and Stenaelurillus fuscus Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂. Females of Bavia capistrata (C.L. Koch, 1846 and Phintella suavisoides Lei & Peng, 2013 are described for the first time. DNA barcodes of 12 species were obtained for future use.
Framenau, Volker W
Species of the Australian wolf spider genus Venator are reviewed including the type species, V. spenceri Hogg, 1900, from south-eastern Australia and V. immansuetus (Simon, 1909) comb. nov., a common species in south-west Western Australia. Venator marginatus Hogg, 1900 is only known from two female specimens and the genital morphology of this species does not conform to the diagnosis of genus as presented here. Therefore V. marginatus is considered incerta sedis. Venator includes medium-sized (9.0-22 mm body length) wolf spiders of overall brownish colouration, and with a black patch covering the anterior three quarters of the venter. They differ from all other wolf spiders in particular by genitalic characters, namely an elevated atrium of the female epigyne that forms a raised edged against the inverted T-shaped median septum. This edge often corresponds to a retrolateral incision on the tegular apophysis of the male pedipalp. The genus is mainly a representative of the Bassian fauna of the Australian continent where it occurs predominantly in dry sclerophyll forests.
Růžička, Vlastimil; Kůrka, A.; Buchar, J.; Řezáč, M.
Roč. 174, 1-4 (2005), s. 13-64 ISSN 0139-9543 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : spiders * type material * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
Bolzern, Angelo; Crespo, Luís; Bondoso Cardoso, Pedro Miguel
The genera complex Tegenaria/Malthonica is a problematic spider group of the family Agelenidae. Besides taxonomical problems, new European species are described on a regular basis. Here two species from Portugal, Tegenaria barrientosi sp. n. and Tegenaria incognita sp. n., are described. Both...
Holec, M.; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Habuštová, Oxana; Hussein, Hany; Sehnal, František
Roč. 6, č. 1 (2012), s. 15-17 ISSN 1802-212X R&D Projects: GA MZe QH91093 Grant - others:projekt MOBITAG(CZ) 7FP-REGPOT-2008-1, GA 229518 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Mermessus trilobatus * Eperigone trilobata * spreading Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://fzp.ujep.cz/Veda/Edice/StudiaOecologica/SO_1-2012_web.pdf
Fischer, Marta L.
Loxosceles laeta (NICOLET, 1849) é uma espécie cosmopolita que possui grande resistência e longevidade o que favoreceu a sua distribuição passiva por diferentes países, porém no município de Curitiba representa 10% das ocorrências. Tendo em vista a importância médica e a necessidade de compreensão dos padrões envolvidos na distribuição e colonização dos ambientes antrópicos pelas espécies do gênero Loxosceles, o presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o comportamento sexual de L. laet...
Full Text Available A new species of the spider genus Loxosceles, L. mrazig sp. n., found in Tunisia is described and illustrated. The male bulb shows a high degree of morphological similarity to that of L. gaucho from Brazil, but the proportions of the palpal segments and the general colouration of the body reveal significant differences between the two species. A distance analysis of the sequences of the mitochondrial gene cox1 reveals that the specimen from Tunisia shows high genetic distance from L. gaucho (more than 20%. The American species L. gaucho and L. laeta form a sister group to the Mediterranean representatives (L. rufescens and the Tunisian specimen.
Almada, Melina Soledad; Sosa, Maria Ana; Gonzalez, Alda
Las arañas tienen un valor potencial considerable por su rol depredador de insectos, estas son plagas de la agricultura. Durante la campana agrícola 2005/06, en INTA Reconquista, Santa Fe (Argentina) se estudio la composición de arañas presentes en cultivos de algodón transgénico y convencional, mediante un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con tres repeticiones y tres tratamientos: algodón transgénico Bt (ALBt), algodón convencional sin control químico (ALCSC) y con control q...
Almada, Melina Soledad; Sosa, María Ana; González, Alda
Spiders have considerable potential importance for their role as predators to some pests in agricultural systems. The composition of spiders in transgenic and conventional cotton at the Research Station of INTA Reconquista (Santa Fe) was studied during the 2005-2006 season. The experiment was a complete randomized block design with three replications and three treatments: transgenic Bt cotton (ALBt), conventional cotton without chemical control (ALCSC), and conventional cotton with chemical control (ALCCC). Weekly, spiders were collected using nets, vertical cloth and pitfall-traps. A total of 1255 specimens (16 families, and 32 species) were collected. Seven families were found in all the treatments, mainly Thomisidae (n=1 51, 84.04%) and Araneidae (n=83, 6.64%). The Hunting spiders guild ambushers (n=1053, 83.91%), "Orb weavers" (n=85, 6.77%) and "Stalkers" (n=53, 4.22%) were more abundant. There were no significant differences in the indexes diversity between treatments. Spiders were presented during the whole crop season, with peaks about flowering and boll maturity, with the highest abundance in ALBt. This work is part of the first set of data registered in Argentina about spider's community in cotton crops.
Canals, Mauricio; Moreno, Lucila; Solís, Rigoberto
It has been reported that Scytodes spiders are predators of spiders of the genus Loxosceles, but the question of the effect of Scytodes globula Nicolet on Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet) populations is still unanswered. The goal of this study is to analyze the population effect of S. globula on the population dynamics of L. laeta by means of simulation with projection matrices, considering the seasonal fluctuation of fecundity, random meetings between the predator and the prey, and limited growth of the L. laeta population. We found that the most important parameters to predict the characteristics of the population at equilibrium are the fertility and the survival function of the spider of advanced developmental stage. Also, the predator S. globula significantly decreases population size, population fluctuations, and the proportion of reproductive individuals of L. laeta The most probable effect of S. globula on L. laeta populations is a decrease of 20% of the population size. This is insufficient to consider this species as an agent of biological control of L. laeta However, the action of S. globula is not negligible because decreasing the L. laeta population by about 20% could mean a decrease of about 15% in the incidence of loxoscelism. This action is probably less effective than other epidemiological measures such as house cleaning and insecticides or arachnicides and probably similar to the direct action of humans eliminating one or two spiders per year in their houses, but it helps. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxygen transport in the hemolymph of many arthropod species is facilitated by large copper-proteins referred to as hemocyanins. Arthropod hemocyanins are hexamers or oligomers of hexamers, which are characterized by a high O2 transport capacity and a high cooperativity, thereby enhancing O2 supply. Hemocyanin subunit sequences had been available from horseshoe crabs (Xiphosura and various spiders (Araneae, but not from any other chelicerate taxon. To trace the evolution of hemocyanins and the emergence of the large hemocyanin oligomers, hemocyanin cDNA sequences were obtained from representatives of selected chelicerate classes. Results Hemocyanin subunits from a sea spider, a scorpion, a whip scorpion and a whip spider were sequenced. Hemocyanin has been lost in Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Solifugae and Acari, which may be explained by the evolution of trachea (i.e., taxon Apulmonata. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis was used to reconstruct the evolution of hemocyanin subunits and a relaxed molecular clock approach was applied to date the major events. While the sea spider has a simple hexameric hemocyanin, four distinct subunit types evolved before Xiphosura and Arachnida diverged around 470 Ma ago, suggesting the existence of a 4 × 6mer at that time. Subsequently, independent gene duplication events gave rise to the other distinct subunits in each of the 8 × 6mer hemocyanin of Xiphosura and the 4 × 6mer of Arachnida. The hemocyanin sequences were used to infer the evolutionary history of chelicerates. The phylogenetic trees support a basal position of Pycnogonida, a sister group relationship of Xiphosura and Arachnida, and a sister group relationship of the whip scorpions and the whip spiders. Conclusion Formation of a complex hemocyanin oligomer commenced early in the evolution of euchelicerates. A 4 × 6mer hemocyanin consisting of seven subunit types is conserved in most arachnids since more than 400 Ma, although some
Sevgi ÜNAL ULUKÜTÜK
Full Text Available This work was done between August 1995 and August 1996 to determine the systematic of Hydracarina fauna in Eskişehir and in its surroundings where also include the Sakarya River. The other aim of this work is to make a contribution to Turkish water-mites fauna.In this study, from 9 families, 4 genuses and 14 species which belong to Hydracarina fauna was determined; identifıcation keys pertaining to the species were organized and explanations supported with pictures and diagrams were illustrated.
Full Text Available A new genus and species of harvestman, landumoema uai, is described based on material from Gruta Olhos d'Água, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Its troglomorphisms include depigmentation on body, legs and eyes. It is the third troglobitic species of harvestman recorded from Brazilian caves and the second in the family Gonyleptidae.
Hrusková-Martisová, M.; Pekár, S.; Bilde, T.
Males can overcome female resistance to mating either by using luring behaviour or through sexual coercion. We studied mating behaviour in two sexually cannibalistic camel-spider species Galeodes caspius subfuscus (Galeodidae) and Gluvia dorsalis (Desiidae), to determine the presence of luring and....../or coercive traits. Several behavioural features demonstrate coercive mating in the two species: (1) males used strength or fast movement to grab a female; (2) males prevented female counter-attack and escape; (3) males injured the female during coercive copulations; (4) females struggled to interrupt mating....... The mode of mating differed considerably. In Galeodes, but not in Gluvia, males induced an immobile state in females. Despite the presence of coercive mating that caused injuries to females, Galeodes males also engaged in courtship behaviours before copulation (stroking with pedipalps) and during...
Full Text Available During a regular survey to collect soil arthropods in Lasiurus sindicus Henrard grassland by pitfall methods at Chandan Village near Jaisalmer City, Rajasthan, we found a dead specimen of Galeodes indicus in a sample. Galeodes indicus (Pocock, 1900 has been reported from Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana but so far was unknown to Rajasthan, India. In this communication, we report Galeodes indicus from Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, India.
Full Text Available In the Solling mountains (Southern Lower Saxony, Germany the fauna was sampled for one year with stem eclectors in adjacent spruce, mixed (spruce/beech, and beech stands. The tree age was more than 90 years. Four sampling treatments were established: eclectors on spruce stems in the spruce stand (1, on beech stems in the beech stand (2, and on spruce (3 and beech stems in the mixed stand (4. The following harvestmen species, with 1601 individuals in total, were found: Mitopus morio, Oligolophus tridens, Platybunus bucephalus, Leiobunum blackwalli, and Leiobunum rotundum. The number of individuals was highest on spruce stems in the more open spruce stand, mainly due to Mitopus morio, whereas number of species was highest on beech stems in the mixed stand. Both the number of individuals and species were lowest on beech stems in the beech stand. Here, additional information about the phenology of the harvestmen species is given.
Gnaspini, Pedro; Lerche, Cristiano Frederico
The first studies concerning the embryonic development of harvestmen started in the late 19th century, and focused mostly on holarctic species, and only three species of the suborder Laniatores (the largest, among the four suborders considered presently) were studied. Moreover, the last studies on embryology of harvestmen were made during the late 1970s. This study focused on the embryonic development of Ampheres leucopheus (Gonyleptidae, Caelopyginae) and Iporangaia pustulosa (Gonyleptidae, Progonyleptoidellinae). The embryonic development was followed in the field, by taking daily photographs of different eggs during about 2 months. When laid, eggs of A. leucopheus and I. pustulosa have approximately 1.13 and 1.30 mm in diameter, respectively, and the second is embedded in a large amount of mucus. The eggs grow, mainly due to water absorption at the beginning of the process, and they reach a diameter of about 1.35 and 1.59 mm, respectively, close to hatching. It took, respectively, 29-56 days and 35-66 days from egg laying to hatching. For the description of the embryonic development, we use photographs from the field, SEM micrographs, and histological analysis. This allowed us, for instance, to document the progression of structures and pigmentation directly from live embryos in the field, and to record microstructures, such as the presence of perforations in the cuticle of the embryo in the place where eyes are developing. Yet, contrary to what was expected in the literature, we record an egg tooth in one of the studied laniatoreans. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Alessandro P.L. Giupponi
Full Text Available A new species of the genus Sarax Simon, 1892 is described from Panay Island, Philippines. Sarax curioi sp. n. is the second species of the genus from the country and can be distinguished from the other Philippine species (Sarax brachydactylus Simon, 1892 by the sclerotized granules of the pedipalp surface, the spines of the pedipalp distitibia, the number of denticles of the chelicerae claw and the shape of the denticles of the chelicerae basal segment. Sarax newbritainensis Rahmadi and Kojima, 2010 is newly recorded from New Ireland Island, Papua New Guinea.Uma nova espécie do gênero Sarax Simon, 1892 é descrita da Ilha Panay, Filipinas. Sarax curioi sp. n. é a segunda espécie do gênero descrita no país e se diferencia da outra espécie filipina (Sarax brachydactylus Simon, 1892 pela superfície do pedipalpo que possui grânulos esclerosados, pelos espinhos da distitibia do pedipalpo, pelo número de dentes na garra da quelícera e pela forma dos dentes do segmento basal da quelícera. É feito um novo registro de Sarax newbritainensis Rahmadi e Kojima, 2010 para a ilha Nova Irlanda, Papua Nova Guiné.
Terblanche, John S; Klok, C Jaco; Marais, Elrike; Chown, Steven L
Metabolic rate estimates as well as a measure of their repeatability and response to laboratory acclimation are provided for the amblypygid Damon annulatipes (Wood). This species (mean +/- S.E. mass: 640+/-66 mg) shows continuous gas exchange, as might be expected from its possession of book lungs, and at 21 degrees C has a metabolic rate of 30.22+/-2.87 microl CO2 h(-1) (approximately 229.6+/-21.8 microW, R.Q. = 0.72). The intraclass correlation coefficient (r=0.74-0.89) indicated substantial repeatability in metabolic rate which did not change with laboratory acclimation over a period of 2 weeks. By contrast, absolute metabolic rate declined by c. 16-33%, although this was not a consequence of changes in mass (which were non-significant over the same period). Rather, it appears that a reduction in overall stress or activity in the laboratory might have been responsible for the decline in mass-independent metabolic rate. At the intraspecific level, metabolic rate scaled as microW = 342 M(0.857), where mass is in grams. Metabolic rates of this species are in keeping with its sedentary behaviour such that for a given body size they are lower than those of most arthropods (spiders and insects), higher than the very sedentary ticks, and equivalent to scorpions. These findings have implications for the understanding of the evolution of metabolic rates in arthropods.
Wolff, Jonas O; Seiter, Michael; Gorb, Stanislav N
The cuticle of arthropods is usually composed of layers of a chitin-protein-microcomposite, a proteinaceous epicuticle and a thin lipid coating. However, in some instances a thick cement layer (cerotegument) covers the cuticle and may produce elaborate microstructures. This has previously been described for millipedes and mites. Here we report the previously unknown presence of a superhydrophobic cerotegument in whip-spiders (Ambypygi) and reveal its variation in ultrastructure and water-repellence between species. We discuss the relevance of found micro-morphological and physical characters for taxonomy and phylogenetics of this group, and the potential biological functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hebets, Eileen A; Aceves-Aparicio, Alfonso; Aguilar-Argüello, Samuel; Bingman, Verner P; Escalante, Ignacio; Gering, Eben J; Nelsen, David R; Rivera, Jennifer; Sánchez-Ruiz, José Ángel; Segura-Hernández, Laura; Settepani, Virginia; Wiegmann, Daniel D; Stafstrom, Jay A
Like many other nocturnal arthropods, the amblypygid Phrynus pseudoparvulus is capable of homing. The environment through which these predators navigate is a dense and heterogeneous tropical forest understory and the mechanism(s) underlying their putatively complex navigational abilities are presently unknown. This study explores the sensory inputs that might facilitate nocturnal navigation in the amblypygid P. pseudoparvulus. Specifically, we use sensory system manipulations in conjunction with field displacements to examine the potential involvement of multimodal - olfactory and visual - stimuli in P. pseudoparvulus' homing behavior. In a first experiment, we deprived individuals of their olfactory capacity and displaced them to the opposite side of their home trees (<5m). We found that olfaction-intact individuals were more likely to be re-sighted in their home refuges than olfaction-deprived individuals. In a second experiment, we independently manipulated both olfactory and visual sensory capacities in conjunction with longer-distance displacements (8m) from home trees. We found that sensory-intact individuals tended to be re-sighted on their home tree more often than sensory-deprived individuals, with a stronger effect of olfactory deprivation than visual deprivation. Comparing across sensory modality manipulations, olfaction-manipulated individuals took longer to return to their home trees than vision-manipulated individuals. Together, our results indicate that olfaction is important in the nocturnal navigation of P. pseudoparvulus and suggest that vision may also play a more minor role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hebets, E A.; F Chapman, R
Specimens of Phrynus marginemaculatus can remain responsive when submerged in water for more than 24 hours. Behavioral data indicate that P. marginemaculatus utilizes dissolved oxygen from the surrounding water. Scanning electron miscroscopy and light microscope sections show cuticular modifications for plastron respiration. All previous examples of plastron respiration have involved animals with tracheal systems, but amblypygids respire through the use of two pairs of book lungs. This study provides the first example of plastron respiration not only in the order Amblypygi, but also, in any non-tracheate arthropod.
Vasconcelos, Ana Caroline Oliveira; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Le?o; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes
Charinus taboa sp. n. comprises the twenty-second species of the genus described for Brazil. The new species belongs to the eastern Brazilian group, in which all species have sucker-like gonopods. Charinus taboa sp. n. has a marked sexual dimorphism in the pedipalps as do other members of the genus in the country. The description of Charinus taboa sp. n. offers an opportunity to discuss some aspects of ecology, troglomorphism and conservation within the genus. A key to the eastern Brazilian s...
The olfactory response of the whip spider Phrynus parvulus from Costa Rica was examined using a technique analogous to that used for insect electroantennograms on the tarsi of the antenniform legs which bear multiporous sensilla. Responses to 42 chemicals representing different chain lengths of alkanes, carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones, as well as some esters, monoterpenes, and phenolics were examined. Fifty-four percent of the chemicals tested elicited responses. Concentration-response curves were generated for guaiacol, hexanal, methyl salicylate, benzaldehyde, octanoic acid, and linalool. Guaiacol, benzaldehyde, and hexanol elicited the greatest responses and no differences were detected between the sexes. Compounds with chain lengths of six carbon atoms generated strong responses and most monocarboxylic acids and ring compounds elicited responses. Some compounds produced increases in potential believed to arise from a hyperpolarizing effect on the neurons. The broad spectrum of chemicals to which these animals respond is similar to results of other studies examining the general olfactory sense of insects. It is possible that odor learning plays a significant role in the behavior of amblypygids.
Gouvêa, Edilson Pires de
P. 383-388. T. froesi Mello-Leitão, 1940 (Arachida Amblypygi) wich has only been known from "Mangabeira" cave since its description in 1940, has now been found in two other caves ("Goat" and "Icó" caves and various small tunnels) in "Morro das Araras" (Macaw Mountain) or "Morro dos Bueiros" (Channeled Moutain) an isolated mesa-like kill in the same region of the "Chapada Diamantina Meridional" Basin of Lençois, two kilometers southeast of the town of Ituaçu (13º48'56"S and 41º17'53"W) and ...
Blick, Theo; Seiter, Michael
All records of the two amblypygid species occurring in the Western Palaearctic are mapped and both species (Charinus ioanniticus and Musicodamon atlanteus) are discussed. Charinus ioanniticus is known from the Eastern Mediterranean (Greece, Turkey, Israel and Egypt) from 10 localities and Musicodamon atlanteus is known from the Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria) from three localities. All records are mapped.
Full Text Available We present data and remarks on the history and contents of the whip spider collection housed in the Natural History Museum of Vienna, Austria. The collection comprises a total of 167 specimens from 4 families, 10 genera and 27 species. It includes types of four species: Charinus ioanniticus (Kritscher, 1959, Damon brachialis Weygoldt, 1999, Phrynus parvulus (Pocock, 1902 and Paraphrynus mexicanus (Bilimek, 1867. Short notes on interesting objects and former curators are provided as well as an appendix with a list of species kept alive by Michael Seiter.
Gouvêa, Edilson Pires de
T. froesi Mello-Leitão, 1940 (Arachida Amblypygi) wich has only been known from "Mangabeira" cave since its description in 1940, has now been found in two other caves ("Goat" and "Icó" caves and various small tunnels) in "Morro das Araras" (Macaw Mountain) or "Morro dos Bueiros" (Channeled Moutain) an isolated mesa-like kill in the same region of the "Chapada Diamantina Meridional" Basin of Lençois, two kilometers southeast of the town of Ituaçu (13º48'56"S and 41º17'53"W) and more recently t...
Vasconcelos, Ana Caroline Oliveira; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes
Charinus taboa sp. n. comprises the twenty-second species of the genus described for Brazil. The new species belongs to the eastern Brazilian group, in which all species have sucker-like gonopods. Charinus taboa sp. n. has a marked sexual dimorphism in the pedipalps as do other members of the genus in the country. The description of Charinus taboa sp. n. offers an opportunity to discuss some aspects of ecology, troglomorphism and conservation within the genus. A key to the eastern Brazilian species of Charinus is provided.
Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Miranda, Gustavo S
A new species of the genus Sarax Simon, 1892 is described from Panay Island, Philippines. Sarax curioi sp. n. is the second species of the genus from the country and can be distinguished from the other Philippine species (Sarax brachydactylus Simon, 1892) by the sclerotized granules of the pedipalp surface, the spines of the pedipalp distitibia, the number of denticles of the chelicerae claw and the shape of the denticles of the chelicerae basal segment. Sarax newbritainensis Rahmadi and Kojima, 2010 is newly recorded from New Ireland Island, Papua New Guinea.
Heterophrynus longicornis Butler and H. alces Pocock are sympatric and syntopic in Serra do Navio in the central part of Amapá, N.-E. Brazil. Both species are of similar sizes during part of their life cycles. Competition is probably reduced by utilization of different hiding places and strata. In H. longicornis, adults are tolerant towards conspecifics. Male and female are usually found close to each other and, under laboratory conditions, courtship behaviour can be observed even when the female is not receptive. H. alces, on the other hand, is very intolerant, and usually only single specimens are found. Under laboratory conditions, cannibalism is frequent. The ecological implications of these differences are discussed.
Farzana Khan Perveen
Full Text Available The spiders (order: Aranae are an important environmental indicator and play a significant role as predators in biological control of the most of the key insect pests. The present study was conducted to establish the characteristics of the first recorded spider fauna from Sheringal, Dir Upper (DU, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP, Pakistan during June 2013-July 2014. Their 10 species belong to 7 families, and 10 genera (nt=123: total; ni=77: identified; nui=46: unidentified were recorded in the 6 quadrates, i.e., Daramdala, Doki, Guryaal, Samang, Shahoor and Sia-Sheringal of Sheringal. The largest family was Lycosidae (wolf spiders with respect to size and numbers of specimens collected (n=20, which contained Arctosa littorali Simon, 1897; Hippasa partita Takidar, 1970; Pardosa distincta Backwall, 1867, while the smallest family was Gnphosidae (ground spiders (n=3 with Gnaphosa eucalyptus Ghafoor and Beg, 2002; while other families Sparassidae (huntsman spiders (n=19 Halconia insignis Thorell, 1836, and Isopeda tuhogniga Barrion and Litsinger, 1995, Opilionidae (harvestmen spiders (n=12 Hadrobunus grandis Sundevall, 1833; Pholcidae (cellar spider (n=10 have Crossopriza lyoni Blackwall, 1867; Hersiliidae (two-tailed spiders (n=6 is having Harsilia savignyi Lucas, 1836; (n=5 with Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 were recorded. It was concluded that 50% of the spiders collected from the study area were venomous. A detail study is required for further exploration of spider fauna of Sheringal, KP, Pakistan with special reference to their taxonomical, physiological and ecological characteristics.
Rodríguez de la Vega Ricardo C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Scorpions like other venomous animals posses a highly specialized organ that produces, secretes and disposes the venom components. In these animals, the last postabdominal segment, named telson, contains a pair of venomous glands connected to the stinger. The isolation of numerous scorpion toxins, along with cDNA-based gene cloning and, more recently, proteomic analyses have provided us with a large collection of venom components sequences. However, all of them are secreted, or at least are predicted to be secretable gene products. Therefore very little is known about the cellular processes that normally take place inside the glands for production of the venom mixture. To gain insights into the scorpion venom gland biology, we have decided to perform a transcriptomic analysis by constructing a cDNA library and conducting a random sequencing screening of the transcripts. Results From the cDNA library prepared from a single venom gland of the scorpion Hadrurus gertschi, 160 expressed sequence tags (ESTs were analyzed. These transcripts were further clustered into 68 unique sequences (20 contigs and 48 singlets, with an average length of 919 bp. Half of the ESTs can be confidentially assigned as homologues of annotated gene products. Annotation of these ESTs, with the aid of Gene Ontology terms and homology to eukaryotic orthologous groups, reveals some cellular processes important for venom gland function; including high protein synthesis, tuned posttranslational processing and trafficking. Nonetheless, the main group of the identified gene products includes ESTs similar to known scorpion toxins or other previously characterized scorpion venom components, which account for nearly 60% of the identified proteins. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge this report contains the first transcriptome analysis of genes transcribed by the venomous gland of a scorpion. The data were obtained for the species Hadrurus gertschi, belonging to the family Caraboctonidae. One hundred and sixty ESTs were analyzed, showing enrichment in genes that encode for products similar to known venom components, but also provides the first sketch of cellular components, molecular functions, biological processes and some unique sequences of the scorpion venom gland.
Di, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Zi-Zhong; Yin, Shi-Jin; Cao, Zhi-Jian; Li, Wen-Xin
This review describes the history of taxonomic research on scorpions and provides an updated checklist and key of the scorpions currently known in China. This checklist is based on a thorough review of the extant literatures on scorpion species whose presence has been confirmed in China through field expeditions and examination of scorpion collections, excepting a few members that have no clear distribution or are currently in doubt. Totally, the scorpion fauna of China consists of 53 species and subspecies belonging to 12 genera crossing five families, with 33 species (62.3%) and one genus being recorded as endemic. Additionally, identification key and the distribution of scorpions from China are provided.
Full Text Available Praelibitia Roewer, 1956 and its type species, Praelibitia titicaca Roewer, 1956, are respectively synonymized with Platygyndes Roewer, 1943 and its type species Platygyndes titicaca Roewer, 1943, and furthermore the genus is transferred from the Gonyleptidae to the Cosmetidae. On the basis of domed and unarmed ocularium, increased number of granules on scutal areas, unarmed dorsal scutum and general body shape, Platygyndes seems to be closely related to Moselabius Roewer, 1956 and Caracarana Roewer, 1956. External morphological characters that are useful to revealing relationships among cosmetid genera are discussed.
Pinto-Da-Rocha, Ricardo; Hara, Marcos Ryotaro
Praelibitia Roewer, 1956 and its type species, Praelibitia titicaca Roewer, 1956, are respectively synonymized with Platygyndes Roewer, 1943 and its type species Platygyndes titicaca Roewer, 1943, and furthermore the genus is transferred from the Gonyleptidae to the Cosmetidae. On the basis of domed and unarmed ocularium, increased number of granules on scutal areas, unarmed dorsal scutum and general body shape, Platygyndes seems to be closely related to Moselabius Roewer, 1956 and Caracarana Roewer, 1956. External morphological characters that are useful to revealing relationships among cosmetid genera are discussed.
Smrž, J.; Kováč, L.; Mikeš, J.; Lukešová, Alena
Roč. 8, č. 10 (2013), e75989 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microwhip scorpions * heterotrophic cyanobacteria * Slovak caves Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013
Schönhofer, Axel L
An update of the systematics and determination key of the Opiliones suborder Dyspnoi is provided. The included catalogue represents the first comprehensive species and synonymy listing since Roewer (1923). It summarises all taxonomic changes to date and attempts to be a sound basis against the exponential growing number of online errors, for which examples are given. Species taxonomy features most obvious changes within the Nemastomatidae. The number of species in the collective genus Nemastoma is reduced from 96 (Hallan 2005) to its sensu stricto definition of 7, and the excluded names are transferred to other genera or considered as nomina dubia, predominantly in Paranemastoma. The systematics of the superfamily Ischyropsalidoidea is discussed and family-level diagnoses are renewed to support taxonomical changes: The morphological heterogeneity in the Sabaconidae is resolved by reverting the family to its original monogeneric state. Taracus and Hesperonemastoma are separated as Taracidae fam. n., and Crosbycus is tentatively transferred to this assembly. The remaining genera of Ceratolasmatidae, Acuclavella and Ceratolasma, are included as subfamily Ceratolasmatinae in the Ischyropsalididae and Ischyropsalis is assigned subfamily status, respectively. Other nomenclatural acts are restricted to species-group level with the following synonymies established: Sabacon jonesi Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942 syn. n. (=cavicolens (Packard, 1884)), Dicranolasma diomedeum Kulczyński, 1907 syn. n. (=hirtum Loman, 1894), Mitostoma (Mitostoma) sketi Hadži, 1973a syn. n. (=chrysomelas (Hermann, 1804)), Mitostoma asturicum Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=pyrenaeum (Simon, 1879a)), Nemastoma formosum Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=Nemastomella bacillifera bacillifera (Simon, 1879a)), Nemastoma reimoseri Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=Paranemastoma bicuspidatum (C.L. Koch, 1835)), Nemastoma tunetanum Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=Paranemastoma bureschi (Roewer, 1926)), Phalangium flavimanum C.L. Koch, 1835 syn. n. (=Paranemastoma quadripunctatum (Perty, 1833)), Crosbycus graecus Giltay, 1932 syn. n. (=Paranemastoma simplex (Giltay, 1932)), Nemastoma bimaculosum Roewer 1951 syn. n. (=Paranemastoma titaniacum (Roewer, 1914)), Trogulocratus tunetanus Roewer, 1950 syn. n. (=Calathocratus africanus (Lucas, 1849)), Trogulus albicerus Sø-rensen, 1873 syn. n. (=Calathocratus sinuosus (Sørensen, 1873)), Metopoctea exarata Simon, 1879a syn. n. (=Trogulus aquaticus Simon, 1879a), Trogulus galasensis Avram, 1971 syn. n. (=Trogulus nepaeformis (Scopoli, 1763)) and Trogulus roeweri Avram, 1971 syn. n. (=Trogulus nepaeformis (Scopoli, 1763)). Paranemastoma werneri (Kulczyński, 1903) is elevated from subspecies to species. Ischyropsalis luteipes Simon, 1872b is proposed as nomen protectum, taking precedence over Lhermia spinipes Lucas 1866 nomen oblitum. The same accounts for Anelasmocephalus cambridgei (Westwood, 1874) nomen protectum, taking precedence over Trogulus violaceus Gervais, 1844 nomen oblitum, Trogulus closanicus Avram, 1971 nomen protectum over Trogulus asperatus C.L. Koch, 1839a nomen oblitum, as well as Trogu-lus martensi Chemini, 1983 nomen protectum over Trogulus tuberculatus Canestrini, 1874 nomen oblitum. New combinations, all from Nemastoma, are Histricostoma anatolicum (Roewer, 1962), Mediostoma globuliferum (L. Koch, 1867), Nemastomella hankiewiczii (Kulczyński, 1909), Nemastomella maarebense (Simon, 1913), Nemastomella monchiquense (Kraus, 1961) and Paranemastoma simplex (Giltay, 1932); from Mitostoma: Nemastomella armatissima (Roewer, 1962). Revived combinations are Nemastomella cristinae (Rambla, 1969) (from Nemastoma) and Nemastomella sexmucronatum (Simon, 1911) (from Nemastoma). The following Nemastoma are transferred to Paranemastoma but suggested as nomina dubia: aeginum (Roewer, 1951), amuelleri (Roewer, 1951), bolei (Hadži, 1973a), caporiaccoi (Roewer, 1951), carneluttii (Hadži, 1973a), ferkeri (Roewer, 1951), gigas montenegrinum (Nosek, 1904), gostivarense (Hadži, 1973a), ikarium (Roewer, 1951), quadripunctatum ios (Roewer, 1917), kaestneri
Machado, Glauco; Bonato, Vinícius; Oliveira, Paulo
Most harvestmen are nocturnal, nonacoustical, and nonvisual arthropods. They have a pair of exocrine glands on the cephalothorax that produce defensive volatile secretions. We investigated in the field the possible alarm effect of these secretions in the gregarious harvestman Goniosoma aff. proximum. A cotton swab soaked with the species' own exudate (treatment), or with water (control), was held 1-2 cm from the center of harvestmen aggregations. The results showed that the gland secretion elicits an alarm response in Goniosoma: whereas 73.3% of the aggregations dispersed after being stimulated with the gland exudate, only 3.3% responded to the water control. Respondent groups are larger than non-respondent groups, and the time of reaction to the secretion was inversely related to group size. This is the first demonstration of a chemically-mediated alarm effect in harvestmen. The alarm response in gregarious harvestmen has possibly evolved as a by-product of a primarily defensive reaction in the context of predator avoidance. The discovery of this novel function of scent-gland secretion is meaningful in view of the widespread occurrence of gregarious habit among species of the order Opiliones.
Felipe Jun Fuzita
Spiders and scorpions are efficient predators arachnid (PA) consuming preys larger than themselves. Few studies reported, molecularly, the digestion in PA. This work describes a biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the midgut and midgut glands (MMG) and digestive juice (DJ) from Nephilengys cruentata and Tityus serrulatus MMG. Cathepsin L, B, D and F, legumain, trypsin, astacin, carbohydrases and lipases were identified by these approaches. Peptide isomerase and ctenitoxins, ...
Labruna, M B; Nava, S; Guzmán-Cornejo, C; Venzal, J M
Among spiders, scorpions, and whip spiders, a common type of maternal care consists of females carrying newly hatched offspring on their body for a few days until they are able to live independently. While this maternal care has been suggested to occur in different argasid tick species, it has been recorded only once, for Antricola marginatus in Cuba; however, this earlier record only superficially mentioned the occurrence of this behavior, with no further details. Here we report the occurrence of maternal care in the argasid tick A. marginatus under natural conditions in a cave at Yucatan, Mexico, where 8 A. marginatus females, while walking on bat guano, had their body entirely covered by a mean number of 305 ± 112 conspecific unfed larvae (range: 105-466). Larvae covered the entire idiosoma of the female tick, where they were motionless or displayed just slight movement. This result substantially expands the number of unique characters that have been found only in Antricola spp. ticks, when compared to the other tick genera. Our findings also indicate that maternal care evolved independently in different taxa of Arachnida, since it has been reported for species of Araneae, Scorpiones, and Amblypygi, and here for an Acari species.
Paula-Neto, E; Araujo, D; Carvalho, L S; Cella, D M; Schneider, M C
We analyzed mitotic and meiotic cells of a Brazilian amblypygid, Heterophrynus longicornis, using conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques (Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR, and FISH with rDNA probe). This is the first study that focuses solely on amblypygid chromosomes; it was undertaken to add data on cytogenetic knowledge of this group and contribute to the understanding of chromosome evolution in the Arachnida. We found 2n = 66 for male and female individuals, monocentric chromosomes, and absence of morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes. C-banding showed heterochromatin in the pericentromeric region of most chromosomes. Mitotic and meiotic nuclei submitted to silver impregnation and FISH revealed, respectively, Ag-NORs and ribosomal genes in the terminal region of two chromosome pairs. Most chromosome features that we observed in H. longicornis are shared with species of other arachnid orders; however, the absence of morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes in amblypygid contrasts with the remarkable variety of sex chromosome systems recorded for the Araneae. Consequently, we conclude that analysis of species of the Tetrapulmonata clade is useful for understanding the trends of sex chromosome evolution in this arachnid group.
Dunlop, Jason A
Chelicerata probably appeared during the Cambrian period. Their precise origins remain unclear, but may lie among the so-called great appendage arthropods. By the late Cambrian there is evidence for both Pycnogonida and Euchelicerata. Relationships between the principal euchelicerate lineages are unresolved, but Xiphosura, Eurypterida and Chasmataspidida (the last two extinct), are all known as body fossils from the Ordovician. The fourth group, Arachnida, was found monophyletic in most recent studies. Arachnids are known unequivocally from the Silurian (a putative Ordovician mite remains controversial), and the balance of evidence favours a common, terrestrial ancestor. Recent work recognises four principal arachnid clades: Stethostomata, Haplocnemata, Acaromorpha and Pantetrapulmonata, of which the pantetrapulmonates (spiders and their relatives) are probably the most robust grouping. Stethostomata includes Scorpiones (Silurian-Recent) and Opiliones (Devonian-Recent), while Haplocnemata includes Pseudoscorpiones (Devonian-Recent) and Solifugae (Carboniferous-Recent). Recent works increasingly favour diphyletic mite origins, whereby Acaromorpha comprises Actinotrichida (Devonian-Recent), Anactinotrichida (Cretaceous-Recent) and Ricinulei (Carboniferous-Recent). The positions of the Phalangiotarbida (Devonian-Permian) and Palpigradi (Neogene-Recent) are poorly resolved. Finally, Pantetrapulmonata includes the following groups (listed here in their most widely recovered phylogenetic sequence): Trigonotarbida (Silurian-Permian), Uraraneida (Devonian-Permian), Araneae (Carboniferous-Recent), Haptopoda (Carboniferous), Amblypygi (?Devonian-Recent), Thelyphonida (Carboniferous-Recent) and Schizomida (Paleogene-Recent). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elidiomar Ribeiro Da-Silva
Full Text Available This article compares arachnid-based Marvel and DC comics characters. The composition of a comic book character often has interesting ‘real-life’ influences. Given the strong connection between arachnids (especially spiders, scorpions and mites, all belonging to the zoological class 'Arachnida' and human beings it is not surprising that they have inspired many fictional characters. We recorded 84 Marvel Comics characters and 40 DC Comics characters, detailed in the dataset that accompanies the article (Da-Silva 2014. Most characters have been created recently, since the 1990s. Marvel has significantly more arachnid characters than DC. As for taxonomic classification, the characters were based mostly on spiders (zoological order 'Araneae'. Of the total characters, the majority are human beings, but an overwhelming number have at least some typical arachnid features. Villains (60.91% of total are significantly more numerous, considering the sum of the two publishers. Arachnids have bad reputation for being dangerous (Thorp and Woodson 1976; Ruppert and Barnes 1996. Since the public usually considers spiders, scorpions and mites “harmful” in general, we expected a larger contingent of villains. However, there was no statistical difference between the amount of villains and heroes in Marvel characters. It did not happen probably due to the success of one character: the Amazing Spider-Man.
Christina L Mogren
Full Text Available The movement of energy and nutrients from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems can be substantial, and emergent aquatic insects can serve as biovectors not only for nutrients, but also for contaminants present in the aquatic environment. The terrestrial predators Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae and Tidarren haemorrhoidale (Araneae: Theridiidae and the aquatic predator Buenoa scimitra (Hemiptera: Notonectidae were chosen to evaluate the efficacy of arsenic transfer between aquatic and terrestrial environments. Culex tarsalis larvae were reared in either control water or water containing 1000 µg l(-1 arsenic. Adults that emerged from the control and arsenic treatments were fed to the terrestrial predators, and fourth instar larvae were fed to the aquatic predator reared in control or arsenic contaminated water. Tenodera a. sinensis fed arsenic-treated Cx. tarsalis accumulated 658±130 ng g(-1 of arsenic. There was no significant difference between control and arsenic-fed T. haemorrhoidale (range 142-290 ng g(-1. Buenoa scimitra accumulated 5120±406 ng g(-1 of arsenic when exposed to arsenic-fed Cx. tarsalis and reared in water containing 1000 µg l(-1 arsenic. There was no significant difference between controls or arsenic-fed B. scimitra that were not exposed to water-borne arsenic, indicating that for this species environmental exposure was more important in accumulation than strictly dietary arsenic. These results indicate that transfer to terrestrial predators may play an important role in arsenic cycling, which would be particularly true during periods of mass emergence of potential insect biovectors. Trophic transfer within the aquatic environment may still occur with secondary predation, or in predators with different feeding strategies.
Mogren, Christina L.; Walton, William E.; Parker, David R.; Trumble, John T.
The movement of energy and nutrients from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems can be substantial, and emergent aquatic insects can serve as biovectors not only for nutrients, but also for contaminants present in the aquatic environment. The terrestrial predators Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae) and Tidarren haemorrhoidale (Araneae: Theridiidae) and the aquatic predator Buenoa scimitra (Hemiptera: Notonectidae) were chosen to evaluate the efficacy of arsenic transfer between aquatic and terrestrial environments. Culex tarsalis larvae were reared in either control water or water containing 1000 µg l−1 arsenic. Adults that emerged from the control and arsenic treatments were fed to the terrestrial predators, and fourth instar larvae were fed to the aquatic predator reared in control or arsenic contaminated water. Tenodera a. sinensis fed arsenic-treated Cx. tarsalis accumulated 658±130 ng g−1 of arsenic. There was no significant difference between control and arsenic-fed T. haemorrhoidale (range 142–290 ng g−1). Buenoa scimitra accumulated 5120±406 ng g−1 of arsenic when exposed to arsenic-fed Cx. tarsalis and reared in water containing 1000 µg l−1 arsenic. There was no significant difference between controls or arsenic-fed B. scimitra that were not exposed to water-borne arsenic, indicating that for this species environmental exposure was more important in accumulation than strictly dietary arsenic. These results indicate that transfer to terrestrial predators may play an important role in arsenic cycling, which would be particularly true during periods of mass emergence of potential insect biovectors. Trophic transfer within the aquatic environment may still occur with secondary predation, or in predators with different feeding strategies. PMID:23826344
Atakuziev, Bakhadir U; Wright, Christine E; Graudins, Andis; Nicholson, Graham M; Winkel, Kenneth D
We describe the first Steatoda capensis envenomation treated with CSL red-back spider antivenom (RBSAV). The patient, a 51-year-old female, developed acute local pain, swelling, redness, and diaphoresis in association with tender lymphadenopathy and hypertension. These features responded, in a dose-dependent manner, to RBSAV. In vitro studies confirmed that RBSAV could neutralize S. capensis venom at equivalent concentrations required to neutralize red-back spider (Latrodectus hasselti) venom. Similar data were obtained using Mexican Latrodectus mactans antivenom (Aracmyn®). Although S. capensis yielded similar quantities of venom protein as L. hasselti, pooled S. capensis and Steatoda grossa venom was more rapidly toxic to insects than either L. hasselti or Latrodectus tredecimguttatus venom. By contrast, both Latrodectus venoms were more potent than S. capensis venom in contracting rat isolated mesenteric arteries. Size-exclusion and anion-exchange chromatography was used to purify a 130 kDa fraction from S. capensis venom that induced contracture and loss of twitch tension in chick isolated biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparations in a manner similar to α-latrotoxin. This activity was abolished by pre-incubation with RBSAV. We conclude that 'steatodism' may overlap more closely with latrodectism than previously recognized and that this bite should be managed in the same way as for Australian red-back envenomation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gustavo R. S. Ruiz
Full Text Available Nosferattus gen. nov., Capeta gen. nov. and Amatorculus gen. nov. are proposed from North and Northeastern Brazil. Due to the absence of teeth on the retromargin of the chelicerae, these genera are included within the Sitticinae, and are probably related to the genus Aillutticus Galiano, 1987, with which they share a high, broad carapace, rounded laterally behind the posterior lateral eyes, and the cephalic region slightly convex. Nosferattus is proposed to include five species: the type species Nosferattus discus sp. nov. and Nosferattus ciliatus sp. nov. from Maranhão, Nosferattus aegis sp. nov. from Tocantins, Nosferattus occultus sp. nov. from Maranhão and Ceará, and Nosferattus palmatus sp. nov. from Sergipe. Capeta and Amatorculus are both monotypic and are proposed to include Capeta tridens sp. nov., from Bahia, and Amatorculus stygius sp. nov., from Distrito Federal and São Paulo, respectively.Nosferattus gen. nov., Capeta gen. nov. e Amatorculus gen. nov. são propostos para o norte e nordeste do Brasil. Devido à ausência de dentes na retromargem das quelíceras, estes gêneros são incluídos entre os Sitticinae, e provavelmente estão relacionados ao gênero Aillutticus Galiano, 1987, com o qual compartilham uma carapaça alta e larga, arredondada lateralmente atrás dos olhos laterais posteriores, e a região cefálica levemente convexa. Nosferattus é proposto para incluir cinco espécies: a espécie-tipo Nosferattus discus sp. nov. e Nosferattus ciliatus sp. nov. do Maranhão, Nosferattus aegis sp. nov. do Tocantins, Nosferattus occultus sp. nov. do Maranhão e do Ceará, e Nosferattus palmatus sp. nov. de Sergipe. Capeta e Amatorculus são ambos monotípicos e são propostos para incluir Capeta tridens sp. nov., da Bahia, e Amatorculus stygius sp. nov., do Distrito Federal e de São Paulo, respectivamente.
Marta L. Fischer
Full Text Available Loxosceles laeta (NICOLET, 1849 é uma espécie cosmopolita que possui grande resistência e longevidade o que favoreceu a sua distribuição passiva por diferentes países, porém no município de Curitiba representa 10% das ocorrências. Tendo em vista a importância médica e a necessidade de compreensão dos padrões envolvidos na distribuição e colonização dos ambientes antrópicos pelas espécies do gênero Loxosceles, o presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o comportamento sexual de L. laeta. Analisou-se 60 cópulas com fêmeas virgens velhas e novas diante de machos virgens. O comportamento sexual de L. laeta foi caracterizado pela intensa utilização da teia e pela exibição de padrões motores relacionados com a sua maior agressividade quando comparada com outras espécies do gênero. Os padrões motores predominantes em fêmeas velhas estiveram ligados com uma maior receptividade, porém as interações foram mais longas, aparentemente este padrão esteve relacionado com uma maior quantidade de teias no recipiente. O comportamento sexual exibido por L. laeta caracterizou o sedentarismo e agressividade da espécie.Loxosceles laeta (NICOLET, 1849 is a cosmopolitan species with great resistance and longevity which favors its passive distribution for different countries. In the municipal district of Curitiba, south Brazil, this species represents 10% of the occurrences. In view of the medical importance and the need for understanding distribution and colonization patterns of antropic environments by species of the genus Loxosceles, the objective of the present study was to characterize the sexual behavior of L. laeta. A number of 60 couples represented by old and young virgin females with virgin males were analyzed. The sexual behavior of L. laeta was characterized by the intense use of the web and for the exhibition of motor patterns related to higher levels of aggressivity when compared with other species of the genus. In old females the predominant motor patterns were linked to a larger receptivity. However, the interactions were longer which seems that this pattern may be related to the larger amount of webs found in the container. The sexual behavior exhibited by L. laeta characterizes his sedentary habit and aggressiveness.
Edilson Pires de Gouvêa
Full Text Available T. froesi Mello-Leitão, 1940 (Arachida Amblypygi wich has only been known from "Mangabeira" cave since its description in 1940, has now been found in two other caves ("Goat" and "Icó" caves and various small tunnels in "Morro das Araras" (Macaw Mountain or "Morro dos Bueiros" (Channeled Moutain an isolated mesa-like kill in the same region of the "Chapada Diamantina Meridional" Basin of Lençois, two kilometers southeast of the town of Ituaçu (13º48'56"S and 41º17'53"W and more recently the animal was collected infdarm house in Laje county (13º10'S and 39º25'W - Oriental Sediment Basin, Jequié-Mutuipe-zone Bahia, Brazil.
Morfometría geométrica en cinco especies de Buthidae y Scorpionidae (Arachnida: Scorpiones de Venezuela Geometric morphometrics in five species of Buthidae and Scorpionidae (Arachnida: Scorpiones from Venezuela
Walter Y. Bechara
Full Text Available En Venezuela, la escorpiofauna consta de 17 géneros y 202 especies. En algunos grupos la taxonomía no ha sido aclarada; por lo tanto, son necesarias investigaciones adicionales que contribuyan a mejorar el conocimiento sobre la identidad taxonómica y relaciones entre sus componentes. La morfometría geométrica es una herramienta que ha sido utilizada como apoyo a la sistemática en distintos organismos. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la conformación y tamaño isométrico en 5 especies de escorpiones. Se fotografiaron 266 individuos de 4 especies de Buthidae: Centruroides testaceus, Rhopalurus laticauda, Tityus clathratus y T. discrepans, y una de Scorpionidae: Tarsoporosus yustizi. Se registraron configuraciones de coordenadas (x,y en 5 estructuras a partir de puntos anatómicos de referencia (PAR y PAR deslizantes. Los resultados mostraron separación completa de las especies de Buthidae por medio de tricobotrias dorsales en la patela del pedipalpo, y una consistente separación en el nivel familiar en las estructuras restantes. Las placas delgadas permitieron la visualización de compresión horizontal del esternón en las especies de Buthidae y compresión vertical en la de Scorpionidae. Se determinó la similitud de coxas, quela y caparazón entre R. laticauda y C. testaceus. La disposición de tricobotrias y la conformación del esternón permitió la diferenciación entre T. discrepans y T. clathratus.The Venezuelan scorpionfauna comprises 17 genera and 202 species. In some taxa the taxonomy is unclear, and additional studies that contribute to the knowledge about taxonomic identity and relationships are necessary. Geometric morphometrics is a tool that has been used as support to the systematics in different organisms. The goal was to analize the isometric size and conformation in five scorpions species. We photographed 266 individuals of four speceis of Buthidae: Centruroides testaceus, Rhopalurus laticauda, Tityus clathratus and T. discrepans, and one species of Scorpionidae: Tarsoporosus yustizi. Coordinate (x,y configurations from landmarks and semilandmarks were registered in five structures. The results showed the complete separation in Buthidae species through dorsal trichobotria on patella pedipalp; and a consistent separation at family level in the remaining structures. The thin plate spline showed the sternum horizontal compression in the Buthidae species and the vertical compression in Scorpionidae. Similarity in coxae, chelae and caparace between R. laticauda and C. testaceus was determined. The trichobotria disposition and the sternum conformation allows to discriminate T. discrepans and T. clathratus.
Opiliones (Arachnida de la Reserva Histórica de Santa Catalina (Buenos Aires, Argentina y sus implicancias biogeográficas Opiliones (Arachnida from the Santa Catalina Historical Reserve (Buenos Aires, Argentina and their biogeographic implications.
Elián Leandro Guerrero
Full Text Available : Fueron halladas dos especies de Opiliones en la Reserva Histórica de Santa Catalina (Buenos Aires, Argentina, Holmbergiana weyenberghii (Holmberg (Eupnoi, Sclerosomatidae, Gagrellinae y Discocyrtus prospicuus (Holmberg (Laniatores, Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae. Ambos taxones están asociados a bosques de Celtis ehrenbergiana y bosques higrófilos a lo largo de la costa del río de la Plata, por lo que pertenecen al área opiliológica Mesopotámica. La Reserva Histórica de Santa Catalina no está cerca de la costa del río, por lo cual los bosques de Santa Catalina son considerados como un refugio de una distribución histórica de los opiliones mesopotámicos, siendo una extensión o digitación de su distribución natural siguiendo el sistema hidrológico del río Matanza-Riachuelo. En adición, se ofrecen datos sobre la historia natural de ambas especies.Two species of opiliones have been found in the Santa Catalina Historical Reserve (Buenos Aires, Argentina, Holmbergiana weyenberghii (Holmberg (Eupnoi, Sclerosomatidae, Gagrellinae and Discocyrtus prospicuus (Holmberg (Laniatores, Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae. Both species are associated with Celtis ehrenbergiana woods and hygrophilous woods along all the coast of the La Plata river, so they belong to the Mesopotamic opiliological area. The Historic Reserve of Santa Catalina is not near the river coast, and because of this the Santa Catalina forests is considered as a refuge of an historical distribution of the mesopotamic opiliones, being an extension or fingering of their natural distribution following the Matanza-Riachuelo rivers hydrological system. In addition, data about the natural history of both species is offered.
Gustavo S. Miranda
Full Text Available A new species of Charinus is described from Israel and new localities for C. ioanniticus are reported. Charinus israelensis sp. nov. is a cave dwelling species with extremely small median eyes, no median tubercle and reduced lateral eyes. It is similar to C. ioanniticus, which occurs in nearby areas, but can be differentiated by the shape of the carapace, the number of pedipalp spines and the development of the eyes. A detailed comparison is made between the two species, including pictures, drawings and scanning electron micrographs. Charinus ioanniticus is reported here from several new localities in Israel and Turkey. Identification keys to the Charinus species groups and to the species of the bengalensis group are provided.
Klompen, Hans; Vázquez, Ma Magdalena; Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira de Oliveira
In order to study homology among the major lineages of the mite (super)order Parasitiformes, developmental patterns in Opilioacarida are documented, emphasizing morphology of the earliest, post-embryonic instars. Developmental patterns are summarized for all external body structures, based on examination of material in four different genera. Development includes an egg, a 6-legged prelarva and larva, three 8-legged nymphal instars, and the adults, for the most complete ontogenetic sequence in Parasitiformes. The prelarva and larva appear to be non-feeding. Examination of cuticular structures over ontogeny allows development of an updated model for body segmentation and sensillar distribution patterns in Opilioacarida. This model includes a body made up of a well-developed ocular segment plus at most 17 additional segments. In the larvae and protonymphs each segment may carry up to six pairs of sensilla (setae or lyrifissures) arranged is distinct series (J, Z, S, Sv, Zv, Jv). The post-protonymphal instars add two more series (R and Rv) but no extra segments. This basic model is compatible with sensillar patterns in other Parasitiformes, leading to the hypothesis that all taxa in that (super)order may have the same segmental ground plan. The substantial segmental distortion implied in the model can be explained using a single process involving differential growth in the coxal regions of all appendage-bearing segments.
Full Text Available Varroa destructor, a key biotic threat to the Western honey bee, has played a major role in colony losses over the past few years worldwide. Overuse of traditional acaricides, such as tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin, on V. destructor has only increased its tolerance to them. Therefore, the application of essential oils in place of traditional pesticides is an attractive alternative, as demonstrated by its high efficiency, lack of residue and tolerance resistance. To study the acaricidal activity of essential oils, we used clove oil (Syzygium aromaticum L., a typical essential oil with a wide range of field applications, and examined its effects on the enzyme activities of Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and superoxide dismutase (SOD and its effects on the water-soluble protein content of V. destructor body extracts after exposure to 0.1 μl and 1.0 μl of clove oil for 30 min. Our results showed that the water-soluble protein content significantly decreased after the treatments, indicating that the metabolism of the mites was adversely affected. The bioactivity of GSTs increased significantly after a low dosage (0.1 μl exposure but decreased at a higher dosage (1.0 μl, while the activities of SOD and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase were significantly elevated after treatments. These results suggest that the protective enzyme SOD and detoxifying enzymes Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase and GST contributed to the stress reaction of V. destructor to the essential oils and that the detoxification ability of V. destructor via GST was inhibited at higher dosages. Our findings are conducive to understanding the physiological reactions of V. destructor to treatment with essential oils and the underlying mechanisms behind the acaricidal activities of these natural products.
Vasconcelos, Ana Caroline Oliveira; Ferreir, Rodrigo Lopes
The genus Charinus comprises eleven described species in Brazil. Herein we describe two new species, Charinus caatingae sp n. and Charinus iuiu sp n., from caves of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Charinus caatingae is threatened, requiring special attention to its conservation. Furthermore, we present an updated identification key and a table of characters for the genus in the country.
Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Kury, Adriano B
The genus Heterophrynus is for the first time recorded from Transandean areas. Heterophrynus boterorum sp. nov. and Heterophrynus silviae sp. nov. are described respectively from Tolima and Valle del Cauca departments, Colombia, based on material from the 2006 Arachnological Expedition of Museu Nacional to Colombia. Heterophrynus nicefori Amado & Morales, 1986, from Meta department is newly considered a junior subjective synonym of Phrynus batesii Butler, 1873 (currently in Heterophrynus). Heterophrynus is currently known from Amazon forest, Brazilian Cerrado, Littoral Ridge of Venezuela and Andean forests. A revised terminology is proposed for the constituent parts of male and female gonopods of Heterophrynus.
Steinhoff, Philip O M; Sombke, Andy; Liedtke, Jannis; Schneider, Jutta M; Harzsch, Steffen; Uhl, Gabriele
Jumping spiders are known for their extraordinary cognitive abilities. The underlying nervous system structures, however, are largely unknown. Here, we explore and describe the anatomy of the brain in the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa (Clerck, 1757) by means of paraffin histology, X-ray microCT analysis and immunohistochemistry as well as three-dimensional reconstruction. In the prosoma, the CNS is a clearly demarcated mass that surrounds the esophagus. The anteriormost neuromere, the protocerebrum, comprises nine bilaterally paired neuropils, including the mushroom bodies and one unpaired midline neuropil, the arcuate body. Further ventrally, the synganglion comprises the cheliceral (deutocerebrum) and pedipalpal neuropils (tritocerebrum). Synapsin-immunoreactivity in all neuropils is generally strong, while allatostatin-immunoreactivity is mostly present in association with the arcuate body and the stomodeal bridge. The most prominent neuropils in the spider brain, the mushroom bodies and the arcuate body, were suggested to be higher integrating centers of the arthropod brain. The mushroom body in M. muscosa is connected to first and second order visual neuropils of the lateral eyes, and the arcuate body to the second order neuropils of the anterior median eyes (primary eyes) through a visual tract. The connection of both, visual neuropils and eyes and arcuate body, as well as their large size corroborates the hypothesis that these neuropils play an important role in cognition and locomotion control of jumping spiders. In addition, we show that the architecture of the brain of M. muscosa and some previously investigated salticids differs significantly from that of the wandering spider Cupiennius salei, especially with regard to structure and arrangement of visual neuropils and mushroom body. Thus, we need to explore the anatomical conformities and specificities of the brains of different spider taxa in order to understand evolutionary transformations of the arthropod brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; OConnor, Barry M
The common waxbill, Estrilda astrild (L., 1758) (Passeriformes: Estrildidae) is a small passerine bird native to Sub-Saharan Africa that has been introduced into several regions of the world. In the present paper, eight mite species (Acariformes) are reported from this host from Brazil, including three species new to science: Montesauria caravela n. sp., M. conquistador n. sp. (Proctophyllodidae), Trouessartia transatlantica n. sp., T. minuscula Gaud & Mouchet, 1958, T. estrildae Gaud & Mouchet, 1958 (Trouessartiidae), Onychalges pachyspathus Gaud, 1968 (Pyroglyphidae), Paddacoptes paddae (Fain, 1964) (Dermationidae) and Neocheyletiella megaphallos (Lawrence, 1959) (Cheyletidae). Comparative material from Africa was also studied. These mites represent at least three morpho-ecological groups regarding their microhabitats occupied on the bird: (i) vane mites (Montesauria and Trouessartia on the large wing and tail feathers); (ii) down mites (Onychalges); and (iii) skin mites (Paddacoptes and Neocheyletiella). On one bird individual we found representatives of all eight mite species. Although the common waxbill was introduced to the Neotropical region almost two centuries ago, we demonstrate that it still retains its Old World acarofauna and has not yet acquired any representatives of typical Neotropical mite taxa.
Giribet, Gonzalo; Sharma, Prashant P.; Benavides, Ligia R.
in a hypothesis for all the cyphophthalmid genera, although the limited data available for some taxa represented only in the morphological partition negatively affects the phylogenetic reconstruction by decreasing nodal support in most clades. However, it resolves the position of many monotypic genera......We investigate the phylogeny, biogeography, time of origin and diversification, ancestral area reconstruction and large-scale distributional patterns of an ancient group of arachnids, the harvestman suborder Cyphophthalmi. Analysis of molecular and morphological data allow us to propose a new......; Boreophthalmi includes Stylocellidae and Sironidae, the latter family of questionable monophyly. The internal resolution of each family is discussed and traced back to its geological time origin, as well as to its original landmass, using methods for estimating divergence times and ancestral area reconstruction...
Hedin, Marshal; Starrett, James; Akhter, Sajia; Schönhofer, Axel L; Shultz, Jeffrey W
Next-generation sequencing technologies are rapidly transforming molecular systematic studies of non-model animal taxa. The arachnid order Opiliones (commonly known as "harvestmen") includes more than 6,400 described species placed into four well-supported lineages (suborders). Fossil plus molecular clock evidence indicates that these lineages were diverging in the late Silurian to mid-Carboniferous, with some fossil harvestmen representing the earliest known land animals. Perhaps because of this ancient divergence, phylogenetic resolution of subordinal interrelationships within Opiliones has been difficult. We present the first phylogenomics analysis for harvestmen, derived from comparative RNA-Seq data for eight species representing all suborders. Over 30 gigabases of original Illumina short-read data were used in de novo assemblies, resulting in 50-80,000 transcripts per taxon. Transcripts were compared to published scorpion and tick genomics data, and a stringent filtering process was used to identify over 350 putatively single-copy, orthologous protein-coding genes shared among taxa. Phylogenetic analyses using various partitioning strategies, data coding schemes, and analytical methods overwhelmingly support the "classical" hypothesis of Opiliones relationships, including the higher-level clades Palpatores and Phalangida. Relaxed molecular clock analyses using multiple alternative fossil calibration strategies corroborate ancient divergences within Opiliones that are possibly deeper than the recorded fossil record indicates. The assembled data matrices, comprising genes that are conserved, highly expressed, and varying in length and phylogenetic informativeness, represent an important resource for future molecular systematic studies of Opiliones and other arachnid groups.
Raymond J. Andrew
Full Text Available The parasitic association between water mites (Arrenurus spp. and Odonata is virtually ubiquitous wherever habitats suitable for both taxa exist. Yet, very little is known about this association within and among the odonate species of India. Here, we present a report on this parasitic relationship in the population of odonates of Wena Dam of Central India observed during the years 2011 and 2012. Of the 376 odonates collected for observation, 35(9.3% individuals belonging to seven species (Acisoma panorpoides, Brachydiplax sobrina, Ceriagrion coromandelianum, Crocothemis servilia, Diplacodes trivialis, Neurothemis tullia tullia, Trithemis pallidinervis were found to be parasitized by the Arrenurus spp. mites. The mites were found attached to the undersurface of the thorax and abdomen. In all the cases, the thorax was found infested while only in seven individuals the abdomen as well as the thorax was found infested with mites. A maximum number of mites on an individual dragonfly was in C. servilia (293 followed by T. pallidinervis (134 while the highest parasitic load per individual host species was found in T. pallidinervis (70.25% followed by C. servilia (32.6%. The average parasitic load per individual female and male was 39.77 and 8.9, respectively.
Full Text Available This study was conceived to detect skin mites in social mammals through real-time qPCR, and to estimate taxonomic Demodex and further Prostigmata mite relationships in different host species by comparing sequences from two genes: mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 18S rRNA. We determined the mite prevalence in the hair follicles of marmots (13% and bats (17%. The high prevalence found in marmots and bats by sampling only one site on the body may indicate that mites are common inhabitants of their skin. Since we found three different mites (Neuchelacheles sp, Myobia sp and Penthaleus sp in three bat species (Miotis yumanensis, Miotis californicus and Corynorhinus townsendii and two different mites (both inferred to be members of the Prostigmata order in one marmot species (Marmota flaviventris, we tentatively concluded that these skin mites 1 cannot be assigned to the same genus based only on a common host, and 2 seem to evolve according to the specific habitat and/or specific hair and sebaceous gland of the mammalian host. Moreover, two M. yumanensis bats harbored identical Neuchelacheles mites, indicating the possibility of interspecific cross-infection within a colony. However, some skin mites species are less restricted by host species than previously thought. Specifically, Demodex canis seems to be more transmissible across species than other skin mites. D. canis have been found mostly in dogs but also in cats and captive bats. In addition, we report the first case of D. canis infestation in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius. All these mammalian hosts are related to human activities, and D. canis evolution may be a consequence of this relationship. The monophyletic Demodex clade showing closely related dog and human Demodex sequences also supports this likely hypothesis.
Sastre, Natalia; Francino, Olga; Curti, Joseph N; Armenta, Tiffany C; Fraser, Devaughn L; Kelly, Rochelle M; Hunt, Erin; Silbermayr, Katja; Zewe, Christine; Sánchez, Armand; Ferrer, Lluís
This study was conceived to detect skin mites in social mammals through real-time qPCR, and to estimate taxonomic Demodex and further Prostigmata mite relationships in different host species by comparing sequences from two genes: mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 18S rRNA. We determined the mite prevalence in the hair follicles of marmots (13%) and bats (17%). The high prevalence found in marmots and bats by sampling only one site on the body may indicate that mites are common inhabitants of their skin. Since we found three different mites (Neuchelacheles sp, Myobia sp and Penthaleus sp) in three bat species (Miotis yumanensis, Miotis californicus and Corynorhinus townsendii) and two different mites (both inferred to be members of the Prostigmata order) in one marmot species (Marmota flaviventris), we tentatively concluded that these skin mites 1) cannot be assigned to the same genus based only on a common host, and 2) seem to evolve according to the specific habitat and/or specific hair and sebaceous gland of the mammalian host. Moreover, two M. yumanensis bats harbored identical Neuchelacheles mites, indicating the possibility of interspecific cross-infection within a colony. However, some skin mites species are less restricted by host species than previously thought. Specifically, Demodex canis seems to be more transmissible across species than other skin mites. D. canis have been found mostly in dogs but also in cats and captive bats. In addition, we report the first case of D. canis infestation in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius). All these mammalian hosts are related to human activities, and D. canis evolution may be a consequence of this relationship. The monophyletic Demodex clade showing closely related dog and human Demodex sequences also supports this likely hypothesis.
Li, Li; Lin, Zhe-Guang; Wang, Shuai; Su, Xiao-Ling; Gong, Hong-Ri; Li, Hong-Liang; Hu, Fu-Liang; Zheng, Huo-Qing
Varroa destructor , a key biotic threat to the Western honey bee, has played a major role in colony losses over the past few years worldwide. Overuse of traditional acaricides, such as tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin, on V. destructor has only increased its tolerance to them. Therefore, the application of essential oils in place of traditional pesticides is an attractive alternative, as demonstrated by its high efficiency, lack of residue and tolerance resistance. To study the acaricidal activity of essential oils, we used clove oil ( Syzygium aromaticum L.), a typical essential oil with a wide range of field applications, and examined its effects on the enzyme activities of Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ -ATPase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and its effects on the water-soluble protein content of V. destructor body extracts after exposure to 0.1 μl and 1.0 μl of clove oil for 30 min. Our results showed that the water-soluble protein content significantly decreased after the treatments, indicating that the metabolism of the mites was adversely affected. The bioactivity of GSTs increased significantly after a low dosage (0.1 μl) exposure but decreased at a higher dosage (1.0 μl), while the activities of SOD and Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ -ATPase were significantly elevated after treatments. These results suggest that the protective enzyme SOD and detoxifying enzymes Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ -ATPase and GST contributed to the stress reaction of V. destructor to the essential oils and that the detoxification ability of V. destructor via GST was inhibited at higher dosages. Our findings are conducive to understanding the physiological reactions of V. destructor to treatment with essential oils and the underlying mechanisms behind the acaricidal activities of these natural products.
V raziskavi smo obravnavali razporeditev osebkov podvrste dvozobe črninke Nemastoma bidentatum ssp. (Nemastomatidae, Opiliones), ki živi v južni in jugovzhodni Sloveniji, v talnem substratu. V prvi skupini poskusov smo ugotavljali razporeditev osebkov v homogenem nekomprimiranem substratu, v drugi skupini pa njihovo preferenco do nekomprimiranega (0,0 kg/cm2), rahlo komprimiranega (0,1 kg/cm2) in močno komprimiranega substrata (1,0 kg/cm2). Na podlagi izsledkov smo želeli preveriti možnost za...
Thaiany Miranda Costa
Full Text Available Harvestmen feed on live, dead and fresh, or decomposing animals, fungi, and plant matter, being very dependent on chemoreception to find food. Herein we performed an experiment to test if individuals of Discocyrtus pectinifemur Mello-Leitão, 1937 (Gonyleptidae (n = 23 behave differently when in contact with olfactory cues from different sources (rotten prey, non-rotten prey and a control. Using dead crickets in a box covered with a mesh, and recording the time the harvestmen spent in the vicinities of the box, we show that D. pectinifemur detects non-rotten prey and stays longer on it than on the other two treatments. Our results contrast with a previous study on another species, showing that we should not generalize results obtained for one species. Our data also suggest that olfactory receptors occur on the legs of these harvestmen and that D. pectinifemur might choose dietary items based on olfaction.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two new genera of short-tailed whip-scorpions are described based on material from Brazilian iron ore and canga caves in the Carajás region, Pará, Brazil. Naderiore gen. nov. with a single species N. carajas sp. nov. and also monotypic Cangazomus gen. nov. (type species C. xikrin sp. nov.. The relationships of the two new genera with previously described genera are discussed. Naderiore most closely resembles Adisomus Cokendolpher & Reddell, 2000, Piaroa Villarreal, Tourinho & Giupponi, 2008 and Calima Moreno-González & Villarreal, 2012, and can be distinguished from them by Dm3 modified as macrosetae in the male flagellum. Cangazomus most closely resembles Naderiore , Adisomus Cokendolpher & Reddell, 2000, and Piaroa Villarreal, Tourinho & Giupponi, 2008. It differs from all of them by the presence of two pairs of ramified spermathecal lobes, each composed of a differentiated stalk and distoterminal ramified bulbs, chitinized arch without anterior branch and notched lateral tip, pedipalps unarmed and not sexually dimorphic, and the male flagellar setae Dm3 as a microsetae.
Kury, Adriano B; Pérez-González, Abel
A series of databases is being prepared to list the valid species of Opiliones worldwide. This paper containing nomenclatural acts is meant to accompany Part 2, which includes the members of the infraorder Grassatores of the superfamilies Samooidea and Zalmoxoidea plus the Grassatores currently not allocated to any family (i.e. Grassatores incertae sedis). The following 32 taxonomic changes are proposed here: (1-3) The Afrotropical genera Hovanoceros Lawrence, 1959, Malgaceros Lawrence, 1959 and Tetebius Roewer, 1949 (all currently in Samoidae) are all newly transferred to Biantidae. (4-5) Microminua soerenseni Soares & Soares, 1954, from Brazil is newly transferred to Tibangara (Gonyleptoidea: Cryptogeobiidae), newly combined as Tibangara soerenseni new comb., new familial allocation for the species. (6-7) The new genus Llaguenia Gen. nov is erected for the South American species Zamora peruviana Roewer, 1956, newly combined as Llaguenia peruviana new comb., and newly placed in Gonyleptoidea: Cranaidae (Prostygninae). (8) Bebedoura Roewer, 1949, known from a single Brazilian species, is transferred from Tricommatinae to Grassatores incertae sedis. (9) Microconomma Roewer, 1915, known from a single Cameroonian species, is transferred from Samoidae to Grassatores incertae sedis. (10) Stygnomimus Roewer, 1927, with two Indomalayan species and hitherto included in the Stygnommatidae, is here formally considered Grassatores incertae sedis. (11) Bichito González-Sponga, 1998, known from a single Venezuelan species, originally described in Phalangodidae: Phalangodinae, and currently in Grassatores incertae sedis is transferred to Samoidae. (12) The Neotropical genus Microminua Sørensen, 1932, currently with two species, is newly transferred from Kimulidae to Samoidae. (13-14) Cornigera González-Sponga, 1987 (currently in Samoidae), is newly considered a junior subjective synonym of Microminua, and its single species is combined under Microminua as Microminua flava (González-Sponga, 1987) new comb. (15) Niquitaia González-Sponga, 1999 (originally in Phalangodidae: Phalangodinae, currently in Zalmoxidae), monotypic from Venezuela, is newly transferred to Samoidae. (16) Heteroscotolemon Roewer, 1912 originally described in Phalangodidae: Phalangodinae, and currently in Grassatores incertae sedis is transferred to Zalmoxidae. (17) While the Australasian genus Zalmoxista Roewer, 1949 is currently in Samoidae and some of its former species have been transferred to Zalmoxis Sørensen, 1886, Zalmoxista americana Roewer, 1952 from Peru, is here newly transferred to Zalmoxidae into Minuides Sørensen, 1932, forming the combination Minuides americanus (Roewer, 1952) new comb. (specific name inflected to match the masculine gender). (18) Neobabrius Roewer, 1949 (currently in Phalangodidae), monotypic from Indonesia, is newly transferred to Zalmoxidae. (19) While Crosbyella Roewer, 1927, belongs to Phalangodidae, Crosbyella roraima Goodnight & Goodnight, 1943 (originally Phalangodinae, but currently Zalmoxidae without generic assignment) is here transferred to Soledadiella González-Sponga, 1987, as Soledadiella roraima new comb. (Zalmoxoidea: Zalmoxidae). (20) Zalmoxissus Roewer, 1949 is newly synonymized with Zalmoxis Sørensen, 1886 (Zalmoxidae). (21) The original spelling Zalmoxis sorenseni Simon, 1892 is restored from the unjustified emendation soerenseni. (22) The Neotropical genus Phalangodella Roewer, 1912 (originally in Phalangodidae: Tricommatinae, but currently in Grassatores incertae sedis) is newly transferred to Zalmoxoidea incertae sedis and (23-26) four other genera are newly synonymized with it: Phalangodella Roewer, 1912 = Exlineia Mello-Leitão, 1942 = Langodinus Mello-Leitão, 1949 = Cochirapha Roewer, 1949 = Phalpuna Roewer, 1949, generating the following new combinations (27-32): Phalangodella fulvescens (Mello-Leitão, 1943) new comb., Phalangodella milagroi (Mello-Leitão, 1942) new comb., Phalangodella rhinoceros (Mello-Leitão, 1945) new comb., Phalangodella flavipes (Mello-Leitão, 1949) new comb., Phalangodella rugipes (Roewer, 1949) new comb. and Phalangodella urarmata (Roewer, 1949) new comb.
Paulo Eduardo Degrande
Full Text Available
The objective of this research was to evaluate the selectivity of the most used insecticides for controlling Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877, on natural enemies occurring on the cotton crop soil, under field conditions. The study was conducted in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, as randomized blocks, with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments were: Acetamiprid 200 PS, Carbosulfan 400 CE, Diafentiurom 500 PM, Tiametoxam 250 WG, Imidacloprid 200 SC, Paration Metil 600 CE, and control. The samplings of cotton pests natural enemies occurring in the area were made with ";modified pittfall"; traps. During the evaluation period, it was verified the presence of natural enemies, mainly Araneae (31%, Formicidae (29%, and Tachinidae (16%. The insecticide Acetamiprid 200 PS was not selective to the family Formicidae, but it was selective to Araneida and Tachinidae. The insecticide Tiametoxam 250 WG represented a larger effect in the first day (DAA to the families Formicidae and Tachinidae, when mortality rates of 100% and 56%, respectively, were observed, but it was selective to Arachnida. The insecticide Imidacloprid 200 SC was not selective to ants and Tachinidae, but it was selective to the occurring spiders. Carbosulfan 400 CE was selective to spiders. Paration Metil 600 CE only preserved populations of Araneida.
KEY-WORDS: Predator; parasitoid; Gossypium hirsutum.
Ortiz, C.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Flegal, A. R.
The primary goal of this project was to obtain a baseline understanding and investigate the concentration of mercury (Hg) in the tissue of arthropods in coastal California. This region receives significant input of fog which may contain enhanced levels of Hg. Currently there is a lack of data on Hg concentration in the tissue of arthropods (Insecta, Malacostraca, and Arachnida). The sample collection sites were Elkhorn Slough Estuarine Reserve in Moss Landing, and the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) campus. Samples collected between February and March, 2012 had total Hg (HgT) concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 27 - 39 ng/g in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera Stenopelmatidae); 80 - 110 ng/g in the camel cricket (Orthoptera Rhaphidophoridae); 21 - 219 ng/g in the ground beetle (Coleoptera Carabidae); 100 - 228 ng/g in the pill bug (Isopoda Armadillidiidae); and 285 - 423 ng/g in the wolf spider (Araneae Lycosidae). Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in dry weight were determine to be 4.3 -28.2 ng/g for the ground beetle; 45.5 - 87.8 ng/g for the pill bug, and 252.3 - 293.7 ng/g for the wolf spider. Samples collected in July, 2012 had HgT concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 110 - 168 ng/g in the camel cricket; 337 - 562 ng/g in the ground beetle; 25 - 227 ng/g in the pill bug; and 228 - 501 ng/g in the wolf spider. The preliminary data revealed an 18% increase in the concentration of HgT for wolf spiders, and a 146% increase for ground beetles in the summer when compared to those concentrations measured in the spring. It is hypothesized that coastal fog may be a contributor to this increase of Hg concentration in coastal California arthropods.
Full Text Available Divergence in trophic niche between the sexes may function to reduce competition between the sexes ("intersexual niche partitioning hypothesis", or may be result from differential selection among the sexes on maximizing reproductive output ("sexual selection hypothesis". The latter may lead to higher energy demands in females driven by fecundity selection, while males invest in mate searching. We tested predictions of the two hypotheses underlying intersexual trophic niche partitioning in a natural population of spiders. Zodarion jozefienae spiders specialize on Messor barbarus ants that are polymorphic in body size and hence comprise potential trophic niches for the spider, making this system well-suited to study intersexual trophic niche partitioning.Comparative analysis of trophic morphology (the chelicerae and body size of males, females and juveniles demonstrated highly female biased SSD (Sexual Size Dimorphism in body size, body weight, and in the size of chelicerae, the latter arising from sex-specific growth patterns in trophic morphology. In the field, female spiders actively selected ant sub-castes that were larger than the average prey size, and larger than ants captured by juveniles and males. Female fecundity was highly positively correlated with female body mass, which reflects foraging success during the adult stage. Females in laboratory experiments preferred the large ant sub-castes and displayed higher capture efficiency. In contrast, males occupied a different trophic niche and showed reduced foraging effort and reduced prey capture and feeding efficiency compared with females and juveniles.Our data indicate that female-biased dimorphism in trophic morphology and body size correlate with sex-specific reproductive strategies. We propose that intersexual trophic niche partitioning is shaped primarily by fecundity selection in females, and results from sex-differences in the route to successful reproduction where females are selected to maximize energy intake and fecundity, while males switch from foraging to invest in mating effort.
Marusik, Yuri M; Azarkina, Galina N
With 372 species, Xysticus C.L. Koch, 1835 is the largest genus in the family Thomisidae (WSC 2016). As with other speciose genera, the genus has never been revised on a global scale and is only thoroughly known in a few parts of the Holarctic, namely Central and Northern Europe, North America, Israel and Japan. Over 200 species are known from one/two taxonomic references only, or from a single illustrated description/redescription (WSC 2016). The fact that 40% of species are known from only one sex (104 females and 54 males) or from juveniles (8 species) (WSC 2016) suggests that Xysticus requires revision. During a study of crab spiders of the Caucasus, we experienced difficulties in identifying Xysticus spasskyi Utochkin, 1968 due to the lack of detailed figures of the male palp and female epigyne. This species was based on the holotype female collected from an unspecified locality in the coastal part of modern Kransnodar Province (Utochkin 1968). The male of X. spasskyi was described as X. umbrinus Utochkin, 1968 from Kuban' Region (currently Krasnodar Province). The two species were synonymised by Ovtsharenko (1979). Besides Krasnodar Province, the species has been reported from North Ossetia (Ponomarev & Komarov 2013) and South Ossetia (Ponomarev & Komarov 2015), Georgia, Azerbaijan and the Crimea (Mikhailov 2013; Otto 2015). The illustrations in the descriptions of Utochkin (1968) and Ovtsharenko (1979), are either very small, schematic or provide no diagnostic details. The endogyne (=vulva) of this species has never been illustrated. Here we redescribe this species and compare distant populations.
Marusik, Yuri M; Fomichev, Alexander A
Four new species of Synaphosus are described from Central Asia: S. shmakovi sp. n. (♀, Western Mongolia), S. ovtsharenkoi sp. n. (♂♀, Central Mongolia), S. mongolicus sp. n. (♀, South-Western Mongolia) and S. saidovi sp. n. (♀, Tajikistan). New faunistic records and illustrations of S. palearcticus Ovtsharenko, Levy & Platnick, 1994 and S. turanicus Ovtsharenko, Levy & Platnick, 1994 are provided. Synaphosus with three named species is recorded for the first time from Mongolia, and S. palearcticus is reported for the first time from Tajikistan.
Nelson E Ferretti
Full Text Available Intraspecific interactions of araneomorph spiders have received considerable attention, but there are few detailed studies on intraspecific interactions of mygalomorph spiders. Moreover, a thorough understanding of theraphosid biology and ecology is necessary from a conservation standpoint because natural populations may be threatened by habitat disturbances and captures for pet commerce. We described the behavior of conspecific individuals of Grammostola schulzei during non-sexual interactions, under laboratory conditions. Pairs of individuals involving adult males, adult females and juveniles were confronted and observed in resident and intruder conditions, totalizing 115 trials. When confronted two adult females, they retreated or grappled, and performed gaping display with bite attempts, usually resulted in severe injury of the intruder spiders. When confronted females with large juveniles, we frequently observed cannibalism on juveniles. Juveniles exposed to females or to other juveniles retreated or made leg tapping with forelegs and palpal drumming, which are common displays of courting adult males. Adult males courted and clasped some juveniles, but juveniles avoided or reject clasping. The behaviors observed during intraspecific interactions could play an important role determining spatial distribution and could lead to behavioral adaptations of territoriality. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1173-1182. Epub 2011 September 01.Hay pocos estudios detallados sobre las interacciones intraespecíficas de arañas migalomorfas. Por lo tanto, se describe el comportamiento de individuos conspecíficos de Grammostola schulzei durante interacciones nosexuales en condiciones de laboratorio. Se confrontaron y observaron pares de individuos involucrando machos adultos, hembras adultas y juveniles en condiciones de locatarios y visitantes, totalizando 115 encuentros. Cuando dos hembras adultas se enfrentaron, retrocedieron o lucharon adoptando elevaciones anteriores e intentos de mordeduras que usualmente resultaron en arañas visitantes heridas. Cuando se enfrentaron hembras con juveniles, frecuentemente se observó canibalismo sobre los juveniles. Los juveniles expuestos a otros juveniles o hembras retrocedieron o realizaron golpes con patas delanteras y tamborileos de palpos, los cuales constituyen unidades de comportamiento comunes durante el cortejo de los machos. Los machos adultos cortejaron y trabaron a algunos juveniles, mientras que los juveniles los evitaron o rechazaron el enganche. Los comportamientos observados durante las interacciones intraespecíficas podrían jugar un papel importante en la distribución espacial y podrían generar adaptaciones al territorialismo.
Full Text Available Las arañas son ideales como indicadores de cambios ecológicos por su diversidad y abundancia. En la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina, se estudiaron arañas de Citrus sinensis en parcelas de 0.82 hectáreas, con riego (AM1 y sin riego (AM2. Mediante pitfall, agitación de follaje, captura manual y tamizado de hojarasca se recolectaron 7 174 ejemplares (33 familias, 44 géneros y 200 especies/morfoespecies, el 70% fueron juveniles. AM1 registró 3 811 individuos (33 familias, 179 especies/morfoespecies y AM2 3 363 (31 familias, 174 especies/morfoespecies. Durante el verano se observó la mayor abundancia. En ambas parcelas, ocho familias representaron el 75% del total, Lycosidae fue la más numerosa y se identificaron ocho gremios; las vagabundas de suelo fueron las más abundantes (AM1 n=1341, s=39; AM2 n=999, s=33 seguida por las constructoras de telas orbiculares (AM1 n=637, s=36; AM2 n=552, s=33, las cazadoras al acecho (AM1 n=471, s=43; AM2 n=453, s=47 y las de telas espaciales (AM1 n=446, s=23; AM2 n=342, s=25. La diversidad alfa en ambas parcelas (AM1 H’=4.161, J’=0.802; AM2 H’=4.184, J’=0.811 no mostró diferencias significativas (t=1.083, p=0.279. El modelo de dependencia lineal fue el que mejor ajustó los resultados. El modelo de Clench estimó el 90.9% de las observadas en AM1 y el 90.6% en la AM2.
Full Text Available The prosoma length of adult males and females of the lycosid spider Arctosa leopardus (Sundevall, 1833 varies by about 200%. By contrast, the decisive structures of the copulatory organs show allometrically constant sizes. Male and female copulatory organs are described in detail. Their mechanical co-operation in copula is discussed.
Costa-Ayub,C. L. S.; Faraco,C. D.; Freire,C. A.
In view of the widely varying compositions of fixative solutions used for studying spiders, five different fixative formulas were tested for fixing male brown-spider (Loxosceles intermedia) gonad tissues. The brown spider represents a public health problem in Curitiba (Paraná State, Brazil). Morphological study of its gonads may aid in understanding the reproductive strategies of this species, and possibly in developing a reproduction control program. The fixatives tested contained glutaralde...
Hajer, Jaromír; Malý, Jan; Reháková, Dana
Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the silk spinning apparatus and silks of Harpactea rubicunda spiders. Three types of silk secretions that are produced by three kinds of silk spinning glands (ampullate, piriform, and pseudaciniform) and released through three types of spigots, were confirmed for both adult and juvenile spiders. Silk secretions for the construction of spider webs for shelter or retreat are produced by the pseudaciniform silk glands. Silk secretions that are released from spigots in the course of web construction are not processed by the legs during the subsequent process of hardening. Pairs of nanofibril bundles seemed to be part of the basic microarchitecture of the web silk fibers as revealed by AFM. These fiber bundles frequently not only overlap one another, but occasionally also interweave. This structural variability may strengthen the spider web. High-resolution AFM scans of individual nanofibrils show a distinctly segmented nanostructure. Each globular segment is ∼30-40 nm long along the longitudinal axis of the fiber, and resembles a nanosegment of artificial fibroin described by Perez-Rigueiro et al. (2007). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Frick, Holger; Scharff, Nikolaj
and Micronetini), and Erigoninae, and a representative of the family Pimoidae, the sister-group to Linyphiidae. No fewer than 147 of the morphological characters used in this study are new and defined for this study, and come mainly from male and female genitalia. Parsimony analysis with equal weights resulted...... in three most parsimonious trees of length 871. The monophyly of the subfamily Mynogleninae and the genera Novafroneta, Parafroneta, Laminafroneta, Afroneta, Promynoglenes, Metamynoglenes, and Haplinis are supported, whereas Pseudafroneta is paraphyletic. The remaining seven mynoglenine genera are either...
Cardoso, Pedro; Crespo, Luís C; Silva, Isamberto; Borges, Paulo Av; Boieiro, Mário
The North Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and Selvagens present a unique biological diversity including, presently, 56 endemic spider species. Several recent projects provide valuable information on their distribution across most islands and habitats. To date, the only endemic spider assessed according to the IUCN Red List criteria is Hogna ingens. The objective of this paper is to assess all remaining endemic species and advise on possible future conservation actions critical for the survival of endangered species. Seven species were found to have a continuing decline in either range or population size. Their decline can be mostly attributed to habitat destruction or degradation, invasive plant species that reduce quality of habitat, forest fires at high mountain regions and possible competition for resources from invasive congeners. The tetragnathid M. barreti is considered as possibly extinct due to the suspected impact of a competing species. Although most endemic spiders from the Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos have relatively low extinction risk due to the good condition and protection of the laurisilva forests where many live, there are a number of species requiring urgent attention and protection measures. These include all cave and mountain-restricted species as well as those threatened by competing congeners or invasive plants. Extending current protected areas, restoring original habitats of threatened species and the control of invasive taxa should remain a priority for species survival.
Marusik, Yuri M.; Kovblyuk, Mykola M.; Koponen, Seppo
Abstract Three species of Xerolycosa: Xerolycosa nemoralis (Westring, 1861), Xerolycosa miniata (C.L. Koch, 1834) and Xerolycosa mongolica (Schenkel, 1963), occurring in the Palaearctic Region are surveyed, illustrated and redescribed. Arctosa mongolica Schenkel, 1963 is removed from synonymy with Xerolycosa nemoralis and transferred to Xerolycosa, and the new combination Xerolycosa mongolica (Schenkel, 1963) comb. n. is established. One new synonymy, Xerolycosa undulata Chen, Song et Kim, 1998 syn. n. from Heilongjiang = Xerolycosa mongolica (Schenkel, 1963), is proposed. In addition, one more new combination is established, Trochosa pelengena (Roewer, 1960) comb. n., ex Xerolycosa. PMID:21998514
Full Text Available The present paper provides the first checklist of the spiders from coastal heathland on the Baltic Sea island of Hiddensee, Germany. A total of 171 species could be recovered by pitfall trapping in 2008 and 2009. The species inventory comprises several typical dune and heathland species. Ten species (Altella lucida, Centromerus capucinus, Dictyna latens, Drassodes cupreus, Hypsocephalus pusillus, Hypsosinga sanguinea, Micaria lenzi, Micrargus apertus, Philodromus histrio, Walckenaeria capito are new to the arachnofauna of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.
Hazzi, Nicolás A; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Brescovit, Antonio D; Polotow, Daniele; Simó, Miguel
This study provides new records, geographical distribution extensions and a checklist of the current ctenids species in Colombia based on the review of four arachnological collections and published literature. A total of 15 new records for Ctenidae in Colombia are reported; nine of these species are new records for the country and the distribution of the remaining six is expanded. The genus Centroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1929 (C. ocelliventer Strand, 1909) is recorded for first time in Colombia and Cupiennius coccineus (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1901) for South America. Due to the strategic geographic position of Colombia, which is a transition zone between Southern and Central American biotas, species inventories in different localities are important to fill distributional gaps. The number of known species of ctenids in Colombia is increased from 16 to 25 and these data will be useful for future studies in taxonomy, systematics and biogeography of this family.
Full Text Available In the course of several collection trips on the Spanish mainland and Mallorca, 18 species of jumping spiders were recorded, including three species discovered for the first time in the Balearic Islands: Hasarius adansoni (Audouin, 1826, Heliophanus ramosus Wesołowska, 1986 and Thyene imperialis (Rossi, 1846. In addition, the first European record of Heliophanus stylifer Simon, 1878 is corrected: it refers to a misidentified female of Heliophanus ramosus Wesołowska, 1986; accordingly, H. stylifer has to be removed from the European checklist.
Hirna, Anna; Gnelitsa, Valery; Zhukovets, Evgeni
The present checklist of spiders native to the Chornohora Mts of the Ukrainian Carpathians is based both on literature-derived data and on material collected by the authors in 1999, 2006 and 2011-2014. The majority of these studies (approximately 80 %) were conducted in the upper montane forests, subalpine and alpine levels on the slopes of the main ridge and adjacent spurs and mountains. The study also covers glacial cirques and river valleys. A few spiders were collected from local villages...
Full Text Available The present checklist of spiders native to the Chornohora Mts of the Ukrainian Carpathians is based both on literature-derived data and on material collected by the authors in 1999, 2006 and 2011-2014. The majority of these studies (approximately 80 % were conducted in the upper montane forests, subalpine and alpine levels on the slopes of the main ridge and adjacent spurs and mountains. The study also covers glacial cirques and river valleys. A few spiders were collected from local villages. The list of spiders includes records from the collections of the Museum of Natural History of the Wroclaw University and Museum (Poland and the Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw. A total of 252 valid species from 22 families is known from the Chornohora Mt. massif.
Full Text Available The wolf spider Pardosa schenkeli Lessert, 1904 was since long regarded as occurring in Germany and Poland but is excluded from the recent checklist of spiders found in these countries. Re-examination of material collected in Germany and Poland, respectively, verifies its presence in both countries. Characters for distinguishing P. schenkeli and its ally P. bifasciata (C.L. Koch, 1834 are given and illustrated.
Kaya, Rahşen S.; Kunt, Kadir B.; Marusik, Yuri M.; Uğurtaş, İsmail H.
Abstract A new species of the spider genus Tegenaria Latreille, 1804 is described, based on newly collected specimens from Turkey. Detailed morphological descriptions, diagnosis and figures of the copulatory organs of both sexes are presented. Finally, a checklist and distribution maps for Turkish Tegenaria species are provided. PMID:21594119
Full Text Available The male sex of Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 is described based on specimens from the type locality. The distinguishing characters from its closest species Tylorida ventralis (Thorell, 1877 are detailed. An interesting behaviour of going underwater by T. sataraensis, on disturbance is recorded and tested for significance. The surveys have shown sighting of this species only to the perennial streams of the rocky outcrops in Satara region. The potential threats to this species and the possible conservation status based on known distribution are discussed.
Full Text Available Firmicus bivittatus Simon, 1895 was described from the Edough Mt, Algeria, based on one male only. Here, a redescription and new illustrations of the species based on the existing type material is presented. The female is figured for the first time.
Gracielle F. Braga-Pereira
Full Text Available Two new species of Alpaida O.P.-Cambridge, 1889 are described based on male and female specimens from seven restinga areas from northeastern to southern Brazil. Alpaida teresinha sp. nov., from Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, differs from other species of the genus in the wider lobe of the conductor, the concave median apophysis and with the posterior lobe ventrally positioned, and the wrinkled distal projection of the terminal apophysis in males. Females can be recognized by having widely spaced epigynal lips and by the narrow epigynal notch in ventral view. Alpaida toninho sp. nov., from Bahia, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina, can be distinguished by the round lobes of the terminal apophysis, and by the median apophysis with a distal lobe and a projection in males, and by the epigynum elliptical, with a short scape in females.
Grismado Cristian J.
Full Text Available Two new species of the spider family Palpimanidae from Guyana are described: Fernandezina takutu, the first species of this genus known from this country andOtiothops giralunas, that seems to be the sister species of O. goloboffi Grismado, 1996 from northwestern Argentina.
Marcelo A Dias
Full Text Available Phoneutria bahiensis Simó & Brescovit, 2001 is a large ctenid spider inhabiting the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo, Brazil. Considering that it is probably endemic, this species was included in the Brazilian red book of threatened species. Here, we predict the distribution range of P. bahiensis using 19 bioclimatic variables in the model design. The most septentrional record for this spider was indicated for northern Bahia. The model predicts that the distribution range covers the Atlantic Forest from the state of Paraíba to Rio de Janeiro, with the best suitable area in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Bahia. The bioclimatic variable with the best contribution to the model was precipitation in the driest quarter. Based on collected data, the species inhabits Ombrophilous Forests and Restinga vegetation, two ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest biome. In the best-predicted area of distribution, eleven Conservation Units were included. This information could be considered for future conservation plans of this species.
Web-sharing sociality and cooperative prey capture are reported for Scytodes socialis, sp. nov., a spitting spider discovered in a dry deciduous forest in Eastern Madagascar. Transect-based sampling was used to investigate colony demographics, estimate web volume and stratigraphic position, and
Bernhard A. Huber
Full Text Available The previously poorly known Southeast Asian spider genus Aetana Huber, 2005 is revised. Fifteen species are newly described, and the first SEM data and a first phylogenetic analysis of the genus are presented. Four species groups are well supported, one restricted to Borneo, two restricted to the Philippines, and one ranging from the Philippines to Fiji. The cladistic analysis and field observations suggest that the ancestor of Aetana built its web close to the ground, in confined spaces among and under rocks and logs. In at least two cases, evolutionary shifts of microhabitat resulted in species being adapted to life in higher forest strata, with correlated morphological and behavioral changes (lighter coloration; longer abdomen; additional sheet in web or more strongly domed web. The following species are newly described: A. abadae Huber, sp. nov., A. baganihan Huber, sp. nov., A. banahaw Huber, sp. nov., A. kiukoki Huber, sp. nov., A. libjo Huber, sp. nov., A. loboc Huber, sp. nov., A. lozadae Huber, sp. nov., A. manansalai Huber, sp. nov., A. ocampoi Huber, sp. nov., A. paragua Huber, sp. nov. and A. pasambai Huber, sp. nov. from the Philippines; A. gaya Huber, sp. nov., A. indah Huber, sp. nov., A. lambir Huber, sp. nov. and A. poring Huber, sp. nov. from northern Borneo. The female of A. kinabalu Huber, 2005 is newly described. A potential case of female genital dimorphism is documented in A. ocampoi Huber, sp. nov.
Full Text Available The orb-web spider Cyclosa oculata (Walckenaer, 1802 was found at eleven localities in north-western Switzerland. All records were from wildflower strips ("Buntbrachen" with a relatively high proportion of dried vegetation from the previous year, a relatively low vegetation height and a low proportion of grasses in the vegetation. C. oculata built its vertical orb-web near the ground, deep in the vegetation. Among ecribellate orb-web spiders in Central Europe, C. oculata is unique because it sometimes builds rudimentary webs on which it stays, because it builds its cocoons into the web, and because its stabilimentum is long-lasting and consists largely of debris. Based on our observations, we deduce that the stabilimentum of C. oculata serves as camouflage.
Bernhard A. Huber
Full Text Available The genus Savarna Huber, 2005 was previously one of the most poorly known Pholcinae genera. Less than 20 specimens (representing four nominal species were available worldwide; nothing was known about ultrastructure, natural history, or relationships. We present the first SEM data, supporting the position of the genus in Pholcinae outside the Pholcus group of genera and weakly suggesting a closer relationship with the genera Khorata Huber, 2005, Spermophorides Wunderlich, 1992, and two undescribed species of unknown affinity from Borneo. We provide the first data about microhabitat, web structure, and reaction to disturbance. We clarify the type locality of Savarna tessellata (Simon, 1901 (“Jalor, Biserat” and describe topotypical material. We describe the previously unknown male of Spermophora miser Bristowe, 1952 and transfer the species (that was previously considered incertae sedis to Savarna as Savarna miser (Bristowe, 1952 comb. nov. Savarna baso (Roewer, 1963 is newly synonymized with S. miser. We newly describe the most northern species in the genus, Savarna kaeo sp. nov., and provide amendments to the descriptions of all previously described species.
Fábio André Facco Jacomassa
Full Text Available Bats throughout the world are preyed upon primarily by vertebrates, but some are also attacked by invertebrates. We report two cases of bats entangled in webs of the giant-spider Nephilingis cruentata in southeastern Brazil. The first incidence occurred in December 2012, on which a female Eptesicus diminutus was found dead. The second occurred in March 2013, in which a male Tadarida brasiliensis was removed from the web alive, and later released. The animals showed no predation marks on the body, and both events were recorded after heavy rains. We suspect that the bats may have become entangled in the webs while seeking shelter from rain, or while foraging for insects. Even though the bats were not preyed upon, this spider cannot be ruled out as an opportunistic predator of small bats, as has been observed outside of Brazil.
Full Text Available This paper describes and illustrates a new genus and a new species belonging to the family Nesticidae based on morphology and supported by molecular data. The new genus, Kryptonesticus gen. nov., groups eight species spread from Bulgaria and Turkey to Croatia, including Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Crete. As a result, seven new combinations are proposed: K. eremita (Simon, 1879 comb. nov., K. arenstorffi (Kulczyński, 1914 comb. nov., K. fagei (Kratochvíl, 1933 comb. nov., K. beroni (Deltshev, 1977 comb. nov., K. beshkovi (Deltshev, 1979 comb. nov., K. henderickxi (Bosselaers, 1998 comb. nov. and K. dimensis (López-Pancorbo, Kunt & Ribera, 2013 comb. nov., all ex Nesticus. Kryptonesticus deelemanae gen. et sp. nov. is described on the basis of both sexes and its phylogenetic relationships with closely related species are discussed based on morphological and molecular data (the cox1, rrn and H3 genes. In addition, the species of this new genus (except for K. eremita are clear candidates for protection: they have highly restricted ranges and some of them show a high degree of adaptation to the subterranean environment.
Denis Rafael Pedroso
Full Text Available A new species of Masteria L. Koch, 1873 from iron ore caves at Caeté and Santa Bárbara, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, Masteria emboaba sp. nov., is described. It was collected inside caves and in the litter of nearby dry forests. It is the first masteriine species described from southeastern Brazil and the second masteriine species for the country. The new species is the only known Masteria with only two eyes. Additionally, the male of M. emboaba sp. nov. has only two regular, thin spines at the apex of tibia I, lacking the tibial apophysis found in most other Masteria species. The only other described Masteria species that has spines in the place of tibial apophysis is M. aimeae (Alayón, 1995 from Cuba; however, the last species has a longer and sinuous embolus, contrasting the embolus of M. emboaba sp. nov., which is much smaller, less sinuous and transversally placed. The only other described Brazilian species, M. manauara Bertani, Cruz & Oliveira, 2013, has a double tibial apophysis, with both ends tipped by a strong, short spine, and a very long embolus, parallel to the bulb.
Full Text Available The European spider of the year 2014, Linyphia triangularis (Clerck, 1757, is presented. For the first time it is a linyphiid spider, a hammock-weaver. Its characteristics (e.g., ecology, habitat, web, phenology are briefly described. The modality of the voting is given as well as numerous links to the supporting societies and to distribution maps.
Full Text Available The water spider Argyroneta aquatica has been found in different parts of Turkey, and its distribution is presented with a list of new localities. Observations on the ecology of the species are provided, and its habitats are photographed from the collection sites. The data indicate that A. aquatica was usually found in eutrophic ponds, marshes, and small lakes in Turkey.
Pekár, Stanislav; Martisová, Martina; Bilde, T.
lead to higher energy demands in females driven by fecundity selection, while males invest in mate searching. We tested predictions of the two hypotheses underlying intersexual trophic niche partitioning in a natural population of spiders. Zodarion jozefienae spiders specialize on Messor barbarus ants...... that are polymorphic in body size and hence comprise potential trophic niches for the spider, making this system well-suited to study intersexual trophic niche partitioning. Methodology/Principal Findings Comparative analysis of trophic morphology (the chelicerae) and body size of males, females and juveniles...... demonstrated highly female biased SSD (Sexual Size Dimorphism) in body size, body weight, and in the size of chelicerae, the latter arising from sex-specific growth patterns in trophic morphology. In the field, female spiders actively selected ant sub-castes that were larger than the average prey size...
Full Text Available During the survey of epigeous spider communities in the Bavarian Alps (Germany, Upper Bavaria, three species of Erigoninae were recorded from Germany for the first time. Micrargus alpinus and Silometopus rosemariae are endemic species of the Alps, Panamomops palmgreni is endemic to the Alpine mountain system. For each species present knowledge on distribution, habitat and phenology is summarized. As Micrargus alpinus was described in 1997, faunistic and ecological data are still very poor. Niche differentiation between the closely related species of the Micrargus herbigradus-group is discussed.
Full Text Available The jumping spider Siler semiglaucus (Simon, 1901 has been newly reported from India, based on specimens studied from South India. These spiders were observed feeding on all life stages of Technomyrmex ants.
Full Text Available The European spider of the year 2015, Anyphaena accentuata (Walckenaer, 1802, is presented. For the first time it is a representative of the anyphaenid sac spiders. Its characteristics (e.g., ecology, habitat, phenology are briefly described. The modality of the voting is given as well as numerous links to the supporting societies and to distribution maps.
Full Text Available The great raft spider, Dolomedes plantarius (Clerck, 1757, is a rare and endangered species in Germany and other European countries. Current data on its distribution and ecology are briefly reviewed. Five new (or overlooked localities for this spider from the Spreewald-region of Brandenburg in eastern Germany are provided, together with an updated distribution map. One record, based on the authors’ own collections, is described and figured in detail, with the egg-carrying female discovered in reeds at the edge of a fairly large body of open water. Both direct and indirect protective measures for the habitats of this species in the Spreewald-region are recommended.
Full Text Available The genus Raveniola Zonstein, 1987 is found to be represented in Western Asia by 16 species: ♂♀ R. adjarica sp. nov. (Georgia, ♂ R. anadolu sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂ R. arthuri Kunt & Yağmur, 2010 (Turkey, ♂ R. birecikensis sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. dunini sp. nov. (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, ♂♀ R. hyrcanica Dunin, 1988 (Azerbaijan, ♂ R. marusiki sp. nov. (Iran, ♂ R. mazandaranica Marusik, Zamani & Mirshamsi, 2014 (Iran, ♂♀ R. micropa (Ausserer, 1871 (Turkey, ♀ R. nana sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. niedermeyeri (Brignoli, 1972 (Iran, ♂♀ R. pontica (Spassky, 1937 (Russia, Georgia, ♀ R. sinani sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. turcica sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. vonwicki Zonstein, 2000 (Iran and ♂♀ R. zaitzevi (Charitonov, 1948 (Azerbaijan, Georgia = ♀ Brachythele recki Mcheidze, 1983, syn. nov. Eight species are newly described; others are redescribed from types and/or conspecific material. Males of R. micropa and R. zaitzevi, hitherto unknown, are described for the first time. Data on the variability, relationships, distribution, and ecology of all considered species are also provided.
Full Text Available The European spider of the year 2016, Cyclosa conica (Pallas, 1772, is presented. Its appearance and characteristics (e.g., ecology, habitat, phenology are briefly described. The modality of the voting is given as well as numerous links to the supporting societies and to distribution maps.
Zeeshan A. Mirza
Full Text Available A new diplurid genus and species is described from northeast India based on a single female specimen from Jampui hills. Orientothele gen. nov. is placed in the subfamily Diplurinae based on the presence of one row of teeth on the chelicerae. The new genus and species can be diagnosed from most diplurid genera in lacking lyra on the prolateral face of maxilla, paired claw with one row of teeth, maxilla with numerous cuspules, scopulae absent on all legs, and spermathecae consisting of two elongate stalks with bulbous receptacles at their tips which are bent inwards. Ischnothele indicola Tikader, 1969 is here treated as incertae sedis with regards to its generic placement in light of the discovery of Orientothele gen. nov.
Full Text Available During a recent biodiversity survey a rare Brush-footed trapdoor spider, Sipalolasma arthrapophysis (Gravely, 1915 was recorded from the State of Andhra Pradesh, India for the first time and the second record from India. A detailed description with photographs and illustrations of the male is provided
Nov 16, 2011 ... Gnaphosidae is one of the familiar families of spiders in. Turkey. There are many researchers carrying out ... In the diagnosis of the spider species collected from the research area, the following literature by Simon ..... The fauna, ecology and systematics of the ground- living spiders in the Northeast Anatolia ...
Recep Sulhi Ozkutuk
Full Text Available The redescription of dysderid spider Harpactea korgei Brignoli, 1979, on the basis of newly collected material is provided. The female of this species, previously unknown, is described here for the first time.
Full Text Available Spiders of Hůrka u Hranic National Nature Reserve were investigated during the year 2011. Several capture methods were used during the vegetation season (from April to November in many various habitats of this territory. Altogether, 92 species from 27 families were recorded, including very rare and remarcable species. Majority of such species prefer thermophilous habitats: Atypus affinis Eichwald, 1830, Dysdera czechica Řezáč, in prep., Theridion melanurum Hahn, 1831, Agroeca cuprea Menge, 1873, Drassyllus villicus (Thorell, 1875, Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837 and Dipoena melanogaster (C. L. Koch, 1837. Some species are also listed in the Red List of threatened species in the Czech Republic: Cheiracanthium elegans Thorell, 1875 in category endangered (EN, Cozyptila blackwalli (Simon, 1875 and Leptorchestes berolinensis (C. L. Koch, 1846 in category vulnerable (VU. Altogether, 144 spider species are now known from the reserve; they represent 16.6% of araneofauna of the Czech Republic.
Full Text Available A salticidae spider Epocilla praetextata Thorell, 1887 is reported for the first time from India. The present record is from Manipur, northeastern India, which shares an International border with Myanmar. This is the 3rd species of the genus Epocilla recorded in India. We provide the description and drawings of diagnostic characteristics for this species along with photographs.
Full Text Available We report the occurrence of new species of spiders to Hungary: Acantholycosa lignaria (Clerck, 1758, Episinus maculipes Cavanna, 1876, Oecobius maculatus Simon, 1870 and Pandava laminata (Thorell, 1878. We also report Clubiona neglecta O. P.-Cambridge, 1862 (previously only mentioned in a table in a Hungarian-language dissertation. The genus Acantholycosa (Dahl, 1908 was hitherto unknown in Hungary, yet expected to occur. The family Oecobiidae Blackwall, 1862 is new to the Hungarian fauna. The Southeast-Asian neozoon Pandava laminata is also recorded as new to Hungary. All further species found to be new to the Hungarian fauna or described in Hungary after the most recent publication of a Hungarian spider checklist are briefly mentioned.
Bilde, T.; Tuni, Cristina; Cariani, A.
Stegodyphus lineatus spiders live in groups consisting of closely related individuals. There appears to be no discrimination against related individuals as mates but females mate multiply, despite the fact that matings are shown to carry a cost. We have developed eight polymorphic dinucleotide...
Full Text Available We describe several new species of the previously monotypic Panjange lanthana species group from the Philippines and document their extraordinary morphology. Some species show strong male genital asymmetry, a phenomenon that seems to be exceedingly rare in spiders. Males of most species have eye stalks, and in two species these eye stalks are among the longest ever recorded in spiders. Some species show a tendency for male genital (pedipalp elongation, and one species has the longest and thinnest palps ever recorded in Pholcidae. A cladistic analysis is performed including all described and several undescribed species of Panjange (except for one “problem species”, supporting the lanthana group and its close relationship with members of the possibly paraphyletic cavicola group. The following eight new species are described: Panjange malagos Huber sp. nov.; Pa. casaroro Huber sp. nov.; Pa. camiguin Huber sp. nov.; Pa. hamiguitan Huber sp. nov.; Pa. isarog Huber sp. nov.; Pa. dinagat Huber sp. nov.; Pa. marilog Huber sp. nov.; Pa. bukidnon Huber sp. nov.
Full Text Available Specimens of T. vulgaris were recently introduced in Germany with cricket boxes from southern United States. The species has been sent within Germany with post packages to different pet dealers. These samples represent probably the first confirmed records of T. vulgaris for Germany. Further observation could show, whether the populations are stabile in synanthropic habitats, especially inside bulidings. Female genitalia are illustrated. One structure is recognized as a glandular part of the spermathecae. Terminology of female genitalia is given in comparison of terms used in the past by different authors.
Král, J.; Kořínková, T.; Krkavcová, L.; Musilová, J.; Forman, M.; Ávila Herrera, I. M.; Haddad, C. R.; Vítková, Magda; Henriques, S.; Palacios Vargas, J. G.; Hedin, M.
Roč. 109, č. 2 (2013), s. 377-408 ISSN 0024-4066 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) IAA601110808; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/08/0813; Univerzita Karlova v Praze(CZ) SVV-2013-267205; Univerzita Karlova v Praze(CZ) SVV-2012-265202 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : achiasmatic * chromosome pairing * deactivation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.535, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bij.12056/pdf
Laura T. Miglio
Full Text Available Munduruku gen. nov. is proposed for the type species Munduruku bicoloratum sp. nov., from Juruti and Santarém, Pará, Brazil. The main diagnostic character of Munduruku gen. nov. is the presence of a subapical, lanceolate keel on the male palpal bulb, which is unique among the basal taxa of Theraphosinae with type III-IV urticating setae. The female spermathecae consist of two spheroid receptacles with funnel-shaped necks, each of which bears a sclerotized area. In both sexes, the abdomen is remarkably patterned, an uncommon feature in adults of New World theraphosids. Both the bulbus lanceolate keel and the abdominal color pattern are hypothesized as synapomorphies of the genus.
Volker W. Framenau
Full Text Available The Australian wolf spider genus Tftralycosa Roewer, 1960, with Lycosa meracula Simon, 1909 (junior synonym of Lycosa oraria L. Koch, 1877 as type species, is revised to include 13 species, eight of which are described as new here: Tetralycosa adarca sp. nov., T. alteripa (McKay, 1976, T. arabanae Framenau, Gotch & Austin, 2006, T. baudinettei sp. nov., T. caudex sp. nov., T. eyrei (Hickman, 1944, T. floundersi sp. nov., T. halophila sp. nov., T. oraria (L. Koch, 1876, T. orariola sp. nov., T. williamsi sp. nov., T. wundurra (McKay, 1979 comb. nov. and T. rebecca sp. nov. Members of Tetralycosa are halotolerant, exclusively inhabiting saline environments such as coastal beaches, and mound springs, clay pans and salt lakes in the Australian interior. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus identified a monophyletic clade of eight species that live permanently on the barren surface of salt lakes suggesting a single radiation into this extremely inhospitable habitat. Some of these Tetralycosa species are currently known from single salt lakes only and with increasing disturbances of these systems by mining, agriculture and recreational use, research effort should be increased to study their ecology and conservation status.
Wood, Hannah M; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Griswold, Charles E; Wainwright, Peter C
Although Madagascar is an ancient fragment of Gondwana, the majority of taxa studied thus far appear to have reached the island through dispersal from Cenozoic times. Ancient lineages may have experienced a different history compared to more recent Cenozoic arrivals, as such lineages would have encountered geoclimatic shifts over an extended time period. The motivation for this study was to unravel the signature of diversification in an ancient lineage by comparing an area known for major geoclimatic upheavals (Madagascar) versus other areas where the environment has been relatively stable. Archaeid spiders are an ancient paleoendemic group with unusual predatory behaviors and spectacular trophic morphology that likely have been on Madagascar since its isolation. We examined disparities between Madagascan archaeids and their non-Madagascan relatives regarding timing of divergence, rates of trait evolution, and distribution patterns. Results reveal an increased rate of adaptive trait diversification in Madagascan archaeids. Furthermore, geoclimatic events in Madagascar over long periods of time may have facilitated high species richness due to montane refugia and stability, rainforest refugia, and also ecogeographic shifts, allowing for the accumulation of adaptive traits. This research suggests that time alone, coupled with more ancient geoclimatic events allowed for the different patterns in Madagascar. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Full Text Available The spider genus Tayshaneta is revised based on results from a three gene phylogenetic analysis (Ledford et al. 2011 and a comprehensive morphological survey using scanning electron (SEM and compound light microscopy. The morphology and relationships within Tayshaneta are discussed and five species-groups are supported by phylogenetic analyses: the anopica group, the coeca group, the myopica group, the microps group and the sandersi group. Short branch lengths within Tayshaneta contrast sharply with the remaining North American genera and are viewed as evidence for a relatively recent radiation of species. Variation in troglomorphic morphology is discussed and compared to patterns found in other Texas cave invertebrates. Several species previously known as single cave endemics have wider ranges than expected, suggesting that some caves are not isolated habitats but instead form part of interconnected karst networks. Distribution maps are compared with karst faunal regions (KFR’s in Central Texas and the implications for the conservation and recovery of Tayshaneta species are discussed. Ten new species are described: T. archambaulti sp. n., T. emeraldae sp. n., T. fawcetti sp. n., T. grubbsi sp. n., T. madla sp. n., T. oconnorae sp. n., T. sandersi sp. n., T. sprousei sp. n., T. vidrio sp. n. and T. whitei sp. n. The males for three species, T. anopica (Gertsch, 1974, T. devia (Gertsch, 1974 and T. microps (Gertsch, 1974 are described for the first time. Tayshaneta furtiva (Gertsch, 1974 and T. uvaldea (Gertsch, 1974 are declared nomina dubia as the female holotypes are not diagnosable and efforts to locate specimens at the type localities were unsuccessful. All Tayshaneta species are thoroughly illustrated, diagnosed and keyed. Distribution maps are also provided highlighting areas of taxonomic ambiguity in need of additional sampling.
Full Text Available Extreme environments, such as subterranean habitats, are suspected to be responsible for morphologically inseparable cryptic or sibling species and can bias biodiversity assessment. A DNA barcode is a short, standardized DNA sequence used for taxonomic purposes and has the potential to lessen the challenges presented by a biotic inventory. Here, we investigate the diversity of the genus Leptonetela Kratochvíl, 1978 that is endemic to karst systems in Eurasia using DNA barcoding. We analyzed 624 specimens using one mitochondrial gene fragment (COI. The results show that DNA barcoding is an efficient and rapid species identification method in this genus. DNA barcoding gap and automatic barcode gap discovery (ABGD analyses indicated the existence of 90 species, a result consistent with previous taxonomic hypotheses, and supported the existence of extreme male pedipalpal tibial spine and median apophysis polymorphism in Leptonetela species, with direct implications for the taxonomy of the group and its diversity. Based on the molecular and morphological evidence, we delimit and diagnose 90 Leptonetela species, including the type species Leptonetela kanellisi (Deeleman-Reinhold, 1971. Forty-six of them are previously undescribed. The female of Leptonetela zhai Wang & Li, 2011 is reported for the first time. Leptonetela tianxinensis (Tong & Li, 2008 comb. nov. is transferred from the genus Leptoneta Simon, 1872; the genus Guineta Lin & Li, 2010 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of Leptonetela; Leptonetela gigachela (Lin & Li, 2010 comb. nov. is transferred from Guineta. The genus Sinoneta Lin & Li, 2010 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of Leptonetela; Leptonetela notabilis (Lin & Li, 2010 comb. nov. and Leptonetela sexdigiti (Lin & Li, 2010 comb. nov. are transferred from Sinoneta; Leptonetela sanchahe Wang & Li nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name for Sinoneta palmata (Chen et al., 2010 because Leptonetela palmata is preoccupied.
Huber, Bernhard A.
Full Text Available The pholcid spiders Modisimus culicinus (Simon, 1893 and Micropholcus fauroti (Simon, 1887 are pantropical species that have spread around the world at least several decades ago. Here we present numerous new records for both species, most of which fall into the expected latitudes, i.e. between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn (93% and 87% of records respectively. However, we also report the first records for M. culicinus from Central Europe (Germany and Czech Republic, >50°N and the first European record for M. fauroti from outside of Belgium (Germany. The fact that in both species several specimens have been found at more than one locality suggests that they may already be in the stage of establishment and spreading in Europe. Finally, we present an updated identification key to the genera of Pholcidae in Europe.
Full Text Available Background: The best-known dangerous spiders belong to the six genera. The genus Loxosceles or violin spiders are well known for their ability to cause skin necrosis or loxoscelism. All Loxosceles species have medical importance due to their necrotizing venom. The present article reports the occurrence of L. rufescens in Charkhab Cave, south of Iran (Larestan.Methods: The specimens were collected from the Charkhab Cave using handling forceps, paintbrush and aspirator and preserved in 96% ethanol.Results: Loxosceles rufescens, a medically important spider, is recorded from Charkhab Cave in Fars Province (southwest of Iran. Identification of L. rufescens was performed based on external morphology and the features of male genitalia.Conclusion: Presence of L. rufescens in south of Iran especially in a cave confirmed that this species is a widely distributed species in Iran. Therefore, cavers or cave visitors should be aware of this poisonous spider in caves.
Full Text Available The genus Envia, comprising only the new species Envia garciai, is proposed. These small mygalomorph spiders were abundantly collected in soil cores and litter samples in primary rain forests near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.
Full Text Available The rare linyphiid spider species Maro lehtineni Saaristo, 1971 was recorded in the Polish part of the Sudetes, in the Giant Mountains (in Polish Karkonosze. Five males were found on one of the sloping transition mires in the spring and early summer of 2011 and 2012. We provide new figures for identification of this species, and summarize and discuss data on its distribution, characteristic habitats and phenology.
Ledford, Joel; Paquin, Pierre; Cokendolpher, James; Campbell, Josh; Griswold, Charles
Abstract The spider genus Tayshaneta is revised based on results from a three gene phylogenetic analysis (Ledford et al. 2011) and a comprehensive morphological survey using scanning electron (SEM) and compound light microscopy. The morphology and relationships within Tayshaneta are discussed and five species-groups are supported by phylogenetic analyses: the anopica group, the coeca group, the myopica group, the microps group and the sandersi group. Short branch lengths within Tayshaneta contrast sharply with the remaining North American genera and are viewed as evidence for a relatively recent radiation of species. Variation in troglomorphic morphology is discussed and compared to patterns found in other Texas cave invertebrates. Several species previously known as single cave endemics have wider ranges than expected, suggesting that some caves are not isolated habitats but instead form part of interconnected karst networks. Distribution maps are compared with karst faunal regions (KFR’s) in Central Texas and the implications for the conservation and recovery of Tayshaneta species are discussed. Ten new species are described: Tayshaneta archambaulti sp. n., Tayshaneta emeraldae sp. n., Tayshaneta fawcetti sp. n., Tayshaneta grubbsi sp. n., Tayshaneta madla sp. n., Tayshaneta oconnorae sp. n., Tayshaneta sandersi sp. n., Tayshaneta sprousei sp. n., Tayshaneta vidrio sp. n. and Tayshaneta whitei sp. n. The males for three species, Tayshaneta anopica (Gertsch, 1974), Tayshaneta devia (Gertsch, 1974) and Tayshaneta microps (Gertsch, 1974) are described for the first time. Tayshaneta furtiva (Gertsch, 1974) and Tayshaneta uvaldea (Gertsch, 1974) are declared nomina dubia as the female holotypes are not diagnosable and efforts to locate specimens at the type localities were unsuccessful. All Tayshaneta species are thoroughly illustrated, diagnosed and keyed. Distribution maps are also provided highlighting areas of taxonomic ambiguity in need of additional sampling. PMID:22363201
Tanasevitch, Andrei V
Recent linyphiid collections from Laos as well as some additional specimens from Thailand and West Malaysia are examined. Six species and two genera are described as new to science: Bathyphantes paracymbialis n. sp., Nematogmus asiaticus n. sp., Theoa hamata n. sp.; Asiagone n. gen. is erected for Asiagone signifera n. sp. (type species) and A. perforata n. sp.; Laogone n. gen. is established for Laogone cephala n. sp. The following new synonyms are proposed: Gorbothorax Tanasevitch, 1998 n. syn. = Nasoona Locket, 1982; Paranasoona Heimer, 1984 n. syn. and Millplophrys Platnick, 1998 n. syn. = Atypena Simon, 1894; Gorbothorax ungibbus Tanasevitch, 1998 n. syn. = Oedothorax asocialis Wunderlich, 1974; Hylyphantes birmanicus (Thorell, 1895) n. syn. = H. graminicola (Sundevall, 1830). The following new combinations are proposed: Atypena cirrifrons (Heimer, 1984) n. comb. ex from Paranasoona; A. pallida (Millidge, 1995) and A. crocatoa (Millidge, 1995) both n. comb. ex Millplophrys; Nasoona asocialis (Wunderlich, 1974) n. comb. ex Oedothorax Bertkau, 1883; N. asocialis (Wunderlich, 1974), N. comata (Tanasevitch, 1998), N. conica (Tanasevitch, 1998), N. setifera (Tanasevitch, 1998) and N. wunderlichi (Brignoli, 1983), all n. comb. ex Gorbothorax. Eight linyphiid species are newly recorded from Laos: A. cirrifrons (Heimer, 1984), Bathyphantes floralis Tu & Li, 2006, Hylyphantes graminicola (Sundevall, 1830), Nasoona asocialis, N. crucifera (Thorell, 1895), Nasoonaria sinensis Wunderlich & Song, 1995, Neriene birmanica (Thorell, 1887), and N. oxycera Tu & Li, 2006. The linyphiid spider fauna of Laos currently contains 15 species and is unusually highly specific. All species, except the Palearctic H. graminicola, are probably represented by Southeastern Asian or Oriental autochthons.
Bernhard A. Huber
Full Text Available This paper summarizes current knowledge about West African pholcids. West Africa is here defined as the area south of 17°N and west of 5°E, including mainly the Upper Guinean subregion of the Guineo-Congolian center of endemism. This includes all of Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin. An annotated list of the 14 genera and 38 species recorded from this area is given, together with distribution maps and an identification key to genera. Five species are newly described: Anansus atewa sp. nov., Artema bunkpurugu sp. nov., Leptopholcus kintampo sp. nov., Spermophora akwamu sp. nov., and S. ziama sp. nov. The female of Quamtana kitahurira is newly described. Additional new records are given for 16 previously described species, including 33 new country records. Distribution patterns of West African pholcids are discussed, as well as possible explanations for relatively low West African pholcid species diversity as compared to Central and East Africa.
Full Text Available The two Indian Ischnolocus species, I. decoratus and I. khasiensis are transferred to the genus Chilobrachys Karsch, 1891 based on presence and pattern of stridulatory setae on maxillae and chelicerae. Further, Ischnocolus decoratus is synonymised with Chilobrachys fimbriatus Pocock, 1899.
Wiśniewski, Konrad; Rozwałka, Robert; Wesołowska, Wanda
We review the known information on the distribution and habitat affinities of the Micrargus herbigradus -species group in Poland. The analysis is based on a thorough literature survey, our own materials, and verification of some older collections. We give new diagnostic drawings and review the characters that are useful in identification of species within the group. Three species are present in Poland: M. herbigradus (Blackwall, 1854), M. apertus (O.-P. Cambridge, 1870) and M. georgescuae Millidge, 1976. The latter is recorded for the first time in the country, and we add numerous new localities for the two former species. Micrargus herbigradus is common and widespread in Poland, living in various habitats, with only a slight preference to forests. In contrast, M. apertus is widely distributed but rarely found, while its affinity to forests is the highest within the group. The records of this species are most numerous in lowland forests (up to c. 300 m a.s.l), but it can also be found at higher altitudes. M. georgescuae is found only in montane habitats, both in the Sudetes and the Carpathian Mountains, from above 650 m a.s.l. The adults of all three species occur the whole year round, but seem to be most abundant in May and June.
Pekár, S.; Šobotník, Jan; Lubin, Y.
Roč. 98, č. 7 (2011), s. 593-603 ISSN 0028-1042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : prey specificity * stenophagy * predatory behaviour * trophic niche * spider Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2011
Pekár, Stano; Šobotník, Jan; Lubin, Yael
In a predator-prey system where both intervenients come from the same taxon, one can expect a strong selection on behavioural and morphological traits involved in prey capture. For example, in specialised snake-eating snakes, the predator is unaffetced by the venom of the prey. We predicted that similar adaptations should have evolved in spider-eating (araneophagous) spiders. We investigated potential and actual prey of two Palpimanus spiders ( P. gibbulus, P. orientalis) to support the prediction that these are araneophagous predators. Specific behavioural adaptations were investigated using a high-speed camera during staged encounters with prey, while morphological adaptations were investigated using electron microscopy. Both Palpimanus species captured a wide assortment of spider species from various guilds but also a few insect species. Analysis of the potential prey suggested that Palpimanus is a retreat-invading predator that actively searches for spiders that hide in a retreat. Behavioural capture adaptations include a slow, stealthy approach to the prey followed by a very fast attack. Morphological capture adaptations include scopulae on forelegs used in grabbing prey body parts, stout forelegs to hold the prey firmly, and an extremely thick cuticle all over the body preventing injury from a counter bite of the prey. Palpimanus overwhelmed prey that was more than 200% larger than itself. In trials with another araneophagous spider, Cyrba algerina (Salticidae), Palpimanus captured C. algerina in more than 90% of cases independent of the size ratio between the spiders. Evidence indicates that both Palpimanus species possesses remarkable adaptations that increase its efficiency in capturing spider prey.
Laura T. Miglio
Full Text Available The type species of the Neotropical Actinopus, A. tarsalis Perty, 1833, is redescribed based on material from the type locality, the state of Piauí, Brazil. The species appears to be restricted to northeastern Brazil and is newly recorded from the state of Sergipe. An old record from the state of Rio Grande do Sul is rejected. Actinopus tarsalis differs from other species of the genus by details of the male copulatory bulb: tegular apophysis absent, robust embolar base, inserted basally at a right angle (90°; embolar apices apex flattened and expanded, arrow-shaped in dorsal view.
Estevam Luís Cruz da Silva
Full Text Available A new species of Enna O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 from Cusco, Peru and two new species of Caricelea SILVA & LISE, 2007 based in males collected in Cusco, Peru are described. Enna echarate sp. nov. can be distinguished from other species by the two lateral excavations on the epigynal middle field. Caricelea apurimac sp. nov. an be distinguished from the other members of the genus, by the larger lamellar projection (LP on the median apophysis that covers most of the guide. Caricelea camisea sp. nov. can be distinguished from other species of the genus, by the smaller lamellar projection and the smaller and acute ental division of the retrolateral apophysis. The males of Hesydrus caripito Carico, 2005 and Syntrechalea reimoseri (Caporiacco, 1947 are described and illustrated for the first time. Trechalea numida Mello-Leitão, 1943 and Trechalea limai Mello-Leitão, 1941 are transferred to Thaumasia Perty, 1833 (Pisauridae and Paratrechalea Carico, 2005 (Trechaleidae as species inquirenda and nomen dubium, respectively. New records of Hesydrus aurantius (Mello-Leitão, 1942, Hesydrus caripito Carico, 2005, Enna maya Silva, Lise & Carico, 2008 and Syntrechalea reimoseri (Caporiacco, 1947 from Colombia and Peru are presented.
Chris A Hamilton
Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to reconstruct the phylogeny of the hentzi species group and sister species in the North American tarantula genus, Aphonopelma, using a set of mitochondrial DNA markers that include the animal "barcoding gene". An mtDNA genealogy is used to consider questions regarding species boundary delimitation and to evaluate timing of divergence to infer historical biogeographic events that played a role in shaping the present-day diversity and distribution. We aimed to identify potential refugial locations, directionality of range expansion, and test whether A. hentzi post-glacial expansion fit a predicted time frame.A Bayesian phylogenetic approach was used to analyze a 2051 base pair (bp mtDNA data matrix comprising aligned fragments of the gene regions CO1 (1165 bp and ND1-16S (886 bp. Multiple species delimitation techniques (DNA tree-based methods, a "barcode gap" using percent of pairwise sequence divergence (uncorrected p-distances, and the GMYC method consistently recognized a number of divergent and genealogically exclusive groups.The use of numerous species delimitation methods, in concert, provide an effective approach to dissecting species boundaries in this spider group; as well they seem to provide strong evidence for a number of nominal, previously undiscovered, and cryptic species. Our data also indicate that Pleistocene habitat fragmentation and subsequent range expansion events may have shaped contemporary phylogeographic patterns of Aphonopelma diversity in the southwestern United States, particularly for the A. hentzi species group. These findings indicate that future species delimitation approaches need to be analyzed in context of a number of factors, such as the sampling distribution, loci used, biogeographic history, breadth of morphological variation, ecological factors, and behavioral data, to make truly integrative decisions about what constitutes an evolutionary lineage recognized as a "species".
Laino, Aldana; Cunningham, Mónica L; Heras, Horacio; Garcia, Fernando
Despite vitellins being essential yolk proteins, their presence in spiders remains almost unknown. Two vitellins from the spider Polybetes pythagoricus, named LV1 and LV2, were isolated and their size, shape, lipids, fatty acids, proteins and carbohydrates moieties were determined. LV1 has a density similar to that of HDL with 49.3% lipids, and LV2 has a density similar to that of VHDL with 9.7% lipids. The major neutral lipid present in both vitellins was found to be esterified cholesterol, 16% for LV1 and 24% for LV2. The major fatty acid was 18:1n-9 in LV1 and LV2. Results from native PAGE showed a lipoprotein of 550 kDa for LV1 and three lipoproteins of 571, 400 and 257 kDa for LV2. SDS-PAGE evidenced two major apolipoproteins of 64 and 25 kDa in LV1. The three lipoproteins of LV2 were electroeluted and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, showing different proportions of the same apolipoproteins (181, 67 and 60 kDa). LVs were analyzed by spectrophotometry, immunochemical and electron microscopy, showing that the respiratory pigment hemocyanin was not present as apolipoprotein. This fact evidenced that these LVs were not related to hemolymphatic lipoproteins. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Two new species of the orb-weaver genus Chorizopes from Yunnan Province, China are described: C. albus sp. n. (male and female from the Gaoligong Mountains and Ailao Mountains, and C. longus sp. n. (male and female from the Gaoligong Mountains. Chorizopes albus sp. n. can be distinguished from the related species C. shimenensis by: 1 median apophysis widest at the middle part versus widest at the base in the latter; 2 median apophysis without the dorsal spur found in that of the latter; 3 spermathecae spherical versus ovoid in the latter; 4 having one pair of large white spots on posterior lateral area of abdomen versus having two pairs of crescent white patches with dark edges on dorsal abdomen in the latter. Chorizopes longus sp. n. can be separated from the similar species C. tumens by: 1 the median apophysis having a knob on the distal half versus having a knob on the basic half in the latter; 2 male palp having a spur versus absent in the latter; 3 the width of the groove between the paracymbium and cymbium as thick as the paracymbium versus two times as thick as the paracymbium in the latter; 4 copulatory duct attached on anterior ventral of the spermatheca versus on anterior dorsal in the latter. Photos of body and copulatory organs, line drawings of copulatory organs, as well as the distribution data are provided. The type specimens are deposited in the College of Life Sciences, at the Hunan Normal University (HNU and the Museum of Tongren University (MTU.
Full Text Available The present paper deals with three species of the genus Mimetus from China, including M. echinatus Wang, 1990, M. lamelliformis sp. n. (male, and M. wangi sp. n. (female and male. M. lamelliformis differs from the related species M. echinatus Wang, 1990 by: cymbial tip with several slender long macrosetae; cymbium boat-shaped, length/width ratio about 3/1 in retrolateral view; vexillum about 1/2 length of cymbium in retrolateral view. M. wangi sp. n. differs from the related species M. sinicus Song & Zhu, 1993 by: the opisthosoma with a pair of distinct outgrowths in the dorsum; sperm duct nearly horizontal; spermathecae kidney shaped and contiguous. Photos of body and copulatory organs, line drawings of copulatory organs, as well as the locality map are provided.
The demand for spider venom increases along with the growing popularity of venoms-based research. A deeper understanding of factors that influence the venom yield in spiders would therefore be of interest to both commercial venom suppliers and research facilities. The present study addresses the influence of several factors on the venom yield by systematically analyzing the data obtained from 1773 electrical milkings of the Australian theraphosid spider Coremiocnemis tropix. Gender and ontoge...
Fomichev, Alexander A; Marusik, Yuri M
Two new species: Berlandina litvinovi sp. n. and Gnaphosa zonsteini sp. n. are described based on both sexes from Western Mongolia. The females of Berlandina koponeni Marusik, Fomichev & Omelko, 2014 and Berlandina nakonechnyi Marusik, Fomichev & Omelko, 2014 are described for the first time. Gnaphosa ustyuzhanini Fomichev, Marusik & Omelko, 2013, known from males, is synonymized with Gnaphosa rasnitsyni Marusik, 1993, known from females. Berlandina koponeni is recorded from China for the first time. Descriptions, illustrations and a map of distribution records are provided.
Full Text Available According to Platnick (2006 the taxa Drassodes lapidosus (Walckenaer, 1802, the type species of the genus Drassodes (Westring, 1851, and Drassodes cupreus (Blackwall, 1834 are two valid species. However Grimm (1985 merged them into one taxon. Different taxonomists have separated these species by the positions of the teeth in the frontal margin of the chelicerae and by the proportions of the palpal segments in males. Females are separated by the proportions of different features in the epigyne. The altitude at which they occur is used for separation, too. The aim of this paper is to discuss whether these characteristics really allow the separation of these two taxa. In order to solve these taxonomical problem, 116 male and 108 female specimens from Central Europe were examined. The variation of the mentioned characters is shown. Spearman's rho correlations and factor analyses are presented. The results show that there are transitions between the two taxa D. lapidosus and D. cupreus and, thus, they cannot be separated using the diagnostic features currently available.
Cramer, Kenneth L; Zagar, Lindsey M
The brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, is a well-known venomous spider common in the south-central United States where infestations can reach thousands of individuals in a single structure. Bites from this spider pose a risk of dermonecrotic lesions (loxoscelism) or, rarely, more serious systemic effects. The heat tolerance of this spider is understudied but may offer an alternative pest control solution to pesticides or fumigation, both of which have their disadvantages. We subjected brown recluse spiders to increasing temperatures to establish the upper lethal temperature (LT). Using probit analysis to generate probability of mortality at increasing temperatures, we then exposed adult spiders to the observed LT50 to simulate whole-room heat treatment. Laboratory results predict exposure to 48°C for 130 min will achieve 100% mortality of adult spiders. Field tests need to be conducted to determine the efficacy of heat treatment in a variety of real-world situations. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available The checklist contains records of spiders from the federal contries Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg, Bremen and the northern plain of Lower Saxony which are compiled from published data, unpublished papers and personal communications. Among the total of 601 species Gnaphosa leporina, Marpissa nivoyi, Dictyna major, Baryphyma maritium, Pelecopsis nemoraloides, Ozyptila westringi, Silometopus ambiguus and Micaria romana are species which occur in Germany mostly in the north-western region. The species records in the checklist can be related to their informational sources and they can be localised in the TK25-grid, which represents sheets of the 1:25.000 topographical map.
Ratschker, Ulrich M.
Full Text Available The spider communities of four restored, afforested pure stands of first generation pine, birch and birch-robinia in the postmining landscape and one natural pine forest of the Lower Lusatia (Germany: Saxony and Brandenburg were investigated. From 1997-98 a total of 6,368 spiders were caught using stemeclectors and pitfall traps. More than 50% of the specimens collected were juveniles. The remaining individuals were identified and represent 123 from 23 families. Among them are several taxa listed in the Red Data Lists of Germany (n = 16, Brandenburg (n = 13 and Saxony (n = 14. One species, Clubiona leucaspis is rare for Germany and new to Saxony. When comparing afforested stands of pine on postmining areas with natural ones the species Coelotes terrestris (Amaurobiidae was observed exclusively in the latter. The absence of this species on restored sites seems to indicate a disturbance of the soil up to almost 60 years after the end of restoration. According to pitfall trapping in three pine forests the increasing biomass of spiders indicates a high predation rate at the oldest site, whereas the highest species diversity was found on younger, rehabilitated sites.
Full Text Available The paper presents new records of the spider Atypus muralis Bertkau, 1890 in the valleys of the rivers Saale and Unstrut in the south of Saxony-Anhalt in Middle Germany. All specimens were males, caught by pitfall traps in xerothermic steppic grasslands on steep slopes. The geographic distribution of Atypus muralis in the eastern parts of Germany and habitat traits are discussed with special reference to regional climate, vegetation type and soil conditions. The phenology of aboveground activity of Atypus muralis males is shown.
Full Text Available The new genus, Damarchilus gen. nov., is proposed with descriptions of two new species, Damarchilus nigricus sp. nov. and Damarchilus rufus sp. nov., from northeast India. External characters for the new genus and new species are examined and illustrated. In addition, the natural history of the species is provided.
Gonzaga, Marcelo O.; Cardoso, João C. F.; Vasconcellos-Neto, João
In this study, we examined the relative abundance of two congeneric species of orb-weaver spiders, Cyclosa fililineata and Cyclosa morretes, in an area of Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil, and the relationship of this variable with fecundity and attacks by parasitoids. We also investigated responses to vibrational stimuli that simulated the approach of a wasp and described architectural changes in webs of parasitized individuals of C. fililineata. C.fililineata was more abundant throughout the year, although this species produced a lower number of egg sacs and a lower number of eggs per egg sac when compared with C. morretes. Both species showed similar types of behavioral responses to vibrational stimuli, but C. fililineata remained motionless more often. The frequency of parasitism by the wasp Polysphincta janzeni on adults and juveniles was low and similar for C. fililineata and C. morretes in both dry and wet seasons. The parasitoid caused alterations in the web design of C. fililineata similar of those observed in other orb-weavers attacked by ichneumonid wasps. Webs constructed by spiders parasitized by larvae in their last instar had a lower number of radii and sticky spirals were completely absent. An egg parasitoid, Baeus cyclosae, attacked C. morretes more often than C. fililineata, possibly as a consequence of its greater clutch size and/or larger eggs. These results indicate that egg mortality caused by B. cyclosae, but not subadult and adult mortality promoted by P. janzeni, may be an important factor determining the relative abundance of these two Cyclosa species.
Pekár, S.; Šobotník, Jan
Roč. 36, č. 2 (2007), s. 105-112 ISSN 1467-8039 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : exocrine gland * golgi apparatus * mitochondria * setae * smooth endoplasmic reticulum Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2007
Durán-Barrón, César G; Pérez, Tila M; Brescovit, Antonio D
The family Anyphaenidae is composed by 56 genera and 542 species worldwide (World Spider Catalog 2015). These spiders, known as "ghost spiders", are wandering hunters living in a variety of environments, from forests to deserts, and can be quite abundant in different crops such as cotton, sorghum and rice (Brescovit 1996; Young & Edwards 1990; Taylor & Pfannenstiel 2008). They typically live on vegetation, among dead leaves or under loose bark and rocks (Richman & Ubick 2005) but synanthropic associations have been reported for a few species (Jiménez 1998; Guarisco 1999; Durán-Barrón et al. 2009). The genus Anyphaena has 81 species widely distributed in Asia, Central Europe, North America and Mexico (Brescovit 1996; Richman & Ubick 2005; World Spider Catalog 2015). The species from Noth America and Mexico were revised by Platnick (1974) who recognized four species groups (accentuata, celer, pectorosa and pacifica). Platnick (1977), Platnick & Lau (1975) and Brescovit & Lise (1989) complemented the revision of the genus in Central America. Presently, there are 27 species of Anyphaena recorded in Mexico (World Spider Catalog 2015), 24 of them from the celer group. Here, two new species of Anyphaena are described based in material collected during an inventory of spiders associated to houses in Mexico City, carried out by Durán-Barrón et al. (2009). Both species have the diagnostic characters of the members of the pacifica group as defined by Platnick (1974), such as the lack of leg coxal spurs and the presence of a lightly sclerotized atrium in the female epigynum. These species represent the first record of the pacifica group in Mexico. The occurrence of Anyphaenidae associated to houses was reported in Mexico by Durán-Barrón et al. (2009), who recorded Anyphaena obregon Platnick & Lau, 1975 and Hibana futilis (Banks, 1898) as frequent inhabitants inside houses. The species herein described are reported solely from urban areas and can be also characterized as frequent in these anthropic environments.
Ferrández, M. A.
Full Text Available In this catalogue we seek to compile information about spiders in Comunidad de Madrid in order to evaluate the level of our knowledge in the context of the Iberian fauna as well as to promote studies leading to their conservation.
For this catalogue we have compiled information coming from both published and unpublished mentions from university thesis, classified specimens from the collections of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales and the results of a specific sampling carried out by M. A. Ferrández and H. Fernández de Céspedes in the San Agustín de Guadalix area.
The nomenclature is based on Platnick’s world catalogue (2005 as well as on Morano’s work on the ibero-balearic fauna (2005 both available on the net. For each species we include: locality of record, UTM coordinates, original publication name and bibliographical references or museum where the material is kept.
Madrid’s fauna of spiders has 261 species at present, belonging to 133 genera from 36 different families, 52% of which are cited from first time (marked with *. The general conclusion is that there is very little data about most species, those that do exist are often outdated and they lack relevant information about biological cycles, ecology, etc.
There are still great many species to be recorded in the fauna of Madrid and estimates range between 350 and 400 species in total.
It must be pointed that 24 out of 261 total species are endemic species from the Iberian Peninsula, some only collected very recently: Ozyptila umbraculorum (2002, Clubiona aducta, Parachtes teruelis (2005 and Amphiledorus balnearicus (in this paper.
Con la confección del presente catálogo se pretende recopilar la información faunística disponible sobre las arañas de la Comunidad de Madrid, valorar el grado de conocimiento en el contexto de la fauna ibérica, así como impulsar los estudios encaminados a su conservación. Para su elaboración se han recopilado las citas publicadas, las citas inéditas de diferentes Tesis Doctorales y de licenciatura, el material identificado que se conserva en las colecciones del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales y los resultados de un muestreo puntual realizado por dos de los autores (M.A. Ferrández y H. Fernández de Céspedes en las proximidades de San Agustín de Guadalix. La nomenclatura está basada tanto en el catálogo mundial de Platnick (2005 como en el realizado para la fauna ibero-balear por uno de los autores, Morano (2005, disponible actualmente en internet. Para cada especie se incluyen las localidades de captura, su coordenada UTM, el nombre con el que fue publicada la cita y la referencia bibliográfica o el museo donde esta depositado el material. También se añade un apartado de distribución donde se proporciona la distribución mundial y la ibérica. La fauna de arañas de Madrid cuenta en el momento actual con un total de 261 especies repartidas en 132 géneros de 36 familias distintas, de las cuales un total de 52 se publican por primera vez (las señaladas mediante un *. La conclusión general es que se poseen pocos datos de la mayoría de las especies, los datos que hay son en muchos casos antiguos y no aportan información relevante sobre los ciclos biológicos, ecología, etc. Sin duda quedan muchas especies por encontrar en la fauna madrileña y no es descabellado estimar entre 350 y 400 las especies totales de dicha fauna. También es de destacar la presencia de 24 endemismos ibéricos, algunos de ellos recolectados en fecha reciente, como Ozyptila umbraculorum (2002, Clubiona aducta, Parachtes teruelis, o Amphiledorus balnearicus (2005, esta última capturada en los muestreos de San Agustín de Guadalix.
Full Text Available The spinning apparatus and silk of Segestria senoculata were studied with the use of scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, which confirmed the presence of four categories of spigots connected with four types of spinning glands (i.e., Glandulae ampullaceae major, Glandulae ampullaceae minor, Glandulae piriformes and Glandulae pseudaciniformes. New data about the morphology of spinnerets and spigots were obtained for both the adults and nymphal stages of both sexes. For the first time the silken threads of retreats, signal threads and attachment discs of the members of Segestria were subjected to a detailed SEM study. The data resulting from studying the spinning apparatus of S. senoculata was compared to current knowledge of the silk producing systems of families belonging to the Dysderoidea superfamily. Silks that are emitted from spigots in the course of retreat construction are not (similarly to the other dysderoids processed by the spider’s legs during the subsequent process of hardening. Apart from the major ampullate glands/spigots, segestriids also possess developed minor ampullate glands. Minor ampullate threads are used by S. senoculata spiders when making their signal threads.
Lotz, L N
The Afrotropical representatives of the spider genus Cheiracanthium C.L. Koch, 1839 from Madagascar and the Comoros Islands are revised, and new species are described. Five described species are recognized: C. africanum Lessert, 1921, C. furculatum Karsch, 1879, C. insulare (Vinson, 1863), C. leucophaeum Simon, 1896, and C. ludovici Lessert, 1921. The internal genitalia of the female of C. insulare, and the female of C. ludovici, are described for the first time. Thirteen new species, C. ambrense sp. nov. (♂♀), C. ampijoroa sp. nov. (♀), C. andranomay sp. nov. (♀), C. anjozorobe sp. nov. (♂♀), C. ashleyi sp. nov. (♂♀), C. fisheri sp. nov. (♂♀), C. foulpointense sp. nov. (♂♀), C. griswoldi sp. nov. (♂♀), C. jocquei sp. nov. (♂♀), C. madagascarense sp. nov. (♂♀), C. mahajanga sp. nov. (♀), C. ransoni sp. nov. (♂♀) and C. rothi sp. nov. (♂♀), are described. In most of the endemic Madagascan species the female genital depression is divided by a central septum and the male cymbial apophysis is bent distally.
Full Text Available Agrobiont spider species are well adapted to arable systems, which have fairly uniform vegetation structure and pest assemblages over continent-wide areas. We wanted to study, whether agrobiont spider subassemblages and the life history of the most prominent agrobiont, Pardosa agrestis, show any regional variation within Hungary, where only modest climatic differences exist between the NW and SE parts of the country. We studied agrobiont species of spider assemblages in 27 alfalfa and 21 cereal fields with suction sampling and pitfalls. The similarity structure of these agrobiont sub-assemblages (Sørensen distance measure was congruent with the geographic distance matrices (Eucledian distance, as tested by Mantel tests. However, if we considered sub-assemblages consisting of the non-agrobiont species, this congruency was always higher. Thus, agrobionts responded only moderately to geographical variation if we compare them to non-agrobiont species. We studied the generation numbers and the occurrence of the first adult individuals in P. agrestis; the most common agrobiont spider in Hungary. This comparison involved comparing fields along a NW – SE gradient during 6 sampling years in pairwise comparisons, where in each year a northern and a southern population was compared with a minimum distance of 126 km in between. In generation numbers there was no difference; we found two generations across Hungary. In contrast, the first occurrence of adult individuals was on average 15 days earlier in both generations in the more southern populations. Thus, it can be concluded that agrobionts show a fairly stable and relatively low magnitude response over country-sized geographical ranges.
Forman, M.; Nguyen, Petr; Hůla, V.; Král, J.
Roč. 141, č. 1 (2013), s. 43-49 ISSN 1424-8581 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) IAA601110808; MSM ČR(CZ) LA10036; MSM ČR(CZ) SVV 2013-267205; GA JU(CZ) 137/2010/P; GA JU(CZ) 059/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : arachnid * ectopic recombination * facultative Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.905, year: 2013
Full Text Available We describe eight new species of the genus Pholcus, and document their microhabitats. Four species are assigned to the previously described Pholcus ethagala group: P. tanahrata Huber sp. nov., P. uludong Huber sp. nov., and P. bukittimah Huber sp. nov. from the Malay Peninsula, and P. barisan Huber sp. nov. from Sumatra. These species are all litter-dwellers that build domed sheet webs on the undersides of large dead leaves on the ground. The other four species are assigned to newly created species groups: the P. tambunan group with two species from northern Borneo: P. tambunan Huber sp. nov. and P. bario Huber sp. nov.; and the P. domingo group with two species from the Philippines, Mindanao: P. domingo Huber sp. nov. and P. matutum Huber sp. nov. These latter four species are leaf-dwellers that build barely visible silk platforms tightly attached to the undersides of live leaves. The main rationale for this paper is to provide part of the taxonomic and natural history background for upcoming phylogenetic and evolutionary (microhabitat shifts analyses.
Full Text Available Four new species of the Mouse Spider genus Missulena Walckenaer, 1805 (family Actinopodidae are described from Western Australia based on morphological features of adult males. Missulena leniae sp. n. (from the Carnarvon and Yalgoo biogeographic regions, Missulena mainae sp. n. (Carnarvon, Missulena melissae sp. n. (Pilbara and Missulena pinguipes sp. n. (Mallee represent a broad spectrum of morphological diversity found in this genus and differ from other congeners by details of the male copulatory bulb, colour patterns, eye sizes, leg morphology and leg spination. Two of the species, M. pinguipes sp. n. and M. mainae sp. n., are characterised by swollen metatarsi of the fourth legs in males, a feature not previously recorded in the family. A key to males of all named Missulena species from Australia is presented and allows their identification based on external morphology.
DE CASTRO, A., FERRANDEZ, M.A.
Observando los datos obtenidos y revisando las citas del género Coelotes en la Península Ibérica y Pirineos, se llega a la conclusión de que existe un importante desconocimiento de su distribución peninsular y pirenaica. Se señala la necesidad de explorar los sistemas montañosos del norte peninsular para completar el conocimiento de los Coelotes Ibéricos.
Milasowszky, Norbert; Bauder, Julia; Hepner, Martin
The erigonine cladistic analyses of Hormiga (2000) and Miller & Hormiga (2004) demonstrated unambiguous support for a sister-taxon relationship between the genera Diplocephalus and Savignia. These genera, in addition to others, are commonly placed in the Savignia-group. Although the Savignia-group is not monophyletic as it was originally circumscribed by Millidge (1977), it contains a monophyletic core of genera that has been supported in various cladistic analyses, starting with Hormiga (2000). According to the most recent phylogenetic study (Frick et al. 2010), a clade within the Savignia-group included Diplocephalus along with Araeoncus, Dicymbium, Erigonella, Glyphesis and Savignia. Frick et al. (2010) included three Diplocephalus species - cristatus, latifrons and picinus - in their cladistic analyses. While D. latifrons and D. picinus were found to be the most basal species of the Savignia-group, D. cristatus was the most distal one.
Framenau, Volker W; Baehr, Barbara C
The Australian wolf spider (Lycosidae Sundevall, 1833) genus Tasmanicosa Roewer, 1959 with Lycosa tasmanica Hogg, 1905 as type species is revised to include 14 species: T. godeffroyi (L. Koch, 1865), comb. nov. (= Lycosa tasmanica Hogg, 1905, syn. nov.; = Lycosa zualella Strand, 1907, syn. nov.; = Lycosa woodwardi Simon, 1909, syn. nov.); T. fulgor sp. nov.; T. gilberta (Hogg, 1905) comb. nov.; T. harmsi sp. nov.; T. hughjackmani sp. nov.; T. kochorum sp. nov.; T. leuckartii (Thorell, 1870), comb. nov. (= Lycosa molyneuxi Hogg, 1905, syn. nov.); T. musgravei (McKay, 1974) comb. nov.; T. phyllis (Hogg, 1905) comb. nov. (= Lycosa stirlingae Hogg, 1905, syn. nov.); T. ramosa (L. Koch, 1877), comb. nov.; T. salmo sp. nov.; T. semicincta (L. Koch, 1877) comb. nov.; T. stella sp. nov.; and T. subrufa (Karsch, 1878) comb. nov. Within the Australian wolf spider fauna, the genus Tasmanicosa can be diagnosed by the distinct pattern of radiating light and dark lines forming a "Union-Jack" pattern on the carapace. Male pedipalp morphology identifies the genus as part of the subfamily Lycosinae Sundevall, 1833 due to the presence of a transverse tegular apophysis with dorsal groove guiding the embolus during copulation. However, genital morphology is variable and a synapomorphy based on male pedipalp or female epigyne morphology could not be identified. Members of Tasmanicosa are comparatively large spiders (body length ca. 12-30 mm), that build a shallow burrow, which is sometimes covered with a flimsy trapdoor. Species of Tasmanicosa are largely a Bassian faunal element with preference for open woodlands and/or floodplains, although some species can be found into the semi-arid Australian interior. Two Australian wolf spider species may represent Tasmanicosa based on their original descriptions, but due to immature types in combination with the somatic similarities of all Tasmanicosa species, cannot be identified with certainty. They are therefore considered nomina dubia: Lycosa excusor L. Koch, 1867 and Lycosa infensa L. Koch, 1877. The type species of Orthocosa Roewer, 1960 is transferred to Tasmanicosa; however, in order to prevent some non-Australian wolf spiders in the genus Orthocosa to be transferred into Tasmanicosa, which is considered endemic to Australia, we here place these species into more appropriate genera based on their original descriptions pending a future revision of these species: Arctosa ambigua Denis, 1947 comb. reval.; Alopecosa orophila (Thorell, 1887) comb. nov.; Hygrolycosa tokinagai Saito, 1936 comb. reval. Orthocosa sternomaculata (Mello-Leitão, 1943) is considered a junior synonym of Hogna birabeni (Mello-Leitão, 1943) comb. nov.
Hamilton, Chris A; Hendrixson, Brent E; Bond, Jason E
This systematic study documents the taxonomy, diversity, and distribution of the tarantula spider genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 within the United States. By employing phylogenomic, morphological, and geospatial data, we evaluated all 55 nominal species in the United States to examine the evolutionary history of Aphonopelma and the group's taxonomy by implementing an integrative approach to species delimitation. Based on our analyses, we now recognize only 29 distinct species in the United States. We propose 33 new synonymies (Aphonopelma apacheum, Aphonopelma minchi, Aphonopelma rothi, Aphonopelma schmidti, Aphonopelma stahnkei = Aphonopelma chalcodes; Aphonopelma arnoldi = Aphonopelma armada; Aphonopelma behlei, Aphonopelma vogelae = Aphonopelma marxi; Aphonopelma breenei = Aphonopelma anax; Aphonopelma chambersi, Aphonopelma clarum, Aphonopelma cryptethum, Aphonopelma sandersoni, Aphonopelma sullivani = Aphonopelma eutylenum; Aphonopelma clarki, Aphonopelma coloradanum, Aphonopelma echinum, Aphonopelma gurleyi, Aphonopelma harlingenum, Aphonopelma odelli, Aphonopelma waconum, Aphonopelma wichitanum = Aphonopelma hentzi; Aphonopelma heterops = Aphonopelma moderatum; Aphonopelma jungi, Aphonopelma punzoi = Aphonopelma vorhiesi; Aphonopelma brunnius, Aphonopelma chamberlini, Aphonopelma iviei, Aphonopelma lithodomum, Aphonopelma smithi, Aphonopelma zionis = Aphonopelma iodius; Aphonopelma phanum, Aphonopelma reversum = Aphonopelma steindachneri), 14 new species (Aphonopelma atomicum sp. n., Aphonopelma catalina sp. n., Aphonopelma chiricahua sp. n., Aphonopelma icenoglei sp. n., Aphonopelma johnnycashi sp. n., Aphonopelma madera sp. n., Aphonopelma mareki sp. n., Aphonopelma moellendorfi sp. n., Aphonopelma parvum sp. n., Aphonopelma peloncillo sp. n., Aphonopelma prenticei sp. n., Aphonopelma saguaro sp. n., Aphonopelma superstitionense sp. n., and Aphonopelma xwalxwal sp. n.), and seven nomina dubia (Aphonopelma baergi, Aphonopelma cratium, Aphonopelma hollyi, Aphonopelma mordax, Aphonopelma radinum, Aphonopelma rusticum, Aphonopelma texense). Our proposed species tree based on Anchored Enrichment data delimits five major lineages: a monotypic group confined to California, a western group, an eastern group, a group primarily distributed in high-elevation areas, and a group that comprises several miniaturized species. Multiple species are distributed throughout two biodiversity hotspots in the United States (i.e., California Floristic Province and Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands). Keys are provided for identification of both males and females. By conducting the most comprehensive sampling of a single theraphosid genus to date, this research significantly broadens the scope of prior molecular and morphological investigations, finally bringing a modern understanding of species delimitation in this dynamic and charismatic group of spiders.
A. Van den Berg
Full Text Available The Afrotropical species of the genus Tibellus Simon, 1875, are revised. Of the 10 previously recognised species of long-bodied grss spiders from this region, eight are redescribed and figured. Two species, T. punctifasciatus Strand, 1906, and T. robustus Simon, 1886, are considered nomina dubia. Five new species, T. cobusi, T. gerhardi, T. nimbaensis, T. somaliensis and T. sunetae, are described and three previously recognised subspecies of T. vossioni Simon, 1884, namely T. v. armatus Lessert, 1928, T. v. flavipes Caporiacco, 1941, and T. v. minor Lessert, 1919, are given species status. The genus Tibellinus Simon, 1910, is a junior synonym of Tibellus. Tibellinus australis is transferred to the genus Tibellus. The males of T. armatus stat. nov. and T. hollidayi Lawrence, 1952, are described for the first time. A key to 17 recognised species is given. Distributional data are provided for all species.
A. Van den Berg
Full Text Available The Afrotropical species of the genus Tibellus Simon, 1875, are revised. Of the 10 previously recognised species of long-bodied grss spiders from this region, eight are redescribed and figured. Two species, T. punctifasciatus Strand, 1906, and T. robustus Simon, 1886, are considered nomina dubia. Five new species, T. cobusi, T. gerhardi, T. nimbaensis, T. somaliensis and T. sunetae, are described and three previously recognised subspecies of T. vossioni Simon, 1884, namely T. v. armatus Lessert, 1928, T. v. flavipes Caporiacco, 1941, and T. v. minor Lessert, 1919, are given species status. The genus Tibellinus Simon, 1910, is a junior synonym of Tibellus. Tibellinus australis is transferred to the genus Tibellus. The males of T. armatus stat. nov. and T. hollidayi Lawrence, 1952, are described for the first time. A key to 17 recognised species is given. Distributional data are provided for all species.
Ferrández, M. A.; Morano, E.; Fernández de Céspedes, H.; Camargo, M.
In this catalogue we seek to compile information about spiders in Comunidad de Madrid in order to evaluate the level of our knowledge in the context of the Iberian fauna as well as to promote studies leading to their conservation. For this catalogue we have compiled information coming from both published and unpublished mentions from university thesis, classified specimens from the collections of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales and the results of a specific sampling carried out...
Full Text Available A list of european parasitic flies (Diptera and their prey is presented. The Hippoboscidae: Melophagus ovinus (Linnaeus, 1758 is described as an accidental parasite of Alopecosa striatipes (C.L. Koch, 1837. 24 species of parsitic flies and 20 spider host species are listed.
A list of european parasitic flies (Diptera) and their prey is presented. The Hippoboscidae: Melophagus ovinus (Linnaeus, 1758) is described as an accidental parasite of Alopecosa striatipes (C.L. Koch, 1837). 24 species of parsitic flies and 20 spider host species are listed.
Full Text Available Five new species of Phintella are described from the Wuling Mountains, China: Phintella arcuata sp. n. (male and female, Phintella levii sp. n. (female, Phintella panda sp. n. (female, Phintella pulcherrima sp. n. (male and female, and Phintella wulingensis sp. n. (female. Distribution data, detailed morphological characteristics, and illustrations of body and genital organs are presented.
Full Text Available Spiders from the Tirana district of Albania were investigated. Currently, 78 species from 24 families and a collection of 400 specimens from January to August 2010 were recorded for Tirana. A total of 32 new records for the Albanian fauna are included in the present paper. Agraecina lineata (Simon, 1878 is the first record for the Balkan Peninsula. Saitis graecus Kulczyński, 1905 was known before only from Greece and Bulgaria. Presently, 373 spider species are known for Albania.
Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de F; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio de L M; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute M; Kobashi, Leonardo S; Almeida, Diego D; Ho, Paulo L; Tambourgi, Denise V
The bite of spiders belonging to the genus Loxosceles can induce a variety of clinical symptoms, including dermonecrosis, thrombosis, vascular leakage, haemolysis, and persistent inflammation. In order to examine the transcripts expressed in venom gland of Loxosceles laeta spider and to unveil the potential of its products on cellular structure and functional aspects, we generated 3,008 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a cDNA library. All ESTs were clustered into 1,357 clusters, of which 16.4% of the total ESTs belong to recognized toxin-coding sequences, being the Sphingomyelinases D the most abundant transcript; 14.5% include "possible toxins", whose transcripts correspond to metalloproteinases, serinoproteinases, hyaluronidases, lipases, C-lectins, cystein peptidases and inhibitors. Thirty three percent of the ESTs are similar to cellular transcripts, being the major part represented by molecules involved in gene and protein expression, reflecting the specialization of this tissue for protein synthesis. In addition, a considerable number of sequences, 25%, has no significant similarity to any known sequence. This study provides a first global view of the gene expression scenario of the venom gland of L. laeta described so far, indicating the molecular bases of its venom composition.
Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K
A variety of refugia were offered to different instars of brown recluse spiders, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch and Mulaik, and a South American recluse spider, L. laeta (Nicolet), to determine whether they preferred certain types of refugia spaces. Variables included (1) crevice widths ranging from 3.2 to 21 mm, (2) horizontal and vertical orientations, and (3) new refugia or refugia that had silk deposited by a previous conspecific resident. An additional 30-d assay with similar-sized refugia studied each species' propensity for site fidelity or movement among refugia. L. reclusa preferred crevice widths > or = 9 mm with no correlation of body size to crevice width, whereas L. laeta preferred crevice sizes > or = 6.4 mm with a marginally significant correlation between crevice width and body size. Both species preferred (1) vertical instead of horizontal-oriented refugia and (2) refugia with conspecific silk compared with previously uninhabited refugia. There was no significant difference between the species in their propensity to move among refugia in the 30-d trial; however, both species had individuals that were always found in the same refugium for the entire assay and individuals changing refugia every 2-3 d. The propensity to switch refugia was not affected by the degree of starvation for the period tested as was initially hypothesized. The possible implications of this research toward developing novel control measures for Loxosceles spiders are discussed.
Marques-da-Silva, Emanuel; Fischer, Marta Luciane
The State of Paraná registers on average 2,577 loxoscelic accidents annually. For the elaboration of control and management programs one should first determine the distribution of the species of the genus Loxosceles. A mapping was performed of Loxosceles references in various scientific collections. A total of 1,561 spiders were found, identified as Loxosceles intermedia (67%), Loxosceles gaucho (19.5%), Loxosceles laeta (10.8%) and Loxosceles hirsuta (2.4%), originating from 20 regional and 69 municipal health districts. Loxosceles intermedia was present in all areas of the state (50 municipal districts), while Loxosceles gaucho occurred in the north and northwest, (17 municipal districts), Loxosceles laeta in the south (13 municipal districts) and Loxosceles hirsuta in the west and central areas (10 municipal districts). Paraná has four of the eight species of Loxosceles registered in Brazil. Given the medical importance of accidents caused by these spiders, it is necessary to perform studies on the location of such incidents and investigate areas that have not yet been sampled.
Barbaro, K C; Sousa, M V; Morhy, L; Eickstedt, V R; Mota, I
Loxosceles spider venom usually causes a typical dermonecrotic lesion in bitten patients, but it may also cause systemic effects that may be lethal. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 of Loxosceles gaucho, L. laeta, or L. intermedia spider venoms resulted in three fractions (A, containing higher molecular mass components. B containing intermediate molecular mass components, and C with lower molecular mass components). The dermonecrotic and lethal activities were detected exclusively in fraction A of all three species. Analysis by SDS-PAGE showed that the major protein contained in fraction A has molecular weight approximately 35 kDa in L. gaucho and L. intermedia, but 32 kDa in L. laeta venom. These toxins were isolated from venoms of L. gaucho, L. laeta, and L. intermedia by SDS-PAGE followed by blotting to PVDF membrane and sequencing. A database search showed a high level of identity between each toxin and a fragment of the L. reclusa (North American spider) toxin. A multiple sequence alignment of the Loxosceles toxins showed many common identical residues in their N-terminal sequences. Identities ranged from 50.0% (L. gaucho and L. reclusa) to 61.1% (L. intermedia and L. reclusa). The purified toxins were also submitted to capillary electrophoresis peptide mapping after in situ partial hydrolysis of the blotted samples. The results obtained suggest that L. intermedia protein is more similar to L. laeta toxin than L. gaucho toxin and revealed a smaller homology between L. intermedia and L. gaucho. Altogether these findings suggest that the toxins responsible for most important activities of venoms of Loxosceles species have a molecular mass of 32-35 kDa and are probably homologous proteins.
Fischer, Marta L.
Os grupos de radiação evolutiva de Loxosceles Heinecken & Lowe, 1835 além de compartilharem caracteres morfológicos aparentemente também apresentam comportamentos semelhantes. Assim, o presente estudo objetivou descrever o comportamento agonístico dos machos das espécies do grupo spadicea - Loxosceles intermedia Mello-Leitão, 1934 e Loxosceles hirsuta Mello-Leitão, 1931 - e laeta -Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet 1849) - ocorrentes no estado do Paraná. Para tal, os machos foram pareados, sendo o inv...
Silvestre, F G; de Castro, C S; de Moura, J F; Giusta, M S; De Maria, M; Alvares, E S S; Lobato, F C F; Assis, R A; Gonçalves, L A; Gubert, I C; Chávez-Olórtegui, C; Kalapothakis, E
Accidents caused by brown spiders (Loxosceles genus) are frequent in Brazil and are associated with dermonecrotic lesions and, eventually, systemic reactions that may be lethal. The major species implicated with human envenoming have been: L. intermedia, L. gaucho and L. laeta. In this study we characterized the venom from Loxosceles similis, a species of spider normally found inside caves. L. similis venom was characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and enzymatic activity (dermonecrosis and haemolysis). The lethal dose to mice and the capacity of commercial anti-serum to neutralize this venom were also analysed. The cross-reactivity with anti-venoms against L. intermedia, L. laeta and L. gaucho were studied. Our results showed that this venom was able to induce severe dermonecrotic lesions and showed the presence of the bacteria Clostridium septicum in association with the fangs. In addition, we have cloned the DNA coding for a dermonecrotic protein (LsD1), using the genomic DNA of L. similis. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a toxin of approximately 31.2 kDa with an estimated pI of 7.37 and sequence similar to LiD1, a protein from the dermonecrotic family of Loxosceles intermedia spider venom, a synanthropic species of medical importance.
Almeida Diego D
Full Text Available Abstract Background The bite of spiders belonging to the genus Loxosceles can induce a variety of clinical symptoms, including dermonecrosis, thrombosis, vascular leakage, haemolysis, and persistent inflammation. In order to examine the transcripts expressed in venom gland of Loxosceles laeta spider and to unveil the potential of its products on cellular structure and functional aspects, we generated 3,008 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from a cDNA library. Results All ESTs were clustered into 1,357 clusters, of which 16.4% of the total ESTs belong to recognized toxin-coding sequences, being the Sphingomyelinases D the most abundant transcript; 14.5% include "possible toxins", whose transcripts correspond to metalloproteinases, serinoproteinases, hyaluronidases, lipases, C-lectins, cystein peptidases and inhibitors. Thirty three percent of the ESTs are similar to cellular transcripts, being the major part represented by molecules involved in gene and protein expression, reflecting the specialization of this tissue for protein synthesis. In addition, a considerable number of sequences, 25%, has no significant similarity to any known sequence. Conclusion This study provides a first global view of the gene expression scenario of the venom gland of L. laeta described so far, indicating the molecular bases of its venom composition.
Fischer, Marta L; Diniz, Suzana; Vasconcellos-Neto, João
The medically important spiders Loxosceles intermedia Mello-Leitão and Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet) are segregated in Curitiba, southern Brazil, where L. intermedia is more abundant and widespread than L. laeta. Because they share similar microhabitat preferences and wander in search of web sites, agonistic encounters are likely to occur. The purposes of this study were to describe agonistic interactions and interpret their consequences for the relative abundances and spatial segregation of L. intermedia and L. laeta. Experimental contests were performed between residents and intruders. Asymmetries between contestants included sex, age, species, weight, and residence status. Nine behavioral categories were defined. Through discriminant analyses, it was possible to differentiate spider sex, species, and residence based on their agonistic behaviors. Intruders, juveniles, and L. intermedia individuals were better characterized by exploratory behaviors, whereas L. laeta females were differentiated by aggressiveness. By performing a multiple logistic regression, with winning or defeat as a dependent variable of sex, age, species, size, weight, and residence, it was possible to say that residents and L. intermedia individuals had the highest winning odds in contests, whereas juveniles had lower winning odds than adults. Advantages of the prior residence may help to explain the predominance of L. laeta in old colonization sites, whereas the higher winning odds of L. intermedia and less aggressive behavior toward conspecifics may lead to a successful establishment of dense populations in new sites. A better understanding of agonistic interactions as a mechanism of spacing, segregation, and species replacement among spiders may be helpful for control purposes.
INVERTEBRATES, *MARYLAND, *WATER POLLUTION, TEST FACILITIES, TEST FACILITIES, ECOLOGY, CHESAPEAKE BAY, WATER POLLUTION, AIR POLLUTION, ANNELIDA, MOLLUSCA, PROTOZOA, ARTHROPODA , CRUSTACEA, ARACHNIDA, PLANKTON, WORMS.
Moreno-González, Jairo A; Delgado-Santa, Leonardo; De Armas, Luis F
Two new species of the genus Piaroa Villarreal, Tourinho & Giupponi, 2008, P. escalerete sp. nov. and P. bacata sp. nov. are described from Valle del Cauca, and Cundinamarca departments, Colombia, respectively. The female flagellum is fully illustrated for a Piaroa species for the first time; the generic diagnosis is also emended and the relationships of the new species with those previously described are discussed. New characters for Piaroa species, a new nomenclature for the chitinized arch and a reinterpretation of the Hubbardiinae flagellar setae pattern are proposed. A distribution map of the known species of Piaroa is provided.
Botero-Trujillo, Ricardo; Valdez-Mondragón, Alejandro
A new ricinuleid species, Cryptocellus chimaera sp. nov., is described based on a male specimen from Northwest Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Reserva Ecológica Mache-Chindul, Estación Biológica Bilsa). This species is unique among all Cryptocellus in having very large longitudinal carapacial translucent areas together with a markedly incrassate femur of leg II. Representing only the second species of the order described from Ecuador, C. chimaera sp. nov. is assigned to the magnus species-group of Cryptocellus Westwood, 1874. Cryptocellus chimaera sp. nov. is remarkable, for its morphology resembles that of Cryptocellus magnus Ewing, 1929, especially with regard to the male copulatory apparatus, although both resemble Pseudocellus Platnick, 1980, due to the presence of diffuse longitudinal carapacial translucent areas. Along with the new species description, a comparative diagnosis and supplementary images are provided for C. magnus. Based on direct observations of some species belonging to the five species-groups of Cryptocellus, we discuss on the occurrence of different morphologies of carapacial translucent areas within the genus. We deem it important to continue the survey of morphological characters, especially within Cryptocellus, in order to increase our understanding of the species-groups and to unravel their relationships.
Charles R. Haddad
Conservation implications: This study provides valuable baseline data on arachnids conserved in De Hoop Nature Reserve, which can be used for future assessments of habitat transformation, alien invasive species and climate change on arachnid biodiversity.
Sharma, P. P.; Santiago, M. A.; Kriebel, R.; Lipps, S. M.; Buenavente, P. A. C.; Diesmos, A. C.; Janda, Milan; Boyer, S. L.; Clouse, R. M.; Wheeler, W. C.
Roč. 106, JAN 01 (2017), s. 164-173 ISSN 1055-7903 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : grassatores * morphology * comparative methods Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 4.419, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790316302445
Demite, Peterson Rodrigo [UNESP
O conhecimento atual sobre a diversidade biológica do planeta é extremamente escasso, sendo preocupante se considerarmos o atual ritmo de destruição dos ecossistemas naturais. A diversidade de espécies é ameaçada principalmente pela fragmentação e pela perda de hábitat. Com o processo da fragmentação os remanescentes ficam rodeados de matrizes de diferentes vegetações, expondo os organismos às condições de um ecossistema circunvizinho diferente. Este estudo foi realizado em 18 fragmentos flor...
Alessandro Ponce de Leão Giupponi
Full Text Available Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.. All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation.
Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva
Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation.
Seiter, Michael; Wolff, Jonas; Hörweg, Christoph
A new species of the whip spider genus Sarax Simon, 1892 from Cebu Island in the Philippines is described: Sarax huberi sp. nov. With the description of this species, the diversity of the genus is increased to three species in the Philippines. Some additional data on their natural environment and their specific habitat are presented and compared with sibling species. The synonymization of Sarax mediterraneus Delle Cave, 1986 with Sarax buxtoni (Gravely, 1915) is carried out.
Joya, Daniel Chirivi
We present the description of Phrynus calypso sp. nov. from Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela This species is very similar to Phrynus pulchripes (Pocock), however after examining Colombian specimens of P. pulchripes (ca. type locality), many differences were found. Characters commonly used in diagnosis of Phrynus species are variable and make identification difficult. Differences in a few structures, like pedipalpal spines, could not be enough to provide a useful diagnosis. It is necessary to account for variation of similar species in conjunction, and select non overlapping groups of characters. Observations in the variation in both species are presented, pointing out sources of confusion, and suggesting alternative characters to support diagnoses. At the moment, details about variation in many species in Phrynus, like that of P. pulchripes, are poorly known, and for this reason a redescription is provided.
Silva de Miranda, Gustavo; Aharon, Shlomi; Gavish-Regev, Efrat; Giupponi, Alessandro P. L.; Wizen, Gil
A new species of Charinus is described from Israel and new localities for C. ioanniticus are reported. Charinus israelensis sp. nov. is a cave dwelling species with extremely small median eyes, no median tubercle and reduced lateral eyes. It is similar to C. ioanniticus, which occurs in nearby areas, but can be differentiated by the shape of the carapace, the number of pedipalp spines and the development of the eyes. A detailed comparison is made between the two species, including pictures, d...
Vasconcelos, Ana Caroline Oliveira; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce De Leão; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes
A new species of the genus Charinus Simon, 1892 is described from caves in the Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. This is the first record of the genus for the state. This paper presents a map of the Charinus species distribution in Brazil with new records and a map of potential distribution of the genus in South and Central Americas. An updated key for Charinus species from Brazil is also presented.
Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon
Recent studies have focused on materials derived from plant extracts as mite control products against house dust and stored food mites because repeated use of synthetic acaricides had led to resistance and unwanted activities on non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity of materials derived from Lycopus lucidus against Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus and Tyrophagus putrescentiae. The LD50 values of L. lucidus oil were 2.19, 2.25 and 8.45 µg cm(-2) against D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus and T. putrescentiae. The acaricidal constituent of L. lucidus was isolated by chromatographic techniques and identified as 1-octen-3-ol. In a fumigant method against D. farinae, the acaricidal activity of 1-octen-3-ol (0.25 µg cm(-2)) was more toxic than N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) (36.84 µg cm(-2)), followed by 3,7-dimethyl-1-octen-3-ol (0.29 µg cm(-2)), 1-octen-3-yl butyrate (2.32 µg cm(-2)), 1-octen-3-yl acetate (2.42 µg cm(-2)), 3,7-dimethyl-1-octene (9.34 µg cm(-2)) and benzyl benzoate (10.02 µg cm(-2)). In a filter paper bioassay against D. farinae, 1-octen-3-ol (0.63 µg cm(-2)) was more effective than DEET (20.64 µg cm(-2)), followed by 3,7-dimethyl-1-octen-3-ol (1.09 µg cm(-2)). 1-Octen-3-ol and 3,7-dimethyl-1-octen-3-ol could be useful as natural agents for the management of three mite species.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to elaborate a preliminary list of the mite species associated with rubber trees in the municipality of Santana, in the state of Amapá, Brazil. Two collections of rubber tree leaves were conducted on May 2nd and June 5th , 2010. Twenty-five plants were sampled at random. Three leaves were collected per plant, from the lower third of the crown. The samples were placed in paper bags, packed in an isothermal box chilled gel-based pulp plant (Gelo-X®, and transported to the Entomology Laboratory at Embrapa Amapá, in Macapá. The leaflets were examined under a stereomicroscope, and the mites found on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaves were collected with a stilet, mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium, and later identified. We collected a total of 1,722 mites of 10 families: Acaridae, Cunaxidae, Eriophyidae, Iolinidae, Phytoseiidae, Stigmaeidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, Tydeidae, and Winterschmidtiidae, in addition to unidentified species of the suborders Oribatida and Astigmatina. The family Phytoseiidae represented only 2.90% of specimens collected, but showed the highest species richness (5 species. The only representative of Tenuipalpidae was Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945, but 81.13% of the mites collected in this study belonged to this species.
Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva
Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation. PMID:26885641
Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; da Fonseca-Ferreira, Rafael; Bichuette, Maria Elina
Abstract A new species of troglobitic harvestman, Iandumoema smeagol sp. n., is described from Toca do Geraldo, Monjolos municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. is distinguished from the other two species of the genus by four exclusive characteristics – dorsal scutum areas with conspicuous tubercles, enlarged retrolateral spiniform tubercle on the distal third of femur IV, eyes absent and the penial ventral process slender and of approximately the same length of the stylus. The species is the most highly modified in the genus and its distribution is restricted only to caves in that particular area of Minas Gerais state. The type locality is not inside a legally protected area, and there are anthropogenic impacts in its surroundings. Therefore, Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. is vulnerable and it must be considered in future conservation projects. PMID:26798238
Full Text Available In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas.
Antonio Domingos Brescovit
Full Text Available The subfamily Anyphaeninae is revised at genera level in the Neotropical region. Anyphaeninae is diagnosed by the tracheal spiracle approximately in the midway of venter or between the midway of venter and the epigastric groove; retromargin of chelicerae with more than four denticles; and male palp with tegulum basket-like or cup-like, without the basal lightly sclerotized area. The subfamily contais 32 genera, 14 of which are new: Aljassa (type species Teudis annulipes Caporiacco, Buckupiella (type species B. imperatriz sp.n., from Brazil and Argentina, Hatitia (type species H.yhuaia sp.n., from Peru Iguarima (type species Anyphaena censoria Keyserling, Ilocomba (type species I. marta sp.n., from Colombia, Italaman (type species I. santamarina sp.n., from Brazil, Colombia and Argentine, Jessica (type species Osoriella osoriana Mello-Leitão, Katissa (type from Jamaica, Otoniela (type species O. adisi sp.n., from Brazil, Pippuhana (type species P. gandu sp.n., from Brazil, Timbuka (type species T. boquete sp.n., from Costa Rica, Panamá and Colômbia, Umuara (type species Clubiona fasciata Blackwall, Xiruana (type species Aysha gracilipes Keyserling. Other new species and the male of Bromelina zuniala are described: Iguarima pichinha and Lepajan edwardsi from Ecuador; Temnida rosário, Umuara pydanieli and U. juquia from Brazil; Umuara junin, Hatitia conchaque from Peru; Ilcomba perija from Colombia. Twelve new synonyms are presenteei: Wuljilopsis keyserlingi soares & Camargo witn W. tenuips (Keyserling; Teudis foliatus Schmidt with Patrera ruber (F.O.P. - Cambridge; Teudis moreirae Mello-Leitão with Teudis angusticeps (Keyserling; Anyphaena rufibarbis Mello-Leitão with Jessica osoriana (Mello-Leitão; Aysha cinereoviítata Mello-Leitão with Iguarima censoria (Keyserling; Teudis bucolicus Chickering with Katissa simplicipalpis (Simon; Gayenna minutissima Petrunkevitch with Lupetíiana mordax (O.P.-Cambridge; Teudis adfabilis (Keyserling and Teudis leucochlorus Mello-Leitão with Umuara fasciata (Blackwall; Aysha fulviceps Keyserling with Xiruana gracilipes (Keyserling; Aysha mandibularis (Keyserling with Aljassa subpallida (L. Koch. Seventy new combinations are presented: Wulfilopsis frenata (Keyserling; W. pygmaea (Keyserling; W. tenuipes (Keyserling; W. tripunctata (Mello-Leitão; Patrera apora (Chamberlin; P.armata (Chickering; P.auricoma (L. Koch; P. cita (Keyserling; P. lauta (Chickering; P. longipes (Keyserling; P. procera (Keyserling; P. puta (O.P.-Cambridge; P. ruber (F.O.P.-Cambridge; P. stylifer (F.O.P.-Cambridge; P. virgata (Keyserling; Teudis bicornutus (Tullgren; T. buelowae (Mello-Leitão; T. comstocki (Soares & Camargo; T. morenus (Mello-Leitão; Jessica campesina (Bauab-Vianna; J. glabra (Keyserling; J. goodnight (Soares & Camargo; J. osoriana (Mello-Leitão; J. erythrostoma (Mello- Leitão; J. rubricephala (Mello-Leitão; Iguarima censoria (Keyserling; Katissa delicatula (Banks; K. elegans (Banks; K. lycosoides (Chickering; K. simplicipalpis (Simon; K. zimarae (Reimoser; Otoniella quadrivittata (Simon; Lupettiana mordax (O.P.-Cambridge; L. parvula (Banks; L. perpusilla (Banks; L. spinosa (Bryant; Timbuka bogotensis (L. Koch; T. granadensis (Keyserling; T. larvata (O.P.-Cambridge, T. masseneti (Berland; T.meridiana (L. Koch; Tafana quelchii (pocock; T. silhavyi (Caporiacco; T. straminea (L. Koch; Umuara fascia J(Blackwall; Aysha basilisca (Mello-Leitâo; A. diversicolor (Keyserling; A. heraldica (Mello-Leitão; A. gentilis (Keyserling; A. helvola (Keyserling; A. robusta (Keyserling; A. rubro- maculata (Keyserling; A. striolata (Keyserling; A. subruba (Keyserling; Xiruana affinis (Mello-Leitão; X. gracilipes (Keyserling; X. hirsuta (Mello-Leitão; X. tetraseta (Mello-Leitão; Aljassa annulipes (Caporiacco; A. notata (Keyserling; A. poicila (Chamberlin; A. subpallida(L. Koch; A. venezuelica (Caporiacco; Pippuhana calcar (Bryant; H. donaldi (Chickering; P. unicolor (Keyserling; Hatitia defolonguei (Berland; H. riveti (Berland; H. sericea (L. Koch. Two spedes are revalidated: Sillus dubius (Chickering and Hatitia defolongli (Berland. Lectotypes and paralectotypes are here designated for eigth species: Anyphaena censoria Keyserling, 1891; A. adfabilis Keyserling, 1891. A simplicipalpis Simon, 1897; Aysha septena Franganillo, 1935; A. cinereovittata Mello-Leitão, 1945; Osoriella osoriana Mello-Leitão, 1922; Teudis sordidus Mello-Leitão, 1941 e Temnida simplex Simon, 1896. A key to 32 genera of Anyphaeninae are provided. Diagnoses, descriptions and illustrations are provided for the genera and species included in this work.
Ocorrência de Cupiennius Simon na América do Sul e redescricão de Cupiennius celerrimus Simon (Araneae, Ctenidae Ocurrence of Cupiennius Simon in South America and redescription of Cupiennius celerrimus Simon (Araneae, Ctenidae
Antônio D. Brescovit
Full Text Available The ocurrence of Cupiennius Simon. 1891 restricted to Central America, Colombia, Jamaica, Haiti and Cuba, is now confirmed to South America and the geographical distribution of C. celerrimus is extended to Venezuela and north and northeaster regions of Brazil. A redescription of C. celerrimus is given based on specimens from the type locality and adjacent localities.
Full Text Available Gephyroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1936 (type species G. philodromoides Mello-Leitão, 1936 is revised. Three species formerly described in this genus are synonymized with species from other genera: G. kolosvaryi Caporiacco, 1947, with Acanthoctenus spinipes Keyserling, 1877, G. parvus Caporiacco, 1947, with Phymatoctenus comosus Simon, 1897, and G. vachoni Caporiacco, 1955, with Caloctenus gracilitarsis Simon, 1897. Eight new species are described: G. portovelho sp. nov., from the States of Rondônia and Amazonas, Brazil; G. divisor sp. nov. and G. acre sp. nov., from the State of Acre, Brazil; G. atininga sp. nov., G. esteio sp. nov. and G. mapia sp. nov., from the State of Amazonas, Brazil; G. juruti sp. nov., from the Department of Loreto, Peru and the State of Pará, Brazil; G. panguana sp. nov., from the Department of Huanuco, Peru. The genus can be distinguished by the presence of a cymbial retrolateral groove, retrolateral origin of embolus, embolus long and thin, median apophysis with a subdistal hook, and hyaline projection close to the embolus base in the male palp and by the fused median and lateral fields in a single epigynal plate, copulatory opening located dorsally in an atrium, and elongated copulatory ducts surrounding the spermathecae in the female epigynum. Field observations on the hunting behavior on ants in trumpet trees (Cecropia are provided for two species, G. philodromoides and G. mapia sp. nov.Gephyroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1936 (espécie-tipo G. philodromoides Mello-Leitão, 1936, é revisado. Três espécies descritas neste gênero são sinonimizadas com espécies de outros gêneros: G. kolosvaryi Caporiacco, 1947, com Acanthoctenus spinipes Keyserling, 1877, G. parvus Caporiacco, 1947, com Phymatoctenus comosus Simon, 1897, e G. vachoni Caporiacco, 1955, com Caloctenus gracilitarsis Simon, 1897. Oito novas espécies são descritas: G. portovelho sp. nov., dos Estados de Rondônia e Amazonas, Brasil; G. divisor sp. nov. e G. acre sp. nov., do Estado do Acre, Brasil; G. atininga sp. nov., G. esteio sp. nov. e G. mapia sp. nov., do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil; G. juruti sp. nov., do Department de Loreto, Peru e Estado do Pará, Brazil; e G. panguana sp. nov., do Department de Huanuco, Peru. Os machos do gênero podem ser distinguidos pela presença de uma fenda retrolateral no címbio, origem retrolateral do êmbolo, êmbolo longo e fino, apófise média com um gancho subdistal e projeção hialina na base do êmbolo no palpo, e as fêmeas podem ser distinguidas pelos campo mediano e campos laterais fundidos em uma única placa, aberturas copulatórias localizadas em um átrio e dutos copulatórios alongados no epígino. Observações de campo sobre o comportamento de caça de formigas em embaúbas (Cecropia são fornecidas para duas espécies deste gênero, G. philodromoides e G. mapia sp. nov.
Presença de Loxosceles similis Moenkhaus, 1898 (Araneae, Sicariidae na Serra da Bodoquena, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Presence of Loxosceles similis Moenkhaus, 1898 (Araneae, Sicariidae in Bodoquena Range, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Rute Maria Gonçalves de Andrade
Full Text Available O veneno das aranhas do gênero Loxosceles causa lesão dermonecrótica e induz hemólise intravascular dependente de complemento, configurando um quadro clínico de intensa gravidade. No Brasil, as espécies L. gaucho L. intermedia e L. laeta, presentes no ambiente antrópico, têm sido apontadas como principais agentes do loxoscelismo. Além destas, existem outras espécies, que por predominarem no ambiente natural, não têm sido avaliadas quanto ao risco à saúde do homem, como é o caso de Loxosceles similis. O desenvolvimento de projeto de pesquisa, na Serra da Bodoquena, para observações ecológicas e identificação de insetos de interesse médico, possibilitou a captura de espécimens de Loxosceles similis na Serra da Bodoquena, Município de Bonito, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, nas grutas Pitangueiras e do Lago Azul. Os parâmetros para identificação, características ambientais do habitat da espécie, bem como atualização de sua distribuição geográfica são objetos deste trabalho.The venom of Loxosceles spiders causes dermonecrotic lesion and induces complement-dependent intravascular haemolysis that characterizes a severe systemic effect. In Brazil, L. gaucho, L. intermedia and L. laeta, present in the anthropic environment, have been pointed out as the most important agents of the loxoscelism. Besides these species there are others that, by predominating in the natural environment, have not been evaluated regarding human health risk, as in the case of Loxosceles similis. The development of a research project in Bodoquena Range, for ecological observation and identification of insects of medical interest, enabled the capture of Loxosceles similis specimens in the "Pitangueiras" cave and "Lago Azul" cave, in Bodoquena Range, municipality of Bonito, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The objectives of this study were to define the parameters for identification, environmental features of the habitat of this species, as well as an update of its geographical distribution.
Descrição do comportamento agonístico de Loxosceles laeta, L. hirsuta e L. intermedia (Araneae: Sicariidae Description of the agonistic behaviors of Loxosceles laeta, L. hirsuta, and L. intermedia (Araneae: Sicariidae
Marta L. Fischer
Full Text Available Os grupos de radiação evolutiva de Loxosceles Heinecken & Lowe, 1835 além de compartilharem caracteres morfológicos aparentemente também apresentam comportamentos semelhantes. Assim, o presente estudo objetivou descrever o comportamento agonístico dos machos das espécies do grupo spadicea - Loxosceles intermedia Mello-Leitão, 1934 e Loxosceles hirsuta Mello-Leitão, 1931 - e laeta -Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet 1849 - ocorrentes no estado do Paraná. Para tal, os machos foram pareados, sendo o invasor colocado nas teias do residente, descritos e quantificados os padrões motores exibidos. O comportamento agonístico de machos de L. laeta, L. intermedia e L. hirsuta foi caracterizado pelo afrontamento, defesa e combate, sendo apenas o último ritualizado e relacionado com peculiaridades de cada espécie, tendo em comum a sinalização de tamanho e força. Além dos padrões motores exibidos durante o comportamento agonístico serem semelhantes com aqueles utilizados no comportamento sexual, os padrões motores de L. intermedia e L. hirsuta foram mais semelhantes entre si e diferentes de L. laeta, sugerindo relação com o grupo de radiação evolutiva.The evolutionary groups of species of Loxosceles Heinecken & Lowe, 1835, besides having morphological characters in common, may also show similar behaviors. The present study describes the agonistic behavior of males of members of the spadicea group - Loxosceles intermedia Mello-Leitão, 1934 and L hirsuta Mello-Leitão, 1931 - and the laeta-group - L. laeta (Nicolet, 1849 - that occur in the state of Paraná. In experiments with paired males, an intruder male was placed in the web of a resident male web, and the motor patterns displayed were described and quantified. Males of all three species showed confrontation, defense and combat behaviors. The combat was ritualized and related to peculiarities of each species, while sharing the signaling of strength and size. The motor patterns shown during agonistic behavior were similar to those used in sexual behavior. The motor patterns of L. intermedia and L. hirsuta were more similar to each other and different from L. laeta, suggesting a relationship to the evolutionary group radiation.
Alexandre Bragio Bonaldo
Full Text Available The subfamily Corinninae is characterized and diagnosed. Two synapomorphies are hypothesized for the subfamily, both regarding the male palpal reservoir, which is primarily coiled and presents a sclerotized distal sector. Seventeen genera are recognized, six of which are new: Abapeba (type species Corinna lacertosa Simon, Erendira (type species Corinna pallidoguttata Simon, Septentrinna (type species Corinna bicalcarata Simon, Simonestus (type species Diestus validus Simon, Tapixaua (type species T. callida sp. nov. and Tupirinna (type species T. rosae sp. nov.. The genera Creugas Thorell, Falconina Brignoli and Paradiestus Mello-Leitão are revalidated. Diestus Simon and Lausus Simon are newly synonymized with Corinna C. L. Koch. Chemmis Simon is included in the synonymy of Megalostrata Karsch. Hypsinotus L. Koch is removed from the synonymy of Corinna and included in the synonymy of Creugas. Thirteen new species are described: Septentrinna yucatan and S. potosi from Mexico; Tupirinna rosae from Venezuela and Brazil; Tapixaua callida from Brazil and Peru; Abapeba hoeferi, A. rioclaro, A. taruma, Corinna ducke, C. colombo, C. mourai, C. recurva and Parachemmis manauara from Brazil; Creugas lisei from Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. Twenty seven species are redescribed. Fifty eight new combinations are presented: from Chemmis, Septentrinna steckleri (Gertsch; from Corinna, Abapeba abalosi (Mello-Leitão, A. cleonei (Petrunkevitch, A. echinus (Simon, A. grassima (Chickering, A. guanicae (Petrunkevitch, A. lacertosa (Simon, A. luctuosa (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, A. lugubris (Schenkel, A. pennata (Caporiacco, A. kochi (Petrunkevitch, A. saga (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, A. wheeleri (Petrunkevitch, Creugas annamae (Gertsch & Davis, C. apophysarius (Caporiacco, C. bajulus (Gertsch, C. bellator (L. Koch, C. bicuspis (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. epicureanus (Chamberlin, C. falculus (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. mucronatus (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. navus (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. nigricans (C. L. Koch, C. plumatus (L. Koch, C. praeceps (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. silvaticus (Chickering, C. uncatus (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, Erendira luteomaculatta (Petrunkevitch, E. pallidoguttata (Simon, E. subsignata (Simon, Falconina albomaculosa (Schmidt, F. crassipalpis (Chickering, F. gracilis (Keyserling, Megalostrata raptrix (L. Koch, Paradiestus egregius (Simon, P. giganteus (Karsch, P. penicillatus (Mello-Leitão, P. vitiosus (Keyserling, Septentrinna bicalcarata (Simon, S. paradoxa (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, S. retusa (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, Simonestus pseudobulbolus (Caporiacco, S. robustus (Chickering, S. semiluna (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, Stethorrhagus maculatus (L. Koch and Xeropigo smedigari (Caporiacco; from Diestus, Corinna alticeps (Keyserling, C. kochi (Simon, Simonestus occidentalis (Schenkel, S. separatus (Schmidt and S. validus (Simon; from Lausus, Corinna grandis (Simon and Abapeba sicarioides (Mello-Leitão; from Medmassa, Corinna andina (Simon and C. venezuelica (Caporiacco; from Megalostrata, Erendira atrox (Caporiacco and Erendira pictitorax (Caporiacco; from Parachemmis, Tupirinna trilineata (Chickering. Five combinations are restaured: Corinna aenea Simon, Creugas cinnamius Simon, Creugas gulosus Thorell, Falconina melloi (Schenkel, Paradiestus aurantiacus Mello-Leitão. Twenty five new synonymies are proposed: Diestus altifrons Mello-Leitão with Corinna nitens (Keyserling; Corinna tomentosa Simon, C. tridentina Mello-Leitão, Hypsinotus flavipes Keyserling, H. humilis Keyserling and Xeropigo scutulatus Simon with Xeropigo tridentiger (O. Pickard-Cambridge; Corinna cribosa Mello-Leitão and C. stigmatica Simon with Falconina gracilis (Keyserling; Corinna casueta Chickering with SIMONestus separatus (Schmidt; Corinna abnormis Petrunkevitch, C. antillana BRYANT, C. consobrina Simon, C. inornata Kraus, C. nervosa F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. wolleboeki Banks, Creugas cetratus Simon, C. senegalensis Simon and Hypsinotus gracilipes Keyserling with Creugas gulosus Thorell; Chemmis frederici Simon, Delozeugma formidabile O. Pickard-Cambridge, D. mordicans O. Pickard-Cambridge, Megalostrata sperata Kraus and M. venifica KARSCH with Megalostrata raptrix (L. Koch; Megalostrata lohmanderi Caporiacco with Erendira atrox (Caporiacco; Corinna tenubra Chickering with Parachemmis fuscus Chickering. One new name, Creugas berlandi, is erected for Corinna bellatrix Schmidt. Males of Creugas cinnamius, Corinna kochi, Methesis semirufa Simon, Paradiestus aurantiacus, Septentrinna steckleri and Xeropigo smedigari, the females of Paradiestus giganteus, Septentrinna bicalcarata and the adult female of S. steckleri are described for the first time.
Marusik, Yuri M; Nadolny, Anton A; Omelko, Mikhail M
Three new species of Pardosa, P. svatoni sp. n. (dy, SE Kazakhstan), P. fengisp. n. (male female, Central Xinjiang) and P lii sp. n. (male female, Central Xinjiang) are described and illustrated. The two former species cannot be placed in any species group. Pardosa lii sp. n. belongs to the P. wagleri species group. It is compared with P. italica Tongiorgi, 1966, whose embolic division has not previously been illustrated.
Full Text Available Characterized by distinctive evolutionary adaptations, spiders provide a comprehensive system for evolutionary and developmental studies of anatomical organs, including silk and venom production. Here we performed cDNA sequencing using massively parallel sequencers (454 GS-FLX Titanium to generate ∼80,000 reads from the spinning gland of Actinopus spp. (infraorder: Mygalomorphae and Gasteracantha cancriformis (infraorder: Araneomorphae, Orbiculariae clade. Actinopus spp. retains primitive characteristics on web usage and presents a single undifferentiated spinning gland while the orbiculariae spiders have seven differentiated spinning glands and complex patterns of web usage. MIRA, Celera Assembler and CAP3 software were used to cluster NGS reads for each spider. CAP3 unigenes passed through a pipeline for automatic annotation, classification by biological function, and comparative transcriptomics. Genes related to spider silks were manually curated and analyzed. Although a single spidroin gene family was found in Actinopus spp., a vast repertoire of specialized spider silk proteins was encountered in orbiculariae. Astacin-like metalloproteases (meprin subfamily were shown to be some of the most sampled unigenes and duplicated gene families in G. cancriformis since its evolutionary split from mygalomorphs. Our results confirm that the evolution of the molecular repertoire of silk proteins was accompanied by the (i anatomical differentiation of spinning glands and (ii behavioral complexification in the web usage. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was constructed to cluster most of the known spidroins in gene clades. This is the first large-scale, multi-organism transcriptome for spider spinning glands and a first step into a broad understanding of spider web systems biology and evolution.
Siliwal, Manju; Yadav, Archana; Kumar, Dolly
The tube-dwelling spider family Segestriidae is represented in India by only two species, Ariadna nebulosa Simon, 1906 and Segestria inda Simon, 1906. Both species are known only from their type localities. For about 96 years, there has been no report of these spiders from the Indian subcontinent. Here, we describe three new species based on female specimens from India. Ariadna vansda sp. nov. from Gujarat; A. molur sp. nov., and A. chhotae sp. nov. from Karnataka.
Rendon, Dalila; Whitehouse, Mary E A; Hulugalle, Nilantha R; Taylor, Phillip W
Wolf spiders (Lycosidae) are the most abundant ground-hunting spiders in the Australian cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) agroecosystems. These spiders have potential in controlling pest bollworms, Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in minimum-tilled fields. A study was carried out during a wet growing season (2011-2012) in Narrabri, New South Wales, Australia, to determine how different crop rotations and tillage affect wolf spider assemblages in cotton fields. Spider abundance and species richness did not differ significantly between simple plots (no winter crop) and complex plots (cotton-wheat Triticum aestivum L.-vetch Vicia benghalensis L. rotation). However, the wolf spider biodiversity, as expressed by the Shannon-Weaver and Simpson's indices, was significantly higher in complex plots. Higher biodiversity reflected a more even distribution of the most dominant species (Venatrix konei Berland, Hogna crispipes Koch, and Tasmanicosa leuckartii Thorell) and the presence of more rare species in complex plots. T. leuckartii was more abundant in complex plots and appears to be sensitive to farming disturbances, whereas V. konei and H. crispipes were similarly abundant in the two plot types, suggesting higher resilience or recolonizing abilities. The demographic structure of these three species varied through the season, but not between plot types. Environmental variables had a significant effect on spider assemblage, but effects of environment and plot treatment were overshadowed by the seasonal progression of cotton stages. Maintaining a high density and even distribution of wolf spiders that prey on Helicoverpa spp. should be considered as a conservation biological control element when implementing agronomic and pest management strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Haddad, C. R.; Brabec, Marek; Pekár, S.; Fourie, R.
Roč. 59, č. 3 (2016), s. 105-110 ISSN 0031-4056 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14762S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : activity * phenology * predator-prey dynamics * specialist * termite Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.000, year: 2016
Sankaran, Pradeep M; Sebastian, Pothalil A
The Oriental armored spider genus Shearella Lehtinen, 1981 is recorded for the first time from India. Detailed description and illustrations of both sexes of Shearella alii sp. nov. are given. The geographic distribution of the genus is updated. Sinamma sanya (Lin & Li, 2010) is transferred back to Shearella, and Shearella browni (Shear, 1978) back to Monoblemma Gertsch, 1941. A checklist of all Indian tetrablemmid species currently known and a distribution map of all known Shearella spp. are presented.
Yu,Hao; Zhang,Jianshuang; chen,jian
In the present paper, a worldwide checklist of Clubiona japonica-group spiders is provided based on published literature and authors’ collections. A new japonica-group species, Clubiona grucollaris sp. n. (♀♂) from Guizhou Province and Hainan Island of China is diagnosed, described, and illustrated. A distribution map of this species is given.
Yu, Hao; Zhang, Jianshuang; Chen, Jian
In the present paper, a worldwide checklist of Clubiona japonica -group spiders is provided based on published literature and authors' collections. A new japonica -group species, Clubiona grucollaris sp. n. (♀♂) from Guizhou Province and Hainan Island of China is diagnosed, described, and illustrated. A distribution map of this species is given.
Wesołowska, Wanda; Azarkina, Galina N; Russell-Smith, Anthony
Two new genera, Rumburak gen. nov. and Yimbulunga gen. nov., of euophryine jumping spiders are established from the Afrotropical Region. Thirty three new species included in this subfamily are diagnosed and described: Chinophrys trifasciata sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), Euophrys bifida sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), E. cochlea sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), E. elizabethae sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), E. falciger sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), E. gracilis sp. nov. (♂♀, Lesotho, South Africa), E. griswoldi sp. nov. (♂, Namibia), E. limpopo sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), E. maseruensis sp. nov. (♂, Lesotho), E. meridionalis sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), E. miranda sp. nov. (♀, South Africa), E. nana sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), E. recta sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), E. subtilis sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), Rumburak bellus sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), R. hilaris sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), R. lateripunctatus sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), R. mirabilis sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), R. tuberatus (♂, South Africa), R. virilis (♂♀, South Africa), Tanzania parvulus sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), T. striatus sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), Thyenula alotama sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), T. cheliceroides sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), T. clarosignata sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), T. dentatidens sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), T. haddadi (♂♀, South Africa), T. montana sp. nov. (♂, Lesotho), T. rufa sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), T. tenebrica sp. nov. (♀, South Africa), T. virgulata sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), T. vulnifica sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa) and Yimbulunga foordi sp. nov. (♂, South Africa). Two species names are newly synonymized: Thyenula hortensis Wesołowska & Cumming, 2008 with T. munda (Peckham & Peckham, 1903) and Thyenula nelshoogte Zhang & Maddison, 2012 with T. laxa Zhang & Maddison, 2012. Three new combinations are proposed: Heliophanus kittenbergeri (Caporiacco, 1947) (ex Euophrys), Rumburak laxus (Zhang & Maddison, 2012) (ex Thyenula) and Thyenula munda (Peckham & Peckham, 1903) (ex Saitis). Two names are recognized as nomina dubia: Euophrys nigrescens Caporiacco, 1940 and Saitis magnus Caporiacco, 1947. The first member of the genus Chinophrys Zhang & Maddison, 2012 is reported from Africa. The males of Euophrys leipoldti Peckham & Peckham, 1903 and Thyenula sempiterna Wesołowska, 2000 are described for the first time. Tanzania minutus (Wesołowska & Russell-Smith, 2000) is recorded from South Africa for the first time. A list of valid species of Afrotropical Euophryinae with data on their distribution in the region is provided. A key is supplied for the known genera of the region (based on males).
Full Text Available In the present paper, a worldwide checklist of Clubiona japonica-group spiders is provided based on published literature and authors’ collections. A new japonica-group species, Clubiona grucollaris sp. n. (♀♂ from Guizhou Province and Hainan Island of China is diagnosed, described, and illustrated. A distribution map of this species is given.
Full Text Available Levymanus gershomi gen. n. et sp. n., is described from southern Israel. The eye arrangement and structure of the male palp indicate that this genus belongs to Chediminae Simon, 1893. Levymanus gen. n. differs from other chedimine genera by its unusually long and slender legs, an elongate body, a unique shape of the bipartite thoracic fovea, reduced leg scopulae, smaller spinnerets, and other characters, which are presumably apomorphic. We propose two taxonomic changes: 1 based on widely spaced lateral eyes the Western African genus Badia Roewer, 1961 is transferred from Chediminae to Palpimaninae, and 2 Fernandezina gyirongensis Hu & Li, 1987 from China, based on palpal morphology, is transferred to the Asian genus Steriphopus Simon, 1887 for a new combination Steriphopus gyirongensis (Hu & Li, 1987 comb. n.
Rubio, Gonzalo D.; Argañaraz, Carina I.; Gleiser, Raquel M.
Abstract The American genus Neonella Gertsch, 1936 consists of very small jumping spiders whose biology is not well known. The genus currently includes eleven valid species, of which eight are known from both sexes and two are only known from one sex. This paper describes and illustrates a new species Neonella acostae sp. n., demonstrates male palpal variation in Neonella montana Galiano, 1988, and provides some information on the ecology of three sympatric species. New records of Neonella montana and Neonella minuta Galiano, 1965 are reported. Because the previously described species of Neonella were well illustrated and diagnosed, a dichotomous key to males is given along with genital illustrations of both sexes for all known species. PMID:26692804
Perafán, Carlos; Galvis, William; Gutiérrez, Miguel; Pérez-Miles, Fernando
Abstract A new monotypic Theraphosidae genus, Kankuamo Perafán, Galvis & Pérez-Miles, gen. n., is described from Colombia, with a new type of urticating setae. These setae differ from others principally by having a small distal oval patch of lanceolate reversed barbs. Males of Kankuamo gen. n. additionally differ by having a palpal bulb organ very divergent from all known species, with many conspicuous keels dispersed across the median tegulum to the tip, mostly with serrated edges. Females differ by having spermathecae with a single notched receptacle, with two granulated lobes and several irregular sclerotized longitudinal striations. The new urticating setae, type VII, is characterized, illustrated and its releasing mechanism is discussed. It is hypothesized that these setae are the first in Theraphosinae subfamily whose release mechanism is by direct contact. Kankuamo gen. n. is described and illustrated on the basis of the type species Kankuamo marquezi Perafán, Galvis & Gutiérrez, sp. n., and their remarkable characteristics, morphological affinities and cladistic relationship are analyzed. PMID:27551189
Barbara M. Patoleta
Full Text Available Five new species of Rogmocrypta: R. karolinae (♀, R. koniambo (♀, R. patryki (♀, R. raveni (♀, and R. rollardae (♀ are diagnosed, described, and illustrated. The definition of the genus is ammended and its distribution and relationships are discussed.
Everton N. L. Rodrigues
Full Text Available The Araneidae is a speciose family including web-spinning spiders that are very abundant in various terrestrial ecosystems. Several studies demonstrate that changes in vegetation surrounding rivers, streams and brooks affect the associated araneofauna. The aim of this research was to compare differences found in diversity (abundance and richness, composition and phenology of Araneidae spiders sampled in different habitats in four riparian forest catchments in southern Brazil. Samples were taken from riparian forests in four rivers of Rio Grande do Sul State: Piratini, Camaquã, Sinos and Maquiné rivers, each in a different hydrographic basin. Samples were taken twice seasonally on each basin during two years, sampling the araneofauna of the tree-shrub strata with beating tray. Six transects were employed on each basin, two per habitat: edge with grassland, forest interior and river edge. Araneids totalled 20 genera and 65 species. Comparing riparian forests significant differences are found. Spider abundance differed among riparian forests as well as species richness. Overall, Piratini river riparian forest had the higher abundance and richness for Araneidae; the lower values were in Sinos river forest. The stronger degradation and fragmentation of the riparian forests of Sinos river probably influenced the results, with human disturbance gradients associated negatively to web building. We present data on the diversity of these spiders, which were very abundant in the riparian forest interior and very rich in species in the grassland/riparian forest edge. Species composition also differs among the studied habitats (the above plus river/riparian forest edge. For the most abundant species the phenological pattern across the seasons was also analysed.
Full Text Available Among animal constructions, spider’s orb webs represent regular geometrical architecture models. Their construction is the result of successive, simple and reproducible behavioural patterns, often considered as stereotyped. It has recently been shown that spider’s building behaviours vary, which can alter web regularity. The final capture spiral results from the laying of successive threads between two radii, here termed ‘spiral units’. We defined a theoretical normal web, as a web in which each turn of the final spiral should be parallel to the preceding one. Weaving of the spiral units sometimes leads to anomalies in the orb web. Anomalies were identified and analysed in the orb-weaving spider Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757. From video recordings of web construction, we noted the displacements of the legs and of the abdomen of the spider. We compared the frequency of displacements, and their duration, between the construction of spiral units that produce a normal turn and ones that produce an anomalous turn. The position of the legs on the web’s threads was also analysed. Results showed that anomalies were not the consequences of a modification in activity but more likely the result of the position on the radii of the fourth leg. These results suggest that spiders use local information to build the final capture spiral.
Priscila Hess Lopes
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The spider family Sicariidae includes two genera, Sicarius and Loxosceles. Bites by Sicarius are uncommon in humans and, in Brazil, a single report is known of a 17-year old man bitten by a Sicarius species that developed a necrotic lesion similar to that caused by Loxosceles. Envenomation by Loxosceles spiders can result in dermonecrosis and severe ulceration. Sicarius and Loxosceles spider venoms share a common characteristic, i.e., the presence of Sphingomyelinases D (SMase D. We have previously shown that Loxosceles SMase D is the enzyme responsible for the main pathological effects of the venom. Recently, it was demonstrated that Sicarius species from Africa, like Loxosceles spiders from the Americas, present high venom SMase D activity. However, despite the presence of SMase D like proteins in venoms of several New World Sicarius species, they had reduced or no detectable SMase D activity. In order to contribute to a better understanding about the toxicity of New World Sicarius venoms, the aim of this study was to characterize the toxic properties of male and female venoms from the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider and compare these with venoms from Loxosceles species of medical importance in Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SDS-PAGE analysis showed variations in the composition of Loxosceles spp. and Sicarius ornatus venoms. Differences in the electrophoretic profiles of male and female venoms were also observed, indicating a possible intraspecific variation in the composition of the venom of Sicarius spider. The major component in all tested venoms had a Mr of 32-35 kDa, which was recognized by antiserum raised against Loxosceles SMases D. Moreover, male and female Sicarius ornatus spiders' venoms were able to hydrolyze sphingomyelin, thus showing an enzymatic activity similar to that determined for Loxosceles venoms. Sicarius ornatus venoms, as well as Loxosceles venoms, were able to render erythrocytes susceptible to lysis by autologous serum and to induce a significant loss of human keratinocyte cell viability; the female Sicarius ornatus venom was more efficient than male. CONCLUSION: We show here, for the first time, that the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider contains active Sphingomyelinase D and is able to cause haemolysis and keratinocyte cell death similar to the South American Loxosceles species, harmful effects that are associated with the presence of active SMases D. These results may suggest that envenomation by this Sicarius spider has the potential to cause similar pathological events as that caused by Loxosceles envenomation. Our results also suggest that, in addition to the interspecific differences, intraspecific variations in the venoms composition may play a role in the toxic potential of the New World Sicarius venoms species.
Full Text Available The jumping spider Evarcha michailovi Logunov 1992 was recorded as new to Germany from a nature reserve in the south of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in a dry heathland habitat. Furthermore, the first records of the jumping spiders Evarcha laetabunda (C. L. Koch, 1846, Philaeus chrysops (Poda, 1761 and Sitticus inexpectus Logunov & Kronestedt, 1997, the comb-footed spider Crustulina sticta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1861 and the crab spider Heriaeus graminicola (Doleschall, 1852 in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania are reported.
Full Text Available This publication makes a faunistic contribution to knowledge of the epigeic spider species composition in the limestone quarry Malá Dohoda which is located in Moravian Karst PLA. The spiders were collected by pitfall trapping between catching period 19. 3.–1. 11. 2012. We chose 6 plots all around the quarry – in the inner part, edges of quarry and outside part of quarry. A total of 1 474 adult specimens were collected and determined as 78 species of 21 families. The most significant finding is vulnerable species (VU Parapelecopsis nemoralis (Blackwall, 1841 which is the second record for Moravia. Among the other significant findings, both in term of rarity and bioindication, were Ceratinella major Kulczynski, 1894, Micaria formicaria (Sundevall, 1831, Ozyptila claveata (Walckenaer, 1837, Pelecopsis parallela (Wider, 1834, Zelotes longipes (L. Koch, 1866 and Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914. Also, we present finding of an invasive species Mermessus trilobatus (Emerton, 1882 which is spreading in the Czech Republic since 2007. Together, we found 13 species as a novelty for studied faunistic square 6666 and we extended knowledge about new recorded species for the area of the Moravian Karst.
Full Text Available The “Ernesto Tornquist” Provincial Park (ETPP is located inside the Ventania system (Argentina and was created to protect one of the last relicts of pampean grasslands. Even though many studies have looked at the vertebrate faunal diversity, biology, and conservation in this Park, few studies have been dedicated to arthropods. Among these, spiders have been used as ecological indicators to evaluate nature conservation status, nevertheless, basic information on their distribution and ecology is necessary for their use as indicator taxa in this region. Thus the goal of this study was to present the phenology and demography of the spider Odo bruchi, a cursorial spider present in the ETPP. For this, spiders were sampled bimonthly using pitfall traps between September 2009-2010 (first year, and March 2011-2012 (second year. A total of 10 traps were placed every 10m along a transect of 100m parallel to the longest axis of a grassland slope with native vegetation. Traps were filled with 1 500mL of ethylene glycol, that were examined and refilled every 60 day period. We collected a total of 799 specimens in two years. Juveniles were the most abundant reaching 47.8% of the total, while males corresponded to 27.8% and females 24.4%. We found significant differences in the mean abundance of O. bruchi: the abundance during spring-summer (Nov-Dec-Jan-Feb was significantly higher than the other periods of the two years period. Moreover, we found an even abundance distribution throughout the year in the entire study. This work represents one of the first contributions to the ecology of this spider family in the area. Also, our results comprise relevant information to encourage future studies on this spider species as a bio-indicator of the conservation status of pampean grasslands.
Full Text Available The known distribution range of Poecilotheria striata Pocock, 1895 in India is from Mysuru in the north to Thiruvananthapuram in the south. During the recent surveys in northern Karnataka, P. striata was recorded from six locations in Dandeli and nearby areas in the Uttara Kannada District. With the new records from Uttara Kannada, the distribution range of this species extends to the northern part of the Western Ghats by ca. 400km from Mysuru. Additional records on distribution of P. striata are also provided from various surveys carried out in the last 10 years. Based on these new records, the IUCN Red List status of P. striata is recommended to be reassessed as Near Threatened. Additional information on the morphology and natural history of P. striata is provided in the paper.
Full Text Available Interspecific coevolution is well described, but we know significantly less about how multiple traits coevolve within a species, particularly between behavioral traits and biomechanical properties of animals' "extended phenotypes". In orb weaving spiders, coevolution of spider behavior with ecological and physical traits of their webs is expected. Darwin's bark spider (Caerostris darwini bridges large water bodies, building the largest known orb webs utilizing the toughest known silk. Here, we examine C. darwini web building behaviors to establish how bridge lines are formed over water. We also test the prediction that this spider's unique web ecology and architecture coevolved with new web building behaviors.We observed C. darwini in its natural habitat and filmed web building. We observed 90 web building events, and compared web building behaviors to other species of orb web spiders.Caerostris darwini uses a unique set of behaviors, some unknown in other spiders, to construct its enormous webs. First, the spiders release unusually large amounts of bridging silk into the air, which is then carried downwind, across the water body, establishing bridge lines. Second, the spiders perform almost no web site exploration. Third, they construct the orb capture area below the initial bridge line. In contrast to all known orb-weavers, the web hub is therefore not part of the initial bridge line but is instead built de novo. Fourth, the orb contains two types of radial threads, with those in the upper half of the web doubled. These unique behaviors result in a giant, yet rather simplified web. Our results continue to build evidence for the coevolution of behavioral (web building, ecological (web microhabitat and biomaterial (silk biomechanics traits that combined allow C. darwini to occupy a unique niche among spiders.
Full Text Available Kettle holes are small depressional wetlands and because of the high variability of site factors they are potential hotspots of biodiversity in the monotone arable land. We investigated eight kettle holes and two agrarian reference biotopes for carabid beetles and spiders. The animals were captured with pitfall traps from May to August 2005, along with surveys of the soil and vegetation. We asked whether each kettle hole has specific ecological properties which match with characteristic carabid beetle and spider coenoses and whether they represent isolated biotopes. Differences in the composition of ecological and functional groups of carabid beetles and spiders between the plots were tested with an ANOVA. The impact of the soil variables and vegetation structure on the distribution of species was analyzed with a Redundancy Analysis. The assemblage similarities between the kettle hole plots were calculated by the Wainstein-Index. Ecological groups and habitat preferences of carabid beetles had maximal expressions in seven different kettle holes whereas most of the ecological characteristics of the spiders had maximal expression in only two kettle holes. High assemblage similarity values of carabid beetle coenoses were observed only in a few cases whereas very similar spider coenoses were found between nearly all of the kettle holes. For carabid beetles, kettle holes represent much more isolated habitats than that for spiders. We concluded that kettle holes have specific ecological qualities which match with different ecological properties of carabid beetles and spiders and that isolation effects affect carabid beetles more than spiders.
Full Text Available The genus Haploclastus is endemic to India and is represented by six species. One of the species H. validus Pocock, 1899 was described from Matheran and has remained poorly known in terms of its natural history and distribution. During recent surveys the species was for the first time found again since its description nearly 110 years ago. Based on the new material collected it is redescribed and data on its natural history and distribution are added. It is the first record of an Indian theraphosid spider, which closes its burrow with a trapdoor.
Tuni, Cristina; Bilde, T.
for novel partners is also expected to maximize male lifetime reproductive success by allowing males to increase the number of mates. We investigated male and female preference for novel or former mating partners in the spider Pisaura mirabilis by offering females novel males (polyandry) or the same male...
Full Text Available The spider species Hypsocephalus dahli (Lessert, 1909 is recorded for the first time in Switzerland from museum material collected in 1974. The information given in the literature and unpublished data on this rare species are summarised including an annotated distribution map. All published pictures of males are compared with the holotype. Figures of the male palp and the vulva of the Swiss specimens are provided.
Rajesh V. Sanap
Full Text Available A new species of trapdoor spider, Heligmomerus maximus sp. nov. is described from southern Western Ghats of Kerala state, India. The new species differs from known species of the genus from India and Sri Lanka in possessing a band of thorn-like spinules on coxa IV. Moreover it is the largest species of the genus with adult females reaching a length up to 32 mm and the burrows are shallow compared with other species of the genus.
Full Text Available This systematic study documents the taxonomy, diversity, and distribution of 40 species of the predominately Californian trapdoor spider genus Aptostichus Simon, 1891. Thirty-three of these species are newly described: A. dantrippi, A. cabrillo, A. pennjillettei, A. asmodaeus, A. nateevansi, A. chiricahua, A. icenoglei, A. isabella, A. muiri, A. barackobamai, A. sinnombre, A. hedinorum, A. aguacaliente, A. chemehuevi, A. sarlacc, A. derhamgiulianii, A. anzaborrego, A. serrano, A. mikeradtkei, A. edwardabbeyi, A. killerdana, A. cahuilla, A. satleri, A. elisabethae, A. fornax, A. lucerne, A. fisheri, A. bonoi, A. cajalco, A. sierra, A. huntington, A. dorothealangeae, and A. chavezi. Most of these species are restricted to the California Floristic Province, a known biodiversity hotspot. Of the 40 recognized species, over half are considered to be imperiled or vulnerable and two have likely gone extinct over the past half-century; the conservation status of only 11 species is considered to be secure. Using 73 quantitative and qualitative morphological characters I propose a preliminary phylogeny for the genus that recognizes four major lineages: the Atomarius, Simus, Hesperus, and Sierra species groups. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis indicates that adaptations favoring the invasion of the arid desert habitats of southern California have evolved multiple times across the group. The existence of both desert and non - desert species in three of the four species groups makes this genus an ideal candidate for the study of the evolutionary ecology of desert arthropods. A set of molecular characters based on the contiguous mitochondrial DNA genes 16S-tRNA valine-12S is used in an independent analysis to assist in placement of specimens into species. The taxonomy section explicitly identifies the concept employed in species delimitation. Niche based distribution models are constructed to predict the ranges of species for which an adequate number of sampling sites were known.
E. Richard Hoebeke
Full Text Available Nephila clavata L Koch, known as the Joro spider and native to East Asia (Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan, is newly reported from North America. Specimens from several locations in northeast Georgia were collected from around residential properties in Barrow, Jackson, and Madison counties in late October and early November 2014. These are the first confirmed records of the species in the New World. Our collections, along with confirmed images provided by private citizens, suggest that the Joro spider is established in northeast Georgia. Genomic sequence data for the COI gene obtained from two specimens conforms to published sequences for N. clavata, providing additional confirmation of species identity. Known collection records are listed and mapped using geocoding. Our observations are summarized along with published background information on biology in Asia and we hypothesize on the invasion history and mode of introduction into North America. Recognition features are given and photographic images of the male and female are provided to aid in their differentiation from the one native species of the genus (Nephila clavipes in North America.
Ruiz, Gustavo R S; Maddison, Wayne P
Urupuyu gen. nov. is described for three new species of small black jumping spiders from the cloud forests of Ecuador: Urupuyu antisana sp. nov. (type species), U. edwardsi sp. nov., and U. occidentale sp. nov. Phylogenetic analyses with DNA sequences (28S, actin 5C, wingless, 16SND1 and CO1) indicate Urupuyu is closely related to the huriine amycoids Hurius and Scoturius, a placement also supported by morphological traits. Our phylogenetic analysis serves to clarify the relationships within the Amycoida in general, leading to our proposing a revised classification for the group, with subfamilies Gophoinae, Sitticinae, Bredinae subfam. nov., Scopocirinae, Thiodininae, Sarindinae, Huriinae, Simonellinae, and Amycinae. We confirm the marpissine-like Breda belongs within the Amycoida. The phylogeny implies that ant mimicry has evolved at least twice (simonellines and sarindines) and probably a third time (Atomosphyrus in the thiodinines) within the Amycoida. The following new synonymies are proposed for suprageneric names: Hyetusseae Simon, 1903 and Arachnomureae Mello-Leitão, 1917 = Thiodininae Simon, 1901; Zunigeae Simon, 1901 = Sarindinae Simon, 1901; Synemosynae Banks, 1892 = Simonellinae Peckham, Peckham & Wheeler, 1888; Magoninae Petrunkevitch, 1928 = Amycinae F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1900.
Starrett, James; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Derkarabetian, Shahan; Hedin, Marshal
The relative roles of ecological niche conservatism versus niche divergence in promoting montane speciation remains an important topic in biogeography. Here, our aim was to test whether lineage diversification in a species complex of trapdoor spiders corresponds with riverine barriers or with an ecological gradient associated with elevational tiering. Aliatypus janus was sampled from throughout its range, with emphasis on populations in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. We collected multi-locus genetic data to generate a species tree for A. janus and its close relatives. Coalescent based hypothesis tests were conducted to determine if genetic breaks within A. janus conform to riverine barriers. Ecological niche models (ENM) under current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions were generated and hypothesis tests of niche conservatism and divergence were performed. Coalescent analyses reveal deeply divergent genetic lineages within A. janus, likely corresponding to cryptic species. Two primary lineages meet along an elevational gradient on the western slopes of the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains. ENMs under both current and LGM conditions indicate that these groups occupy largely non-overlapping niches. ENM hypothesis testing rejected niche identity between the two groups, and supported a sharp ecological gradient occurring where the groups meet. However, the niche similarity test indicated that the two groups may not inhabit different background niches. The Sierra Nevada Mountains provide a natural laboratory for simultaneously testing ecological niche divergence and conservatism and their role in speciation across a diverse range of taxa. Aliatypus janus represents a species complex with cryptic lineages that may have diverged due to parapatric speciation along an ecological gradient, or been maintained by the evolution of ecological niche differences following allopatric speciation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rivera-Quiroz, F Andrés; Alvarez-Padilla, Fernando
Three new species of the spider genus Trachelas L. Koch, 1872 are described and included in the speciosus group based on the following features: embolus as a separate sclerite from the tegulum with no basal coils, legs with a conspicuous fringe of long trichobothria and narrow copulatory ducts coiled irregularly. The new species described are: T. crassus sp. n., T. ductonuda sp. n. and T. odoreus sp. n. A total of 46 specimens were collected in an oak forest near Pico de Orizaba Volcano, Mexico. Most individuals were collected on low vegetation using beating trays and direct collecting at night. Additional images are available at www.unamfcaracnolab.com.
Full Text Available Eight species of Haplodrassus are recorded from Crimea: H. bohemicus Miller & Buchar, 1977; H. dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866; H. isaevi Ponomarev & Tsvetkov, 2006; H. minor (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879; H. kulczynskii Lohmander, 1942; H. pseudosignifer Marusik, Hippa & Koponen, 1996; H. signifer (C.L. Koch, 1839 and H. umbratilis (L. Koch, 1866. The occurrence of H. cognatus (Westring, 1861 in Crimea has not been confirmed. Haplodrassus bohemicus is a new species record for the Crimean fauna. Haplodrassus pseudosignifer is a new species record for Crimea and Ukraine as a whole, with Crimea as the westernmost point of its distribution range. Haplodrassus invalidus is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Azerbaijan, Caucasus and the former Soviet Union. Azerbaijan is the easternmost point of its known distribution range. All Crimean Haplodrassus species have only one peak of activity of adult specimens during the year. In Crimea we found syntopically two closely related species H. dalmatensis and H. isaevi in two localities (Sudak Distr., 10 km W Sudak, Mezhdurechie Vill., steppe; and Feodosiya Distr., Karadag Nature Reserve, steppes. These species differ in their phenology. The reproductive period of H. dalmatensis is in May-July, and that of H. isaevi occurs is in October-December. These phenological differences probably represent an additional mechanism of reproductive isolation between the two species. Diagnostic drawings are provided for all mentioned species as well as for H. deserticola Schmidt & Krause, 1996 and H. pugnans (Simon, 1880.
Kovblyuk, Mykola M; Kastrygina, Zoya A; Omelko, Mikhail M
Eight species of Haplodrassus are recorded from Crimea: Haplodrassus bohemicus Miller & Buchar, 1977; Haplodrassus dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866); Haplodrassus isaevi Ponomarev & Tsvetkov, 2006; Haplodrassus minor (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879); Haplodrassus kulczynskii Lohmander, 1942; Haplodrassus pseudosignifer Marusik, Hippa & Koponen, 1996; Haplodrassus signifer (C.L. Koch, 1839) and Haplodrassus umbratilis (L. Koch, 1866). The occurrence of Haplodrassus cognatus (Westring, 1861) in Crimea has not been confirmed. Haplodrassus bohemicus is a new species record for the Crimean fauna. Haplodrassus pseudosignifer is a new species record for Crimea and Ukraine as a whole, with Crimea as the westernmost point of its distribution range. Haplodrassus invalidus is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Azerbaijan, Caucasus and the former Soviet Union. Azerbaijan is the easternmost point of its known distribution range. All Crimean Haplodrassus species have only one peak of activity of adult specimens during the year. In Crimea we found syntopically two closely related species Haplodrassus dalmatensis and Haplodrassus isaevi in two localities (Sudak Distr., 10 km W Sudak, Mezhdurechie Vill., steppe; and Feodosiya Distr., Karadag Nature Reserve, steppes). These species differ in their phenology. The reproductive period of Haplodrassus dalmatensis isin May-July, and that of Haplodrassus isaevi occurs is in October-December. These phenological differences probably represent an additional mechanism of reproductive isolation between the two species. Diagnostic drawings are provided for all mentioned species as well as for Haplodrassus deserticola Schmidt & Krause, 1996 and Haplodrassus pugnans (Simon, 1880).
Almeida, C E; Ramos, E F; Gouvêa, E; do Carmo-Silva, M; Costa, J
Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 is a common species in several spots of Mata Atlântica, however there is a great lack of studies in all aspects of its natural history. This work aims to elucidate aspects of ecotope preference compared to large spiders, and to provide data on the development of chromatic patterns during its life cycle. The observations on the behavior of C. medius were done in the campus of Centro Universitário de Barra Mansa (UBM) by means of observations and nocturnal collections using cap lamps. For observations on the development of chromatic patterns, spiderlings raised in laboratory, hatched from an oviposition of a female from campus of UBM, and others spiderlings collected in field were used. The field observations indicate that: C. medius seems to prefer ecotopes characterized by dense shrub vegetation or herbal undergrowth; Lycosa erythrognatha and L. nordeskioldii seems to prefer open sites; Phoneutria nigriventer seems to prefer shrub vegetation and anthropogenic ecotopes as rubbish hills; Ancylometes sp. seems to prefer ecotopes near streams. Concerning chromatic patterns, it was observed that males and females show well distinct patterns during the last two instars, allowing distinction by sex without the use of a microscope. Through chromatic patterns it was also possible to draw a distinction between C. medius and C. ornatus longer that 3 mm cephalothorax width. 69 specimens of C. medius (males and females) collected in the campus of UBM did not show a striking polymorphism in chromatic pattern, but one among 7 adult females collected in National Park of Itatiaia, showed a distinct chromatic pattern.
Rix, Michael G.; Harvey, Mark S.
Abstract The Assassin Spiders of the family Archaeidae are an ancient and iconic lineage of basal araneomorph spiders, characterised by a specialised araneophagic ecology and unique, ‘pelican-like’ cephalic morphology. Found throughout the rainforests, wet sclerophyll forests and mesic heathlands of south-western, south-eastern and north-eastern Australia, the genus Austrarchaea Forster & Platnick, 1984 includes a diverse assemblage of relictual, largely short-range endemic species. With recent dedicated field surveys and significant advances in our understanding of archaeid biology and ecology, numerous new species of assassin spiders have been discovered in the montane sub-tropical and warm-temperate closed forests of mid-eastern Australia, including several rare or enigmatic taxa and species of conservation concern. This fauna is revised and 17 new species are described from south-eastern Queensland and eastern New South Wales: Austrarchaea alani sp. n., Austrarchaea aleenae sp. n., Austrarchaea binfordae sp. n., Austrarchaea christopheri sp. n., Austrarchaea clyneae sp. n., Austrarchaea cunninghami sp. n., Austrarchaea dianneae sp. n., Austrarchaea harmsi sp. n., Austrarchaea helenae sp. n., Austrarchaea judyae sp. n., Austrarchaea mascordi sp. n., Austrarchaea mcguiganae sp. n., Austrarchaea milledgei sp. n., Austrarchaea monteithi sp. n., Austrarchaea platnickorum sp. n., Austrarchaea raveni sp. n. and Austrarchaea smithae sp. n. Adult specimens of the type species, Austrarchaea nodosa (Forster, 1956) are redescribed from the Lamington Plateau, south-eastern Queensland, and distinguished from the sympatric species Austrarchaea dianneae sp. n. A key to species and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of COI and COII mtDNA sequences complement the species-level taxonomy, with maps, habitat photos, natural history information and conservation assessments provided for all species. PMID:21998529
Full Text Available The Assassin Spiders of the family Archaeidae are an ancient and iconic lineage of basal araneomorph spiders, characterised by a specialised araneophagic ecology and unique, ‘pelican-like’ cephalic morphology. Found throughout the rainforests, wet sclerophyll forests and mesic heathlands of south-western, south-eastern and north-eastern Australia, the genus Austrarchaea Forster & Platnick, 1984 includes a diverse assemblage of relictual, largely short-range endemic species. With recent dedicated field surveys and significant advances in our understanding of archaeid biology and ecology, numerous new species of assassin spiders have been discovered in the montane sub-tropical and warm-temperate closed forests of mid-eastern Australia, including several rare or enigmatic taxa and species of conservation concern. This fauna is revised and 17 new species are described from south-eastern Queensland and eastern New South Wales: A. alani sp. n., A. aleenae sp. n., A. binfordae sp. n., A. christopheri sp. n., A. clyneae sp. n., A. cunninghami sp. n., A. dianneae sp. n., A. harmsi sp. n., A. helenae sp. n., A. judyae sp. n., A. mascordi sp. n., A. mcguiganae sp. n., A. milledgei sp. n., A. monteithi sp. n., A. platnickorum sp. n., A. raveni sp. n. and A. smithae sp. n. Adult specimens of the type species, A. nodosa (Forster, 1956 are redescribed from the Lamington Plateau, south-eastern Queensland, and distinguished from the sympatric species A. dianneae sp. n. A key to species and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of COI and COII mtDNA sequences complement the species-level taxonomy, with maps, habitat photos, natural history information and conservation assessments provided for all species.
Miller, J.A.; Griswold, C.E.; Yin, C.M.
A ten-year inventory of the Gaoligongshan in western Yunnan Province, China, yielded more than 1000 adult spider specimens belonging to the symphytognathoid families Theridiosomatidae, Mysmenidae, Anapidae, and Symphytognathidae. These specimens belong to 36 species, all herein described as new. In
Full Text Available The present paper deals with two new species of Yaginumaella, Yaginumaella lushuiensis sp. n. (female and male and Yaginumaella pseudoflexa sp. n. (female and male. The male of Y. lushuiensis sp. n. differs from the related species Y. flexa Song & Chai, 1992 in ventral view of palpal organ. The female of Y. lushuiensis sp. n. differs from the related species Y. urbanii Żabka, 1981 by: 1 hoods locate at the anterior area of epigynum and far away from the copulatory openings; 2 epigynum about circular; 3 copulatory openings transverse. The male of Y. pseudoflexa sp. n. differs from the related species Y. bulbosa Peng, Tang & Li, 2008 in ventral view of palpal organ: 1 basal portion of embolus touches the margin of genital bulb. 2 distal portion of tibial apophysis covers the posterior margin of cymbium and far away from the margin of genital bulb. The female of Y. pseudoflexa sp. n. differs from the related species Y. urbanii Żabka, 1981 by: epigynum about as long as wide; hoods locate at the anterior area of the epigynum, above the outside area of the copulatory openings and far away from the copulatory openings. Photos of body and copulatory organs, line drawings of copulatory organs, as well as the locality map are provided. Descriptions of morphology are given.
Lopes, Priscila Hess; Bertani, Rogério; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute M; Nagahama, Roberto H; van den Berg, Carmen W; Tambourgi, Denise V
The spider family Sicariidae includes two genera, Sicarius and Loxosceles. Bites by Sicarius are uncommon in humans and, in Brazil, a single report is known of a 17-year old man bitten by a Sicarius species that developed a necrotic lesion similar to that caused by Loxosceles. Envenomation by Loxosceles spiders can result in dermonecrosis and severe ulceration. Sicarius and Loxosceles spider venoms share a common characteristic, i.e., the presence of Sphingomyelinases D (SMase D). We have previously shown that Loxosceles SMase D is the enzyme responsible for the main pathological effects of the venom. Recently, it was demonstrated that Sicarius species from Africa, like Loxosceles spiders from the Americas, present high venom SMase D activity. However, despite the presence of SMase D like proteins in venoms of several New World Sicarius species, they had reduced or no detectable SMase D activity. In order to contribute to a better understanding about the toxicity of New World Sicarius venoms, the aim of this study was to characterize the toxic properties of male and female venoms from the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider and compare these with venoms from Loxosceles species of medical importance in Brazil. SDS-PAGE analysis showed variations in the composition of Loxosceles spp. and Sicarius ornatus venoms. Differences in the electrophoretic profiles of male and female venoms were also observed, indicating a possible intraspecific variation in the composition of the venom of Sicarius spider. The major component in all tested venoms had a Mr of 32-35 kDa, which was recognized by antiserum raised against Loxosceles SMases D. Moreover, male and female Sicarius ornatus spiders' venoms were able to hydrolyze sphingomyelin, thus showing an enzymatic activity similar to that determined for Loxosceles venoms. Sicarius ornatus venoms, as well as Loxosceles venoms, were able to render erythrocytes susceptible to lysis by autologous serum and to induce a significant loss of human keratinocyte cell viability; the female Sicarius ornatus venom was more efficient than male. We show here, for the first time, that the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider contains active Sphingomyelinase D and is able to cause haemolysis and keratinocyte cell death similar to the South American Loxosceles species, harmful effects that are associated with the presence of active SMases D. These results may suggest that envenomation by this Sicarius spider has the potential to cause similar pathological events as that caused by Loxosceles envenomation. Our results also suggest that, in addition to the interspecific differences, intraspecific variations in the venoms composition may play a role in the toxic potential of the New World Sicarius venoms species.
Pekár, Stano; Šedo, Onřej; Líznarová, Eva; Korenko, Stanislav; Zdráhal, Zdeněk
It is rare to find a true predator that repeatedly and routinely kills prey larger than itself. A solitary specialised ant-eating spider of the genus Zodarion can capture a relatively giant prey. We studied the trophic niche of this spider species and investigated its adaptations (behavioural and venomic) that are used to capture ants. We found that the spider captures mainly polymorphic Messor arenarius ants. Adult female spiders captured large morphs while tiny juveniles captured smaller morphs, yet in both cases ants were giant in comparison with spider size. All specimens used an effective prey capture strategy that protected them from ant retaliation. Juvenile and adult spiders were able to paralyse their prey using a single bite. The venom glands of adults were more than 50 times larger than those of juvenile spiders, but the paralysis latency of juveniles was 1.5 times longer. This suggests that this spider species possesses very potent venom already at the juvenile stage. Comparison of the venom composition between juvenile and adult spiders did not reveal significant differences. We discovered here that specialised capture combined with very effective venom enables the capture of giant prey.
Lissner, Jørgen; Gravesen, Eigil Vestergaard
The linyphiid spider Centromerus arcanus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873) is reported new to Greenland. A single female was pitfall trapped in South-West Greenland at Kobbefjord in the summer of 2016 constituting the first record of this species in the Nearctic ecozone. The habitat in which the Greenland...
Paul, Jimmy; Sankaran, Pradeep M; Joseph, Mathew M; Sebastian, Pothalil A
The orb-weaving spider genus Plebs Joseph & Framenau, 2012 currently has only two representatives in India: Plebs himalayaensis (Tikader, 1975) from the Himalayas and Plebs mitratus (Simon, 1895) from the Nilgiris and Anamudi Shola National Park (World Spider Catalog 2016), both are found in high altitude mountainous habitats (Joseph & Framenau 2012). Both species were known only from females (World Spider Catalog 2016), although Sherriffs (1918, 1919) provided a description of an immature male of P. mitratus. In the present paper, we provide the first description of the adult male of P. mitratus, together with the detailed redescription of its female demonstrating considerable intraspecific variation.
Miller, J. A.; Schilthuizen, M.; Burmester, J. L.; van der Graaf, L.; Merckx, V.; Jocqué, M.; Kessler, P. J. A.; Fayle, Tom Maurice; Breeschoten, T.; Broeren, R.; Bouman, R.; Chua, W.-J.; Feijen, F.; Fermont, T.; Groen, K.; Groen, M.; Kil, N. J. C.; de Laat, H. A.; Moerland, M. S.; Moncoquet, C.; Panjang, E.; Philip, A. J.; Roca-Eriksen, R.; Rooduijn, B.; van Santen, M.; Swakman, V.; Evans, M. N.; Evans, L. J.; Love, K.; Joscelyne, S. H.; Tober, A. V.; Wilson, H. F.; Ambu, L. N.; Goossens, B.
-, č. 2 (2014), e1076 ISSN 1314-2828 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-32302S Grant - others:Australian Research Council Discovery Grant(AU) DP140101541 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borneo * Crassignatha * disturbance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://biodiversitydatajournal.com/articles.php?id=1076#articles.php?id=1076&_suid=140136443701508137781001837112
Full Text Available The male of Bistriopelma matuskai Kaderka 2015 is described and illustrated, the species is rediagnosed and complemented by new biogeographical data. Additionally, a new species of Bistriopelma, B. titicaca sp. nov., from the Puno region in Peru is described, diagnosed and illustrated. An updated general description and distribution map of Bistriopelma are provided.
F Sara Ceccarelli
Full Text Available Closely related organisms with transoceanic distributions have long been the focus of historical biogeography, prompting the question of whether long-distance dispersal, or tectonic-driven vicariance shaped their current distribution. Regarding the Southern Hemisphere continents, this question deals with the break-up of the Gondwanan landmass, which has also affected global wind and oceanic current patterns since the Miocene. With the advent of phylogenetic node age estimation and parametric bioinformatic advances, researchers have been able to disentangle historical evolutionary processes of taxa with greater accuracy. In this study, we used the coastal spider genus Amaurobioides to investigate the historical biogeographical and evolutionary processes that shaped the modern-day distribution of species of this exceptional genus of spiders. As the only genus of the subfamily Amaurobioidinae found on three Southern Hemisphere continents, its distribution is well-suited to study in the context of Gondwanic vicariance versus long-distance, transoceanic dispersal. Ancestral species of the genus Amaurobioides appear to have undergone several long-distance dispersal events followed by successful establishments and speciation, starting from the mid-Miocene through to the Pleistocene. The most recent common ancestor of all present-day Amaurobioides species is estimated to have originated in Africa after arriving from South America during the Miocene. From Africa the subsequent dispersals are likely to have taken place predominantly in an eastward direction. The long-distance dispersal events by Amaurobioides mostly involved transoceanic crossings, which we propose occurred by rafting, aided by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the West Wind Drift.
Full Text Available The purse-web spider genus Calommata Lucas, 1837 is revised in the Afrotropical Region. Following examination of the female type material, C. transvaalica Hewitt, 1916 is removed from synonymy with C. simoni Pocock, 1903 and revalidated. The females of both species are redescribed and their males described for the first time. While C. simoni is very widespread across tropical Africa, C. transvaalica is endemic to northern South Africa. Four new species are described, all known only from males: C. megae sp. n. (Zimbabwe, C. meridionalis sp. n. (South Africa, C. namibica sp. n. (Namibia and C. tibialis sp. n. (Ivory Coast and Togo. Notes are presented on the biology of each species.
Full Text Available The diving bell spider Argyroneta aquatica is the only known spider to conduct a wholly aquatic life. For this reason, it has been the object of an array of studies concerning different aspects of its peculiar biology such as reproductive behavior and sexual dimorphism, physiology, genetic and silk. On the other hand, besides some empirical observations, the autoecology of this spider is widely understudied. We conducted an ecological study in a resurgence located in the Po Plain (Northern Italy, Province of Vercelli hosting a relatively rich population of Argyroneta aquatica, aiming at identifying the ecological factors driving its presence at the micro-habitat level. By means of a specific sampling methodology, we acquired distributional data of the spiders in the study area and monitored physical-chemical and habitat structure parameters at each plot. We analyzed the data through Bernoulli Generalized Linear Models (GLM. Results pointed out a significant positive effect of the presence of aquatic vegetation in the plot. In addition, the presence of A. aquatica was significantly associated with areas of the resurgence characterized at the same time by high prey availability and low density of predators. Considering the ecological importance and rarity of this species, we update and revise the data on the distribution of A. aquatica in Italy.
Ferretti, Nelson Edgardo; Copperi, Maria Sofia; Schwerdt, Leonela Vanesa; Pompozzi, Gabriel Alejandro
This is the first record for the tarantula Vitalius longisternalis Bertani, 2001 in Parana and Araucaria Forests, Misiones province, northeastern Argentina. Specimens were found at Iguazú National Park and Urugua-í Wildlife Reserve. Data on its natural history is provided. Fil: Ferretti, Nelson Edgardo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico la Plata. Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores (i); Argentina. Universidad Nacional de ...
Full Text Available A female of the dwarf sheet spider Hahnia picta Kulczynski, 1897 was found in an old castle park in Berlin (Germany. All published records as well as unpublished records from Austria are listed and mapped. This species is rarely recorded. Its distribution is confined to Europe. H. picta seems to live exclusively under the bark of old deciduous trees.
Full Text Available Three new species of Holmelgonia were found in the mountain forest of Kibira National Park in Burundi: H. afromontana sp. nov. (♂♀, H. bosnasutus sp. nov. (♂♀ and H. disconveniens sp. nov. (♂. A key to the males in the genus, now containing 17 species, is provided.
Ratschker, Ulrich M.
Full Text Available The spider communities of four restored, afforested pure stands of first generation pine, birch and birch-robinia in the postmining landscape and one natural pine forest of the Lower Lusatia (Germany: Saxony and Brandenburg were investigated. From 1997-98 a total of 6,368 spiders were caught using stemeclectors and pitfall traps. More than 50% of the specimens collected were juveniles. The remaining individuals were identified and represent 123 from 23 families. Among them are several taxa listed in the Red Data Lists of Germany (n = 16, Brandenburg (n = 13 and Saxony (n = 14. One species, Clubiona leucaspis is rare for Germany and new to Saxony. When comparing afforested stands of pine on postmining areas with natural ones the species Coelotes terrestris (Amaurobiidae was observed exclusively in the latter. The absence of this species on restored sites seems to indicate a disturbance of the soil up to almost 60 years after the end of restoration. According to pitfall trapping in three pine forests the increasing biomass of spiders indicates a high predation rate at the oldest site, whereas the highest species diversity was found on younger, rehabilitated sites.
Noordijk, J.; Schaffers, A.P.; Sykora, K.V.
Roadside verges in densely populated areas are often a significant addition to the total semi-natural area and as such may contribute to the conservation of biodiversity. Furthermore, they can enhance the ecological cohesion of a region, especially when the existing nature reserves are small and/or
Pekar, Stano; Toft, Søren
accept ants, more than one-third of 35 spiders refuse to consume fruit flies and starve. Furthermore, severe hunger does not induce these individuals to accept fruit flies. Starving spiders die before moulting to the second stadium. Spiders that eat fruit flies increase only little and slowly in weight......Abstract. Little attention is paid to the behavioural and physiological adaptations of ant-eating predators. It is expected that there should be a strong selection for traits related to prey handling, leading to the evolution of morphological, behavioural and nutritional adaptations....... Such adaptations may then entail trade-offs in handling and utilization of alternative prey. To investigate behavioural as well as nutritional adaptations and the occurrence of the corresponding trade-offs in two ant-eating spiders of the genus Zodarion [Zodarion atlanticum Pekár & Cardoso and Zodarion germanicum...
A female of the jumping spider Heliophanus stylifer Simon, 1878 was found in the s’Albufera natural park on the Balearic Island of Mallorca (Spain). This species is new to Europe. Seven additional jumping spider species were recorded, including the first records of Heliophanus apiatus, Icius hamatus and Menemerus taeniatus for the Balearic Islands.
Caroline Sayuri Fukushima
Full Text Available The genus Loxosceles Heinecken & Lowe, 1832 has 91 representatives in the New World. Despite medical relevancy, the taxonomy of the genus is poorly understood. South American Loxosceles were divided into four groups of species: laeta, spadicea, gaucho and amazonica; this last one has a single species, Loxosceles amazonica Gertsch, 1967. More recently, the natural occurrence of L. amazonica in the New World has been questioned, due to the strong morphological resemblance and close phylogenetic relationship with Old World species, mainly with Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820. Herein, L. amazonica is rediagnosed and its morphological variation and natural distribution discussed. Two new species closely related to it from northeastern Brazil are also described, Loxosceles willianilsoni sp. n., from the state of Rio Grande do Norte, and Loxosceles muriciensis sp. n., from the state of Alagoas. The relationships of these new species with L. amazonica and L. rufescens are discussed.
Calbiague, Victor Manuel; Olivares, Jesus; Olivares, Erick; Schmachtenberg, Oliver
Spiders of the family Sicariidae pose a serious threat to affected populations, and Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet) is considered the most venomous species. Development of nontoxic olfaction-based spider repellents or traps is hindered by a current lack of knowledge regarding olfactory system function in arachnids. In the present study, general plant odorants and conspecific odors were tested for behavioral responses in L. laeta. Although general odorants triggered neither attraction nor aversion, conspecific odor of the opposite sex caused aversion in females, and attraction in males. These results support the presence of a specific olfactory system for the detection of conspecifics in L. laeta, but suggest the absence of a broadly tuned system for general odorant detection in this species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; de Andrade, Rute Maria Gonçalves; Bertani, Rogério
The genus Loxosceles Heinecken & Lowe, 1832 has 91 representatives in the New World. Despite medical relevancy, the taxonomy of the genus is poorly understood. South American Loxosceles were divided into four groups of species: laeta , spadicea , gaucho and amazonica ; this last one has a single species, Loxosceles amazonica Gertsch, 1967. More recently, the natural occurrence of L. amazonica in the New World has been questioned, due to the strong morphological resemblance and close phylogenetic relationship with Old World species, mainly with Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820). Herein, L. amazonica is rediagnosed and its morphological variation and natural distribution discussed. Two new species closely related to it from northeastern Brazil are also described, Loxosceles willianilsoni sp. n. , from the state of Rio Grande do Norte, and Loxosceles muriciensis sp. n. , from the state of Alagoas. The relationships of these new species with L. amazonica and L. rufescens are discussed.
Gonçalves de Andrade, R M; Galati, E A; Tambourgi, D V
The venom of Loxosceles spiders causes dermonecrotic lesion and induces complement-dependent intravascular haemolysis that characterizes a severe systemic effect. In Brazil, L. gaucho, L. intermedia and L. laeta, present in the anthropic environment, have been pointed out as the most important agents of the loxoscelism. Besides these species there are others that, by predominating in the natural environment, have not been evaluated regarding human health risk, as in the case of Loxosceles similis. The development of a research project in Bodoquena Range, for ecological observation and identification of insects of medical interest, enabled the capture of Loxosceles similis specimens in the "Pitangueiras" cave and "Lago Azul" cave, in Bodoquena Range, municipality of Bonito, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The objectives of this study were to define the parameters for identification, environmental features of the habitat of this species, as well as an update of its geographical distribution.
Pseudoscorpionida (Arachnida em galerias de colônias de Passalidae (Coleoptera, Insecta em troncos caídos em floresta de terra firme da Amazônia, Brasil Pseudoscorpionida (Arachnida found in the galleries made by Passalidae (Coleoptera, Insecta colonies inside fallen wood of the Amazonian terra firme forest, Brazil
Nair Otaviano Aguiar
Full Text Available Em sete municípios do Amazonas, um de Rondônia e um de Roraima, foram examinadas 71 colônias de 24 espécies de Passalidae (Coleoptera, pertencentes aos gêneros: Passalus Fabricius, 1792 (14 espécies; Paxillus Mac Leay, 1819 (três; Popilius Kaup, 1871 (três; Spasalus Kaup, 1869 (uma; Verres Kaup, 1871 (uma; Veturius Kaup, 1871 (duas. Foram registradas doze espécies de pseudoscorpiões, incluindo nove gêneros e cinco famílias, listadas a seguir: Chernetidae - Americhernes aff. incertus Mahnert, 1979, Cordylochernes scorpioides (Linnaeus 1758, Lustrochenes similis (Balzan 1892, L. aff. reimoseri Beier, 1932, L. intermedius (Balzan 1892, Phymatochernes crassimanus Mahnert 1979; Chthoniidae - Pseudochthonius homodentatus Chamberlin, 1929; Lechytiidae - Lechytia chthoniiformis (Balzan 1887; Tridenchthoniidae - Tridenchthonius mexicanus Chamberlin & Chamberlin 1945; Withiidae - Cacodemonius sp., Dolichowithius (D. emigrans (Tullgren 1907, D. (D. mediofasciatus Mahnert, 1979. Dentre as espécies mais freqüentes (T. mexicanus, L. intermedius e L. aff. reimoseri, ocorreram todos os estágios de desenvolvimento. Foram coletadas de uma a três espécies de pseudoscorpiões em cada colônia individual de besouros passalídeos. T. mexicanus foi a única espécie encontrada em todos os municípios, ocorrendo em 45 colônias de dezenove espécies de passalídeos, sendo a maioria dos exemplares encontrado no subcórtex. L. intermedius foi a segunda espécie mais abundante, ocorrendo em colônias de 11 espécies de Passalidae, a maioria também no subcórtex. L. aff reimoseri ocorreu em 13 colônias de Passalidae, sob a casca, alburno e cerne. L. aff. reimoseri foi a única espécie coletada somente no cerne.Seventy-one colonies from 24 species of Coleoptera, Passalidae, belonging respectively to the genera Passalus Fabricius, 1792 (14 species, Paxillus Mac Leay, 1819 (three species, Popilius Kaup, 1871 (three species, Spasalus Kaup, 1869 (one species, Verres Kaup, 1871 (one species and Veturius Kaup, 1871 (two species, were examined from seven municipalities of Amazonas, one of Rondônia and one of Roraima states. Twelve species of psedoscorpions were found, belonging to nine genera and five families, as follows: Chernetidae - Americhernes aff. incertus Mahnert 1979, Cordylochernes scorpioides (Lin. 1758, Lustrochenes similis (Balzan 1892, L. aff. reimoseri Beier, 1932, L. intermedius (Balzan 1892, Phymatochernes crassimanus Mahnert 1979; Chthoniidae - Pseudochthonius homodentatus Chamberlin 1929; Lechytiidae - Lechytia chthoniiformis (Balzan 1887; Tridenchthoniidae - Tridenchthonius mexicanus Chamberlin & Chamberlin 1945; Withiidae - Cacodemonius sp, Dolichowithius emigrans (Tullgren 1907, D. mediofasciatus Mahnert, 1979. Among the most common species, all the development stages of T. mexicanus, L. intermedius and L. aff. reimoseri were found. From one to three species of pseudoscorpions were collected in each colony of passalíd beetles. T. mexicanus, the only species found in all municipalities, was caught in 45 colonies of nineteen species of passalids, the majority of them occurring under bark. L. intermedius, the second most abundant species, was caught in colonies of 11 species of passalids, the majority of them also under bark. Lustrochenes aff. reimoseri was caught in colonies of 13 species of Passalidae under bark and in sapwood and heartwood and was the only species caught exclusively in heartwood.
Diversidade de ácaros (Acari, Arachnida em seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae na região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Mites diversity (Acari, Arachnida from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae in Northwestern of São Paulo State, Brazil
Reinaldo J.F. Feres
Full Text Available The mites of three rubber tree cultures (Cedral, Pindorama and Taquaritinga in order to determine the abundance of populations, the richness, the diversity and the degree of similarity among the communities was studied. Twenty one species were found, five of which were common to the three cultures. The richness and the abundance were greatest at the beginning of the dry season. The composition of communities differed probably as consequence of the kind of neighboring vegetation to each area, and because of the acaricid pulverization on the culture of Taquaritinga, reductng the richness of mite species in that area. The influence of neighboring vegetation can be shown by the occurrence of Iphiseiodes zuluagui Denmark & Muma, 1972, a common species to citrus trees, on neighboring rubber trees in Taquaritinga, and Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945, a common species on rubber trees, on a coffee culture neighbor to the rubber trees of Pindorama. This data suggests that mites move among neighbor cultures, and can be an importam factor towards pest management and control. The diversity was small on the three cultures, as a result of the occurrence of one dominam species on each area, Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992 or T. heveae, which are considered pests of the rubber tree. The small diversity and the occurrence of dominant species are patterns expected in monocultures, systems with small environmental heterogeneity.
First record of Stygnidae for the state of Espírito Santo and description of a new Protimesius (Arachnida: Opiliones: Laniatores Primeiro registro de Stygnidae para o estado do Espírito Santo e descrição de um novo Protimesius (Arachnida: Opiliones: Laniatores
Adriano B. Kury
Full Text Available Protimesius osvaldoi sp. nov. is described from the Reserva Biológica de Sooretama, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, being the first record of Stygnidae from this State and the southernmost record of the family in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (hitherto, the family was recorded down to Bahia only, extending in 210 km south of the previously known distribution. This is a large species, with armature of leg IV very reduced and penial morphology differing from the closest counterparts mainly in the ventral plate, which recedes deeply at the lateral borders and has the distal margin curved ventrally and by the presence of two small intermediate setae. Protimesius Roewer, 1913 consisted hitherto of 17 species, recorded from northern/northeastern Brazil and Amazonia of adjacent countries. A key is given for the 17 species of Protimesius for which males are known.Protimesius osvaldoi sp. nov. é descrita da Reserva Biológica de Sooretama, Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil, sendo considerado o primeiro registro de Stygnidae para este Estado (até então a distribuição registrada para a família se estendia apenas até a Bahia e o registro mais ao sul na Floresta Atlântica, aumentando em 210 km ao sul a distribuição do grupo. Protomesius osvaldoi é uma espécie de tamanho grande, com armação reduzida na perna IV e placa ventral. Protimesius possui 17 espécies, registradas no norte e nordeste do Brasil e Região Amazônica. É apresentada uma chave para as 17 espécies de Protimesius com machos conhecidos.
Diversidad taxonómica y denso-actividad de solífugos (Arachnida: Solifugae asociados a un ecosistema desértico costero del centro norte de Chile Taxonomic diversity and density-activity of solpugids (Arachnida: Solifugae in a coastal desert ecosystem in the northern centre of Chile
Daniel E. Valdivia
Full Text Available En Chile, el orden Solifugae está representado por 14 especies agrupadas en 10 géneros, distribuidos en las tres familias descritas en Sudamérica: Ammotrechidae, Mummuciidae y Daesiidae. En el presente trabajo se documenta la composición genérica y/o específica de solífugos asociados a un ecosistema desértico costero del centro norte de Chile, y se muestran las variaciones de su denso-actividad. El estudio se realizó en el sector costero de Punta de Choros (29°21'S, 71°10'O; 17 msnm, durante los meses de junio, agosto, octubre y noviembre de 2005. Entre los 249 ejemplares capturados, se reconoció la presencia de tres familias, cuatro géneros y cinco especies. Éstas fueron Procleobis sp., Sedna pirata Muma (Ammotrechidae, Mummucia sp., Mummucia variegata (Gervais (Mummuciidae y Ammotrechelis goetschi Roewer (Daesiidae. La mayor denso-actividad de solífugos se registró en los meses de octubre, 5 especies (ca 30 % del total capturado; y noviembre, 3 especies (ca 41 % del total capturado. Mientras que algunas especies se mostraron activas durante todo el período de estudio (e.g., Ammotrechelis goetschi, otras presentaron actividad parcial. Por ejemplo, Mummucia variegata manifestó actividad entre agosto y noviembre; Sedna pirata entre octubre y noviembre y tanto Procleobis sp. como Mummucia sp. estuvieron activas sólo en octubre. La diversidad y la denso-actividad de Solifugae estarían determinadas por factores biológicos y ecológicos.In Chile the order Solifugae is represented by 14 species arranged in 10 genera distributed among the three families described for South America: Ammotrechidae, Mummuciidae and Daesiidae. The present work documents the taxonomic composition of solpugids in a desert coastal ecosystem of the northern centre of Chile and describes variation in their density-activity. The study was carried out in the coastal sector of Punta de Choros (29°21'S, 71°10'W; 17 masl during June, August, October and November 2005. The 249 captured specimens represented three families, four genera, and five species. These were Procleobis sp. and Sedna pirata Muma (Ammotrechidae, Mummucia sp. and Mummucia variegata (Gervais (Mummuciidae, and Ammotrechelis goetschi Roewer (Daesiidae. The highest levels of solpugid density-activity occurred in October (ca 30 % of the total captured and November (ca 41 % of the total captured. Five species were captured in October and three, in November. While some species were active throughout the study (e.g., Ammotrechelis goetschi, others showed occasional activity. For example, Mummucia variegata showed activity between August and November, Sedna pirata between October and November, and Procleobis sp. and Mummucia sp. only in October. The diversity and density-activity may be determined by biological and ecological factors.
Soto, Eduardo M; Labarque, Facundo M; Ceccarelli, F Sara; Arnedo, Miquel A; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime; Ramírez, Martín J
Oceanic archipelagoes, by their young origin and isolation, provide privileged settings to study the origin and diversification of species. Here, we study the anyphaenid spider genus Philisca, endemic to the Valdivian temperate rainforest, which includes species living both on the mainland as well as on the Robison Crusoe Island in the Juan Fernández archipelago. Anyphaenids, as many spiders, are potentially good colonizers due their ability for ballooning, an airborne dispersal mediated by strands of silk that are caught in the wind. We use a molecular approach to estimate both the phylogenetic relationships and the timeframe of species diversification of Philisca, with the aim to infer its evolutionary history. We further estimate the rates of speciation on both the insular and continental Philisca species and score the microhabitat used by each species and their sizes as a proxy to evaluate ecological niche diversification within the island. Most analyses support the monophyly of Philisca, with the exclusion of Philisca tripunctata. Our results reveal colonization from a single lineage that postdated the origin of the island, followed by rapid (∼2Ma) diversification. The ancestral microhabitat was most likely leaf-dwelling but we identify two independent microhabitat shifts. Our data provides evidence that Philisca has undergone an adaptive radiation on the Robison Crusoe Island. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805 are described from Tajikistan: Pholcus saidovi Yao & Li sp. nov. (♂♀ and P. shuguanensis Yao & Li sp. nov. (♂. The female of P. sidorenkoi Dunin, 1994 is reported for the first time. All belong to the P. nenjukovi species group.
Full Text Available Mating-induced sexual inhibition has been studied extensively as an important facet of many insect mating systems but remains little understood in spiders. Once mated, females of many spider species become unreceptive and aggressive toward males, but the speed of onset and persistence of this effect are not known. Addressing this gap, the present study considers (1 mating tendency of virgins, latency to remating, and lifetime mating frequency and (2 how quickly sexual inhibition is expressed after the first mating in female Servaea incana jumping spiders. Encounters between males and females took place in two contexts that simulated locations where mating occurs in nature: in the light away from nests ('in the open' and in low light within the shelter of silken retreats ('at a retreat'. Virgin females exhibited high receptivity levels in both contexts but sexual inhibition was induced immediately after their first copulation. The most common tendency was for just one mating in a lifetime, and few females mated more than twice. Context also had an effect on female mating tendency, as virgin females in the open rejected more males before accepting their first mate than did virgin females in retreats. Considering only those females that did remate, females in the open tended to reject fewer males before remating. Given low levels of female remating, virgin females appear to be at a premium for male reproductive fitness in S. incana jumping spiders and this is a likely explanation for protandry found in nature.
Full Text Available Spiders have become an important model to study the evolution of sociality, but a lack of their detailed natural history and taxonomy hinders broader comparative studies. Group-living crab spiders (Thomisidae provide an excellent contrast to other social spiders since they lack a communal capture web, which was thought to be a critical factor in the evolution of sociality. Only three non-webbuilding crab-spider species are known to be subsocial or social, all of which belong to the genus Diaea Thorell, 1869. The aim of this study is to describe the social lifestyle of Xysticus bimaculatus L. Koch, 1867 for the first time. Furthermore, we present a detailed re-description of this species and discuss its taxonomic implications. Like other subsocial crab spiders, X. bimaculatus builds nests from tree leaves. Nests contain up to 38 spiders and sometimes several adult females, indicating the species may be at a transitory stage between subsociality and permanent sociality.
El-Nabawy, El-Said M; Tsuda, Katsuo; Sakamaki, Yositaka; Oda, Asahi; Ushijima, Yurie
The main goal of this study was to identify the treatment that increases the populations of spiders, which are effective predators in agroecosystems. In 2013 and 2014 the experimental eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) field was two different treatments, organic fertilizers and chemical fertilizer treatment, and in 2014 we surrounded organic fertilizer plots with the flowering plants mealy cup sage (Salvia farinacea Benth.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Analysis using repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant influences of fertilizer type on the numbers of linyphiid spiders and Collembola in 2013. In 2014, the numbers of Collembola, thrips, and lycosid and linyphiid spider were higher in organic fertilizer with flowering plants treatment comparing with the chemical fertilizer treatment. Moreover, the numbers of Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (F.) were significantly lower in the organic fertilizer with flowering plants treatment than in chemical fertilizers treatment. Finally, we expect that Thysanoptera and Collembola were important alternative prey for linyphiid and lycosid spiders and the use of organic fertilizer and flowering plants enhanced the density of these spiders, and may increase their effectiveness in suppressing the populations of H. vigintioctopunctata (F.). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.
Full Text Available 85 literature sources and 61 spider species have to be added to the "Catalogue of spiders of the north west German Lowland and Schleswig-Holstein", published in 1994. Nine species have to be omitted from the original list. Currently, the total number of spider species in the region is 653, including at least 21 doubtful records. This overall large regional species pool obviously results from the large size of the area included and its landscape diversity with coastal zones as well as lowlands with both anthropogenic and natural habitats of different natural landscapes.
Hänggi, Ambros; Straub, Sandrine
Transportation of goods via land, sea or air causes a dissemination of species on a global scale. In central Europe species that are associated with fruit, vegetables and/or buildings are suspected to be imported and potentially build up populations in the following four categories of buildings: I) greenhouses, garden centres, flower shops and flower wholesale stores, II) storage buildings and logistic centres, III) botanical gardens and zoos and IV) touristic hotspots. During this research 2...
Full Text Available Transportation of goods via land, sea or air causes a dissemination of species on a global scale. In central Europe species that are associated with fruit, vegetables and/or buildings are suspected to be imported and potentially build up populations in the following four categories of buildings: I greenhouses, garden centres, flower shops and flower wholesale stores, II storage buildings and logistic centres, III botanical gardens and zoos and IV touristic hotspots. During this research 20 such localities in and around Basel were investigated by means of visual searching. 340 adult spider individuals were collected, representing 37 species and 15 families. Three were first records for Switzerland. Eight species were not published before for the region of Basel even if six of these were already known in private, not published collections – partly going back to the 1930s. Our investigation shows that the interpretation of the spread and invasion of species needs good published knowledge about the actual status of our fauna which, especially for synanthropic spiders, is not the case. We therefore urge everybody to publish all knowledge about faunistics even for so-called common species.
Denis Rafael Pedroso
Full Text Available Diplura C.L. Koch, 1850 is a mygalomorph genus with putative records from Central and South America. The type-species Diplura macrura (C.L. Koch, 1841, originally described from West Indies, is poorly known and represented only by its holotype. Most of the 20 species currently included in the genus lack modern taxonomic descriptions, as D. lineata (Lucas, 1857, from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Males and females of Diplura macrura and D. lineata are herein redescribed. New junior synonyms of D. macrura are identified (Linothele bicolor (Simon, 1889, Diplura uniformis Mello-Leitão, 1923, and the two junior synonyms of the latter species, Thalerothele minensis Mello-Leitão, 1926 and T. aurantiaca Mello-Leitão, 1943. Also, two junior synonyms are established for D. lineata: Diplura fasciata (Bertkau, 1880 and Diplura nigridorsi (Mello-Leitão, 1924. The type-locality of D. macrura is corrected to São João del Rei, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. D. macrura is restricted to the state of Minas Gerais and D. lineata to the state of Rio de Janeiro. The type-locality of D. parallela (Mello-Leitão, 1923 is also corrected from Argentina to Paraná state, Brazil. The distribution of Diplura is now restricted from south Panama to north Argentina, excluding previous erroneous records for Cuba and West Indies. The six synonymies herein established help to clarify the genus composition, which includes now 17 valid species.
Full Text Available Mecynargus foveatus (Dahl, 1912 was recorded in the territory of Slovakia for the first time. Within two years of spider research, a single adult male was collected by beating branches of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris in the Borská nížina lowland. We also discovered that specimens of Erigonoplus simplex Millidge, 1979 from Bulgaria were misidentified as M. foveatus. Therefore, we suggest to consider E. simplex as a new record for Bulgaria and to exclude M. foveatus from the spider fauna of Bulgaria. A revised distribution of both species is presented and discussed. Based on the high similarity to Erigonoplus, M. foveatus is transferred to this genus as Erigonoplus foveatus (Dahl, 1912 comb. nov.
Full Text Available The polysphinctine wasp Megaetaira madida (Haliday, 1838 is a koinobiont ecto-parasitoid of spiders of the genus Metellina. Under the influence of the parasitoid’s final instar larva, the spider host M. merianae (Scopoli, 1763 built a three-dimensional web architecture, which differed considerably from the capturing orb web. The alteration of spider web behaviour induced by a parasitoid larva in this host-parasitoid pair is described for the first time.
Korenko, S.; Korenkova, B.; Satrapova, J.; Hamouzova, K.; Belgers, J.D.M.
Background: The polysphinctine wasp, Acrodactyla quadrisculpta, is a koinobiont ecto-parasitoid of spiders and is narrowly associated with the biology of its spider hosts. The larva, attached to the dorsal side of the abdomen, develops while the spider continues foraging. Shortly before pupation,
Deeleman - Reinhold, C.L.
All oxyopid spider species collected in a long-term ecological canopy project in northern Borneo are described. A total of nine species in three genera could be established, one of which belongs to a new genus. Four species could be assigned to known species, five are described as new species in the
Full Text Available The genus Thrigmopoeus is endemic to the Western Ghats of India, and is so far represented by two species: Thrigmopoeus truculentus Pocock, 1899 and T. insignis Pocock, 1899. The distribution of T. truculentus was considered to be restricted to its type locality until a few populations were identified in other places. In this paper we provide detail morphometry and characters used in modern-day taxonomy to redescribe the female of T. truculentus, with additional notes on its distribution, range extension, burrow and habitat.
Pekár, S.; Toft, Søren; Hrusková, M.
There has been considerable recent interest in the biology of spiders that specialise on ants as prey, but previous studies have tended to envisage the level of adaptation as being to ants as a group. In this paper, we provide evidence that Zodarion germanicum is a spider that has dietary and venom...... adaptations by which it targets a particular subset of ants, the subfamily Formicinae. We reared spiders from first instar in the laboratory on three different diets: formicine ants only, myrmicine ants only and mixed (both formicine and myrmicine ants). Fitness-related life-history parameters were determined......, and we found that the spiders on the formicine-only diet lived longer and grew at a faster rate. Lipid, carbon and nitrogen compositions of ants were analysed, but we found no evidence of formicines differing from myrmicines in macro-nutrient content. This suggests that effects on longevity and growth...
Full Text Available This is the first record for the species Iviraiva pachyura and for the family Hersiliidae in Uruguay. Data presented represent the southernmost record for the species. Figures of living specimens, copulatory organs and a description of the egg sac are provided. The distribution of the species is shown and discussed.
Full Text Available The effect of experimental livestock grazing regimens (4 treatments×6 replicates on spiders via habitat structure and prey abundance was investigated on sub-montane habitats in the Southern Highlands of Scotland. The study, 2002–2004 included a baseline survey under the prior, commercial sheep grazing regimen and two assessments of spider assemblages post-treatment: commercial stocking density of sheep; 1/3 stocking density with sheep; 1/3 stocking density cattle with sheep; and no grazing. Spiders were sampled with a suction sampler, five sucks at each of 25 sample units by 24 plots (600 samples in 2003 and 2004, ca. 320 in 2002. Spider abundance and species richness increased under reduced stocking density, mixed herbivore and ungrazed treatments indirectly via changes in vegetation structure and prey abundance. The results refuted a meta-analysis that concluded species richness of spiders is unaffected by grazing. Grazing regimens caused turnover in species composition more than the net difference in species richness suggested, implying that no single, optimal grazing regimen will support as many species as a patchwork under varied grazing management. Conservation grazing benefits spiders and will have significant benefits for food webs in sub-montane ecosystems but the period to equilibrium after changes to grazing requires further investigation.
Full Text Available We studied the habitat preferences and burrow characteristics of trapdoor spiders, Idiops joida Gupta et al 2013, within Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary and nearby reserve forests of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka, Western Ghats, India, from January 2010 to April 2010. We sampled 293 plots using 5 m2 quadrats, randomly placed in six habitat types at four localities. Spiders showed patchy distribution throughout the study area. The density of I. joida was highest in uncanopied habitats having sparse vegetation or bare grounds. Steep slopes were strongly preferred by spiders. Burrow characteristics of I. joida, such as burrow diameter, depth, and lid thickness, were independent of habitat type.
Full Text Available Prior to this study the genus Tigidia Simon, 1892 of the Brush-footed Spider family Barychelidae was represented by eight species endemic to Madagascar and Mauritius Islands. The first occurrence of Tigidia in India is reported here with the description of three new species from the Western Ghats, T. sahyadri sp. nov. from Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka; T. nilgiriensis sp. nov. from Kotagiri, Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu and T. rutilofronis sp. nov. from Maruthamalai, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu. This genus is probably a Gondwana relict. Natural history information is provided for all the species.
Full Text Available We propose the name Bumba as a new name for Maraca, preoccupied by Maraca Hebard, 1926 (Orthoptera. We describe and illustrate Bumba lennoni, a new theraphosid species from Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil. This species differs from the other species of the genus in the extremely reduced keel on male palpal organ and in the higher number of labial and maxillary cuspules. Females additionally differ in the spermathecal morphology. As a consequence of the name replacement, three new combinations are established.
Pérez-Miles, Fernando; Bonaldo, Alexandre Bragio; Miglio, Laura Tavares
We propose the name Bumba as a new name for Maraca, preoccupied by Maraca Hebard, 1926 (Orthoptera). We describe and illustrate Bumbalennoni, a new theraphosid species from Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil. This species differs from the other species of the genus in the extremely reduced keel on male palpal organ and in the higher number of labial and maxillary cuspules. Females additionally differ in the spermathecal morphology. As a consequence of the name replacement, three new combinations are established.
Roč. 66, - (2002), s. 321-328 ISSN 1211-376X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/1307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : scree slopes * ice formation * spiders Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour
Full Text Available Information on the genus Harmonicon F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1896, a key to the species and a new diagnosis differing from the one in Maréchal and Marty (1998 are provided. A new species is described: Harmonicon oiapoqueae differing from other species of the genus by the morphology of the posterior sternal sigilla, the more recurved, inverted U–shaped fovea, the amount and arrangement of maxillary cuspules, a single row of teeth on the claws of the palpal tarsus, longer and more slender legs III and IV in females, longer embolus, thinner bulb, and longer, more slender legs in males. The status of the putative junior synonyms of Harmonicon, Pseudohermachura Mello-Leitão, 1927 and Prosharmonicon Mello-Leitão, as well as the two species formerly assigned to Harmonicon, Harmonicon nigridorsi Mello-Leitão, 1924 and Harmonicon riveti Simon, 1903, is discussed.
Feitosa, Níthomas M; Moss, Daniella F; Ruiz, Gustavo R S; Bonaldo, Alexandre B
Twenty-seven new species of the genus Neoxyphinus are described, all from Brazil, raising the total number of species of the genus to 48. The new species with the respective geographic distribution and known sexes are: N. capiranga sp. nov. (♂♀) from Amazonas, Pará, Mato Grosso and Rondônia; N. caprichoso sp. nov. (♂♀) and N. garantido sp. nov. (♂♀) from Amazonas and Pará; N. crasto sp. nov. (♂♀) from Bahia and Sergipe; N. murici sp. nov. (♂♀) from Alagoas and Sergipe; N. meurei sp. nov. (♀) from Bahia and Mato Grosso; N. belterra sp. nov. (♂♀) from Pará and Mato Grosso; N. ornithogoblin sp. nov. (♂♀), N. sax sp. nov. (♂♀), N. coari sp. nov. (♂♀), N. tucuma sp. nov. (♂♀), N. ducke sp. nov. (♂) and N. carigoblin sp. nov. (♀) from Amazonas; N. almerim sp. nov. (♂), N. mutum sp. nov. (♂♀), N. caxiuana sp. nov. (♂♀), N. cachimbo sp. nov. (♂) and N. jacareacanga sp. nov. (♀) from Pará; N. paraty sp. nov. (♂♀) and N. rio sp. nov. (♂♀) from Rio de Janeiro; N. novalima sp. nov. (♂♀) and N. celluliticus sp. nov. (♂) from Minas Gerais; N. paraiba sp. nov. (♂) and N. simsinho sp. nov. (♂♀) from Paraíba; N. cantareira sp. nov. (♂) from São Paulo; N. cavus sp. nov. (♂) from Espírito Santo and N. stigmatus sp. nov. (♂) from Bahia. A key for identification of all 48 known species of Neoxyphinus is provided and possible monophyletic lineages within the genus are discussed.
Full Text Available In this paper, a new genus Neoheterophrictus gen. nov., with three new species, Neoheterophrictus crurofulvus sp. nov., N. sahyadri sp. nov. and N. uttarakannada sp. nov., is described from Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka, India. The new genus is close to Heterophrictus Pocock, 1900 and Plesiophrictus Pocock, 1899 but has multilobed spermathecae, which was consistent in all the three species and the males possessing double tibial spur. Natural history information for all the species described is provided. We transfer Plesiophrictus bhori Gravely, 1915 to Heterophrictus and synonymise P. mahabaleshwari Tikader, 1977 with Heterophrictus milleti Pocock, 1900.
Pablo Reátegui Suárez
Full Text Available Los resultados muestran la presencia de tarántulas del área de concesión de la empresa Perufish Aquarium EIRL, quebrada Yanayacu, río Itaya, Loreto. Reportándose un total de 5 especies de la familia Theraphosidae. Las 5 especies estuvieron en los bosques de colinas bajas moderadamente disectadas y 3 de estas en el bosque de colinas bajas ligeramente disectadas. Las especies más abundantes fueron Megaphobema velvetosoma con 64.3% y Cyriocosmus sellatus con 35%. El tamaño promedio de la abertura de las madrigueras varió en relación al tamaño de las especies, la más grande correspondió a Megaphobema velvetosoma con un promedio de 66,6 mm, y la más pequeña a Acanthoscurria ferina con un promedio de 21 mm. La temperatura del interior de las madrigueras varió de 25,2°C a 25,7°C y la humedad relativa de 88% a 88,7%. Las madrigueras se encontraron en el suelo con una capa de hojarasca que varió de 2,7 a 4,9 cm. Las especies de tarántulas se distribuyeron formando grupos en las zonas evaluadas. Las muestras de tarántulas se encuentran depositadas en la Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana y en la empresa Perufish Aquarium EIRL.
Full Text Available Both herbivores that consume transgenic crops and their predators can be exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in those crops. We conducted a tritrophic bioassay to evaluate the ecotoxicological impacts that Bt cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata expressing Cry1Ac1 protein might have on the wolf spider (Pardosa astrigera, a non-target generalist predator. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays indicated that protein levels were 4.61 ng g(-1 dry weight in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster fed with the transgenic cabbage and 1.86 ng g(-1 dry weight in the wolf spiders that preyed upon them. We also compared the life history traits of spiders collected from Bt versus non-Bt cabbage and found no significant differences in their growth, survival, and developmental rates. Because Bt cabbage did not affect the growth of fruit flies, we conclude that any indirect effects that this crop had on the wolf spider were probably not mediated by prey quality. Therefore, exposure to Cry1Ac1 protein when feeding upon prey containing that substance from transgenic cabbage has only a negligible influence on those non-target predatory spiders.
Bustamante, Abel A; Maddison, Wayne P; Ruiz, Gustavo R S
In this paper we call attention to the identity of the type species of Thiodina Simon, 1900, T. nicoleti Roewer, 1951. When Simon proposed the genus, he characterized it based on morphological features found in species he described, but not found in the type species he designated, and whose type specimens, apparently, he had not examined. Nicolet's original description makes it clear that the type species is not closely related to the more familiar species placed in the genus. This misinterpretation was followed by contemporary researchers and survives until today. Here we designate and describe a neotype for T. nicoleti. We revalidate Colonus F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901 and Nilakantha Peckham & Peckham, 1901 to transfer most species formerly placed in Thiodina. The combinations Colonus puerperus (Hentz, 1846), Nilakantha cockerelli Peckham & Peckham, 1901 and N. peckhami Bryant, 1940 are restored. The following new combinations are established: Colonus branicki (Taczanowski, 1871) new comb., C. candidus (Mello-Leitão, 1922) new comb., C. germaini (Simon, 1900) new comb., C. hesperus (Richman & Vetter, 2004) new comb., C. melanogaster (Mello-Leitão, 1917) new comb., C. pallidus (C.L. Koch, 1846) new comb., C. pseustes (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936) new comb., C. punctulatus (Mello-Leitão, 1917) new comb., C. rishwani (Makhan, 2006) new comb., C. robustus (Mello-Leitão, 1945) new comb., C. sylvanus (Hentz, 1846) new comb., C. vaccula (Simon, 1900) new comb., C. vellardi (Soares & Camargo, 1948) new comb., Nilakantha beugelorum (Wolff, 1990) new comb., N. crucifera (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) new comb., and N. inerma (Bryant, 1940) new comb. Thiodina setosa Mello-Leitão, 1947 is tentatively transferred to Cotinusa Simon, 1900.
Full Text Available The orthognath spiders Atypus affinis Eichwald, 1830 and A. piceus (Sulzer, 1776 are morphologically and biologically similar. One of the few sites where both species live syntopically is located in the Kaiserstuhl Mountains in south-west Germany. This has been shown in a continuous 22 year long-term study of the recolonisation of vineyard slopes after large-scale land consolidation. The males of both species differ in size and the annual timing of their surface activity. The recolonisation history of A. affinis and A. piceus was recorded. As typical K-strategists, their population sizes have increased slowly. Today they are still growing. Atypus species can be used as models regarding problems of nature conservation, since they are particularly endangered by large-scale and catastrophic habitat changes as a result of their long generation time. In the Kaiserstuhl such catastrophic events could include fire management, which has recently been permitted again for the preservation of the slopes.
Almada, Melina Soledad
La biodiversidad es una característica compleja de los sistemas biológicos que se manifiesta a distintas escalas espaciales y temporales. En la actualidad, la fragmentación del hábitat es considerada una de las mayores amenazas para la biodiversidad y es un proceso complejo, donde la acción antrópica produce transformación de comunidades originales, introducción de cultivos generando sistemas homogéneos y más espacios en sucesión, afectando la composición de especies y las frecuencias de las ...
Řezáč, M.; Arnedo, M.A.; Opatová, V.; Musilová, J.; Řezáčová, Veronika; Král, J.
Roč. 32, č. 1 (2018), s. 10-54 ISSN 1445-5226 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : holokinetic * interspecific recognition * karyotype evolution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.172, year: 2016
Everton Nei Lopes Rodrigues
Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Psilocymbium Millidge, 1991 can be recognized by the presence of a non-flagelliform, rigid and spiral shaped embolus, the absence of a cymbial basal excavation on the palp (males, and by having prolonged spermathecae on the epigynum and strong pedipalp setae (females. In this paper Psilocymbium antonina sp. nov., is described based on male and female specimens from the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Psilocymbium antonina sp. nov. is diagnosed by the following combination of characters: prominent tibial apophysis with gauged distal projection, acute dorsal cymbial apex and acute cymbial proximal region of the palp (male; fertilization ducts distant from each other and the coiled copulatory ducts of the female epigynum. The male of P. lineatum (Millidge, 1991 is described and recorded for the first time in the states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Moura,Mário Ribeiro; Azevedo,Leonardo Pimenta
We report here an observation of predation of the giant spider Ancylometes rufus on the tree frog Dendropsophus melanargyreus in a southern region of Amazonia Forest. We also reviewed the available literature on predation of this spider species on vertebrates.
Hedin, Marshal; Carlson, Dave; Coyle, Fred
Microhexura montivaga is a miniature tarantula-like spider endemic to the highest peaks of the southern Appalachian mountains and is known only from six allopatric, highly disjunct montane populations. Because of severe declines in spruce-fir forest in the late 20th century, M. montivaga was formally listed as a US federally endangered species in 1995. Using DNA sequence data from one mitochondrial and seven nuclear genes, patterns of multigenic genetic divergence were assessed for six montane populations. Independent mitochondrial and nuclear discovery analyses reveal obvious genetic fragmentation both within and among montane populations, with five to seven primary genetic lineages recovered. Multispecies coalescent validation analyses [guide tree and unguided Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography (BPP), Bayes factor delimitation (BFD)] using nuclear-only data congruently recover six or seven distinct lineages; BFD analyses using combined nuclear plus mitochondrial data favour seven or eight lineages. In stark contrast to this clear genetic fragmentation, a survey of secondary sexual features for available males indicates morphological conservatism across montane populations. While it is certainly possible that morphologically cryptic speciation has occurred in this taxon, this system may alternatively represent a case where extreme population genetic structuring (but not speciation) leads to an oversplitting of lineage diversity by multispecies coalescent methods. Our results have clear conservation implications for this federally endangered taxon and illustrate a methodological issue expected to become more common as genomic-scale data sets are gathered for taxa found in naturally fragmented habitats. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Marques-da-Silva Emanuel; Fischer Marta Luciane
O Estado do Paraná registra anualmente uma média de 2.577 acidentes loxoscélicos por ano, logo o conhecimento da distribuição das espécies do gênero Loxosceles é extremamente importante para elaboração de ações de controle e manejo. Realizou-se o mapeamento das Loxosceles tombadas em diferentes coleções científicas. Foram registradas 1.561 aranhas, identificadas como Loxosceles intermedia (67%), Loxosceles gaucho (19,5%), Loxosceles laeta (10,8%) e Loxosceles hirsuta (2,4%), provenientes de 2...
Emanuel Marques da Silva
Full Text Available The influence of monospecific feeding on the post-embryonic development of L. intermedia, L. laeta and L. gaucho was evaluated. Two hundred and ten spiderlings were individualized in containers (120 ml, 105 being fed with Tenebrio molitor larvae and 105 with Pycnoscelus surinamensis nymphs. In the three species, the number of molts varied according to the diet. The number of spiders that reached maturity was lower in L. gaucho. In L. intermedia, the duration of the post-embryonic period was greater when larvae are fed. Mortality was higher in the second instar in the three species, the highest frequency being registered for L. gaucho. The data provided evidence that monospecific feeding influenced the post-embryonic development of the studied species. This influence might intensified by specific characteristics such as origin, habits and habitats.
Silveira, Adriano Lima
Loxosceles laeta é a espécie de aranha-marrom de maior importância médica, causando acidentes de maior gravidade, além de apresentar hábito sinantrópico. No presente trabalho, é apresentado o primeiro registro sinantrópico de Loxosceles laeta no Município do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, a partir de encontro e coleta ocasional de espécimes, no período de agosto de 2005 a junho de 2009. A espécie foi registrada em um prédio do Museu Nacional/UFRJ, localizado no parque da Quinta da Boa Vista, áre...