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Sample records for therapy therapeutic efficacy

  1. Therapeutic Efficacy of Exercise and Laser Therapy in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laser therapy is considered as one of the therapeutic modalities used in the management of osteoarthritis. However, its effectiveness is still controversial and ambiguous. The main purpose of this study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of Laser therapy in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Sixteen patients with ...

  2. Comparison of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Double-Modality Therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Double-Modality Therapy, Phonophoresis and Cryotherapy in the Management of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Adult ... Ultrasound at an intensity of 1.5 W/cm² and frequency of 1MHz was used to apply methyl salicylate while intermittent cryotherapy was the mode of application.

  3. Efficacy of therapeutic ultrasound and exercise therapy in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Findings of the study revealed no significant difference in VAS, ROM and WOMAC scores in the study and control groups. Conclusions: This study confirms that therapeutic ultrasound is of no additional benefit to exercise therapy in the management of chronic osteoarthritis. Key words: Ultrasound; Exercise; ...

  4. Self-Efficacy for Therapeutic Mode Use among Occupational Therapy Students in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opseth, Thea Moos; Carstensen, Tove; Yazdani, Farzaneh; Ellingham, Brian; Thørrisen, Mikkel Magnus; Bonsaksen, Tore

    2017-01-01

    Background: The intentional relationship model (IRM) proposes six distinct ways of relating to clients. A new instrument for measuring self-efficacy for using the therapeutic modes in occupational therapy practice was recently found to have good psychometric properties. To date, however, no research has investigated factors associated with…

  5. Medical Therapies for Stricturing Crohn's Disease: Efficacy and Cross-Sectional Imaging Predictors of Therapeutic Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Cécile; Perrey, Antoine; Lambert, Céline; Pereira, Bruno; Goutte, Marion; Dubois, Anne; Goutorbe, Felix; Dapoigny, Michel; Bommelaer, Gilles; Hordonneau, Constance; Buisson, Anthony

    2017-06-01

    Medical therapy efficacy remains controversial in stricturing Crohn's disease. Cross-sectional imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging, has been suggested as very helpful to guide therapeutic decision making. To assess efficacy and predictors of therapeutic failure in patients receiving medical treatments for stricturing Crohn's disease. In this retrospective study, therapeutic failure was defined as symptomatic stricture leading to surgical or endoscopic therapeutics, hospitalization, treatment discontinuation or additional therapy and short-term clinical response as clinical improvement assessed by two physicians. The 55 cross-sectional imaging examinations (33 magnetic resonance imaging and 22 CT scan) before starting medical therapy were analyzed independently by two radiologists. Results were expressed as hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Among 84 patients, therapeutic failure rate within 60 months was 66.6%. In multivariate analysis, Crohn's disease diagnosis after 40 years old (HR 3.9, 95% CI [1.37-11.2], p = 0.011), small stricture luminal diameter (HR 1.34, 95% CI [1.01-1.80], p = 0.046), increased stricture wall thickness (HR 1.23, 95% CI [1.04-1.46], p = 0.013) and fistula with abscess (HR 5.63, 95% CI [1.64-19.35], p = 0.006) were associated with therapeutic failure, while anti-TNF combotherapy (HR 0.17, 95% CI [0.40-0.71], p = 0.015) prevented it. Considering 108 therapeutic sequences, the short-term clinical response rate was 65.7%. In multivariate analysis, male gender (OR 0.15, 95% CI [0.03-0.64], p = 0.011), fistula with abscess (OR 0.09, 95% CI [0.01-0.77], p = 0.028) and comb sign (OR 0.23, 95% CI [0.005-0.97], p = 0.047) were associated with short-term clinical failure. Anti-TNF combotherapy seemed to prevent therapeutic failure, and cross-sectional imaging should be systematically performed to help medical management in stricturing Crohn's disease.

  6. Therapeutic Efficacy of Combination Therapy Using Oral Cyclosporine with a Dietary Supplement (Pantogar®) in Twenty-Nail Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Su Jin; Kim, Jeong Eun; Ko, Joo Yeon; Ro, Young Suck

    2017-10-01

    Twenty-nail dystrophy (TND) is an acquired idiopathic disease characterized by dull, thin, lusterless, and fragile nails with fissuring, small regular pits, and excessive longitudinal ridging. Although various treatment modalities have been performed in order to treat TND, the effects of these treatments are controversial. To evaluate the effectiveness of oral cyclosporine in TND. A total of 38 patients with TND were treated with combination therapy using oral cyclosporine with a pantothenic acid complex-based dietary supplement (Pantogar®; Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Germany), whereas 44 patients were treated with the pantothenic acid complex-based dietary supplement alone. The therapeutic efficacy in each group was retrospectively evaluated using medical records and clinical photographs. The cyclosporine therapy group had significantly more patients whose improvement was rated as almost clear, marked, or moderate compared to the control group ( p CHATS (Color, Hyperkeratosis, Area, Thickness, Separation) score of the cyclosporine therapy group was decreased by 13.45 (from 30.95 to 17.5) after treatment, the mean CHATS score of the control group was only decreased by 8 (from 29.43 to 21.43, p <0.001). Moreover, greater Dermatology Life Quality Index changes after treatment were observed in the cyclosporine therapy group ( p =0.085). Oral cyclosporine can be a valuable therapeutic option in patients with TND.

  7. Intrathecal baclofen therapy for adults with spinal spasticity: therapeutic efficacy and effect on hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, P; Schryvers, O; Schmidt, B; Dubo, H; Loveridge, B; Fewer, D

    1995-02-01

    A prospective trial to demonstrate the efficacy of intrathecal baclofen therapy by implanted pump for adults with spasticity due to spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis was initiated in our hospital. Of the 140 patients assessed, 7 met the following criteria for inclusion in the study: a modified Ashworth score > 3, a spasm frequency score > 2, and an inadequate response to oral anti-spasticity drugs, (i.e., baclofen, clonidine and cyproheptadine). All patients responded to intrathecal bolus injection of baclofen in the double blind, placebo-controlled screening phase (mean bolus dose = 42.8 micrograms). Programmable Medtronic pumps were implanted in 4 patients while 3 patients received non-programmable Infusaid pumps. Post-implantation, a marked decrease in spasticity occurred with a significant reduction of the Ashworth score (mean = 1.8, p pendulum test. These effects were maintained during a follow-up of 24-41 months (average infusion dose = 218.7 micrograms/day). The gross cost-savings due to reduced hospitalizations related to spasticity was calculated by comparing the cost for the two year period before pump implantation to the same period after treatment for 6 of the 7 patients. The cost of in-hospital implantation as well as the cost of the pumps were deducted from the gross savings. There was a net cost-saving of $153,120. Our findings agree with the reported efficacy and safety of intrathecal baclofen treatment, and illustrate the cost-effectiveness of this treatment.

  8. The Course of Self-Efficacy for Therapeutic Use of Self in Norwegian Occupational Therapy Students: A 10-Month Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Schwank

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Occupational therapy students need to develop self-efficacy for managing the therapeutic relationship in practice. This study examined the 10-month trajectories of Norwegian students’ self-efficacy for use of self. Methods. Eighty-nine students completed self-efficacy questionnaires related to the use of self after a workshop and at 3- and 10-month follow-up. Changes on the three outcome measures (self-efficacy for therapeutic mode use, for recognizing clients’ interpersonal characteristics, and for managing interpersonal events were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA. Results. Across the follow-up period, the students improved their self-efficacy for therapeutic mode use (partial η2 = 0.44, p<0.001, for recognizing clients’ interpersonal characteristics (partial η2 = 0.81, p<0.001, and for managing interpersonal events (partial η2=0.32, p<0.001. Conclusion. The increased self-efficacy for use of self that was found at 3-month follow-up was maintained at 10-month follow-up. The results indicate that students may experience a boost in self-efficacy for therapeutic use of self after a brief workshop and that these changes can be sustained over time.

  9. Tumor blood vessel "normalization" improves the therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimental oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Nigg

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) to treat tumors in a hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer with no normal tissue radiotoxicity and moderate, albeit reversible, mucositis in precancerous tissue around treated tumors. It is known that boron targeting of the largest possible proportion of tumor cells contributes to the success of BNCT and that tumor blood vessel normalization improves drug delivery to the tumor. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of blood vessel normalization on the therapeutic efficacy and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer.

  10. Natural Product-Derived Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Safety, Efficacy, and Therapeutic Potential of Combination Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, James; Ahn, Hyung Seok; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Dela Peña, Ike

    2016-01-01

    Typical treatment plans for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) utilize nonpharmacological (behavioral/psychosocial) and/or pharmacological interventions. Limited accessibility to behavioral therapies and concerns over adverse effects of pharmacological treatments prompted research for alternative ADHD therapies such as natural product-derived treatments and nutritional supplements. In this study, we reviewed the herbal preparations and nutritional supplements evaluated in clinical studies as potential ADHD treatments and discussed their performance with regard to safety and efficacy in clinical trials. We also discussed some evidence suggesting that adjunct treatment of these agents (with another botanical agent or pharmacological ADHD treatments) may be a promising approach to treat ADHD. The analysis indicated mixed findings with regard to efficacy of natural product-derived ADHD interventions. Nevertheless, these treatments were considered as a "safer" approach than conventional ADHD medications. More comprehensive and appropriately controlled clinical studies are required to fully ascertain efficacy and safety of natural product-derived ADHD treatments. Studies that replicate encouraging findings on the efficacy of combining botanical agents and nutritional supplements with other natural product-derived therapies and widely used ADHD medications are also warranted. In conclusion, the risk-benefit balance of natural product-derived ADHD treatments should be carefully monitored when used as standalone treatment or when combined with other conventional ADHD treatments.

  11. Low-Dose Liver-Targeted Gene Therapy for Pompe Disease Enhances Therapeutic Efficacy of ERT via Immune Tolerance Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-oh Han

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease results from acid α-glucosidase (GAA deficiency, and enzyme replacement therapy (ERT with recombinant human (rh GAA has clinical benefits, although its limitations include the short half-life of GAA and the formation of antibody responses. The present study compared the efficacy of ERT against gene transfer with an adeno-associated viral (AAV vector containing a liver-specific promoter. GAA knockout (KO mice were administered either a weekly injection of rhGAA (20 mg/kg or a single injection of AAV2/8-LSPhGAA (8 × 1011 vector genomes [vg]/kg. Both treatments significantly reduced glycogen content of the heart and diaphragm. Although ERT triggered anti-GAA antibody formation, there was no detectable antibody response following AAV vector administration. The efficacy of three lower dosages of AAV2/8-LSPhGAA was evaluated in GAA-KO mice, either alone or in combination with ERT. The minimum effective dose (MED identified was 8 × 1010 vg/kg to reduce glycogen content in the heart and diaphragm of GAA-KO mice. A 3-fold higher dose was required to suppress antibody responses to ERT. Efficacy from liver gene therapy was slightly greater in male mice than in female mice. Vector dose correlated inversely with anti-GAA antibody formation, whereas higher vector doses suppressed previously formed anti-GAA antibodies as late as 25 weeks after the start of ERT and achieved biochemical correction of glycogen accumulation. In conclusion, we identified the MED for effective AAV2/8-LSPhGAA-mediated tolerogenic gene therapy in Pompe disease mice.

  12. Therapeutic cancer vaccines in combination with conventional therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Junker, Niels; Ellebaek, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of most therapeutic vaccines against cancer has not yet met its promise. Data are emerging that strongly support the notion that combining immunotherapy with conventional therapies, for example, radiation and chemotherapy may improve efficacy. In particular combination...

  13. Therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of a single and double application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in a hamster cheek pouch oral precancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, A; Pozzi, E C C; Thorp, S; Garabalino, M A; Farias, R O; Gonzalez, S J; Heber, E M; Itoiz, M E; Aromando, R F; Molinari, A J; Miller, M; Nigg, D W; Curotto, P; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E

    2012-01-01

    Tumor development from tissue with potentially malignant disorders (PMD) gives rise to second primary tumors. We previously demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect on tumor development of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) mediated by the boron compounds BPA (boronophenylalanine) and decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) in a hamster pouch oral precancer model. Seeking to optimize BNCT, the aim of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of BNCT radiobiology for oral precancer and assess new BNCT protocols in terms of inhibition of tumor development and radiotoxicity. Groups of cancerized hamsters were locally exposed to single or double applications (2 weeks apart) of BPA-BNCT or (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT at a total dose of 8Gy to tissue with PMD; to a single application of BPA-BNCT at 6Gy and to a double application (4 weeks apart) of BPA-BNCT or (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT at a total dose of 10Gy. Cancerized, sham-irradiated hamsters served as controls. Clinical status, tumor development from tissue with PMD and mucositis were followed for 8 months. The marked therapeutic efficacy of single applications of BNCT at 6 and 8Gy were associated to severe radiotoxicity. Dose fractionation into 2 applications reduced mucositis but also reduced therapeutic efficacy, depending on dose and interval between applications. A double application (4 weeks apart) of (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT at a total dose of 10Gy rendered the best therapeutic advantage, i.e. 63% - 100% inhibition of tumor development with only slight mucositis in 67% of cases. The data reported herein show that issues such as dose levels and dose fractionation, interval between applications, and choice of boron compounds are pivotal to therapeutic advantage and must be tailored for a particular pathology and anatomic site. The present study determined treatment conditions that would contribute to optimize BNCT for precancer and that would warrant cautious assessment in a clinical scenario (author)

  14. Mangiferin functionalized radioactive gold nanoparticles (MGF-198AuNPs) in prostate tumor therapy: green nanotechnology for production, in vivo tumor retention and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yasiri, A Y; Khoobchandani, M; Cutler, C S; Watkinson, L; Carmack, T; Smith, C J; Kuchuk, M; Loyalka, S K; Lugão, A B; Katti, K V

    2017-10-31

    We report here an innovative feature of green nanotechnology-focused work showing that mangiferin-a glucose functionalized xanthonoid, found in abundance in mango peels-serves dual roles of chemical reduction and in situ encapsulation, to produce gold nanoparticles with optimum in vivo stability and tumor specific characteristics. The interaction of mangiferin with a Au-198 gold precursor affords MGF- 198 AuNPs as the beta emissions of Au-198 provide unique advantages for tumor therapy while gamma rays are used for the quantitative estimation of gold within the tumors and various organs. The laminin receptor specificity of mangiferin affords specific accumulation of therapeutic payloads of this new therapeutic agent within prostate tumors (PC-3) of human prostate tumor origin induced in mice which overexpress this receptor subtype. Detailed in vivo therapeutic efficacy studies, through the intratumoral delivery of MGF- 198 AuNPs, show the retention of over 80% of the injected dose (ID) in prostate tumors up to 24 h. By three weeks post treatment, tumor volumes of the treated group of animals showed an over 5 fold reduction as compared to the control saline group. New opportunities for green nanotechnology and a new paradigm of using mangiferin as a tumor targeting agent in oncology for the application of MGF- 198 AuNPs in the treatment of cancer are discussed.

  15. Efficacy of therapeutic nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagel, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (i) 131 I therapy of thyrotoxicosis; (ii) 131 I therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma; (iii) 32 P therapy of myeloproliferative disease; (iv) 131 MIBG therapy of neural crest tumors; (v) radiolabelled peptides in neuroendocrine tumors; (vi) radioimmunotherapy; (vii) palliative bone therapy of painful skeletal metastases; (viii) radiosynoviorthesis; (ix) alternative approaches; (x) side effects and long-term effects

  16. Therapeutic efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy versus exercise therapy in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Naoto; Omata, Jun-Ichi; Iwabuchi, Masumi; Fukuda, Hironari; Shirado, Osamu

    2017-04-28

    Therapy for chronic, nonspecific low back pain is mainly conservative: medication and/or exercise. Pharmacotherapy, however, has side effects, and the quantities of concomitant drugs in older persons require attention. Although exercise promises improved function, its use to alleviate pain is controversial. Thus, we compared the efficacy of pharmacotherapy versus exercise for treating chronic nonspecific low back pain. The pharmacotherapy group (n=18: 8 men, 10 women) were prescribed celecoxib monotherapy. The exercise group (n=22: 10 men, 12 women) undertook stretching exercises. Because of drop-outs, the NSAID group (n=15: 7 men, 8 women) and the exercise group (n =18: 8 men, 10 women) were finally analyzed. We applied a visual analog scale, Roland-Morris disability scores, and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. We used a paired t-test for within-group analyses and an unpaired t-test for between-group analyses. Pain relief was achieved after 3 months of pharmacotherapy or exercise. Quality of life improved only in the exercise group. Recovery outcomes for the two groups were not significantly different. Efficacy of exercise therapy for strictly defined low back pain was almost equivalent to that of pharmacotherapy and provided better quality of life.

  17. Use of Xylitol To Enhance the Therapeutic Efficacy of Polymethylmethacrylate-Based Antibiotic Therapy in Treatment of Chronic Osteomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenken, Karen E.; Bradney, Laura; Bellamy, William; Skinner, Robert A.; McLaren, Sandra G.; Gruenwald, M. Johannes; Spencer, Horace J.; Smith, James K.; Haggard, Warren O.

    2012-01-01

    Using a rabbit model of postsurgical osteomyelitis, we demonstrate that incorporation of xylitol into polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement enhances the elution of daptomycin under in vivo conditions. We also demonstrate that this can be correlated with an improved therapeutic outcome in the treatment of a chronic bone infection following surgical debridement. PMID:22948866

  18. Electroconvulsive therapy-induced brain functional connectivity predicts therapeutic efficacy in patients with schizophrenia: a multivariate pattern recognition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jing, Ri-Xing; Zhao, Rong-Jiang; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Shi, Le; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Lin, Xiao; Fan, Teng-Teng; Dong, Wen-Tian; Fan, Yong; Lu, Lin

    2017-05-11

    Previous studies suggested that electroconvulsive therapy can influence regional metabolism and dopamine signaling, thereby alleviating symptoms of schizophrenia. It remains unclear what patients may benefit more from the treatment. The present study sought to identify biomarkers that predict the electroconvulsive therapy response in individual patients. Thirty-four schizophrenia patients and 34 controls were included in this study. Patients were scanned prior to treatment and after 6 weeks of treatment with antipsychotics only (n = 16) or a combination of antipsychotics and electroconvulsive therapy (n = 13). Subject-specific intrinsic connectivity networks were computed for each subject using a group information-guided independent component analysis technique. Classifiers were built to distinguish patients from controls and quantify brain states based on intrinsic connectivity networks. A general linear model was built on the classification scores of first scan (referred to as baseline classification scores) to predict treatment response. Classifiers built on the default mode network, the temporal lobe network, the language network, the corticostriatal network, the frontal-parietal network, and the cerebellum achieved a cross-validated classification accuracy of 83.82%, with specificity of 91.18% and sensitivity of 76.47%. After the electroconvulsive therapy, psychosis symptoms of the patients were relieved and classification scores of the patients were decreased. Moreover, the baseline classification scores were predictive for the treatment outcome. Schizophrenia patients exhibited functional deviations in multiple intrinsic connectivity networks which were able to distinguish patients from healthy controls at an individual level. Patients with lower classification scores prior to treatment had better treatment outcome, indicating that the baseline classification scores before treatment is a good predictor for treatment outcome. CONNECTIVITY NETWORKS

  19. Neurodevelopmental Treatment (NDT): Therapeutic Intervention and Its Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Francine Martin; Gorga, Delia

    1988-01-01

    Use of neurodevelopmental treatment, also known as the Bobath method, is discussed, including its history, philosophy, goals, and treatment emphasis with infants and children with movement disorders. Examples of children before and after therapeutic intervention illustrate use of the technique, and controversies in measuring therapy efficacy are…

  20. Nanomedicine for therapeutic drug therapy: Approaches to increase the efficacy of drug therapy with nanoemulsion delivery and reduce the toxicity of quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambalapally, Swetha Reddy

    The advancement of nanotechnology has paved the way for novel nanoscale materials for use in a wide range of applications. The use of these nanomaterials in biomedicine facilitates the improvement of existing technologies for disease prevention and treatment through diagnostics, tumor detection, drug delivery, medical imaging and vaccine development. Nanotechnology delivery systems for therapeutic uses includes the formulation of nanoparticles in emulsions. These novel delivery systems can improve drug efficacy by their ability to enhance bioavailability, minimize drug side effects, decrease drug toxicity, provide targeted site delivery and increase circulation of the drug in the blood. Additionally, these delivery systems also improve the drug stability and encapsulation efficiency. In the Introduction, this thesis will describe a novel technique for the preparation of nanoemulsions which was utilized in drug delivery and diagnostic applications. This novel Phase Inversion Temperature (PIT) method is a solvent and polymer-free and low energy requiring emulsification method, typically utilizing oils stabilized by nonionic surfactants to prepare water in oil (W/O) emulsions. The correlation between the particle size, zeta potential and the emulsion stability is described. The use of this nanoemulsion delivery system for pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals by utilizing in vitro systems was investigated. Using the PIT method, a self assembling nanoemulsion (SANE) of gamma Tocotrienols (gammaT3), a component of Vitamin E family has been demonstrated to reduce cholesterol accumulation in HepG-2 cells. The nanoemulsion is stable and the particle size is around 20 nm with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.065. The effect of the nano gammaT3 on the metabolism of cholesterol, HMG-CoA activity and Apo-B levels were evaluated in an in vitro system utilizing HepG2 cells. A new class of nanoparticles, Quantum dots (QDs) has shown immense potential as novel nanomaterials used as

  1. Comparison microbial killing efficacy between sonodynamic therapy and photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drantantiyas, Nike Dwi Grevika; Astuti, Suryani Dyah; Nasution, Aulia M. T.

    2016-11-01

    Biofilm is a way used by bacteria to survive from their environmental conditions by forming colony of bacteria. Specific characteristic in biofilm formation is the availability of matrix layer, known as extracellular polymer substance. Treatment using antibiotics may lead bacteria to be to resistant. Other treatments to reduce microbial, like biofilm, can be performed by using photodynamic therapy. Successful of this kind of therapy is induced by penetration of light and photosensitizer into target cells. The sonodynamic therapy offers greater penetrating capability into tissues. This research aimed to use sonodynamic therapy in reducing biofilm. Moreover, it compares also the killing efficacy of photodynamic therapy, sonodynamic therapy, and the combination of both therapeutic schemes (known as sono-photodynamic) to achieve higher microbial killing efficacy. Samples used are Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. Treatments were divided into 4 groups, i.e. group under ultrasound treatment with variation of 5 power levels, group of light treatment with exposure of 75s, group of combined ultrasound-light with variation of ultrasound power levels, and group of combined lightultrasound with variation of ultrasound power levels. Results obtained for each treatment, expressed in % efficacy of log CFU/mL, showed that the treatment of photo-sonodynamic provides greater killing efficacy in comparison to either sonodynamic and sono-photodynamic. The photo-sonodynamic shows also greater efficacy to photodynamic. So combination of light-ultrasound (photo-sonodynamic) can effectively kill microbial biofilm. The combined therapy will provide even better efficacy using exogenous photosensitizer.

  2. Marine polysaccharides: therapeutic efficacy and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Eun; Kim, Hyeongmin; Seo, Changwon; Park, Taejun; Lee, Kyung Bin; Yoo, Seung-Yup; Hong, Seong-Chul; Kim, Jeong Tae; Lee, Jaehwi

    2017-09-01

    The ocean contains numerous marine organisms, including algae, animals, and plants, from which diverse marine polysaccharides with useful physicochemical and biological properties can be extracted. In particular, fucoidan, carrageenan, alginate, and chitosan have been extensively investigated in pharmaceutical and biomedical fields owing to their desirable characteristics, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioactivity. Various therapeutic efficacies of marine polysaccharides have been elucidated, including the inhibition of cancer, inflammation, and viral infection. The therapeutic activities of these polysaccharides have been demonstrated in various settings, from in vitro laboratory-scale experiments to clinical trials. In addition, marine polysaccharides have been exploited for tissue engineering, the immobilization of biomolecules, and stent coating. Their ability to detect and respond to external stimuli, such as pH, temperature, and electric fields, has enabled their use in the design of novel drug delivery systems. Thus, along with the promising characteristics of marine polysaccharides, this review will comprehensively detail their various therapeutic, biomedical, and miscellaneous applications.

  3. A review of technology-assisted self-help and minimal contact therapies for drug and alcohol abuse and smoking addiction: is human contact necessary for therapeutic efficacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michelle G; Szkodny, Lauren E; Llera, Sandra J; Przeworski, Amy

    2011-02-01

    Technology-based self-help and minimal contact therapies have been proposed as effective and low-cost interventions for addictive disorders, such as nicotine, alcohol, and drug abuse and addiction. The present article reviews the literature published before 2010 on computerized treatments for drug and alcohol abuse and dependence and smoking addiction. Treatment studies are examined by disorder as well as amount of therapist contact, ranging from self-administered therapy and predominantly self-help interventions to minimal contact therapy where the therapist is actively involved in treatment but to a lesser degree than traditional therapy and predominantly therapist-administered treatments involving regular contact with a therapist for a typical number of sessions. In the treatment of substance use and abuse it is concluded that self-administered and predominantly self-help computer-based cognitive and behavioral interventions are efficacious, but some therapist contact is important for greater and more sustained reductions in addictive behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy of play therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. The objectives of the study are to know whether play therapy can facilitate the self- healing process, to improve the academic performance, increase the attentive level, and to ensure self-confidence and esteem of children under difficult circumstances. Data for this study were the case works of the researcher (for ...

  5. Measurement of circulating transcripts and gene cluster analysis predicts and defines therapeutic efficacy of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in neuroendocrine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodei, L. [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); LuGenIum Consortium, Milan, Rotterdam, Bad Berka, London, Italy, Netherlands, Germany (Country Unknown); Kidd, M. [Wren Laboratories, Branford, CT (United States); Modlin, I.M. [LuGenIum Consortium, Milan, Rotterdam, Bad Berka, London, Italy, Netherlands, Germany (Country Unknown); Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Severi, S.; Nicolini, S.; Paganelli, G. [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Nuclear Medicine and Radiometabolic Units, Meldola (Italy); Drozdov, I. [Bering Limited, London (United Kingdom); Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Krenning, E.P. [LuGenIum Consortium, Milan, Rotterdam, Bad Berka, London, Italy, Netherlands, Germany (Country Unknown); Erasmus Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Baum, R.P. [LuGenIum Consortium, Milan, Rotterdam, Bad Berka, London, Italy, Netherlands, Germany (Country Unknown); Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Theranostics Center for Molecular Radiotherapy and Imaging, Bad Berka (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is an effective method for treating neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). It is limited, however, in the prediction of individual tumor response and the precise and early identification of changes in tumor size. Currently, response prediction is based on somatostatin receptor expression and efficacy by morphological imaging and/or chromogranin A (CgA) measurement. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of circulating NET transcripts as a measure of PRRT efficacy, and moreover to identify prognostic gene clusters in pretreatment blood that could be interpolated with relevant clinical features in order to define a biological index for the tumor and a predictive quotient for PRRT efficacy. NET patients (n = 54), M: F 37:17, median age 66, bronchial: n = 13, GEP-NET: n = 35, CUP: n = 6 were treated with {sup 177}Lu-based-PRRT (cumulative activity: 6.5-27.8 GBq, median 18.5). At baseline: 47/54 low-grade (G1/G2; bronchial typical/atypical), 31/49 {sup 18}FDG positive and 39/54 progressive. Disease status was assessed by RECIST1.1. Transcripts were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and multianalyte algorithmic analysis (NETest); CgA by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Gene cluster (GC) derivations: regulatory network, protein:protein interactome analyses. Statistical analyses: chi-square, non-parametric measurements, multiple regression, receiver operating characteristic and Kaplan-Meier survival. The disease control rate was 72 %. Median PFS was not achieved (follow-up: 1-33 months, median: 16). Only grading was associated with response (p < 0.01). At baseline, 94 % of patients were NETest-positive, while CgA was elevated in 59 %. NETest accurately (89 %, χ{sup 2} = 27.4; p = 1.2 x 10{sup -7}) correlated with treatment response, while CgA was 24 % accurate. Gene cluster expression (growth-factor signalome and metabolome) had an AUC of 0.74 ± 0.08 (z-statistic = 2.92, p < 0

  6. Measurement of circulating transcripts and gene cluster analysis predicts and defines therapeutic efficacy of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodei, L.; Kidd, M.; Modlin, I.M.; Severi, S.; Nicolini, S.; Paganelli, G.; Drozdov, I.; Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Krenning, E.P.; Baum, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is an effective method for treating neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). It is limited, however, in the prediction of individual tumor response and the precise and early identification of changes in tumor size. Currently, response prediction is based on somatostatin receptor expression and efficacy by morphological imaging and/or chromogranin A (CgA) measurement. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of circulating NET transcripts as a measure of PRRT efficacy, and moreover to identify prognostic gene clusters in pretreatment blood that could be interpolated with relevant clinical features in order to define a biological index for the tumor and a predictive quotient for PRRT efficacy. NET patients (n = 54), M: F 37:17, median age 66, bronchial: n = 13, GEP-NET: n = 35, CUP: n = 6 were treated with 177 Lu-based-PRRT (cumulative activity: 6.5-27.8 GBq, median 18.5). At baseline: 47/54 low-grade (G1/G2; bronchial typical/atypical), 31/49 18 FDG positive and 39/54 progressive. Disease status was assessed by RECIST1.1. Transcripts were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and multianalyte algorithmic analysis (NETest); CgA by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Gene cluster (GC) derivations: regulatory network, protein:protein interactome analyses. Statistical analyses: chi-square, non-parametric measurements, multiple regression, receiver operating characteristic and Kaplan-Meier survival. The disease control rate was 72 %. Median PFS was not achieved (follow-up: 1-33 months, median: 16). Only grading was associated with response (p < 0.01). At baseline, 94 % of patients were NETest-positive, while CgA was elevated in 59 %. NETest accurately (89 %, χ 2 = 27.4; p = 1.2 x 10 -7 ) correlated with treatment response, while CgA was 24 % accurate. Gene cluster expression (growth-factor signalome and metabolome) had an AUC of 0.74 ± 0.08 (z-statistic = 2.92, p < 0.004) for predicting

  7. Optimizing celgosivir therapy in mouse models of dengue virus infection of serotypes 1 and 2: The search for a window for potential therapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoru; Chan, Kitti Wing-Ki; Dow, Geoffrey; Ooi, Eng Eong; Low, Jenny G; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2016-03-01

    Although the antiviral drug celgosivir, an α-glucosidase I inhibitor, is highly protective when given twice daily to AG129 mice infected with dengue virus, a similar regimen of twice daily dosing did not significantly reduce serum viral loads in patients in a recent clinical trial. This failure presumably might reflect the initiation of treatment when patients were already viremic. To better mimic the clinical setting, we used viruses isolated from patients to develop new mouse models of DENV1 and DENV2 infection and employed the models to test the twice daily treatment, begun either on the day of infection or on the third day post-infection, when the mice had peak of viremia. We found that, although the treatment started on day 0 was effective on viral load reduction, it provided no benefit when begun on day 3, indicating that in vivo antiviral efficacy becomes less prominent once viremia reaches the peak level. To determine if the therapeutic regimen in humans could be improved, we tested regimen of four-times daily treatment and found that the treatment significantly reduced viremia, suggesting that a similar regimen may be effective in a human clinical trial. A new clinical trial to investigate an altered dosing regimen has been approved (NCT02569827). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Monitoring therapeutic efficacy in breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardivon, Anne A.; Ollivier, Liliane; Khoury, Carl El; Thibault, Fabienne

    2006-01-01

    The aim of imaging during and after neoadjuvant therapy is to document and quantify tumor response: has the tumor size been accurately measured? Certainly, the most exciting information for the oncologists is: can we identify good or nonresponders, and can we predict the pathological response early after the initiation of treatment? This review article will discuss the role and the performance of the different imaging modalities (mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and FDG-PET imaging) for evaluating this therapeutic response. It is important to emphasize that, at this time, clinical examination and conventional imaging (mammography and ultrasound) are the only methods recognized by the international criteria. Magnetic resonance imaging and FDG-PET imaging are very promising for predicting the response early after the initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. (orig.)

  9. Therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy mediated by boron-rich liposomes for oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Elisa M; Hawthorne, M Frederick; Kueffer, Peter J; Garabalino, Marcela A; Thorp, Silvia I; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Maitz, Charles A; Jalisatgi, Satish S; Nigg, David W; Curotto, Paula; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2014-11-11

    The application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by liposomes containing (10)B-enriched polyhedral borane and carborane derivatives for the treatment of head and neck cancer in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model is presented. These liposomes are composed of an equimolar ratio of cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] (MAC) in the bilayer membrane while encapsulating the hydrophilic species Na3[ae-B20H17NH3] (TAC) in the aqueous core. Unilamellar liposomes with a mean diameter of 83 nm were administered i.v. in hamsters. After 48 h, the boron concentration in tumors was 67 ± 16 ppm whereas the precancerous tissue contained 11 ± 6 ppm, and the tumor/normal pouch tissue boron concentration ratio was 10:1. Neutron irradiation giving a 5-Gy dose to precancerous tissue (corresponding to 21 Gy in tumor) resulted in an overall tumor response (OR) of 70% after a 4-wk posttreatment period. In contrast, the beam-only protocol gave an OR rate of only 28%. Once-repeated BNCT treatment with readministration of liposomes at an interval of 4, 6, or 8 wk resulted in OR rates of 70-88%, of which the complete response ranged from 37% to 52%. Because of the good therapeutic outcome, it was possible to extend the follow-up of BNCT treatment groups to 16 wk after the first treatment. No radiotoxicity to normal tissue was observed. A salient advantage of these liposomes was that only mild mucositis was observed in dose-limiting precancerous tissue with a sustained tumor response of 70-88%.

  10. Comparison of Efficacy of Eye Movement, Desensitization and Reprocessing and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Therapeutic Methods for Reducing Anxiety and Depression of Iranian Combatant Afflicted by Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimani, M.; Sadeghieh Ahari, S.; Rajabi, S.

    This research aims to determine efficacy of two therapeutic methods and compare them; Eye Movement, Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for reduction of anxiety and depression of Iranian combatant afflicted with Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after imposed war. Statistical population of current study includes combatants afflicted with PTSD that were hospitalized in Isar Hospital of Ardabil province or were inhabited in Ardabil. These persons were selected through simple random sampling and were randomly located in three groups. The method was extended test method and study design was multi-group test-retest. Used tools include hospital anxiety and depression scale. This survey showed that exercise of EMDR and CBT has caused significant reduction of anxiety and depression.

  11. Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of sequential therapy involving percutaneous microwave ablation in combination with 131I-hypericin using the VX2 rabbit breast solid tumor model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Zhu

    Full Text Available Combination of percutaneous microwave ablation (PMWA and intravenous injection of 131I-hypericin(IIIH may bear potential as a mini-invasive treatment for tumor. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of PMWA and IIIH in breast tumor growth.Ten New Zealand White rabbits bearing VX2 breast carcinomas were randomly divided into two groups (each 5 examples and processed using PMWA followed by IIIH and IIIH alone. The IIIH activity was evaluated using planar scintigraphy, autoradiography and biodistribution analysis. The maximum effective safe dose of IIIH was found through 48 rabbits with VX2 breast tumor, which were randomized into six groups (n=8 per group. Subsequently, a further 75 rabbits bearing VX2 breast solid tumors were randomly divided into five groups (each 15 examples and treated as follows: A, no treatment group; B, PMWA alone; C, IIIH alone; D, PMWA+IIIH×1 (at 8 h post-PMWA; and E, PMWA+IIIH×2 (at 8 h and at 8 days post-PMWA. The therapeutic effect was assessed by measurement of tumor size and performation of positron emission tomography/computed tomograph (PET/CT scans, liver and renal function tests and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.The planar scintigraphy findings suggested a significant uptake of 131I in necrotic tumor tissue. The autoradiography gray scales indicated higher selective uptake of IIIH by necrotic tissue, with significant differences between the groups with and those without necrotic tumor tissue (P<0.05. The maximum effective safe dose of IIIH was 1 mCi/kg. The PET/CT scans and tumor size measurement suggested improvements in treatment groups at all time points (P<0.01. Significant differences were detected among Groups A, B, D and E (P<0.05. Lower levels of lung metastasis were detected in Groups D and E (P<0.05. There were no abnormalities in liver and renal functions tests or other reported side effects.IIIH exhibited selective uptake by necrotic tumor tissue. Sequential therapy involving PMWA

  12. Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines in Combination with Conventional Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Junker, N.; Ellebaek, E.

    2010-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of most therapeutic vaccines against cancer has not yet met its promise. Data are emerging that strongly support the notion that combining immunotherapy with conventional therapies, for example, radiation and chemotherapy may improve efficacy. In particular combination...... of proteins coupled to intrinsic properties of cancer cells. For example, proteins associated with drug resistance can be targeted, and form ideal target structures for use in combination with chemotherapy for killing of surviving drug resistant cancer cells. Proteins associated with the malignant phenotype...

  13. Therapeutic cancer vaccines in combination with conventional therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Junker, Niels; Ellebaek, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of most therapeutic vaccines against cancer has not yet met its promise. Data are emerging that strongly support the notion that combining immunotherapy with conventional therapies, for example, radiation and chemotherapy may improve efficacy. In particular combination...... of proteins coupled to intrinsic properties of cancer cells. For example, proteins associated with drug resistance can be targeted, and form ideal target structures for use in combination with chemotherapy for killing of surviving drug resistant cancer cells. Proteins associated with the malignant phenotype...

  14. Assessment of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Two Artemisinin-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Two Artemisinin-Based Combinations in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria among Children Under 5 Years in Four District Hospitals in Sierra Leone.

  15. Comparing the therapeutic efficacies of third-generation cephalosporins and broader-spectrum β-lactams as appropriate empirical therapy in adults with community-onset monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia: a propensity score matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Hsun; Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Hung, Yuan-Pin; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lee, Ching-Chi

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) was compared with that of broader-spectrum β-lactams (BSBLs) [fourth-generation cephalosporins (4GCs) and carbapenems] as empirical therapy in adults with community-onset monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia. Compared with those in the 3GC group (n = 477), a significantly higher proportion of patients in the BSBL group (n = 141) had initial presentation with severe sepsis or septic shock, critical illness (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4) at bacteraemia onset and fatal co-morbidities (McCabe classification). For propensity score matching, 318 of the 477 patients in the 3GC group were matched with 106 patients in the BSBL group with the closest propensity scores on the basis of five independent predictors of 28-day mortality. After appropriate matching, no significant differences were observed in major baseline characteristics between the 3GC and BSBL groups in terms of causative micro-organism, bacteraemia severity, major source of bacteraemia, major co-morbidities and severity of co-morbidity. Consequently, the early clinical failure rate (12.9% vs. 12.3%; P = 0.87), bacteraemia severity (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4; 4.6% vs. 8.2%; P = 0.17) at Day 3, and 3-day (3.8% vs. 7.5%; P = 0.11) and 28-day (13.2% vs. 17.0%; P = 0.33) crude mortality rates between the two groups were similar. These data suggest that the efficacy of 3GCs is similar to that of 4GCs or carbapenems when used as empirical antimicrobial therapy for community-onset Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Therapeutic efficacy of different brands of albendazole against soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Different brands Albendazole are commercially available and the efficacious brand/s is/are required for effective control of STHs infection. Thus, this study is aimed at determining the therapeutic efficacy of different brands of albendazole against soil transmitted helminths among school children of Jimma town.

  17. Therapeutic Efficacy Evaluation of Metronidazole and Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: To develop a highly accurate molecular assay for evaluating the efficacy of metronidazole and some antifungal agents with meglumine antimoniate against L. infantum visceral leishmaniasis in different mouse tissues. Methods: The assay was performed with the Light-Cycler system using SYBR Green I and ...

  18. Validation and Comparison of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Mediated By Boron-Rich Liposomes in Multiple Murine Tumor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A Maitz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT was performed at the University of Missouri Research Reactor in mice bearing CT26 colon carcinoma flank tumors and the results were compared with previously performed studies with mice bearing EMT6 breast cancer flank tumors. Mice were implanted with CT26 tumors subcutaneously in the caudal flank and were given two separate tail vein injections of unilamellar liposomes composed of cholesterol, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycer-3-phosphocholine, and K[nido-7-CH3(CH215–7,8-C2B9H11] in the lipid bilayer and encapsulated Na3[1-(2`-B10H9-2-NH3B10H8] within the liposomal core. Mice were irradiated 30 hours after the second injection in a thermal neutron beam for various lengths of time. The tumor size was monitored daily for 72 days. Despite relatively lower tumor boron concentrations, as compared to EMT6 tumors, a 45 minute neutron irradiation BNCT resulted in complete resolution of the tumors in 50% of treated mice, 50% of which never recurred. Median time to tumor volume tripling was 38 days in BNCT treated mice, 17 days in neutron-irradiated mice given no boron compounds, and 4 days in untreated controls. Tumor response in mice with CT26 colon carcinoma was markedly more pronounced than in previous reports of mice with EMT6 tumors, a difference which increased with dose. The slope of the dose response curve of CT26 colon carcinoma tumors is 1.05 times tumor growth delay per Gy compared to 0.09 times tumor growth delay per Gy for EMT6 tumors, indicating that inherent radiosensitivity of tumors plays a role in boron neutron capture therapy and should be considered in the development of clinical applications of BNCT in animals and man.

  19. Therapeutic genes for anti-HIV/AIDS gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovolenta, Chiara; Porcellini, Simona; Alberici, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The multiple therapeutic approaches developed so far to cope HIV-1 infection, such as anti-retroviral drugs, germicides and several attempts of therapeutic vaccination have provided significant amelioration in terms of life-quality and survival rate of AIDS patients. Nevertheless, no approach has demonstrated efficacy in eradicating this lethal, if untreated, infection. The curative power of gene therapy has been proven for the treatment of monogenic immunodeficiensies, where permanent gene modification of host cells is sufficient to correct the defect for life-time. No doubt, a similar concept is not applicable for gene therapy of infectious immunodeficiensies as AIDS, where there is not a single gene to be corrected; rather engineered cells must gain immunotherapeutic or antiviral features to grant either short- or long-term efficacy mostly by acquisition of antiviral genes or payloads. Anti-HIV/AIDS gene therapy is one of the most promising strategy, although challenging, to eradicate HIV-1 infection. In fact, genetic modification of hematopoietic stem cells with one or multiple therapeutic genes is expected to originate blood cell progenies resistant to viral infection and thereby able to prevail on infected unprotected cells. Ultimately, protected cells will re-establish a functional immune system able to control HIV-1 replication. More than hundred gene therapy clinical trials against AIDS employing different viral vectors and transgenes have been approved or are currently ongoing worldwide. This review will overview anti-HIV-1 infection gene therapy field evaluating strength and weakness of the transgenes and payloads used in the past and of those potentially exploitable in the future.

  20. Propensity score-matched analysis comparing the therapeutic efficacies of cefazolin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins as appropriate empirical therapy in adults with community-onset Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Proteus mirabilis bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Lee, Chung-Hsun; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Hung, Yuan-Pin; Lee, Nan-Yao; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lee, Ching-Chi

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of cefazolin was compared with that of extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) (cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime) as appropriate empirical therapy in adults with community-onset monomicrobial bacteraemia caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. or Proteus mirabilis (EKP). Compared with cefazolin-treated patients (n = 135), significantly higher proportions of patients in the ESC treatment group (n = 456) had critical illness at bacteraemia onset (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4) and fatal co-morbidities (McCabe classification). Of the 591 patients, 121 from each group were matched using propensity score matching (PSM) based on the following independent predictors of 28-day mortality: fatal co-morbidities (McCabe classification); Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4 at bacteraemia onset; initial syndrome of septic shock; and bacteraemia due to pneumonia. After appropriate PSM, no significant differences were observed in the early clinical failure rate (10.7% vs. 7.4%; P = 0.37), the proportion of critical illness (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4) (0% vs. 0%; P = 1.00) and defervescence (52.6% vs. 42.6%; P = 0.13) on Day 3 between the cefazolin and ESC treatment groups. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in the mean of time to defervescence (4.1 days vs. 4.9 days; P = 0.15), late clinical failure rate (18.2% vs. 10.7%; P = 0.10) and 28-day crude mortality rate (0.8% vs. 3.3%; P = 0.37) between the two groups. These data suggest that the efficacy of cefazolin is similar to that of ESCs when used as appropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment for community-onset EKP bacteraemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  1. Therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy mediated by boron-rich liposomes for oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heber, Elisa M. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Hawthorne, M. Frederick [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). International Inst. of Nano and Molecular Medicine; Kueffer, Peter J. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). International Inst. of Nano and Molecular Medicine; Garabalino, Marcela A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thorp, Silvia I. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, Emiliano C. C. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Hughes, Andrea Monti [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Maitz, Charles A. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). International Inst. of Nano and Molecular Medicine; Jalisatgi, Satish S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). International Inst. of Nano and Molecular Medicine; Nigg, David W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Curotto, Paula [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Trivillin, Verónica A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schwint, Amanda E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-11-11

    Unilamellar liposomes formulated with an equimolar mixture of cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the lipid bilayer, and encapsulating Na3[1-(2’-B10-H9)-2-NH3B10H8] were prepared by probe sonication and investigated in vivo. Microwave assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy was utilized to determine the biodistribution of boron in various tissues following either a single tail vein injection or two identical injections (separated by 24 hours) of the liposomal suspension in BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 mammary adenocarcinomas in their right flank. Double-injection protocols resulted in a boron content in the tumor exceeding 50 µg of boron per gram of tissue for 48 to 72 hours subsequent to the initial injection while tumor:blood boron ratios were more ideal from 54 hours (1.9:1) to 96 hours (5.7:1) subsequent to the initial injection. Tumor bearing mice were given a double-injection of liposomes containing the 10B-enriched analogs of the aforementioned agents and subjected to a 30 minute irradiation by thermal neutrons with a flux of 8.8 x 108 (±7%) neutrons/cm2 s integrated over the energy range of 0.0 – 0.414 eV. Significant tumor response for a single BNCT treatment was demonstrated by growth curves versus a control group. Vastly diminished tumor growth was witnessed at 14 days (186% increase versus 1551% in controls) in mice that were given a second injection/radiation treatment 7 days after the first. Mice given a one hour neutron irradiation following the double-injection of liposomes had a similar response (169% increase at 14 days) suggesting that neutron fluence is the limiting factor towards BNCT efficacy in this study.

  2. The efficacy of therapeutic ultrasound for rotator cuff tendinopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmeules, François; Boudreault, Jennifer; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Dionne, Clermont; Frémont, Pierre; MacDermid, Joy C

    2015-08-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of therapeutic ultrasound (US) in adults suffering from rotator cuff tendinopathy. A literature search was conducted in four databases for randomized controlled trials (RCT) published until 12/2013, comparing the efficacy of US to any other interventions in adults suffering from rotator cuff tendinopathy. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to evaluate the risk of bias of included studies. Data were summarized qualitatively or quantitatively. Eleven RCTs with a low mean methodological score (50.0% ± 15.6%) were included. Therapeutic US did not provide greater benefits than a placebo intervention or advice in terms of pain reduction and functional improvement. When provided in conjunction with exercise, US therapy is not superior to exercise alone in terms of pain reduction and functional improvement (pooled mean difference of the Constant-Murley score: -0.26 with 95% confidence interval of -3.84 to 3.32). Laser therapy was found superior to therapeutic US in terms of pain reduction. Based on low to moderate level evidence, therapeutic US does not provide any benefit compared to a placebo or advice, to laser therapy or when combined to exercise. More methodologically sound studies on the efficacy of therapeutic US are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relative Therapeutic Efficacy of Phonophoresis and Cryotherapy as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of phonophoresis and cryotherapy as combined therapy (double-modality therapy – DMT) in the management of pain among subjects with musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs). Subjects were assigned randomly to one of three groups: DMT group (n=17) received cryotherapy ...

  4. Therapeutic Songwriting in Music Therapy Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Felicity; Wigram, Tony; Stott, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Songwriting as therapeutic intervention has received increasing attention in the field of music therapy over the past decade however much of the publications focus on clinical outcomes rather than methods of practice. This paper, part of a two-part research report into trends in the clinical...... of songwriting clinical practice and the frequency with which songwriting is employed in practice. The data highlights that songwriting is frequently employed in developmental disability and ASD practice, with reports on songwriting with these diagnostic groups being underrepresented in the music therapy...... practice of songwriting, aims to describe the most frequently employed goal areas across a range of clinical populations and compare these findings with the published literature. Responses to a 21-question on-line survey were obtained from 477 professional music therapists practicing in 29 countries which...

  5. Understanding Music's Therapeutic Efficacy with Implications for Why Music Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thram, Diane

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I focus on how attention to music's therapeutic efficacy is important to the praxial music education philosophy espoused by Elliott and Silverman. I note, despite the use of the term praxis from Aristotle's philosophy dating back to antiquity, there is no mention in Music Matters 2 of what historical evidence tells us about how…

  6. Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in uncomplicated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To assess therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxineyrimethamine (SP) in treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria 3 years after introduction in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Se'tting. Tonga district with a population of 116 418 and subject to seasonal malaria, with an average annual incidence ; 3 200 ...

  7. Therapeutic Efficacy Of Cotecxin (R) alone and Its Combination with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The therapeutic efficacy of Cotecxin(R) (Dihydroartemisinin) alone and its combination with diminazene aceturate (Berenil(R)) was studied in rats infected with Federe strain of Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Fifty healthy adult albino rats of both sexes weighing between 100-180g used were divided into five groups (A-E) of 10 ...

  8. Noticing Pretreatment Change: Effects on Therapeutic Outcome in Family Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Lee N.

    1995-01-01

    Family therapy, similar to other mental health services, has focused on ways to make therapy brief or short term . One model of family therapy, the brief/solutions therapeutic orientation, claims that certain techniques can reduce the number of sessions. This therapeutic model focuses on the solutions clients bring with them to therapy. By focusing on clients' solutions and not their problems, the brief/solutions orientation claims that clients reach their goals more quickly, finish therapy m...

  9. Efficacy of various schemes of therapy of patients with radiation limb edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'mina, E.G.; Degtyareva, A.A.; Zubova, N.D.; Guseva, L.I.; Klimanov, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The efficacy of various therapeutic schemes: medicinal (basic therapy - BT), acupuncture (AP) and laser therapy (LT) against a background of basic therapy - was assessed and compared in 36 patients with radiation limb edema. It was established that a degree of a decrease in edemas, the improvement of indices of rheovasography grew in the following order: BT → AP → LT. The recovery of the lymph flow and immunological indices were the same in all therapeutic schemes

  10. Therapeutic efficacy of uterine arterial embolization for intractable uterine hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lang; Lu Lianwei; Ke Mengjia; Zhao Ru'en; Zeng Shaolan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of uterine arterial embolization (UAE) for intractable uterine hemorrhage. Methods: 16 patients with intractable uterine hemorrhage underwent bilateral UAE after failed conventional conservative treatment. Results: Uterine hemorrhage ceased within 12 hours in 15 patients (93.8%) after bilateral super-selective UAE. Internal iliac artery embolization was performed on one patient (6.2%) and hysterectomy was eventually carried out because of recurrent hemorrhage. Conclusion: UAE is a rapid and effective treatment method obviating hysterectomy for intractable uterine hemorrhage. (authors)

  11. The mid-to-long term therapeutic efficacy of Graves' disease after interventional embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weiduo; Yang Jianyong; Zhuang Wenquan; Chen Wei; Li Heping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the mid-to-long term therapeutic efficacy of Graves' disease after interventional embolization. Methods: Twenty-five patients of Graves' disease treated with interventional embolization were followed up for 24-57 months. T 3 and T 4 were monitored at pre-operation, six months, 12 months, 2, 3 and 4 years after operation, respectively. Other references included pulse, thyroid size, and vessel's murmur. Results: Twenty-two patients completely relieved from the hyperthyroidism during the follow-up. Only one patient suffered from recurrence. Other two patients were still on maintaining dosage of antithyroid drug therapy. No hypothyroidism or hypoparathyroidism was found during this term. Conclusion: Mid-to-long term follow-up showed satisfactory efficacy of interventional therapy, offering another alternative for treatment of refractory Graves' disease

  12. Efficacy and safety of combination therapy with latanoprost after a change in therapeutic regimen from timolol to brinzolamide in Japanese adult patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension: open, non-randomized 12-week study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shusaku Ishikawa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Shusaku Ishikawa1, Yoshimi Nakamura1, Yuko Nakamura1, Hiroshi Sakai1, Shoichi Sawaguchi1, Kazuo Terashima2, Makoto Kanno2, Hidetoshi Yamashita21Department of Ophthalmology, University of the Ryukyus Faculty of Medicine, Okinawa, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata, JapanPurpose: To compare the efficacy of brinzolamide in Japanese patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG or ocular hypertension (OH after a change from timolol in combination therapy with latanoprost.Methods: A 12-week, prospective, open-label, comparative study was performed in 20 patients [11 males and 9 females, mean age of 64.5 ± 11.0 (SDy] with POAG or OH treated with both latanoprost once daily and timolol 0.5% twice daily. During the study brinzolamide was substituted for timolol. Intraocular pressure (IOP was measured at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Blood pressure (BP, pulse rate (PR, and adverse events were also recorded.Results: IOPs at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks were 18.6 ± 2.1 mmHg, 17.8 ± 2.6 mmHg, 17.4 ± 2.5 mmHg, and 17.3 ± 3.5 mmHg, respectively. IOP reduction at 4 and 8 weeks was statistically significant (p < 0.05. The PR was significantly increased at 12 weeks (p < 0.01, but BP was not significantly affected. Four ocular adverse events were noted, but all were mild and transient.Conclusions: Substituting brinzolamide 1% for timolol 0.5% in combination therapy with latanoprost 0.005% demonstrated significant IOP reduction with improvement in PR with POAG or OH. Combination therapy using latanoprost and brinzolamide may be recommended for better IOP control with fewer systemic adverse events.Keywords: open-angle glaucoma, brinzolamide/latanprost combination therapy, timolol/latanoprost combination therapy, intraocular pressure

  13. Intracellular delivery of potential therapeutic genes: prospects in cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Athirah; Sayyad, Mustak; Rosli, Rozita; Maruyama, Atsushi; Chowdhury, Ezharul H

    2014-01-01

    Conventional therapies for malignant cancer such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with poor survival rates owing to the development of cellular resistance to cancer drugs and the lack of targetability, resulting in unwanted adverse effects on healthy cells and necessitating the lowering of therapeutic dose with consequential lower efficacy of the treatment. Gene therapy employing different types of viral and non-viral carriers to transport gene(s) of interest and facilitating production of the desirable therapeutic protein(s) has tremendous prospects in cancer treatments due to the high-level of specificity in therapeutic action of the expressed protein(s) with diminished off-target effects, although cancer cell-specific delivery of transgene(s) still poses some challenges to be addressed. Depending on the potential therapeutic target genes, cancer gene therapy could be categorized into tumor suppressor gene replacement therapy, immune gene therapy and enzyme- or prodrug-based therapy. This review would shed light on the current progress of delivery of potentially therapeutic genes into various cancer cells in vitro and animal models utilizing a variety of viral and non-viral vectors.

  14. Potential Therapeutic Modalities in Cancer Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithvi Sinha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In spite of huge concerted efforts, the treatment of cancer, a disease frequently associated with genetic alterations caused due to hereditary or environmental factors, remains a challenge. The last few years have witnessed emergence of several innovative and effective modalities for the treatment of solid tumours and hematological malignancies. Gene therapy has shown enormous potential for cancer treatment, especially for metastatic cancers which unlike localized solid tumours, may not be amenable to surgery or other treatment options. Gene therapy aims to introduce a correct copy of the malfunctioning gene in the tumour environment by using viral or non-viral methods to impede or inhibit its growth. This review provides an overview of three main approaches for cancer gene therapy namely immunotherapy, oncolytic therapy and gene transfer therapy. Immunotherapy augments the host immune system in order to destroy cancer cells while oncolytic therapy uses genetically engineered viruses such as to effectively kill cancer cells. Clinical studies so far have shown that cells can be engineered to express gene products that can specifically target cancer cells and prevents their growth and metastasis. Though gene therapy for cancer is yet to see extensive clinical use, it is likely that in combination with other treatment modalities, it will help in controlling and possibly curing cancer in the near future.

  15. Therapeutic efficacy of different Hemodialysis prescriptions in canine azotemia

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    Ekta Atul Thakkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine therapeutic efficacy of different Hemodialysis prescriptions in canine azotemia. Materials and Methods: Patients (n=9 with acute onset of renal dysfunction or chronic patients with superimposed acute factor (component or patients with known chronic nature of the disease were dialyzed with Fresenius 4008S hemodialysis machine after jugular catheterization. Patients were randomly divided into two groups, one group (n=3 was dialyzed every day and second (n=4 was dialyzed on alternate days. The patients were evaluated for following parameters to compare the efficacy of the dialysis prescription: Urea reduction ratio (URR, creatinine reduction ratio (CRR, Kt/V, time averaged concentration of urea (TAC urea. Result and Discussion: Increasing both dialysis frequency and duration is the superior dialysis schedule. Patient dialyzed every day with total processed blood volume 1.79 L/Kg for 4 h 26 min/session had the lowest TAC of 36.82 mg/dl, thereby was considered it as a better prescription.

  16. [Advantages of ride therapy in different forms of infantile cerebral palsy (therapeutic riding)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionatamishvili, N I; Tsverava, D M; Loriia, M Sh; Avaliani, L A

    2003-01-01

    One hundred children with cerebral palsy, aged 3-14 years, were divided into two equal groups, the first one including 50 children assigned to ride therapy and the second one--to Bobath therapeutic gymnastics. All the patients underwent a functional examination, which was rated using score system worked out by the authors, thus enabling a quantitative evaluation of treatment efficacy. In all the cases, physical rehabilitation resulted in a positive but not the same effect, with ride therapy being significantly (p gymnastics. Ride therapy provides an acquisition of new movement skills, spastics and hyperkinesis reduction and an extreme mobilization of compensatory abilities of developing children brain.

  17. Behavior Therapy versus Psychoanalysis: Therapeutic and Social Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpe, Joseph

    1981-01-01

    That psychoanalytic theory has not been displaced by the behavioral theory of neurosis is remarkable in view of the persuasive evidence that exists for the efficacy of behavior therapy. One reason for this seems to be the persistence of widespread misperceptions of behavior therapy. (Author)

  18. Factors Associated with Therapeutic Efficacy of Intravesical OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection for Overactive Bladder Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Mou Hsiao

    Full Text Available To analyze the predictors of therapeutic efficacy after intravesical botulinum toxin A injection for overactive bladder syndrome (OAB refractory to antimuscarinic therapy.All consecutively OAB patients, who visited the urologic outpatient clinics of a medical center and refractory to antimuscarinic treatment, were prospectively enrolled. All enrolled patients received intravesical injection of 100 U onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox. The Global Response Assessment (GRA score ≥ 2 at 3 months after Botox injection was defined as a successful treatment, otherwise failed.Overall, 89 patients received intravesical injection. Eighty patients, including 42 men and 38 women, had received follow-up at 3 months. The overall success rate was 63.8%. The global response assessment, urgency severity score, urgency, urgency urinary incontinence and frequency episodes, and functional bladder capacity improved after treatment. However, post-void residual volume (PVR increased, and voiding efficiency (VE decreased after treatment. Female gender (odds ratio = 3.75 was the only independent factor associated with the success. Female gender (coefficient = 0.74, low baseline overactive bladder symptoms score (coefficient = -0.12 and the presence of OAB-wet (coefficient = 0.79 were independent factors associated with therapeutic efficacy (i.e., GRA score. VE (odds ratio = 0.062 was the only predictor for a large PVR at 3 months. The optimum cutoff value of VE was <87% with the area under the ROC curve being 0.64 (sensitivity = 63.8%, specificity = 57.1%.The therapeutic effects of Botox can persist till 6 months after treatment. Female gender, low overactive bladder symptoms score and OAB-wet are associated better therapeutic efficacy, and low baseline VE is associated with large PVR. These findings can serve as an initial guide or assist in consultation regarding the treatment of OAB patients with Botox injection.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01657409.

  19. Unraveling the Effect of Immunogenicity on the PK/PD, Efficacy, and Safety of Therapeutic Proteins

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    Alison Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologics have emerged as a powerful and diverse class of molecular and cell-based therapies that are capable of replacing enzymes, editing genomes, targeting tumors, and more. As this complex array of tools arises a distinct set of challenges is rarely encountered in the development of small molecule therapies. Biotherapeutics tend to be big, bulky, polar molecules comprised of protein and/or nucleic acids. Compared to their small molecule counterparts, they are fragile, labile, and heterogeneous. Their biodistribution is often limited by hydrophobic barriers which often restrict their administration to either intravenous or subcutaneous entry routes. Additionally, their potential for immunogenicity has proven to be a challenge to developing safe and reliably efficacious drugs. Our discussion will emphasize immunogenicity in the context of therapeutic proteins, a well-known class of biologics. We set out to describe what is known and unknown about the mechanisms underlying the interplay between antigenicity and immune response and their effect on the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of these therapeutic agents.

  20. Asthma and Therapeutics: Recombinant Therapies in Asthma

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    Cockcroft Donald W

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerous recombinant therapies are being investigated for the treatment of asthma. This report reviews the current status of several of these novel agents. Anti-immunoglobulin (IgE (omalizumab, Xolair markedly inhibits all aspects of the allergen challenge in subjects who have reduction of free serum IgE to undetectable levels. Several clinical studies in atopic asthma have demonstrated benefit by improved symptoms and lung function and a reduction in corticosteroid requirements. Early use in atopic asthmatics may be even more effective. Several approaches target interleukin (IL-4. Soluble IL-4 receptor has been shown to effectively replace inhaled corticosteroid; further studies are under way. Recombinant anti-IL-5 and recombinant IL-12 inhibit blood and sputum eosinophils and allergen-induced eosinophilia without any effect on airway responsiveness, allergen-induced airway responses, or allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Efalizumab, a recombinant antibody that inhibits lymphocyte trafficking, is effective in psoriasis. A bronchoprovocation study showed a reduction in allergen-induced late asthmatic response and allergen-induced eosinophilia, which suggests that it should be effective in clinical asthma. These exciting novel therapies provide not only promise of new therapies for asthma but also valuable tools for investigation of asthma mechanisms.

  1. Bee venom therapy: Potential mechanisms and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Yi; Ye, Yang; Wang, Xue-Rui; Lin, Li-Ting; Xiao, Ling-Yong; Zhou, Ping; Shi, Guang-Xia; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2018-04-11

    Bee venom is a very complex mixture of natural products extracted from honey bee which contains various pharmaceutical properties such as peptides, enzymes, biologically active amines and nonpeptide components. The use of bee venom into the specific points is so called bee venom therapy, which is widely used as a complementary and alternative therapy for 3000 years. A growing number of evidence has demonstrated the anti-inflammation, the anti-apoptosis, the anti-fibrosis and the anti-arthrosclerosis effects of bee venom therapy. With these pharmaceutical characteristics, bee venom therapy has also been used as the therapeutic method in treating rheumatoid arthritis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, liver fibrosis, atherosclerosis, pain and others. Although widely used, several cases still reported that bee venom therapy might cause some adverse effects, such as local itching or swelling. In this review, we summarize its potential mechanisms, therapeutic applications, and discuss its existing problems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Safety, therapeutic effectiveness, and cost of parenteral iron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, Suheyl; Boga, Can; Ozdogu, Hakan

    2009-07-01

    Patients have to discontinue the use of oral iron therapy due to the development of side effects and lack of long-term adherence to medication for iron deficiency anemia. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness, safety, and cost of intravenous iron sucrose therapy. The computerized database and medical records of 453 patients diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia who received intravenous iron sucrose therapy for iron deficiency anemia between 2004 and 2008 were reviewed. The improvement of hematologic parameters and cost of therapy were evaluated 4 weeks after therapy. 453 patients (443 females, 10 males; age: 44.2 +/- 12.3 years) received iron sucrose therapy. Mean hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume values were 8.2 +/- 1.4 g/dL, 26.9 +/- 3.8%, and 66.1 +/- 7.8 fL, respectively, before therapy and 11.5 +/- 1.0 g/dL, 35.8 +/- 2.5%, 76.5 +/- 6.1 fL, respectively, after therapy (P 50%). The mean cost of therapy was 143.07 +/- 29.13 US dollars. The therapy was well tolerated. Although the cost of intravenous iron sucrose therapy may seem high, a lack of adherence to therapy and side effects including gastrointestinal irritation during oral iron therapy were not experienced during intravenous therapy.

  3. Predictive markers of efficacy for an angiopoietin-2 targeting therapeutic in xenograft models.

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    Gallen Triana-Baltzer

    Full Text Available The clinical efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapies has been difficult to predict, and biomarkers that can predict responsiveness are sorely needed in this era of personalized medicine. CVX-060 is an angiopoietin-2 (Ang2 targeting therapeutic, consisting of two peptides that bind Ang2 with high affinity and specificity, covalently fused to a scaffold antibody. In order to optimize the use of this compound in the clinic the construction of a predictive model is described, based on the efficacy of CVX-060 in 13 cell line and 2 patient-derived xenograft models. Pretreatment size tumors from each of the models were profiled for the levels of 27 protein markers of angiogenesis, SNP haplotype in 5 angiogenesis genes, and somatic mutation status for 11 genes implicated in tumor growth and/or vascularization. CVX-060 efficacy was determined as tumor growth inhibition (TGI% at termination of each study. A predictive statistical model was constructed based on the correlation of these efficacy data with the marker profiles, and the model was subsequently tested by prospective analysis in 11 additional models. The results reveal a range of CVX-060 efficacy in xenograft models of diverse tissue types (0-64% TGI, median = 27% and define a subset of 3 proteins (Ang1, EGF, Emmprin, the levels of which may be predictive of TGI by Ang2 blockade. The direction of the associations is such that better efficacy correlates with high levels of target and low levels of compensatory/antagonizing molecules. This effort has revealed a set of candidate predictive markers for CVX-060 efficacy that will be further evaluated in ongoing clinical trials.

  4. Predictive markers of efficacy for an angiopoietin-2 targeting therapeutic in xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana-Baltzer, Gallen; Pavlicek, Adam; Goulart, Ariadne; Huang, Hanhua; Pirie-Shepherd, Steven; Levin, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapies has been difficult to predict, and biomarkers that can predict responsiveness are sorely needed in this era of personalized medicine. CVX-060 is an angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) targeting therapeutic, consisting of two peptides that bind Ang2 with high affinity and specificity, covalently fused to a scaffold antibody. In order to optimize the use of this compound in the clinic the construction of a predictive model is described, based on the efficacy of CVX-060 in 13 cell line and 2 patient-derived xenograft models. Pretreatment size tumors from each of the models were profiled for the levels of 27 protein markers of angiogenesis, SNP haplotype in 5 angiogenesis genes, and somatic mutation status for 11 genes implicated in tumor growth and/or vascularization. CVX-060 efficacy was determined as tumor growth inhibition (TGI%) at termination of each study. A predictive statistical model was constructed based on the correlation of these efficacy data with the marker profiles, and the model was subsequently tested by prospective analysis in 11 additional models. The results reveal a range of CVX-060 efficacy in xenograft models of diverse tissue types (0-64% TGI, median = 27%) and define a subset of 3 proteins (Ang1, EGF, Emmprin), the levels of which may be predictive of TGI by Ang2 blockade. The direction of the associations is such that better efficacy correlates with high levels of target and low levels of compensatory/antagonizing molecules. This effort has revealed a set of candidate predictive markers for CVX-060 efficacy that will be further evaluated in ongoing clinical trials.

  5. Delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes using nanoparticle platforms: potential benefit in systemic radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longjiang; Chen, Hongwei; Wang, Liya; Liu, Tian; Yeh, Julie; Lu, Guangming; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2010-12-03

    Radiation therapy is an effective cancer treatment option in conjunction with chemotherapy and surgery. Emerging individualized internal and systemic radiation treatment promises significant improvement in efficacy and reduction of normal tissue damage; however, it requires cancer cell targeting platforms for efficient delivery of radiation sources. With recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology, there is great interest in developing nanomaterials as multifunctional carriers to deliver therapeutic radioisotopes for tumor targeted radiation therapy, to monitor their delivery and tumor response to the treatment. This paper provides an overview on developing nanoparticles for carrying and delivering therapeutic radioisotopes for systemic radiation treatment. Topics discussed in the review include: selecting nanoparticles and radiotherapy isotopes, strategies for targeting nanoparticles to cancers, together with challenges and potential solutions for the in vivo delivery of nanoparticles. Some examples of using nanoparticle platforms for the delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes in preclinical studies of cancer treatment are also presented.

  6. Delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes using nanoparticle platforms: potential benefit in systemic radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longjiang; Chen, Hongwei; Wang, Liya; Liu, Tian; Yeh, Julie; Lu, Guangming; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective cancer treatment option in conjunction with chemotherapy and surgery. Emerging individualized internal and systemic radiation treatment promises significant improvement in efficacy and reduction of normal tissue damage; however, it requires cancer cell targeting platforms for efficient delivery of radiation sources. With recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology, there is great interest in developing nanomaterials as multifunctional carriers to deliver therapeutic radioisotopes for tumor targeted radiation therapy, to monitor their delivery and tumor response to the treatment. This paper provides an overview on developing nanoparticles for carrying and delivering therapeutic radioisotopes for systemic radiation treatment. Topics discussed in the review include: selecting nanoparticles and radiotherapy isotopes, strategies for targeting nanoparticles to cancers, together with challenges and potential solutions for the in vivo delivery of nanoparticles. Some examples of using nanoparticle platforms for the delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes in preclinical studies of cancer treatment are also presented. PMID:24198480

  7. The glucose ketone index calculator: a simple tool to monitor therapeutic efficacy for metabolic management of brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidenbauer, Joshua J; Mukherjee, Purna; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic therapy using ketogenic diets (KD) is emerging as an alternative or complementary approach to the current standard of care for brain cancer management. This therapeutic strategy targets the aerobic fermentation of glucose (Warburg effect), which is the common metabolic malady of most cancers including brain tumors. The KD targets tumor energy metabolism by lowering blood glucose and elevating blood ketones (β-hydroxybutyrate). Brain tumor cells, unlike normal brain cells, cannot use ketone bodies effectively for energy when glucose becomes limiting. Although plasma levels of glucose and ketone bodies have been used separately to predict the therapeutic success of metabolic therapy, daily glucose levels can fluctuate widely in brain cancer patients. This can create difficulty in linking changes in blood glucose and ketones to efficacy of metabolic therapy. A program was developed (Glucose Ketone Index Calculator, GKIC) that tracks the ratio of blood glucose to ketones as a single value. We have termed this ratio the Glucose Ketone Index (GKI). The GKIC was used to compute the GKI for data published on blood glucose and ketone levels in humans and mice with brain tumors. The results showed a clear relationship between the GKI and therapeutic efficacy using ketogenic diets and calorie restriction. The GKIC is a simple tool that can help monitor the efficacy of metabolic therapy in preclinical animal models and in clinical trials for malignant brain cancer and possibly other cancers that express aerobic fermentation.

  8. [Efficacy of nutrition support therapy in children with chronic diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Luo-Jia; Chen, Jie

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy of nutrition support therapy in children with chronic diarrhea. A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 48 children with chronic diarrhea who were hospitalized between July 2012 and July 2014. These children were divided into children) and ≤1 year group (21 children). Twenty-seven of these patients, who had malnutrition, were divided into enteral nutrition (EN) group (10 children), partial parenteral nutrition (PPN)+EN group (16 children), and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) group (1 child). The therapeutic process and outcome were compared between different age groups and children receiving different treatments. Among the 48 children, short bowel syndrome, viral enteritis, a history of intestinal surgery, and malabsorption syndrome were common causes of chronic diarrhea, and 24 children (50%) had unknown causes. In the aspect of nutritional assessment on admission, the children with moderate underweight than the ≤1 year group (Pdiarrhea were relieved after treatment. Among 27 children receiving nutritional therapy, 4 were not improved, and the other children achieved remission of symptoms and improvements in nutritional status. Besides etiological treatment, nutrition support therapy can be applied as part of multimodality therapy in children with chronic diarrhea. This can effectively improve nutritional status and relieve the symptoms of diarrhea.

  9. The Slaying of a Beautiful Hypothesis: The Efficacy of Counseling and the Therapeutic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Mike; Hays, Danica G.

    2010-01-01

    Although the efficacy of counseling has been empirically linked to the therapeutic process, the emphasis in much of the literature remains on technique use. This article discusses 3 components of therapeutic efficacy (i.e., common factors, working alliance, and counselor attributes) and provides implications for counselors and counselor training.…

  10. Factors Associated with Therapeutic Efficacy of Intravesical OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection for Overactive Bladder Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Lin, Ho-Hsiung; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the predictors of therapeutic efficacy after intravesical botulinum toxin A injection for overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) refractory to antimuscarinic therapy. All consecutively OAB patients, who visited the urologic outpatient clinics of a medical center and refractory to antimuscarinic treatment, were prospectively enrolled. All enrolled patients received intravesical injection of 100 U onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox). The Global Response Assessment (GRA) score ≥ 2 at 3 months after Botox injection was defined as a successful treatment, otherwise failed. Overall, 89 patients received intravesical injection. Eighty patients, including 42 men and 38 women, had received follow-up at 3 months. The overall success rate was 63.8%. The global response assessment, urgency severity score, urgency, urgency urinary incontinence and frequency episodes, and functional bladder capacity improved after treatment. However, post-void residual volume (PVR) increased, and voiding efficiency (VE) decreased after treatment. Female gender (odds ratio = 3.75) was the only independent factor associated with the success. Female gender (coefficient = 0.74), low baseline overactive bladder symptoms score (coefficient = -0.12) and the presence of OAB-wet (coefficient = 0.79) were independent factors associated with therapeutic efficacy (i.e., GRA score). VE (odds ratio = 0.062) was the only predictor for a large PVR at 3 months. The optimum cutoff value of VE was overactive bladder symptoms score and OAB-wet are associated better therapeutic efficacy, and low baseline VE is associated with large PVR. These findings can serve as an initial guide or assist in consultation regarding the treatment of OAB patients with Botox injection. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01657409.

  11. Strategy to prime the host and cells to augment therapeutic efficacy of progenitor cells for patients with myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeehoon Kang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapy in myocardial infarction (MI is an innovative strategy that is regarded as a rescue therapy to repair the damaged myocardium and to promote neovascularization for the ischemic border zone. Among several stem cell sources for this purpose, autologous progenitors from bone marrow or peripheral blood would be the most feasible and safest cell-source. Despite the theoretical benefit of cell therapy, this method is not widely adopted in the actual clinical practice due to its low therapeutic efficacy. Various methods have been used to augment the efficacy of cell therapy in MI, such as using different source of progenitors, genetic manipulation of cells, or priming of the cells or hosts (patients with agents. Among these methods, the strategy to augment the therapeutic efficacy of the autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells by priming agents may be the most feasible and the safest method that can be applied directly to the clinic. In this review, we will discuss the current status and future directions of priming peripheral blood mononuclear cells or patients, as for cell therapy of MI.

  12. Metformin exhibits preventive and therapeutic efficacy against experimental cystic echinococcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Julia A.; Dávila, Valeria A.; Rodrígues, Christian R.; Petrigh, Romina; Zoppi, Jorge A.; Crocenzi, Fernando A.; Cumino, Andrea C.

    2017-01-01

    Metformin (Met) is an anti-hyperglycemic and potential anti-cancer agent which may exert its anti-proliferative effects via the induction of energetic stress. In this study we investigated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of Met against the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Metformin showed significant dose- and time-dependent killing effects on in vitro cultured protoscoleces and metacestodes. Notably, the combination of Met together with the minimum effective concentration of ABZSO had a synergistic effect after days 3 and 12 on metacestodes and protoscoleces, respectively. Oral administration of Met (50 mg/kg/day) in E. granulosus-infected mice was highly effective in reducing the weight and number of parasite cysts, yet its combination with the lowest recommended dose of ABZ (5 mg/kg/day) was even more effective. Coincidentally, intracystic Met accumulation was higher in animals treated with both drugs compared to those administered Met alone. Furthermore, the safe plant-derived drug Met exhibited remarkable chemopreventive properties against secondary hydatidosis in mice. In conclusion, based on our experimental data, Met emerges as a promising anti-echinococcal drug as it has proven to efficiently inhibit the development and growth of the E. granulosus larval stage and its combination with ABZ may improve the current anti-parasitic therapy. PMID:28182659

  13. Prognostic factors of the therapeutic efficacy of mTOR and VEGFR inhibitors in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. А. Voroshilova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thorough study of the molecular genetic alterations in patients with hereditary and sporadic renal cell carcinoma (RCC enabled to reveal potential therapeutic targets - vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, growth factor receptors (VEGFR, PDGFR, EGFR, FGFR, mTOR signaling protein. Advances in targeted therapy treatment in the current therapeutic practice have brought a problem of its rational use and ultimately effective outcomes. The main solution of solving this problem is to establish independent clinical and laboratory prognostic factors and molecular markers which could predict the efficacy of targeted therapy.Objective – optimization of targeted therapy in patients with RCC by using both molecular and genetic prognostic factors as predictors of the treatment efficacy.Materials and methods. We assessed the level of mRNA expression of 13 potential target genes in primary tumor and metastatic site of patients suffering from metastatic RCC (n = 43 and evaluated the influence of the selected genes’ expression on the therapeutic efficacy of mTOR inhibitors and VEGFR inhibitors.Conclusion. VEGFR1 mRNA overexpression in metastatic site as well as mTOR and/or PI3K mRNA overexpression could be assessed as potential biomarkers in predicting the treatment efficacy of VEGFR inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors respectively. The higher expression of RAF1 mRNA and mTOR signaling pathway are not typical molecular alterations in patients with mRCC. RAF1 mRNA overexpression in metastatic site as well as activation of the alternative signaling pathway (RAS-RAF-MAPK in tumor cell are negative prognostic factors of the efficacy of targeted therapy. Activation of the signaling RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway in tumor cells is probably an alternative independent mechanism that “drives” tumor development in certain groups of patients.

  14. Glyco-engineering strategies for the development of therapeutic enzymes with improved efficacy for the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Doo-Byoung

    2015-08-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of inherent diseases characterized by massive accumulation of undigested compounds in lysosomes, which is caused by genetic defects resulting in the deficiency of a lysosomal hydrolase. Currently, enzyme replacement therapy has been successfully used for treatment of 7 LSDs with 10 approved therapeutic enzymes whereas new approaches such as pharmacological chaperones and gene therapy still await evaluation in clinical trials. While therapeutic enzymes for Gaucher disease have N-glycans with terminal mannose residues for targeting to macrophages, the others require N-glycans containing mannose-6-phosphates that are recognized by mannose-6-phosphate receptors on the plasma membrane for cellular uptake and targeting to lysosomes. Due to the fact that efficient lysosomal delivery of therapeutic enzymes is essential for the clearance of accumulated compounds, the suitable glycan structure and its high content are key factors for efficient therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, glycan remodeling strategies to improve lysosomal targeting and tissue distribution have been highlighted. This review describes the glycan structures that are important for lysosomal targeting and provides information on recent glyco-engineering technologies for the development of therapeutic enzymes with improved efficacy.

  15. Therapeutic Strategies to Enhance the Anticancer Efficacy of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia P. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone acetylation is a posttranslational modification that plays a role in regulating gene expression. More recently, other nonhistone proteins have been identified to be acetylated which can regulate their function, stability, localization, or interaction with other molecules. Modulating acetylation with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi has been validated to have anticancer effects in preclinical and clinical cancer models. This has led to development and approval of the first HDACi, vorinostat, for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. However, to date, targeting acetylation with HDACi as a monotherapy has shown modest activity against other cancers. To improve their efficacy, HDACi have been paired with other antitumor agents. Here, we discuss several combination therapies, highlighting various epigenetic drugs, ROS-generating agents, proteasome inhibitors, and DNA-damaging compounds that together may provide a therapeutic advantage over single-agent strategies.

  16. Nanoparticle delivery of chemotherapy combination regimen improves the therapeutic efficacy in mouse models of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Min, Yuangzeng; Rodgers, Zachary; Wan, Xiaomeng; Qiu, Hui; Mi, Yu; Tian, Xi; Wagner, Kyle T; Caster, Joseph M; Qi, Yanfei; Roche, Kyle; Zhang, Tian; Cheng, Jianjun; Wang, Andrew Z

    2017-04-01

    The combination chemotherapy regimen of cisplatin (CP) and docetaxel (DTX) is effective against a variety of cancers. However, combination therapies present unique challenges that can complicate clinical application, such as increases in toxicity and imprecise exposure of tumors to specific drug ratios that can produce treatment resistance. Drug co-encapsulation within a single nanoparticle (NP) formulation can overcome these challenges and further improve combinations' therapeutic index. In this report, we employ a CP prodrug (CPP) strategy to formulate poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) NPs carrying both CPP and DTX. The dually loaded NPs display differences in drug release kinetics and in vitro cytotoxicity based on the structure of the chosen CPP. Furthermore, NPs containing both drugs showed a significant improvement in treatment efficacy versus the free drug combination in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancing Photodynamyc Therapy Efficacy by Combination Therapy: Dated, Current and Oncoming Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postiglione, Ilaria; Chiaviello, Angela; Palumbo, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Combination therapy is a common practice in many medical disciplines. It is defined as the use of more than one drug to treat the same disease. Sometimes this expression describes the simultaneous use of therapeutic approaches that target different cellular/molecular pathways, increasing the chances of killing the diseased cell. This short review is concerned with therapeutic combinations in which PDT (Photodynamyc Therapy) is the core therapeutic partner. Besides the description of the principal methods used to assess the efficacy attained by combinations in respect to monotherapy, this review describes experimental results in which PDT was combined with conventional drugs in different experimental conditions. This inventory is far from exhaustive, as the number of photosensitizers used in combination with different drugs is very large. Reports cited in this work have been selected because considered representative. The combinations we have reviewed include the association of PDT with anti-oxidants, chemotherapeutics, drugs targeting topoisomerases I and II, antimetabolites and others. Some paragraphs are dedicated to PDT and immuno-modulation, others to associations of PDT with angiogenesis inhibitors, receptor inhibitors, radiotherapy and more. Finally, a look is dedicated to combinations involving the use of natural compounds and, as new entries, drugs that act as proteasome inhibitors

  18. Molecular probing of TNF: From identification of therapeutic target to guidance of therapy in inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cong-Qiu

    2018-01-01

    Therapy by blocking tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity is highly efficacious and profoundly changed the paradigm of several inflammatory diseases. However, a significant proportion of patients with inflammatory diseases do not respond to TNF inhibitors (TNFi). Prediction of therapeutic response is required for TNFi therapy. Isotope labeled anti-TNF antibodies or TNF receptor have been investigated to localize TNF production at inflammatory tissue in animal models and in patients with inflammatory diseases. The in vivo detection of TNF has been associated with treatment response. Recently, fluorophore labeled anti-TNF antibody in combination with confocal laser endomicroscopy in patients with Crohn's disease yielded more accurate and quantitative in vivo detection of TNF in the diseased mucosa. More importantly, this method demonstrated high therapeutic predication value. Fluorophore labeled TNF binding aptamers in combination with modern imaging technology offers additional tools for in vivo TNF probing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomarkers for disease progression and AAV therapeutic efficacy in feline Sandhoff disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Allison M; Gray-Edwards, Heather L; Shirley, Jamie L; McCurdy, Victoria J; Colaco, Alexandria N; Randle, Ashley N; Christopherson, Pete W; Bird, Allison C; Johnson, Aime K; Wilson, Diane U; Hudson, Judith A; De Pompa, Nicholas L; Sorjonen, Donald C; Brunson, Brandon L; Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Platt, Frances M; Baker, Henry J; Cox, Nancy R; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Martin, Douglas R

    2015-01-01

    The GM2 gangliosidoses, Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) and Sandhoff disease (SD), are progressive neurodegenerative disorders that are caused by a mutation in the enzyme β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex). Due to the recent emergence of novel experimental treatments, biomarker development has become particularly relevant in GM2 gangliosidosis as an objective means to measure therapeutic efficacy. Here we describe blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electrodiagnostic methods for evaluating disease progression in the feline SD model and application of these approaches to assess AAV-mediated gene therapy. SD cats were treated by intracranial injections of the thalami combined with either the deep cerebellar nuclei or a single lateral ventricle using AAVrh8 vectors encoding feline Hex. Significantly altered in untreated SD cats, blood and CSF based biomarkers were largely normalized after AAV gene therapy. Also reduced after treatment were expansion of the lysosomal compartment in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and elevated activity of secondary lysosomal enzymes. MRI changes characteristic of the gangliosidoses were documented in SD cats and normalized after AAV gene therapy. The minimally invasive biomarkers reported herein should be useful to assess disease progression of untreated SD patients and those in future clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gene therapy prospects--intranasal delivery of therapeutic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolska, Karolina; Stachurska, Anna; Hajdukiewicz, Karolina; Małecki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy is recognized to be a novel method for the treatment of various disorders. Gene therapy strategies involve gene manipulation on broad biological processes responsible for the spreading of diseases. Cancer, monogenic diseases, vascular and infectious diseases are the main targets of gene therapy. In order to obtain valuable experimental and clinical results, sufficient gene transfer methods are required. Therapeutic genes can be administered into target tissues via gene carriers commonly defined as vectors. The retroviral, adenoviral and adeno-associated virus based vectors are most frequently used in the clinic. So far, gene preparations may be administered directly into target organs or by intravenous, intramuscular, intratumor or intranasal injections. It is common knowledge that the number of gene therapy clinical trials has rapidly increased. However, some limitations such as transfection efficiency and stable and long-term gene expression are still not resolved. Consequently, great effort is focused on the evaluation of new strategies of gene delivery. There are many expectations associated with intranasal delivery of gene preparations for the treatment of diseases. Intranasal delivery of therapeutic genes is regarded as one of the most promising forms of pulmonary gene therapy research. Gene therapy based on inhalation of gene preparations offers an alternative way for the treatment of patients suffering from such lung diseases as cystic fibrosis, alpha-1-antitrypsin defect, or cancer. Experimental and first clinical trials based on plasmid vectors or recombinant viruses have revealed that gene preparations can effectively deliver therapeutic or marker genes to the cells of the respiratory tract. The noninvasive intranasal delivery of gene preparations or conventional drugs seems to be very encouraging, although basic scientific research still has to continue.

  1. Therapeutic Media: Treating PTSD with Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Friedrich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Applying head-mounted displays (HMDs and virtual reality scenarios in virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET promises to alleviate combat-related post-traumatic stress disorders (among others. Its basic premise is that, through virtual scenarios, patients may re-engage immersively with situations that provoke anxiety, thereby reducing fear and psychosomatic stress. In this context, HMDs and visualizations should be considered not merely as devices for entertainment purposes or tools for achieving pragmatic objectives but also as a means to instruct and guide patients’ imagination and visual perception in triggering traumatic experiences. Under what perceptual and therapeutic conditions is virtual therapy to be considered effective? Who is the “ideal” patient for such therapy regimes, both in terms of his/her therapeutic indications and his/her perceptual readiness to engage with VR scenarios? In short, how are “treatable” patients conceptualized by and within virtual therapy? From a media-theory perspective, this essay critically explores various aspects of the VRET application Bravemind in order to shed light on conditions of virtual exposure therapy and conceptions of subjectivity and traumatic experience that are embodied and replicated by such HMD-based technology.

  2. Molecular Imaging of Gene Expression and Efficacy following Adenoviral-Mediated Brain Tumor Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alnawaz Rehemtulla

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer gene therapy is an active area of research relying upon the transfer and subsequent expression of a therapeutic transgene into tumor cells in order to provide for therapeutic selectivity. Noninvasive assessment of therapeutic response and correlation of the location, magnitude, and duration of transgene expression in vivo would be particularly useful in the development of cancer gene therapy protocols by facilitating optimization of gene transfer protocols, vector development, and prodrug dosing schedules. In this study, we developed an adenoviral vector containing both the therapeutic transgene yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD along with an optical reporter gene (luciferase. Following intratumoral injection of the vector into orthotopic 9L gliomas, anatomical and diffusion-weighted MR images were obtained over time in order to provide for quantitative assessment of overall therapeutic efficacy and spatial heterogeneity of cell kill, respectively. In addition, bioluminescence images were acquired to assess the duration and magnitude of gene expression. MR images revealed significant reduction in tumor growth rates associated with yCD/5-fluorocytosine (5FC gene therapy. Significant increases in mean tumor diffusion values were also observed during treatment with 5FC. Moreover, spatial heterogeneity in tumor diffusion changes were also observed revealing that diffusion magnetic resonance imaging could detect regional therapeutic effects due to the nonuniform delivery and/or expression of the therapeutic yCD transgene within the tumor mass. In addition, in vivo bioluminescence imaging detected luciferase gene expression, which was found to decrease over time during administration of the prodrug providing a noninvasive surrogate marker for monitoring gene expression. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the yCD/5FC strategy for the treatment of brain tumors and reveal the feasibility of using multimodality molecular and functional imaging

  3. The therapeutic relationship in emotion-focused therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Leslie

    2014-09-01

    Important qualities of the relationship that make it therapeutic are discussed. The relationship is seen as both therapeutic in and of itself and as providing a facilitative environment from specific change processes. The role of the relationship in emotion-focused therapy is discussed within this framework. The relationship in emotion-focused therapy is seen as curative by serving an affect-regulation function, which is internalized over time by the client. This function is accomplished by offering a soothing affect-attuned bond characterized by the therapist's presence and empathic attunement to affect as well as acceptance and congruence. Second, the relationship is seen as functioning as a means to an end by offering an optimal environment for facilitating specific modes of emotional processing. In our view, affect is much more likely to be approached, tolerated, and accepted in the context of a safe relationship. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Therapeutic efficacy of mefloquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MQ) and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) in children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Metehara town, southeast Ethiopia. Methods: The therapeutic responses to MQ and SP were examined using the World Health Organization 14-day in ...

  5. Better Efficacy of Synchrotron Spatially Microfractionated Radiation Therapy Than Uniform Radiation Therapy on Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchet, Audrey, E-mail: audrey.m.bouchet@gmail.com [Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Prezado, Yolanda [Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); El Atifi, Michèle [Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Grenoble University Hospital, Grenoble (France); Rogalev, Léonid; Le Clec' h, Céline [Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Laissue, Jean Albert [University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Pelletier, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.pelletier@ujf-grenoble.fr [Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Grenoble University Hospital, Grenoble (France); Le Duc, Géraldine [Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is based on the spatial fractionation of the incident, highly focused synchrotron beam into arrays of parallel microbeams, typically a few tens of microns wide and depositing several hundred grays. This irradiation modality was shown to have a high therapeutic impact on tumors, especially in intracranial locations. However, mechanisms responsible for such a property are not fully understood. Methods and Materials: Thanks to recent progress in dosimetry, we compared the effect of MRT and synchrotron broad beam (BB) radiation therapy delivered at comparable doses (equivalent to MRT valley dose) on tumor growth control and on classical radiobiological functions by histologic evaluation and/or transcriptomic analysis. Results: MRT significantly improved survival of rats bearing 9L intracranial glioma compared with BB radiation therapy delivered at a comparable dose (P<.001); the efficacy of MRT and BB radiation therapy was similar when the MRT dose was half that of BB. The greater efficacy of MRT was not correlated with a difference in cell proliferation (Mki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen) or in transcriptomic stimulation of angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor A or tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains 2) but was correlated with a higher cell death rate (factor for apoptosis signals) and higher recruitment of macrophages (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains 1 and CD68 transcripts) a few days after MRT. Conclusions: These results show the superiority of MRT over BB radiation therapy when applied at comparable doses, suggesting that spatial fractionation is responsible for a specific and particularly efficient tissue response. The higher induction of cell death and immune cell activation in brain tumors treated by MRT may be involved in such responses.

  6. Better Efficacy of Synchrotron Spatially Microfractionated Radiation Therapy Than Uniform Radiation Therapy on Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, Audrey; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Prezado, Yolanda; El Atifi, Michèle; Rogalev, Léonid; Le Clec'h, Céline; Laissue, Jean Albert; Pelletier, Laurent; Le Duc, Géraldine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is based on the spatial fractionation of the incident, highly focused synchrotron beam into arrays of parallel microbeams, typically a few tens of microns wide and depositing several hundred grays. This irradiation modality was shown to have a high therapeutic impact on tumors, especially in intracranial locations. However, mechanisms responsible for such a property are not fully understood. Methods and Materials: Thanks to recent progress in dosimetry, we compared the effect of MRT and synchrotron broad beam (BB) radiation therapy delivered at comparable doses (equivalent to MRT valley dose) on tumor growth control and on classical radiobiological functions by histologic evaluation and/or transcriptomic analysis. Results: MRT significantly improved survival of rats bearing 9L intracranial glioma compared with BB radiation therapy delivered at a comparable dose (P<.001); the efficacy of MRT and BB radiation therapy was similar when the MRT dose was half that of BB. The greater efficacy of MRT was not correlated with a difference in cell proliferation (Mki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen) or in transcriptomic stimulation of angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor A or tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains 2) but was correlated with a higher cell death rate (factor for apoptosis signals) and higher recruitment of macrophages (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains 1 and CD68 transcripts) a few days after MRT. Conclusions: These results show the superiority of MRT over BB radiation therapy when applied at comparable doses, suggesting that spatial fractionation is responsible for a specific and particularly efficient tissue response. The higher induction of cell death and immune cell activation in brain tumors treated by MRT may be involved in such responses.

  7. The therapeutic use of doll therapy in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary; O'Donnell, Hugh

    Over the next 15 years, the number of people with dementia in the UK will increase significantly. There are clear limitations associated with the sole use of pharmacological interventions to address the cognitive decline and related problems that people with dementia and their carers will experience. As a result, health professionals, including nurses, need to consider the development and use of nonpharmacological therapies to help resolve the distress and decline in social function that people with dementia can experience. The use of doll therapy in dementia care appears to be increasing, even though there is limited empirical evidence to support its use and therapeutic effectiveness. It is suggested by advocates of doll therapy that its use can alleviate distress and promote comfort in some people with dementia. Despite these encouraging claims, the theoretical basis for the use of doll therapy in dementia is poorly understood and morally questionable. The purpose of this article is to provide healthcare professionals with a succinct overview of the theory behind the therapeutic use of dolls for people with dementia, a presentation and appraisal of the available empirical evidence and an appreciation of the potential ethical dilemmas that are involved.

  8. An Updated Review of the Efficacy of Cupping Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Huijuan; Li, Xun; Liu, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1950, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) cupping therapy has been applied as a formal modality in hospitals throughout China and elsewhere in the world. Based on a previous systematic literature review of clinical studies on cupping therapy, this study presents a thorough review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy. METHOD: Six databases were searched for articles published through 2010. RCTs on cupping therapy for vari...

  9. Therapeutic efficacy of natural prostaglandin in the treatment of pyometra in bitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanti Jena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was done to study the therapeutic effect of natural prostaglandin in treatment of canine pyometra. Materials and Methods: Seven bitches were treated with natural PGF2 á i.e. dinoprost tromethamine at the dose rate of 100 μg/kg body weight subcutaneously once daily for 7 days with supportive therapies. The physiological, haematological and biochemical parameters were studied before (0th day and after treatment (8th day. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed in terms of return of abnormal parameters to either normal or near normal value as compared to the untreated control group, intensity of side effects and post treatment reproductive status. Results: All physiological, haematological and biochemical parameters in the seven treated bitches returned to normal range at the end of treatment. The intensity of side effects was quite severe in the treatment group. Six bitches came to estrus within 2 months of treatment and out of them four conceived on subsequent mating. In rest three bitches there was recurrence of pyometra within 4 months of treatment. Conclusion: Though conception rate of recovered bitches is decreased when compared with that of normal healthy bitches still this treatment protocol can be used successfully in treatment of canine pyometra to conserve the breeding capability of bitches. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 295-299

  10. Further Validation of the Norwegian Self-Efficacy for Therapeutic Mode Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C. Ritter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Intentional Relationship Model (IRM proposes six therapeutic modes as ways of relating to clients. The Norwegian self-efficacy for therapeutic mode use (N-SETMU was found to have a one-component structure. However, its items reflect abstract concepts rather than concrete behaviors. Aim. To validate further the N-SETMU by linking its items to the Norwegian client assessment of modes (N-CAM, with 30 items constituting six scales (linked to each mode, possessing concrete, behavioral content. Methods. Occupational therapy students (n=111 completed the N-SETMU and the N-CAM derived items, along with sociodemographic information. Component structure was analyzed with Principal Components Analysis (PCA, internal consistency of scales with Cronbach’s α, and associations between scale scores with Pearson’s r. Results. All items on all N-CAM derived scales loaded on one latent component, except one item related to problem-solving. After removing this item, the scale functioned appropriately. Cronbach’s α for all N-CAM derived scales ranged 0.88–0.94, and the associations between the N-CAM derived scales and the corresponding N-SETMU items ranged between 0.60 (advocating and 0.79 (encouraging. Conclusions. In view of the strong associations between the concrete, N-CAM derived scales and the abstract N-SETMU items, this study supports the concurrent validity of the N-SETMU.

  11. In Vitro Evaluation of Biofilm Dispersal as a Therapeutic Strategy To Restore Antimicrobial Efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roizman, Dan; Vidaillac, Celine; Givskov, Michael

    2017-01-01

    engineered strain PAO1/pBAD-yhjH resulted in increased antimicrobial efficacy and synergy of the imipenem-tobramycin combination. These results support the use of biofilm dispersal to enhance antimicrobial efficacy in the treatment of biofilm-associated infections, representing a promising therapeutic...

  12. A new therapeutic proposal for inoperable osteosarcoma: Photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Guilherme Chohfi; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Laranjo, Mafalda; Kitagawa Grizotto, Ana Yoshie; Camporeze, Bruno; Pereira, José Aires; Brites, Gonçalo; Serra, Arménio; Pineiro, Marta; Rocha-Gonsalves, António; Botelho, Maria Filomena; Priolli, Denise Gonçalves

    2017-11-21

    Osteosarcoma, a malignant tumor characterized by bone or osteoid formation, is the second most common primary bone neoplasm. Clinical symptoms include local and surrounding pain, unrelieved by rest or anesthesia. Osteosarcoma has a poor chemotherapeutic response with prognosis dependent on complete tumor excision. Therefore, for inoperable osteosarcoma new therapeutic strategies are needed. The present study aimed to develop murine models of cranial and vertebral osteosarcoma that facilitate simple clinical monitoring and real-time imaging to evaluate the outcome of photodynamic therapy based on a previously developed photosensitizer. Balb/c nude mice were divided into two groups: the cranial and vertebral osteosarcoma groups. Each group was further subdivided into the photodynamic therapy-treated and untreated groups. Images were obtained by scintigraphy with 99m Tc-MIBI and radiography. Tumor growth, necrotic area, osteoid matrix area, and inflammatory infiltration were analyzed. Cranial and vertebral tumors could be macroscopically observed and measured. Radiographic and scintigraphic images showed tumor cells present at the inoculation sites. After photodynamic therapy, scintigraphy showed lower tumoral radiopharmaceutical uptake, which correlated histologically with increased necrosis. Osteoid matrix volume increased, and tumor size decreased in all photodynamic therapy-treated animals. Cranial and vertebral osteosarcoma models in athymic mice are feasible and facilitate in vivo monitoring for the development of new therapies. Photodynamic therapy is a potential antitumoral treatment for surgically inoperable osteosarcoma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Therapeutic efficacy and safety evaluation of erythrocyte concentrate used in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko Barabasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic efficacy and safety evaluation of erythrocyte concentrate used in dogs 1Ildikó BARABÁSI, 1Cristina ȘTEFǍNUȚ, 1Laurenţ OGNEAN 1University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, 400037, Manastur street, no.3-5, Cluj-Napoca, Romania *Corresponding author: lognean@yahoo.com   Keywords: dogs, erythrocyte concentrate, hematocrit, immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, transfusion therapy Introduction: The minimum dose of whole blood products as well as erythrocyte concentrate has been under a lot of debate, new equations for calculating the optimal dose being made up from a large variety of hematologists (Kisielewicz et al 2014; Helm and Knottenbelt, 2010; Gibson, 2007. Aim: The therapeutical efficacy of erythrocyte concentrates in dogs with different types of anemia by measuring the hematocrit level 6 hours after the transfusion and a complete blood count 5 days post-transfusion therapy. Materials and methods: Blood tests were performed with ADIVA hematological analyzer; the 6 hour post-transfusion hematocrit was determined by a micro hematocrit. On admission every patient received a routine blood test that included 40 hematological parameters and 21 biochemical parameters. In addition, a detailed examination of the blood smears was also performed by the ADIVA hematological analyzer with 26 parameters that mostly referred to red blood cell and white blood cell morphology. Blood typing was done using the RapidVet quick test kit. Patients received only type specific blood and to limit transfusion reaction occurrences, in addition, a crossmatch test was performed before every transfusion. Statistical analysis was accomplished with GraphPadInStat 3.0 and the graphical depiction of the obtained results was made using the Origin 8.5. graphics program. Results: Statistical analysis reveal that the total red blood cell count underwent very significant changes (p=0.0052 as well as the hemoglobin (p=0.0085. The hematocrit

  14. Relative Therapeutic Efficacy of the Treadmill and Step Bench in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to compare the efficacy of treadmill and step bench exercises in hemiparetic gait rehabilitation. Previous studies have supported the use of treadmill and step bench exercises in gait rehabilitation. Nineteen patients were recruited for an 8-week, 2-group quasi-experimental study which was ...

  15. Therapeutic Efficacy of Methyl Salicylate Phonophoresis in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is widely reported in the literature, whereas very limited studies have been done with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs particularly, methyl salicylate 15% in the management of musculoskeletal injuries(MSIs) sustained during sports. This study was therefore, designed to investigate the efficacy of methyl salicylate ...

  16. Therapeutic Efficacy of Intermittent Cryotherapy in the Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was therefore, designed to investigate the efficacy of intermittent cryotherapy in the management of pain among human subjects who sustained closed soft tissue injuries (CSTIs). Subjects' pre- and post-treatment pain perception scores (PPS) using visual analogue scale (VAS) and the sessions of treatment were ...

  17. [50 years of hepatology - from therapeutic nihilism to targeted therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, Michael P

    2013-04-01

    Over the past 50 years significant progress has been made in the whole field of hepatology. Part of this is translation of basic research (biochemistry, immunology, virology, molecular biology and others) into clinical hepatology. This enabled us to understand more about the pathogenesis of liver diseases and led to the discovery of the five major hepatotropic viruses, the identification of hepatocellular autoantigens, and to the development of specific therapies for chronic hepatitis B, C and D. In addition, the molecular basis of most genetic liver diseases has been identified. Significant progress was made in the development of medical therapies for various liver diseases with different underlying etiologies. Surgery significantly contributed to the progress in the management of liver diseases; examples are laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the development of liver transplantation. A multimodal therapeutic algorithm has been established for the therapy of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC); with Sorafenib "targeted therapy" has entered the area of HCC. The progress made over the last 50 years not only led to an aetiological differentiation of acute and chronic liver diseases but also to specific therapies based on the identification and understanding of the underlying etiology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Understanding music’s therapeutic efficacy: Implications for music education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Thram

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the current era of electronic domination of human experience, be it via cell phone and/or computer addiction, or the ubiquitous television, actual participation in music- making is less and less common for the average person, child or adult. Passive participation through listening is most often cited by people as their major experience with music in their lives. When asked if listening has therapeutic effects, it is rare for anyone to respond in the negative. Likewise, for performers/active participants in music- making, be it solitary or as part of a group, invariably an enhanced sense of well-being from the act of making music is reported. This paper addresses therapeutic aspects of musical participation (singing, clapping, playing an instrument, dancing, listening by providing a historical overview (12th c to present of attitudes toward music’s therapeutic effects. It argues that music exists through the interaction of our biological capacity to make music with our cultural circumstances. How individuals benefit in all aspects their being – physical, mental and emotional – from engaging in the act of making music is illustrated with examples from field research in southern Africa. Finally implications for Music Education are explored which emphasize how more comprehensive integration of music into the curriculum can serve as an antidote to the increasing isolation and alienation of modern life.

  19. Creativity and improvisation as therapeutic tools within music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaino, Concetta M

    2013-11-01

    The neuroscience of creativity and music improvisation is a fascinating topic and one with strong implications for clinical music therapy. Music therapists are trained to use musical improvisation as a means to bring their clients into deeper therapeutic relationship as well as free up any inhibitions or limitations that may block recovery. Could recent fMRI studies of jazz musicians showing areas of brain activation during music improvisation provide a new framework to understand underlying mechanisms at work with neurologically impaired individuals? © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Gene therapy of cancer and development of therapeutic target gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Min; Kwon, Hee Chung

    1998-04-01

    We applied HSV-tk/GCV strategy to orthotopic rat hepatoma model and showed anticancer effects of hepatoma. The increased expression of Lac Z gene after adenovirus-mediated gene delivery throughout hepatic artery was thought that is increased the possibility of gene therapy for curing hepatoma. With the construction of kGLP-laboratory, it is possible to produce a good quantity and quality of adenovirus in lage-scale production and purification of adenovirus vector. Also, the analysis of hepatoma related genes by PCR-LOH could be used for the diagnosis of patients and the development of therapeutic gene.

  1. Gene therapy of cancer and development of therapeutic target gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Min; Kwon, Hee Chung

    1998-04-01

    We applied HSV-tk/GCV strategy to orthotopic rat hepatoma model and showed anticancer effects of hepatoma. The increased expression of Lac Z gene after adenovirus-mediated gene delivery throughout hepatic artery was thought that is increased the possibility of gene therapy for curing hepatoma. With the construction of kGLP-laboratory, it is possible to produce a good quantity and quality of adenovirus in lage-scale production and purification of adenovirus vector. Also, the analysis of hepatoma related genes by PCR-LOH could be used for the diagnosis of patients and the development of therapeutic gene

  2. [Efficacy observation on navel-warming therapy combined with western medication for yang-deficiency tympanites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jing-Dong; Li, Fen-Ping; He, Jin-Yu; Yang, Yue-Qing

    2014-05-01

    To observe the effects of navel-warming therapy on clinical efficacy in patients with yang-deficiency tympanites based on regular treatment of western medication. One hundred and twenty cases of yang-deficiency tympanites were randomly divided into a navel-warming therapy group and a western medication group, sixty cases in each one. The regular treatment of western medicine was applied in the western medication group, including oral administration of antiviral drug and diuretics as well as intravenous drip of hepatic protector. Based on western medicine treatment, the navel-warming therapy was applied in the navel-warming group. A medical cake was laid on Shenque (CV 8), and then a medical cylinder was placed above the medical cake and ignited. The treatment was given once daily. One month was considered as a treatment session in both groups and totally one session was required. The TCM symptom score, B-ultrasound ascites and temporary use of diuretics before and after treatment were observed in both groups; also the efficacy was evaluated. The total effective rate was 81.7% (49/60) in the navel-warming therapy group, which was superior to 56.7% (34/60) in the western medication group (P navel-warming therapy group (all P navel-warming therapy group could obviously reduce or stop the use of diuretics. Based on regular treatment of western medication, the navel-warming therapy could significantly improve therapeutic efficacy, effectively relieve clinical symptoms and ease ascites.

  3. Therapeutic efficacy of a hybrid mandibular advancement device in the management of obstructive sleep apnea assessed with acoustic reflection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is one of the most common forms of sleep-disordered breathing. Various treatment modalities include behavior modification therapy, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, oral appliance therapy, and various surgical modalities. Oral appliances are noninvasive and recommended treatment modality for snoring, mild to moderate OSA cases and severe OSA cases when patient is not compliant to CPAP therapy and unwilling for surgery. Acoustic reflection technique (ART is a relatively new modality for three-dimensional assessment of airway caliber in various clinical situations. The accuracy and reproducibility of acoustic rhinometry and acoustic pharyngometry assessment are comparable to computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This case report highlights the therapeutic efficacy of an innovative customized acrylic hybrid mandibular advancement device in the management of polysomnography diagnosed OSA cases, and the treatment results were assessed by ART.

  4. Efficacy of sequential three-step empirical therapy for chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Xu, Xianghuai; Hang, Jingqing; Cheng, Kewen; Jin, Xiaoyan; Chen, Qiang; Lv, Hanjing; Qiu, Zhongmin

    2017-06-01

    Empirical three-step therapy has been proved in just one hospital. This study aimed to demonstrate applicability of the sequential empirical three-step therapy for chronic cough in different clinical settings. Sequential empirical three-step therapy was given to patients with chronic cough in one tertiary and three secondary care respiratory clinics. Recruiters were initially treated with methoxyphenamine compound as the first-step therapy, followed by corticosteroids as the second-step therapy and the combination of a proton-pump inhibitor and a prokinetic agent as the third-step therapy. The efficacy of the therapy was verified according to the changes in cough symptom score between pre- and post-treatment, and compared among the different clinics. In total 155 patients in one tertiary clinic and 193 patients in secondary care clinics were recruited. The total dropout ratio is significantly higher in the secondary care clinics than that in the tertiary clinic (9.3% versus 3.2%, p = 0.023). The therapeutic success rate for cough was 38.7% at first-step therapy, 32.3% at second-step therapy and 20.0% at third-step therapy in the tertiary clinic, and comparable to corresponding 49.7%, 31.1% and 4.1% in secondary care clinics. Furthermore, the overall cough resolution rate was not significantly different (91.0% versus 85.0%, p = 0.091). However, the efficacy of the third-step therapy is much higher (20.0% versus 4.1%, p = 0.001) in the tertiary clinic than in the secondary care clinics. Sequential empirical three-step therapy is universally efficacious and useful for management of chronic cough in different clinical settings.

  5. Therapeutic Efficacy of Artemether-Lumefantrine for Treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Artemether – lumefantrine combination therapy reduced fever in malaria patients but ... concern about the sustainability of AL against .... RNA gene. The thermal profile for first Round. PCR was initial denaturation of 95 oC for 10 min,. 35 cycles of 94 oC for 45 s, 58 oC for 30 s, 72 oC for 30 s and final extension ...

  6. Comparison of efficacy of neural therapy and physical therapy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of neural therapy, and physical therapy on level of pain, disability, quality of life, and psychological status in patients with chronic low back pain. Patients admitted to the physical therapy and rehabilitation outpatient clinic with the complaint of low back pain of at ...

  7. Short-term therapeutic effects of combined therapy with metformin hydrochloride for aplastic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-chun LU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To screen and select new drugs for aplastic anemia (AA and evaluate their clinical efficacy by clinical bioinformatics methods. Methods First, we established genome expression profiles of AA patients, and conducted similarity analyses with the pharmacogenomics database to screen and select drugs with possible efficacy. Intractable AA patients who received immunosuppressors and/or androgen for more than six months showing no clinical efficacy were enrolled in the study to evaluate therapeutic effects of the therapeutic regime. Clinical efficacy and adverse effects were evaluated after six months. Results The clinical bioinformatics results showed therapeutic effects of metformin hydrochloride on AA. Forty-three intractable AA patients (15 with severe AA were treated with metformin hydrochloride combined with cyclosporin A (CsA and stanozolol. Twenty-seven transfusion-dependent patients (100% became transfusion independent after a 6-month therapy. The hemoglobin level completely returned to normal in 37 out of 40 anemia patients (92.5%. In the 40 patients with platelet count lower than 20×109/L, the platelet count of 28 patients (90.3% increased to higher than 50×109/L. The white cell count increased to higher than 3.5×109/L in 30 out of 35 patients (88.6% with white cell count lower than 2.5×109/L. Among 40 anemic patients, 1 was found to have abnormal renal function, but it recovered to the normal range after ending CsA treatment. Eighteen patients were found to have elevated transaminase levels which were lowered to normal range after using liver protectants and reducing the dosage of stanozolol. There were no instances of hypoglycemia in all patients throughout the treatment. Conclusion Combination of metformin hydrochloride, CsA and stanozolol is effective in refractory aplastic anemia with acceptable toxicity.

  8. Cardiac gene therapy: therapeutic potential and current progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizana, E; Alexander, I E

    2003-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in modern societies. While contemporary treatment modalities are making steady inroads to reduce this disease burden there remains a pressing need to vigorously explore novel therapeutic strategies. Rapid advances in our understanding of molecular pathology and the evolution of increasingly efficient gene transfer technology offer the imminent prospect of gene-based approaches to, at least, a subset of cardiovascular pathophysiologies. Initially envisaged as a treatment strategy for inherited monogenic disorders, it is now apparent that gene therapy has broader potential that encompasses acquired polygenic diseases, including many that affect the cardiovascular system. Extensive in vitro and animal studies are providing an increasingly sound scientific basis for cautious human evaluation. This review focuses on gene therapy of diseases primarily afflicting the heart, and provides an overview of gene and vector delivery systems with particular emphasis on systems suited to individual cardiac conditions. The pathophysiology underlying these conditions and molecular targets for therapeutic intervention are also reviewed.

  9. Upconversion nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy and other cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Cheng, Liang; Liu, Zhuang

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment modality for a variety of diseases including cancer. PDT based on upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) has received much attention in recent years. Under near-infrared (NIR) light excitation, UCNPs are able to emit high-energy visible light, which can activate surrounding photosensitizer (PS) molecules to produce singlet oxygen and kill cancer cells. Owing to the high tissue penetration ability of NIR light, NIR-excited UCNPs can be used to activate PS molecules in much deeper tissues compared to traditional PDT induced by visible or ultraviolet (UV) light. In addition to the application of UCNPs as an energy donor in PDT, via similar mechanisms, they could also be used for the NIR light-triggered drug release or activation of 'caged' imaging or therapeutic molecules. In this review, we will summarize the latest progresses regarding the applications of UCNPs for photodynamic therapy, NIR triggered drug and gene delivery, as well as several other UCNP-based cancer therapeutic approaches. The future prospects and challenges in this emerging field will be also discussed.

  10. Efficacy of Voice Therapy for Patients With Early Unilateral Adductor Vocal Fold Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ya-Chuan; Chen, Shen-Hwa; Wang, Yu-Tsai; Chu, Pen-Yuan; Tan, Ching-Ting; Chang, Wan-Zu Diana

    2017-09-01

    Although a variety of therapeutic techniques have been suggested for patients with unilateral adductor vocal fold paralysis (UAVFP), they were not aimed specifically at determining the efficacy of early intervention for these patients. The purposes of this study are to explore a protocol of voice therapy and to investigate its efficacy in voice therapy for patients with early UAVFP. A 12-week planned voice therapy protocol, including vocal function exercise, hard attack, and resonance voice therapy, was given to 10 patients within 6 months of initial diagnosis. Additionally, nine patients diagnosed with UAVFP within 6 months served as controls. Multidimensional evaluations of voice function were obtained for statistical analyses. Compared to a control group, the experimental group receiving voice therapy exhibited significant improvement in the following: (1) glottal closure; (2) voice quality of grade, breathiness, monotone, and resonance; (3) acoustic measurements of jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio; (4) aerodynamics measurements of maximum phonation time, phonation threshold pressure, and phonation quotient; and (5) Voice Handicap Index of functional subscale. This prospective study established an effective protocol of early intervention of voice therapy in patients with UAVFP and demonstrated its efficacy in data on laryngeal physiology, voice quality, voice stability, voice efficiency, and communication function. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy of captopril therapy in cystinuria lithiasis. A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printza, N; Koukourgianni, F; Papathanasiou, A; Augoustides-Savvopoulou, P; Papachristou, F

    2007-01-01

    We present a 7-year old girl with severe urolithiasis due to cystinouria. Medical treatment after the surgical procedures was initiated with intensive hydration, urine alkalinisation and captopril. We discuss the therapeutic efficacy of captopril in resolving lithiasis as well as in preventing new stone formation. PMID:19582183

  12. The Therapeutic Efficacy of Domestic Violence Victim Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Shannon; McWhirter, Paula T; Lesher, Susan

    2016-04-01

    A meta-analysis on domestic violence interventions was conducted to determine overall effectiveness of mental health programs involving women and children in joint treatment. These interventions were further analyzed to determine whether outcomes are differentially affected based on the outcome measure employed. To date, no meta-analyses have been published on domestic violence victim intervention efficacy. The 17 investigations that met study criteria yielded findings indicating that domestic violence interventions have a large effect size (d = .812), which decreases to a medium effect size when compared to control groups (d = .518). Effect sizes were assessed to determine whether treatment differed according to the focus of the outcome measure employed: (a) external stress (behavioral problems, aggression, or alcohol use); (b) psychological adjustment (depression, anxiety, or happiness); (c) self-concept (self-esteem, perceived competence, or internal locus of control); (d) social adjustment (popularity, loneliness, or cooperativeness); (e) family relations (mother-child relations, affection, or quality of interaction); and (f) maltreatment events (reoccurrence of violence, return to partner). Results reveal that domestic violence interventions across all outcome categories yield effects in the medium to large range for both internalized and externalized symptomatology. Implications for greater awareness and support for domestic violence treatment and programming are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Transplantation of autologous adipose stem cells lacks therapeutic efficacy in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS, characterized by chronic inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage, is a complicated neurological disease of the human central nervous system. Recent interest in adipose stromal/stem cell (ASCs for the treatment of CNS diseases has promoted further investigation in order to identify the most suitable ASCs. To investigate whether MS affects the biologic properties of ASCs and whether autologous ASCs from MS-affected sources could serve as an effective source for stem cell therapy, cells were isolated from subcutaneous inguinal fat pads of mice with established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a murine model of MS. ASCs from EAE mice and their syngeneic wild-type mice were cultured, expanded, and characterized for their cell morphology, surface antigen expression, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, colony forming units, and inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in vitro. Furthermore, the therapeutic efficacy of the cells was assessed in vivo by transplantation into EAE mice. The results indicated that the ASCs from EAE mice displayed a normal phenotype, typical MSC surface antigen expression, and in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity, while their osteogenic differentiation capacity was reduced in comparison with their unafflicted control mice. The ASCs from EAE mice also demonstrated increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, specifically an elevation in the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and keratin chemoattractant. In vivo, infusion of wild type ASCs significantly ameliorate the disease course, autoimmune mediated demyelination and cell infiltration through the regulation of the inflammatory responses, however, mice treated with autologous ASCs showed no therapeutic improvement on the disease progression.

  14. Lactobionic acid-conjugated TPGS nanoparticles for enhancing therapeutic efficacy of etoposide against hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsend-Ayush, Altansukh; Zhu, Xiumei; Ding, Yu; Yao, Jianxu; Yin, Lifang; Zhou, Jianping; Yao, Jing

    2017-05-01

    Many effective anti-cancer drugs have limited use in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy due to the drug resistance mechanisms in liver cells. In recent years, tumor-targeted drug delivery and the inhibition of drug-resistance-related mechanisms has become an integrated strategy for effectively combating chemo-resistant cancer. Herein, lactobionic acid-conjugated d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS-LA conjugate) has been developed as a potential asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR)-targeted nanocarrier and an efficient inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to enhance etoposide (ETO) efficacy against HCC. The main properties of ETO-loaded TPGS-LA nanoparticles (NPs) were tested through in vitro and in vivo studies after being prepared using the nanoprecipitation method and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS). According to the results, smaller (˜141.43 nm), positively charged ETO-loaded TPGS-LA NPs were more suitable for providing efficient delivery to hepatoma cells by avoiding the clearance mechanisms. It was found that ETO-loaded TPGS-LA NPs were noticeably able to enhance the cytotoxicity of ETO in HepG2 cells. Besides this, markedly higher internalization by the ASGPR-overexpressed HepG2 cells and efficient accumulation at the tumor site in vivo were revealed in the TPGS-LA NP group. More importantly, animal studies confirmed that ETO-loaded TPGS-LA NPs achieved the highest therapeutic efficacy against HCC. Interestingly, ETO-loaded TPGS-LA NPs also exhibited a great inhibitory effect on P-gp compared to the ETO-loaded TPGS NPs. These results suggest that TPGS-LA NPs could be used as a potential ETO delivery system against HCC.

  15. Analysis of clinical characteristics of pulmonary metastases from differentiated thyroid cancers and 131I therapeutic efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hankui; Yu Yongli; Zhu Ruisen; Ji Hong; Luo Quanyong; Chen Libo

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical characteristics of pulmonary metastases (PM) from differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) and 131 I therapeutic efficacy. Methods: Of 42 DTC patients with PM, 12 were male and 30 female. The clinical diagnosis of PM derived evidence from patients' history, lab tests, X-ray examination and 131 I whole body scan ( 131 I-WBS). 131 I treatment protocol was subject to each patient's condition and 131 I-WBS results, with 152.6±14.3 mCi each time and periodical duration 137±21 days. The follow-up time ranged from 1 to 10 yrs. Results: Before the onset of 131 I treatment, 18 patients with PM showed no pulmonary symptoms, but 14 came up with mild symptoms and other 10 severe; the latter aged elder than the former. 22 patients (52.4%) were cured after 131 I treatment, and other 9 patients' condition become favorable or stable. Metastases other than PM were found in 34 cases for which 131 I treatment were more effective on the cervical and mediastinum metastases than on bone metastases (p 131 I occurred in 4 cases. Conclusion: Absence of pulmonary symptoms is an important characteristic of early PM from DTC. Early PM is well related with favorable outcomes from 131 I treatment. Other elements affecting 131 I treatment results include patients' age, other metastases and severities of adverse reaction to 131 I therapy

  16. Predicting In Vivo Efficacy of Therapeutic Bacteriophages Used To Treat Pulmonary Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Marine; Lavigne, Rob

    2013-01-01

    The potential of bacteriophage therapy to treat infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria has now been well established using various animal models. While numerous newly isolated bacteriophages have been claimed to be potential therapeutic candidates on the basis of in vitro observations, the parameters used to guide their choice among billions of available bacteriophages are still not clearly defined. We made use of a mouse lung infection model and a bioluminescent strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to compare the activities in vitro and in vivo of a set of nine different bacteriophages (PAK_P1, PAK_P2, PAK_P3, PAK_P4, PAK_P5, CHA_P1, LBL3, LUZ19, and PhiKZ). For seven bacteriophages, a good correlation was found between in vitro and in vivo activity. While the remaining two bacteriophages were active in vitro, they were not sufficiently active in vivo under similar conditions to rescue infected animals. Based on the bioluminescence recorded at 2 and 8 h postinfection, we also define for the first time a reliable index to predict treatment efficacy. Our results showed that the bacteriophages isolated directly on the targeted host were the most efficient in vivo, supporting a personalized approach favoring an optimal treatment. PMID:24041900

  17. Therapeutic Efficacy of E-64-d, a Selective Calpain Inhibitor, in Experimental Acute Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of calpain inhibitor E-64-d on SCI and to find a new approach to treat SCI. When an SCI rat model was established, it was immediately administered with E-64-d. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the protein and mRNA levels of calpain 1 and 68-kD NFP. TUNEL staining and NeuN labeling were performed to analyze neuronal apoptosis in the lesion. Immunohistochemistry assay was carried out to observe the expressions of calpain 1 and GFAP. Cyclooxygenase-2 activity was measured to show the immune response status. Locomotor function was evaluated by inclined plane test and Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale. The results showed that calpain 1 was activated after SCI occurred. Treatment with E-64-d decreased expressions of calpain 1 and GFAP, alleviated neuronal apoptosis, inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 activity, and resulted in the promoted locomotor function. Furthermore, combination of E-64-d and MP had better efficacy than did E-64-d or MP alone. E-64-d is expected to be applied to treat SCI, and its alliance with MP may provide a valid strategy for SCI therapy.

  18. Anticancer Drug-Incorporated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrids and Their Enhanced Anticancer Therapeutic Efficacy in Combination Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Layered double hydroxide (LDH nanoparticles have been studied as cellular delivery carriers for anionic anticancer agents. As MTX and 5-FU are clinically utilized anticancer drugs in combination therapy, we aimed to enhance the therapeutic performance with the help of LDH nanoparticles. Method. Anticancer drugs, MTX and 5-FU, and their combination, were incorporated into LDH by reconstruction method. Simply, LDHs were thermally pretreated at 400°C, and then reacted with drug solution to simultaneously form drug-incorporated LDH. Thus prepared MTX/LDH (ML, 5-FU/LDH (FL, and (MTX + 5-FU/LDH (MFL nanohybrids were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, zeta potential measurement, dynamic light scattering, and so forth. The nanohybrids were administrated to the human cervical adenocarcinoma, HeLa cells, in concentration-dependent manner, comparing with drug itself to verify the enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Conclusion. All the nanohybrids successfully accommodated intended drug molecules in their house-of-card-like structures during reconstruction reaction. It was found that the anticancer efficacy of MFL nanohybrid was higher than other nanohybrids, free drugs, or their mixtures, which means the multidrug-incorporated LDH nanohybrids could be potential drug delivery carriers for efficient cancer treatment via combination therapy.

  19. Therapeutic Implications for Overcoming Radiation Resistance in Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong Mo Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR, such as X-rays and gamma (γ-rays, mediates various forms of cancer cell death such as apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, mitotic catastrophe, and senescence. Among them, apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe are the main mechanisms of IR action. DNA damage and genomic instability contribute to IR-induced cancer cell death. Although IR therapy may be curative in a number of cancer types, the resistance of cancer cells to radiation remains a major therapeutic problem. In this review, we describe the morphological and molecular aspects of various IR-induced types of cell death. We also discuss cytogenetic variations representative of IR-induced DNA damage and genomic instability. Most importantly, we focus on several pathways and their associated marker proteins responsible for cancer resistance and its therapeutic implications in terms of cancer cell death of various types and characteristics. Finally, we propose radiation-sensitization strategies, such as the modification of fractionation, inflammation, and hypoxia and the combined treatment, that can counteract the resistance of tumors to IR.

  20. Therapeutic Implications for Overcoming Radiation Resistance in Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong Mo; Hong, Yunkyung; Lee, Seunghoon; Liu, Pengda; Lim, Ji Hong; Lee, Yong Heon; Lee, Tae Ho; Chang, Kyu Tae; Hong, Yonggeun

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR), such as X-rays and gamma (γ)-rays, mediates various forms of cancer cell death such as apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, mitotic catastrophe, and senescence. Among them, apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe are the main mechanisms of IR action. DNA damage and genomic instability contribute to IR-induced cancer cell death. Although IR therapy may be curative in a number of cancer types, the resistance of cancer cells to radiation remains a major therapeutic problem. In this review, we describe the morphological and molecular aspects of various IR-induced types of cell death. We also discuss cytogenetic variations representative of IR-induced DNA damage and genomic instability. Most importantly, we focus on several pathways and their associated marker proteins responsible for cancer resistance and its therapeutic implications in terms of cancer cell death of various types and characteristics. Finally, we propose radiation-sensitization strategies, such as the modification of fractionation, inflammation, and hypoxia and the combined treatment, that can counteract the resistance of tumors to IR. PMID:26569225

  1. Comparison of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Double-Modality Therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    perception scores (PPS) using visual analogue scale (VAS) were assessed and the sessions of treatment in all groups were recorded. Treatment was administered on alternate days and discharges .... sensation like cold, burning, aching and numb. (Kellett, 1986) would be felt during the treatment procedure which causes ...

  2. Radioisotopes for Therapy and Development of Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolajczak, R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years there has been a rapid expansion in the use of radionuclides for therapeutic purposes. The potential usefulness of a particular radioisotope depends on many factors: physical data (half-life, energy of beta-particles, gamma ray emissions), production method including separation, labeling and targeting properties of a radionuclide carrier molecule. Depending on the production mode, the radioisotope can be obtained in the pure form (without any carrier) or in the form of the mixture of isotopes, containing also the stable forms. The specific activity is than defined as radioactivity of a certain radioisotope in this mixture. Several beta-emitting radionuclides for targeted radionuclide therapy can be produced in the nuclear reactors, including generator systems, and the list of other potentially useful isotopes is not yet closed. Among the radionuclides used for cancer therapy, 131 I, 90 Y, 188 Re, 166 Ho and 153 Sm have found applications in a number of clinical procedures and have been used for cancer therapy, bone pain palliation, radiosynovectomy, intravascular radiation therapy and other disorders. Extensive research in the field of radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine practices have lead to the identification of other radionuclides including 177 Lu, 161 Tb, 67 Cu, 47 Sc with promising radionuclide physical and chemical properties, which still need to be explored. The latter two are of interest due to their positron emitting 'twins' i.e. 64 Cu and 44 Sc, which can be used for diagnostic imaging and therapy follow up using the same carrier molecules. On the other hand various techniques have been developed in order to improve the therapeutic effect such as the isotope cocktail approach, loco-regional administration, pre-targeting or combination with chemotherapy, providing new therapy options. The most popular in last years were carrier-free 90 Y and 177L u as well as carrier-added 177 Lu used for labeling of peptides specific to somatostatin

  3. Immunogenicity to therapeutic proteins: impact on PK/PD and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirmule, Narendra; Jawa, Vibha; Meibohm, Bernd

    2012-06-01

    The development of therapeutic proteins requires the understanding of the relationship between the dose, exposure, efficacy, and toxicity of these molecules. Several intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to the challenges for measuring therapeutic proteins in a precise and accurate manner. In addition, induction of an immune response to therapeutic protein results in additional complexities in the analysis of the pharmacokinetic profile, toxicity, safety, and efficacy of this class of molecules. Assessment of immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins is a required aspect of regulatory filings for a licensing application and for the safe and efficacious use of these compounds. A systematic strategy and well-defined criteria for measuring anti-drug antibodies (ADA) have been established, to a large extent, through coordinated efforts. These recommendations are based on risk assessment and include the determination of ADA content (concentration/titer), affinity, immunoglobulin isotype/subtype, and neutralization capacity. This manuscript reviews the requirements necessary for understanding the nature of an ADA response in order to discern the impact of immunogenicity on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics and efficacy.

  4. Therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT is the treatment of choice for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL, a fixed dose co-formulation, has recently been approved for marketing in India, although it is not included in the National Drug Policy for treatment of malaria. Efficacy of short course regimen (4 × 4 tablets of 20 mg artemether plus 120 mg lumefantrine over 48 h was demonstrated in India in the year 2000. However, low cure rates in Thailand and better plasma lumefantrine concentration profile with a six-dose regimen over three days, led to the recommendation of higher dose globally. This is the first report on the therapeutic efficacy of the six-dose regimen of AL in Indian uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients. The data generated will help in keeping the alternative ACT ready for use in the National Programme as and when required. Methods One hundred and twenty four subjects between two and fifty-five years of age living in two highly endemic areas of the country (Assam and Orissa were enrolled for single arm, open label prospective study. The standard six-dose regimen of AL was administered over three days and was followed-up with clinical and parasitological evaluations over 28 days. Molecular markers msp-1 and msp-2 were used to differentiate the recrudescence and reinfection among the study subjects. In addition, polymorphism in pfmdr1 was also carried out in the samples obtained from patients before and after the treatment. Results The PCR corrected cure rates were high at both the sites viz. 100% (n = 53 in Assam and 98.6% (n = 71 in Orissa. The only treatment failure case on D7 was a malnourished child. The drug was well tolerated with no adverse events. Patients had pre-treatment carriage of wild type codons at positions 86 (41.7%, n = 91 and 184 (91.3%, n = 91 of pfmdr1 gene. Conclusion AL is safe and effective drug for the treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria

  5. Efficacy of highly active triple antiretroviral therapy in preventing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug efficacy and safety were assessed by CD4 count, viral load, liver enzymes level, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea and haemoglobin concentration level before and after treatment and the paediatric seroprevalence rate. Highly active triple antiretroviral therapy was associated with maternal immunological ...

  6. The in vivo therapeutic efficacy of the oncolytic adenovirus Delta24-RGD is mediated by tumor-specific immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kleijn

    Full Text Available The oncolytic adenovirus Delta24-RGD represents a new promising therapeutic agent for patients with a malignant glioma and is currently under investigation in clinical phase I/II trials. Earlier preclinical studies showed that Delta24-RGD is able to effectively lyse tumor cells, yielding promising results in various immune-deficient glioma models. However, the role of the immune response in oncolytic adenovirus therapy for glioma has never been explored. To this end, we assessed Delta24-RGD treatment in an immune-competent orthotopic mouse model for glioma and evaluated immune responses against tumor and virus. Delta24-RGD treatment led to long-term survival in 50% of mice and this effect was completely lost upon administration of the immunosuppressive agent dexamethasone. Delta24-RGD enhanced intra-tumoral infiltration of F4/80+ macrophages, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and increased the local production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In treated mice, T cell responses were directed to the virus as well as to the tumor cells, which was reflected in the presence of protective immunological memory in mice that underwent tumor rechallenge. Together, these data provide evidence that the immune system plays a vital role in the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic adenovirus therapy of glioma, and may provide angles to future improvements on Delta24-RGD therapy.

  7. Efficacy of light therapy for perinatal depression: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowley Shannon K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Perinatal depression is an important public health problem affecting 10% to 20% of childbearing women. Perinatal depression is associated with significant morbidity, and has enormous consequences for the wellbeing of the mother and child. During the perinatal period, treatment of depression, which could affect the mother and child during pregnancy and lactation, poses a complex problem for both mother and clinician. Bright light therapy may be an attractive treatment for perinatal depression because it is low cost, home-based, and has a much lower side effect profile than pharmacotherapy. The antidepressant effects of bright light are well established, and there are several rationales for expecting that bright light might also be efficacious for perinatal depression. This review describes these rationales, summarizes the available evidence on the efficacy of bright light therapy for perinatal depression, and discusses future directions for investigation of bright light therapy as a treatment for perinatal depression.

  8. Postherpetic neuralgia: Therapeutic and prophylactic aspects and pregabalin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Mendelevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN is one of the most common and persistent chronic pain syndromes caused by chickenpox virus affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems. PHN is a typical neuropathic pain resulting from injury or dysfunction of the somatosensory system whose development involves a few mechanisms. Elderly people are more prone to PHN, which is associated with the weakened immune system. Treatment of shingles cannot completely prevent subsequent neuralgia; however, some drugs can reduce its manifestations. The diagnosis of PHN is largely based on the duration of pain after rash onset. However, it is difficult to estimate the real rate of PHN development because there is neither consensus of opinion on this issue nor common criteria for pat duration (1 to 6 months, as shown by different data. The significant factors that may predispose to PHN are older age, female gender, and acute herpes zoster indicators, such as pain intensity, the severity of herpetic rash and infectious manifestations. Pain syndrome in PHN can reach a high intensity level, accompanied by the development of chronic fatigue, depression, and loss of social skills. There are several types of pain in PHN: constant, paroxysmal and allodynia, which are due to different pathophysiological mechanisms. Variability in the clinical manifestations of PHN may underlie the inadequate efficacy of one or other drug. The treatment of PHN poses definite difficulties. About 40-50% of patients continue to suffer from pain despite the fact that the multitude of currently available therapies is performed. Pregabalin, whose high efficacy and advantages in the treatment of pain in PHN are demonstrated in numerous studies, is one of the most effective first-line drugs for PHN. In-depth analysis suggests that inadequately low doses of pregabalin are frequently used in the treatment of PHN, which may lead to an insufficient analgesic effect.

  9. Therapeutic compliance of first line disease-modifying therapies in patients with multiple sclerosis. COMPLIANCE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, A; Mora, S; Blanco, J

    2015-05-01

    Non-adherence to disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in multiple sclerosis may be associated with reduced efficacy. We assessed compliance, the reasons for non-compliance, treatment satisfaction, and quality of life (QoL) of patients treated with first-line therapies. A cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted that included relapsing multiple sclerosis patients. Compliance in the past month was assessed using Morisky-Green test. Seasonal compliance and reasons for non-compliance were assessed by an ad-hoc questionnaire. Treatment satisfaction and QoL were evaluated by means of TSQM and PRIMUS questionnaires. A total of 220 patients were evaluated (91% relapsing-remitting); the mean age was 39.1 years, 70% were female, and the average time under treatment was 5.4 years. Subcutaneous interferon (IFN) β-1b was used in 23% of the patients, intramuscular IFN β-1a in 21%, subcutaneous IFN β-1a in 37%, and with glatiramer acetate in 19%. The overall compliance was 75%, with no significant differences related to the therapy, and 81% did not report any seasonal variation. Compliant patients had significantly lower disability scores and time of diagnosis, and greater satisfaction with treatment and its effectiveness. Discomfort and flu-like symptoms were the most frequent reasons for non-compliance. The satisfaction and QoL were associated with less disability and number of therapeutic switches. The rate of compliance, satisfaction and QoL in multiple sclerosis patients under DMTs is high, especially for those newly diagnosed, less disabled, and with fewer therapeutic switches. Discomfort and flu-like symptoms associated with injected therapies significantly affect adherence. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical Efficacy of Stem Cell Therapy for Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badawy, Ahmed; El-Badri, Nagwa

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic modality for advanced diabetes mellitus (DM). This study presents a meta-analysis of relevant clinical trials to determine the efficacy of stem cell therapy in DM. We aim to critically evaluate and synthesize clinical evidence on the safety and efficiency of different types of stem cell therapy for both T1DM and T2DM. We pooled participant-level data from twenty-two eligible clinical trials that satisfied our inclusion criteria, with a total of 524 patients. There were significant differences in the outcome based on the type and source of the infused cells. Out of all T1DM patients who received CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) infusion, 58.9% became insulin independent for a mean period of 16 months, whereas the results were uniformly negative in patients who received umbilical cord blood (UCB). Infusion of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) provided significantly beneficial outcome in T1DM, when compared to bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) (Pstem cell therapy early after DM diagnosis was more effective than intervention at later stages (relative risk = 2.0, P = 0.0008). Adverse effects were observed in only 21.72% of both T1DM and T2DM stem cell recipients with no reported mortality. Out of all poor responders, 79.5% were diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis. Stem cell transplantation can represent a safe and effective treatment for selected patients with DM. In this cohort of trials, the best therapeutic outcome was achieved with CD34+ HSC therapy for T1DM, while the poorest outcome was observed with HUCB for T1DM. Diabetic ketoacidosis impedes therapeutic efficacy.

  11. Therapeutic efficacy of cyclic home elemental enteral alimentation in Crohn's disease: Japanese cooperative Crohn's disease study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, K; Shoda, R; Takazoe, M; Hiwatashi, N; Bamba, T; Kobayashi, K; Saito, T; Terano, A; Yao, T

    1995-11-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) often flares up and requires frequent hospitalization and/or surgery. Cyclic home elemental enteral alimentation (C-HEEA) was developed to prevent flare-up of CD and to minimize patient hospitalization. However, its therapeutic efficacy has not been studied in a large patient population. Therefore, questionnaires were sent to members of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Research Group of Japan to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of C-HEEA and to define the factors that may affect the efficacy of the treatment. Data for 410 patients (C-HEEA-treated n = 322; drug-treated n = 88) were collected from 29 institutions and analysis showed the following results. The cumulative remission and non-hospitalization rates of the C-HEEA treated group were significantly higher than the rates of the drug-treated group in all patients and in those with ileitis and ileo-colitis (P < 0.0001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.01, respectively), but no significant difference was noted in patients with colitis. Cumulative remission and non-hospitalization rates were also influenced by the daily calorie content of the elemental diet (ED); more than 1200 kcal of the ED per day was found to be more effective than lower amounts to maintain remission and to prevent hospitalization. The therapeutic efficacy of C-HEEA was shown to be superior to that of drug treatment in patients with CD with ileal involvement, and it is suggested that more than 1200kcal per day should be supplied by the ED to enhance its therapeutic efficacy.

  12. An updated review of the efficacy of cupping therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 1950, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM cupping therapy has been applied as a formal modality in hospitals throughout China and elsewhere in the world. Based on a previous systematic literature review of clinical studies on cupping therapy, this study presents a thorough review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy. METHOD: Six databases were searched for articles published through 2010. RCTs on cupping therapy for various diseases were included. Studies on cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments versus non-TCM therapies were excluded. RESULTS: 135 RCTs published from 1992 through 2010 were identified. The studies were generally of low methodological quality. Diseases for which cupping therapy was commonly applied were herpes zoster, facial paralysis (Bell palsy, cough and dyspnea, acne, lumbar disc herniation, and cervical spondylosis. Wet cupping was used in most trials, followed by retained cupping, moving cupping, and flash cupping. Meta-analysis showed cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments was significantly superior to other treatments alone in increasing the number of cured patients with herpes zoster, facial paralysis, acne, and cervical spondylosis. No serious adverse effects were reported in the trials. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous RCTs on cupping therapy have been conducted and published during the past decades. This review showed that cupping has potential effect in the treatment of herpes zoster and other specific conditions. However, further rigorously designed trials on its use for other conditions are warranted.

  13. An updated review of the efficacy of cupping therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huijuan; Li, Xun; Liu, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Since 1950, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) cupping therapy has been applied as a formal modality in hospitals throughout China and elsewhere in the world. Based on a previous systematic literature review of clinical studies on cupping therapy, this study presents a thorough review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy. Six databases were searched for articles published through 2010. RCTs on cupping therapy for various diseases were included. Studies on cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments versus non-TCM therapies were excluded. 135 RCTs published from 1992 through 2010 were identified. The studies were generally of low methodological quality. Diseases for which cupping therapy was commonly applied were herpes zoster, facial paralysis (Bell palsy), cough and dyspnea, acne, lumbar disc herniation, and cervical spondylosis. Wet cupping was used in most trials, followed by retained cupping, moving cupping, and flash cupping. Meta-analysis showed cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments was significantly superior to other treatments alone in increasing the number of cured patients with herpes zoster, facial paralysis, acne, and cervical spondylosis. No serious adverse effects were reported in the trials. Numerous RCTs on cupping therapy have been conducted and published during the past decades. This review showed that cupping has potential effect in the treatment of herpes zoster and other specific conditions. However, further rigorously designed trials on its use for other conditions are warranted.

  14. Systemic Administration of Interleukin 2 Enhances the Therapeutic Efficacy of Dendritic Cell-Based Tumor Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Fields, R. C.; Giedlin, M.; Mule, J. J.

    1999-03-01

    We have reported previously that murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with whole tumor lysates can mediate potent antitumor immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. Because successful therapy was dependent on host immune T cells, we have now evaluated whether the systemic administration of the T cell stimulatory/growth promoting cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) could enhance tumor lysate-pulsed DC-based immunizations to further promote protective immunity toward, and therapeutic rejection of, syngeneic murine tumors. In three separate approaches using a weakly immunogenic sarcoma (MCA-207), the systemic administration of non-toxic doses of recombinant IL-2 (20,000 and 40,000 IU/dose) was capable of mediating significant increases in the potency of DC-based immunizations. IL-2 could augment the efficacy of tumor lysate-pulsed DC to induce protective immunity to lethal tumor challenge as well as enhance splenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and interferon-γ production in these treated mice. Moreover, treatment with the combination of tumor lysate-pulsed DC and IL-2 could also mediate regressions of established pulmonary 3-day micrometastases and 7-day macrometastases as well as established 14- and 28-day s.c. tumors, leading to either significant cure rates or prolongation in overall survival. Collectively, these findings show that nontoxic doses of recombinant IL-2 can potentiate the antitumor effects of tumor lysate-pulsed DC in vivo and provide preclinical rationale for the use of IL-2 in DC-based vaccine strategies in patients with advanced cancer.

  15. A comparison of efficacy of photoradiation therapy and other conventional treatment modalities on experimental MS-2 sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazzoni, Gabriella; Savi, Giuseppina; Melloni, Elsa; Marchesini, Renato; Fava, Giannino; Locati, Lucia; Zunino, Franco

    1984-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of photoradiation therapy (PRT) following hematoporthyrin derivative (HpD) administration was compared in the experimental MS-2 tumour model to that of conventional treatment methods for local control of neoplastic diseases (i.e. surgery and radiotherapy). The therapeutic effects of PRT and surgical removal of primary tumour were comparable in these experiments. However, optimal effects were critically dependent on the stage of tumour development. In addition, the therapeutic advantage of PRT over radiotherapy suggests an interesting role of a new approach in tumours resistant to this conventional treatment. (author)

  16. Adlerian "Encouragement" and the Therapeutic Process of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard E.; Pietrzak, Dale

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the overlooked similarities between the therapeutic process of solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) and the Adlerian process of therapeutic encouragement. SFBT and Adlerian therapy share common perspectives, albeit using different nomenclature, on maladjustment, the client-counselor relationship, and methods of facilitating change.…

  17. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK cell therapy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yue

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of cytokine-induced killer (CIK cell therapy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Materials and methods Randomized phase II and III trials on CIK cell-based therapy were identified by electronic searches using a combination of "hepatocellular carcinoma" and "cytokine-induced killer cells". Results The analysis showed significant survival benefit (one-year survival, p p p p p p +, CD4+, CD4+CD8+ and CD3+CD4+ T cells significantly increased in the CIK group, compared with the non-CIK group (p Conclusions CIK cell therapy demonstrated a significant superiority in prolonging the median overall survival, PFS, DCR, ORR and QoL of HCC patients. These results support further larger scale randomized controlled trials for HCC patients with or without the combination of other therapeutic methods.

  18. Brain temporal complexity in explaining the therapeutic and cognitive effects of seizure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Faranak; Atluri, Sravya; Mei, Ye; Moreno, Sylvain; Levinson, Andrea J; Blumberger, Daniel M; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2017-04-01

    Over 350 million people worldwide suffer from depression, a third of whom are medication-resistant. Seizure therapy remains the most effective treatment in depression, even when many treatments fail. The utility of seizure therapy is limited due to its cognitive side effects and stigma. The biological targets of seizure therapy remain unknown, hindering design of new treatments with comparable efficacy. Seizures impact the brains temporal dynamicity observed through electroencephalography. This dynamicity reflects richness of information processing across distributed brain networks subserving affective and cognitive processes. We investigated the hypothesis that seizure therapy impacts mood (depressive symptoms) and cognition by modulating brain temporal dynamicity. We obtained resting-state electroencephalography from 34 patients (age = 46.0 ± 14.0, 21 females) receiving two types of seizure treatments-electroconvulsive therapy or magnetic seizure therapy. We used multi-scale entropy to quantify the complexity of the brain's temporal dynamics before and after seizure therapy. We discovered that reduction of complexity in fine timescales underlined successful therapeutic response to both seizure treatments. Greater reduction in complexity of fine timescales in parieto-occipital and central brain regions was significantly linked with greater improvement in depressive symptoms. Greater increase in complexity of coarse timescales was associated with greater decline in cognition including the autobiographical memory. These findings were region and timescale specific. That is, change in complexity in occipital regions (e.g. O2 electrode or right occipital pole) at fine timescales was only associated with change in depressive symptoms, and not change in cognition, and change in complexity in parieto-central regions (e.g. Pz electrode or intra and transparietal sulcus) at coarser timescale was only associated with change in cognition, and not depressive symptoms. Finally

  19. Gene therapy for carcinoma of the breast: Therapeutic genetic correction strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermiller, Patrice S; Tait, David L; Holt, Jeffrey T

    2000-01-01

    Gene therapy is a therapeutic approach that is designed to correct specific molecular defects that contribute to the cause or progression of cancer. Genes that are mutated or deleted in cancers include the cancer susceptibility genes p53 and BRCA1. Because mutational inactivation of gene function is specific to tumor cells in these settings, cancer gene correction strategies may provide an opportunity for selective targeting without significant toxicity for normal nontumor cells. Both p53 and BRCA1 appear to inhibit cancer cells that lack mutations in these genes, suggesting that the so-called gene correction strategies may have broader potential than initially believed. Increasing knowledge of cancer genetics has identified these and other genes as potential targets for gene replacement therapy. Initial patient trials of p53 and BRCA1 gene therapy have provided some indications of potential efficacy, but have also identified areas of basic and clinical research that are needed before these approaches may be widely used in patient care

  20. Monte Carlo calculation of the maximum therapeutic gain of tumor antivascular alpha therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Oborn, Bradley M.; Guatelli, Susanna; Allen, Barry J. [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St. George Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Kogarah, New South Wales 2217 (Australia); Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St. George Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Kogarah, New South Wales 2217 (Australia)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Metastatic melanoma lesions experienced marked regression after systemic targeted alpha therapy in a phase 1 clinical trial. This unexpected response was ascribed to tumor antivascular alpha therapy (TAVAT), in which effective tumor regression is achieved by killing endothelial cells (ECs) in tumor capillaries and, thus, depriving cancer cells of nutrition and oxygen. The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively analyze the therapeutic efficacy and safety of TAVAT by building up the testing Monte Carlo microdosimetric models. Methods: Geant4 was adapted to simulate the spatial nonuniform distribution of the alpha emitter {sup 213}Bi. The intraluminal model was designed to simulate the background dose to normal tissue capillary ECs from the nontargeted activity in the blood. The perivascular model calculates the EC dose from the activity bound to the perivascular cancer cells. The key parameters are the probability of an alpha particle traversing an EC nucleus, the energy deposition, the lineal energy transfer, and the specific energy. These results were then applied to interpret the clinical trial. Cell survival rate and therapeutic gain were determined. Results: The specific energy for an alpha particle hitting an EC nucleus in the intraluminal and perivascular models is 0.35 and 0.37 Gy, respectively. As the average probability of traversal in these models is 2.7% and 1.1%, the mean specific energy per decay drops to 1.0 cGy and 0.4 cGy, which demonstrates that the source distribution has a significant impact on the dose. Using the melanoma clinical trial activity of 25 mCi, the dose to tumor EC nucleus is found to be 3.2 Gy and to a normal capillary EC nucleus to be 1.8 cGy. These data give a maximum therapeutic gain of about 180 and validate the TAVAT concept. Conclusions: TAVAT can deliver a cytotoxic dose to tumor capillaries without being toxic to normal tissue capillaries.

  1. Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy with BF2-chelated Tetraaryl-Azadipyrromethene agents: a multi-modality molecular imaging approach to therapeutic assessment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, A T

    2009-11-03

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality for a range of diseases including cancer. The BF(2)-chelated tetraaryl-azadipyrromethenes (ADPMs) are an emerging class of non-porphyrin PDT agent, which have previously shown excellent photochemical and photophysical properties for therapeutic application. Herein, in vivo efficacy and mechanism of action studies have been completed for the lead agent, ADMP06.

  2. [Efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy in patients with fear of blushing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobjoie, C; Pélissolo, A

    2012-09-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has shown to be effective in the treatment of social anxiety disorders (SAD). However, fear of social blushing is almost never measured as a therapeutic outcome variable, even though some data suggest that this dimension constitutes a specific syndrome in social anxiety spectrum, justifying specific therapeutic strategies. For these reasons, we developed a group therapy program including a combination of task concentration training (TCT) and other CBT strategies targeting fear of blushing. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of this program in an open trial conducted in 55 patients suffering from SAD (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV criteria) with fear of blushing. Throughout a program including eleven weekly sessions, systematic measurements of fear of blushing and other anxiety and personality dimensions were performed at inclusion, at the end of the therapy and 3 months later, in order to explore the therapeutic effects of the program on fear of blushing, social anxiety, and other dimensions (Liebowitz social anxiety scale, blushing propensity questionnaire, Rathus assertiveness scale, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Hospital anxiety and depression scale, Sheehan disability scale). The statistical analyses compared the scores of all measurements at inclusion, at the end of the therapy, and 6 months later. We also calculated the effect size obtained after treatment, and performed a logistic regression to determine the factors associated with a remission of fear of blushing after therapy. The main outcome criterion - the Salpêtrière fear of blushing questionnaire (SFBQ) score - was significantly reduced after treatment (P<0.001) and remained stable at follow up. A satisfying effect size was obtained on this score after treatment (1.7), and 57.6% of subjects were considered in remission on the basis of a SFBQ score of 6 or less. Other measurements of blushing propensity, social anxiety, assertiveness

  3. Enhancing the Breadth and Efficacy of Therapeutic Vaccines for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    cell activation assays, respectively (Table 1). In addition, we found that most of these immunogenic epitopes were not related to breast cancer and... HLA - A*02-negative cells, and we plotted the peptides that were derived from these cells in relation to percentile ranks (Fig. 3). Fig. 2. The...1 Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0549 TITLE: Enhancing the Breadth and Efficacy of Therapeutic Vaccines for Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  4. Biomarkers for disease progression and AAV therapeutic efficacy in feline Sandhoff disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, Allison M; Gray-Edwards, Heather L; Shirley, Jamie L; McCurdy, Victoria J; Colaco, Alexandria N; Randle, Ashley N; Christopherson, Pete W; Bird, Allison C; Johnson, Aime K; Wilson, Diane U; Hudson, Judith A; De Pompa, Nicholas L; Sorjonen, Donald C; Brunson, Brandon L; Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam

    2014-01-01

    The GM2 gangliosidoses, Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) and Sandhoff disease (SD), are progressive neurodegenerative disorders that are caused by a mutation in the enzyme β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex). Due to the recent emergence of novel experimental treatments, biomarker development has become particularly relevant in GM2 gangliosidosis as an objective means to measure therapeutic efficacy. Here we describe blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electrodiagnostic m...

  5. Efficacy of transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholt, Nina; Krogh, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    , treatment-as-usual, and diagnosis-specific cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) controls. A total of 11 studies reporting 12 trials (n = 1933) were included in the systematic review. Results from the meta-analysis of 11 trials suggest that TCBT was generally associated with positive outcome; TCBT patients did...... better than wait-list and treatment-as-usual patients, and treatment gains were maintained through follow-up. The pooled estimate showed a moderate treatment effect, however with large heterogeneity suggesting differences in treatment effects between the studies. Also, all the included trials, apart from......Transdiagnostic approaches to cognitive behaviour therapy (TCBT) of anxiety disorders have drawn increasing interest and empirical testing over the past decade. In this paper, we review evidence of the overall efficacy of TCBT for anxiety disorders, as well as TCBT efficacy compared with wait-list...

  6. Optimizing therapeutics in the management of patients with multiple sclerosis: a review of drug efficacy, dosing, and mechanisms of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damal K

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Kavitha Damal, Emily Stoker, John F FoleyRocky Mountain Multiple Sclerosis Research Group, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a debilitating neurological disorder that affects nearly 2 million adults, mostly in their prime of youth. An environmental trigger, such as a viral infection, is hypothesized to initiate the abnormal behavior of host immune cells: to attack and damage the myelin sheath surrounding the neurons of the central nervous system. While several other pathways and disease triggers are still being investigated, it is nonetheless clear that MS is a heterogeneous disease with multifactorial etiologies that works independently or synergistically to initiate the aberrant immune responses to myelin. Although there are still no definitive markers to diagnose the disease or to cure the disease per se, research on management of MS has improved many fold over the past decade. New disease-modifying therapeutics are poised to decrease immune inflammatory responses and consequently decelerate the progression of MS disease activity, reduce the exacerbations of MS symptoms, and stabilize the physical and mental status of individuals. In this review, we describe the mechanism of action, optimal dosing, drug administration, safety, and efficacy of the disease-modifying therapeutics that are currently approved for MS therapy. We also briefly touch upon the new drugs currently under investigation, and discuss the future of MS therapeutics.Keywords: multiple sclerosis, immunomodulation, interferons, glatiramer acetate, monoclonal antibodies, dimethyl fumarate

  7. Therapeutic apheresis therapy for ABO-incompatible renal transplantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hideki; Tanabe, Kazunari; Toma, Hiroshi; Akiba, Takashi

    2003-12-01

    The most important transplantation antigen system for organ transplantation is the ABO blood group system. Crossing the blood barrier is usually not done except in emergency cases such as liver transplantations for fulminant hepatitis. Early experiences of allograft transplantations across the blood barriers were discouraging. In the 1970s, clinical trials were started transplanting kidneys of subgroup A2 into blood group O recipients because the tissues of the A2 subgroup express a lower amount of A antigens compared with subgroup A1. The recipients required no special treatment and received the standard immunosuppressive regimen as used in blood group identical cases. Many early graft loses immediately after transplantations were experienced, but these trials resulted in an excellent graft survival rate. A few centers have adapted the concept of A2 kidneys to non-A recipient transplantations with successful results by reducing anti-A blood type titers prior to transplantations. In the early 1980s, the possibility of bridging the ABO barrier was tested by several groups. A1 and B kidneys from living donors were also successfully transplanted across the blood barrier using quadruple immunosuppressive drugs and splenectomy. Since 1989, the largest number of ABO-incompatible renal transplantations have been performed in Japan because of the limited numbers of cadaveric donors. Approximately 400 cases have been successfully transplanted across the blood barrier at many centers in Japan. Owing to novel immunosuppressive drugs, the ABO-incompatible allografts exhibited a level of function comparable with that of ABO-matched allografts even though anti-A or anti-B antibodies had returned to the circulation of the recipients. In this article, we describe the historical background, the current therapeutic strategies including apheresis therapy for the ABO-incompatible transplantations, and the experiences at our institution.

  8. Clinical therapeutic effect of two therapies on circumscribed choroidal hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le-Le Huang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of photodynamic therapy(PDTand transpupillary thermotherapy(TTTon circumscribed choroid hemangioma(CCH.METHODS: Totally 24 cases(24 eyesof CCH were selected in this study. Twelve of them had undergone TTT, and the other 12 were treated by PDT. The changes of tumors were examined by best corrected visual acuity, results of fundus photography, and direct ophthalmoscopy; the changes of tumors' sizes and heights were examined by B-ultrasound examination and coloured doppler imaging; the presence of serous subretinal fluid were examined by optical coherence tomography(OCT; the leakage of tumors and complications were analyzed by fluorescence fundus angiography(FFAand indocyanine green angiography(ICGA.RESULTS: In all cases, the tumors shrinked back, the blood flows tuned negative, the fluorescence leakages lessened and the serous retinal detachments resolved completely according to OCT, FFA, ICGA and coloured doppler imaging. In the 12 patients treated by TTT, visual acuity improved in 33.3%, unchanged in 33.3%, and droped in 33.3% too; the results of fundus examinations showed obvious pigmentation and atrophy tumor with organized scar. In the 12 patients treated by PDT, visual acuity improved in 66.7%, unchanged in 33.3%, and none droped; the results of fundus examinations showed slight pigment derangement, atrophy tumor tuned white, and normal blood vessel undamaged.CONCLUSION: Both TTT and PDT can make the tumor atrophy and the exudation absorbed. Unlike TTT, PDT damages little normal tissue, and has higher security.

  9. Efficacy and safety of dose escalation of infliximab therapy in Japanese patients with psoriasis: Results of the SPREAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Hideshi; Nakano, Masayuki; Yano, Toshiro; Kondo, Kazuoki; Nakagawa, Hidemi

    2017-05-01

    Although infliximab is approved for psoriasis, its efficacy is reduced over time in some patients. The aim of this phase III trial is to evaluate efficacy and safety of infliximab dose escalation in Japanese psoriasis patients with loss of efficacy to standard-dose therapy. Patients with plaque psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, pustular psoriasis or psoriatic erythroderma who showed loss of efficacy to standard-dose therapy received infliximab dose escalation (10 mg/kg every 8 weeks) from weeks 0 to 32. Loss of efficacy was defined as not maintaining 50% reduction in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI 50) after achieving PASI 75. Efficacy and safety were evaluated up to week 40. Fifty-one patients received dose escalation and 43 completed the study. PASI 75 and median improvement rate of PASI score at week 40 were 44% and 70.0%, respectively, showing efficacy in skin symptoms. Efficacies in quality of life, nail psoriasis and joint pain were also obtained. Median serum infliximab level increased from less than 0.1 to 1.1 μg/mL from weeks 0 to 40, showing positive correlation between efficacy and serum infliximab level at week 40. Favorable efficacy was observed in patients with detectable serum infliximab levels (≥0.1 μg/mL) at baseline. Incidences of adverse events, serious adverse events, serious infections and serious infusion reactions were 92%, 10%, 4% and 0%, respectively. No marked difference was observed in both efficacy and safety among psoriasis types. No new safety concerns were observed. Infliximab dose escalation was effective and well-tolerated in psoriasis patients with loss of efficacy to standard-dose therapy, suggesting that dose escalation may be a useful therapeutic option for these patients. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  10. Therapeutic efficacy of monthly subcutaneous injection of daclizumab in relapsing multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of multiple disease-modifying therapies for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS), there remains a need for highly efficacious targeted therapy with a favorable benefit–risk profile and attributes that encourage a high level of treatment adherence. Daclizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against CD25, the α subunit of the high-affinity interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor, that reversibly modulates IL-2 signaling. Daclizumab treatment leads to antagonism of proinflammatory, activated T lymphocyte function and expansion of immunoregulatory CD56bright natural killer cells, and has the potential to, at least in part, rectify the imbalance between immune tolerance and autoimmunity in relapsing MS. The clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of subcutaneous daclizumab have been evaluated extensively in a large clinical study program. In pivotal studies, daclizumab demonstrated superior efficacy in reducing clinical and radiologic measures of MS disease activity compared with placebo or intramuscular interferon beta-1a, a standard-of-care therapy for relapsing MS. The risk of hepatic disorders, cutaneous events, and infections was modestly increased. The monthly subcutaneous self-injection dosing regimen of daclizumab may be advantageous in maintaining patient adherence to treatment, which is important for optimal outcomes with MS disease-modifying therapy. Daclizumab has been approved in the US and in the European Union and represents an effective new treatment option for patients with relapsing forms of MS, and is currently under review by other regulatory agencies. PMID:27672308

  11. Application of Fluorescent Protein Expressing Strains to Evaluation of Anti-Tuberculosis Therapeutic Efficacy In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Kong

    Full Text Available The slow growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB, hinders development of new diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines. Using non-invasive real-time imaging technologies to monitor the disease process in live animals would facilitate TB research in all areas. We developed fluorescent protein (FP expressing Mycobacterium bovis BCG strains for in vivo imaging, which can be used to track bacterial location, and to quantify bacterial load in live animals. We selected an optimal FP for in vivo imaging, by first cloning six FPs: tdTomato, mCherry, mPlum, mKate, Katushka and mKeima, into mycobacteria under either a mycobacterial Hsp60 or L5 promoter, and compared their fluorescent signals in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescence from each FP-expressing strain was measured with a multimode reader using the optimal excitation and emission wavelengths for the FP. After normalizing bacterial numbers with optical density, the strain expressing L5-tdTomato displayed the highest fluorescence. We used the tdTomato-labeled M. bovis BCG to obtain real-time images of pulmonary infections in living mice and rapidly determined the number of bacteria present. Further comparison between L5-tdTomato and Hsp60-tdTomato revealed that L5-tdTomato carried four-fold more tdTomato gene copies than Hsp60-tdTomato, which eventually led to higher protein expression of tdTomato. Evaluating anti-TB efficacy of rifampicin and isoniazid therapy in vitro and in vivo using the L5-tdTomato strain demonstrated that this strain can be used to identify anti-TB therapeutic efficacy as quickly as 24 h post-treatment. These M. bovis BCG reporter strains represent a valuable new tool for evaluation of therapeutics, vaccines and virulence.

  12. Clinical efficacy of integrative therapy in the treatment of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Wen Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the clinical efficacy of integrative therapy in the treatment of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Ninety patients(90 eyesin our hospital with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy were randomly divided into three groups. All three groups were treated with diabetes drugs to control blood sugar. The first group was treated with western medicine, the second group was treated with Chinese medicine decoction Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCMtreatment, and the third group was treated with the combination of those two methods. All patients were recorded and analyzed changes of clinical effects after 6 courses of treatment. RESULTS: After 6 courses of treatment, the total efficacy rate of the third group was 86%, markedly higher than that of the first group(57%, PPPCONCLUSION: Integrative treatment of diabetic retinopathy could effectively improve the therapeutic effect in patients with non-proliferative retinopathy.

  13. Using Art in Narrative Therapy: Enhancing Therapeutic Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Thomas D.

    1997-01-01

    Shows how applying art-therapy techniques to the basic principles of narrative therapy enhances the potential for therapists and families to open the door to externalizing conversations that lead to a new life. (Author/MKA)

  14. Therapeutics: Gene Therapy for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntman, Alisha M; Flotte, Terence R

    2017-01-01

    This review seeks to give an overview of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, including the different disease phenotypes that it encompasses. We then describe the different therapeutic endeavors that have been undertaken to address these different phenotypes. Lastly we discuss future potential therapeutics, such as genome editing, and how they may play a role in treating alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

  15. Music Therapy: A Therapeutic Intervention for Girls with Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Kathleen A.

    The paper reviews music therapy, the educational background of music therapists, music therapy's various settings, and its use as an intervention with girls with Rett Syndrome. Sample music therapy programs for three girls (aged 5, 14, and 20 years) with Rett Syndrome are presented. The sample programs provide: student descriptions; the girls'…

  16. The efficacy of novel therapeutic modalities of isolated ocular vasculitis vs ocular vasculitis as a systemic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip M. Radotić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the efficacy of new therapeutic modalities withthe observation period of three years on patients with isolated ocular vasculitis in comparison with ocular vasculitis as a systemicdisease. Methods The effectiveness of the therapy was assessed based on the changes in visual acuity and degree of ocular inflammation (mild, medium, moderate, severe with the following parameters: vitreous body cloudiness, blood vessels layering, macula oedema, blood vessels occlusion and new vascularisation. Results New therapeutic modalities resulted in reduction in the number of patients with severe inflammation in the group of isolated ocular vasculitis from 8(13.5% to 7(12.2% after three years, while the number of patients with mild inflammation increased from 13(20.7% to 18 (29.3% in the same group (p>0.05. The number of patients with severe ocular inflammation in a group of ocular vasculitis as systemic disease increased from 3(16.2% to 4(21.6%, because of the presence of patients with Behçet’s disease. The number of patients with visual acuity less than 0.1 decreased from 11(17% to 8(13.4% in a group of patients with ocular vasculitis as systemic disease, which was associated with the presence of Behçet’s disease too (p>0.05. Conclusion Although the effect of new therapeutic modalities did not result in statistically significant improvement in visual acuity and reducing inflammation, systemic and intravitreal corticosteroids with steroid-sparing immunomodulatory therapy represents effective strategies in forms of isolated ocular vasculitis and ocular vasculitis as systemic disease.

  17. Ultrasound and Microbubble Mediated Doxil Delivery in a Murine Breast Cancer Model: Therapeutic Efficacy Dependence on Tumor Growth Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seip, R.; Leyvi, E.; Raju, B.I.; Shi, W.T.; Bohmer, M.R.; Chlon, C.H.T.; Sio, C.F.; Reibling, K.; Swanson, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background, Motivation and Objective: Localized drug delivery couldimprove the therapeutic efficacy for treatment of pathological lesions and reduce toxic exposure to healthy organs and tissues. The objective is to develop image-guided, ultrasound-activated tumor chemotherapy with intravenously

  18. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in the treatment of osteoarthritis: reparative pathways, safety and efficacy - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Julien; Bates, Dan; Boyd, Richard; Shah, Kiran; Barnard, Adele; Huguenin, Leesa; Tenen, Abi

    2016-05-26

    Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of pain and disability across the world. With an aging population its prevalence is likely to further increase. Current accepted medical treatment strategies are aimed at symptom control rather than disease modification. Surgical options including joint replacement are not without possible significant complications. A growing interest in the area of regenerative medicine, led by an improved understanding of the role of mesenchymal stem cells in tissue homeostasis and repair, has seen recent focused efforts to explore the potential of stem cell therapies in the active management of symptomatic osteoarthritis. Encouragingly, results of pre-clinical and clinical trials have provided initial evidence of efficacy and indicated safety in the therapeutic use of mesenchymal stem cell therapies for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. This paper explores the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and how mesenchymal stem cells may play a role in future management strategies of this disabling condition.

  19. Anti-EGFR Therapy: Mechanism and Advances in Clinical Efficacy in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Flynn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This review will focus on recent advances in the application of antiepidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR for the treatment of breast cancer. The choice of EGFR, a member of the ErbB tyrosine kinase receptor family, stems from evidence pinpointing its role in various anti-EGFR therapies. Therefore, an increase in our understanding of EGFR mechanism and signaling might reveal novel targets amenable to intervention in the clinic. This knowledge base might also improve existing medical treatment options and identify research gaps in the design of new therapeutic agents. While the approved use of drugs like the dual kinase inhibitor Lapatinib represents significant advances in the clinical management of breast cancer, confirmatory studies must be considered to foster the use of anti-EGFR therapies including safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy.

  20. Efficacy of chelation therapy to remove aluminium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgenzi, Alessandro; De Giuseppe, Rachele; Bamonti, Fabrizia; Vietti, Daniele; Ferrero, Maria Elena

    2015-11-01

    There is a distinct correlation between aluminium (Al) intoxication and neurodegenerative diseases (ND). We demonstrated how patients affected by ND showing Al intoxication benefit from short-term treatment with calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) (chelation therapy). Such therapy further improved through daily treatment with the antioxidant Cellfood. In the present study we examined the efficacy of long-term treatment, using both EDTA and Cellfood. Slow intravenous treatment with the chelating agent EDTA (2 g/10 mL diluted in 500 mL physiological saline administered in 2 h) (chelation test) removed Al, which was detected (using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) in urine samples collected from patients over 12 h. Patients that revealed Al intoxication (expressed in μg per g creatinine) underwent EDTA chelation therapy once a week for ten weeks, then once every two weeks for a further six or twelve months. At the end of treatment (a total of 22 or 34 chelation therapies, respectively), associated with daily assumption of Cellfood, Al levels in the urine samples were analysed. In addition, the following blood parameters were determined: homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate, as well as the oxidative status e.g. reactive oxygen species (ROS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxidized LDL (oxLDL), and glutathione. Our results showed that Al intoxication reduced significantly following EDTA and Cellfood treatment, and clinical symptoms improved. After treatment, ROS, oxLDL, and homocysteine decreased significantly, whereas vitamin B12, folate and TAC improved significantly. In conclusion, our data show the efficacy of chelation therapy associated with Cellfood in subjects affected by Al intoxication who have developed ND.

  1. New class of monoclonal antibodies against severe influenza: prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H E Friesen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The urgent medical need for innovative approaches to control influenza is emphasized by the widespread resistance of circulating subtype H1N1 viruses to the leading antiviral drug oseltamivir, the pandemic threat posed by the occurrences of human infections with highly pathogenic avian H5N1 viruses, and indeed the evolving swine-origin H1N1 influenza pandemic. A recently discovered class of human monoclonal antibodies with the ability to neutralize a broad spectrum of influenza viruses (including H1, H2, H5, H6 and H9 subtypes has the potential to prevent and treat influenza in humans. Here we report the latest efficacy data for a representative antibody of this novel class.We evaluated the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of the human monoclonal antibody CR6261 against lethal challenge with the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus in ferrets, the optimal model of human influenza infection. Survival rates, clinically relevant disease signs such as changes in body weight and temperature, virus replication in lungs and upper respiratory tract, as well as macro- and microscopic pathology were investigated. Prophylactic administration of 30 and 10 mg/kg CR6261 prior to viral challenge completely prevented mortality, weight loss and reduced the amount of infectious virus in the lungs by more than 99.9%, abolished shedding of virus in pharyngeal secretions and largely prevented H5N1-induced lung pathology. When administered therapeutically 1 day after challenge, 30 mg/kg CR6261 prevented death in all animals and blunted disease, as evidenced by decreased weight loss and temperature rise, reduced lung viral loads and shedding, and less lung damage.These data demonstrate the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of this new class of human monoclonal antibodies in a highly stringent and clinically relevant animal model of influenza and justify clinical development of this approach as intervention for both seasonal and pandemic influenza.

  2. Shangri-La revisited: an exploration of therapeutic efficacy among intentional communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, T L

    1992-04-01

    Field and literature surveys were employed to explore the therapeutic efficacy of a reportedly common set of social structures found among some Intentional Communities (ICs). Substance misuse served as an example of social problems plausibly related to the examined social structures, which included: (1) meditative practices, (2) progressive education, (3) holistic health practices, (4) nutritional diet, (5) open policy making, (6) equally or equitably shared resources, (7) integrating membership processes, and (8) environmental concern. The field survey identified and examined 11 such ICs, and the literature exploration concerning the structures found that they appear to be therapeutic. Future research should focus on refining the study of structural and antecedent variables and on finding relationships between these variables to communities in the larger society.

  3. Nanodiamonds enhance therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in treating metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaam, Amanee D; Hwang, Patrick T J; Poonawalla, Aliza; Green, Hadiyah N; Jun, Ho-wook; Dean, Derrick

    2014-10-24

    Enhancing therapeutic efficacy is essential for successful treatment of chemoresistant cancers such as metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). To improve the efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX) for treating chemoresistant disease, the feasibility of using nanodiamond (ND) particles was investigated. Utilizing the pH responsive properties of ND, a novel protocol for complexing NDs and DOX was developed using a pH 8.5 coupling buffer. The DOX loading efficiency, loading on the NDs, and pH responsive release characteristics were determined utilizing UV-Visible spectroscopy. The effects of the ND-DOX on HRPC cell line PC3 were evaluated with MTS and live/dead cell viability assays. ND-DOX displayed exceptional loading efficiency (95.7%) and drug loading on NDs (23.9 wt%) with optimal release at pH 4 (80%). In comparison to treatment with DOX alone, cell death significantly increased when cells were treated with ND-DOX complexes demonstrating a 50% improvement in DOX efficacy. Of the tested treatments, ND-DOX with 2.4 μg mL(-1) DOX exhibited superior efficacy (60% cell death). ND-DOX with 1.2 μg mL(-1) DOX achieved 42% cell death, which was comparable to cell death in response to 2.4 μg mL(-1) of free DOX, suggesting that NDs aid in decreasing the DOX dose necessary to achieve a chemotherapeutic efficacy. Due to its enhanced efficacy, ND-DOX can be used to successfully treat HRPC and potentially decrease the clinical side effects of DOX.

  4. Etanercept therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: Efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Etanercept, tumor necrosis factor (TNFα antagonist, lowers the disease activity level in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, reduces joint destruction saving physical functions and improving life quality. Objective. The aim of this study was to establish efficacy and safety of etanercept in combination with disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs in the treatment of RA. Methods. To patients with active RA, who were on therapy with DMARD, etanercept was introduced in weekly doses of 50 mg, with continuation of DMARD. Efficacy of this form of treatment was evaluated in the 12th week. Maintenance of the effect of treatment was also evaluated during 24, 48 and 96 weeks. Long term evaluation of etanercept safety was assessed by registering all unwanted events during a two year period. Results. After 12 weeks of treatment with etanercept, 80% of patients had ACR20 response, while 85% showed clinically significant decrease of DAS28 index. We achieved remission in five patients (12.5% and low activity of RA in 17 patients (42.5%. During a 96week of followup period, achieved therapy effects were maintained. In four patients (10% etanercept therapy was interrupted after 24 weeks because of inadequate response. In one of them (2.5% we recorded a cardiovascular incident. Acute infections were registered in 47 cases. Four of those were severe infections. Neither cases of malignancy development were noted, nor were there any lethal disease outcomes. Conclusion. Etanercept in combination with DMARD shows a high level of efficacy in the treatment of RA. The safety profile of the drug is satisfactory.

  5. Therapeutic efficacy of TBC3711 in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandes Ralf P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelin-1 signalling plays an important role in pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. Although different endothelin-A receptor antagonists are developed, a novel therapeutic option to cure the disease is still needed. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the selective endothelin-A receptor antagonist TBC3711 in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Methods Monocrotaline-injected male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized and treated orally from day 21 to 35 either with TBC3711 (Dose: 30 mg/kg body weight/day or placebo. Echocardiographic measurements of different hemodynamic and right-heart hypertrophy parameters were performed. After day 35, rats were sacrificed for invasive hemodynamic and right-heart hypertrophy measurements. Additionally, histologic assessment of pulmonary vascular and right-heart remodelling was performed. Results The novel endothelin-A receptor antagonist TBC3711 significantly attenuated monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension, as evident from improved hemodynamics and right-heart hypertrophy in comparison with placebo group. In addition, muscularization and medial wall thickness of distal pulmonary vessels were ameliorated. The histologic evaluation of the right ventricle showed a significant reduction in fibrosis and cardiomyocyte size, suggesting an improvement in right-heart remodelling. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the selective endothelin-A receptor antagonist TBC3711 demonstrates therapeutic benefit in rats with established pulmonary hypertension, thus representing a useful therapeutic approach for treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  6. The Efficacy of Metacognitive Therapy for Anxiety and Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Nicoline; van Emmerik, Arnold A.P.; Morina, Nexhmedin

    2014-01-01

    studies on the ef- ficacy of MCT, of which nine were controlled trials. These studies report on 384 participants suffering from anxiety or depression. Treatment efficacy was ex- amined using a random effects model. Results: On primary outcome measures the aggregate within-group pre- to posttreatment...... effective than both waitlist control groups (between-group Hedges’ g = 1.81) as well as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT; between-group Hedges’ g = 0.97). Conclusions: Results suggest that MCT is effective in treating disorders of anxiety and depression and is supe- rior compared to waitlist control groups...

  7. Evidence Based Therapeutic Outcome of Multimodal Therapy on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    Abstract. Previous efforts at remediating sexual decision of adolescents in Nigeria have been based on unimodal therapies. Therefore, this study investigated the effectiveness of. Multimodal Therapy (MMT) on sexual decisions of adolescents studying in Remedial. Centres in Rivers state, Nigeria. Pre-test post control group ...

  8. The therapeutic effect of neurologic music therapy and speech language therapy in post-stroke aphasic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kil-Byung; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Lee, Hong-Jae; Yoo, Jeehyun; Hwang, Ji Youn; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Sung-Kyun

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of neurologic music therapy (NMT) and speech language therapy (SLT) through improvement of the aphasia quotient (AQ) in post-stroke aphasic patients. Twenty-one post-stroke, nonfluent aphasia patients who had ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke on radiologic evaluation were divided into the NMT and SLT groups. They received NMT and SLT for 1 month. Language function was assessed by Korean version-Western Aphasia Battery before and after therapy. NMT consisted of therapeutic singing and melodic intonation therapy, and SLT consisted of language-oriented therapy. Significant improvements were revealed in AQ, repetition, and naming after therapy in the NMT group and improvements in repetition in the SLT group of chronic stroke patients (ptherapies are effective treatments in the chronic stage of stroke and NMT is effective in subacute post-stroke aphasic patients.

  9. EVALUATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF HIGH-INTENSITY PULSED-PERIODIC LASER RADIATION (CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sokolov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the experience of clinical observations, we have shown a high therapeutic effectiveness of the medical laser KULON-MED in: cosmetics, non-cancer inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and cancer (cancer of the stomach and colon as at different wavelengths, and with different types of photosensitizers. In the area of anti-tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT, based on experimental studies, we have showed the high antitumor (sarcoma S‑37 effectiveness of the laser (with the inhibition of tumor growth of up to 100% for repetitively pulsed irradiation mode, and for mode fractionation doses laser radiation. In addition, significant differences are shown in the effectiveness of anticancer PDT methods in the application of high-intensity lasers, continuous and pulsed caused fundamental properties of laser radiation characteristics – time structure of the radiation pulses. Thus, for the first time we have shown that the time of high-intensity laser pulses structure significantly affects therapeutic efficacy laser system, and hence on the mechanisms of interaction of laser radiation with biological tissue.

  10. The Efficacy of Intense Pulsed Light Therapy in Postoperative Recovery from Eyelid Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Gary; Lam, Vincent B; Wulc, Allan E

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative intense pulsed light therapy on patients who undergo bilateral eyelid surgery. Patients presenting over a 3-month period for bilateral eyelid surgery were asked to participate in an institutional review board-approved study. Intense pulsed light therapy was administered three times to the same randomly assigned side on postoperative days 1 to 2, 5 to 7, and 10 to 12. Sham light therapy was administered to the contralateral side. Patient surveys and physician ratings were obtained based on photographic evaluation of ecchymosis, edema, and erythema. Three physicians, including the senior author (A.E.W.), submitted ratings, and these ratings were assessed for interobserver reliability. Twenty-eight patients who underwent bilateral eyelid surgery followed by intense pulsed light therapy were enrolled. The mean age of the patients was 66 years (range, 44 to 81 years). Eighty-six percent of patients were female. The change in ratings between postoperative days 1 to 2 and 10 to 12, in the treatment and control groups, was statistically significant for severity of bruising by both patient and physician assessment and for color of bruising only by patient assessment. The interobserver reliability reached the greatest agreement in the ecchymosis category at each time point for the treatment group. In a series of patients who underwent eyelid surgery, intense pulsed light therapy decreased the degree of ecchymosis compared with sham treatment in postoperative eyelid surgery patients. Therapeutic, II.

  11. How Art Teachers Can Enhance Artmaking as a Therapeutic Experience: Art Therapy and Art Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Snow, Peggy; D'Amelio, Georgette

    2000-01-01

    Discusses four ways that art teachers can enhance the therapeutic aspects of their lessons: (1) recognize the similarities between the therapeutic and creative processes: (2) empathetically talk with students about their artwork; (3) understand Expressive Therapies Continuum (ETC); and (4) work in collaboration with faculty and staff members. (CMK)

  12. The Role of Therapeutic Alliance in Therapy Outcomes for Youth in Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handwerk, Michael L.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; Ringle, Jay L.; Howard, Brigid K.; Soper, Stephen H.; Almquist, Julie K.; Chmelka, M. Beth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of therapeutic alliance (TA) on therapy outcomes for youth with behavioral and emotional problems residing in residential care. Study participants were 71 youth in an out-of-home family-style residential treatment facility who were referred to an onsite psychotherapy clinic. A therapeutic alliance scale was completed…

  13. Substrate reduction augments the efficacy of enzyme therapy in a mouse model of Fabry disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Marshall

    Full Text Available Fabry disease is an X-linked glycosphingolipid storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the activity of the lysosomal hydrolase α-galactosidase A (α-gal. This deficiency results in accumulation of the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (GL-3 in lysosomes. Endothelial cell storage of GL-3 frequently leads to kidney dysfunction, cardiac and cerebrovascular disease. The current treatment for Fabry disease is through infusions of recombinant α-gal (enzyme-replacement therapy; ERT. Although ERT can markedly reduce the lysosomal burden of GL-3 in endothelial cells, variability is seen in the clearance from several other cell types. This suggests that alternative and adjuvant therapies may be desirable. Use of glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors to abate the biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids (substrate reduction therapy, SRT has been shown to be effective at reducing substrate levels in the related glycosphingolipidosis, Gaucher disease. Here, we show that such an inhibitor (eliglustat tartrate, Genz-112638 was effective at lowering GL-3 accumulation in a mouse model of Fabry disease. Relative efficacy of SRT and ERT at reducing GL-3 levels in Fabry mouse tissues differed with SRT being more effective in the kidney, and ERT more efficacious in the heart and liver. Combination therapy with ERT and SRT provided the most complete clearance of GL-3 from all the tissues. Furthermore, treatment normalized urine volume and uromodulin levels and significantly delayed the loss of a nociceptive response. The differential efficacies of SRT and ERT in the different tissues indicate that the combination approach is both additive and complementary suggesting the possibility of an improved therapeutic paradigm in the management of Fabry disease.

  14. Design of therapeutic vaccines as a novel antibody therapy for cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Hironori

    2017-09-01

    Vaccines are primarily used worldwide as a preventive medicine for infectious diseases and have recently been applied to cancer. We and others have developed therapeutic vaccines designed for cardiovascular diseases that are notably different from previous vaccines. In the case of cancer vaccines, a specific protein in cancer cells is a target antigen, and the activation of cytotoxic T cells (CTL) is required to kill and remove the antigen-presenting cancer cells. Our therapeutic vaccines work against hypertension by targeting angiotensin II (Ang II) as the antigen, which is an endogenous hormone. Therapeutic vaccines must avoid CTL activation and induce the blocking antibodies for Ang II. The goal of our therapeutic vaccine for cardiovascular diseases is to induce the specific antibody response toward the target protein without inducing T-cell or antibody-mediated inflammation through the careful selection of the target antigen, carrier protein and adjuvants. The goal of our therapeutic vaccine is similar to that of antibody therapy. Recently, multiple antibody-based drugs have been developed for cancer, immune-related diseases, and dyslipidemia, which are efficient but expensive. If the effect of a therapeutic vaccine is nearly equivalent to antibody therapy as an alternative approach, the lower medical cost and improvement in drug adherence can be advantages of therapeutic vaccines. In this review, we will describe our concept of therapeutic vaccines for cardiovascular diseases and the future directions of therapeutic vaccines as novel antibody therapies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Safety and efficacy of cell-based therapy on critical limb ischemia: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Min; Yan, Chang-Fu; Xia, Fu-Chun; Zhou, Shuang-Lu; He, Jian; Li, Cui-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a major health problem worldwide, affecting approximately 500-1000 people per million per annum. Cell-based therapy has given new hope for the treatment of limb ischemia. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of cellular therapy CLI treatment. We searched the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases through October 20, 2015, and selected the controlled trials with cell-based therapy for CLI treatment compared with cell-free treatment. We assessed the results by meta-analysis using a variety of outcome measures, as well as the association of mononuclear cell dosage with treatment effect by dose-response meta-analysis. Twenty-five trials were included. For the primary evaluation index, cell-based therapy significantly reduced the rate of major amputation (odds ratio [OR] 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.32-0.60, P = 0.000) and significantly increased the rate of amputation-free survival (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.70-4.61, P = 0.000). Trial sequence analysis indicated that optimal sample size (n = 3374) is needed to detect a plausible treatment effect in all-cause mortality. Cell-based therapy significantly improves ankle brachial index, increases the rate of ulcer healing, increases the transcutaneous pressure of oxygen, reduces limb pain and improves movement ability. Subgroup analysis indicated heterogeneity is caused by type of control, design bias and transplant route. In the dose-response analysis, there was no significant correlation between cell dosage and the therapeutic effect. Cell-based therapy has a significant therapeutic effect on CLI, but randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials are needed to improve the credibility of this conclusion. Assessment of all-cause mortality also requires a larger sample size to arrive at a strong conclusion. In dose-response analysis, increasing the dosage of cell injections does not significantly improve the therapeutic effects of cell-based therapy. Copyright © 2016

  16. Efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for nerve deafness: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuebo; Shi, Xian; Tang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture is one of the important parts of therapeutic methods in traditional Chinese medicine, and has been widely used for the treatment of nerve deafness in recent years. The current study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for nerve deafness compared with conventional medicine therapy. PubMed, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, the Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, the Chinese Biomedical Database, the Wanfang Database were searched for articles published to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating efficacy and side effects between acupuncture and conventional medicine therapies up to 2013/06. A total of 12 studies, including 527 patients assessed the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for nerve deafness. Overall, the efficacy of acupuncture was significantly better than that of the conventional western medication (RR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.36-1.74) or traditional Chinese medicines (RR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.24-1.84), and the efficacy of acupuncture in combination with conventional western medication or traditional Chinese medicine was better than that of the conventional western medication alone (RR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.29-1.77) or traditional Chinese medicine alone (RR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.30-1.95). Based on the comparison of number of deafness patients who were completely cured, the efficacy of acupuncture in combination with traditional Chinese medicines was better than that of traditional Chinese medicine alone (RR: 4.62, 95% CI: 1.38-15.47). Acupuncture therapy can significantly improve the hearing of patients with nerve deafness, and the efficacy of acupuncture in combination with medication is superior to medication alone.

  17. Massage therapy and therapeutic touch in children: state of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, M; Olson, M

    2000-09-01

    To review and critique the research on the effect of massage therapy and therapeutic touch in children, and to describe clinical implications and make suggestions for future study. Studies were obtained through online computer searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and SocioFile. Key words used were tactile, kinesthetic, massage therapy, touch, therapeutic touch, infants, and children. STUDY SELECTION, DATA EXTRACTION, AND SYNTHESIS: Fourteen massage therapy studies were selected because they met the following 3 criteria: investigated massage therapy in children; were published in refereed nursing, allied health, or infant and child development journals between 1969 and 1999; and were quantitative in nature. Studies were divided according to developmental age for analysis: neonates, preschool, and older children. Five therapeutic touch studies, 3 quantitative and 2 qualitative, were selected because they were the only empirical reports about the effect of therapeutic touch in children to date. In addition to critiques, the therapeutic touch studies were examined for the following 10 characteristics: study purpose/hypotheses, background/literature review, sample selection method, study design/random assignment, independent variable/length of treatment/control and confounders, dependent variables/measurements, outcomes, study limitations, and implications for future research. More research exists to support the use of massage therapy than therapeutic touch in children. A set of common findings across 2 decades of study suggests that massage therapy may be useful in the care of infants and children. Because massage therapy and therapeutic touch seem to elicit similar parasympathetic effects, therapeutic touch may be useful. There is insufficient evidence, however, to recommend its use in children without qualifications.

  18. Testosterone Replacement Therapy: Long-Term Safety and Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corona

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent position statements and guidelines have raised the distinction between a true and false, age-related hypogonadism (HG or late-onset hypogonadism (LOH. The former is the consequence of congenital or acquired “organic” damage of the brain centers or of the testis. The latter is mainly secondary to age-related comorbidities and does not require testosterone (T therapy (TTh. In addition, concerns related to cardiovascular (CV safety have further increased the scepticism related to TTh. In this paper, we reviewed the available evidence supporting the efficacy of TTh in non-organic HG and its long term safety. A large amount of evidence has documented that sexual symptoms are the most specific correlates of T deficiency. TTh is able to improve all aspects of sexual function independent of the pathogenetic origin of the disease supporting the scientific demonstration that LOH does exist according to an “ex-juvantibus” criterion. Although the presence of metabolic derangements could mitigate the efficacy of TTh on erectile dysfunction, the positive effect of TTh on body composition and insulin sensitivity might counterbalance the lower efficacy. CV safety concerns related to TTh are essentially based on a limited number of observational and randomized controlled trials which present important methodological flaws. When HG is properly diagnosed and TTh correctly performed no CV and prostate risk have been documented.

  19. Gestalt Therapy and the Therapeutic Presence of Fritz Perls: An Interview with Claudio Naranjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Ramírez Calderón

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As exceptional witness and participant in the origin and development of the Gestalt therapy, Claudio Naranjo considers in this interview the cha- racteristics of this form of therapy, doing so from his work and his personal encounter with the man and the therapeutic figure of Fritz Perls. In the interview the experiential base and the therapeutic change elements are established, along with the therapeutic attitude, and the holistic conception of the person; also, the contrasts among academic psychology, the spiritual dimension of human beings, and the therapist’s intuition in the help rela- tionship are highlighted.

  20. The mediational role of panic self-efficacy in cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz, Hanne Nørr; Arendt, Mikkel; OToole, Mia Skytte

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models of panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia have stressed the role of catastrophic beliefs of bodily symptoms as a central mediating variable of the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Perceived ability to cope with or control panic attacks, panic self......-efficacy, has also been proposed to play a key role in therapeutic change; however, this cognitive factor has received much less attention in research. The aim of the present review is to evaluate panic self-efficacy as a mediator of outcome in CBT for PD using descriptive and meta-analytic procedures. We...... an association between change in panic self-efficacy and change in outcome during therapy (criterion 2); three tested, and one established formal statistical mediation of panic self-efficacy (criterion 3); while four tested and three found change in panic self-efficacy occurring before the reduction of panic...

  1. The safety and efficacy of therapeutic ERCP in the pediatric population performed by adult gastroenterologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Lauren; Halsey, Kevin; Darwin, Peter; Goldberg, Eric

    2013-12-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is much less commonly performed in the pediatric population compared to adults. As a result, few pediatric gastroenterologists receive adequate training in ERCP. At many institutions, pediatric ERCP is performed by adult gastroenterologists not formally trained in pediatric gastroenterology. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of ERCP performed in pediatric patients by adult gastroenterologists in a single tertiary care center. We performed a retrospective analysis of pooled endoscopic procedures in pediatric patients (age<18 years) at the University of Maryland Medical Center, between 2003 and 2011, by two adult therapeutic endoscopists. Neither endoscopist had formal training in pediatric ERCP prior to 2003. Outcome measures included the procedure indications, cannulation success rates, procedure success rates, type of anesthesia, therapeutic interventions, frequency and type of procedure related complications, and technical complexity. Forty-five patients were included with a mean age of 12 years (range 6-17). There were a total of 70 ERCP procedures. Choledocholithiasis was the most common indication. Modes of anesthesia included monitored anesthesia care (31, 44.3%), general anesthesia (22, 31.4%) and moderate conscious sedation (17, 24.3%). The papilla cannulation success rate was 98.6% (69/70). Therapeutic maneuvers included 31 biliary sphincterotomies, ten pancreatic sphincterotomies, 17 pancreatic duct stents, 16 bile duct stents, two cystgastrostomy stents, four biliary stricture dilations, one minor papillotomy site dilation, one mechanical lithotripsy and one ampullectomy. The procedural success rate was 97.1% (68/70). The overall complication rate was 7.1% (5/70) with a post-ERCP pancreatitis rate of 4.3% (3/70). Complications included infection (moderate-1), bleeding (moderate-1), and post-ERCP pancreatitis (mild-1, moderate-2). ERCP procedures in pediatric patients can

  2. The therapeutic alliance in the early part of cognitive-behavioral therapy for the eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Glenn; Evans, Jane; Stringer, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the strength of the therapeutic alliance in the early stages of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders, and whether the strength of that alliance is associated with early eating characteristics, comorbid Axis 1 and 2 features. Forty-four eating-disordered patients completed measures of eating and Axis 1 and 2 characteristics at the start of therapy, and measures of the therapeutic alliance and eating characteristics at the sixth session of CBT. The therapeutic alliance was strong, including in the domain of attachment. It was unrelated to initial eating pathology and early changes in eating cognitions and behaviors. However, there were links between initial emotional and interpersonal features and therapeutic alliance by the sixth session. The findings counter suggestions that CBT for eating disorders is characterized by a poor therapeutic relationship. The therapeutic alliance is likely to be enhanced by addressing high levels of emotional distress and difficulties in interpersonal function where appropriate. This research needs to be extended to other therapies, other domains of function and different time points in therapy, to build a fuller picture of the role of the therapeutic relationship in working with the eating disorders. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Therapeutic Self-Disclosure within DBT, Schema Therapy, and CBASP: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Stephan; Guhn, Anne; Betzler, Felix; Stiglmayr, Christian; Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Sterzer, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, various therapeutic interventions have been established that extended behavior and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) by so-called "third-wave" strategies. In order to address specific therapeutic challenges in certain subgroups of patients who do not sufficiently respond to "classical CBT," some of these third-wave strategies put particular emphasis on therapist self-disclosure. This article highlights therapeutic self-disclosure as a means to address interpersonal problems by comparing three third-wave strategies: (a) acceptance and change strategies as used in Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), (b) the concept of "limited reparenting" as used in Schema Therapy (ST), and (c) disciplined personal involvement as used in the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP). On the basis of a critical discussion on opportunities and challenges within these three concepts, self-disclosure is proposed to be a promising therapeutic tool that is worth to be investigated in more depth in future studies.

  4. Ketogenic Diet Therapy in Infants: Efficacy and Tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirrell, Elaine; Eckert, Susan; Wong-Kisiel, Lily; Payne, Eric; Nickels, Katherine

    2018-01-31

    This study evaluated tolerability and efficacy of the ketogenic diet in infants less than 12 months of age. Infants ketogenic diet between September 2007 and July 2016 were identified. Records were reviewed for epilepsy details, diet initiation details, efficacy and tolerability. Twenty-seven infants commenced the ketogenic diet (56% male, median age seven months). Median age at seizure onset was 1.9 months and 92% had daily seizures. An epilepsy syndrome was noted in 19 (West-11, Epilepsy in Infancy with Migrating Focal Seizures-5, Early Myoclonic Encephalopathy-1, Ohtahara-1, Dravet-1). Infants were on a median of two and had failed a median of one medications for lack of efficacy. All initiated a traditional ketogenic diet at full calories without fasting, and all but one started the diet in hospital. Significant hypoglycemia during initiation was seen in two - both had emesis +/- decreased oral intake. Eighty-eight percent developed urinary ketosis by 48 hours and all were successfully discharged on the diet (median ratio 3:1). Of those continuing dietary therapy, responder rates at one, six and 12 months were 68%, 82% and 91%, with 20%, 29% and 27% achieving seizure freedom. By 12 months, two stopped the diet for serious adverse effects, five discontinued for lack of efficacy, six were lost to follow-up and two died of unrelated causes. The ketogenic diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for infants with intractable epilepsy. In-hospital initiation is strongly recommended due to risk of hypoglycemia with emesis or reduced intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Therapeutic Advances using Combinational Therapy in the Treatment of Glioblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staberg, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most malignant brain tumor in adults. Median survival is only about 15 months despite aggressive treatment, consisting of surgery followed by radio- and chemotherapy, stressing the need for new therapies. Development of glioblastoma is thought to be a result of both genetic...... of glioblastoma cells, an effect that is even more pronounced when combined with traditional chemotherapeutic agents. The EGFR and Notch pathways are shown to be of great importance for glioblastoma cell survival and for the formation of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. Results presented herein...... suggests that targeting redundant signaling pathways can overcome required or initial treatment resistance, thus leading to improved tumor cell elimination. We hypothesize that future therapies will likely be a result of combination therapies for glioblastoma patients based on their molecular tumor profile...

  6. Dual-therapeutic reporter genes fusion for enhanced cancer gene therapy and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, T V; Foygel, K; Willmann, J K; Paulmurugan, R

    2013-05-01

    Two of the successful gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapies include herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK) enzyme-ganciclovir prodrug and the Escherichia coli nitroreductase (NTR) enzyme-CB1954 prodrug strategies; these enzyme-prodrug combinations produce activated cytotoxic metabolites of the prodrugs capable of tumor cell death by inhibiting DNA synthesis and killing quiescent cells, respectively. Both these strategies also affect significant bystander cell killing of neighboring tumor cells that do not express these enzymes. We have developed a dual-combination gene strategy, where we identified HSV1-TK and NTR fused in a particular orientation can effectively kill tumor cells when the tumor cells are treated with a fusion HSV1-TK-NTR gene- along with a prodrug combination of GCV and CB1954. In order to determine whether the dual-system demonstrate superior therapeutic efficacy than either HSV1-TK or NTR systems alone, we conducted both in vitro and in vivo tumor xenograft studies using triple negative SUM159 breast cancer cells, by evaluating the efficacy of cell death by apoptosis and necrosis upon treatment with the dual HSV1-TK genes-GCV-CB1954 prodrugs system, and compared the efficiency to HSV1-TK-GCV and NTR-CB1954. Our cell-based studies, tumor regression studies in xenograft mice, histological analyses of treated tumors and bystander studies indicate that the dual HSV1-TK-NTR-prodrug system is two times more efficient even with half the doses of both prodrugs than the respective single gene-prodrug system, as evidenced by enhanced apoptosis and necrosis of tumor cells in vitro in culture and xenograft of tumor tissues in animals.

  7. Transferrin-Modified Nanoparticles for Photodynamic Therapy Enhance the Antitumor Efficacy of Hypocrellin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT has emerged as a potent novel therapeutic modality that induces cell death through light-induced activation of photosensitizer. But some photosensitizers have characteristics of poor water-solubility and non-specific tissue distribution. These characteristics become main obstacles of PDT. In this paper, we synthesized a targeting drug delivery system (TDDS to improve the water-solubility of photosensitizer and enhance the ability of targeted TFR positive tumor cells. TDDS is a transferrin-modified Poly(D,L-Lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC nanoparticle loaded with a photosensitizer hypocrellin A (HA, named TF-HA-CMC-PLGA NPs. Morphology, size distribution, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectra, encapsulation efficiency, and loading capacity of TF-HA-CMC-PLGA NPs were characterized. In vitro TF-HA-CMC-PLGA NPs presented weak dark cytotoxicity and significant photo-cytotoxicity with strong reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and apoptotic cancer cell death. In vivo photodynamic antitumor efficacy of TF-HA-CMC-PLGA NPs was investigated with an A549 (TFR positive tumor-bearing model in male athymic nude mice. TF-HA-CMC-PLGA NPs caused tumor delay with a remarkable tumor inhibition rate of 63% for 15 days. Extensive cell apoptosis in tumor tissue and slight side effects in normal organs were observed. The results indicated that TDDS has great potential to enhance PDT therapeutic efficacy.

  8. Theranostic Nanoseeds for Efficacious Internal Radiation Therapy of Unresectable Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeendarbari, Sina; Tekade, Rakesh; Mulgaonkar, Aditi; Christensen, Preston; Ramezani, Saleh; Hassan, Gedaa; Jiang, Ruiqian; Öz, Orhan K.; Hao, Yaowu; Sun, Xiankai

    2016-02-01

    Malignant tumors are considered “unresectable” if they are adhere to vital structures or the surgery would cause irreversible damages to the patients. Though a variety of cytotoxic drugs and radiation therapies are currently available in clinical practice to treat such tumor masses, these therapeutic modalities are always associated with substantial side effects. Here, we report an injectable nanoparticle-based internal radiation source that potentially offers more efficacious treatment of unresectable solid tumors without significant adverse side effects. Using a highly efficient incorporation procedure, palladium-103, a brachytherapy radioisotope in clinical practice, was coated to monodispersed hollow gold nanoparticles with a diameter about 120 nm, to form 103Pd@Au nanoseeds. The therapeutic efficacy of 103Pd@Au nanoseeds were assessed when intratumorally injected into a prostate cancer xenograft model. Five weeks after a single-dose treatment, a significant tumor burden reduction (>80%) was observed without noticeable side effects on the liver, spleen and other organs. Impressively, >95% nanoseeds were retained inside the tumors as monitored by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with the gamma emissions of 103Pd. These findings show that this nanoseed-based brachytherapy has the potential to provide a theranostic solution to unresectable solid tumors.

  9. Music therapy career aptitude and generalized self-efficacy in music therapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hayoung A; Befi, Cathy M

    2014-01-01

    While the Music Therapy Career Aptitude Test (MTCAT) provides a measure of student aptitude, measures of perceived self-efficacy may provide additional information about a students' suitability for a music therapy career. As a first step in determining whether future studies examining combined scores from the MTCAT and the Generalized Self-Efficacy (GSE) scale would be useful to help predict academic success in music therapy, we explored the internal reliability of these two measures in a sample of undergraduate students, and the relationship (concurrent validity) of the measures to one another. Eighty undergraduate music therapy students (14 male; 66 female) completed the MTCAT and GSE. To determine internal reliability we conducted tests of normality and calculated Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha for each measure. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to ascertain the strength of the relationship between the MTCAT and GSE. MTCAT scores were normally distributed and had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.706). GSE scores were not normally distributed, but had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.748). The correlation coefficient analysis revealed that MTCAT and GSE scores were moderately correlated ((r = 0.426, p music therapy students; however, a more complete picture of student suitability for music therapy may be determined by administering the GSE alongside the MTCAT. Future studies are needed to determine whether combined MTCAT and GSE scores can be used to predict student success in an undergraduate music therapy program. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Predictors of change in music therapy with children and adolescents: The role of therapeutic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gold, Christian; Wigram, Tony; Voracek, Martin

    2006-01-01

      Music therapy has been shown to be efficacious in experimental studies. However, there is little empirical research knowledge about what elements of music therapy influence its effectiveness in clinical practice. Children and adolescents with psychopathology (N = 75) were assessed before...... and after participating in individual music therapy with one out of 15 music therapists in the Vienna region. Relationships between outcomes (as evaluated by parents) and therapy contents (as reported by therapists) were examined using general linear modelling. Results indicated that clients' symptoms...... and burdens on their social environment showed greater improvement when music therapy was limited to discipline-specific music therapy techniques and did not include other media such as play therapy elements. The findings indicate the importance of being aware about a therapy method's specific strengths...

  11. Tumor Radiation Therapy Creates Therapeutic Vaccine Responses to the Colorectal Cancer Antigen GUCY2C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witek, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Blomain, Erik S.; Magee, Michael S.; Xiang, Bo; Waldman, Scott A. [Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Snook, Adam E., E-mail: adam.snook@jefferson.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) is thought to produce clinical responses in cancer patients, not only through direct toxicity to cancer cells and supporting tumor stroma cells, but also through activation of immunologic effectors. More recently, RT has potentiated the local and systemic effects of cancer immunotherapy (IT). However, combination regimens that maximize immunologic and clinical efficacy remain undefined. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the impact of local RT on adenoviral-mediated vaccination against the colorectal cancer antigen GUCY2C (Ad5-GUCY2C) in a murine subcutaneous tumor model using mouse CT26 colon cancer cells (CT26-GUCY2C). Immune responses were assessed by ELISpot, and clinical responses were assessed by tumor size and incidence. Results: The specific sequence of tumor-directed RT preceding Ad5-GUCY2C IT transformed inactive therapeutic Ad5-GUCY2C vaccination into a curative vaccine. GUCY2C-specific T cell responses were amplified (P<.05), tumor eradication was maximized (P<.01), and tumor volumes were minimized (P<.001) in mice whose tumors were irradiated before, compared with after, Ad5-GUCY2C vaccination. The immunologic and antitumor efficacy of Ad5-GUCY2C was amplified comparably by unfractionated (8 Gy × 1), or biologically equivalent doses of fractionated (3.5 Gy × 3), RT. The antitumor effects of sequential RT and IT (RT-IT) depended on expression of GUCY2C by tumor cells and the adenoviral vaccine vector, and tumor volumes were inversely related to the magnitude of GUCY2C-specific T cell responses. Moreover, mice cured of CT26-GUCY2C tumors by RT-IT showed long-lasting antigen-dependent protection, resisting tumors formed by GUCY2C-expressing 4T1 breast cancer cells inoculated 50 days after CT26 cells. Conclusions: Optimal sequencing of RT and IT amplifies antigen-specific local and systemic immune responses, revealing novel acute and long-term therapeutic antitumor protection. These observations underscore the importance

  12. Qualitative Study of the Therapeutic Relationship in Speech and Language Therapy: Perspectives of Adults with Acquired Communication and Swallowing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Considerations of the negotiated therapeutic relationship in speech and language therapy are somewhat scarce, with specific therapeutic factors generally framed from psycholinguistic, behavioural, or neurological perspectives. Aims: To explore the therapeutic relationship in speech and language therapy, focusing on the personal…

  13. The Therapeutic Relationship and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: A Case Study of an Adolescent Girl With Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Joy Easterbrook

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic relationship in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT has been argued to play an essential role in positive outcomes in therapy. However, it is described as necessary and yet, secondary to technique, often receiving little attention in the training of CBT therapists. This case study explores a trainee psychologist’s experience of finding difficulty in feeling authentic and the application of CBT techniques with her client. This difficulty informed the research question; what is the value of the therapeutic relationship in CBT? A hermeneutic approach with a strong emphasis on phenomenology, is used to explore the therapeutic process and the therapeutic relationship that developed between therapist and client. Qualitative descriptions of 11 sessions are divided into themes, these are discussed in relation to what happened in therapy, and are then discussed further regarding discovery and process into the therapeutic relationship. Conclusions from this case study could possibly reveal the value of the therapeutic relationship when working from a CBT approach, and how it seemed to enable the client to achieve her goal in therapy.

  14. Enhanced Efficacy of Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Pompe Disease Through Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptor Expression in Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeberl, Dwight D.; Luo, Xiaoyan; Sun, Baodong; McVie-Wylie, Alison; Dai, Jian; Li, Songtao; Banugaria, Suhrad G.; Chen, Y-T; Bali, Deeksha S.

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with acid α-glucosidase has become available for Pompe disease; however, the response of skeletal muscle, as opposed to the heart, has been attenuated. The poor response of skeletal muscle has been attributed to the low abundance of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) in skeletal muscle compared to heart. To further understand the role of CI-MPR in Pompe disease, muscle-specific CI-MPR conditional knockout (KO) mice were crossed with GAA-KO (Pompe disease) mice. We evaluated the impact of CI-MPR-mediated uptake of GAA by evaluating ERT in CI-MPR-KO/GAA-KO (double KO) mice. The essential role of CI-MPR was emphasized by the lack of efficacy of ERT as demonstrated by markedly reduced biochemical correction of GAA deficiency and of glycogen accumulations in double KO mice, in comparison with administration of the same therapeutic doses in GAA-KO mice. Clenbuterol, a selective β2-agonist, enhanced CI-MPR expression in skeletal tissue and also increased efficacy from GAA therapy, thereby confirming the key role of CI-MPR with regard to enzyme replacement therapy in Pompe disease. Biochemical correction improved in both muscle and non-muscle tissues, indicating that therapy could be similarly enhanced in other lysosomal storage disorders. In summary, enhanced CI-MPR expression might improve the efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy in Pompe disease through enhancing receptor-mediated uptake of GAA. PMID:21397538

  15. Efficacy of bright light therapy in bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorguner Kupeli, Nese; Bulut, Necati Serkut; Carkaxhiu Bulut, Gresa; Kurt, Emel; Kora, Kaan

    2017-12-12

    For 30 years, bright light therapy (BLT) has been considered as an effective, well-tolerated treatment for seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Because of low response rates, new treatment strategies are needed for bipolar depression (BD), which resembles SAD in certain respects. Few placebo-controlled studies of BLT efficacy have been carried out for BD. Accordingly, this study evaluates the efficacy and safety of BLT as an add-on treatment for BD. Thirty-two BD outpatients were randomly assigned to BLT (10000lx) or dim light (DL, < 500lx). During a two-week period, light was administered each morning for 30min. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Montgomery-Ǻsberg Depression Rating Scale assessed clinical outcome, and the UKU Side Effects Rating Scale evaluated side effects. No significant difference was observed in baseline depression scores in the two groups. Response rates for BLT and DL were 81% and 19%, and remission rates were 44% and 12.5%, respectively. Analyses showed statistically significant reductions in depression scores for the BLT group compared with the DL group on all scales. Side effects were similar in both groups, with headache as the most common side effect. The results suggest that BLT is an effective and safe add-on treatment for BD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Predicting therapeutic nanomedicine efficacy using a companion magnetic resonance imaging nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Miles A; Gadde, Suresh; Pfirschke, Christina; Engblom, Camilla; Sprachman, Melissa M; Kohler, Rainer H; Yang, Katherine S; Laughney, Ashley M; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Kamaly, Nazila; Bhonagiri, Sushma; Pittet, Mikael J; Farokhzad, Omid C; Weissleder, Ralph

    2015-11-18

    Therapeutic nanoparticles (TNPs) have shown heterogeneous responses in human clinical trials, raising questions of whether imaging should be used to identify patients with a higher likelihood of NP accumulation and thus therapeutic response. Despite extensive debate about the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect in tumors, it is increasingly clear that EPR is extremely variable; yet, little experimental data exist to predict the clinical utility of EPR and its influence on TNP efficacy. We hypothesized that a 30-nm magnetic NP (MNP) in clinical use could predict colocalization of TNPs by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To this end, we performed single-cell resolution imaging of fluorescently labeled MNPs and TNPs and studied their intratumoral distribution in mice. MNPs circulated in the tumor microvasculature and demonstrated sustained uptake into cells of the tumor microenvironment within minutes. MNPs could predictably demonstrate areas of colocalization for a model TNP, poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-b-polyethylene glycol (PLGA-PEG), within the tumor microenvironment with >85% accuracy and circulating within the microvasculature with >95% accuracy, despite their markedly different sizes and compositions. Computational analysis of NP transport enabled predictive modeling of TNP distribution based on imaging data and identified key parameters governing intratumoral NP accumulation and macrophage uptake. Finally, MRI accurately predicted initial treatment response and drug accumulation in a preclinical efficacy study using a paclitaxel-encapsulated NP in tumor-bearing mice. These approaches yield valuable insight into the in vivo kinetics of NP distribution and suggest that clinically relevant imaging modalities and agents can be used to select patients with high EPR for treatment with TNPs. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Plant Proteinase Inhibitors in Therapeutics – Focus on Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Srikanth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are known to have many secondary metabolites and phytochemical compounds which are highly explored at biochemical and molecular genetics level and exploited enormously in the human health care sector. However, there are other less explored small molecular weight proteins, which inhibit proteases/proteinases. Plants are good sources of protease inhibitors (PIs which protect them against diseases, insects, pests, and herbivores. In the past, proteinaceous PIs were considered primarily as protein-degrading enzymes. Nevertheless, this view has significantly changed and PIs are now treated as very important signaling molecules in many biological activities such as inflammation, apoptosis, blood clotting and hormone processing. In recent years, PIs have been examined extensively as therapeutic agents, primarily to deal with various human cancers. Interestingly, many plant-based PIs are also found to be effective against cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, inflammatory diseases and neurological disorders. Several plant PIs are under further evaluation in in vitro clinical trials. Among all types of PIs, Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI has been studied extensively in the treatment of many diseases, especially in the field of cancer prevention. So far, crops such as beans, potatoes, barley, squash, millet, wheat, buckwheat, groundnut, chickpea, pigeonpea, corn and pineapple have been identified as good sources of PIs. The PI content of such foods has a significant influence on human health disorders, particularly in the regions where people mostly depend on these kind of foods. These natural PIs vary in concentration, protease specificity, heat stability, and sometimes several PIs may be present in the same species or tissue. However, it is important to carry out individual studies to identify the potential effects of each PI on human health. PIs in plants make them incredible sources to determine novel PIs with specific pharmacological and

  18. Anticancer Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy with Lung Cancer-Targeted Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji-Eun; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Jheon, Sanghoon

    2016-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive and non-surgical method representing an attractive alternative choice for lung cancer treatment. Photosensitizers selectively accumulate in tumor tissue and lead to tumor cell death in the presence of oxygen and the proper wavelength of light. To increase the therapeutic effect of PDT, we developed both photosensitizer- and anticancer agent-loaded lung cancer-targeted nanoparticles. Both enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect-based passive targeting and hyaluronic-acid-CD44 interaction-based active targeting were applied. CD44 is a well-known hyaluronic acid receptor that is often introduced as a biomarker of non-small cell lung cancer. In addition, a combination of PDT and chemotherapy is adopted in the present study. This combination concept may increase anticancer therapeutic effects and reduce adverse reactions. We chose hypocrellin B (HB) as a novel photosensitizer in this study. It has been reported that HB causes higher anticancer efficacy of PDT compared to hematoporphyrin derivatives 1 . Paclitaxel was selected as the anticancer drug since it has proven to be a potential treatment for lung cancer 2 . The antitumor efficacies of photosensitizer (HB) solution, photosensitizer encapsulated hyaluronic acid-ceramide nanoparticles (HB-NPs), and both photosensitizer- and anticancer agent (paclitaxel)-encapsulated hyaluronic acid-ceramide nanoparticles (HB-P-NPs) after PDT were compared both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro phototoxicity in A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma) cells and the in vivo antitumor efficacy in A549 tumor-bearing mice were evaluated. The HB-P-NP treatment group showed the most effective anticancer effect after PDT. In conclusion, the HB-P-NPs prepared in the present study represent a potential and novel photosensitizer delivery system in treating lung cancer with PDT.

  19. Preclinical Studies Evaluating Subacute Toxicity and Therapeutic Efficacy of LQB-118 in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Júnior, Edézio Ferreira; Martins, Thiago Martino; Canto-Cavalheiro, Marilene Marcuzzo; Marques, Paulo Roberto; Portari, Elyzabeth Avvad; Coelho, Marsen Garcia Pinto; Netto, Chaquip Daher; Costa, Paulo Roberto Ribeiro; Sabino, Katia Costa de Carvalho; Torres-Santos, Eduardo Caio

    2016-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and is the second major cause of death by parasites, after malaria. The arsenal of drugs against leishmaniasis is small, and each has a disadvantage in terms of toxicity, efficacy, price, or treatment regimen. Our group has focused on studying new drug candidates as alternatives to current treatments. The pterocarpanquinone LQB-118 was designed and synthesized based on molecular hybridization, and it exhibited antiprotozoal and anti-leukemic cell line activities. Our previous work demonstrated that LQB-118 was an effective treatment for experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this study, we observed that treatment with 10 mg/kg of body weight/day LQB-118 orally inhibited the development of hepatosplenomegaly with a 99% reduction in parasite load. An in vivo toxicological analysis showed no change in the clinical, biochemical, or hematological parameters. Histologically, all of the analyzed organs were normal, with the exception of the liver, where focal points of necrosis with leukocytic infiltration were observed at treatment doses 5 times higher than the therapeutic dose; however, these changes were not accompanied by an increase in transaminases. Our findings indicate that LQB-118 is effective at treating different clinical forms of leishmaniasis and presents no relevant signs of toxicity at therapeutic doses; thus, this framework is demonstrated suitable for developing promising drug candidates for the oral treatment of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Therapeutic efficacy of rose oil: A comprehensive review of clinical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safieh Mohebitabar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rose oil is obtained from the petals of difference Rosa species especially Rosa centifolia L. and Rosa damascena Mill. Various pharmacological properties have been attributed to rose oil. The aim of the present study was to review the rose oil therapeutic effects which had been clinically evaluated in trial studies. Materials and Methods: Google scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus were searched for human studies which have evaluated the therapeutic effects of rose oil and published in English language until August 2015. Results: Thirteen clinical trials (772 participants were included in this review. Rose oil was administered via inhalation or used topically. Most of the studies (five trials evaluated the analgesic effect of rose oil. Five studies evaluated the physiological relaxation effect of rose oil. Anti-depressant, psychological relaxation, improving sexual dysfunction, and anti-anxiety effects were the other clinical properties reported for rose oil. Conclusion: Numerous studies on the pharmacological properties of rose oil have been done in animals, but studies in humans are few.  In this study, it was observed that rose oil had physiological and psychological relaxation, analgesic and anti-anxiety effects. To obtain conclusive results on the efficacy and safety of rose oil, further clinical trials with larger sample size and better designation are required.

  1. Techniques and efficacy of flexible endoscopic therapy of Zenker's diverticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perbtani, Yaseen; Suarez, Alejandro; Wagh, Mihir S

    2015-03-16

    Zenker's diverticulum (ZD) is an abnormal hypopharyngeal pouch often presenting with dysphagia. Treatment is often sought with invasive surgical management of the diverticulum being the only mode of definitive therapy. Primarily done by an open transcervical approach in the past, nowadays treatment is usually provided by otolaryngologists using a less invasive trans-oral technique with a rigid endoscope. When first described, this method grew into acceptance quickly due to its similar efficacy and vastly improved safety profile compared to the open transcervical approach. However, the main limitation with this approach is that it may not be suitable for all patients. Nonetheless, progress in the field of natural orifice endoscopic surgery over the last 10-20 years has led to the increase in utilization of the flexible endoscope in the treatment of ZD. Primarily performed by interventional gastroenterologists, this approach overcomes the prior limitation of its surgical counterpart and allows adequate visualization of the diverticulum independent of the patient's body habitus. Additionally, it may be performed without the use of general anesthesia and in an outpatient setting, thus further increasing the utility of this modality, especially in elderly patients with other comorbidities. Today, results in more than 600 patients have been described in various published case series using different techniques and devices demonstrating a high percentage of clinical symptom resolution with low rates of adverse events. In this article, we present our experience with flexible endoscopic therapy of Zenker's diverticulum and highlight the endoscopic technique, outcomes and adverse events related to this minimally invasive modality.

  2. THE COMPARATIVE COST-EFFICACY ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Malchikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform the comparative cost-efficacy analysis of various antihypertensive therapies in hypertensives patients.Material and methods. 140 hypertensive patients with history of ineffective antihypertensive therapy were randomized in to 4 groups, 35 patients in each one. Patients of Group A received indapamide retard plus perindopril; group B - indapamide retard plus amlodipine; group C - amlodipine plus lisinopril; group D - amlodipine plus bisoprolol. The Russian version of general questionnaire MOS-SF-36 was applied for quality of a life estimated. Endothelium function was evaluated with B-mode ultrasonography (Acuson 128 ХР/10. Albuminuria level was detected by immunoturbometric method (Integra-700, Roche.Results. The drug combination B had the least cost. The drug combination C was the most effective. The drug combination C was the most economically rational. The drug combination A was the least economically rational for BP reduction. However the drug combination A was comparable with drug combination C in effects on quality of life and on endothelium function, and it was the most economically rational for albuminuria reduction.Conclusion. Indapamide retard plus perindopril combination is the most economically rational in patients with target-organ lesions (nephropathy. Lisinopril plus amlodipine combination is economically rational in patients without target-organ lesions. 

  3. THE COMPARATIVE COST-EFFICACY ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Malchikova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform the comparative cost-efficacy analysis of various antihypertensive therapies in hypertensives patients.Material and methods. 140 hypertensive patients with history of ineffective antihypertensive therapy were randomized in to 4 groups, 35 patients in each one. Patients of Group A received indapamide retard plus perindopril; group B - indapamide retard plus amlodipine; group C - amlodipine plus lisinopril; group D - amlodipine plus bisoprolol. The Russian version of general questionnaire MOS-SF-36 was applied for quality of a life estimated. Endothelium function was evaluated with B-mode ultrasonography (Acuson 128 ХР/10. Albuminuria level was detected by immunoturbometric method (Integra-700, Roche.Results. The drug combination B had the least cost. The drug combination C was the most effective. The drug combination C was the most economically rational. The drug combination A was the least economically rational for BP reduction. However the drug combination A was comparable with drug combination C in effects on quality of life and on endothelium function, and it was the most economically rational for albuminuria reduction.Conclusion. Indapamide retard plus perindopril combination is the most economically rational in patients with target-organ lesions (nephropathy. Lisinopril plus amlodipine combination is economically rational in patients without target-organ lesions. 

  4. Targeting of Beta Adrenergic Receptors Results in Therapeutic Efficacy against Models of Hemangioendothelioma and Angiosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Jessica M.; Amaya, Clarissa; Rains, Steven; Diaz, Dolores; Pham, Robert; Battiste, James; Modiano, Jaime F.; Kokta, Victor; Boucheron, Laura E.; Mitchell, Dianne C.; Bryan, Brad A.

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic targeting of the beta-adrenergic receptors has recently shown remarkable efficacy in the treatment of benign vascular tumors such as infantile hemangiomas. As infantile hemangiomas are reported to express high levels of beta adrenergic receptors, we examined the expression of these receptors on more aggressive vascular tumors such as hemangioendotheliomas and angiosarcomas, revealing beta 1, 2, and 3 receptors were indeed present and therefore aggressive vascular tumors may similarly show increased susceptibility to the inhibitory effects of beta blockade. Using a panel of hemangioendothelioma and angiosarcoma cell lines, we demonstrate that beta adrenergic inhibition blocks cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. Beta blockade is selective for vascular tumor cells over normal endothelial cells and synergistically effective when combined with standard chemotherapeutic or cytotoxic agents. We demonstrate that inhibition of beta adrenergic signaling induces large scale changes in the global gene expression patterns of vascular tumors, including alterations in the expression of established cell cycle and apoptotic regulators. Using in vivo tumor models we demonstrate that beta blockade shows remarkable efficacy as a single agent in reducing the growth of angiosarcoma tumors. In summary, these experiments demonstrate the selective cytotoxicity and tumor suppressive ability of beta adrenergic inhibition on malignant vascular tumors and have laid the groundwork for a promising treatment of angiosarcomas in humans. PMID:23555867

  5. HemoHIM enhances the therapeutic efficacy of ionizing radiation treatment in tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Ran; Ju, Eun-Jin; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2010-02-01

    Although radiotherapy is commonly used for a variety of cancers, radiotherapy alone does not achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. In this study, we examined the possibility that HemoHIM can enhance the anticancer effects of ionizing radiation (IR) in melanoma-bearing mice. The HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs-Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma, and Paeonia Radix. Anticancer effects of HemoHIM were evaluated in melanoma-bearing mice exposed to IR. IR treatment (5 Gy at 7 days after melanoma cell injection) reduced the weight of the solid tumors, and HemoHIM supplementation with IR enhanced the decreases in tumor weight (P HemoHIM administration also increased the activity of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, although the proportions of these cells in spleen were not different. In addition, HemoHIM administration increased the interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion from lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A, which seemed to contribute to the enhanced efficacy of HemoHIM in tumor-bearing mice treated with IR. In conclusion, HemoHIM may be a beneficial supplement during radiotherapy for enhancing the antitumor efficacy.

  6. Preventive and therapeutic efficacy of finasteride and dutasteride in TRAMP mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B Opoku-Acheampong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prostate cancer prevention trial (PCPT and Reduction by dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE trial found that 5α-reductase (5αR inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride respectively, decreased prostate cancer prevalence but also increased the incidence of high-grade tumors. 5αR2 is the main isoenzyme in normal prostate tissue; however, most prostate tumors have high 5αR1 and low 5αR2 expression. Because finasteride inhibits only 5αR2, we hypothesized that it would not be as efficacious in preventing prostate cancer development and/or progression in C57BL/6 TRAMP x FVB mice as dutasteride, which inhibits both 5αR1 and 5αR2. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six-week-old C57BL/6 TRAMP x FVB male mice were randomized to AIN93G control or pre- and post- finasteride and dutasteride diet (83.3 mg drug/kg diet groups (n =30-33 that began at 6 and 12 weeks of age, respectively, and were terminated at 20 weeks of age. The pre- and post- finasteride and dutasteride groups were designed to test the preventive and therapeutic efficacy of the drugs, respectively. Final body weights, genitourinary tract weights, and genitourinary tract weights as percentage of body weights were significantly decreased in the Pre- and Post-dutasteride groups compared with the control. The Post-dutasteride group showed the greatest inhibition of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia progression and prostate cancer development. Surprisingly, the Post-dutasteride group showed improved outcomes compared with the Pre-dutasteride group, which had increased incidence of high-grade carcinoma as the most common and most severe lesions in a majority of prostate lobes. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found little benefit from the finasteride diets, and they increased the incidence of high-grade carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Our findings have commonalities with previously reported PCPT, REDUCE, and the Reduction by dutasteride of Clinical Progression Events in Expectant

  7. Therapeutic potential of snake venom in cancer therapy: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Vivek Kumar; Brahmbhatt, Keyur; Bhatt, Hardik; Parmar, Utsav

    2013-01-01

    Many active secretions produced by animals have been employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases such as hypertension and cancer. Snake venom toxins contributed significantly to the treatment of many medical conditions. There are many published studies describing and elucidating the anti-cancer potential of snake venom. Cancer therapy is one of the main areas for the use of protein peptides and enzymes originating from animals of different species. Some of these proteins or peptides and enzymes from snake venom when isolated and evaluated may bind specifically to cancer cell membranes, affecting the migration and proliferation of these cells. Some of substances found in the snake venom present a great potential as anti-tumor agent. In this review, we presented the main results of recent years of research involving the active compounds of snake venom that have anticancer activity. PMID:23593597

  8. Gold Nanostructures as a Platform for Combinational Therapy in Future Cancer Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelveh, Salomeh; Chithrani, Devika B.

    2011-01-01

    The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts. The technology is expected to generate innovations and play a critical role in cancer therapeutics. Among other nanoparticle (NP) systems, there has been tremendous progress made in the use of spherical gold NPs (GNPs), gold nanorods (GNRs), gold nanoshells (GNSs) and gold nanocages (GNCs) in cancer therapeutics. In treating cancer, radiation therapy and chemotherapy remain the most widely used treatment options and recent developments in cancer research show that the incorporation of gold nanostructures into these protocols has enhanced tumor cell killing. These nanostructures further provide strategies for better loading, targeting, and controlling the release of drugs to minimize the side effects of highly toxic anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. In addition, the heat generation capability of gold nanostructures upon exposure to UV or near infrared light is being used to damage tumor cells locally in photothermal therapy. Hence, gold nanostructures provide a versatile platform to integrate many therapeutic options leading to effective combinational therapy in the fight against cancer. In this review article, the recent progress in the development of gold-based NPs towards improved therapeutics will be discussed. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanostructures with targeting ligands, therapeutic molecules, and imaging contrast agents, holds an array of promising directions for cancer research. PMID:24212654

  9. Gold Nanostructures as a Platform for Combinational Therapy in Future Cancer Therapeutics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelveh, Salomeh [Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Chithrani, Devika B., E-mail: devika.chithrani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); STTARR Innovation Centre, Toronto Medical Discovery Tower, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-03-04

    The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts. The technology is expected to generate innovations and play a critical role in cancer therapeutics. Among other nanoparticle (NP) systems, there has been tremendous progress made in the use of spherical gold NPs (GNPs), gold nanorods (GNRs), gold nanoshells (GNSs) and gold nanocages (GNCs) in cancer therapeutics. In treating cancer, radiation therapy and chemotherapy remain the most widely used treatment options and recent developments in cancer research show that the incorporation of gold nanostructures into these protocols has enhanced tumor cell killing. These nanostructures further provide strategies for better loading, targeting, and controlling the release of drugs to minimize the side effects of highly toxic anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. In addition, the heat generation capability of gold nanostructures upon exposure to UV or near infrared light is being used to damage tumor cells locally in photothermal therapy. Hence, gold nanostructures provide a versatile platform to integrate many therapeutic options leading to effective combinational therapy in the fight against cancer. In this review article, the recent progress in the development of gold-based NPs towards improved therapeutics will be discussed. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanostructures with targeting ligands, therapeutic molecules, and imaging contrast agents, holds an array of promising directions for cancer research.

  10. Efficacy and safety of sitagliptin when added to insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Rosenstock, J; Yki-Järvinen, H

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of sitagliptin when added to insulin therapy alone or in combination with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes.......To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of sitagliptin when added to insulin therapy alone or in combination with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes....

  11. Albumin based versatile multifunctional nanocarriers for cancer therapy: Fabrication, surface modification, multimodal therapeutics and imaging approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudarha, Ritu R; Sawant, Krutika K

    2017-12-01

    Albumin is a versatile protein used as a carrier system for cancer therapeutics. As a carrier it can provide tumor specificity, reduce drug related toxicity, maintain therapeutic concentration of the active moiety like drug, gene, peptide, protein etc. for long period of time and also reduce drug related toxicities. Apart from cancer therapy, it is also utilized in the imaging and multimodal therapy of cancer. This review highlights the important properties, structure and types of albumin based nanocarriers with regards to their use for cancer targeting. It also provides brief discussion on methods of preparation of these nanocarriers and their surface modification. Applications of albumin nanocarriers for cancer therapy, gene delivery, imaging, phototherapy and multimodal therapy have also been discussed. This review also provides brief discussion about albumin based marketed nano formulations and those under clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxicity and Efficacy Probability Interval Design for Phase I Adoptive Cell Therapy Dose-Finding Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daniel H; Whitmore, James B; Guo, Wentian; Ji, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Recent trials of adoptive cell therapy (ACT), such as the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, have demonstrated promising therapeutic effects for cancer patients. A main issue in the product development is to determine the appropriate dose of ACT. Traditional phase I trial designs for cytotoxic agents explicitly assume that toxicity increases monotonically with dose levels and implicitly assume the same for efficacy to justify dose escalation. ACT usually induces rapid responses, and the monotonic dose-response assumption is unlikely to hold due to its immunobiologic activities. We propose a toxicity and efficacy probability interval (TEPI) design for dose finding in ACT trials. This approach incorporates efficacy outcomes to inform dosing decisions to optimize efficacy and safety simultaneously. Rather than finding the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), the TEPI design is aimed at finding the dose with the most desirable outcome for safety and efficacy. The key features of TEPI are its simplicity, flexibility, and transparency, because all decision rules can be prespecified prior to trial initiation. We conduct simulation studies to investigate the operating characteristics of the TEPI design and compare it to existing methods. In summary, the TEPI design is a novel method for ACT dose finding, which possesses superior performance and is easy to use, simple, and transparent. Clin Cancer Res; 23(1); 13-20. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. The mediational role of panic self-efficacy in cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentz, Hanne N; Arendt, Mikkel; O'Toole, Mia S; Hoffart, Asle; Hougaard, Esben

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive models of panic disorder (PD) with or without agoraphobia have stressed the role of catastrophic beliefs of bodily symptoms as a central mediating variable of the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Perceived ability to cope with or control panic attacks, panic self-efficacy, has also been proposed to play a key role in therapeutic change; however, this cognitive factor has received much less attention in research. The aim of the present review is to evaluate panic self-efficacy as a mediator of therapeutic outcome in CBT for PD using descriptive and meta-analytic procedures. We performed systematic literature searches, and included and evaluated 33 studies according to four criteria for establishing mediation. Twenty-eight studies, including nine randomized waitlist-controlled studies, showed strong support for CBT improving panic self-efficacy (criterion 1); ten showed an association between change in panic self-efficacy and change in outcome during therapy (criterion 2); three tested, and one established formal statistical mediation of panic self-efficacy (criterion 3); while four tested and three found change in panic self-efficacy occurring before the reduction of panic severity (criterion 4). Although none of the studies fulfilled all of the four criteria, results provide some support for panic self-efficacy as a mediator of outcome in CBT for PD, generally on par with catastrophic beliefs in the reviewed studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of Olanzapine Combined Therapy for Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy Resistant to Standard Antiemetic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Abe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Olanzapine is proved to be effective for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV. But its efficacy in combination with standard antiemetic therapy is unknown. The purpose of this study is to prove the preventive effect of olanzapine for the prevention of CINV caused by highly emetogenic chemotherapy when used with standard antiemetic therapy. Method. Gynecologic cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy who had grade 2 or 3 nausea in overall phase (0–120 h after chemotherapy despite standard therapy were assigned to this study. From the next cycles to cycles in which patients developed grade 2 or 3 nausea, they received olanzapine with standard therapy. 5 mg oral olanzapine was administered for 7 days from the day before chemotherapy. The effectiveness of preventive administration of olanzapine was evaluated retrospectively. The primary endpoint was nausea control rate (grade 0 or 1 with olanzapine. Results. Fifty patients were evaluable. The nausea control rate with olanzapine was improved from 58% to 98% in acute phase (0–24 h after chemotherapy and 2% to 94% in delayed phase (24–120 h after chemotherapy. In overall phase, the nausea control rate improved from 0% to 92%, and it was statistically significant (P<0.001. Conclusion. Preventive use of olanzapine combined with standard antiemetic therapy showed improvement in control of refractory nausea.

  15. [Therapeutic efficacy of nootropil different doses in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadenko, N N; Suvorinova, S Iu

    2004-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common cause of behavioral and learning problems in childhood. Therapeutic efficiency of nootropil (piracetam) in two different doses has been evaluated in the open control study of 80 children with ADHD, 70 boys and 10 girls, aged 6-11 years, being divided into 3 groups. Two groups received nootropil, as a monotherapy, for a month: 1st group (30 patients)--in the dosage of 70 mg/kg daily and 2nd group (30 patients)--40 mg/kg daily orally. The control group of 20 patients did not receive any treatment. All children were examined twice with one month interval. A procedure of assessment included of structured questionnaire to parents, neurological examination with scored evaluation of subtle signs and psychological testing. Nootropil therapy in ADHD children resulted in the improvement of behavioral characteristics, motor coordination as well as continuous, selective and divided attention. A response rate was 60% in patients received 70 mg/kg of nootropil and 43% for nootropil dosage of 40 mg/kg. The results of the study suggest more considerable positive therapeutic effects of nootropil higher dose on behavioral, motor and attention characteristics in children with ADHD.

  16. Gene therapy takes a cue from HAART: combinatorial antiviral therapeutics reach the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Priya S; Schaffer, David V

    2010-06-16

    For the first time, scientists have tested a combination of three RNA-based gene therapies, delivered via a lentiviral vector, to target HIV in patients. This study not only demonstrates the safety and long-term viability of this approach, but also highlights areas in which focused improvements in gene therapy strategies may provide the most impact in increasingly translating promise in the laboratory to efficacy in the clinic.

  17. Sonoporation Increases Therapeutic Efficacy of Inducible and Constitutive BMP2/7 In Vivo Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Anna T.; Slezak, Paul; Schuetzenberger, Sebastian; Kaipel, Martin; Schwartz, Ernst; Neef, Anne; Nomikou, Nikolitsa; Nau, Thomas; van Griensven, Martijn; McHale, Anthony P.; Redl, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An ideal novel treatment for bone defects should provide regeneration without autologous or allogenous grafting, exogenous cells, growth factors, or biomaterials while ensuring spatial and temporal control as well as safety. Therefore, a novel osteoinductive nonviral in vivo gene therapy approach using sonoporation was investigated in ectopic and orthotopic models. Constitutive or regulated, doxycycline-inducible, bone morphogenetic protein 2 and 7 coexpression plasmids were repeatedly applied for 5 days. Ectopic and orthotopic gene transfer efficacy was monitored by coapplication of a luciferase plasmid and bioluminescence imaging. Orthotopic plasmid DNA distribution was investigated using a novel plasmid-labeling method. Luciferase imaging demonstrated an increased trend (61% vs. 100%) of gene transfer efficacy, and micro-computed tomography evaluation showed significantly enhanced frequency of ectopic bone formation for sonoporation compared with passive gene delivery (46% vs. 100%) dependent on applied ultrasound power. Bone formation by the inducible system (83%) was stringently controlled by doxycycline in vivo, and no ectopic bone formation was observed without induction or with passive gene transfer without sonoporation. Orthotopic evaluation in a rat femur segmental defect model demonstrated an increased trend of gene transfer efficacy using sonoporation. Investigation of DNA distribution demonstrated extensive binding of plasmid DNA to bone tissue. Sonoporated animals displayed a potentially increased union rate (33%) without extensive callus formation or heterotopic ossification. We conclude that sonoporation of BMP2/7 coexpression plasmids is a feasible, minimally invasive method for osteoinduction and that improvement of bone regeneration by sonoporative gene delivery is superior to passive gene delivery. PMID:24164605

  18. Bcl-xL Genetic Modification Enhanced the Therapeutic Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Heart Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Low survival rate of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs severely limited the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapy in the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI. Bcl-xL genetic modification might enhance MSC survival after transplantation. Methods. Adult rat bone marrow MSCs were modified with human Bcl-xL gene (hBcl-xL-MSCs or empty vector (vector-MSCs. MSC apoptosis and paracrine secretions were characterized using flow cytometry, TUNEL, and ELISA in vitro. In vivo, randomized adult rats with MI received myocardial injections of one of the three reagents: hBcl-xL-MSCs, vector-MSCs, or culture medium. Histochemistry, TUNEL, and echocardiography were carried out to evaluate cell engraftment, apoptosis, angiogenesis, scar formation, and cardiac functional recovery. Results. In vitro, cell apoptosis decreased 43%, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, and plate-derived growth factor (PDGF increased 1.5-, 0.7-, and 1.2-fold, respectively, in hBcl-xL-MSCs versus wild type and vector-MSCs. In vivo, cell apoptosis decreased 40% and 26% in hBcl-xL-MSC group versus medium and vector-MSC group, respectively. Similar results were observed in cell engraftment, angiogenesis, scar formation, and cardiac functional recovery. Conclusions. Genetic modification of MSCs with hBcl-xL gene could be an intriguing strategy to improve the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapy in the treatment of heart infarction.

  19. Rational combination therapy with PARP and MEK inhibitors capitalizes on therapeutic liabilities inRASmutant cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chaoyang; Fang, Yong; Yin, Jun; Chen, Jian; Ju, Zhenlin; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Xiaohua; Vellano, Christopher P; Jeong, Kang Jin; Ng, Patrick Kwok-Shing; Eterovic, Agda Karina B; Bhola, Neil H; Lu, Yiling; Westin, Shannon N; Grandis, Jennifer R; Lin, Shiaw-Yih; Scott, Kenneth L; Peng, Guang; Brugge, Joan; Mills, Gordon B

    2017-05-31

    Mutant RAS has remained recalcitrant to targeted therapy efforts. We demonstrate that combined treatment with poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK) inhibitors evokes unanticipated, synergistic cytotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo in multiple RAS mutant tumor models across tumor lineages where RAS mutations are prevalent. The effects of PARP and MEK inhibitor combinations are independent of BRCA1/2 and p53 mutation status, suggesting that the synergistic activity is likely to be generalizable. Synergistic activity of PARP and MEK inhibitor combinations in RAS mutant tumors is associated with (i) induction of BIM-mediated apoptosis, (ii) decrease in expression of components of the homologous recombination DNA repair pathway, (iii) decrease in homologous recombination DNA damage repair capacity, (iv) decrease in DNA damage checkpoint activity, (v) increase in PARP inhibitor-induced DNA damage, (vi) decrease in vascularity that could increase PARP inhibitor efficacy by inducing hypoxia, and (vii) elevated PARP1 protein, which increases trapping activity of PARP inhibitors. Mechanistically, enforced expression of FOXO3a, which is a target of the RAS/MAPK pathway, was sufficient to recapitulate the functional consequences of MEK inhibitors including synergy with PARP inhibitors. Thus, the ability of mutant RAS to suppress FOXO3a and its reversal by MEK inhibitors accounts, at least in part, for the synergy of PARP and MEK inhibitors in RAS mutant tumors. The rational combination of PARP and MEK inhibitors warrants clinical investigation in patients with RAS mutant tumors where there are few effective therapeutic options. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Is Concurrent Training Efficacious Antihypertensive Therapy? A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Lauren M L; Macdonald, Hayley V; Johnson, Blair T; Farinatti, Paulo; Livingston, Jill; Zaleski, Amanda L; Blanchard, Adam; Pescatello, Linda S

    2016-12-01

    : Aerobic exercise training and, to a lesser degree, dynamic resistance training, are recommended to lower blood pressure (BP) among adults with hypertension. Yet the combined influence of these exercise modalities, termed concurrent exercise training (CET), on resting BP is unclear. This study aimed to meta-analyze the literature to determine the efficacy of CET as antihypertensive therapy. Electronic databases were searched for trials that included the following: adults (>19 yr), controlled CET interventions, and BP measured pre- and postintervention. Study quality was assessed with a modified Downs and Black Checklist. Analyses incorporated random-effects assumptions. Sixty-eight trials yielded 76 interventions. Subjects (N = 4110) were middle- to older-age (55.8 ± 14.4 yr), were overweight (28.0 ± 3.6 kg·m), and had prehypertension (systolic BP [SBP]/diastolic BP [DBP] = 134.6 ± 10.9/80.7 ± 7.5 mm Hg). CET was performed at moderate intensity (aerobic = 55% maximal oxygen consumption, resistance = 60% one-repetition maximum), 2.9 ± 0.7 d·wk for 58.3 ± 20.1 min per session for 19.7 ± 17.8 wk. Studies were of moderate quality, satisfying 60.7% ± 9.4% of quality items. Overall, CET moderately reduced SBP (db = -0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.44 to -0.20, -3.2 mm Hg) and DBP (db = -0.35, 95% CI = -0.47 to -0.22, -2.5 mm Hg) versus control (P training as antihypertensive therapy. Because of the moderate quality of this literature, additional randomized controlled CET trials that examine BP as a primary outcome among samples with hypertension are warranted to confirm our promising findings.

  1. Electroconvulsive therapy in catatonic patients: Efficacy and predictors of response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchini, Federica; Medda, Pierpaolo; Mariani, Michela Giorgi; Mauri, Mauro; Toni, Cristina; Perugi, Giulio

    2015-06-22

    Recent evidence favors the view of catatonia as an autonomous syndrome, frequently associated with mood disorders, but also observed in neurological, neurodevelopmental, physical and toxic conditions. From our systematic literature review, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) results effective in all forms of catatonia, even after pharmacotherapy with benzodiazepines has failed. Response rate ranges from 80% to 100% and results superior to those of any other therapy in psychiatry. ECT should be considered first-line treatment in patients with malignant catatonia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, delirious mania or severe catatonic excitement, and in general in all catatonic patients that are refractory or partially responsive to benzodiazepines. Early intervention with ECT is encouraged to avoid undue deterioration of the patient's medical condition. Little is known about the long-term treatment outcomes following administration of ECT for catatonia. The presence of a concomitant chronic neurologic disease or extrapyramidal deficit seems to be related to ECT non-response. On the contrary, the presence of acute, severe and psychotic mood disorder is associated with good response. Severe psychotic features in responders may be related with a prominent GABAergic mediated deficit in orbitofrontal cortex, whereas non-responders may be characterized by a prevalent dopaminergic mediated extrapyramidal deficit. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that ECT is more effective in "top-down" variant of catatonia, in which the psychomotor syndrome may be sustained by a dysregulation of the orbitofrontal cortex, than in "bottom-up" variant, in which an extrapyramidal dysregulation may be prevalent. Future research should focus on ECT response in different subtype of catatonia and on efficacy of maintenance ECT in long-term prevention of recurrent catatonia. Further research on mechanism of action of ECT in catatonia may also contribute to the development of other

  2. Therapeutic efficacy of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and electromyographic biofeedback on Alzheimer's disease patients with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Lin, Xiang; Lin, Xiao-Juan; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Zhi-Kai; Lin, Zhao-Min; Chen, Jian-Hao

    2017-09-01

    To study the therapeutic effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and electromyographic biofeedback (EMG-biofeedback) therapy in improving swallowing function of Alzheimer's disease patients with dysphagia.A series of 103 Alzheimer's disease patients with dysphagia were divided into 2 groups, among which the control group (n = 50) received swallowing function training and the treatment group (n = 53) received neuromuscular electrical stimulation plus EMG-biofeedback therapy. The mini-mental state scale score was performed in all patients along the treatment period. Twelve weeks after the treatment, the swallowing function was assessed by the water swallow test. The nutritional status was evaluated by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) as well as the levels of hemoglobin and serum albumin. The frequency and course of aspiration pneumonia were also recorded.No significant difference on mini-mental state scale score was noted between 2 groups. More improvement of swallowing function, better nutritional status, and less frequency and shorter course of aspiration pneumonia were presented in treatment group when compared with the control group.Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and EMG-biofeedback treatment can improve swallowing function in patients with Alzheimer's disease and significantly reduce the incidence of adverse outcomes. Thus, they should be promoted in clinical practice.

  3. Efficacy of Pharmacotherapy and Cognitive Therapy, Alone and in Combination in Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rahimi; F. Shamsaie; M.K. Zarabian; M. Sedehi

    2008-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Patients with Major depressive are difficult to treat, and the relative efficacy of medications and cognitive therapy in the treatment of depression is still a matter of deabath. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacies of antidepressant medication, cognitive therapy and combination of cognitive therapy and antidepressant medication. Materials & Methods: In an experimental study, 120 depressive patients were randomly selected and divided in three grou...

  4. Plasma microRNAs serve as biomarkers of therapeutic efficacy and disease progression in hypertension-induced heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, Brent A; Semus, Hillary M; Montgomery, Rusty L; Stack, Christianna; Latimer, Paul A; Lewton, Steven M; Lynch, Joshua M; Hullinger, Thomas G; Seto, Anita G; van Rooij, Eva

    AIMS: Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs), besides being potent regulators of gene expression, can additionally serve as circulating biomarkers of disease. The aim of this study is to determine if plasma miRNAs can be used as indicators of disease progression or therapeutic efficacy in

  5. [Therapeutic efficacy of endoscopic variceal ligation to treat gastric varices: a study of 63 consecutive cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xian-jue; Chen, Wei-qing

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) for treating various types of gastric varices (GV) by reviewing patient cases in order to identify the influencing factors of EVL-related recurrence and rebleeding. The medical records of 101 GV cases treated by EVL in our department between January 2008 and October 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The cases were grouped according to GV type: type 1 (GOV1, n = 63), type 2 (GOV2, n = 18), GOV1 coexisting with GOV2 (n = 11), isolated GOV1 (IGV1, n = 9), and GOV2 (IGV2, n = 0). Data from follow-up examinations (range: 1.5 - 48.0 months, average: 14.9 +/- 9.1 months) were extracted for analysis and included early (less than 72 h after EVL) and late (72 h to 6 weeks after EVL) rebleeding and recurrence. In addition, data from computed tomography (CT) or CT angiography (CTA), performed in 32 of the patients, were extracted to determine the influence of supplying veins, gastrorenal or splenorenal shunts, and portal vein and/or splenic vein diameters on GV recurrence. Data analysis was carried out by ANOVA, Chi-square, Fisher's exact or rank-sum tests, as appropriate. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate the time of first recurrent bleeding, and the log-rank test was used to compare between-group differences. GOV2 and IGV1 varices were more severe than the varices of GOV1 (GOV2 and GOV1: u = -2.960; IGV1 and GOV1: u = -2.871; both P less than 0.05). GOV1 had a significantly lower recurrence rate than all other GV types (x2 = 7.054, P less than 0.05). The CT and CTA data indicated that all GV were supplied by left gastric veins, while 83.3% of IGV1 had blood supplementation by left gastric veins and short gastric or posterior gastric veins, and 100% of IGV1 had gastrorenal or splenorenal shunts. Approximately one-half of the total GV cases (56.3%, 18/32) had gastrorenal or splenorenal shunts, and this parameter was correlated with portal vein diameter (t = -2.766, P less than 0.05). The

  6. Extremely long tumor retention, multi-responsive boronate crosslinked micelles with superior therapeutic efficacy for ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenwu; Suby, Nell; Xiao, Kai; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Al Awwad, Nasir; Lam, Kit S; Li, Yuanpei

    2017-10-28

    within the first 24-48h. In in vivo tumor treatment study, PTX loaded BCM showed superior therapeutic efficacy than that of NCM and Taxol. The mice could tolerate 20mg/kg PTX formulated in nano-formulations, which doubled the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of Taxol. The administration of mannitol 24h after BCM-PTX injection further improved the tumor therapeutic effect and elongated the survival time of the mice. The novel boronate-catechol crosslinked nanocarrier platform demonstrated its superior capability in targeted drug delivery, which is not only useful for ovarian cancer treatment but will also be beneficial for the therapy of many other solid tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. MEK inhibitors as a novel therapy for neuroblastoma: Their in vitro effects and predicting their efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tomoko; Higashi, Mayumi; Kimura, Koseki; Wakao, Junko; Fumino, Shigehisa; Iehara, Tomoko; Hosoi, Hajime; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Tajiri, Tatsuro

    2016-12-01

    A recent study reported that relapsed neuroblastomas had frequent RAS-ERK pathway mutations. We herein investigated the effects and pathways of MEK inhibitors, which inhibit the RAS-ERK pathway, as a new molecular-targeted therapy for refractory neuroblastomas. Five neuroblastoma cell lines were treated with trametinib (MEK inhibitor) or CH5126766 (RAF/MEK inhibitor). Growth inhibition was analyzed using a cell viability assay. ERK phosphorylation and the MYCN expression were analyzed by immunoblotting or immunohistochemistry. RAS/RAF mutations were identified by direct sequencing or through the COSMIC database. Both MEK inhibitors showed growth inhibition effects on cells with ERK phosphorylation, but almost no effect on cells without. In immunoblotting analyses, ERK phosphorylation and MYCN expression were suppressed in ERK active cells by these drugs. Furthermore, phosphorylated-ERK immunohistochemistry corresponded to the drug responses. Regarding the relationship between RAS/Raf mutations and ERK phosphorylation, ERK was phosphorylated in one cell line (NLF) without RAS/Raf mutations. MEK inhibitors are a promising molecular-targeted therapeutic option for ERK active neuroblastomas. The efficacy of MEK inhibitors corresponds to ERK phosphorylation, while RAS/RAF mutations are not always detected in drug-sensitive cells. Phosphorylated-ERK immunohistochemistry is thus a useful method to analyze ERK activity and predict the therapeutic effects of MEK inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Efficacy of Cardiac Anti-miR-208a Therapy Is Stress Dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eding, Joep Egbert Coenraad; Demkes, Charlotte J.; Lynch, Joshua M.; Seto, Anita G.; Montgomery, Rusty L.; Semus, Hillary M.; Jackson, Aimee L.; Isabelle, Marc; Chimenti, Stefano; van Rooij, Eva

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of biology and disease. Recent animal efficacy studies validate the therapeutic benefit of miRNA modulation and underscore the therapeutic value of miRNA-targeting oligonucleotides. However, whether disease conditions (stress) influence the pharmacological

  9. Therapeutic Effects of Extinction Learning as a Model of Exposure Therapy in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucich, Elizabeth A; Paredes, Denisse; Morilak, David A

    2016-01-01

    Current treatments for stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are inadequate. Cognitive behavioral psychotherapies, including exposure therapy, are an alternative to pharmacotherapy, but the neurobiological mechanisms are unknown. Preclinical models demonstrating therapeutic effects of behavioral interventions are required to investigate such mechanisms. Exposure therapy bears similarity to extinction learning. Thus, we investigated the therapeutic effects of extinction learning as a behavioral intervention to model exposure therapy in rats, testing its effectiveness in reversing chronic stress-induced deficits in cognitive flexibility and coping behavior that resemble dimensions of depression and PTSD. Rats were fear-conditioned by pairing a tone with footshock, and then exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) that induces deficits in cognitive set-shifting and active coping behavior. They then received an extinction learning session as a therapeutic intervention by repeated exposure to the tone with no shock. Effects on cognitive flexibility and coping behavior were assessed 24 h later on the attentional set-shifting test or shock-probe defensive burying test, respectively. Extinction reversed the CUS-induced deficits in cognitive flexibility and coping behavior, and increased phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of stress-compromised rats, suggesting a role for activity-dependent protein synthesis in the therapeutic effect. Inhibiting protein synthesis by microinjecting anisomycin into mPFC blocked the therapeutic effect of extinction on cognitive flexibility. These results demonstrate the utility of extinction as a model by which to study mechanisms underlying exposure therapy, and suggest these mechanisms involve protein synthesis in the mPFC, the further study of which may identify novel therapeutic targets. PMID:27417516

  10. Immediate and long-term efficacy and safety of photodynamic therapy with Photolon (Fotolon): a seven-year clinical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, Yuri P.; Kaplan, Michael A.; Shliakhtsin, Siarhei V.; Lapzevich, Tatsiana P.; Cerkovsky, Dmitriy A.; Marchanka, Ludmila N.; Fedulov, Alexander S.; Trukhachova, Tatsiana V.

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to summarize data on the long-term efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Photolon in patients with malignant tumors of various types and localizations. The data obtained show that PDT with Photolon is a highly effective therapeutic modality for the treatment of skin tumors, cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, lung cancers, disseminated forms of melanoma, primary and metastatic brain tumors, several ophthalmologic diseases. This paper provides a review of most illustrative studies of the application of PDT with Photolon for the treatment of different oncological and non-oncological diseases performed in leading clinical centers of the Republic of Belarus and Russia.

  11. Efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies in Korea: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon Suk; Park, Chan Hyuk; Park, Jung Ho; Nam, Eunwoo; Lee, Hang Lak

    2017-08-01

    The efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens may depend on the country where the studies were performed because of the difference in antibiotic resistance. We aimed to analyze the efficacy of H. pylori eradication regimens in Korea where clarithromycin resistance rate is high. We searched for all relevant randomized controlled trials published until November 2016 that investigated the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapies in Korea. A network meta-analysis was performed to calculate the direct and indirect estimates of efficacy among the eradication regimens. Forty-three studies were identified through a systematic review, of which 34 studies, published since 2005, were included in the meta-analysis. Among 21 included regimens, quinolone-containing sequential therapy for 14 days (ST-Q-14) showed the highest eradication rate (91.4% [95% confidence interval [CI], 86.9%-94.4%] in the intention-to-treat [ITT] analysis). The eradication rate of the conventional triple therapy for 7 days, standard sequential therapy for 10 days, hybrid therapy for 10-14 days, and concomitant therapy for 10-14 days was 71.1% (95% CI, 68.3%-73.7%), 76.2% (95% CI, 72.8%-79.3%), 79.4% (95% CI, 75.5%-82.8%), and 78.3% (95% CI, 75.3%-80.9%), respectively, in the ITT analysis. In the network meta-analysis, ST-Q-14 showed a better comparative efficacy than the conventional triple therapy, standard sequential therapy, hybrid therapy, and concomitant therapy. In addition, tolerability of ST-Q-14 was comparable to those regimens. In Korea, ST-Q-14 showed the highest efficacy in terms of eradication and a comparable tolerability, compared to the results reported for the conventional triple therapy, standard sequential therapy, hybrid therapy, and concomitant therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Efficacy of Morin as a Potential Therapeutic Phytocomponent: Insights into the Mechanism of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarendranath Choudhury

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Morin (3,5,7,29,49-pentahydroxyflavone is a yellow colour natural bioflavonoid abundantly available in different species of Moraceae family. Besides this, Morin is also harvested from several other sources like tea, coffee, cereals, fruits and red wine. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative potency of Morin is well established in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Among all major sources of Morin, Almond (Prunus dulcis, Fig (Chlorophora tinctoria, and Indian guava (Psidium guajava contains high quantity of it. Easy availability, less side effects and robust functional properties have encouraged the use of these plants in the traditional herbal medicine. In last few decades, the studies on Morin have opened up a whole new era in the therapeutic medicine. Besides anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activity, Morin has also been reported as a potential neuroprotective agent against many neurological diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and cerebral ischemia. According to published reports, the underlying neuroprotective mechanism of Morin is focused mainly on its capacity to inhibit oxidative stress in brain. However, recent data also supports its efficacy in neuroprotection by effectively interacting in the β‒amyloid pathways, inflammatory pathways, and apoptotic pathways. In the present review, we have accumulated all the protective contributions of Morin and intended to drag a mechanistic pathway containing the molecular events leading to the protection against various anomalies.

  13. Diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic impact of computed tomography in the evaluation of clinically suspected otosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudau, Cristina [King' s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom); Salim, Fakhruddin; Jiang, Dan [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Auditory Implantation Centre, London (United Kingdom); Connor, Steve E.J. [Department of Radiology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    To assess the diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic impact of CT in evaluating patients with clinically suspected otosclerosis. CT scans performed over a 5-year period for clinically suspected otosclerosis were retrospectively reviewed. CT diagnoses were correlated with subsequent surgical management. For otosclerosis positive cases, clinically significant extensions of otosclerosis were correlated with audiometry and the diagnosis was correlated with surgical findings. Of 259 CT studies, 46 % of patients were positive, 49 % negative and 5 % equivocal for otosclerosis. A relevant alternative CT diagnosis was evident in 33 % of the negative studies. One targeted surgery was performed for every four CT studies. CT outcome influenced the decision to perform stapedectomy in 41 % CT-positive versus 4 % CT-negative patients. CT-positive ears for otosclerosis could not be predicted from baseline clinical or audiometric criteria. Those with endosteal extension demonstrated lower bone conduction thresholds presurgically. The positive predictive value of CT diagnosis of otosclerosis was 100 %. CT demonstrated a high rate of clinically relevant diagnoses in both CT-positive and -negative for otosclerosis patients, and this frequently influenced surgical management. CT also added value by demonstrating relevant extensions of the otosclerotic foci, some of which were predictive of audiometric parameters. (orig.)

  14. Diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic impact of computed tomography in the evaluation of clinically suspected otosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudau, Cristina; Salim, Fakhruddin; Jiang, Dan; Connor, Steve E.J.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic impact of CT in evaluating patients with clinically suspected otosclerosis. CT scans performed over a 5-year period for clinically suspected otosclerosis were retrospectively reviewed. CT diagnoses were correlated with subsequent surgical management. For otosclerosis positive cases, clinically significant extensions of otosclerosis were correlated with audiometry and the diagnosis was correlated with surgical findings. Of 259 CT studies, 46 % of patients were positive, 49 % negative and 5 % equivocal for otosclerosis. A relevant alternative CT diagnosis was evident in 33 % of the negative studies. One targeted surgery was performed for every four CT studies. CT outcome influenced the decision to perform stapedectomy in 41 % CT-positive versus 4 % CT-negative patients. CT-positive ears for otosclerosis could not be predicted from baseline clinical or audiometric criteria. Those with endosteal extension demonstrated lower bone conduction thresholds presurgically. The positive predictive value of CT diagnosis of otosclerosis was 100 %. CT demonstrated a high rate of clinically relevant diagnoses in both CT-positive and -negative for otosclerosis patients, and this frequently influenced surgical management. CT also added value by demonstrating relevant extensions of the otosclerotic foci, some of which were predictive of audiometric parameters. (orig.)

  15. Development and Evaluation of Mouth Dissolving Films of Amlodipine Besylate for Enhanced Therapeutic Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Maheswari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken with an objective of formulating mouth dissolving films (MDFs of Amlodipine Besylate (AMLO to enhance convenience and compliance of the elderly and pediatric patients for better therapeutic efficacy. Film formers like hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC and methyl cellulose (MC along with film modifiers like poly vinyl pyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30, and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS as solubilizing agents were evaluated. The prepared MDFs were evaluated for in vitro dissolution characteristics, in vitro disintegration time, and their physicomechanical properties. All the prepared MDFs showed good mechanical properties like tensile strength, folding endurance, and % elongation. MDFs were evaluated by means of FTIR, SEM, and X-RD studies. MDFs with 7.5% (w/w of HPMC E3 gave better dissolution properties when compared to HPMC E5, HPMC E15, and MC. MDFs with PVP K30 and SLS gave superior dissolution properties when compared to MDFs without PVP K30 and SLS. The dissolution properties of MDFs with PVP K30 were superior when compared to MDFs with SLS. In the case of F3 containing 7.5% of HPMC E3 and 0.04% of PVP K30, complete and faster release was observed within 60 sec when compared to other formulations. Release kinetics data reveals diffusion is the release mechanism.

  16. Manual therapy and therapeutic exercise in patient with symptomatic cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; Carneiro, Kysia Karine Almeida; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    2013-10-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is caused by narrowing of the cervical spinal canal, although surgical decompression is an obvious indication for spinal cord stenosis, there are not enough data to determine that surgery is the most indicated intervention for milder forms. The purpose of the present case report was to describe the outcomes results of the physical therapy treatment with emphasis on manual therapy and therapeutic exercise for a patient with CSM. A 58-year-old male patient attended the physical therapy clinic due to pain and paresthesia in the upper and lower limbs. The magnetic resonance imaging was compatible with spondylotic myelopathy. Following physical therapy treatment, the patient exhibited an improvement in functional capacity (triangle step test and timed 10-m walk), pain, paresthesia, mJOA scale and Neck Disability Index. Based on the lack of rapid evolution of neurological impairment, physical therapy treatment was indicated, which achieved satisfactory results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Long-Term Imatinib Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speich, Rudolf; Ulrich, Silvia; Domenighetti, Guido; Huber, Lars C; Fischler, Manuel; Treder, Ursula; Breitenstein, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Antiproliferative strategies have emerged as a potential therapeutic option for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of imatinib. This is an observational study of 15 patients with idiopathic PAH (n = 13) or PAH associated with connective tissue disease (n = 2) treated off-label with imatinib 400 mg daily. Pulmonary hypertension-specific therapy was established in all patients (triple therapy in 10, dual therapy in 3, and monotherapy in 2 patients). After 6 months, improvement in hemodynamics (p < 0.01), functional class (p = 0.035), and quality of life (p = 0.005) was observed. After a median follow-up of 37 months, there was a sustained improvement in functional class (p = 0.032), quality of life (p = 0.019), and echocardiographic parameters of right ventricular function (p < 0.05). Three patients (20%) presented with completely normal echocardiography, absent tricuspid regurgitation, and normal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels, indicative of 'hemodynamic remission'. Of note, however, only 1 case was assessed by invasive hemodynamics. The overall 1- and 3-year survival was 100 and 90%, respectively. Two patients experienced a subdural hematoma (SDH), which in both cases resolved without sequelae. After careful consultation of the potential risks and benefits, all patients as well as a safety cohort of 9 subsequent cases decided to continue the imatinib therapy. After adjusting the target international normalized ratio (INR) to around 2.0, no further cases of SDH occurred during 50 patient-years. Long-term treatment with imatinib may improve the functional class and quality of life. Single cases might even attain hemodynamic remission. The occurrence of 5% SDH per patient-years is concerning. However, adjusting the INR to around 2.0 might obviate this complication. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The efficacy of mirror therapy combined with conventional stroke rehabilitation program on motor and functional recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Kuzgun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A variety of methods is used in the treatment of upper extremity functional impairment after stroke.In recent years, a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of stroke rehabilitation is the mirror therapy.The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of mirror therapy,which is applied through motor imagination training, combined with conventional stroke rehabilitation program on upper extremity motor and functional recovery in patients with subacute stroke. MATERIAL and METHODS: This is a randomized,prospective,controlled single-blind trial.The study included 20 patients who were diagnosed with stroke.Patients were randomly divided into two groups:first group received conventional rehabilitation program and the second group received conventional rehabilitation program plus mirror therapy on nonparetic upper extremity consisting of wrist extension daily 4 times for 15minutes per session. Both groups received the conventional rehabilitation program for 4 weeks, 5 days a week and daily 1-2h. All patients were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the treatment(week 4.The evaluations were performed by using Brunnstrom Staging, Fugl Meyer Motor Function Scale(FM,Barthel Index(BI and goniometric measurement of wrist extension. RESULTS: The Brunnstrom stage(p<0.01, total score on FM and BI scores (p<0.01 were improved at week 4 compared to the baseline, whereas wrist subscore on FM and the goniometric measurements of the wrist and wrist extension were significantly improved only in group II.The two treatment groups were not statistically different in terms of posttreatment evaluation parameters. CONCLUSION: In our study,the mirror therapy combined with conventional rehabilitation program was not superior to conventional rehabilitation program alone in terms of upper extremity motor and functional recovery.

  19. The Therapeutic Relationship in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Pharmacotherapy for Anxious Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Colleen M.; Caporino, Nicole E.; Settipani, Cara A.; Read, Kendra L.; Compton, Scott N.; March, John; Sherrill, Joel; Piacentini, John; McCracken, James; Walkup, John; Ginsburg, Golda; Albano, Anne Marie; Rynn, Moira; Birmaher, Boris; Sakolsky, Dara; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; Kendall, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine the therapeutic relationship with cognitive-behavioral therapists and with pharmacotherapists for youth from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS; Walkup et al., 2008). The therapeutic relationship was examined in relation to treatment outcomes. Method Participants were 488 youth (ages 7-17; 50% male) randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; Coping cat), pharmacotherapy (SRT; sertraline), their combination, or pill placebo. Participants met DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder. The therapeutic relationship was assessed by youth-report at weeks 6 and 12 of treatment using the Child's Perception of Therapeutic Relationship scale. Outcome measures (Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale; Clinical Global Impressions Scales) were completed by Independent Evaluators blind to condition. Results For youth who received CBT only, a stronger therapeutic relationship predicted positive treatment outcome. In contrast, the therapeutic relationship did not predict outcome for youth receiving sertraline, combined treatment, or placebo. Conclusions A therapeutic relationship may be important for anxious youth who receive CBT alone. PMID:23750468

  20. New therapeutic approaches in the treatment of anogenital lichen sclerosus: does photodynamic therapy represent a novel option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuolo, Anna A; Schipani, Caterina; Cannizzaro, Maria V; Messinese, Serena; Chimenti, Sergio; Piccione, Emilio; Saraceno, Rosita

    2017-04-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) is an inflammatory, mucocutaneous disorder that affects male and especially female with a debilitating impact on the quality of life. Common localization is the anogenital area. If not treated LSA can leave scars, functional impairment and can evolve in squamous cell carcinoma. The first line of treatment is represented by topical, ultra-potent corticosteroids, but often patients are unresponsive; moreover this therapy is frequently associated to relapses of the disease after discontinuation. In this prospective observational study, the efficacy of three different treatments - topical calcineurin inhibitors, avocado and soya beans extracts, and methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) - was evaluated, and an effort has been made to define a therapeutic algorithm according to the severity of the disease. Of the 150 patients who were referred to the outpatient clinic for a dermatological and gynecological visit, 33 met the inclusion criteria. Sixteen (88%) patients showed an improvement of the lesion and a reduction of the itch; 3 (16.7%) patients with sever itch and fissurated lesions were evaluated for the MAL-PDT therapy. A total of 9 patients, after accurate examination of the lesions, were treated with MAL-PDT. The totality of the patients experienced a resolution of the lesions. In the early stages the use of ASE can represent a valid alternative that is well tolerated by the patients reducing the itching, dryness and improving the mucosal texture. The use of MAL-PDT represents a valid treatment in the moderate-severe stages of LSA.

  1. Therapeutic Self-Disclosure within DBT, Schema Therapy, and CBASP: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Köhler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, various therapeutic interventions have been established that extended behavior and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT by so-called “third-wave” strategies. In order to address specific therapeutic challenges in certain subgroups of patients who do not sufficiently respond to “classical CBT,” some of these third-wave strategies put particular emphasis on therapist self-disclosure. This article highlights therapeutic self-disclosure as a means to address interpersonal problems by comparing three third-wave strategies: (a acceptance and change strategies as used in Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT, (b the concept of “limited reparenting” as used in Schema Therapy (ST, and (c disciplined personal involvement as used in the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP. On the basis of a critical discussion on opportunities and challenges within these three concepts, self-disclosure is proposed to be a promising therapeutic tool that is worth to be investigated in more depth in future studies.

  2. Pityriasis versicolor during anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody therapy: therapeutic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Riccardo; Rech, Giulia; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Antonucci, Angela; Ismaili, Alma; Patrizi, Annalisa; Bardazzi, Federico

    2012-09-01

    Anecdotal reports have shown that tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibition may cause unchecked superficial infection with the microorganisms responsible for pityriasis versicolor (PV). We observed several cases of PV, which is frequently resistant to topical therapies, in psoriatic patients undergoing anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody therapy. To evaluate the incidence and the therapeutic management of PV in this group of individuals, between 1 January and 27 December 2010, we examined 153 psoriatic patients for the hypopigmented/hyperpigmented macular and scaling lesions associated with PV. All patients positive for PV were given topical therapy with miconazole nitrate cream twice daily for 28 days, after which they were re-evaluated. In patients non-responsive to topical therapy, we started systemic therapy with fluconazole, 300 mg week(-1) for 3 weeks. We diagnosed seven cases of PV. At the end of topical treatment, complete healing of lesions was observed in only one patient. In the other six patients, systemic treatment led to complete resolution of the infection. Although the onset of PV during anti-TNF-α therapy is seldom reported, it is not likely to be rare, but rather under-reported because of its limited pathological significance. In our opinion, the therapeutic management of this condition deserves greater consideration, as the use of topical treatments alone is largely ineffective compared with systemic treatment. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Ultrasound-mediated oncolytic virus delivery and uptake for increased therapeutic efficacy: state of art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nande R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rounak Nande,1 Candace M Howard,2 Pier Paolo Claudio,3,4 1Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Marshall University School of Medicine, Huntington, WV, 2Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, 3Department of BioMolecular Sciences and National Center for Natural Products Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, MS, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA Abstract: The field of ultrasound (US has changed significantly from medical imaging and diagnosis to treatment strategies. US contrast agents or microbubbles (MB are currently being used as potential carriers for chemodrugs, small molecules, nucleic acids, small interfering ribonucleic acid, proteins, adenoviruses, and oncolytic viruses. Oncolytic viruses can selectively replicate within and destroy a cancer cell, thus making them a powerful therapeutic in treating late-stage or metastatic cancer. These viruses have been shown to have robust activity in clinical trials when injected directly into tumor nodules. However limitations in oncolytic virus’ effectiveness and its delivery approach have warranted exploration of ultrasound-mediated delivery. Gene therapy bearing adenoviruses or oncolytic viruses can be coupled with MBs and injected intravenously. Following application of US energy to the target region, the MBs cavitate, and the resulting shock wave enhances drug, gene, or adenovirus uptake. Though the underlying mechanism is yet to be fully understood, there is evidence to suggest that mechanical pore formation of cellular membranes allows for the temporary uptake of drugs. This delivery method circumvents the limitations due to stimulation of the immune system that prevented intravenous administration of viruses. This review provides insight into this intriguing new frontier on the delivery of oncolytic viruses to tumor sites.Keywords: microbubbles, ultrasound

  4. Therapeutic Change in Group Therapy For Interpersonal Trauma: A Relational Framework for Research and Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouliara, Zoë; Karatzias, Thanos; Gullone, Angela; Ferguson, Sandra; Cosgrove, Katie; Burke Draucker, Claire

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of therapeutic change processes in group therapy for complex interpersonal trauma has been limited. The present study aimed at addressing this gap by developing a framework of therapeutic change in this field from a survivor and therapist perspective. This is a qualitative study, which utilized semistructured individual interviews. Transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) to identify recurrent themes. A final sample of n = 16 patients and n = 5 facilitators completed the interview. Main change processes identified by survivors were as follows: self versus others, trust versus threat, confrontation versus avoidance, and "patching up" versus true healing. Therapeutic processes identified by therapist facilitators included managing group dynamics, unpredictability and uncertainty, and process versus content. The proposed framework explains therapeutic change in group therapy in relational terms, that is, therapeutic dissonance, the dynamic interaction of self and experience as well as building empathic trusting relations. The importance of managing dissonance to aid personally meaningful recovery was highlighted. These findings have implications for the usefulness of relational and person-centered approaches to clinical practice in the area of interpersonal and complex trauma, especially in the early identification, prevention, and management of dropouts.

  5. Dolutegravir: clinical efficacy and role in HIV therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantauzzi, Alessandra; Mezzaroma, Ivano

    2014-07-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) integrase enzyme has recently emerged as a primary alternative target to block viral replication, and integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are now considered an alternative 'third agent' class of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Dolutegravir is the first next-generation INSTI showing some novel and intriguing characteristics: it has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with a prolonged intracellular halflife, rendering feasible a once daily dosing without the need for pharmacokinetic boosting. Secondly, it is largely metabolized via uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase-1A1 with a minor component of cytochrome P450 isoforms, thus allowing a low grade of drug-drug interactions, so that its metabolic profile consents co-administration with the majority of the other ARV drugs without dose adjustments. Lastly, but no less important, virological studies have clearly demonstrated that dolutegravir has a significant activity against HIV-1 isolates showing raltegravir and/or elvitegravir associated resistance mutations. The attributes of once daily administration and the potential to treat INSTI-resistant viruses make dolutegravir an interesting and promising new agent in the treatment of both naïve and experienced HIV-1 subjects. In this review, the main concerns on dolutegravir efficacy are focused through the analysis of the currently available data from clinical studies in naïve and experienced patients, evaluating its possible place within the anti-HIV-1 drug armamentarium. The development of newer once daily, single tablet coformulations improved drug adherence and maximized the success of ARV therapy. Pharmacokinetic studies and dose-ranging trials suggested that dolutegravir is a good candidate for a single tablet regimen in one or more new coformulated pills that will be available in the near future.

  6. The Efficacy of Acute Electroconvulsive Therapy in Atypical Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Mustafa M.; McClintock, Shawn M.; Rush, A. John; Knapp, Rebecca G.; Fink, Max; Rummans, Teresa A.; Rasmussen, Keith; Claassen, Cynthia; Petrides, Georgios; Biggs, Melanie M.; Mueller, Martina; Sampson, Shirlene; Bailine, Samuel H.; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Kellner, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the characteristics and outcomes of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), with or without atypical features, who were treated with acute bilateral electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Method Analyses were conducted with 489 patients who met DSM-IV criteria for MDD. Subjects were identified as typical or atypical on the basis of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV obtained at baseline prior to ECT. Depression symptom severity was measured by the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D24) and the 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology–Self-Report (IDS-SR30). Remission was defined as at least a 60% decrease from baseline in HAM-D24 score and a total score of 10 or below on the last 2 consecutive HAM-D24 ratings. The randomized controlled trial was performed from 1997 to 2004. Results The typical (N = 453) and atypical (N = 36) groups differed in several sociodemographic and clinical variables including gender (p = .0071), age (p = .0005), treatment resistance (p = .0014), and age at first illness onset (p < .0001) and onset of current episode (p = .0008). Following an acute course of bilateral ECT, a considerable portion of both the typical (67.1%) and the atypical (80.6%) groups reached remission. The atypical group was 2.6 (95% CI = 1.1 to 6.2) times more likely to remit than the typical group after adjustment for age, psychosis, gender, clinical site, and depression severity based on the HAM-D24. Conclusion Acute ECT is an efficacious treatment for depressed patients with typical or atypical symptom features. PMID:18278988

  7. Pinocembrin ex vivo preconditioning improves the therapeutic efficacy of endothelial progenitor cells in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A; Rizk, Sherine M; El-Maraghy, Shohda A

    2017-08-15

    Pulmonary hypertension is still not curable and the available current therapies can only alleviate symptoms without hindering the progression of disease. The present study was directed to investigate the possible modulatory effect of pinocembrin on endothelial progenitor cells transplanted in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (60mg/kg). Endothelial progenitor cells were in vitro preconditioned with pinocembrin (25mg/L) for 30min before being i.v. injected into rats 2weeks after monocrotaline administration. Four weeks after monocrotaline administration, blood pressure, electrocardiography and right ventricular systolic pressure were recorded. Rats were sacrificed and serum was separated for determination of endothelin-1 and asymmetric dimethylarginine levels. Right ventricles and lungs were isolated for estimation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta contents as well as caspase-3 activity. Moreover, protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in addition to myocardial connexin-43 was assessed. Finally, histological analysis of pulmonary arteries, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and right ventricular hypertrophy was performed and cryosections were done for estimation of cell homing. Preconditioning with pinocembrin provided a significant improvement in endothelial progenitor cells' effect towards reducing monocrotaline-induced elevation of inflammatory, fibrogenic and apoptotic markers. Furthermore, preconditioned cells induced a significant amelioration of endothelial markers and cell homing and prevented monocrotaline-induced changes in right ventricular function and histological analysis compared with native cells alone. In conclusion, pinocembrin significantly improves the therapeutic efficacy of endothelial progenitor cells in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats

  8. Breast Cancer Gene Therapy: Development of Novel Non-Invasive Magnetic Resonance Assay to Optimize Efficacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mason, Ralph P

    2005-01-01

    Gene therapy holds great promise for treatment of breast cancer. In particular; clinical trials are underway to apply therapeutic genes related to pro-drug activation or to modulate the activity of oncogenes by blocking promoter sites...

  9. Breast Cancer Gene Therapy: Development of Novel Non-Invasive Magnetic Resonance Assay to Optimize Efficacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mason, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    Gene therapy holds great promise for treatment of breast cancer. In particular, clinical trials are underway to apply therapeutic genes related to pro-drug activation or to modulate the activity of oncogenes by blocking promoter sites...

  10. Breast Cancer Gene Therapy: Development of Novel Non-Invasive Magnetic Resonance Assay to Optimize Efficacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mason, Ralph P

    2007-01-01

    Gene therapy holds great promise for treatment of breast cancer. In particular clinical trials are underway to apply therapeutic genes related to pro-drug activation or to modulate the activity of oncogenes by blocking promoter sites...

  11. Breast Cancer Gene Therapy: Development of Novel Non-Invasive Magnetic Resonance Assay to Optimize Efficacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mason, Ralph P

    2006-01-01

    Gene therapy holds great promise for treatment of breast cancer. In particular clinical trials are underway to apply therapeutic genes related to pro-drug activation or to modulate the activity of oncogenes by blocking promoter sites...

  12. A randomized controlled trial on therapeutic efficacy and safety of No. 1 Decoction for common cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-rong HUO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To assess therapeutic efficacy and safety of No. 1 Decoction for common cold in patients. Methods  A randomized controlled trial was conducted to study 225 male military officers and soldiers who were suffering from common cold, while 6 of them who showed positive results in the colloidal gold immunochromatography assay (GICA for detecting Flu A/ B or LP were excluded. The remaining 219 patients were randomly allocated either to receive No. 1 Decoction (study group, n=111 or Ganmao Qingre Keli (control group, n=108 for 3 days. Grading quantization form for symptoms of common cold were filled for all patients. Clinical response rate, significant response rate and complete cure rate were analyzed. Adverse events were also observed and recorded. Results  In this trial, 2 patients in test group and 1 in study group were lost in follow-up, 13 cases with incomplete data were excluded (5 in study group, 8 in control group. 219 patients were included in FAS set and SS set, and data of 203 cases were observed in the PP set. In FAS set, the study group had a higher clinical recovery rate and effective rate than the control group (14.41% vs12.96%, P=0.755; 72.97% vs64.81%, P=0.192, and had a lower significant effective rate than control group (36.94% vs43.52%, P=0.321. The 95% confidence interval for the difference between the effective rates of study group and control group was (–4.06%-20.38%, Δ=–10%, suggesting No.1 Decoction might be as effective as Ganmao Qingre Keli. The results of PP set were similar to that of FAS set. Conclusion  No. 1 Decoction is a safe and effective drug for common cold.

  13. Efficacy and Safety of the Doxazosin Gastrointestinal Therapeutic System for the Treatment of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Huan Sun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to obtain information on the efficacy and safety of the controlled release formulation of the doxazosin Gastrointestinal Therapeutic System (GITS in Taiwanese subjects with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Studies of doxazosin in Asian populations for this indication have lacked data particularly from Taiwan. This was an 8-week, post-marketing, open-label, non-comparative study. Eighty male subjects (mean age=64 years with BPH received doxazosin GITS 4 mg once daily. At week 4, subjects who achieved an increase in maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax of >3 mL/s and a >30% reduction in the total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS continued on doxazosin GITS 4 mg for the remaining 4 weeks; all other subjects were up-titrated to 8mg once daily. Change from baseline at weeks 4 and 8 (primary endpoint in IPSS and Qmax was evaluated using two-sided paired t tests for the intent-to-treat population. Safety was assessed throughout the study. A total of 53 (66.3% subjects completed the study. Baseline Qmax and IPSS were 10.7+3.4 mL/s and 20.6+5.4, respectively. At week 8, a significant increase from baseline in Qmax of 3.3+4.6 mL/s (95% confidence interval = 2.2-4.4, p< 0.001 and a significant decrease in total IPSS of −8.9 + 7.0 (95% confidence interval=−10.5 to −7.3, p< 0.001 was observed. The most common treatment-related adverse event was dizziness. Doxazosin GITS 4 mg per day (with an 8-mg titration step effectively improved symptoms of BPH. The results from this study provide further information for clinicians on the use of doxazosin GITS for the treatment of BPH, particularly in Taiwanese patients.

  14. Neuroprotective efficacy and therapeutic window of curcuma oil: in rat embolic stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohare, Preeti; Garg, Puja; Sharma, Uma; Jagannathan, N R; Ray, Madhur

    2008-09-30

    Among the naturally occurring compounds, turmeric from the dried rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa has long been used extensively as a condiment and a household remedy all over Southeast Asia. Turmeric contains essential oil, yellow pigments (curcuminoids), starch and oleoresin. The present study was designed for investigating the neuroprotective efficacy and the time window for effective therapeutic use of Curcuma oil (C. oil). In the present study, the effect of post ischemic treatment of C.oil after ischemia induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the rat was observed. C.oil (500 mg/kg body wt) was given 4 hrs post ischemia. The significant effect on lesion size as visualized by using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and neuroscore was still evident when treatment was started 4 hours after insult. Animals were assessed for behavioral deficit scores after 5 and 24 hours of ischemia. Subsequently, the rats were sacrificed for evaluation of infarct and edema volumes and other parameters. C.oil ameliorated the ischemia induced neurological functional deficits and the infarct and edema volumes measured after 5 and 24 hrs of ischemia. After 24 hrs, immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of iNOS, cytochrome c and Bax/Bcl-2 were altered after the insult, and antagonized by treatment with C.oil. C.oil significantly reduced nitrosative stress, tended to correct the decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and also affected caspase-3 activation finally apoptosis. Here we demonstrated that iNOS-derived NO produced during ischemic injury was crucial for the up-regulation of ischemic injury targets. C.oil down-regulates these targets this coincided with an increased survival rate of neurons.

  15. Neuroprotective efficacy and therapeutic window of curcuma oil: in rat embolic stroke model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagannathan NR

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the naturally occurring compounds, turmeric from the dried rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa has long been used extensively as a condiment and a household remedy all over Southeast Asia. Turmeric contains essential oil, yellow pigments (curcuminoids, starch and oleoresin. The present study was designed for investigating the neuroprotective efficacy and the time window for effective therapeutic use of Curcuma oil (C. oil. Method In the present study, the effect of post ischemic treatment of C.oil after ischemia induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the rat was observed. C.oil (500 mg/kg body wt was given 4 hrs post ischemia. The significant effect on lesion size as visualized by using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and neuroscore was still evident when treatment was started 4 hours after insult. Animals were assessed for behavioral deficit scores after 5 and 24 hours of ischemia. Subsequently, the rats were sacrificed for evaluation of infarct and edema volumes and other parameters. Results C.oil ameliorated the ischemia induced neurological functional deficits and the infarct and edema volumes measured after 5 and 24 hrs of ischemia. After 24 hrs, immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of iNOS, cytochrome c and Bax/Bcl-2 were altered after the insult, and antagonized by treatment with C.oil. C.oil significantly reduced nitrosative stress, tended to correct the decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and also affected caspase-3 activation finally apoptosis. Conclusion Here we demonstrated that iNOS-derived NO produced during ischemic injury was crucial for the up-regulation of ischemic injury targets. C.oil down-regulates these targets this coincided with an increased survival rate of neurons.

  16. An experimental Toxoplasma gondii dose response challenge model to study therapeutic or vaccine efficacy in cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B W J Cornelissen

    Full Text Available High numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment are a risk factor to humans. The environmental contamination might be reduced by vaccinating the definitive host, cats. An experimental challenge model is necessary to quantitatively assess the efficacy of a vaccine or drug treatment. Previous studies have indicated that bradyzoites are highly infectious for cats. To infect cats, tissue cysts were isolated from the brains of mice infected with oocysts of T. gondii M4 strain, and bradyzoites were released by pepsin digestion. Free bradyzoites were counted and graded doses (1000, 100, 50, 10, and 250 intact tissue cysts were inoculated orally into three cats each. Oocysts shed by these five groups of cats were collected from faeces by flotation techniques, counted microscopically and estimated by real time PCR. Additionally, the number of T. gondii in heart, tongue and brains were estimated, and serology for anti T. gondii antibodies was performed. A Beta-Poisson dose-response model was used to estimate the infectivity of single bradyzoites and linear regression was used to determine the relation between inoculated dose and numbers of oocyst shed. We found that real time PCR was more sensitive than microscopic detection of oocysts, and oocysts were detected by PCR in faeces of cats fed 10 bradyzoites but by microscopic examination. Real time PCR may only detect fragments of T. gondii DNA without the presence of oocysts in low doses. Prevalence of tissue cysts of T. gondii in tongue, heart and brains, and anti T. gondii antibody concentrations were all found to depend on the inoculated bradyzoite dose. The combination of the experimental challenge model and the dose response analysis provides a suitable reference for quantifying the potential reduction in human health risk due to a treatment of domestic cats by vaccination or by therapeutic drug application.

  17. Neuroprotective efficacy and therapeutic window of curcuma oil: in rat embolic stroke model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohare, Preeti; Garg, Puja; sharma, Uma; Jagannathan, NR; Ray, Madhur

    2008-01-01

    Background Among the naturally occurring compounds, turmeric from the dried rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa has long been used extensively as a condiment and a household remedy all over Southeast Asia. Turmeric contains essential oil, yellow pigments (curcuminoids), starch and oleoresin. The present study was designed for investigating the neuroprotective efficacy and the time window for effective therapeutic use of Curcuma oil (C. oil). Method In the present study, the effect of post ischemic treatment of C.oil after ischemia induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the rat was observed. C.oil (500 mg/kg body wt) was given 4 hrs post ischemia. The significant effect on lesion size as visualized by using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and neuroscore was still evident when treatment was started 4 hours after insult. Animals were assessed for behavioral deficit scores after 5 and 24 hours of ischemia. Subsequently, the rats were sacrificed for evaluation of infarct and edema volumes and other parameters. Results C.oil ameliorated the ischemia induced neurological functional deficits and the infarct and edema volumes measured after 5 and 24 hrs of ischemia. After 24 hrs, immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of iNOS, cytochrome c and Bax/Bcl-2 were altered after the insult, and antagonized by treatment with C.oil. C.oil significantly reduced nitrosative stress, tended to correct the decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and also affected caspase-3 activation finally apoptosis. Conclusion Here we demonstrated that iNOS-derived NO produced during ischemic injury was crucial for the up-regulation of ischemic injury targets. C.oil down-regulates these targets this coincided with an increased survival rate of neurons. PMID:18826584

  18. Therapeutic modality: rehabilitation of the injured athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, John; Nolan, Michael F

    2004-04-01

    Traditional therapeutic modalities include cryotherapy, sonotherapy, pulsed electrical stimulation, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, high-volt pulsed current, and iotopheresis. Alternative modalities include acupuncture, magnetic field therapy, biofeedback,and massage. All therapeutic modalities should be considered adjuncts to progressive functional exercise. Controlled studies rarely reach consensus regarding the efficacy of therapeutic modalities,so their use should be individualized to the patient.

  19. Systematic reviews of wound care management: (5) beds; (6) compression; (7) laser therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, electrotherapy and electromagnetic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullum, N; Nelson, E A; Flemming, K; Sheldon, T

    2001-01-01

    Chronic wounds such as leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers and pressure sores are common in both acute and community healthcare settings. The prevention and treatment of these wounds involves many strategies: pressure-relieving beds, mattresses and cushions are universally used as measures for the prevention and treatment of pressure sores; compression therapy in a variety of forms is widely used for venous leg ulcer prevention and treatment; and a whole range of therapies involving laser, ultrasound and electricity is also applied to chronic wounds. This report covers the final three reviews from a series of seven. To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost- effectiveness of: (1) pressure-relieving beds, mattresses and cushions for pressure sore prevention and treatment; (2) compression therapy for the prevention and treatment of leg ulcers; (3) low-level laser therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, electrotherapy and electromagnetic therapy for the treatment of chronic wounds. METHODS - DATA SOURCES: Nineteen electronic databases, including MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL), were searched. Relevant journals, conference proceedings and bibliographies of retrieved papers were handsearched. An expert panel was also consulted. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which evaluated these interventions were eligible for inclusion in this review if they used objective measures of outcome such as wound incidence or healing rates. RESULTS - BEDS, MATTRESSES AND CUSHIONS FOR PRESSURE SORE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT: A total of 45 RCTs were identified, of which 40 compared different mattresses, mattress overlays and beds. Only two trials evaluated cushions, one evaluated the use of sheepskins, and two looked at turning beds/kinetic therapy. RESULTS - COMPRESSION FOR LEG ULCERS: A total of 24 trials reporting 26 comparisons were included (two of prevention and 24 of treatment strategies). RESULTS - LOW-LEVEL LASER THERAPY, THERAPEUTIC

  20. Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy may improve the therapeutic ratio of radiation therapy after pneumonectomy for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trouette, R.; Causse, N.; Elkhadri, M.; Caudry, M.; Maire, J.P.; Houlard, J.P.; Racaldini, L.; Demeaux, H.

    1995-12-01

    Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy would allow to decrease the normal tissue dose while maintaining the same target dose as standard treatment. To evaluate the feasibility of normal tissue dose reduction for ten patients with pneumonectomy for lung cancer, we determined the dose distribution to the normal tissue with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3-DCRT) and conventional treatment planning (CTP). Dose-volume histograms for target and normal tissue (lung, heart) were used for comparison of the different treatment planning. The mean percentages of lung and heart volumes which received 40 Gy with 3-DCRT were respectively 63% and 37% of the mean percentage of lung and volumes which received the same dose with CTP. These preliminary results suggest that conformal therapy may improve the therapeutic ratio by reducing risk to normal tissue.

  1. Male emotional intimacy: how therapeutic men's groups can enhance couples therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Men's difficulty with emotional intimacy is a problem that therapists regularly encounter in working with heterosexual couples in therapy. The first part of this article describes historical and cultural factors that contribute to this dilemma in men's marriages and same-sex friendships. Therapeutic men's groups can provide a corrective experience for men, helping them to develop emotional intimacy skills while augmenting their work in couples therapy. A model for such groups is presented, including guidelines for referral, screening, and collaboration with other therapists. Our therapeutic approach encourages relationship-based learning through direct emotional expression and supportive feedback. We emphasize the development of friendship skills, core attributes of friendship (connection, communication, commitment, and cooperation) that contribute to emotional intimacy in men's relationships. Case examples are included to illustrate how this model works in clinical practice, as well as specific suggestions for further study that could lead to a more evidence-based practice.

  2. Therapeutic Vaccines for Chronic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autran, Brigitte; Carcelain, Guislaine; Combadiere, Béhazine; Debre, Patrice

    2004-07-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to prevent severe complications of a chronic infection by reinforcing host defenses when some immune control, albeit insufficient, can already be demonstrated and when a conventional antimicrobial therapy either is not available or has limited efficacy. We focus on the rationale and challenges behind this still controversial strategy and provide examples from three major chronic infectious diseases-human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and human papillomavirus-for which the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines is currently being evaluated.

  3. Optimizing therapeutic efficacy of chemopreventive agents: A critical review of delivery strategies in oral cancer chemoprevention clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Holpuch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its characterized progression from recognized premalignant oral epithelial changes (i.e., oral epithelial dysplasia to invasive cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma represents an optimal disease for chemopreventive intervention prior to malignant transformation. The primary goal of oral cancer chemoprevention is to reverse, suppress, or inhibit the progression of premalignant lesions to cancer. Over the last several decades, numerous oral cancer chemoprevention clinical trials have assessed the therapeutic efficacy of diverse chemopreventive agents. The standard of care for more advanced oral dysplastic lesions entails surgical excision and close clinical follow-up due to the potential (~33% for local recurrence at a similar or more advanced histological stage. The purpose of this review was to identify prominent oral cancer chemoprevention clinical trials, assess their overall therapeutic efficacy, and delineate effects of local versus systemic drug administration. In addition, these compiled clinical trial data present concepts for consideration in the design and conduction of future clinical trials.

  4. Research on the Efficacy of Sensory Integration Therapy: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Han M.; Carter, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Research on the efficacy of sensory integration therapy (SIT) is addressed in this article. Initially, past key reviews of intervention studies until 1994 are considered. Subsequently, more recent studies from 1994 until 2007 are examined. Consistent with numerous previous reviews, no robust evidence supporting the efficacy of SIT was found.…

  5. Pengaruh Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Terhadap Self Efficacy Dan Self Care Behavior Pada Pasien Hipertensi

    OpenAIRE

    Manuntung, Alfeus

    2015-01-01

    Penderita hipertensi cenderung mengabaikan atau kurang menyadari karakter penyakit hipertensi. Ketidakpatuhan terhadap perilaku perawatan diri juga dapat berdampak buruk terhadap kesehatan yang dialami penderita hipertensi. Salah satu upaya untuk meningkatkan self efficacy dan self care behavior pada pasien hipertensi adalah melalui Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis pengaruh CBT terhadap self efficacy dan self care behavior pada pasien hiperte...

  6. The Impact of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy on Teacher Efficacy and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    This literature review explores the potential impact of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) on teacher efficacy and student achievement. Research conducted to date, focusing on increasing teacher efficacy and student achievement, has produced mixed results. Teachers continue to think, emote, and behave in unhelpful ways. REBT appears to…

  7. Does the addition of Serenoa repens to tamsulosin improve its therapeutical efficacy in benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argirović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It has been observed that a large number of patients with low urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH has been treated with a combination of tamsulosin (TAM + Serenoa repens (SR (TAM + SR. The aim of this study was to compare a combination TAM + SR with TAM and SR alone, to see if there was any difference in efficacy and tolerance of each in patients with LUTS/BPH. Methods. In this prospective study patients had to have prostate volume (PV 3, a maximal flow rate (Qmax of 5-15 mL/s, with post voiding residual volume (PVR < 150 mL and serum prostatic antigen (PSA < 4 ng/mL. TAM (0.4 mg was administered once a day, SR (320 mg daily or SR (320 mg + TAM (0.4 mg daily for a median period of 6 months. Results. A total of 297 patients were recruited, whereas 265 patients were fully available: 87 into the group TAM, 97 into the group SR and 81 into the group TAM + SR. There was no statistically significant difference between the treatment groups in the sense of demographic and other baseline parameters. No difference was found among the 3 treatment groups, neither in the major endpoint of the study in the sense of a change between baseline and final evaluation in total IPSS, obstructive and irritative subscores, improvement of QoLs, increase in Qmax, nor for the second endpoint including diminution of PV, PSA and PVR. During the treatment period 20 (23% of the patients managed with TAM and 17 (21% with TAM + SR had drug-treated with related adverse reactions. No adverse effect was detected in the group SR. Conclusion. Treatment of BPH by both SR and TAM seems to be efficacious alone. None of them had superiority over another and, additionally, a combined therapy (TAM + SR does not provide extra benefits. Furthermore, SR is a well-tolerated agent that can be used alternatively in the treatment of LUTS/BPH.

  8. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Alexithymia and Pain Self-Efficacy of Patients with Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Saedi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is one of the most common reasons for visit to primary medical centers. Evidences show that cognitive-behavioral therapy is the effective therapy in chronic pains. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy on alexithymia and pains self-efficacy of patients with chronic pain. For this purpose, in a quasi-experimental plan and pre-test and post-test kind with control group, 45 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain who visited to the therapeutic-sanitary centers in Ahwaz city were selected by using the available sampling method and they were assigned randomly in two experimental and control groups. Groups were tested in terms of alexithymia and self-effectiveness of pain at first. Then behavioral-cognitive training was presented in the time of 8 sessions of 90 minutes to the group and after ending the training program and three month consistency period, both groups were tested in terms of alexithymia and self-efficacy of pain. analyzing data by multivariate covariance method showed that the behavioral-cognitive therapy has been effective on alexithymia and pain intensity of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain and these effects remain on patients in the high amount in the consistency stage, too. According to the results, behavioral-cognitive therapy causes to increasing the self-efficacy of pain and reducing the alexithymia and harmful effects of pain to the least level by changing nonefficiency behaviors, correction of adverse cognitions and destructive emotions related to pain.

  9. Mechanisms and therapeutic effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Vadal?, Maria; Morales?Medina, Julio Cesar; Vallelunga, Annamaria; Palmieri, Beniamino; Laurino, Carmen; Iannitti, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Available treatments are associated with numerous side effects and only a low percentage of patients achieve complete remission. Therefore, there is a strong need for new therapeutic strategies. In this regard, pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy presents several potential advantages including non?invasiveness, safety, lack of toxicity for non?cancerous cells, and the possibility of being combined with other availabl...

  10. Efficacy and safety of infliximab induction therapy in Crohn's Disease in Central Europe - a Hungarian nationwide observational study

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    Simon László

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infliximab (IFX has proven to be an effective addition to the therapeutic arsenal for refractory, fistulizing, and steroid dependent Crohn's disease (CD, with efficacy in the induction and maintenance of clinical remission of CD. Our objective in this study is to report the nationwide, multicenter experience with IFX induction therapy for CD in Hungary. Methods During a 6-year-period, beginning in 2000, a total of 363 CD patients were treated with IFX as induction therapy (5 mg/kg IFX infusions given at week 0, 2 and 6 at eleven centers in Hungary in this observational study. Data analysis included patient demographics, important disease parameters and the outcome of IFX induction therapy. Results Three hundred and sixty three patients (183 women and 180 men were treated with IFX since 2000. Mean age was 33.5 ± 11.2 years and the mean duration of disease was 6.7 ± 6.1 years. The population included 114 patients (31.4% with therapy-refractory CD, 195 patients (53.7% with fistulas, 16 patients (4.4% with both therapy-refractory CD and fistulas, and 26 patients (7.2% with steroid dependent CD. Overall response rate was 86.2% (313/363. A higher response rate was observed in patients with shorter disease duration (p = 0.05, OR:0.54, 95%CI:0.29-0.99 and concomitant immunosuppressant therapy (p = 0.05, OR: 2.03, 95%CI:0.165-0.596. Concomitant steroid treatment did not enhance the efficacy of IFX induction therapy. Adverse events included 34 allergic reactions (9.4%, 17 delayed type hypersensitivity (4.7%, 16 infections (4.4%, and 3 malignancies (0.8%. Conclusion IFX was safe and effective treatment in this cohort of Hungarian CD patients. Based on our experience co-administration of immunosuppressant therapy is suggested in patients receiving IFX induction therapy. However, concomitant steroid treatment did not enhanced the efficacy of IFX induction therapy.

  11. Interpersonal problems as predictors of therapeutic alliance and symptom improvement in cognitive therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Fritz; Jarrett, Robin B; Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Barrett, Marna S; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E

    2012-05-01

    The degree to which interpersonal problems of depressed patients improve over the course of cognitive therapy (CT) and relate to the quality of the therapeutic alliance and to symptom improvement, remains unclear. We analyzed data of adult outpatients (N=523) with major depressive disorder participating in a clinical trial to determine the factor structure of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex (IIP-C) and to relate the observed factor scores to the quality of the therapeutic alliance and symptom improvement over the course of CT. Patients received 16-20 sessions protocol (50-60 min each) of individual CT according to the treatment manual by Beck et al. (1979). We found a three-factor structure (interpersonal distress, agency, and communion) of interpersonal problems. Interpersonal distress decreased (d=.90), but interpersonal style did not change substantively during CT (communion d=.03; agency d=.14). High initial agency scores related negatively to the therapeutic alliance (β=-.12), whereas high initial communion scores related positively to the therapeutic alliance (β=.15). Elevated pre-treatment interpersonal distress scores were related to both weaker therapeutic alliances (β=.13) and higher symptom levels throughout treatment (β=.10). All patients in this study had recurrent MDD and it is therefore uncertain whether the results would generalize to patients with other psychiatric disorders. This study supports the use of the IIP-C as a comprehensive measure of patients' interpersonal style and interpersonal distress. The IIP-C measured before CT showed some predictive validity with respect to therapeutic alliance measured at the midpoint and therapy outcome. The clinical importance of these findings is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Interpersonal problems as predictors of therapeutic alliance and symptom improvement in cognitive therapy for depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Fritz; Jarrett, Robin B.; Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Barrett, Marna S.; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Background The degree to which interpersonal problems of depressed patients improve over the course of cognitive therapy (CT) and relate to the quality of the therapeutic alliance and to symptom improvement, remain unclear. Methods We analyzed data of adult outpatients (N = 523) with major depressive disorder participating in a clinical trial to determine the factor structure of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex (IIP-C) and to relate the observed factor scores to the quality of the therapeutic alliance and symptom improvement over the course of CT. Patients received 16–20 sessions protocol (50–60 minutes each) of individual CT according to the treatment manual by Beck et al. (1979). Results We found a three-factor structure (interpersonal distress, agency, and communion) of interpersonal problems. Interpersonal distress decreased (d = .90), but interpersonal style did not change substantively during CT (communion d = .03; agency d = .14). High initial agency scores related negatively to the therapeutic alliance (β = −.12), whereas high initial communion scores related positively to the therapeutic alliance (β = .15). Elevated pre-treatment interpersonal distress scores were related to both weaker therapeutic alliances (β = .13) and higher symptom levels throughout treatment (β = .10). Limitations All patients in this study had recurrent MDD and it is therefore uncertain whether the results would generalize to patients with other psychiatric disorders. Conclusions This study supports the use of the IIP-C as a comprehensive measure of patients' interpersonal style and interpersonal distress. The IIP-C measured before CT showed some predictive validity with respect to therapeutic alliance measured at the midpoint and therapy outcome. The clinical importance of these findings is discussed. PMID:22306232

  13. Radiotherapy-induced anti-tumor immunity contributes to the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation and can be augmented by CTLA-4 blockade in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Yoshimoto

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There is growing evidence that tumor-specific immune responses play an important role in anti-cancer therapy, including radiotherapy. Using mouse tumor models we demonstrate that irradiation-induced anti-tumor immunity is essential for the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation and can be augmented by modulation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL activity. METHODS AND MATERIALS: C57BL/6 mice, syngeneic EL4 lymphoma cells, and Lewis lung carcinoma (LL/C cells were used. Cells were injected into the right femurs of mice. Ten days after inoculation, tumors were treated with 30 Gy of local X-ray irradiation and their growth was subsequently measured. The effect of irradiation on tumor growth delay (TGD was defined as the time (in days for tumors to grow to 500 mm3 in the treated group minus that of the untreated group. Cytokine production and serum antibodies were measured by ELISA and flow cytometry. RESULTS: In the EL4 tumor model, tumors were locally controlled by X-ray irradiation and re-introduced EL4 cells were completely rejected. Mouse EL4-specific systemic immunity was confirmed by splenocyte cytokine production and detection of tumor-specific IgG1 antibodies. In the LL/C tumor model, X-ray irradiation also significantly delayed tumor growth (TGD: 15.4 days and prolonged median survival time (MST to 59 days (versus 28 days in the non-irradiated group. CD8(+ cell depletion using an anti-CD8 antibody significantly decreased the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation (TGD, 8.7 days; MST, 49 days. Next, we examined whether T cell modulation affected the efficacy of radiotherapy. An anti-CTLA-4 antibody significantly increased the anti-tumor activity of radiotherapy (TGD was prolonged from 13.1 to 19.5 days, while anti-FR4 and anti-GITR antibodies did not affect efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that tumor-specific immune responses play an important role in the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation. Immunomodulation, including CTLA-4

  14. Differences and similarities in therapeutic mode use between occupational therapists and occupational therapy students in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Tove; Bonsaksen, Tore

    2017-11-01

    The Intentional Relationship Model (IRM) is a new model of the therapeutic relationship in occupational therapy practice. Two previous studies have focused on therapist communication style, or 'mode' use, but to date no group comparisons have been reported. To explore differences between occupational therapists and occupational therapy students with regard to their therapeutic mode use. The study had a cross-sectional design, and convenience samples consisting of occupational therapists (n = 109) and of second-year occupational therapy students (n = 96) were recruited. The Self-Assessment of Modes Questionnaire was the main data collection tool. Group differences were analysed with independent t-tests. The occupational therapists responded more within the collaborative and empathizing modes than the students did. The students responded more within the advocating and instructing modes than the occupational therapists did. There may be systematic differences between occupational therapists and students concerning their therapeutic mode use. Some modes, such as the collaborating and empathizing modes, may be viewed as requiring more experience, whereas other modes, such as the advocating mode may be related to more recent rehabilitation ideologies. These factors may contribute to explaining several of the group differences observed.

  15. Neoadjuvant Therapy in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer: A Disappointing Therapeutic Approach?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, Carolin; Folprecht, Gunnar; Zips, Daniel; Pilarsky, Christian; Saeger, Hans Detlev; Grutzmann, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease. It is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in Germany. The incidence in 2003/2004 was 16 cases per 100.000 inhabitants. Of all carcinomas, pancreatic cancer has the highest mortality rate, with one- and five-year survival rates of 25% and less than 5%, respectively, regardless of the stage at diagnosis. These low survival rates demonstrate the poor prognosis of this carcinoma. Previous therapeutic approaches including surgical resection combined with adjuvant therapy or palliative chemoradiation have not achieved satisfactory results with respect to overall survival. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate new therapeutic approaches. Neoadjuvant therapy is an interesting therapeutic option for patients with pancreatic cancer. For selected patients with borderline or unresectable disease, neoadjuvant therapy offers the potential for tumor downstaging, increasing the probability of a margin-negative resection and decreasing the occurrence of lymph node metastasis. Currently, there is no universally accepted approach for treating patients with pancreatic cancer in the neoadjuvant setting. In this review, the most common neoadjuvant strategies will be described, compared and discussed

  16. Therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of {sup 225}Ac-labelled vs. {sup 213}Bi-labelled tumour-homing peptides in a preclinical mouse model of peritoneal carcinomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essler, Markus; Gaertner, Florian C.; Blechert, Birgit; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard; Seidl, Christof [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Neff, Frauke [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Pathology, Neuherberg (Germany); Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred [Institute for Transuranium Elements, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Targeted delivery of alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides is a promising novel option in cancer therapy. We generated stable conjugates of the vascular tumour-homing peptide F3 both with {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi that specifically bind to nucleolin on the surface of proliferating tumour cells. The aim of our study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of {sup 225}Ac-DOTA-F3 in comparison with that of {sup 213}Bi-DTPA-F3. ID{sub 50} values of {sup 213}Bi-DTPA-F3 and {sup 225}Ac-DOTA-F3 were determined via clonogenic assays. The therapeutic efficacy of both constructs was assayed by repeated treatment of mice bearing intraperitoneal MDA-MB-435 xenograft tumours. Therapy was monitored by bioluminescence imaging. Nephrotoxic effects were analysed by histology. ID{sub 50} values of {sup 213}Bi-DTPA-F3 and {sup 225}Ac-DOTA-F3 were 53 kBq/ml and 67 Bq/ml, respectively. The median survival of control mice treated with phosphate-buffered saline was 60 days after intraperitoneal inoculation of 1 x 10{sup 7} MDA-MB-435 cells. Therapy with 6 x 1.85 kBq of {sup 225}Ac-DOTA-F3 or 6 x 1.85 MBq of {sup 213}Bi-DTPA-F3 prolonged median survival to 95 days and 97 days, respectively. While F3 labelled with short-lived {sup 213}Bi (t{sub 1/2} 46 min) reduced the tumour mass at early time-points up to 30 days after treatment, the antitumour effect of {sup 225}Ac-DOTA-F3 (t{sub 1/2} 10 days) increased at later time-points. The difference in the fraction of necrotic cells after treatment with {sup 225}Ac-DOTA-F3 (43%) and with {sup 213}Bi-DTPA-F3 (36%) was not significant. Though histological analysis of kidney samples revealed acute tubular necrosis and tubular oedema in 10-30% of animals after treatment with {sup 225}Ac-DOTA-F3 or {sup 213}Bi-DTPA-F3, protein casts were negligible (2%), indicating only minor damage to the kidney. Therapy with both {sup 225}Ac-DOTA-F3 and {sup 213}Bi-DTPA-F3 increased survival of mice with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Mild renal toxicity of both

  17. A pilot study into the therapeutic effects of music therapy at a cancer help center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S J; Harbuz, M S; Hucklebridge, F; Bunt, L

    2001-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, music therapy has been a regular feature of the residential program at the internationally renowned Bristol Cancer Help Centre, United Kingdom. Music therapy complements other therapeutic interventions available to residents at the center. To compare the therapeutic effects of listening to music in a relaxed state with the active involvement of music improvisation (the playing of tuned and untuned percussion instruments) in a music therapy group setting and to investigate the potential influence of music therapy on positive emotions and the immune system of cancer patients. A quantitative pre-posttest, psychological/physiological measures, and qualitative focus group design. A cancer help center that offers a fully integrated range of complementary therapies, psychological support, spiritual healing, and nutritional and self-help techniques addressing the physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual needs of cancer patients and their supporters. Twenty-nine cancer patients, aged 21 to 68 years. Group music therapy interventions of listening to recorded/live music in a relaxed state and improvisation. Increased well-being and relaxation and less tension during the listening experience. Increased well-being and energy and less tension during improvisation. Increased levels of salivary immunoglobulin A and decreased levels of cortisol in both experiences. Psychological data showed increased well-being and relaxation as well as altered energy levels in both interventions. Physiological data showed increased salivary immunoglobulin A in the listening experience and a decrease in cortisol levels in both interventions over a 2-day period. Preliminary evidence of a link between positive emotions and the immune system of cancer patients was found. These findings, which link listening to music in a relaxed state and improvisation to alterations in psychological and physiological parameters, may provide a better understanding of the effectiveness of music

  18. Therapeutic efficacy of intralesional 131I-labelled hyaluronectin in grafted human glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, N.; Courel, M.N.; Vera, P.; Delpech, B. [Centre Henri-Becquerel, Rouen (France). Laboratoire d' Oncologie Moleculaire

    2000-07-01

    The grafted human glioblastoma cell CB109 was used as a model for intralesional therapy with 131I-labelled hyaluronectin glycoprotein (131I-HN). 131I-HN bound specifically to in situ hyaluronic acid (HA), a main component of the extracellular matrix which is involved in tumour invasion. Labelling experimental conditions were determined and, finally, 25 {mu}Ci/{mu}gHN, 1 {mu}g chloramine-T/{mu}gHN and a 60-s stirring period provided a 131I-HN preparation with an optimal affinity for HA (64% compared to unlabelled HN). Following intratumoral injection, 131I-HN was retained with a limited diffusion outside the tumour. On day 4 the radioactivity concentrated in the tumour was still 25 times greater than that in the liver, spleen and kidneys combined. For therapeutic assays, 65 {mu}Ci 131I-HN was injected into the tumour, resulting in a delivery of 6.8 Gy over a 7-day period. Controls received unlabelled HN, heat-inactivated HN, a mixture of inactivated HN plus free 131I or no treatment (six animals per group). Tumour volumes were evaluated every second day from treatment day and the rate of tumour growth was expressed as a ratio of tumour size at time intervals to the tumour size at the time of injection. Growth curves were compared: heat-inactivated with or without free 131I had no anti-tumour effect. Unlabelled HN-injected tumours had a slightly slower growth rate than untreated tumours (p < 0.02) and growth rate of 131I-HN-injected tumours was much lower (p < 0.00002). A pronounced inhibitory effect with intralesional 131I-labelled HN injection resulted from a combination of a) blockage of HA, a proliferation facilitating factor, and b) local irradiation of tumoral tissue, while uptake in normal tissues was minimized.

  19. Therapeutic efficacy of intralesional 131I-labelled hyaluronectin in grafted human glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, N.; Courel, M.N.; Vera, P.; Delpech, B.

    2000-01-01

    The grafted human glioblastoma cell CB109 was used as a model for intralesional therapy with 131I-labelled hyaluronectin glycoprotein (131I-HN). 131I-HN bound specifically to in situ hyaluronic acid (HA), a main component of the extracellular matrix which is involved in tumour invasion. Labelling experimental conditions were determined and, finally, 25 μCi/μgHN, 1 μg chloramine-T/μgHN and a 60-s stirring period provided a 131I-HN preparation with an optimal affinity for HA (64% compared to unlabelled HN). Following intratumoral injection, 131I-HN was retained with a limited diffusion outside the tumour. On day 4 the radioactivity concentrated in the tumour was still 25 times greater than that in the liver, spleen and kidneys combined. For therapeutic assays, 65 μCi 131I-HN was injected into the tumour, resulting in a delivery of 6.8 Gy over a 7-day period. Controls received unlabelled HN, heat-inactivated HN, a mixture of inactivated HN plus free 131I or no treatment (six animals per group). Tumour volumes were evaluated every second day from treatment day and the rate of tumour growth was expressed as a ratio of tumour size at time intervals to the tumour size at the time of injection. Growth curves were compared: heat-inactivated with or without free 131I had no anti-tumour effect. Unlabelled HN-injected tumours had a slightly slower growth rate than untreated tumours (p < 0.02) and growth rate of 131I-HN-injected tumours was much lower (p < 0.00002). A pronounced inhibitory effect with intralesional 131I-labelled HN injection resulted from a combination of a) blockage of HA, a proliferation facilitating factor, and b) local irradiation of tumoral tissue, while uptake in normal tissues was minimized

  20. A Comparative Study of the Efficacy and Psychological States be¬tween Patients with Senile Ischemic Heart Failure Undergone ICU and Conventional Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Changli DU

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our aim was to forward an effective therapeutic approach by comparing efficacy and psychological states between patients with senile ischemic heart failure undergone ICU and conventional therapies.Methods: We selected 64 patients from Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Rizhao (Shandong, China) between June 2013 and June 2014. The patients had ischemic heart disease, and were monitored for one-year time span. They were randomly divided into the experiment and control group...

  1. In vitro therapeutic effect of PDT combined with VEGF-A gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecaros, Rumwald Leo G.; Huang, Leaf; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2014-02-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), commonly known as VEGF, is one of the primary factors that affect tumor angiogenesis. It was found to be expressed in cancer cell lines including oral squamous cell carcinoma. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a novel therapeutic modality to treat cancer by using a photosensitizer which is activated by a light source to produce reactive oxygen species and mediates oxygen-independent hypoxic conditions to tumor. Another emerging treatment to cure cancer is the use of interference RNA (e.g. siRNA) to silence a specific mRNA sequence. VEGF-A was found to be expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma and overexpressed after 24 hour post-PDT by Western blot analysis. Cell viability was found to decrease at 25 nM of transfected VEGF-A siRNA. In vitro combined therapy of PDT and VEGF-A siRNA showed better response as compared with PDT and gene therapy alone. The results suggest that PDT combined with targeted gene therapy has a potential mean to achieve better therapeutic outcome.

  2. Efficacy of HER2-targeted therapy in metastatic breast cancer. Monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte L; Kümler, Iben; Palshof, Jesper Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Therapies targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2 are effective in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). We review the efficacy of HER2-directed therapies, focussing on monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting HER2 that have been tested in phase II-III studies...

  3. Quality of Acute Psychedelic Experience Predicts Therapeutic Efficacy of Psilocybin for Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Leor; Nutt, David J.; Carhart-Harris, Robin L.

    2018-01-01

    < 0.05). Discussion: This report further bolsters the view that the quality of the acute psychedelic experience is a key mediator of long-term changes in mental health. Future therapeutic work with psychedelics should recognize the essential importance of quality of experience in determining treatment efficacy and consider ways of enhancing mystical-type experiences and reducing anxiety. Trial Registration: ISRCTN, number ISRCTN14426797, http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN14426797 PMID:29387009

  4. Therapeutic efficacy of fibroblast growth factor 10 in a rabbit model of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjing; Ma, Mingming; Du, Ergang; Zhang, Zhengwei; Jiang, Kelimu; Gu, Qing; Ke, Bilian

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) in the promotion of healing, survival and expression of mucin in corneal epithelial cells in a rabbit dry eye model. A total of 12 healthy female New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly into three groups. The lacrimal glands were injected with saline either alone (normal control group) or with concanavalin A (Con A), with either topical phosphate‑buffered saline (PBS; PBS control group) or 25 µg/ml FGF10 (FGF10 treatment group). Lacrimal gland inflammation, tear function, corneal epithelial cell integrity, cell apoptosis and mucin expression were subsequently assessed. Lacrimal gland tissue biopsies were performed in conjunction with histology and electron microscopy observations. Tear meniscus height (TMH) and tear meniscus area (TMA) were measured using Fourier domain‑optical coherence tomography. Tear membrane break‑up time (TBUT) was also assessed and corneal fluorescein staining was performed. The percentages of apoptotic corneal and conjunctival (Cj) epithelial cells (ECs) were counted using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. The mRNA expression levels of Muc1 were determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. The TMH and TMA values of the PBS and treatment groups were found to be significantly reduced, compared with those of the normal control group 3 days after Con A injection. However, the TMH and TMA of the FGF10 treatment group were higher, compared with those of the PBS group 3 and 7 days after treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the FGF10 treatment group exhibited prolonged TBUT, reduced corneal fluorescein staining and repaired epithelial cell ultrastructure7 days after treatment. The percentages of apoptotic corneal‑ and Cj‑ECs in the FGF10 treatment group were significantly reduced, compared with those in the PBS group. FGF10

  5. Bacterial burden of worn therapeutic silver textiles for neurodermitis patients and evaluation of efficacy of washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeschlein, G; Assadian, O; Arnold, A; Haase, H; Kramer, A; Jünger, M

    2010-01-01

    To reduce pruritus and colonization with Staphylococcus aureus, textiles containing silver are increasingly used as therapeutic option for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). While wearing such textiles, the contained silver is in close contact with the patient's skin. The silver serves two purposes: to reduce bacterial colonization of the skin, and to prevent contamination of the textile with ensuing growth of microorganisms. It is unknown whether the silver impregnation is able to reduce bacterial contamination of the textile during wearing and to prevent bacterial growth within the textile. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination in textiles containing silver versus placebo worn by patients with AD and to determine the efficacy of processing worn textiles by manual and machine-based washing. Additionally, the effect of silver textiles on S. aureus and total bacterial counts colonizing the skin of AD patients was analyzed. The reduction factor of silver textile compared to placebo was 0.5 log steps against S. aureus and 0.4 log steps against total bacteria. Silver textiles exhibited significantly less S. aureus as well as total bacterial colonization after 2 days of wearing without washing, as compared with a placebo textile. On placebo textiles 385.6 +/- 63.5 CFU total bacteria and 236.5 +/- 49.9 CFU S. aureus, and on silver textiles 279.9 +/- 78.7 CFU total bacteria and 119.3 +/- 39.4 CFU S. aureus were found on the inner side of the textiles facing the neurodermitis lesions. However, the unexpectedly high residual contamination despite the silver exposure represents a potential risk as recontamination source of S. aureus that could maintain the proinflammatory process in AD. This contamination is nearly completely eliminated by machine-based washing at 60 degrees C using conventional washing powder. AD patients wearing silver textiles should change their used clothes at least daily and wash them in a washing machine at 60 degrees

  6. Quality of Acute Psychedelic Experience Predicts Therapeutic Efficacy of Psilocybin for Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leor Roseman

    2018-01-01

    ASC (p < 0.05.Discussion: This report further bolsters the view that the quality of the acute psychedelic experience is a key mediator of long-term changes in mental health. Future therapeutic work with psychedelics should recognize the essential importance of quality of experience in determining treatment efficacy and consider ways of enhancing mystical-type experiences and reducing anxiety.Trial Registration: ISRCTN, number ISRCTN14426797, http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN14426797

  7. New therapeutic directions for advanced pancreatic cancer: cell cycle inhibitors, stromal modifiers and conjugated therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Robert; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2017-09-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a devastating malignancy with an extremely poor prognosis. These tumors progress rapidly and somewhat silently with few specific symptoms and are relatively resistant to chemotherapeutic agents. Many agents, including cell cycle inhibitors, are under development for the treatment of this cancer for which there are disappointingly few treatment options. Areas covered: Here we outline the existing approved treatments for advanced pancreatic disease and discuss a range of novel therapies currently under development including cell cycle inhibitors, stromal modifiers and conjugated therapies. We also describe the current state of the pancreatic cancer therapeutics market both past and future. Expert opinion: Despite the recent explosion of novel therapies with an array of unique targets, the core treatment of pancreatic cancer still with traditional cytotoxic agents with a few exceptions. However, as these novel treatments move through the pipeline, we are hopeful that there will soon be a number of effective options for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

  8. Therapeutic Alliance and Retention in Brief Strategic Family Therapy: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Alyson H; Friedlander, Myrna L

    2015-10-01

    We explored how the therapeutic alliance contributed to retention in Brief Strategic Family Therapy by analyzing videotapes of eight-first sessions in which four therapists worked with one family that stayed in treatment and one family that dropped out. Although behavioral exchange patterns between clients and therapists did not differ by retention status, positive therapist alliance-related behavior followed negative client alliance behavior somewhat more frequently in the retained cases. In the qualitative aspect of the study, four family therapy experts each viewed two randomly assigned sessions and commented on their quality without knowing the families' retention status. A qualitative analysis of the audiotaped commentaries revealed 18 alliance-related themes that were more characteristic of either the retained or the nonretained cases. © 2015 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  9. Mechanisms and therapeutic effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadalà, Maria; Morales-Medina, Julio Cesar; Vallelunga, Annamaria; Palmieri, Beniamino; Laurino, Carmen; Iannitti, Tommaso

    2016-11-01

    Cancer is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Available treatments are associated with numerous side effects and only a low percentage of patients achieve complete remission. Therefore, there is a strong need for new therapeutic strategies. In this regard, pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy presents several potential advantages including non-invasiveness, safety, lack of toxicity for non-cancerous cells, and the possibility of being combined with other available therapies. Indeed, PEMF stimulation has already been used in the context of various cancer types including skin, breast, prostate, hepatocellular, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, bladder, thyroid, and colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. At present, only limited application of PEMF in cancer has been documented in humans. In this article, we review the experimental and clinical evidence of PEMF therapy discussing future perspectives in its use in oncology. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Therapeutic alliance in psychological therapy for people with recent onset psychosis who use cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Katherine; Gregg, Lynsey; Lobban, Fiona; Barrowclough, Christine

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the role of therapeutic alliance in predicting outcomes in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Motivational Interviewing and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MICBT) for problematic cannabis use in recent onset psychosis. All clients were participating in a three arm pragmatic rater-blind randomized controlled trial of brief MICBT plus standard care compared with longer term MICBT plus standard care and standard care alone. Participants completed measures to assess clinical symptoms, global functioning and substance misuse at baseline, 4.5months, 9months and 18months. Clients and therapists completed the Working Alliance Inventory approximately one month into therapy. Client alliance data was available for 35 participants randomized to therapy and therapist alliance data was available for 52 participants randomized to therapy. At baseline, poorer client-rated alliance was associated with more negative symptoms, poorer insight and greater cannabis use, whereas poorer therapist-rated alliance was only associated with amount of cannabis used per cannabis using day. Alliance ratings were also positively associated with amount of therapy: client-rated alliance was higher in the longer compared to the briefer therapy; therapist-rated alliance was associated with greater number of sessions attended (controlling for type of therapy) and therapy completion. In predicting outcome, client-rated alliance predicted total symptom scores and global functioning scores at follow-up. Neither client nor therapist alliance predicted changes in substance misuse at any time point. Findings demonstrate that individuals with psychosis and substance misuse who form better alliances with their therapists gain greater benefits from therapy, at least in terms of improvements in global functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy of exposure versus cognitive therapy in anxiety disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ougrin Dennis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT for a wide range of psychological disorders. There is a continued controversy about whether challenging maladaptive thoughts rather than use of behavioural interventions alone is associated with the greatest efficacy. However little is known about the relative efficacy of various components of CBT. This review aims to compare the relative efficacy of Cognitive Therapy (CT versus Exposure (E for a range of anxiety disorders using the most clinically relevant outcome measures and estimating the summary relative efficacy by combining the studies in a meta-analysis. Methods Psych INFO, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from the first available year to May 2010. All randomised controlled studies comparing the efficacy of exposure with cognitive therapy were included. Odds ratios (OR or standardised means' differences (Hedges' g for the most clinically relevant primary outcomes were calculated. Outcomes of the studies were grouped according to specific disorders and were combined in meta-analyses exploring short-term and long-term outcomes. Results 20 Randomised Controlled Trials with (n = 1,308 directly comparing the efficacy of CT and E in anxiety disorders were included in the meta-analysis. No statistically significant difference in the relative efficacy of CT and E was revealed in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD and in Panic Disorder (PD. There was a statistically significant difference favouring CT versus E in Social Phobia both in the short-term (Z = 3.72, p = 0.0002 and the long-term (Z = 3.28, p = 0.001 outcomes. Conclusions On the basis of extant literature, there appears to be no evidence of differential efficacy between cognitive therapy and exposure in PD, PTSD and OCD and strong evidence of superior efficacy of cognitive therapy in social phobia

  12. Report on the 1. research coordination meeting on 'Development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on 177Lu for radionuclide therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy (RNT) employing radiopharmaceuticals labelled with emitting radionuclides is fast emerging as an important part of nuclear medicine. Radionuclide therapy is effectively utilized for bone pain palliation, thus providing significant improvement in quality of life of patients suffering from pain resulting from bone metastasis. Targeting primary diseases by using specific carrier molecules labelled with radionuclides is also widely investigated and efficacious products have been emerging for the treatment of Lymphoma and Neuroendocrine tumours. In order to ensure the wider use of radiopharmaceuticals, it is essential to carefully consider the choice of radionuclides that together with the carrier molecules will give suitable pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy. The criteria for the selection of a radionuclide for radiotherapy are suitable decay characteristics and amenable chemistry. However, the practical considerations in selecting a radionuclide for targeted therapy are availability in high radionuclidic purity as well as high specific activity and low production cost and comfortable delivery logistics. 177 Lu is one of the isotopes emerging as a clear choice for therapy. Worldwide, the isotope is under investigation for approximately 30 different clinical applications, including treatment of colon cancer, metastatic bone cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and lung cancer. 177 Lu decays with a half-life of 6.71 d by emission of particles with E max of 497 keV (78.6%), 384 keV (9.1%) and 176 keV (12.2%). It also emits photons of 113 keV (6.4%) and 208 keV (11%), that are ideally suited for imaging the in-vivo localization and dosimetric calculations applying a gamma camera. The physical half-life of 177 Lu is comparable to that of 131 I, the most widely used therapeutic radionuclide. The long halflife of 177 Lu provides logistic advantage for production, QA/QC of the products as well as feasibility to supply the products to places

  13. The Efficacy of Dog Assisted Therapy in Detained Drug Users: A Pilot Study in an Italian Attenuated Custody Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contalbrigo, Laura; De Santis, Marta; Toson, Marica; Montanaro, Maria; Farina, Luca; Costa, Aldo; Nava, Felice Alfonso

    2017-06-24

    Drug addiction is a major care and safety challenge in prison context. Nowadays, rehabilitation and specific therapeutic programs are suggested to improve health and well-being of inmates during their detention time and to reduce substance abuse relapse after release from prison. Among these programs, several studies reported the benefits for inmates coming from animal assisted interventions. In this pilot controlled study, we investigated the efficacy of a dog assisted therapy program addressed to 22 drug addicted male inmates housed in an attenuated custody institute in Italy. The study lasted six months, the treated group (12 inmates) was involved once a week for one hour in 20 dog assisted therapy sessions, whereas the control group (10 inmates) followed the standard rehabilitation program. One week before the beginning and one week after the end of the sessions, all inmates involved were submitted to symptom checklist-90-revised and Kennedy axis V. Inmates involved in the dog assisted therapy sessions significantly improved their social skills, reducing craving, anxiety and depression symptoms compared to the control group. Despite the limitation due to the small number of inmates enrolled and to the absence of follow up, we found these results encouraging to the use of dog assisted therapy as co-therapy in drug addicted inmates rehabilitation programs, and we claim the need of more extensive study on this subject.

  14. Enhanced therapeutic effect of multiple injections of HSV-TK + GCV gene therapy in combination with ionizing radiation in a mouse mammary tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlachaki, Maria T.; Chhikara, Madhu; Aguilar, Laura; Zhu Xiaohong; Chiu, Kam J.; Woo, Shiao; Teh, Bin S.; Thompson, Timothy C.; Butler, E. Brian; Aguilar-Cordova, Estuardo

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Standard therapies for breast cancer lack tumor specificity and have significant risk for recurrence and toxicities. Herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene therapy combined with radiation therapy (XRT) may be effective because of complementary mechanisms and distinct toxicity profiles. HSV-tk gene therapy followed by systemic administration of ganciclovir (GCV) enhances radiation-induced DNA damage by generating high local concentrations of phosphorylated nucleotide analogs that increase radiation-induced DNA breaks and interfere with DNA repair mechanisms. In addition, radiation-induced membrane damage enhances the 'bystander effect' by facilitating transfer of nucleotide analogs to neighboring nontransduced cells and by promoting local and systemic immune responses. This study assesses the effect of single and multiple courses of HSV-tk gene therapy in combination with ionizing radiation in a mouse mammary cancer model. Methods and Materials: Mouse mammary TM40D tumors transplanted s.c. in syngeneic immunocompetent BALB-c mice were treated with either adenoviral-mediated HSV-tk gene therapy or local radiation or the combination of gene and radiation therapy. A vector consisting of a replication-deficient (E1-deleted) adenovirus type 5 was injected intratumorally to administer the HSV-tk gene, and GCV was initiated 24 h later for a total of 6 days. Radiation was given as a single dose of 5 Gy 48 h after the HSV-tk injection. A metastatic model was developed by tail vein injection of TM40D cells on the same day that the s.c. tumors were established. Systemic antitumor effect was evaluated by counting the number of lung nodules after treating only the primary tumors with gene therapy, radiation, or the combination of gene and radiation therapy. To assess the therapeutic efficacy of multiple courses of this combinatorial approach, one, two, and three courses of HSV-tk + GCV gene therapy, in combination with radiation, were compared to HSV-tk or

  15. Therapeutic Efficacy of a {sup 188}Re-Labeled {alpha}-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Peptide Analog in Murine and Human Melanoma-Bearing Mouse Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yubin; Owen, Nellie K.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Hoffman, Timothy J.; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic efficacy of {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH in the B16/F1 murine melanoma and TXM13 human melanoma bearing mouse models. Method: (Arg11)CCMSH was synthesized and labeled with {sup 188}Re to form {sup 188}Re-(Agr{sup 11})CCMSH. B16/F1 melanoma tumor bearing mice were administrated with 200 Ci, 600 Ci and 2x400 Ci of {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH via the tail vein, respectively. TXM13 melanoma tumor hearing mice were separately injected with 600 Ci, 2x400 Ci and 1000 Ci of 100Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH through the tail vein. Two groups of 10 mice bearing either B16/F1 or TXM13 tumors were injected with saline as untreated controls. Results: In contrast to the untreated control group, {sup 188}Re(Arg11)CCMSH yielded rapid and lasting therapeutic effects in the treatment groups with either B16/F1 or TXM13 tumors. The tumor growth rate was reduced and the survival rate was prolonged in the treatment groups. Treatment with 2x400 Ci of {sup 188}Re-Arg{sup 11}CCMSH significantly extended the mean life of B16/F1 tumor mice (p<0.05), while the mean life of TXm13 tumor mice was significantly prolonged after treatment with 600 Ci and 1000 Ci doses of {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH (p<0.05 High-dose {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11}))CCMSH produced no observed normal-tissue toxicity. Conclusions: The therapy study results revealed that {sup 188}Re-Arg11 CCMSH yielded significant therapeutic effects in both B16/F1 murine melanoma and TXM13 human melanoma bearing mouse models. {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH appears to be a promising radiolabeled peptide for targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma.

  16. Determining efficacy of breast cancer therapy by PET imaging of HER2 mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paudyal, Bishnuhari; Zhang, Kaijun; Chen, Chang-Po; Wampole, Matthew E.; Mehta, Neil; Mitchell, Edith P.; Gray, Brian D.; Mattis, Jeffrey A.; Pak, Koon Y.; Thakur, Mathew L.; Wickstrom, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Monitoring the effectiveness of therapy early and accurately continues to be challenging. We hypothesize that determination of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) mRNA in malignant breast cancer (BC) cells by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, before and after treatment, would reflect therapeutic efficacy. Method: WT4340, a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) 12-mer complementary to HER2 mRNA was synthesized together with -CSKC, a cyclic peptide, which facilitated internalization of the PNA via IGFR expressed on BC cells, and DOTA that chelated Cu-64. Mice (n = 8) with BT474 ER +/HER2+ human BC received doxorubicin (DOX, 1.5 mg/kg) i.p. once a week for six weeks. Mice (n = 8) without DOX served as controls. All mice were PET imaged with F-18-FDG and 48 h later with Cu-64-WT4340. PET imaging were performed before and 72 h after each treatment. Standardized uptake values (SUVs) were determined and percent change calculated. Animal body weight (BW) and tumor volume (TV) were measured. Results: SUVs for Cu-64-WT4340 after DOX treatment declined by 54% ± 17% after the second dose, 41% ± 15% after the fourth dose, and 29% ± 7% after the sixth dose, compared with 42% ± 22%, 31% ± 18%, and 13% ± 9% (p < 0.05) for F-18-FDG. In untreated mice, the corresponding percent SUVs for Cu-64-WT4340 were 145% ± 82%, 165% ± 39%, and 212% ± 105% of pretreatment SUV, compared with 108% ± 28%, 151% ± 8%, and 152% ± 35.5%, (p < 0.08) for F-18-FDG. TV in mice after second dose was 114.15% ± 61.83%, compared with 144.7% ± 64.4% for control mice. BW of DOX-treated mice was 103.4% ± 7.6% of pretreatment, vs. 100.1% ± 4.3% for control mice. Conclusion: Therapeutic efficacy was apparent sooner by molecular PET imaging than by determination of reduction in TV

  17. PP2AC Level Determines Differential Programming of p38-TSC-mTOR Signaling and Therapeutic Response to p38-Targeted Therapy in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjie Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The p38 MAP kinase is a promising cancer drug target but its therapeutic effect is not fully understood. Here we report that the response of colorectal cancer (CRC to p38 inhibitors (p38i is highly variable: while p38i induces regression of one subgroup of CRCs, it stimulates growth of another subgroup. We further show that PP2AC is differentially expressed in the two different CRC subgroups, which determines the programing of p38-TSC-mTORC1 signaling through differential TSC2 phosphorylation at S664, 1254 and 1798, and the antitumor activity by p38i. Remarkably, modulation of PP2AC level is sufficient to reprogram p38-to-mTORC1 signaling and antitumor response. PP2AC expression accurately predicts therapeutic response to p38i in several CRC models, including a large cohort of patient-derived xenografts (PDXs. Moreover, we demonstrate that combination of p38 and mTOR kinase inhibitors effectively overcomes resistance to either inhibitor in single agent therapy. These results demonstrate that alternative routing of signal transduction underlies differential response to p38 and mTOR targeted therapies. The biomarker-guided therapeutic strategies described herein provide a compelling reason for testing in metastatic CRC patients who suffer very poor prognosis due to lack of efficacious drug therapies.

  18. Manual therapy and therapeutic exercise in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Romeo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review aimed at investigating the role of therapeutic exercise and/or manual therapy in the treatment of hip osteoarthritis (OA. Two independent reviewers (AR, CV searched PubMed, Cinahl, Cochrane Library, PEDro and Scopus databases and a third one (SP was consulted in case of disagreement. The research criteria were publication period (from May 2007 to April 2012 and publication language (English or Italian. Ten randomized controlled trials matched inclusion criteria, eight of which concerning therapeutic exercise and two manual therapy. Few good quality studies were found. At mid- and long-term follow-up land-based exercises showed insufficient evidence of effectiveness with respect to pain and quality of life, but positive results were found for physical function. Water exercises significantly reduced fall risk when combined with functional exercises. Programs containing progressive and gradual exposure of difficult activities, education and exercises promoted better outcomes, higher adherence to home program and increased amount of physical activity, especially walking. Manual therapy seemed to reduce pain and decrease disability at short-term. Less use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was statistically significant at long-term follow-up in patients treated with manual therapy. The relationship between clinical results and radiological grade of OA was not investigated. Encouraging results were found in recent literature for manual therapy and functional training. Further research is needed to elucidate this issue through high-quality trials, especially addressing the aspects that have not been thoroughly explored yet, for instance type, amount and scheduling of conservative treatment.

  19. Therapeutic mammoplasty allows for clear surgical margins in large and multifocal tumours without delaying adjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, Richard; Sutton, Richard; McIntosh, Jamie

    2015-04-01

    Therapeutic mammoplasty (TM) is suggested to have a number of advantages by comparison to standard breast conservation surgery in selected patients, however, data to support such assertions are sparse and outcomes remain uncertain. We assess the ability of TM to achieve some of its suggested benefits, specifically obtaining clear surgical margins (CSM) around large or multifocal tumours, and examine whether TM is associated with delay in administering adjuvant therapies. Data were extracted from a prospectively maintained database on all patients undergoing TM over 8 years. Key oncological outcomes and time to initiation of adjuvant therapies were recorded. Sixty eight patients underwent TM, sixty two for invasive disease and six for in-situ disease only. Tumour size ranged from 3 mm to 85 mm. Twenty-one (30.8%) patients received neo-adjuvant therapy, with 15 (22.0%) receiving chemotherapy and six (8.8%) receiving endocrine therapy prior to surgery. CSM were obtained in 65 patients (95.6%). Where margins were involved, two were due to Ductal Carcinoma in situ and one from undiagnosed invasive lobular cancer, resulting in one wider excision and two completion mastectomies. Radiotherapy was delayed in one patient with delayed wound healing. No local recurrence has been recorded. These data support the ability of TM to consistently achieve CSM around large and multifocal tumours in selected patients, with acceptable local control and minimal morbidity and delay in adjuvant therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Immuno-Oncology-The Translational Runway for Gene Therapy: Gene Therapeutics to Address Multiple Immune Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weß, Ludger; Schnieders, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Cancer therapy is once again experiencing a paradigm shift. This shift is based on extensive clinical experience demonstrating that cancer cannot be successfully fought by addressing only single targets or pathways. Even the combination of several neo-antigens in cancer vaccines is not sufficient for successful, lasting tumor eradication. The focus has therefore shifted to the immune system's role in cancer and the striking abilities of cancer cells to manipulate and/or deactivate the immune system. Researchers and pharma companies have started to target the processes and cells known to support immune surveillance and the elimination of tumor cells. Immune processes, however, require novel concepts beyond the traditional "single-target-single drug" paradigm and need parallel targeting of diverse cells and mechanisms. This review gives a perspective on the role of gene therapy technologies in the evolving immuno-oncology space and identifies gene therapy as a major driver in the development and regulation of effective cancer immunotherapy. Present challenges and breakthroughs ranging from chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, gene-modified oncolytic viruses, combination cancer vaccines, to RNA therapeutics are spotlighted. Gene therapy is recognized as the most prominent technology enabling effective immuno-oncology strategies.

  1. Comparison of anti bacterial efficacy of photodynamic therapy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) is an anaerobic bacterium has been frequently associated with aggressive periodontitis. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical treatment to prevent infection progression that utilizes light to activate a photosensitizing agent. Doxycycline ...

  2. SKI-178: A Multitargeted Inhibitor of Sphingosine Kinase and Microtubule Dynamics Demonstrating Therapeutic Efficacy in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, Jeremy A; Dick, Taryn E; Sharma, Arati; Doi, Kenichiro; Hegde, Shailaja; Tan, Su-Fern; Geffert, Laura M; Fox, Todd E; Sharma, Arun K; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu; Kester, Mark; Loughran, Thomas P; Paulson, Robert F; Claxton, David F; Wang, Hong-Gang; Yun, Jong K

    2017-01-01

    To further characterize the selectivity, mechanism-of-action and therapeutic efficacy of the novel small molecule inhibitor, SKI-178. Using the state-of-the-art Cellular Thermal Shift Assay (CETSA) technique to detect "direct target engagement" of proteins intact cells, in vitro and in vivo assays, pharmacological assays and multiple mouse models of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Herein, we demonstrate that SKI-178 directly target engages both Sphingosine Kinase 1 and 2. We also present evidence that, in addition to its actions as a Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor, SKI-178 functions as a microtubule network disrupting agent both in vitro and in intact cells. Interestingly, we separately demonstrate that simultaneous SphK inhibition and microtubule disruption synergistically induces apoptosis in AML cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SKI-178 is well tolerated in normal healthy mice. Most importantly, we demonstrate that SKI-178 has therapeutic efficacy in several mouse models of AML. SKI-178 is a multi-targeted agent that functions both as an inhibitor of the SphKs as well as a disruptor of the microtubule network. SKI-178 induced apoptosis arises from a synergistic interaction of these two activities. SKI-178 is safe and effective in mouse models of AML, supporting its further development as a multi-targeted anti-cancer therapeutic agent.

  3. Therapeutic efficacy of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells transplantation against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Sohair R; Soliman, Amel M; El Ansary, Mervat; Elhamid, Samah Abd; Mohsen, Heba

    2017-06-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common clinical problem raising the urgent needs to develop new strategies for treatment. The present study investigated the therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord - mesenchymal stem cells (HUC-MSCs) transplantation against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats. Twenty four male Wistar rats were assigned into two main groups, sham group (control group) and I/R group. I/R group was injected in the tail vein with either phosphate buffer saline (PBS) or HUC-MSCs. The HUC-MSCs improved kidney injury induced by I/R as demonstrated by enhancement of the kidney function via decreasing serum levels of creatinine, urea and uric acid. The therapeutic efficacy of HUC-MSCs were found to be mediated through anti-oxidant activity as indicated by significant reduction in total malondialdehyde (MDA) and significant increment in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The present work suggests that HUC-MSCs may be an effective therapeutic agent against renal IRI. The recorded data showed improvement of renal functions and urine albumin in HUC-MSCs than IRI group with positive antioxidant efficacy of HUC-MSCs through scavenging free radicals and supporting the antioxidant enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The efficacy of endoscopic therapy in bleeding peptic ulcer patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Endotherapy is the primary modality for the control of bleeding from peptic ulceration. Objective. To assess the efficacy of endoscopic intervention for high-risk bleeding peptic ulcer disease and to benchmark our surgical and mortality rates. Methods. Two hundred and twenty-seven patients with peptic

  5. Clinical efficacy and safety of edaravone therapy in acute cerebral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of edaravone in the treatment of acute cerebral haemorrhage (ACH). Methods: This study recruited 120 patients who developed ACH. The patients were divided into control and treatment groups with 60 patients per group. The control group underwent conventional ...

  6. De-immunized and Functional Therapeutic (DeFT) versions of a long lasting recombinant alpha interferon for antiviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufarrege, Eduardo F; Giorgetti, Sofía; Etcheverrigaray, Marina; Terry, Frances; Martin, William; De Groot, Anne S

    2017-03-01

    Interferon α (IFN-α) exerts potent antiviral, immunomodulatory, and antiproliferative activity and have proven clinical utility in chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections. However, repeated IFN-α administration induces neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against the therapeutic in a significant number of patients. Associations between IFN-α immunogenicity and loss of efficacy have been described. So as to improve the in vivo biological efficacy of IFN-α, a long lasting hyperglycosylated protein (4N-IFN) derived from IFN-α2b wild type (WT-IFN) was developed. However, in silico analysis performed using established in silico methods revealed that 4N-IFN had more T cell epitopes than WT-IFN. In order to develop a safer and more efficient IFN therapy, we applied the DeFT (De-immunization of Functional Therapeutics) approach to producing functional, de-immunized versions of 4N-IFN. Using the OptiMatrix in silico tool in ISPRI, the 4N-IFN sequence was modified to reduce HLA binding potential of specific T cell epitopes. Following verification of predictions by HLA binding assays, eight modifications were selected and integrated in three variants: 4N-IFN(VAR1), (VAR2) and (VAR3). Two of the three variants (VAR1 and VAR3) retained anti-viral function and demonstrated reduced T-cell immunogenicity in terms of T-cell proliferation and Th1 and Th2 cytokine levels, when compared to controls (commercial NG-IFN (non-glycosylated), PEG-IFN, WT-IFN and 4N-IFN). It was previously demonstrated that N-glycosylation improved IFN-α pharmacokinetic properties. Here, we further reduce immunogenicity as measured in vitro using T cell assays and cytokine profiling by modifying the T cell epitope content of a protein (de-immunizing). Taking into consideration the present results and previously reported immunogenicity data for commercial IFN-α2b variants, 4N-IFN(VAR1) and 4N-IFN-4N(VAR3) appear to be promising candidates for improved IFN-α therapy of HCV and HBV. Copyright © 2017

  7. Electroconvulsive therapy-induced brain plasticity determines therapeutic outcome in mood disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukart, Juergen; Regen, Francesca; Kherif, Ferath; Colla, Michael; Bajbouj, Malek; Heuser, Isabella; Frackowiak, Richard S.; Draganski, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    There remains much scientific, clinical, and ethical controversy concerning the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for psychiatric disorders stemming from a lack of information and knowledge about how such treatment might work, given its nonspecific and spatially unfocused nature. The mode of action of ECT has even been ascribed to a “barbaric” form of placebo effect. Here we show differential, highly specific, spatially distributed effects of ECT on regional brain structure in two populations: patients with unipolar or bipolar disorder. Unipolar and bipolar disorders respond differentially to ECT and the associated local brain-volume changes, which occur in areas previously associated with these diseases, correlate with symptom severity and the therapeutic effect. Our unique evidence shows that electrophysical therapeutic effects, although applied generally, take on regional significance through interactions with brain pathophysiology. PMID:24379394

  8. Aging and stem cell therapy: AMPK as an applicable pharmacological target for rejuvenation of aged stem cells and achieving higher efficacy in stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorraminejad-Shirazi, Mohammadhossein; Farahmandnia, Mohammad; Kardeh, Bahareh; Estedlal, Alireza; Kardeh, Sina; Monabati, Ahmad

    2017-10-19

    In recent years, tissue regeneration has become a promising field for developing stem cell-based transplantation therapies for human patients. Adult stem cells are affected by the same aging mechanisms that involve somatic cells. One of the mechanisms involved in cellular aging is hyperactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and disruption of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Aging of stem cells results in their impaired regenerative capacity and depletion of stem cell pools in adult tissue, which results in lower efficacy of stem cell therapy. By utilizing an effective therapeutic intervention for aged stem cells, stem cell therapy can become more promising for future application. mTORC1 inhibition is a practical approach to preserve the stem cell pool. In this article, we review the dynamic interaction between sirtuin (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog) 1, AMPK, and mTORC1. We propose that using AMPK activators such as 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, A769662, metformin, and oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) are practical ways to be employed for achieving better optimized results in stem cell-based transplantation therapies. Copyright © 2017 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effectiveness of drama therapy on preparation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children suffering from cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Ilievová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The integral part of the treatment of pediatric oncological patients is a range of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. These procedures are often associated with the fear and anxiety of the suffering child. We investigated whether a psychological preparation through drama therapy and the therapeutic puppet may reduce the anxiety related to diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the preschool or early school children suffering from cancer.Methods: Twenty consecutive pediatric patients of preschool and early school age, with the diagnosis of lymphoblastic leukemia, were included in the study. The patients were alternatingly assigned to experimental or control group, and subjected or not subjected to drama therapy, respectively. We measured the changes in heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate as indicators of anxiety and fear, before and after the diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.Results: Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate in pediatric oncological patients before and after the diagnostic or therapeutic procedure were significantly lower in the experimental group of patients.Conclusion: Our results show that psychological preparation using drama therapy and therapeutic puppet reduced the fear and anxiety related to diagnostic or therapeutic procedures in pediatric oncological patients.Key words: drama therapy; therapeutic puppet; children; oncology; psychology 

  10. A Qualitative Exploration of Therapeutic Relationships from the Perspective of Six Children Receiving Speech-Language Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Robert; Crowley, Niamh; Oliviera, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Although some studies have explored the adult therapeutic relationship in speech-language pathology, few, if any, have examined it with regard to children. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic relationship in pediatric speech and language therapy, focusing on the child's experience. Accordingly, the study was qualitative and involved the…

  11. Efficacy of amodiaquine/artesunate combination therapy for uncomplicated malaria in children under five years in ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koram, Ka; Quaye, L; Abuaku, B

    2008-06-01

    In 2005, following several years of declining efficacy of chloroquine, the Ministry of Health recommended the use of Amodiaquine/Artesunate combination therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. A system of continuous monitoring of therapeutic responses has been established in 10 district hospitals across the country. The data gathered will enable National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) to respond to changes in the efficacy of the new treatment in a timely manner. To determine the 28 day therapeutic efficacy of Amodiaquine/Artesunate (AQ/AS) combination treatment in children with uncomplicated malaria in Ghana. Children aged 6 - 59 months attending clinic with signs/symptoms of uncomplicated malaria at 9 district hospitals (3 in each of the 3 eco-epidemiological zones of the country) were eligible for enrolment. Enrolled children were followed up after treatment for a total of 28 days to record the clinical and parasitological resolution of their malaria episode as well as any adverse drug reactions. Treatment resulted in rapid and complete cure in almost all the children; 99.3% 14 days after treatment and 93.0%, 28 days after treatment. The majority of treatment failures on D28 were seen in the 3 sites located in the forest zones (Sunyani, Bekwai and Begoro). There was no case of Early Treatment Failure at both D14 and D28 assessments. Adverse events (AE's) were minimal, less than 4%, with the most common complaint being vomiting. AQ/AS combination for uncomplicated malaria is efficacious and safe in children less than 5 years.

  12. Efficacy of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy in treatment of nasal inverted papilloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunjie; Yang, Yuguang; Zou, Xianbiao

    2013-12-01

    Evaluate the efficacy of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in medical treatment of nasal inverted papilloma (NIP). Three patients with nasal inverted papilloma were treated with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy at our department from April to September 2012. The efficacy and adverse effects of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy were evaluated during 6-8 months of follow-up medical examination. After treated with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy, the nasal inverted papillomas were removed. No recurrence was found during the 6-8 months of follow-up medical examination. The major adverse effects were mild erosion, pain, and exudation. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy appears to be an effective treatment of nasal inverted papilloma. It can clear the papilloma lesions and is well tolerated by the patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Therapeutic effect of scalp-acupuncture combined with exercise therapy on spastic cerebral palsy of the child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yu-Hong; Sun, Bao-Dong; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ru; Ji, Yuan-Hong

    2008-10-01

    To observe clinical therapeutic effect of scalp-acupuncture combined with exercise therapy on spastic cerebral palsy. Eighty children of spastic cerebral palsy were randomly divided into a scalp-acupuncture plus exercise therapy group and a exercise therapy group, 40 cases in each group. The scalp-acupuncture plus exercise therapy group were treated with scalp-acupuncture and exercise therapy, with Yundongqu (the motor area), Pinghengqu (the balance area), Ganjuequ (the sensory area), etc. selected for scalp-acupuncture, and puncture at main points Baihui (GV 20) and Sishencong (EX-HN 1) and exercise therapy. The exercise therapy group were treated by exercise therapy. Changes of GMFM scores and WeeFIM scores before and after treatment were compared. There were significant differences in GMFM scores and WeeFIM scores before and treatment in the scalp-acupuncture plus exercise therapy group (P exercise therapy group (P exercise therapy group and 72.5% in the exercise therapy group with a significant difference between the two groups (P exercise therapy can improve motor function of limits of children with spastic cerebral palsy, with therapeutic effect better than that of simple exercise therapy.

  14. Host modulation therapeutics in periodontics: role as an adjunctive periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinwari, Muhammad Saad; Tanwir, Farzeen; Hyder, Pakiza Raza; Bin Saeed, Muhammad Humza

    2014-09-01

    Host Modulation Therapy (HMT) is a treatment concept that reduces tissue destruction and stabilizes or even regenerates inflammatory tissue by modifying host response factors. It has been used for treating osteoporosis and arthritis for several decades. However, its use in dentistry has only been recently reported. The objective of this article is to present a review of the various literatures available on HMT and also its role as adjunct therapy in periodontics. For identifying studies for this review, a PUBMED search was carried out in 2013 for all articles published till December 2012. The search was restricted to English language publications only. Longitudinal prospective and retrospective studies were included in the search. The key words used were: Host Modulation Therapy; Sub antimicrobial dose doxycycline and Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy. The main outcomes sought were host modulation therapeutics in periodontics. Exclusion criteria included cross sectional studies, short case series as well as studies with short follow-up periods. There is a paucity of literature on HMT in periodontics although the only drug approved by United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a subantimicrobial dose of doxycycline (SDD) with highly predictable results as a host modulating agent in periodontal diseases and also an effective adjunctive therapy in various diseases of periodontium. However, more randomized controlled trials are needed to obtain clinical guidelines on the usage of other host modulating agents as adjunct as well as definite therapy for periodontal diseases. SDD is an effective adjunct therapy when used in dosage of 20mg twice daily for minimum 3 months duration in various periodontal diseases with predictable clinical outcomes. It is also recommended that future clinical research on anti cytokine drugs, chemically modified tetracycline and other HMT agents should be conducted so that new drugs are available with highly predictable results.

  15. Clinical and Histological Evaluation of the Efficacy of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy used in addition to Antibiotic Therapy in Pericoronitis Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Cennet Neslihan; Tunc, Serap Keskin; Erten, Remzi; Usumez, Aslıhan

    2018-02-24

    Although antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic therapy has been studied several times, there is no study investigating its efficacy on pericoronitis. This study aimed to determine whether antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combined with antibiotic therapy is clinically and histologically superior to antibiotic therapy alone in pericoronitis treatment. Patients (n = 40) with pericoronitis were divided into two groups (20 patients for each) to receive either antibiotic + indocyanine green + 810 nm wavelength diode laser (antimicrobial photodynamic therapy group) or antibiotic alone. Initial biopsy samples were obtained from the affected tissue of the patients at their first presentation to the clinic before any intervention. The second biopsy samples were obtained on the 3rd day of treatment in both groups from the tissue part not biopsied before; tooth extraction was then performed. All tissue samples were histologically examined to assess inflammatory cell response. Patients' pain (using Visual Analogue Scale) and lymphadenopathy (presence or absence) were clinically evaluated in the first 3 days and on the 7th day of treatment. In the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy group, 100% improvement was achieved regarding pain and lymphadenopathy at the end of the 7th day. Comparison of the inflammatory cell scores of the 2nd biopsy samples between the antibiotic alone and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy groups revealed a significant difference in favor of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy group. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combined with antibiotic therapy for pericoronitis treatment was found to be more successful as compared with the antibiotic therapy alone regarding clinical and histological outcomes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. What is the best pre-therapeutic dosimetry for successful radioiodine therapy of multifocal autonomy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotthardt, M.; Philipps Univ., Marburg; Rubner, C.; Bauhofer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Dose calculation for radioiodine therapy (RIT) of multifocal autonomies (MFA) is a problem as therapeutic outcome may be worse than in other kinds of autonomies. We compared different dosimetric concepts in our patients. Patients, methods: Data from 187 patients who had undergone RIT for MFA (Marinelli algorithm, volumetric compromise) were included in the study. For calculation, either a standard or a measured half-life had been used and the dosimetric compromise (150 Gy, total thyroid volume). Therapeutic activities were calculated by 2 alternative concepts and compared to therapeutic success achieved (concept of TcTUs-based calculation of autonomous volume with 300 Gy and TcTUs-based adaptation of target dose on total thyroid volume). Results: If a standard half-life is used, therapeutic success was achieved in 90.2% (hypothyroidism 23,1%, n=143). If a measured half-life was used the success rate was 93.1% (13,6% hypothyroidism, n=44). These differences were statistically not significant, neither for all patients together nor for subgroups eu-, hypo-, or hyperthyroid after therapy (ANOVA, all p>0.05). The alternative dosimetric concepts would have resulted either in significantly lower organ doses (TcTUs-based calculation of autonomous volume; 80.76±80.6 Gy versus 125.6±46.3 Gy; p<0.0001) or in systematic over-treatment with significantly higher doses (TcTUs-adapted concept; 164.2±101.7 Gy versus 125.6±46.3 Gy; p=0.0097). Conclusions: TcTUs-based determination of the autonomous volume should not be performed, the TcTUs-based adaptation of the target dose will only increase the rate of hypothyroidism. A standard half-life may be used in pre-therapeutic dosimetry for RIT of MFA. If so, individual therapeutic activities may be calculated based on thyroid size corrected to the 24h ITUs without using Marinelli's algorithm. (orig.)

  17. EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT TACTICS FOR INITIAL ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pleyko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate different tactics of initial antihypertensive therapy.Material and Methods. 120 patients with mild-to-moderate arterial hypertension were included and randomized into three groups: “A”, “B”, and “C”. 5 drugs from the main antihypertensive classes were used: indapamide, bisoprolol, amlodipine, fosinopril, and rilmenidine as well as fixed drug combination of fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide. Patients included in group “A” received initial therapy according to individual leading pathogenic variant of hypertension. Patients from group “B” received standard stepped antihypertensive therapy with gradual dose increase and further addition of second (third drug. Patients in group “C” were immediately administrated fixed drug combination and later added other drugs. Visits were scheduled after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, etc weeks of treatment up to achievement of target blood pressure (BP.Results. In group “A” 33 patients (82,5% achieved target BP after 6 visits, in group “B” - 37 patients (92,5% after 8 visits and in group “C” - 100% of patents after 6 visits. Thus, in group “C” there was less number of visits and respectively lower number of therapy changes in order to achieve target BP. No significant discrepancies between group “A” and “B” were observed.Conclusion. Tactics of initial antihypertensive therapy with usage of fixed drug combination results in more effective and fast achievement of target BP.

  18. Therapeutic efficacy of Artemether/Lumefantrine (Coartem® against Plasmodium falciparum in Kersa, South West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animut Abebe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemether/Lumefantrine (Coartem® has been used as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection since 2004 in Ethiopia. In the present study the therapeutic efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum infection at Kersa, Jima zone, South-west Ethiopia, has been assessed. Methods A 28 day therapeutic efficacy study was conducted between November 2007 and January 2008, in accordance with the 2003 WHO guidelines. Outcomes were classified as early treatment failure (ETF, late clinical failure (LCF, late parasitological failure (LPF and adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR. Results 90 patients were enrolled and completed the 28 day follow-up period after treatment with artemether/lumefantrine. Cure rate was very high, 96.3%, with 95% CI of 0.897-0.992 (PCR uncorrected. Age-stratified data showed adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR to be 100% for children under 5 and 97.4% and 87.3% for children aged 5-14, and adults, respectively. There was no early treatment failure (ETF in all age groups. Fever was significantly cleared on day 3 (P 0.05. No major side effect was observed in the study except the occurrence of mouth ulcers in 7% of the patients. Conclusions The current study proved the excellent therapeutic efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine in the study area and the value of using it. However, the proper dispensing and absorption of the drug need to be emphasized in order to utilize the drug for a longer period of time. This study recommends further study on the toxicity of the drug with particular emphasis on the development of oral ulcers in children.

  19. Therapeutic efficacy of amniotic membrane stem cells and adipose tissue stem cells in rats with chemically induced ovarian failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Hanan; Sabry, Dina; Elsetohy, Khaled; Fathy, Naglaa

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare between the therapeutic efficacies of human amniotic membrane-derived stem cells (hAM-MSCs) vs. adipose tissue derived stem cells (AD-MSCs) in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced ovarian failure in rats. Forty-eight adult female rats were included in the study; 10 rats were used as control group. Thirty-eight rats were injected with CTX to induce ovarian failure and divided into four groups: ovarian failure (IOF) (IOF group), IOF + phosphate buffer saline (PBS group), IOF + hAM-MSCs group and IOF + AD-MSCs group. Serum levels of FSH and estradiol (E2) were assessed. Histopathological examination of the ovarian tissues was performed and quantitative gene expressions of Oct-4, Stra8 and integrin beta-1 genes were conducted by quantitative real time PCR. Results showed that IOF and IOF + PBS rat groups exhibited decreased ovarian follicles, increased interstitial fibrosis with significant decrease of serum E2, significant increase serum FSH level and significant down-regulation of Stra8 and integrin beta-1. In hAM-MSCs and AD-MSCs rat groups, there were increased follicles and corpora with evident the presence of oocytes, significant increase in serum E2, significant decrease in serum FSH levels (in hAM-MSCs treated group only) and significant up-regulation of the three studied genes with higher levels in hAM-MSCs treated rats group when compared to AD-MSCs treated rats group. In Conclusion, administration of either hAM-derived MSCs or AD-MSCs exerts a significant therapeutic efficacy in chemotherapy induced ovarian insult in rats. hAM-MSCs exert higher therapeutic efficacy as compared to AD-MSCs. PMID:26966564

  20. Are ex vivo neutralising antibodies against IFN-beta always detrimental to therapeutic efficacy in multiple sclerosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, P S; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Bendtzen, K

    2007-01-01

    Neutralising antibodies (NAbs) against interferon (IFN)-beta reduce the treatment effect in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, data from pivotal trials of IFN-beta in MS suggest that NAb-positive patients may have a reduced relapse rate during the first six to 12 months of therapy. We collected...... significantly fewer relapses compared to patients who maintained the NAb-negative status, whereas the opposite was observed after month 6. This is in accordance with observations in randomised studies of the three different IFN-beta preparations, showing that patients who become NAb-positive have lower relapse...... rates during the first six or 12 months of therapy. We hypothesise that low affinity NAbs, present early after the start of IFN-beta therapy, though neutralising in vitro in sensitive assays increase the half-life of IFN-beta in vivo and, thereby, enhance the therapeutic effect. With affinity maturation...

  1. The efficacy of manual lymphatic drainage therapy in the management of limb edema secondary to reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Iltekin; Ozdemir, Ayten; Tan, Arif Kenan; Dincer, Kemal

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) therapy in edema secondary to the reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). A total of 34 patients were allocated randomly into two groups. All of the patients undertook nonstreoidal anti-inflammatory drug, physical therapy and therapeutic exercise program for 3 weeks. Patients in study group undertook MLD therapy additionally. Then the patients continued 2-month maintenance period with recommended home programs. Volumetric measurements pain scores and functional measurements were assessed at baseline, after treatment and 2 months after the treatment. After treatment, improvement in edema was statistically significant in the study group but not in the control group. At follow-up, with respect to baseline, improvements were not significant in both of the groups. Between the groups, difference of the percentage improvements in edema was statistically significant with superiority of MLD group after treatment, but not significant at follow-up. In this pilot study, MLD therapy was found to be beneficial in the management of edema resulted from RSD. Although the long-term results showed tendency towards improvement, the difference was not significant.

  2. Efficacy of toltrazuril as a metaphylactic and therapeutic treatment of coccidiosis in first-year grazing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epe, C; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G; Wirtherle, N; von der Heyden, V; Welz, C; Beening, J; Radeloff, I; Hellmann, K; Schnieder, T; Krieger, K

    2005-10-01

    A multicentric, placebo-controlled, randomised, blinded and blocked field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of toltrazuril (Baycox, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) in the treatment of coccidiosis in first-year grazing calves naturally infected with Eimeria spp. Three-hundred and thirty-one calves were enrolled in the study and allocated to one of two treatments at a ratio of 1:1. One hundred and sixty-seven animals were treated once orally with 15 mg/kg toltrazuril, and 164 animals served as placebo-treated controls. Two treatment regimes were compared, a metaphylactic (treatment on the day, or 1 day after, turn out) and a therapeutic treatment (4 or 7 days after turn out). During an observation period of 14 days after treatment the animals were clinically examined for diarrhoea and faecal samples were regularly assessed for Eimeria oocysts. Other possible causes of diarrhoea were excluded on the basis of microbiological and virological examination. Animals were predominantly infected with Eimeria alabamensis. Number of days with diarrhoea in animals treated with toltrazuril was significantly lower compared to the placebo-treated group (therapeutic treatment: P=0.0024; metaphylactic treatment: Ptoltrazuril- compared to the placebo-treated animals. Body weight in the toltrazuril-treated animals significantly exceeded that of the placebo-treated animals at the end of the observation period. Mean difference in body weight was higher in the metaphylactic (+7.3 kg) compared to the therapeutic treatment group (+3.4 kg). No adverse reactions were observed. The results indicate that toltrazuril is highly efficacious and safe in the metaphylactic and therapeutic treatment of coccidiosis caused by E. alabamensis in first-year grazing calves.

  3. Nano-engineered mesenchymal stem cells increase therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drug through true active tumor targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, Buddhadev; Sadhukha, Tanmoy; Panyam, Jayanth; Prabha, Swayam

    2018-03-28

    Tumor-targeted drug delivery has the potential to improve therapeutic efficacy and mitigate non-specific toxicity of anticancer drugs. However, current drug delivery approaches rely on inefficient passive accumulation of the drug carrier in the tumor. We have developed a unique, truly active tumor targeting strategy that relies on engineering mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with drug-loaded nanoparticles. Our studies using the A549 orthotopic lung tumor model show that nano-engineered MSCs carrying the anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) home to tumors and create cellular drug depots that release the drug payload over several days. Despite significantly lower doses of PTX, nano-engineered MSCs resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth and superior survival. Anticancer efficacy of nano-engineered MSCs was confirmed in immunocompetent C57BL/6 albino female mice bearing orthotopic Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LL/2-luc) tumors. Further, at doses that resulted in equivalent therapeutic efficacy, nano-engineered MSCs had no effect on white blood cell count whereas PTX solution and PTX nanoparticle treatments caused leukopenia. Biodistribution studies showed that nano-engineered MSCs resulted in greater than 9-fold higher AUClung of PTX (1.5 µg.day/g) than PTX solution and nanoparticles (0.2 and 0.1 µg.day/g tissue, respectively) in the target lung tumors. Furthermore, the lung-to-liver and the lung-to-spleen ratios of PTX were several folds higher for nano-engineered MSCs relative to those for PTX solution and nanoparticle groups, suggesting that nano-engineered MSCs demonstrate significantly less off-target deposition. In summary, our results demonstrate that nano-engineered MSCs can serve as an efficient carrier for tumor specific drug delivery and significantly improved anti-cancer efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Assessing delivery and quantifying efficacy of small interfering ribonucleic acid therapeutics in the skin using a dual-axis confocal microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Hyejun; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Emilio; Smith, Bryan R.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Kino, Gordon S.; Solgaard, Olav; Kaspar, Roger L.; Contag, Christopher H.

    2010-05-01

    Transgenic reporter mice and advances in imaging instrumentation are enabling real-time visualization of cellular mechanisms in living subjects and accelerating the development of novel therapies. Innovative confocal microscope designs are improving their utility for microscopic imaging of fluorescent reporters in living animals. We develop dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscopes for such in vivo studies and create mouse models where fluorescent proteins are expressed in the skin for the purpose of advancing skin therapeutics and transdermal delivery tools. Three-dimensional image volumes, through the different skin compartments of the epidermis and dermis, can be acquired in several seconds with the DAC microscope in living mice, and are comparable to histologic analyses of reporter protein expression patterns in skin sections. Intravital imaging with the DAC microscope further enables visualization of green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene expression in the skin over time, and quantification of transdermal delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and therapeutic efficacy. Visualization of transdermal delivery of nucleic acids will play an important role in the development of innovative strategies for treating skin pathologies.

  5. Efficacy of high therapeutic doses of iodine-131 in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and detectable serum thyroglobulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keizer, B. de; Rijk, P.P. van; Klerk, J.M.H. de [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Koppeschaar, H.P.F.; Zelissen, P.M.J.; Lips, C.J.M. [Dept. of Endocrinology, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Dijk, A. van [Dept. of Hospital Pharmacy, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2001-02-01

    Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is usually the best marker of residual or metastatic disease after treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. We evaluated the effect of so-called blind therapeutic doses of iodine-131 in patients with detectable Tg during suppressive levothyroxine treatment (Tg-on), and in patients with a negative diagnostic scintigram but detectable Tg during the hypothyroid phase (Tg-off). Twenty-two patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma underwent total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation. During the follow-up, six patients with detectable Tg-on and 16 patients with detectable Tg-off were identified. All patients were treated with a blind therapeutic dose of 7,400 MBq iodine-131. Diagnostic scintigrams were compared with post-treatment scintigrams. Tg-off was measured in 16 cases, 1 year after the administration of the blind therapeutic dose, at the time of the follow-up diagnostic scintigram. Six patients were followed up by Tg-on only. Post-therapy scintigrams revealed previously undiagnosed local recurrence or distant metastases in 13/22 cases (59%); the remaining nine post-therapy scintigrams were negative. At the time of the blind therapeutic doses, Tg-off values ranged from 8 to 608 {mu}g/l. After 1 year of follow-up, Tg-off decreased in 14/16 (88%) patients. In all patients who were followed by Tg-on only (n=6), a decrease in Tg values was measured. It is concluded that blind therapeutic doses resulted in a decrease in Tg levels in the majority of patients with suspected recurrence or metastases. The post-treatment scintigrams revealed pathological uptake in 59% of patients. (orig.)

  6. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prazeres AM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Angélica M Prazeres,1 Antônio L Nascimento,1 Leonardo F Fontenelle1,21Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Niterói, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder.Keywords: dysmorphophobia, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, literature review

  7. Predictors of ertapenem therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in hospitalized adults: the importance of renal insufficiency and urinary pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, B A; Giuga, J; Gerson, S

    2016-04-01

    In hospitalized adults acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) and catheter associated bacteriuria (CAB) may be treated with oral antibiotics. With AUC or CAB due to extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) + Gram negative bacilli (GNB) physicians often use intravenous therapy, e.g., ertapenem. We reviewed our recent experience in hospitalized adults with AUC and CAB treated with ertapenem. Therapeutic efficacy of ertapenem was assessed by decreased pyuria/bacteriuria, and elimination of the uropathogen. The effectiveness of ertapenem in the presence of renal insufficiency (CrCl 3 days) in patients with decreased renal function and alkaline urinary pH. We reviewed 45 hospitalized adults with AUC or CAB to determine if renal insufficiency and or alkaline urinary pH affected ertapenem efficacy. In the 33 adult hospitalized patients with AUC and 12 with CAB, we found that ertapenem was consistently effective in eliminating the GNB bacteriuria. In hospitalized adults, the presence of renal insufficiency and acid urine, bacteriuria was eliminated in renal insufficiency and an alkaline urine pH, the rapidity of cure, i.e., time to negative cultures (TTNC) was prolonged, i.e., > 3 days which has not been previously reported.

  8. Efficacy of therapeutic touch in treating pregnant inpatients who have a chemical dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larden, Cheryl N; Palmer, M Lynne; Janssen, Patricia

    2004-12-01

    Chemical dependency is known to complicate about 3.8% of pregnancies in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. In this study, 54 English-speaking, hospitalized women were randomly assigned to receive either (a) daily Therapeutic Touch over a 7-day period for 20 minutes each day, (b) shared activity with a registered nurse for 20 minutes over a 7-day period, or (c) standard ward care. Anxiety was measured using Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Withdrawal symptoms were measured using a standardized Symptom Checklist. Anxiety scores were significantly less on Days 1, 2, and 3 (pTherapeutic Touch. Therapeutic Touch may be of value as an adjunctive measure in the treatment of chemical dependency among pregnant women.

  9. The efficacy of sequential therapy in eradication of Helicobacter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication rates of standard triple, sequential and quadruple therapies including claritromycin regimes in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 patients with dyspeptic symptoms were enrolled to the study. The patients were randomized to four groups of treatment protocols.

  10. The Efficacy of Sequential Therapy in Eradication of Helicobacter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... pylori (H. pylori) eradication rates of standard triple, sequential and quadruple therapies including claritromycin regimes in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 patients with dyspeptic symptoms were enrolled to the study. The patients were randomized to four groups of treatment protocols.

  11. Efficacy of Postoperative Prophylactic Antibiotic Therapy in Third Molar Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    S, Rohit; Reddy B, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical extraction of mandibular third molar is the most frequently performed procedure in oral surgery. This procedure is associated with significant postoperative sequelae such as trismus, swelling, pain and infection. The need of antibiotic therapy during the removal of mandibular third molar has been a contentious issue.

  12. A meta-analysis of electroconvulsive therapy efficacy in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kho, King Han; van Vreeswijk, Michiel Floris; Simpson, Steve; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2003-01-01

    Recently published controlled studies comparing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with other treatments for depression offer the opportunity to perform a meta-analysis of ECT in depression. Fifteen studies were identified which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. From these controlled trials, 20 effect

  13. Efficacy of Six Weeks Infrared Radiation Therapy on Chronic Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    obtained before the study commenced, while individual patient's informed consent was duly obtained before their participation. Infrared therapy was applied to subjects' low back region in prone lying, after being tested for thermal sensation using test tubes containing cold and warm water respectively. The patients' low back.

  14. Efficacy of Reality Therapy and Cognitive Coping Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of Reality Therapy and Cognitive Coping Behaviour Training and their combination in handling psychological adjustment problems of the empty nesters after retirement. The study adopted the pre-test, posttest, control group, quasi experimental design using a 4x2 factorial matrix.

  15. Sustained efficacy of dialectical behaviour therapy for borderline personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Louisa M. C.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Stijnen, Theo; Verheul, Roel; van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) is considered one of the most promising treatments for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recently, we reported significantly positive effects of 12 months DBT on parasuicidal behaviour and impulsivity in a mixed group of female BPD patients with and without

  16. The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for Chinese people: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ting Kin; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung

    2017-11-01

    Over the past decade, cognitive behavioral therapy has been applied to an increasingly wider range of disorders and problems in Chinese societies. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the studies on cognitive behavioral therapy for Chinese clients. The purpose of this meta-analytic study was to examine the overall efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for Chinese people. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases, including Web of Science, PsycINFO and PubMed. Pooled mean effect sizes were calculated using the random-effects model. The literature search identified 55 studies with 6763 Chinese participants. The overall short-term effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on the primary outcome was medium in size. Effect sizes were medium for anxiety, depression/well-being and caregiving stress and small for psychotic symptoms and addictive behaviors. The effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on process variables, dysfunctional thoughts and coping, were in the small range. The overall longer-term effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on the primary outcome was medium in size. Moderator analyses showed that the short-term effect was stronger for culturally adapted cognitive behavioral therapy than for unadapted cognitive behavioral therapy. Type of primary outcome, type of control group, recruitment method, study design, the format of delivery and region were found to moderate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy. The findings of this study provide evidence for the overall efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for Chinese people and the benefit of cultural adaptation of cognitive behavioral therapy to Chinese culture.

  17. Combination of nitric oxide therapy, anti-oxidative therapy, low level laser therapy, plasma rich platelet therapy and stem cell therapy as a novel therapeutic application to manage the pain and treat many clinical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Salaheldin; Dickinson, Eva

    2014-02-01

    From hypertension to diabetes, cancer to HIV, stroke to memory loss and learning disorders to septic shock, male impotence to tuberculosis, there is probably no pathological condition where nitric oxide does not play an important role. Nitric oxide is an analgesic, immune-modulator, vasodilator, anti-apoptotic, growth modulator, angiogenetic, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and neuro-modulator. Because of the above actions of nitric oxide, many clinical conditions associated with abnormal Nitric oxide (NO) production and bioavailability. Our novel therapeutic approach is to restore the homeostasis of nitric oxide and replace the lost cells by combining nitric oxide therapy, anti-oxidative therapy, low level laser therapy, plasma rich platelet therapy and stem cell therapy.

  18. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy and therapeutic exercise for supraspinatus and biceps tendinopathies in 29 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, J J; Shaw, K K; Mison, M B; Perry, J A; Carr, A; Shultz, R

    2016-10-15

    Supraspinatus tendinopathy (ST) and biceps tendinopathy (BT) are common causes of forelimb lameness in large-breed dogs and have historically been treated with conservative management or surgery. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) and therapeutic exercise (TE) are thought to be treatment options for these conditions. The objectives of this study were to report the clinical presentations of dogs treated with ESWT for shoulder tendinopathies, to determine the association between shoulder lesion severity identified on ultrasonography or MRI and outcome, and to compare the outcomes of dogs treated with ESWT with and without TE. Medical records of 29 dogs diagnosed with shoulder tendinopathies and treated with ESWT were reviewed, and 24 dogs were diagnosed with either unilateral BT or BT and ST. None were found to have unilateral ST. Five dogs were diagnosed with bilateral disease. Eighty-five per cent of dogs had good or excellent outcomes determined by owner assessment 11-220 weeks after therapy. Outcomes were found to be better as tendon lesion severity increased (P=0.0497), regardless if ESWT was performed with or without TE (P=0.92). ESWT should be considered a safe primary therapeutic option for canine shoulder tendinopathies. Larger controlled prospective studies are needed to adequately assess these findings. British Veterinary Association.

  19. Therapeutic adherence and competence scales for Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy for adolescents with PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gutermann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of therapeutic adherence and competence is often neglected in psychotherapy research, particularly in children and adolescents; however, both variables are crucial for the interpretation of treatment effects. Objective: Our aim was to develop, adapt, and pilot two scales to assess therapeutic adherence and competence in a recent innovative program, Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy (D-CPT, for adolescents suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD after childhood abuse. Method: Two independent raters assessed 30 randomly selected sessions involving 12 D-CPT patients (age 13–20 years, M age=16.75, 91.67% female treated by 11 therapists within the pilot phase of a multicenter study. Results: Three experts confirmed the relevance and appropriateness of each item. All items and total scores for adherence (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]=0.76–1.00 and competence (ICC=0.78–0.98 yielded good to excellent inter-rater reliability. Cronbach's alpha was 0.59 for the adherence scale and 0.96 for the competence scale. Conclusions: The scales reliably assess adherence and competence in D-CPT for adolescent PTSD patients. The ratings can be helpful in the interpretation of treatment effects, the assessment of mediator variables, and the identification and training of therapeutic skills that are central to achieving good treatment outcomes. Both adherence and competence will be assessed as possible predictor variables for treatment success in future D-CPT trials.

  20. Preclinical imaging methods for assessing the safety and efficacy of regenerative medicine therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfe, Lauren; Brillant, Nathalie; Kumar, J. Dinesh; Ali, Noura; Alrumayh, Ahmed; Amali, Mohammed; Barbellion, Stephane; Jones, Vendula; Niemeijer, Marije; Potdevin, Sophie; Roussignol, Gautier; Vaganov, Anatoly; Barbaric, Ivana; Barrow, Michael; Burton, Neal C.; Connell, John; Dazzi, Francesco; Edsbagge, Josefina; French, Neil S.; Holder, Julie; Hutchinson, Claire; Jones, David R.; Kalber, Tammy; Lovatt, Cerys; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Patel, Sara; Patrick, P. Stephen; Piner, Jacqueline; Reinhardt, Jens; Ricci, Emanuelle; Sidaway, James; Stacey, Glyn N.; Starkey Lewis, Philip J.; Sullivan, Gareth; Taylor, Arthur; Wilm, Bettina; Poptani, Harish; Murray, Patricia; Goldring, Chris E. P.; Park, B. Kevin

    2017-10-01

    Regenerative medicine therapies hold enormous potential for a variety of currently incurable conditions with high unmet clinical need. Most progress in this field to date has been achieved with cell-based regenerative medicine therapies, with over a thousand clinical trials performed up to 2015. However, lack of adequate safety and efficacy data is currently limiting wider uptake of these therapies. To facilitate clinical translation, non-invasive in vivo imaging technologies that enable careful evaluation and characterisation of the administered cells and their effects on host tissues are critically required to evaluate their safety and efficacy in relevant preclinical models. This article reviews the most common imaging technologies available and how they can be applied to regenerative medicine research. We cover details of how each technology works, which cell labels are most appropriate for different applications, and the value of multi-modal imaging approaches to gain a comprehensive understanding of the responses to cell therapy in vivo.

  1. Therapeutic laryngoscopy during exercise: A novel non-surgical therapy for refractory EILO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, J Tod; Deardorff, Emily H; Fan, Elizabeth M; Johnston, Kristina L; Keever, Valerie L; Moore, Camille M; Bender, Bruce G

    2017-06-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) may affect as many as 6% of the adolescent population, with some patients experiencing symptoms refractory to conservative interventions. This report describes therapeutic laryngoscopy during exercise, a novel, non-surgical intervention that harnesses real-time laryngoscopy video as biofeedback to control laryngeal aperture during high-intensity exercise. Additionally, we quantitate patient-reported perceptions of procedure safety, tolerability, learning value, and effectiveness. Clinical EILO patients with symptoms refractory to conventional respiratory retraining and other therapies were referred for the procedure which features laryngoscopy video as biofeedback during serial physician-guided 1-min exercise sprints. We quantify perceptions of procedure safety, tolerability, learning value, and effectiveness through questionnaires offered to all patients as well as observers of the procedure. Forty-one patients and 37 parent observers were approached for feedback; 88% of patients and 95% of observers consented to participation. Patients and observers reported perceptions of safety and tolerability (81% and 86%, respectively), learning value (78% and 91%, respectively), and effectiveness (58% and 80%, respectively) with patient age predicting some responses. Seventy-five percent of patients noted that "Since the procedure, my breathing during exercise has improved," and 85% of this group noted that therapeutic laryngoscopy during exercise was "the most important therapy leading to my breathing improvement." The procedure also provided insight into the psychological experience of patients, a domain not clinically apparent prior to the procedure. Our data support further study of therapeutic laryngoscopy during exercise as a possible intervention for patients with refractory EILO. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:813-819. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. An experimental Toxoplasma gondii dose response challenge model to study therapeutic or vaccine efficacy in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.; Takumi, K.; Teunis, P.F.M.; Wisselink, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    High numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment are a risk factor to humans. The environmental contamination might be reduced by vaccinating the definitive host, cats. An experimental challenge model is necessary to quantitatively assess the efficacy of a vaccine or drug treatment.

  3. Efficacy of Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy in Frozen Shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Vahdatpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Frozen shoulder has always been considered important because of the impact on the quality-of-life and long period of illness. Therefore, the use of noninvasive and safe techniques that can speed up the healing process of the disease is important. Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial study on patients suffering from frozen shoulder who were referred to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences hospitals in 2011 and 2012. A total of 36 patients were enrolled in the study. Eligible patients were allocated into two groups. Intervention group received extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT once a week for 4 weeks. The control group received sham shockwave therapy once a week for 4 weeks. On the follow-up period, changes in individual performance and the amount of pain and disability were assessed by the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI questionnaire and the range of motion changes were assessed by a goniometer. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Variance analysis revealed a difference in the mean pain and disability score of the SPADI questionnaire, flexion, extension, and abduction, external rotation of involved shoulder between two groups before and after the shockwave therapy (P 0.05. Conclusions: The use of ESWT seems to have positive effects on treatment, quicker return to daily activities, and quality-of-life improvement on frozen shoulder.

  4. Signaling Рathway Blockers: Action Mechanism, Efficacy, Safety of Therapy for Patients with Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bakulev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the literature review, contemporary data on immune pathogenesis of psoriasis and the emergence of comorbid states against the background of systemic chronic inflammation among patients is discussed. On the example of the apremilast medical preparation, the information on a new class of therapeutic agents for the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis – “small molecules” is given, including their physicochemical properties and action mechanism, as well as on the key differences from immune-suppressive and genetically engineered biological preparations. Data on large-scale international randomised clinical trials of the efficacy and safety of the PDE4 inhibitor of apremilast among patients with moderate to severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis is presented. The published international clinical recommendations on the use of apremilast among patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, the criteria for evaluating the response to therapy, as well as the potential profile of patients for the use of apremilast in real clinical practice are discussed.

  5. Therapeutic efficacy of an oncolytic adenovirus containing RGD ligand in minor capsid protein IX and Fiber, Δ24DoubleRGD, in an ovarian cancer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton V Borovjagin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecological disease death despite advances in medicine. Therefore, novel strategies are required for ovarian cancer therapy. Conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds, genetically modified as anti-cancer therapeutics, are one of the most attractive candidate agents for cancer therapy. However, a paucity of coxsackie B virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR expression on the surface of ovarian cancer cells has impeded treatment of ovarian cancer using this approach.This study sought to engineer a CRAd with enhanced oncolytic ability in ovarian cancer cells, “Δ24DoubleRGD.” Δ24DoubleRGD carries an arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD motif incorporated into both fiber and capsid protein IX (pIX and its oncolytic efficacy was evaluated in ovarian cancer. In vitro analysis of cell viability showed that infection of ovarian cancer cells with Δ24DoubleRGD leads to increased cell killing relative to the control CRAds. Data from this study suggested that not only an increase in number of RGD motifs on the CRAd capsid, but also a change in the repertoir of targeted integrins could lead to enhanced oncolytic potency of Δ24DoubleRGD in ovarian cancer cells in vitro. In an intraperitoneal model of ovarian cancer, mice injected with Δ24DoubleRGD showed, however, a similar survival rate as mice treated with control CRAds.

  6. Radioimmunoassay of ferritin, CEA and prolactin for assessment of prognosis and efficacy of breast cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklyar, S.Yu.; Chebotareva, Eh.D.; Ganul, V.L.; Korolev, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    The levels of tumor markers - CEA, deritin and prolactin (the hormone of the anterior pituitary gland) were studied in the blood serum of 178 breast cancer patients in the menopause during combined therapy using a radioimmunoassay. This combination was shown to be informative for assessment of prognosis of disease and efficacy of antitumor therapy which was confirmed by clinical and x-ray findings and observation of a tumor process in breast cancer patients over a 5-year period

  7. Efficacy of cupping therapy in patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome-a randomised placebo controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lauche, Romy; Spitzer, Julia; Schwahn, Barbara; Ostermann, Thomas; Bernardy, Kathrin; Cramer, Holger; Dobos, Gustav; Langhorst, Jost

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to test the efficacy of cupping therapy to improve symptoms and quality of life in patients diagnosed with the fibromyalgia syndrome. Participants were randomly assigned to cupping therapy, sham or usual care. Cupping was administered five times at twice weekly intervals on the upper and lower back. The primary outcome measure was pain intensity at day 18. Secondary outcomes included functional disability, quality of life, fatigue and sleep quality as well as pressure pain se...

  8. Benzimidazoles Promote Anti-TNF Mediated Induction of Regulatory Macrophages and Enhance Therapeutic Efficacy in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildenberg, Manon E; Levin, Alon D; Ceroni, Alessandro; Guo, Zhen; Koelink, Pim J; Hakvoort, Theodorus B M; Westera, Liset; Bloemendaal, Felicia M; Brandse, Johannan F; Simmons, Alison; D'Haens, Geert R; Ebner, Daniel; van den Brink, Gijs R

    2017-12-04

    Regulatory macrophages play a critical role in tissue repair, and we have previously shown that anti-tumour necrosis factor [TNF] antibodies induce these macrophages in vitro and in vivo in IBD patients. The induction of regulatory macrophages can be potentiated using the combination of anti-TNF and thiopurines, consistent with the enhanced efficacy of this combination therapy described in clinical trials. As thiopurines are unfortunately associated with significant side effects, we here aimed to identify alternatives for combination therapy with anti-TNF, using the macrophage induction model as a screening tool. Mixed lymphocyte reactions were treated with anti-TNF and a library of 1600 drug compounds. Induction of CD14+CD206+ macrophages was analysed by flow cytometry. Positive hits were validated in vitro and in the T cell transfer model of colitis. Among the 98 compounds potentiating the induction of regulatory macrophages by anti-TNF were six benzimidazoles, including albendazole. Albendazole treatment in the presence of anti-TNF resulted in alterations in the tubulin skeleton and signalling though AMPK, which was required for the enhanced induction. Combination therapy also increased expression levels of the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10. In vivo, albendazole plus anti-TNF combination therapy was superior to monotherapy in a model of colitis, in terms of both induction of regulatory macrophages and improvement of clinical symptoms. Albendazole enhances the induction of regulatory macrophages by anti-TNF and potentiates clinical efficacy in murine colitis. Given its favourable safety profile, these data indicate that the repurposing of albendazole may be a novel option for anti-TNF combination therapy in IBD.

  9. The efficacy of surfactant replacement therapy in the growth restricted preterm infant: what is the evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul eMalhotra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surfactant replacement therapy (SRT is an integral part of management of preterm surfactant deficiency (respiratory distress syndrome, RDS. Its role in the management of RDS has been extensively studied. However its efficacy in the management of lung disease in preterm infants born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR has not been systematically studied.Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of exogenous surfactant replacement therapy in the management of preterm IUGR lung disease. Methods: A systematic search of all available randomised clinical trials (RCT of surfactant replacement therapy in preterm IUGR infants was done according to the standard Cochrane collaboration search strategy. Neonatal respiratory outcomes were compared between the preterm IUGR and appropriately-grown for gestational age (AGA preterm infant populations in eligible studies. Results: No study was identified which evaluated the efficacy or responsiveness of exogenous surfactant replacement therapy in preterm IUGR infants as compared to preterm AGA infants. The only study identified through the search strategy used small for gestational age (SGA; defined as less than 10th centile for birth weight as a proxy for IUGR. The RCT evaluated the efficacy or responsiveness of SRT in preterm SGA group as compared to AGA infants. The rate of intubation, severity of RDS, rate of surfactant administration, pulmonary air leaks and days on the ventilator did not differ between both groups. However, the requirement for prolonged nasal CPAP (p< 0.001, supplemental oxygen therapy (p <0.01 and the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 28 days and 36 weeks (both p<0.01 was greater in SGA infants. Discussion: There is currently insufficient data available to evaluate the efficacy of SRT in preterm IUGR lung disease. A variety of research strategies will be needed to enhance our understanding of the role and rationale for use of surfactant replacement therapy in preterm

  10. Application in the STRATHE trial of a score system to compare the efficacy and the tolerability of different therapeutic strategies in the management of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Waeber

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Bernard Waeber1, Jean-Jacques Mourad21Division de Physiopathologie Clinique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois et Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; 2Hôpital Avicienne, Bobigny, FranceAbstract: A score system integrating the evolution of efficacy and tolerability over time was applied to a subpopulation of the STRATHE trial, a trial performed according to a parallel group design, with a double-blind, random allocation to either a fixed-dose combination strategy (perindopril/indapamide 2 mg/0.625 mg, with the possibility to increase the dose to 3 mg/0.935 mg, and 4 mg/1.250 mg if needed, n = 118, a sequential monotherapy approach (atenolol 50 mg, followed by losartan 50 mg and amlodipine 5 mg if needed, n = 108, or a stepped-care strategy (valsartan 40 mg, followed by valsartan 80 mg and valsartan 80 mg+ hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg if needed, n = 103. The aim was to lower blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg within a 9-month period. The treatment could be adjusted after 3 and 6 months. Only patients in whom the study protocol was strictly applied were included in this analysis. At completion of the trial the total score averaged 13.1 ± 70.5 (mean ± SD using the fixed-dose combination strategy, compared with –7.2 ± 81.0 using the sequential monotherapy approach and –17.5 ± 76.4 using the stepped-care strategy. In conclusion, the use of a score system allows the comparison of antihypertensive therapeutic strategies, taking into account at the same time efficacy and tolerability. In the STRATHE trial the best results were observed with the fixed-dose combination containing low doses of an angiotensin enzyme converting inhibitor (perindopril and a diuretic (indapamide.Keywords: antihypertensive therapy, tolerability, antihypertensive efficacy, fixed-dose combination, sequential monotherapy, stepped-care treatment

  11. Trials to optimize dosimetry for 153Sm-EDTMP therapy to improve therapeutic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, G.; Moncayo-Naveda, R.; Oberlandstaetter, M.; Donnemiller, E.; Kendler, D.

    2001-01-01

    In a trial to improve results of therapy with 153 Sm-EDTMP for pain control in patients with disseminated bone metastases dosimetric studies were performed. Out of 30 treated patients 8 were selected for the study at random (5 breast Ca., 3 prostate Ca.). Whole body retention (WBR) of 99m Tc-DPD and 99m Tc-EDTMP was compared with WBR of 153 Sm-EDTMP. Volume of metastases and regional 99 m Tc-phosphonate uptake were assessed by SPECT and conjugated whole body scan data after phantom studies. Effective half-life was estimated also. Clinically results of pain control, side effects and changes of in vitro parameters were followed after therapy for up to 8 months. Therapy was performed in these patients with 55,5 MBq/kg body weight. Results showed an identical pattern of radioactivity distribution on 99 Tc-phosphonate and 153 Sm-EDTMP posttherapy scans, WBR of tracers and therapeutic agent was similar. Tumour volumes were 151-652 mL, count ratios metastases/normal bone 1,72-2,41, so that 6-50% of applied 153 Sm-EDTMP were concentrated in bone lesions. This gave dose estimates of 2,8-13,7 Gy in metastases. Evaluation of clinical results showed that the majority of very good results were observed in patients receiving > 10 Gy (n=3) while with lower doses only 1/4 responded very well. 1 patient was lost to follow-up due to death in the first month after therapy. Moderate and transient myelodepression (platelets) was seen in 3/7 patients without relation to Gy applied. As obviously 153 Sm concentration is not homogenous in bone metastases it can be assumed, that in border zones between tumour and bone 30-40 Gy can be delivered when 10 Gy are calculated for the whole lesion, which would explain the satisfactory therapeutic effect in our study. The dosimetric approach to 153 Sm-EDTMP therapy could necessitate the application of higher amounts of 153 Sm-EDTMP to reach adequate radiation doses in lesions without necessarily increasing risk of myelodepression and with even

  12. Design and Evaluation of Virtual Reality-Based Therapy Games with Dual Focus on Therapeutic Relevance and User Experience for Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lian Ting; Fehlings, Darcy; Biddiss, Elaine

    2014-06-01

    Virtual reality (VR)-based therapy for motor rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy (CP) is growing in prevalence. Although mainstream active videogames typically offer children an appealing user experience, they are not designed for therapeutic relevance. Conversely, rehabilitation-specific games often struggle to provide an immersive experience that sustains interest. This study aims to design and evaluate two VR-based therapy games for upper and lower limb rehabilitation and to evaluate their efficacy with dual focus on therapeutic relevance and user experience. Three occupational therapists, three physiotherapists, and eight children (8-12 years old), with CP Level I-III on the Gross Motor Function Classification System, evaluated two games for the Microsoft(®) (Redmond, WA) Kinect™ for Windows and completed the System Usability Scale (SUS), Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES), and custom feedback questionnaires. Children and therapists unanimously agreed on the enjoyment and therapeutic value of the games. Median scores on the PACES were high (6.24±0.95 on the 7-point scale). Therapists considered the system to be of average usability (50th percentile on the SUS). The most prevalent usability issue was detection errors distinguishing the child's movements from the supporting therapist's. The ability to adjust difficulty settings and to focus on targeted goals (e.g., elbow/shoulder extension, weight shifting) was highly valued by therapists. Engaging both therapists and children in a user-centered design approach enabled the development of two VR-based therapy games for upper and lower limb rehabilitation that are dually (a) engaging to the child and (b) therapeutically relevant.

  13. Signal integration: a framework for understanding the efficacy of therapeutics targeting the human EGFR family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, H. Michael; Brdlik, Cathleen M.; Schreiber, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The human EGFR (HER) family is essential for communication between many epithelial cancer cell types and the tumor microenvironment. Therapeutics targeting the HER family have demonstrated clinical success in the treatment of diverse epithelial cancers. Here we propose that the success of HER family–targeted monoclonal antibodies in cancer results from their ability to interfere with HER family consolidation of signals initiated by a multitude of other receptor systems. Ligand/receptor systems that initiate these signals include cytokine receptors, chemokine receptors, TLRs, GPCRs, and integrins. We further extrapolate that improvements in cancer therapeutics targeting the HER family are likely to incorporate mechanisms that block or reverse stromal support of malignant progression by isolating the HER family from autocrine and stromal influences. PMID:18982164

  14. Nanotechnological advances for cutaneous release of tretinoin: an approach to minimize side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raminelli, Ana Claudia Pompeu; Romero, Valeria; Semreen, Mohammad H; Leonardi, Gislaine Ricci

    2018-03-12

    The clinical efficacy of the topical tretinoin is widely studied and has been well established for many therapeutic interventions, among some, photoaging, acne, and melasma. However, the side effects, mainly cutaneous irritation, erythema, xerosis and peeling, remain major obstacle to the patient compliance. Besides, the insight regarding the drug delivery profile is essential to understand the therapeutic action of the drug. Herein we highlight further advances and an update on tretinoin delivery systems such as liposomes, niosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, cyclodextrins, nanostructured polymers and other technological systems that reduce its side effects and improve the permeation profile to potentiate efficacy and drug safety on the skin. Pharmaceutical preparations were developed and evaluated for permeability in in vitro models using pig ear, snake, mouse and human skin, and potential for irritation was also verified using release systems for tretinoin and compared to available commercial formulations. Overall results indicated the composition, charge and size of the system influences the tretinoin delivery, modulating the type of release and its retention. Small unilamellar vesicles promoted greater cutaneous delivery of tretinoin. Negative charge, for both liposomes and niosomes, can improve pig skin hydration as well as the tretinoin retention. The quantity of solid lipids and the type of oil used in the composition of solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers affected percutaneous drug delivery. As evident from the literature, the tretinoin technological delivery systems consist an innovative and potential management for increasing the patient compliance presenting safety and efficacy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Therapeutics for Graft-versus-Host Disease: From Conventional Therapies to Novel Virotherapeutic Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Y. Villa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT has a curative potential for many hematologic malignancies and blood diseases. However, the success of allo-HSCT is limited by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, an immunological syndrome that involves inflammation and tissue damage mediated by donor lymphocytes. Despite immune suppression, GVHD is highly incident even after allo-HSCT using human leukocyte antigen (HLA-matched donors. Therefore, alternative and more effective therapies are needed to prevent or control GVHD while preserving the beneficial graft-versus-cancer (GVC effects against residual disease. Among novel therapeutics for GVHD, oncolytic viruses such as myxoma virus (MYXV are receiving increased attention due to their dual role in controlling GVHD while preserving or augmenting GVC. This review focuses on the molecular basis of GVHD, as well as state-of-the-art advances in developing novel therapies to prevent or control GVHD while minimizing impact on GVC. Recent literature regarding conventional and the emerging therapies are summarized, with special emphasis on virotherapy to prevent GVHD. Recent advances using preclinical models with oncolytic viruses such as MYXV to ameliorate the deleterious consequences of GVHD, while maintaining or improving the anti-cancer benefits of GVC will be reviewed.

  16. Enzymatic Inactivation of Endogenous IgG by IdeS Enhances Therapeutic Antibody Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järnum, Sofia; Runström, Anna; Bockermann, Robert; Winstedt, Lena; Crispin, Max; Kjellman, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Endogenous plasma IgG sets an immunologic threshold that dictates the activity of tumor-directed therapeutic antibodies. Saturation of cellular antibody receptors by endogenous antibody limits antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). Here, we show how enzymatic cleavage of IgG using the bacterial enzyme IdeS can be utilized to empty both high and low affinity Fcγ-receptors and clear the entire endogenous antibody pool. Using in vitro models, tumor animal models as well as ex vivo analysis of sera collected during a previous clinical trial with IdeS, we show how clearing of competing plasma antibody levels with IdeS unblocks cellular antibody receptors. We show that therapeutic antibodies against breast cancer (trastuzumab), colon cancer (cetuximab), and lymphomas (rituximab and alemtuzumab) can be potentiated when endogenous IgG is removed. Overall, IdeS is shown to be a potent tool to reboot the human antibody repertoire and to generate a window to preferentially load therapeutic antibodies onto effector cells and thereby create an armada of dedicated tumor-seeking immune cells. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(9); 1887-97. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Efficacy, acceptability and cost effectiveness of four therapeutic agents for treatment of scabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Raheem, Talal A; Méabed, Eman M H; Nasef, Ghada A; Abdel Wahed, Wafaa Y; Rohaim, Rania M A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate four drug regimens for treatment of scabies as regard their efficacy, acceptability and cost effectiveness. Two hundred cases with ordinary scabies were randomized into four groups. First group received ivermectin 200 μg/kg body weight single oral dose, repeated after one week. The second received benzyl benzoate 20% cream. The third received permethrin 2.5%-5% lotion, whereas the fourth group received 5-10% sulfur ointment. Topical treatments were applied for five consecutive nights. Patients were followed up for two weeks for cure rate and adverse effects. At the end of the study, permethrin provided a significant efficacy of 88% and acceptability in 100% of cases, but had higher cost to treat one case (20.25 LE). Ivermectin provided efficacy and acceptability rates of 84% and 96%, respectively, and had a cheaper cost (9.5 LE). Benzyl benzoate provided 80% for both rates and was the cheapest drug. Sulfur ointment provided the least rates, and it was the most expensive. Treatment choice will depend on the age, the general condition of cases, patient compliance to topical treatment and his ability to stick to its roles, and the economic condition of the patient.

  18. The Efficacy of Cardiac Anti-miR-208a Therapy Is Stress Dependent

    OpenAIRE

    Eding, Joep E.C.; Demkes, Charlotte J.; Lynch, Joshua M.; Seto, Anita G.; Montgomery, Rusty L.; Semus, Hillary M.; Jackson, Aimee L.; Isabelle, Marc; Chimenti, Stefano; van Rooij, Eva

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of biology and disease. Recent animal efficacy studies validate the therapeutic benefit of miRNA modulation and underscore the therapeutic value of miRNA-targeting oligonucleotides. However, whether disease conditions (stress) influence the pharmacological effects of an anti-miR is currently unknown. To study the effect of disease on target regulation after anti-miR treatment, we injected animals with anti-miR-208a, a synthetic oligonucleotide that ...

  19. Comparing the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Hypnosis Therapy Pain Self-Efficacy and Pain Severity in Girls with Primary Dysmenorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    F Farshbaf Manei Sefat; A Abolghasemi; U Barahmand; N Hajloo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Background & aim: Menstruation as an important issue in adolescence and menstrual pain is a common problem in adolescents. Regarding the relationship between pain severity and  pain self-efficacy, this study aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnosis therapy on pain and pain self-efficacy in girls with primary dysmenorrhea.   Methods: The method of research is Quasi experimental and research design is pretes...

  20. Antibiotic therapy versus appendicectomy in uncomplicated acute appendicitis in terms of efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, M.A.; Nazeer, T.B.; Aziz, O.B.A.; Asad, T.; Dar, Z.S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare antibiotic therapy and appendectomy in uncomplicated acute appendicitis in terms of efficacy. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Surgical Ward Forward Treatment Centre (FTC), 5 Mountain Medical Battalion Forward Kahuta Azad Jammu Kashmir (AJK), from Oct 2011 to Mar 2013. Material and Methods: A total of 103 patients with clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA) were admitted during the duration of study and divided into two groups by consecutive sampling. The antibiotic group consisted of 51 patients who received intravenous antibiotics for 48 hours and oral antibiotics for another 8 days. The appendectomy group comprised of 52 patients who all underwent standard appendectomy. All the patients were followed up at 1 month and 1 year for assessing efficacy and post treatment complications. Results: The efficacy of antibiotic treatment is 90.625 percent as compared to appendectomy which was 88.46 percent (p=0.759) at 1 month follow up after treatment. At one year post treatment, the comparison between the efficacy of antibiotic therapy (71.87 percent) and appendectomy (87.14 percent) remains statistically insignificant (p=0.055). Conclusion: Antibiotic therapy is comparable to appendectomy in AA in terms of efficacy at 1 month and 1 year post treatment. (author)

  1. ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION IN YOUNG PEOPLE: EFFICACY OF SYMPATHOLYTIC THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Nikitina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effect of imidasoline agonist, rilmenidine (Albarel, on 24-hour blood pressure (BP profile and autonomic regulation of cardiovascular system in young patients with arterial hypertension (HT and exogenous constitutional obesity (ECO.Material and methods. The study included 80 men aged 18-32 ( average age 20,5 years, including 34 patients with HT and normal body weight, 36 patients with HT and ECO, 10 healthy men as a control group. All hypertensive patients were treated with rilmenidine 1-2 mg daily during 12 weeks. BP 24-hour profile and heart rate variability (HRV were estimated before and after therapy.Results. Rilmenidine monotherapy resulted in significant reduction in average 24-hour, day-time and night-time BP as well as indices of BP loading in both groups. Indices of HRV proved the initial sympathetic overdrive among hypertensive patients especially among those with ECO. This sympathetic overdrive significantly reduced after 12 weeks of therapy.Conclusion. Rilmenidine effectively controls BP and reduces sympathetic system overdrive in young hypertensive patients with ECO.

  2. Pathway to Efficacy: Recognizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as an Underlying Theory for Adventure Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Mark C.

    2003-01-01

    Adventure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy share elements, including transformation of distorted thinking patterns, a focus on current and future functioning, consideration of the counselor-client relationship, and the use of stress in the change process. Recognizing cognitive behavioral therapy as an empirically sound theory underlying…

  3. Acupuncture therapy: mechanism of action, efficacy, and safety: a potential intervention for psychogenic disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Scientific bases for the mechanism of action of acupuncture in the treatment of pain and the pathogenic mechanism of acupuncture points are briefly summarized. The efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy is discussed based on the results of German clinical trials. A conclusion on the role for acupuncture in the treatment of psychogenic disorders could not be reached. PMID:24444292

  4. The Efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Chinese Families: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Sin, Tammy C. S.; Choi, Siu-yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the efficacy of the Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in Hong Kong Chinese families, using randomized controlled trial design. Methods: The participants included 111 Hong Kong Chinese parents with children aged 2--7 years old, who were randomized into the intervention group (n = 54) and control group (n…

  5. Efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Chinese ADHD Children: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Ng, Gene S. H.; Choi, S. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in Chinese children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD features. Methods: This study adopted a randomized controlled trial design without blinding. Participants were randomized into either the intervention group (n = 32) and…

  6. Efficacy of six weeks infrared radiation therapy on chronic low back ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of six weeks infrared radiation therapy on pain intensity and functional disability index in subjects suffering from ... pain level and functional disability scores were assessed using the lO point numerical rating pain scale and the Oswestry disability index questionnaire.

  7. Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrecque, Joane; Marchand, Andre; Dugas, Michel J.; Letarte, Andree

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by combining treatment strategies for both disorders. A single-case, multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Three participants with primary PDA and secondary…

  8. Insufficient scientific evidence for efficacy of widely used electrotherapy, laser therapy, and ultrasound treatment in physiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouter, L M

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch Health Council recently published a report on the efficacy of electrotherapy, laser therapy and ultrasound treatment for musculoskeletal disorders. The assessment was based on three systematic reviews, including 169 randomized clinical trials, and focused on a best-evidence synthesis.

  9. Evidence of the efficacy for occupational therapy in different conditions: an overview of systematic reviews.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Leemrijse, C.J.; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the research evidence available from systematic reviews of the efficacy of occupational therapy (OT) for practitioners, researchers, purchasing organizations and policy-makers. DATA SOURCE: The search for systematic reviews was conducted in PubMed and the Cochrane Library

  10. Moving from Efficacy to Effectiveness in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Psychosis: A Randomized Clinical Practice Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Tania M.; Ziegler, Michael; Mehl, Stephanie; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Lullmann, Eva; Westermann, Stefan; Rief, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Randomized controlled trials have attested the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing psychotic symptoms. Now, studies are needed to investigate its effectiveness in routine clinical practice settings. Method: Eighty patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who were seeking outpatient treatment were randomized…

  11. Efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy for treatment of dental phobia: a randomized control trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghav, K.; Van Wijk, A.J.; Abdullah, F.; Islam, M.N.; Bernatchez, M.; De Jongh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) is found to be a promising and a viable alternative for in vivo exposure in the treatment of specific phobias. However, its usefulness for treating dental phobia is unexplored. The aims of the present study are to determine: (a) the efficacy of

  12. Efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies: a single centre observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beales Ian LP

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens have been described. There are little data reporting their efficacy or integration in routine clinical practice. The overall results of eradication therapy in a cohort of patients are described and an algorithm for management outlined. Methods 469 patients receiving eradication therapy in routine clinical practice were evaluated. The successes of individual regimes as first, second and third line therapy were determined. Results Overall success after one, two and three courses of therapy were 73% (95% confidence intervals 69–77%, 94% (91–96% and 98% (97–99% respectively. 10 different regimens, including many non-recommended ones were used as primary therapy. Ranitidine bismuth citrate-amoxicillin-clarithromycin triple therapy (94.8%, 90–99% was significantly more effective than any other combination as primary therapy, including all proton pump inhibitor based triple therapies. Quadruple therapy with bismuth chelate-proton pump inhibitor-tetracycline and a nitroimidazole (70%, 52–88% and ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple therapy (73%, 56–90% where more effective second line combinations than proton pump inhibitor-triple therapies (37.5%, 12–58%. Third line therapy directed by the results of sensitivity testing improved eradication compared to further empirical antibiotics. The use of a proton pump inhibitor with clarithromycin and a nitroimidazole as initial therapy was associated with a significantly worse overall eradication rate than other combinations. Conclusions Helicobacter pylori eradication rates can be maximised by using ranitidine bismuth citrate-clarithromycin-amoxicillin containing triple therapy, followed by bismuth and nitroimidazle containing second-line therapy, with third line combinations directed by sensitivity testing. Proton pump inhibitor-clarithromycin-metronidazole combinations should be avoided.

  13. The use and efficacy of continuous glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes treated with insulin pump therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battelino, T; Conget, I; Olsen, B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this multicentre, randomised, controlled crossover study was to determine the efficacy of adding continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to insulin pump therapy (CSII) in type 1 diabetes.......The aim of this multicentre, randomised, controlled crossover study was to determine the efficacy of adding continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to insulin pump therapy (CSII) in type 1 diabetes....

  14. Comparison of the efficacy of physical therapy and corticosteroid injection in the treatment of pes anserine tendino-bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarifakioglu, Banu; Afsar, Sevgi Ikbali; Yalbuzdag, Seniz Akcay; Ustaömer, Kubra; Bayramoğlu, Meral

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aims of this study were twofold. The first was to compare the functional capacity and pain of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA), with or without pes anserine tendino-bursitis (PATB). The second is to compare the efficacy of two treatment methods (physical therapy and corticosteroid injection) for patients with PATB. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty patient with KOA and PATB (Group 1) and 57 patients with KOA but without PATB (Group 2) were enrolled in the study. The patients' visual analog scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) scores and three-meter timed-up and go scores were measured. The PATB group was randomly divided into two groups (Group A and B). Physical therapy (PT) modalities were applied to the first group (Group A), and the second group (Group B) received corticosteroid injections to the pes anserine area. Eight weeks later, patients' parameters were measured again. [Results] Initial WOMAC scores and timed up-and-go times were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2. Both treatments resulted in significant improvements in all measured parameters, but no significant difference was detected between Group A and B. [Conclusion] Patients with PATB tend to have more severe pain, more altered functionality, and greater disability than those with KOA but without PATB. Both corticosteroid injection and PT are effective methods of treatment for PATB. Injection therapy can be considered an effective, inexpensive and fast therapeutic method.

  15. Therapeutic Effects of Horseback Riding Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Cara N.; Case-Smith, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review examined the efficacy of hippotherapy or therapeutic horseback riding (THR) on motor outcomes in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Databases were searched for clinical trials of hippotherapy or THR for children with CP. Results: Nine articles were included in this review. Although the current level of…

  16. Zonisamide efficacy as adjunctive therapy in children with refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Parvaneh; Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Bakhshandeh Bali, Mohammad Kazem; Nasehi, Mohammad Mahdi; Taheri Otaghsara, Seyedeh Mohadeseh; Taghdiri, Mohammad Mahdi; Ghofrani, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of epileptic children do not achieve complete seizure improvement. Zonisamide is a new antiepileptic drug which is effective as adjunctive therapy in treatment of intractable partial seizures. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of Zonisamide in epileptic children. From November 2011 until October 2012, 68 children who referred to Children's Medical Center and Mofid Children Hospital due to refractory epilepsy (failure of seizure control with the use of two or more anticonvulsant drugs) entered the study. The patients were treated with Zonisamide by dose of 2- 12 mg/kg daily in addition to the previous medication. We followed the children every three to four-weeks intervals based on daily frequency, severity and duration of seizures. During the follow-up equal and more than fifty percent reduction in seizure frequency or severity known as response to the drug. In this study 68 patients were examined that 61 children reached the last stage.35 (57.4%) were male and 26 (42.6%) patients were female. After first and six months of Zonisamide administration daily seizure frequency decreased to 2.95±3.54 and 3.73±3.5 respectively. There was significant difference between seizure frequency in first and six month after Zonisamide toward initial attacks. After six months ZNS therapy a little side effects were created in 10 patients (16.4%) including stuttering(4.9%), decreased appetite (4.9%), hallucination (1.6%), dizziness(1.6%), blurred vision(1.6%) and suspiring(1.6%) as all of them eliminated later dosage reduction. This study confirms the short term efficacy and safety of Zonisamide in children with refractory epilepsies.

  17. Efficacy of femtosecond lasers for application of acupuncture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Mika; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Hatano, Naoya; Sugano, Aki; Ito, Akihiko; Takaoka, Yutaka

    2017-12-01

    Acupuncture treatment utilizes the stimulation of metal acupuncture needles that are manually inserted into a living body. In the last decades, laser light has been used as an alternative to needles to stimulate acupuncture points. We previously reported suppression of myostatin (Mstn) gene expression in skeletal muscle by means of femtosecond laser (FL) irradiation, after electroacupuncture, in which acupuncture needles are stimulated with a low-frequency microcurrent. The purpose of the study here was to investigate the efficacy of FL irradiation in mouse skeletal muscle with regard to protein synthesis. After irradiation of the hindlimbs, we first analyzed Mstn gene expression and Mstn protein level in the skeletal muscle. We then evaluated phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream target 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K). The results showed that FL irradiation significantly reduced the amount of Mstn protein and enhanced the phosphorylation of p70S6K in of the mTOR/S6K signaling pathway. We suggest that FL irradiation activated the protein synthetic pathway in the skeletal muscle. In conclusion, we determined that FL irradiation can serve as an alternative for acupuncture needles and has the potential of being a new non-invasive acupuncture treatment of skeletal muscle.

  18. Photodynamic therapy as a local therapeutic adjunct for the treatment of vertebral metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Albert; Burch, Shane; Akens, Margarete; Won, Emily; Lo, Victor; Wise-Milestone, Lisa; Bisland, Stuart; Theriault, Aimee; Niu, Carolyn; Wilson, Brian C.; Whyne, Cari

    2013-03-01

    Metastatic cancer causes the majority of tumors in bone, most frequently detected in the spinal column. Skeletal complications cause pain and neurologic impairment. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used to treat a variety of cancers. Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) strategies may allow targeted light application essential for PDT within bone structures. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an update on pre-clinical status as well as early clinical experience of a Phase I clinical trial on vertebral PDT. A pre-clinical (rnu/rnu rat) vertebral metastasis model of osteolytic (MT-1 breast cancer) was optimized and used to evaluate the effect of vertebral PDT. PDT alone and in combination with other standard local (radiation therapy, RT) and systemic (bisphosphonates, BP) therapies was evaluated through bioluminescence imaging, micro-CT based stereology, histology, and biomechanical testing. Single PDT treatment (photosensitizer BPD-MA, 690nm light) ablated tumor tissue in targeted vertebrae. PDT led to significant increases in bone structural properties, with greatest benefits observed from combined BP+PDT therapy: 76% and 19% increases in bone volume fraction in treated tumor-bearing and healthy untreated controls, respectively. Similar synergistic improvements (but of lesser magnitude) were found in combined PDT+RT treatments. The safety and feasibility of MIS+PDT were evaluated in scale-up animal studies, refining surgical technique for clinical translation. Following appropriate institutional review board as well as Health Canada approval, 5 patients (light only control group) have undergone protocoled treatment to date. These patients have guided further refinement of human therapeutic application from a laser delivery and vertebral bone access perspective.

  19. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Angélica M; Nascimento, Antônio L; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder.

  20. Enhancing the Breadth and Efficacy of Therapeutic Vaccines for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    P. Rocca -Serra, P. T. Spellman, H. C. Causton, A. Farne, E. Holloway, R. A. Irizarry, J . Liu, D. S. Maier, M. Miller, K. Petersen, J . Quackenbush, G...REFERENCES: [1] A. J . Zajac, K. Murali-Krishna, J . N. Blattman, and R. Ahmed, “Therapeutic vaccination against chronic viral infection: the...importance of cooperation between CD4+ and CD8+ T cells,” Curr. Opin. Immunol., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 444–449, Aug. 1998. [2] R. J . Simpson

  1. Novel therapeutic strategies for degenerative disc disease: Review of cell biology and intervertebral disc cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph; Moore, Caitlyn A; Kim, Keemberly; Karim, Azim; Smith, Kevin; Barbosa, Zonia; Van Eps, Jeffrey; Rameshwar, Pranela; Weiner, Bradley

    2018-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration is a disease of the discs connecting adjoining vertebrae in which structural damage leads to loss of disc integrity. Degeneration of the disc can be a normal process of ageing, but can also be precipitated by other factors. Literature has made substantial progress in understanding the biological basis of intervertebral disc, which is reviewed here. Current medical and surgical management strategies have shortcomings that do not lend promise to be effective solutions in the coming years. With advances in understanding the cell biology and characteristics of the intervertebral disc at the molecular and cellular level that have been made, alternative strategies for addressing disc pathology can be discovered. A brief overview of the anatomic, cellular, and molecular structure of the intervertebral disc is provided as well as cellular and molecular pathophysiology surrounding intervertebral disc degeneration. Potential therapeutic strategies involving stem cell, protein, and genetic therapy for intervertebral disc degeneration are further discussed.

  2. Efficacy and safety of single versus dual antiplatelet therapy for coiling of unruptured aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Yusuke; Satow, Tetsu; Takagi, Toshinori; Murao, Kenichi; Miyamoto, Susumu; Iihara, Koji

    2013-07-01

    Although the efficacy of antiplatelet therapy for coiling of unruptured cerebral aneurysms has been reported, regimens for this therapy are not yet well established. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze correlations among the modes of antiplatelet use, aneurysmal configuration, coiling methods, and complications to elucidate the optimal antiplatelet therapy for coiling. The study population comprised 154 patients with unruptured aneurysms who underwent coiling with antiplatelet therapy at our institution between 2001 and 2009. The patients were categorized by mode of antiplatelet therapy (single [n = 64] or dual [n = 90]), neck size (wide [n = 80] or narrow [n = 74]), and technique used (simple [n = 42] or adjunctive [n = 112]). The incidences of hemorrhagic/ischemic complications and abnormalities on postprocedural diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in each group were statistically assessed. Hemorrhagic complications occurred in 1 case (1.5%) with single antiplatelet therapy and in 2 cases (2.2%) with dual antiplatelet therapy. Symptomatic ischemic complications occurred in 5 cases (7.8%) with single therapy and in 4 cases (4.4%) with dual therapy. Abnormalities were detected by DWI in 27 cases (42%) with single therapy and in 31 cases (34%) with dual therapy. No significant difference was found between modes of antiplatelet therapy even when the technique used was taken into account. In cases of wide neck, however, there were significant differences in the rate of symptomatic ischemic complications (single, 21.7%; dual, 3.5%; P = .014) and DWI abnormalities (single, 37.8%; dual, 20.9%; P = .048). Our data suggest that dual antiplatelet therapy may better prevent ischemic complications from coiling for wide-necked aneurysms compared with single antiplatelet therapy. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The efficacy of maggot debridement therapy - a review of comparative clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarchi, K.; Jemec, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, maggot debridement therapy (MDT) has been recognized by many clinicians as a potential adjunct to conventional therapy, and many patients with non healing, chronic ulcers have been treated. Numerous case reports and case series have described the successful use of MDT...... in a variety of ulcers. However, comparative clinical trials and in particular randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of MDT are sparse. A systematic search in the literature showed three randomized clinical trials and five non randomized studies evaluating the efficacy of sterile Lucilia...... sericata applied on ulcers with various aetiologies. Of these, seven studies had debridement and/or healing as an outcome variable. When evaluating maggots as debriding agents, the studies report MDT as being significantly more effective than hydrogel or a mixture of conventional therapy modalities...

  4. [Writing therapy after traumatic events: therapeutic approaches and mechanisms of change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaevelsrud, Christine; Böttche, Maria

    2013-09-01

    The (written) disclosure of information, thoughts and emotions of individually significant tops is associated with positive effects on well-being and the psychological health. The applicability of expressive writing as a psychotherapeutic intervention for stress reactions after stressful/traumatic life events were also intensely discussed in the clinical context. However, structural and content-related variation of the initial writing paradigm resulted in significantly different effects on general psychological health and posttraumatic stress symptoms.This overview provides current findings to application and efficacy of expressive writing respectively writing therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Mechanisms of expressive writing (inhibition, habituation, construction of a coherent narrative, emotion regulation, social integration) are analyzed with regard to their relevance concerning PTSD. Finally, potentials for application in the clinical practice are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Occupational Therapy in the practice of therapeutic groups and workshops with mental health patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Bussola Montrezor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of occupational therapy to patients with mental disorders through therapy groups in an intensive inpatient unit. The following treatment groups were performed: focus groups, operative groups, drawing workshops, and arts workshops. The study included 280 patients (46.07% with ICD F20-29, 23.57% with ICD F30-39, and 14.28% with ICD F19. Of all the patients studied (n = 280, 54.00% participated in the operative groups, 52.85% in the focus groups, 46.80% in the drawing workshops, and 45.70% in the art workshops. In all groups, the participation of the ICD F20-29 group was higher (focus group with 49.25%, 54.00% in the operative group, 51.00% in the workshops of drawing, and 66.00% in art workshops, followed by the ICD F30-39 group with 24.25% in the focus group, 27.00% in the operative group, and 22.00% in the drawing workshops; the ICD F19 group stood out in the arts workshops. Patients with schizophrenia, psychoses, bipolar disorders, among others (ICD F20-20 and ICD F30-39 were the most active in the therapeutic groups, which discussed contents such as joy, anger, fear, thoughts of death, etc. The ICD F19 group presented the greatest participation in the art workshops, a fact that can be explained by the profile of these patients, because many have been in prison and/or admitted to long-stays in hospitals where they learned to perform manual tasks for subsequent survival in society. We concluded that therapeutic groups are effective in treating mental health patients because they contribute to hospital discharge and improve patients’ conditions.

  6. Therapeutic Efficacy Attained with Thyme Essential Oil Supplementation Throughout gamma-irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S.; Zahran, A.M.; Abbady, M.I.; Abouelalla, A.M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in irradiated tissues. This study evaluates the potential therapeutic effect of thyme oil administration against the oxidative stress induced by gamma-ray in male rats supplemented with thyme oil at dose 42.5 mg/kg body wt/day for 21 repeated days before and after irradiation. In gamma-irradiated rats group, dietary thyme essential oil has been shown to protect and maintain levels of triacylglyceride, phospholipids and cell membrane integrity by improving total antioxidant status (TAS) and regulating the levels of lipids alterations in lipid head groups' concentrations. Furthermore, serum and tissues glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was found to have increased significantly in the same group. There were also significant increases in the total free fatty acids, protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in serum and in each tissue examined. General features of the measured antioxidant parameters were similar, where their activities restored in rats whose diets were supplemented with thyme oil before irradiation and to some extend in treated group post gamma-ray exposure suggesting that they retained a more favorable antioxidant capacity during their therapeutic course

  7. Dance is more than therapy: Qualitative analysis on therapeutic dancing classes for Parkinson's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Priscila A; Slade, Susan C; McClelland, Jodie; Morris, Meg E

    2017-10-01

    To understand the benefits and limitations of therapeutic dancing classes for people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and how best to design and implement classes. A stakeholder forum explored the opinions of 18 allied health clinicians, dance instructors, people with PD and caregivers. Data were thematically analysed and interpreted within a grounded theory framework. Four main themes were identified: (1) the need to consider the stage of disease progression when designing classes; (2) recognition that dance is more than just therapy; (3) the benefits of carefully selecting music to move by; (4) ways to design classes that are both feasible and engaging. These themes give rise to the theory that dancing classes can provide more than just therapeutic benefits. Dance affords creative expression and enables people to immerse themselves in the art-form, rather than focussing on the disease. The results highlight the benefits of enabling individuals with PD to be able to express themselves in a supportive environment that does not see them solely through the lens of Parkinson's. The feasibility of dance programs can be increased by educating dancing teachers about PD and the unique needs of people living with this condition. Well-structured dance classes can promote social-connectedness and joy, in addition to facilitating movement to music and physical activity. Consumers advised that careful planning of the classes and tailoring them to participant needs optimizes outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Photodynamic therapy for melanoma: efficacy and immunologic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Kawakubo, Masayoshi; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2014-02-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the fastest growing cancers and if it cannot be completely surgically removed the prognosis is bleak. Melanomas are known to be particularly resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Various types of immunotherapy have however been investigated with mixed reports of success. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has also been tested against melanoma, again with mixed effects as the melanin pigment is thought to act as both an optical shield and as an antioxidant. We have been investigating PDT against malignant melanoma in mouse models. We have compared B16F10 melanoma syngenic to C57BL/6 mice and S91 Cloudman melanoma syngenic to DBA2 mice. We have tested the hypothesis that S91 will respond better than B16 because of higher expression of immunocritical molecules such as MHC-1, tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein-2 gp100, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Some of these molecules can act as tumor rejection antigens that can be recognized by antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8 T cells that have been stimulated by PDT. Moreover it is possible that DBA2 mice are intrinsically better able to mount an anti-tumor immune response than C57BL/6 mice. We are also studying intratumoral injection of photosensitzers such as benzoporphyrin monoacid ring A and comparing this route with the more usual route of intravenous administration.

  9. Difficulties in the therapeutic relationship in cognitive-behavioral therapy. M. Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy in work with borderline personality disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Romanowska

    2015-01-01

    According to popular opinions therapeutic relationship doesn't play a significant role in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Furthermore it is frequently assumed that cognitive therapist doesn't pay attention to processes taking place during the session, focuses solely on a realization of an earlier planned protocol and convinces patient to rational thinking minimizing the role of emotions. Contrary to this beliefs CBT therapists often focus on a therapeutic relationship and use it in a process of...

  10. Boosting immunity by antiviral drug therapy: A simple relationship among timing, efficacy, and success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Natalia L.; Barnes, Eleanor; Klenerman, Paul; Wodarz, Dominik

    2003-02-01

    Drug therapies against persistent human infections such as hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, and HIV fail to consistently eradicate the infection from the host. Hence, recent emphasis has shifted to the study of antiviral therapy aimed at boosting specific immune responses. It was argued that structured therapy interruptions were required to achieve this, because such regimes have shown promising results in early HIV infection. Using mathematical models, we show that, contrary to this notion, a single phase of drug therapy can result in the establishment of sustained immunity. We present a simple relationship between timing of therapy and efficacy of the drugs required for success. In the presence of strong viral suppression, we show that therapy should be stopped relatively early, and that a longer duration of treatment leads to failure. On the other hand, in the presence of weaker viral suppression, stopping treatment too early is detrimental, and therapy has to be continued beyond a time threshold. We discuss our modeling results primarily in the context of HCV therapy during chronic infection. Although the therapy regimes explored here also have implications for HIV, virus-mediated destruction of specific immune cells renders success unlikely during the chronic phase of the infection.

  11. Efficacy of Low Level Laser Therapy After Hand Flexor Tendon Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, K. E.; El Gohary, H. M.; Abd Elrahman, M.; Abd El Mejeed, S. F.; Bekheet, A. B.

    2009-09-01

    Flexor tendon injury is a common problem requiring suturing repair followed by early postoperative mobilization. Muscle atrophy, joint stiffness, osteoarthritis, infection, skin necrosis, ulceration of joint cartilage and tendocutaneous adhesion are familiar complications produced by prolonged immobilization of surgically repaired tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the importance of low level laser therapy after hand flexor tendon repair in zone II. Thirty patients aging between 20 and 40 years were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (n = 15) received a conventional therapeutic exercise program while patients in group B (n = 15) received low level laser therapy combined with the same therapeutic exercise program. The results showed a statistically significant increase in total active motion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints as well as maximum hand grip strength at three weeks and three months postoperative, but improvement was more significant in group B. It was concluded that the combination of low level laser therapy and early therapeutic exercises was more effective than therapeutic exercises alone in improving total active motion of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints and hand grip strength after hand flexor tendon repair.

  12. Usefulness of Photodynamic Therapy as a Possible Therapeutic Alternative in the Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Paola; Deboli, Tommaso; Previgliano, Alberto; Broganelli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in individuals with fair skin type (I–II) and steadily increasing in incidence (70% of skin malignancy). It is locally invasive but metastasis is usually very rare, with an estimated incidence of 0.0028%–0.55%. Conventional therapy is surgery, especially for the H region of the face and infiltrative lesions; in case of inoperable tumors, radiotherapy is a valid option. Recently, topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become an effective treatment in the management of superficial and small nodular BCC. PDT is a minimally invasive procedure that involves the administration of a photo-sensibilizing agent followed by irradiation at a pre-defined wavelength; this determines the creation of reactive oxygen species that specifically destroy target cells. The only major side effect is pain, reported by some patients during the irradiation. The high cure rate and excellent cosmetic outcome requires considering this possibility for the management of patients with both sporadic and hereditary BCC. In this article, an extensive review of the recent literature was made, in order to clarify the role of PDT as a possible alternative therapeutic option in the treatment of BCC. PMID:26426005

  13. Effects of religious vs. standard cognitive behavioral therapy on therapeutic alliance: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Harold G; Pearce, Michelle; Nelson, Bruce; Shaw, Sally; Robins, Clive; Daher, Noha; Cohen, Harvey Jay; King, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Treatments that integrate religious clients' beliefs into therapy may enhance the therapeutic alliance (TA) in religious clients. Compare the effects of religiously integrated cognitive behavioral therapy (RCBT) and standard CBT (SCBT) on TA in adults with major depression and chronic medical illness. Multi-site randomized controlled trial in 132 participants, of whom 108 (SCBT = 53, RCBT = 55) completed the Revised Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAQ-II) at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Trajectory of change in scores over time was compared between groups. HAQ-II score at 4 weeks predicted a decline in depressive symptoms over time independent of treatment group (B = -0.06, SE = 0.02, p = 0.002, n = 108). There was a marginally significant difference in HAQ-II scores at 4 weeks that favored RCBT (p = 0.076); however, the mixed effects model indicated a significant group by time interaction that favored the SCBT group (B = 1.84, SE = 0.90, degrees of freedom = 181, t = 2.04, p = 0.043, d = 0.30). While RCBT produces a marginally greater improvement in TA initially compared with SCBT, SCBT soon catches up.

  14. Usefulness of Photodynamic Therapy as a Possible Therapeutic Alternative in the Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Savoia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common cancer in individuals with fair skin type (I–II and steadily increasing in incidence (70% of skin malignancy. It is locally invasive but metastasis is usually very rare, with an estimated incidence of 0.0028%–0.55%. Conventional therapy is surgery, especially for the H region of the face and infiltrative lesions; in case of inoperable tumors, radiotherapy is a valid option. Recently, topical photodynamic therapy (PDT has become an effective treatment in the management of superficial and small nodular BCC. PDT is a minimally invasive procedure that involves the administration of a photo-sensibilizing agent followed by irradiation at a pre-defined wavelength; this determines the creation of reactive oxygen species that specifically destroy target cells. The only major side effect is pain, reported by some patients during the irradiation. The high cure rate and excellent cosmetic outcome requires considering this possibility for the management of patients with both sporadic and hereditary BCC. In this article, an extensive review of the recent literature was made, in order to clarify the role of PDT as a possible alternative therapeutic option in the treatment of BCC.

  15. Gene Editing and CRISPR Therapeutics: Strategies Taught by Cell and Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Juan C

    2017-01-01

    A few years ago, we assisted in the demonstration for the first time of the revolutionary idea of a type of adaptive-immune system in the bacteria kingdom. This system, named CRISPR, and variants engineered in the lab, have been demonstrated as functional with extremely high frequency and fidelity in almost all eukaryotic cells studied to date. The capabilities of this RNA-guided nuclease have added to the interest that was announced with the advent of previous technologies for genome editing tools, such as ZFN and TALEN. The capabilities exhibited by these gene editors, opens up a novel scenario that indicates the promise of a next-generation medicine based on precision and personalized objectives, mostly due to the change in the paradigm regarding gene-surgery. This has certainly attracted, like never before, the attention of the biotech business and investor community. This chapter offers a brief overview of some of the factors that have contributed to a rapid entry into the biotech and pharmaceutical company's pipeline, focusing on how cell and gene therapies (CGT), collectively known as advanced therapies, have become the driving forces toward the therapeutic uses of gene editing technology. The sum of all those efforts for more than 30years has contributed to the new paradigm of considering genes as medicines. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. MET exon 14 juxtamembrane splicing mutations: clinical and therapeutical perspectives for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotto, Sara; Gkountakos, Anastasios; Carbognin, Luisa; Scarpa, Aldo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2017-01-01

    The MET proto-oncogene plays crucial roles in cell growth and proliferation, survival and apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion, potentially conditioning the development and progression of the carcinogenesis process. The MET-associated aberrant signaling could be triggered by a variety of mechanisms, such as mutations, gene amplification, increased gene copy number and Met/HGF protein expression. Among the various MET alterations, MET exon 14 splicing abnormalities, causing the loss of the Met juxtamembrane (JM) domain, recently emerged as a new potential oncogenic driver and have been identified and validated across different cancer and histology subtypes. Moreover, this aberration was found to be mutually exclusive with other recognized drivers, thus strongly nominating its potential oncogenic role. Recently, the clinical activity of anti-Met-targeted therapy was demonstrated particularly in patients harboring MET exon 14 skipping lung cancer, resulting in a renewed enthusiasm to further test MET precision therapy in prospective trials. In this review, the key preclinical and clinical data regarding MET exon 14 skipping splicing variants as an actionable genomic aberration in cancer are described, and the perspectives deriving from the validation of such alteration as a potential target, which may further allow driving the therapeutic approach in this molecularly selected patients’ subgroup, are explored. PMID:28164087

  17. Interpersonal Circumplex Profiles Of Persistent Depression: Goals, Self-Efficacy, Problems, And Effects Of Group Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Kenneth D; Sayegh, Liliane; Penberthy, J Kim; Weber, Charlotte; Haentjens, Katherine; Turecki, Gustavo

    2017-06-01

    We assessed severely and persistently depressed patients' interpersonal self-efficacy, problems, and goals, plus changes in interpersonal functioning and depression during 20 weeks of group therapy. Outpatients (32 female, 26 male, mean age = 45 years) completed interpersonal circumplex measures of goals, efficacy, and problems before completing 20 weeks of manualized group therapy, during which we regularly assessed depression and interpersonal style. Compared to normative samples, patients lacked interpersonal agency, including less self-efficacy for expressive/assertive actions; stronger motives to avoid conflict, scorn, and humiliation; and more problems with being too submissive, inhibited, and accommodating. Behavioral Activation and especially Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy interventions produced improvements in depression and interpersonal agency, with increases in "agentic and communal" efficacy predicting subsequent decreases in depression. While severely and persistently depressed patients were prone to express maladaptive interpersonal dispositions, over the course of group therapy, they showed increasingly agentic and beneficial patterns of cognitions, motives, and behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Rapid induction of therapeutic hypothermia using convective-immersion surface cooling: safety, efficacy and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Daniel; Ohley, William; Dorian, Paul; Klock, Cathy; Freedman, Robert; Schock, Robert; Krizanac, Danica; Holzer, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has become an accepted part of post-resuscitation care. Efforts to shorten the time from return of spontaneous circulation to target temperature have led to the exploration of different cooling techniques. Convective-immersion uses a continuous shower of 2 degrees C water to rapidly induce hypothermia. The primary purpose of this multi-center trial was to evaluate the feasibility and speed of convective-immersion cooling in the clinical environment. The secondary goal was to examine the impact of rapid hypothermia induction on patient outcome. 24 post-cardiac arrest patients from 3 centers were enrolled in the study; 22 agreed to participate until the 6-month evaluations were completed. The median rate of cooling was 3.0 degrees C/h. Cooling times were shorter than reported in previous studies. The median time to cool the patients to target temperature (<34 degrees C) was 37 min (range 14-81 min); and only 27 min in a subset of patients sedated with propofol. Survival was excellent, with 68% surviving to 6 months; 87% of survivors were living independently at 6 months. Conductive-immersion surface cooling using the ThermoSuit System is a rapid, effective method of inducing therapeutic hypothermia. Although the study was not designed to demonstrate impact on outcomes, survival and neurologic function were superior to those previously reported, suggesting comparative studies should be undertaken. Shortening the delay from return of spontaneous circulation to hypothermic target temperature may significantly improve survival and neurologic outcome and warrants further study. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Therapeutic Effects of Oligonol, Acupuncture, and Quantum Light Therapy in Chronic Nonbacterial Prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztekin, İlhan; Akdere, Hakan; Can, Nuray; Aktoz, Tevfik; Arda, Ersan; Turan, Fatma Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to compare anti-inflammatory effects of oligonol, acupuncture, and quantum light therapy in rat models of estrogen-induced prostatitis. Adult male Wistar albino rats were grouped as follows: Group I, control (n = 10); Group II, chronic prostatitis (n = 10); Group III, oligonol (n = 10); Group IV, acupuncture (n = 10); Group V, quantum (n = 10); Group VI, oligonol plus quantum (n = 10); Group VII, acupuncture plus oligonol (n = 10); Group VIII, quantum plus acupuncture (n = 10); and Group IX, acupuncture plus quantum plus oligonol (n = 10). Chronic prostatitis (CP) was induced by the administration of 17-beta-estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Oligonol was given for 6 weeks at a dose of 60 mg/day. Acupuncture needles were inserted at CV 3/4 and bilaterally B 32/35 points with 1-hour manual stimulation. Quantum therapy was administered in 5-minute sessions three times weekly for 6 weeks. Lateral lobes of prostates were dissected for histopathologic evaluation. Although all of the treatment modalities tested in this study showed anti-inflammatory effects in the treatment of CP in male rats, a synergistic effect was observed for oligonol plus quantum light combination. Monotherapy with oligonol showed a superior anti-inflammatory efficacy as compared to quantum light and acupuncture monotherapies.

  20. Therapeutic Effects of Oligonol, Acupuncture, and Quantum Light Therapy in Chronic Nonbacterial Prostatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Öztekin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to compare anti-inflammatory effects of oligonol, acupuncture, and quantum light therapy in rat models of estrogen-induced prostatitis. Adult male Wistar albino rats were grouped as follows: Group I, control (n = 10; Group II, chronic prostatitis (n = 10; Group III, oligonol (n = 10; Group IV, acupuncture (n = 10; Group V, quantum (n = 10; Group VI, oligonol plus quantum (n = 10; Group VII, acupuncture plus oligonol (n = 10; Group VIII, quantum plus acupuncture (n = 10; and Group IX, acupuncture plus quantum plus oligonol (n = 10. Chronic prostatitis (CP was induced by the administration of 17-beta-estradiol (E2 and dihydrotestosterone (DHT. Oligonol was given for 6 weeks at a dose of 60 mg/day. Acupuncture needles were inserted at CV 3/4 and bilaterally B 32/35 points with 1-hour manual stimulation. Quantum therapy was administered in 5-minute sessions three times weekly for 6 weeks. Lateral lobes of prostates were dissected for histopathologic evaluation. Although all of the treatment modalities tested in this study showed anti-inflammatory effects in the treatment of CP in male rats, a synergistic effect was observed for oligonol plus quantum light combination. Monotherapy with oligonol showed a superior anti-inflammatory efficacy as compared to quantum light and acupuncture monotherapies.

  1. Efficacy of Manual Therapy versus Conventional Physical Therapy in Chronic Low Back Pain Due to Lumbar Spondylosis. A Pilot Study

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    Arti Sharma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this work was to compare the efficacy of Maitland mobilization and conventional physical therapy on pain response, range of motion (ROM and functional ability in patients with chronic low back pain due to lumbar spondylosis. Methods: A total sample of 30 subjects (40–70 years of age with complaints of slow insidious onset of low back pain (LBP, with or without radiation not less than three months duration and decrease ROM were randomly assigned to: group-I, Maitland mobilization and lumbar stabilization exercises; group-II conventional physical therapy (traction, strengthening, stretching exercises. and outcomes were assessed for dependent variables. Results: There is statically a significant difference between pre and post measurement readings with time (p = 0.00 and between groups (p < 0.05 with respect to pain and function, but, with respect to ROM readings, showed statistical significance with time (p = 0.00 and no significance between groups (p > 0.05, indicating manual therapy group-I is improving faster and better than conventional physical therapy group-II. Conclusion: Our results showed that manual therapy interventions are more effective in managing low back pain, and function and range of motion of the lumbar spine than conventional physical therapy treatment.

  2. Therapeutic efficacy of narrow band imaging-assisted transurethral electrocoagulation for ulcer-type interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

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    Kajiwara, Mitsuru; Inoue, Shougo; Kobayashi, Kanao; Ohara, Shinya; Teishima, Jun; Matsubara, Akio

    2014-04-01

    Narrow band imaging cystoscopy can increase the visualization and detection of Hunner's lesions. A single-center, prospective clinical trial was carried out aiming to show the effectiveness of narrow band imaging-assisted transurethral electrocoagulation for ulcer-type interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. A total of 23 patients (19 women and 4 men) diagnosed as having ulcer-type interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome were included. All typical Hunner's lesions and suspected areas identified by narrow band imaging were electrocoagulated endoscopically after the biopsy of those lesions. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed prospectively by using visual analog scale score of pain, O'Leary-Sant's symptom index, O'Leary-Sant's problem index and overactive bladder symptom score. The mean follow-up period was 22 months. All patients (100%) experienced a substantial improvement in pain. The average visual analog scale pain scores significantly decreased from 7.3 preoperatively to 1.2 1 month postoperatively. A total of 21 patients (91.3%) who reported improvement had at least a 50% reduction in bladder pain, and five reported complete resolution. Daytime frequency was significantly decreased postoperatively. O'Leary-Sant's symptom index, O'Leary-Sant's problem index and overactive bladder symptom score were significantly decreased postoperatively. However, during the follow-up period, a total of six patients had recurrence, and repeat narrow band imaging-assisted transurethral electrocoagulation of the recurrent lesions was carried out for five of the six patients, with good response in relieving bladder pain. Our results showed that narrow band imaging-assisted transurethral electrocoagulation could be a valuable therapeutic alternative in patients with ulcer-type interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, with good efficacy and reduction of recurrence rate. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  3. The therapeutic efficacy of propranolol in children with recurrent primary epistaxis

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    Bjelakovic, Bojko; Bojanovic, Mila; Lukic, Stevo; Saranac, Ljiljana; Vukomanovic, Vladislav; Prijic, Sergej; Zivkovic, Nikola; Randjelovic, Dusica

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that some characteristics of beta-blockers, including negative inotropic, peripheral vasoconstrictor, and antiangiogenic effects, might be potentially useful in treating children with epistaxis. From June 2010 to March 2012, a total of seven children with recurrent primary epistaxis resistant to conventional management were observed at our institution. An overall effectiveness of propranolol was noted in all seven children when given a dose of 1.5–2 mg/kg/day (divided into three doses) as a second line therapy for terminating epistaxis. Based on our first experience, we believe that propranolol could be a favorable treatment option for patients with primary epistaxis. PMID:23467483

  4. Therapeutic effect of antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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    YING Ruosu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo retrospectively analyze the therapeutic effect of antiviral therapy in the chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and to investigate whether hepatocyte steatosis affects the response to antiviral therapy in CHB patients. MethodsA total of 110 CHB patients and 99 CHB patients with NAFLD were enrolled in the study. Serum HBV DNA levels were measured by fluorescence quantitative PCR; serum HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, and HBcAb were quantified by chemiluminescence; biochemical indices were determined by automatic biochemical analyzer to evaluate the liver function. Results(1 When receiving antiviral therapy with interferon, the CHB patients had a significantly higher rate of alanine aminotransferase (ALT/aspartate aminotransferase (AST normalization after 24 weeks of treatment (χ2=4.069, P=0.044 and a significantly higher rate of HBV DNA clearance after 48 weeks of treatment (χ2=17.327, P=0.000, as compared with the CHB patients with NAFLD; in all HBeAg-positive patients, those with only CHB had a significantly higher rate of ALT/AST normalization after 24 weeks of treatment (P<0.05 and significantly higher rates of HBV DNA clearance and HBeAg clearance after 24 and 48 weeks of treatment (P<0.05, as compared with those with CHB and NAFLD, but there was no significant difference in the rate of ALT/AST normalization between them after 48 weeks of treatment (P>0.05. (2 When receiving antiviral therapy with nucleos(tide analogues, the CHB patients had a significantly higher rate of ALT/AST normalization than the CHB patients with NAFLD after 48 weeks of treatment (χ2=7.620, P=0.006, but there was no significant difference in the rate of HBV DNA clearance between them after 24 and 48 weeks of treatment (P>0.05; in all HBeAg-positive patients, those with CHB and NAFLD had a significantly higher rate of HBeAg clearance after 24 weeks of treatment (P<0.05 and a significantly lower rate of ALT

  5. Development of oral agent in the treatment of multiple sclerosis: how the first available oral therapy, Fingolimod will change therapeutic paradigm approach

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    Gasperini C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Claudio Gasperini,1 Serena Ruggieri21Department of Neurosciences, S Camillo Forlanini Hospital, 2Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Rome “Sapienza,” Rome, ItalyAbstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system, traditionally considered to be an autoimmune, demyelinating disease. Based on this understanding, the initial therapeutic strategies were directed at immune modulation and inflammation control. At present, there are five licensed first-line disease-modifying drugs and two second-line treatments in MS. Currently available MS therapies have shown significant efficacy throughout many trials, but they produce different side-effect profiles in patients. Since they are well known and safe, they require regular and frequent parenteral administration and are associated with limited long-term treatment adherence. Thus, there is an important need for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Several oral compounds are in late-stage development for treating MS. Fingolimod (FTY720; Novartis, Basel, Switzerland is an oral sphingosine-1-phosphase receptor modulator which has demonstrated superior efficacy compared with placebo and interferon β-1a in Phase III studies and has been approved in the treatment of MS. We summarily review the oral compounds in study, focusing on the recent development, approval and the clinical experience with FTY720.Keywords: multiple sclerosis, oral compounds, fingolimod, fty720, sphingosine 1, phosphate, patient satisfaction

  6. Efficacy of music therapy in the neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia: systematic review

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    Mariângela Aparecida Rezende Aleixo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective A large number of psychosocial interventions in dementia are based on music activities and music therapy interventions. We aim at assessing the efficacy of music therapy in the neuropsychiatric symptoms of people with dementia. Methods This systematic review is according to the methodology suggested by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. We searched for articles in PubMed, Web of Knowledge Cross Search, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Lilacs/Bireme databases published from 2005 to 2016. The search keywords included “early onset” and “late onset” combined with “dementia”, “Alzheimer”, “vascular dementia”, “mixed dementia”, “frontotemporal dementia”, “neuropsychiatric symptoms”, “behavioral disturbances”, “behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia” and “music therapy”. The studies were categorized according to its efficacy on the decline of neuropsychiatric symptoms and improvement of cognitive function, quality of life and well-being. Results We selected 12 out of 257 papers. Music therapy interventions were applied individually or in group setting, using active or receptive technique. In general, studies indicated the efficacy of music therapy on the decline of depression, agitation and anxiety. There were heterogeneity of interventions, methodological design and instruments of evaluation among the studies. Conclusions Although there are reports of the efficacy of music therapy on the decline of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia, the area still needs randomized studies aimed at the solution of important methodological problems like the lack of standardized approaches.

  7. Correlations of CTLA-4 Exon-1 49 A/G and Promoter Region 318 C/T Polymorphisms with the Therapeutic Efficacy of 131 I Radionuclide in Graves' Disease in Chinese Han Population.

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    Han, Xin-Rui; Wen, Xin; Wang, Shan; Fan, Shao-Hua; Zhuang, Juan; Wang, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Li, Meng-Qiu; Hu, Bin; Shan, Qun; Sun, Chun-Hui; Bao, Ya-Xing; Luan, Sha; Zhao, Chang-Jiu; Wu, Dong-Mei; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Yuan-Lin

    2017-08-04

    This study aimed to investigate the correlation of CTLA-4 exon-1 49 A/G and promoter region-318 C/T polymorphisms with the therapeutic efficacy of radionuclide 131 I for Graves' disease in Chinese Han population. The 131 I radionuclide therapy was applied in 261 patients with Graves' disease. The patients were classified into the remission and non-remission groups. PCR-RFLP was implemented to detect CTLA-4 exon-1 49 A/G and promoter region-318 C/T polymorphisms. Haplotypes of CTLA-4 49 A/G and -318 C/T were analyzed using SHEsis software online. Logistic regression model was applied to analyze the association between multiple factors and the efficacy of 131 I therapy. The results showed that CTLA-4 49 A/G was closely related to the efficacy of 131 I treatment for Graves' disease (AG + GG vs. AA: OR = 6.125, 95%CI = 1.431∼26.22, P = 0.006; G vs. A: OR = 2.204, 95%CI = 1.267 ∼3 .835, P = 0.004). Moreover, the findings revealed that haplotype A-C (P = 0.018, OR = 0.424, 95%CI: 0.205∼0.876) and G-C (P = 0.014, OR = 2.204, 95%CI: 1.267∼3.835) were associated with the efficacy of 131 I therapy in treating Graves' disease. Logistic regression analysis indicated that thyroid weight (OR = 1.050, 95%CI = 1.007∼1.095, P = 0.022) and CTLA-4 exon-1 49 A/G polymorphism (OR = 8.082, 95%CI = 1.049∼62.234, P = 0.045) were both related factors with efficacy of 131 I therapy in Graves' disease. These data indicated that CTLA-4 exon-1 49 A/G polymorphism may be associated with therapeutic efficacy of radionuclide 131 I for patients with Graves' disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Histamine therapeutic efficacy in metastatic melanoma: Role of histamine H4 receptor agonists and opportunity for combination with radiation.

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    Massari, Noelia A; Nicoud, Melisa B; Sambuco, Lorena; Cricco, Graciela P; Martinel Lamas, Diego J; Herrero Ducloux, María V; Blanco, Horacio; Rivera, Elena S; Medina, Vanina A

    2017-04-18

    The aims of the work were to improve our knowledge of the role of H4R in melanoma proliferation and assess in vivo the therapeutic efficacy of histamine, clozapine and JNJ28610244, an H4R agonist, in a preclinical metastatic model of melanoma. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the combinatorial effect of histamine and gamma radiation on the radiobiological response of melanoma cells.Results indicate that 1205Lu metastatic melanoma cells express H4R and that histamine inhibits proliferation, in part through the stimulation of the H4R, and induces cell senescence and melanogenesis. Daily treatment with H4R agonists (1 mg/kg, sc) exhibited a significant in vivo antitumor effect and importantly, compounds reduced metastatic potential, particularly in the group treated with JNJ28610244, the H4R agonist with higher specificity. H4R is expressed in benign and malignant lesions of melanocytic lineage, highlighting the potential clinical use of histamine and H4R agonists. In addition, histamine increased radiosensitivity of melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that stimulation of H4R by specific ligands may represent a novel therapeutic strategy in those tumors that express this receptor. Furthermore, through increasing radiation-induced response, histamine could improve cancer radiotherapy for the treatment of melanoma.

  9. Long Term Therapeutic Efficacy of a Soft Monobloc Mandibular Advancement Device in Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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    Fabiana Ballanti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the long term (48 months therapeutic efficacy of a soft monobloc mandibular advancement device in adult patients with mild or moderate obstructive sleep apnea. Methods. The study population comprised 28 patients (6 female and 22 male, mean age 52.2±6.8 years affected by obstructive sleep apnea. After a baseline medical and somnographic examination, a functional examination of the stomatognathic system, and a questionnaire focused on sleep-related qualities and a daytime somnolence, each patient received an individual device. Two follow-ups were made 6 months (T1 and 48 months (T2 after soft monobloc mandibular advancement device treatment had been initiated, and all initial examinations were repeated. Results. The statistical analysis showed a significant decrease in body mass index value between T1 and T2 (ρ = 0,012, an increase of Epworth sleepiness scale value between T1 and T2 (ρ = 0,012, and a significant improvement and decrease of apnea/hypopnea index between T0 and T1 (ρ = 0,010 and between T0 and T2 (ρ = 0,013. Conclusion. Treatment with the soft monobloc mandibular advancement device is a therapeutic solution with long term and stable effects (48 months for patients suffering from mild or moderate obstructive sleep apnea.

  10. Using a partially randomized patient preference study design to evaluate the therapeutic effect of acupuncture and cupping therapy for fibromyalgia: study protocol for a partially randomized controlled trial.

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    Cao, Hui-Juan; Liu, Jian-Ping; Hu, Hui; Wang, Nissi S

    2014-07-10

    Conducting randomized controlled trials on traditional Chinese non-drug therapies has been limited by factors such as patient preference to specific treatment modality. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of applying a partially randomized patient preference (PRPP) trial model in evaluating the efficacy of two types of traditional Chinese medicine therapies, acupuncture and cupping, for fibromyalgia while accounting for patients' preference of either therapeutic modality. This protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of affiliated Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine (approval number: 2013052104-2). One hundred participants with fibromyalgia will be included in this study. Diagnosis of fibromyalgia will be based on the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Before treatment, participants will be interviewed for their preference toward acupuncture or cupping therapy. Fifty participants with no preference will be randomly assigned to one of the two groups and another 50 participants with strong preference to either acupuncture or cupping will receive what they choose. For acupuncture and cupping therapy, the main acupoints used will be tender points (Ashi). Treatment will be three times a week for 5 consecutive weeks with a follow-up period of 12 weeks. Outcome measures will be qualitative (patient expectation and satisfaction) and quantitative (pain intensity, quality of life, depression assessment). NCT01869712 (in clinicaltrials.gov, on 22nd May 2013).

  11. Efficacy of chemotherapy after hormone therapy for hormone receptor–positive metastatic breast cancer

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    Ryutaro Mori

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: According to the guidelines for metastatic breast cancer, hormone therapy for hormone receptor–positive metastatic breast cancer without life-threatening metastasis should be received prior to chemotherapy. Previous trials have investigated the sensitivity of chemotherapy for preoperative breast cancer based on the efficacy of neoadjuvant hormone therapy. In this retrospective study, we investigated the efficacy of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer in hormone therapy–effective and hormone therapy–ineffective cases. Methods: Patients who received chemotherapy after hormone therapy for metastatic breast cancer between 2006 and 2013 at our institution were investigated. Results: A total of 32 patients received chemotherapy after hormone therapy for metastatic breast cancer. The median patient age was 59 years, and most of the primary tumors exhibited a T2 status. A total of 26 patients had an N(+ status, while 7 patients had human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive tumors. A total of 13 patients received clinical benefits from hormone therapy, with a rate of clinical benefit of subsequent chemotherapy of 30.8%, which was not significantly different from that observed in the hormone therapy–ineffective patients (52.6%. A total of 13 patients were able to continue the hormone therapy for more than 1 year, with a rate of clinical benefit of chemotherapy of 38.5%, which was not significantly different from that observed in the short-term hormone therapy patients (47.4%. The luminal A patients were able to continue hormone therapy for a significantly longer period than the non-luminal A patients (median survival time: 17.8 months vs 6.35 months, p = 0.0085. However, there were no significant differences in the response to or duration of chemotherapy. Conclusion: The efficacy of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer cannot be predicted based on the efficacy of prior hormone therapy or tumor subtype

  12. Sensory integration dysfunction affects efficacy of speech therapy on children with functional articulation disorders

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    Tung LC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Li-Chen Tung,1,# Chin-Kai Lin,2,# Ching-Lin Hsieh,3,4 Ching-Chi Chen,1 Chin-Tsan Huang,1 Chun-Hou Wang5,6 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 2Program of Early Intervention, Department of Early Childhood Education, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, 3School of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, 5School of Physical Therapy, College of Medical Science and Technology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, 6Physical Therapy Room, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan#These authors contributed equally Background: Articulation disorders in young children are due to defects occurring at a certain stage in sensory and motor development. Some children with functional articulation disorders may also have sensory integration dysfunction (SID. We hypothesized that speech therapy would be less efficacious in children with SID than in those without SID. Hence, the purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of speech therapy in two groups of children with functional articulation disorders: those without and those with SID.Method: A total of 30 young children with functional articulation disorders were divided into two groups, the no-SID group (15 children and the SID group (15 children. The number of pronunciation mistakes was evaluated before and after speech therapy.Results: There were no statistically significant differences in age, sex, sibling order, education of parents, and pretest number of mistakes in pronunciation between the two groups (P > 0.05. The mean and standard deviation in the pre- and posttest number of mistakes in pronunciation were 10.5 ± 3.2 and 3.3 ± 3.3 in the no-SID group, and 10.1 ± 2.9 and 6.9 ± 3.5 in the SID group, respectively. Results showed great changes after speech therapy treatment (F

  13. Therapeutic Efficacy of Vectored PGT121 Gene Delivery in HIV-1-Infected Humanized Mice.

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    Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Tartaglia, Lawrence J; Abbink, Peter; Bricault, Christine A; Liu, Po-Ting; Boyd, Michael; Kirilova, Marinela; Mercado, Noe B; Nanayakkara, Ovini S; Vrbanac, Vladimir D; Tager, Andrew M; Larocca, Rafael A; Seaman, Michael S; Barouch, Dan H

    2018-04-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are being explored for HIV-1 prevention and cure strategies. However, administration of purified bNAbs poses challenges in resource-poor settings, where the HIV-1 disease burden is greatest. In vivo vector-based production of bNAbs represents an alternative strategy. We investigated adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) and adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) vectors to deliver the HIV-1-specific bNAb PGT121 in wild-type and immunocompromised C57BL/6 mice as well as in HIV-1-infected bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) humanized mice. Ad5.PGT121 and AAV1.PGT121 produced functional antibody in vivo Ad5.PGT121 produced PGT121 rapidly within 6 h, whereas AAV1.PGT121 produced detectable PGT121 in serum by 72 h. Serum PGT121 levels were rapidly reduced by the generation of anti-PGT121 antibodies in immunocompetent mice but were durably maintained in immunocompromised mice. In HIV-1-infected BLT humanized mice, Ad5.PGT121 resulted in a greater reduction of viral loads than did AAV1.PGT121. Ad5.PGT121 also led to more-sustained virologic control than purified PGT121 IgG. Ad5.PGT121 afforded more rapid, robust, and durable antiviral efficacy than AAV1.PGT121 and purified PGT121 IgG in HIV-1-infected humanized mice. Further evaluation of vector delivery of HIV-1 bNAbs is warranted, although approaches to prevent the generation of antiantibody responses may also be required. IMPORTANCE Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are being explored for HIV-1 prevention and cure strategies, but delivery of purified antibodies may prove challenging. We investigated adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) and adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) vectors to deliver the HIV-1-specific bNAb PGT121. Ad5.PGT121 afforded more rapid, robust, and durable antiviral efficacy than AAV1.PGT121 and purified PGT121 IgG in HIV-1-infected humanized mice. Copyright © 2018 Badamchi-Zadeh et al.

  14. Assessment of Safety and Functional Efficacy of Stem Cell-Based Therapeutic Approaches Using Retinal Degenerative Animal Models

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    Tai-Chi Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction and death of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and or photoreceptors can lead to irreversible vision loss. The eye represents an ideal microenvironment for stem cell-based therapy. It is considered an “immune privileged” site, and the number of cells needed for therapy is relatively low for the area of focused vision (macula. Further, surgical placement of stem cell-derived grafts (RPE, retinal progenitors, and photoreceptor precursors into the vitreous cavity or subretinal space has been well established. For preclinical tests, assessments of stem cell-derived graft survival and functionality are conducted in animal models by various noninvasive approaches and imaging modalities. In vivo experiments conducted in animal models based on replacing photoreceptors and/or RPE cells have shown survival and functionality of the transplanted cells, rescue of the host retina, and improvement of visual function. Based on the positive results obtained from these animal experiments, human clinical trials are being initiated. Despite such progress in stem cell research, ethical, regulatory, safety, and technical difficulties still remain a challenge for the transformation of this technique into a standard clinical approach. In this review, the current status of preclinical safety and efficacy studies for retinal cell replacement therapies conducted in animal models will be discussed.

  15. Biomaterial strategies to improve the efficacy of bone marrow cell therapy for myocardial infarction.

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    Nadlacki, Bora; Suuronen, Erik J

    2016-12-01

    The feasibility and safety of bone marrow cell (BMC) therapy for cardiac repair following myocardial infarction has been demonstrated in clinical studies, albeit with relatively modest structural and functional benefits. In response to the shortcomings of BMC therapy, the use of biomaterials to enhance cell transplantation is being investigated. Areas covered: The authors first review what has been learned from BMC therapies for the treatment of myocardial infarction in animal models and in clinical trials. Some issues that may be limiting the efficacy of BMC therapy are then described. Lastly, they summarize several biomaterial approaches that have been reported to improve transplanted cell retention and functional outcome, and then focus on how a material can enhance cell function such as proliferation, viability, endothelial differentiation and angiogenic potential. Expert opinion: Improvements are needed if BMC therapy is to become a viable treatment in the clinic. There is optimism that a biomaterial strategy will lead to superior results compared to the cell therapy alone. Through the identification of underlying cell-biomaterial mechanisms, the establishment of comparative standards, and an awareness of the lessons learned from cell therapy trials, biomaterial-enhanced BMC therapy may become an option for the treatment of heart disease patients.

  16. Efficacy of early physical therapy in severe Bell's palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Nicastri, Maria; Mancini, Patrizia; De Seta, Daniele; Bertoli, Gianantonio; Prosperini, Luca; Toni, Danilo; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Filipo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Bell's palsy (BP) is the most frequent form of peripheral palsy of the facial nerve. Prognosis for recovery is good for most patients; in the remaining cases, different grades of residual impairment persist. Physical therapy, in association with drug administration, aims to improve outcomes. To assess the efficacy of early physical therapy in association with standard drug administration versus pharmacological therapy only, in terms of time to maximum gains and grade of recovery of function, and to examine who will most benefit from rehabilitation. From June 2008 to May 2010, 232 individuals were evaluated. The 87 patients meeting the eligibility criteria were randomly assigned to the experimental group (prednisone and valacyclovir plus physical therapy, n = 39) or the control group (pharmacological therapy, n = 48) within 10 days of onset. Intention-to-treat analyses were done. The physical therapy had a significant effect on grade (P = .038) and time (P = .044) to recovery only in patients presenting with severe facial palsy (House-Brackmann [HB] grade V/VI). No significant differences were found between the study and control groups for outcome of synkinesis. Physical therapy appears to be effective only in the more severe BP (baseline HB grade V/VI), whereas less severe BP (baseline HB grade IV) results in complete spontaneous recovery, regardless of physical therapy.

  17. Efficacy of On-Demand Therapy Using 20-mg Vonoprazan for Mild Reflux Esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, Mariko; Kawami, Noriyuki; Hoshino, Shintaro; Hoshikawa, Yoshimasa; Koizumi, Eriko; Takenouchi, Nana; Hanada, Yuriko; Kaise, Mitsuru; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko

    2018-03-07

    The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of on-demand therapy using 20-mg vonoprazan for mild reflux esophagitis (RE). On-demand therapy by taking one 20-mg tablet of vonoprazan only when reflux symptoms occurred was performed for 24 weeks using 30 patients with mild RE who were receiving maintenance therapy with proton pomp inhibitors (PPIs). The presence or absence of RE, degree of overall satisfaction with the treatment, score of symptoms, and fasting gastrin level before breakfast were examined before and after on-demand therapy. The number of tablets taken during the 24-week period was also noted. One of the 30 patients dropped out of on-demand therapy 1 week after its initiation. Remission was maintained in 25 (86.2%) of the 29 patients (all 10 [100%] Los Angeles classification grade A patients and 15 (78.9%) of the 19 grade B patients). However, 4 grade B patients exhibited grade B relapse. There were no differences in the degree of overall satisfaction, score of symptoms or the gastrin level between PPI and on-demand therapies. The number of vonoprazan tablets taken during the observation period was 33 tablets (median)/24 weeks. On-demand therapy using 20-mg vonoprazan tablets is an effective alternative maintenance therapy for mild RE. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. BAFF-neutralizing interaction of belimumab related to its therapeutic efficacy for treating systemic lupus erythematosus.

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    Shin, Woori; Lee, Hyun Tae; Lim, Heejin; Lee, Sang Hyung; Son, Ji Young; Lee, Jee Un; Yoo, Ki-Young; Ryu, Seong Eon; Rhie, Jaejun; Lee, Ju Yeon; Heo, Yong-Seok

    2018-03-23

    BAFF, a member of the TNF superfamily, has been recognized as a good target for autoimmune diseases. Belimumab, an anti-BAFF monoclonal antibody, was approved by the FDA for use in treating systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the molecular basis of BAFF neutralization by belimumab remains unclear. Here our crystal structure of the BAFF-belimumab Fab complex shows the precise epitope and the BAFF-neutralizing mechanism of belimumab, and demonstrates that the therapeutic activity of belimumab involves not only antagonizing the BAFF-receptor interaction, but also disrupting the formation of the more active BAFF 60-mer to favor the induction of the less active BAFF trimer through interaction with the flap region of BAFF. In addition, the belimumab HCDR3 loop mimics the DxL(V/L) motif of BAFF receptors, thereby binding to BAFF in a similar manner as endogenous BAFF receptors. Our data thus provides insights for the design of new drugs targeting BAFF for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  19. Post-exposure therapeutic efficacy of COX-2 inhibition against Burkholderia pseudomallei.

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    Saja Asakrah

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacillus and the etiologic agent of melioidosis, a severe disease in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. Like other multidrug-resistant pathogens, the inherent antibiotic resistance of B. pseudomallei impedes treatment and highlights the need for alternative therapeutic strategies that can circumvent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. In this work, we demonstrate that host prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production plays a regulatory role in the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei. PGE2 promotes B. pseudomallei intracellular survival within macrophages and bacterial virulence in a mouse model of pneumonic melioidosis. PGE2-mediated immunosuppression of macrophage bactericidal effector functions is associated with increased arginase 2 (Arg2 expression and decreased nitric oxide (NO production. Treatment with a commercially-available COX-2 inhibitor suppresses the growth of B. pseudomallei in macrophages and affords significant protection against rapidly lethal pneumonic melioidosis when administered post-exposure to B. pseudomallei-infected mice. COX-2 inhibition may represent a novel immunotherapeutic strategy to control infection with B. pseudomallei and other intracellular pathogens.

  20. Therapeutic Efficacy of the Combined Extract of Herbal Medicine Against Infectious Bursal Disease in Chickens

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    Changbo Ou, Ningning Shi1, Qing Pan, Deyu Tian, Wenshu Zeng and Cheng He*

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, infectious bursal disease (IBD is a highly contagious disease leading to huge economic losses in poultry industry. Our objective was to investigate potential therapeutic effects of the combined extracts of Rhizoma Dryopteridis crassirhizomatis and Fructus mume (RDCFM against IBDV infection. Seventy-two 4-week-old SPF chickens were randomly divided into six groups and inoculated intranasally with 0.2 ml of 102.5 EID50 of IBDV strain CJ801. Twenty-four hours post infection, the birds were orally administered with 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg BW of RDCFM, respectively, 125 mg/kg Astragalus polysaccharide (ASP and saline water, respectively for 5 days and then monitored daily for 10 days. Finally, the remaining birds were euthanized to collect the sera for detecting antibodies and immune organs for determining the immune organs index as well as virus loads. The herbal extracts improved survival rate and relative body gain rate. Virus loads in bursa of Fabricius in herbal treated groups decreased significantly while higher antibody levels were detected in the three RDCFM groups as compared to those of ASP and infection group. These results implied that chickens administered with 100-200 mg/kg of RDCFM for 5 days could improve protection against IBDV infection and RDCFM may be a promising alternative to ASP and egg yolk antibody.

  1. Economic demand predicts addiction-like behavior and therapeutic efficacy of oxytocin in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzley, Brandon S.; Jhou, Thomas C.; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Development of new treatments for drug addiction will depend on high-throughput screening in animal models. However, an addiction biomarker fit for rapid testing, and useful in both humans and animals, is not currently available. Economic models are promising candidates. They offer a structured quantitative approach to modeling behavior that is mathematically identical across species, and accruing evidence indicates economic-based descriptors of human behavior may be particularly useful biomarkers of addiction severity. However, economic demand has not yet been established as a biomarker of addiction-like behavior in animals, an essential final step in linking animal and human studies of addiction through economic models. We recently developed a mathematical approach for rapidly modeling economic demand in rats trained to self-administer cocaine. We show here that economic demand, as both a spontaneous trait and induced state, predicts addiction-like behavior, including relapse propensity, drug seeking in abstinence, and compulsive (punished) drug taking. These findings confirm economic demand as a biomarker of addiction-like behavior in rats. They also support the view that excessive motivation plays an important role in addiction while extending the idea that drug dependence represents a shift from initially recreational to compulsive drug use. Finally, we found that economic demand for cocaine predicted the efficacy of a promising pharmacotherapy (oxytocin) in attenuating cocaine-seeking behaviors across individuals, demonstrating that economic measures may be used to rapidly identify the clinical utility of prospective addiction treatments. PMID:25071176

  2. The Efficacy of Naikan Therapy on Male Offenders: Changes in Perceived Social Support and Externalized Blame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xinfang; Liu, Zhongzhao; Cao, Guangjian; Wei, Shiwei; Qiu, Zipeng; Wang, Kelai; Guo, Xiaodi; Di, Zhigang; Ren, Peng; Fucha, Haoqian

    2017-11-01

    Naikan is a contemplative self-observation practice that originated from Japanese Shin Buddhism and is utilized for rehabilitating prison inmates in many countries. Although some investigations have provided initial evidence for its efficiency in decreasing recidivism, there is still a need for further investigation of the effectiveness of Naikan on other outcomes through more controlled studies. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of Naikan therapy on male offenders' perceived social support and externalized blame. Ninety-two male offenders were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or to the waiting group. All participants were evaluated by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Externalization subscale of the Test of Self-Conscious Affect before and after Naikan therapy. The results suggested that participants who received Naikan therapy showed higher levels of perceived social support and lower levels of externalized blame after Naikan therapy than before.

  3. Efficacy of a multifactorial intervention on therapeutic adherence in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Fernández, José; Leiva-Fernández, Francisca; García-Ruiz, Antonio; Prados-Torres, Daniel; Barnestein-Fonseca, Pilar

    2014-04-25

    Therapeutic adherence of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is poor. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention on improving the therapeutic adherence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with scheduled inhalation therapy. The study design consisted of a randomised controlled trial in a primary care setting. 146 patients diagnosed with COPD were randomly allocated into two groups using the block randomisation technique. One-year follow-ups with three visits were performed. The intervention consisted of motivational aspects related to adherence (beliefs and behaviour) in the form of group and individual interviews, cognitive aspects in the form of information about the illness and skills in the form of training in inhalation techniques. Cognitive-emotional aspects and training in inhalation techniques were reinforced during all visits of the intervention group. The main outcome measure was adherence to the medication regimen. Therapeutic adherence was determined by the percentage of patients classified as good adherent as evaluated by dose or pill count. Of the 146 participants (mean age 69.8 years, 91.8% males), 41.1% reported adherence (41.9% of the control group and 40.3% of the intervention group). When multifactorial intervention was applied, the reported adherence was 32.4% for the control group and 48.6% for the intervention group, which showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.046). Number needed to treat is 6.37. In the intervention group, cognitive aspects increased by 23.7% and skilled performance of inhalation techniques increased by 66.4%. The factors related to adherence when multifactorial intervention was applied were the number of exacerbations (OR = 0.66), visits to health centre (OR = 0.93) and devices (OR = 2.4); illness severity (OR = 0.67), beta-2-adrenergic (OR = 0.16) and xantine (OR = 0.19) treatment; activity (OR = 1.03) and impact (OR = 1.03) scales of the

  4. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of rasagiline as adjunctive therapy in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, E; Stern, M B

    2012-02-01

    Rasagiline, an MAO-B inhibitor, is indicated for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this post hoc analysis, the efficacy, safety and tolerability of rasagiline as an adjunct to levodopa were compared with placebo in elderly (≥70 years) and younger (Rasagiline: Efficacy and Safety on the Treatment of 'OFF' and Lasting effect in Adjunct therapy with Rasagiline Given Once daily randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with the primary efficacy end-point being the reduction from baseline in daily OFF time. Secondary efficacy end-points included scores for Clinical Global Improvement (CGI)-Examiner during ON time, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)-ADL during OFF time, UPDRS-Motor during ON time and total daily ON time with and without troublesome dyskinesia. Tolerability was evaluated from adverse events (AEs) in the two age groups. Rasagiline decreased daily OFF time versus placebo (Prasagiline but were not significant. Between-group comparisons (≥70 vs. 0.1), and rasagiline was well tolerated amongst both groups of patients with a comparable incidence of total and dopaminergic AEs (P>0.1). Adjunct rasagiline is efficacious and well tolerated in elderly non-demented patients (≥70 years) with moderate to advanced PD. Confirmation of the efficacy and safety of rasagiline in the elderly patient subgroup is especially relevant because of the increasing number of elderly patients with PD. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  5. Characteristics of therapeutic alliance in musculoskeletal physiotherapy and occupational therapy practice: a scoping review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, Folarin; MacDermid, Joy; MacIntyre, Norma

    2017-05-30

    Most conventional treatment for musculoskeletal conditions continue to show moderate effects, prompting calls for ways to increase effectiveness, including drawing from strategies used across other health conditions. Therapeutic alliance refers to the relational processes at play in treatment which can act in combination or independently of specific interventions. Current evidence guiding the use of therapeutic alliance in health care arises largely from psychotherapy and medicine literature. The objective of this review was to map out the available literature on therapeutic alliance conceptual frameworks, themes, measures and determinants in musculoskeletal rehabilitation across physiotherapy and occupational therapy disciplines. A scoping review of the literature published in English since inception to July 2015 was conducted using Medline, EMBASE, PsychINFO, PEDro, SportDISCUS, AMED, OTSeeker, AMED and the grey literature. A key search term strategy was employed using "physiotherapy", "occupational therapy", "therapeutic alliance", and "musculoskeletal" to identify relevant studies. All searches were performed between December 2014 and July 2015 with an updated search on January 2017. Two investigators screened article title, abstract and full text review for articles meeting the inclusion criteria and extracted therapeutic alliance data and details of each study. One hundred and thirty articles met the inclusion criteria including quantitative (33%), qualitative (39%), mixed methods (7%) and reviews and discussions (23%) and most data came from the USA (23%). Randomized trials and systematic reviews were 4.6 and 2.3% respectively. Low back pain condition (22%) and primary care (30.7%) were the most reported condition and setting respectively. One theory, 9 frameworks, 26 models, 8 themes and 42 subthemes of therapeutic alliance were identified. Twenty-six measures were identified; the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI) was the most utilized measure (13%). Most of

  6. Evaluation of the Efficacy of the H. pylori Protein HP-NAP as a Therapeutic Tool for Treatment of Bladder Cancer in an Orthotopic Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codolo, Gaia; Munari, Fabio; Fassan, Matteo; de Bernard, Marina

    2015-05-29

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the urogenital tract. Intravesical injection of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the gold standard treatment for the high-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, since the treatment-related side effects are relevant, newer biological response modifiers with a better benefit/side effects ratio are needed. The tumour microenvironment can influence both tumour development and therapy efficacy. In order to obtain a good model, it is desirable to implant tumour cells in the organ from which the cancer originates. In this protocol, we describe a method for establishing a tumour in the bladder cavity of female mice and subsequent delivery of therapeutic agents; the latter are exemplified by our use of Helicobacter pylori neutrophil activating protein (HP-NAP). A preliminary chemical burn of the mucosa, followed by the injection of mouse urothelial carcinoma cell line MB49 via urethral catheterization, enables the cells to attach to the bladder mucosa. After a period, required to allow an initial proliferation of the cells, mice are treated with HP-NAP, administrated again via catheterization. The anti-tumour activity of HP-NAP is evaluated comparing the tumour volume, the extent of necrosis and the degree of vascularization between vehicle- and HP-NAP-treated animals.

  7. Stem cells: a revolution in therapeutics-recent advances in stem cell biology and their therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine and cancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimeault, M; Hauke, R; Batra, S K

    2007-09-01

    Basic and clinical research accomplished during the last few years on embryonic, fetal, amniotic, umbilical cord blood, and adult stem cells has constituted a revolution in regenerative medicine and cancer therapies by providing the possibility of generating multiple therapeutically useful cell types. These new cells could be used for treating numerous genetic and degenerative disorders. Among them, age-related functional defects, hematopoietic and immune system disorders, heart failures, chronic liver injuries, diabetes, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, arthritis, and muscular, skin, lung, eye, and digestive disorders as well as aggressive and recurrent cancers could be successfully treated by stem cell-based therapies. This review focuses on the recent advancements in adult stem cell biology in normal and pathological conditions. We describe how these results have improved our understanding on critical and unique functions of these rare sub-populations of multipotent and undifferentiated cells with an unlimited self-renewal capacity and high plasticity. Finally, we discuss some major advances to translate the experimental models on ex vivo and in vivo expanded and/or differentiated stem cells into clinical applications for the development of novel cellular therapies aimed at repairing genetically altered or damaged tissues/organs in humans. A particular emphasis is made on the therapeutic potential of different tissue-resident adult stem cell types and their in vivo modulation for treating and curing specific pathological disorders.

  8. [Ascariasis: comparison of the therapeutic efficacy between paico and albendazole in children from Huaraz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López De Guimaraes, D; Neyra Llanos, R S; Romero Acevedo, J H

    2001-01-01

    A therapeutical clinical trial was designed to study the effectiveness of Paico and Albendazole, for the treatment of ascariasis in a group of 60 children, between 3 and 14 years old, from a rural community in Huaraz. It was carried out between May and August, 2000. The sample was randomly divided into 30 cases for Paico and 30 for Albendazole, the criteria for entering the trial being a positive examination for Ascaris lumbricoides in feces. The treatment consisted in Paico juice: 1 ml/Kg for less than 10 Kg, and 2 ml/Kg in larger children, one dose before breakfast, for three consecutive days. The Albendazole was administered in a single dose of 400 mg in those over five years of age, and 200 mg in younger children. The effectiveness was evaluated qualitatively (the disappearance of the ascaris eggs from the feces) and quantitatively (decrease in the parasitic burden); in the stool examinations carried out in all cases on entering the study and 15 days after the treatment. All the stool samples were processed in the Referential Laboratory of the Regional Health Authority in Ancash. The qualitative effectiveness between Paico and Albendazole for the eradication of ascariasis was similar at 86.7%. The quantitative effectiveness was 59.5% for Paico and 58.3% for Albendazole. However, it was observed that, unlike Albedazole, Paico is 100% effective in the treatment of Hymenolepsis nana. Adverse effects were presented in 23.3% of the cases for both drugs. It is concluded that, although Paico and Albendazole have a similar effectiveness against Ascaris lumbricoides, Paico has the additional benefit of being effective against Hymenolepsis nana.

  9. The efficacy of topical tazarotene monotherapy and combination therapies in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, John; Behnam, Shahdad E; Behnam, Shahrad M

    2003-12-01

    Tazarotene (Tazorac, Allergan, Inc.) is the first topical retinoid approved for the treatment of plaque psoriasis. It has a similar onset of action compared to potent topical steroids and has the advantage of a longer remission. The common side effects associated with the drug include skin irritation (including pruritus), erythema and a burning sensation. To overcome some of these shortcomings, it has been used in combination with steroids, calcipotriene and phototherapy. Combination therapy not only results in a decrease in adverse side effects, but also enhanced efficacy. Clinical study data have shown that combination therapy is just as important as tazarotene monotherapy, if not more.

  10. Therapeutic efficacy of small doses of colchicine combined with glucocorticoid for acute gouty arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying LIU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the clinical effect of small dose of colchicine combined with glucocorticoid for acute gouty arthritis. Methods Ninety-two patients with acute gouty arthritis were equally and randomly divided into small doses of colchicine combined with dexamethasone treatment group (treatment group and conventional large dose colchicine treatment group (control group between January 2009 and December 2013. The articular lesion scoring and clinical efficacy evaluation were performed at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72h after treatment. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, white blood cells, hepatorenal function and glomerular filtration rate (GFR were determined before and 72h after treatment respectively. The gastrointestinal adverse events and recurrence rate were observed within one month after treatment. Results The articular lesion scores were significantly decreased at 6, 12, 48, and 72h after treatment in treatment group compared with control group (P0.05. Serum uric acid, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase in serum (SGPT, and GFR did not show any change before and 72h after the treatment, and there was also no significant difference between groups (P>0.05. The incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events were obviously higher in control group (76.1% compared with that of the treatment group (P<0.05, and the differences was statistically significant. There was no statistical difference in recurrence rate between the control group and treatment group after a follow-up of one month. Conclusions Compared with conventional large dose colchicine, small dose of colchicine combined with dexamethasone can more rapidly and effectively control acute gouty arthritis, with good tolerability and safety, thus being worthy of popularization clinically. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.08.10

  11. The Efficacy of Cardiac Anti-miR-208a Therapy Is Stress Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eding, Joep E C; Demkes, Charlotte J; Lynch, Joshua M; Seto, Anita G; Montgomery, Rusty L; Semus, Hillary M; Jackson, Aimee L; Isabelle, Marc; Chimenti, Stefano; van Rooij, Eva

    2017-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of biology and disease. Recent animal efficacy studies validate the therapeutic benefit of miRNA modulation and underscore the therapeutic value of miRNA-targeting oligonucleotides. However, whether disease conditions (stress) influence the pharmacological effects of an anti-miR is currently unknown. To study the effect of disease on target regulation after anti-miR treatment, we injected animals with anti-miR-208a, a synthetic oligonucleotide that inhibits the cardiomyocyte-specific miR-208a. Our data indicate that the presence of stress increases the number of regulated miR-208a targets, and that higher stress levels correlate with stronger target derepression. Additionally, the type of stress also influences which targets are regulated upon miR-208a inhibition. Studies in a large animal model indicate a similar stress-dependent anti-miR effect. Subsequent in vitro studies suggest that the influence of stress on anti-miR efficacy depends at least in part on increased cellular anti-miR uptake. These data indicate that the pharmacological effect of anti-miRs is stronger under disease conditions, and that both the type and severity of disease determine the therapeutic outcome. These facts will be important for assessing the therapeutic dose and predicting the therapeutic outcome when applying anti-miRs in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Therapeutic Process and Outcome during Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Children with Anxiety and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Marilyn Virginia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the therapeutic process and outcomes of cognitive behavioral therapy used to treat anxiety disorders in twenty-two elementary school-aged children (7- to 11-year-olds) who had autism spectrum disorder, by using child and parent verbalizations and behavior collected during a randomized controlled…

  13. Efficacy of functional electrical stimulation-biofeedback with sexual cognitive-behavioral therapy as treatment of vaginismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ju Tae; Choe, Jin Ho; Lee, Won Sik; Kim, Kyung Hee

    2005-07-01

    To report 12 cases of vaginismus that were successfully treated with functional electrical stimulation (FES)-biofeedback with sexual cognitive-behavioral therapy (SCBT) to determine the efficacy of FES-biofeedback with SCBT as a standard therapy for vaginismus. Vaginismus is an involuntary spasm of the musculature of the outer third of the vagina that leads to impossible vaginal penetration, causing personal distress. Various therapeutic approaches, both physiologic and psychological, have been considered. Twelve women with vaginismus referred from a checkup outpatient clinic participated in this study. The patients enrolled in this study had vaginismus according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The patients were assessed before and after treatment with gynecologic examinations and structured interviews pertaining to sexual function and psychological adjustment. After the diagnosis of vaginismus, we conducted weekly pelvic floor muscle relaxation using FES-biofeedback. Once the patients became tolerable to vaginal manipulation, the eight-stage SCBT (eight-stage gradual desensitization described by Kaplan using vaginal self-dilation with fingers and vaginal probe insertion) was added for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks of treatment, all 12 couples had completed the program, had become tolerable to vaginal insertion of larger size probes, and could achieve satisfactory vaginal intercourse. FES-biofeedback with SCBT is an effective aid for patients with vaginismus to learn muscle control. Therefore, it may increase the success rate of treatment of vaginismus.

  14. Increasing the safety and efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cell therapy is a promising cancer treatment that has recently been undergoing rapid development. However, there are still some major challenges, including precise tumor targeting to avoid off-target or “on-target/off-tumor” toxicity, adequate T cell infiltration and migration to solid tumors and T cell proliferation and persistence across the physical and biochemical barriers of solid tumors. In this review, we focus on the primary challenges and strategies to design safe and effective CAR T cells, including using novel cutting-edge technologies for CAR and vector designs to increase both the safety and efficacy, further T cell modification to overcome the tumor-associated immune suppression, and using gene editing technologies to generate universal CAR T cells. All these efforts promote the development and evolution of CAR T cell therapy and move toward our ultimate goal—curing cancer with high safety, high efficacy, and low cost.

  15. A study on the efficacy of touch therapy in pain relieve after cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ravanipour

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Supporters of touch therapy claim it can treat and cure a wide variety of illnesses, including heart failure, diabetes and infections. The "theory" is that people who are ill have disturbed "energy fields," and that by moving trained hands over the patient's body (without contact, a touch therapist can detect malalignments and repattern energy fields to create "energy balance." In a quasi- experimental study, 30 subjects in 6 hours post cesarean section state were divided into therapeutic touch or placebo (speech induction groups in a university hospital. In order to assess the pain, Visual Analog scale (VAS was used, before and after intervention. The mean pain score decreased significantly only in the therapeutic touch group (50.66 to 39.53 p<0.01. In conclusion, it is recommended that therapeutic touch , as an attentive technique, can be used in pain relieve after cesarean section.

  16. Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of percutaneous nephropyelostomy for hydronephrosis after renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Jianzhuang; Liang Huimin; Wu Hanping; Zheng Chuansheng; Zhou Guofeng; Xia Xiangwen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the method of percutaneous nephrostomy and the cause with prevention and treatment of the complication. Methods: 16 patients with nephrohydrosis after kidney transplantation in right iliac fossa were taken percutaneous nerphrostomy with coaxial puncture technique under ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance; and by different operation methods according to the patient's condition. The color and volume of urine were observed, urine routine and renal function were rechecked after the operation. Results: The pyelography showed that all 16 patients had different degree nephrohydrosis and ureteral obstruction; including 7 ureteral complete obstructions and 9 ureteral incomplete obstructions. 3 cases received percutaneous pelvic external drainage and 13 others received percutaneous antegrade endolumina] balloon dilation of ureterostenosis and drainage. The average levels of serum urea nitrogen and creatinine decreased from 28.3 mmol/L and 537.7 μmol/L before operation to 9.7 mmol/L and 148.6 μmol/L one week after the operation respectively. Nephrohydrosis disappeared under ultrasonic inspection after the operation and no nephrohydrosis occurred in all patients during follow up of 4 to 48 months except one of double J catheter inadequate drainage two months postoperatively and in turn received external drainage. Conclusions: Characterized with simple manipulation, less invasion and complications, interventional therapy is a reliable and effective for renal transplanted patients with nephrohydrosis. (authors)

  17. Efficacy of Selected Electrical Therapies on Chronic Low Back Pain: A Comparative Clinical Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajfur, Joanna; Pasternok, Ma?gorzata; Rajfur, Katarzyna; Walewicz, Karolina; Fras, Beata; Bolach, Bartosz; Dymarek, Robert; Rosinczuk, Joanna; Halski, Tomasz; Taradaj, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Background In the currently available research publications on electrical therapy of low back pain, generally no control groups or detailed randomization were used, and such studies were often conducted with relatively small groups of patients, based solely on subjective questionnaires and pain assessment scales (lacking measurement methods to objectify the therapeutic progress). The available literature also lacks a comprehensive and large-scale clinical study. The purpose of this study was ...

  18. TC > 0.05 as a Pharmacokinetic Parameter of Paclitaxel for Therapeutic Efficacy and Toxicity in Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, D S; Zhou, L; Li, C Z; Zhang, S Q; Huang, H Q; Qiu, G D; Lin, L F; She, Y Q; Zheng, J T; Chen, C; Fang, L; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Zhang, S Y

    2018-03-05

    Paclitaxel (PTX) has remarkable anti-tumor activity, but it causes severe toxicities. There is an urgent need to seek an appropriate pharmacokinetic parameter of PTX to improve treatment efficacy and reduce adverse effects. To evaluate the association of pharmacokinetic parameter TC>0.05 of paclitaxel (PTX) and its therapeutic efficacy and toxicity in patients with solid tumors. A total of 295 patients with ovarian cancer, esophageal cancer, breast cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who were admitted to the Tumor Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, China, were recruited for this study. Patients received 3 weeks of PTX chemotherapy. The plasma concentrations of PTX were examined using the MyPaclitaxelTM kit. The patients' PTX TC>0.05 (the time during which PTX plasma concentration exceed 0.05 μmol/L) were calculated based on pharmacokinetic analysis. The results showed that: (1) the concentrations of PTX in these 295 patients ranged from 0.0358-0.127 μmol/L; (2) the PTX TC> 0.05 ranged from 14 to 38 h with a median time of 27 h; (3) among all treatment cycles, there was a statistically significant difference in the PTX TC>0.05 between CR+PR and SD+PD; (4) with the increasing value of TC>0.05, level of leukopenia and leukopenic fever increased; (5) high PTX TC>0.05 led to the occurrence of neutropenia, neutropenic fever, severe anemia, and severe peripheral neurotoxicity. Taken together, our results indicated that the pharmacokinetic parameter PTX TC>0.05 was an effective measure of treatment efficacy and toxicity in patients with solid tumors. Maintaining PTX TC>0.05 at 26 to 30 h could improve its efficacy and reduce the incidence of leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia, and peripheral neurotoxicity in these patients. PTX TC>0.05 is a key pharmacokinetic parameter of PTX which should be monitored to optimize individual treatment in patients with solid tumors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Rationale for selecting antihistamine drugs for the therapy of chronic urticaria in terms of efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Skorokhodkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the study. To compare the efficacy of antihistamine drugs for the therapy of chronic urticaria taking into consideration their effect on the patients’ cognitive functions. Materials and methods. The study involved 178 patients with chronic urticaria who were divided into six groups taking second generation antihistamine drugs: Cetirizine (n = 38, Levocetirizine (n = 27, Fexofenadine (n=26, Ebastine (n = 33, Loratadine (n = 26 and Desloratadine (n = 28. The patients recorded dynamic changes in clinical symptoms of the disease (number of urticarial components, skin itching intensity, availability or absence of urticarial derniographism, angioedema signs and signs of the shortness of breath and reduced blood pressure in their individual diaries. Baseline signs of the patients’ cognitive condition and those recorded during the treatment were studied using the Kraepelin’s arithmetic test (modified by Schulte, I.M. Lushchikhina’s verbal and visual thinking assessment method and method for memorizing ten words. The control group comprised 31 subjects without chronic urticaria. Results of the study. Ebastine and Fexofenadine are the most efficient antihistamine drugs for the treatment of chronic urticaria. At the same time, they do not have any negative effect on the patients’ cognitive functions so they can be recommended for long-term treatment of chronic urticaria. In spite of its evident positive therapeutic effect, Cetirizine reduces mental alertness and deteriorates thinking in patients with chronic urticaria. Because of this, the drug must be prescribed with care for long-term administration to those patients whose professional activities demand increased attention concentration. Loratadine has a positive effect on the patients’ attention and thinking. However, taking into consideration its low efficacy, the drug can be prescribed as the basis therapy for the treatment of light forms of chronic urticaria.

  20. Comparing the efficacy of photodynamic and sonodynamic therapy in non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Conor; Nesbitt, Heather; Nicholas, Dean; Kavanagh, Oisin N; McKenna, Kevin; Loan, Philip; Jack, Iain G; McHale, Anthony P; Callan, John F

    2016-07-01

    Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) involves the activation of a non-toxic sensitiser drug using low-intensity ultrasound to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Given the low tissue attenuation of ultrasound, SDT provides a significant benefit over the more established photodynamic therapy (PDT) as it enables activation of sensitisers at a greater depth within human tissue. In this manuscript, we compare the efficacy of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated PDT and SDT in a squamous cell carcinoma (A431) cell line as well as the ability of these treatments to reduce the size of A431 ectopic tumours in mice. Similarly, the relative cytotoxic ability of Rose Bengal mediated PDT and SDT was investigated in a B16-melanoma cell line and also in a B16 ectopic tumour model. The results reveal no statistically significant difference in efficacy between ALA mediated PDT or SDT in the non-melanoma model while Rose Bengal mediated SDT was significantly more efficacious than PDT in the melanoma model. This difference in efficacy was, at least in part, attributed to the dark pigmentation of the melanoma cells that effectively filtered the excitation light preventing it from activating the sensitiser while the use of ultrasound circumvented this problem. These results suggest SDT may provide a better outcome than PDT when treating highly pigmented cancerous skin lesions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Self-Assembled ROS-Sensitive Polymer-Peptide Therapeutics Incorporating Built-in Reporters for Evaluation of Treatment Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zeng-Ying; Zhao, Wen-Jing; Cong, Yong; Zhang, Di; Hu, Zhiyuan; Duan, Zhong-Yu; Wang, Hao

    2016-05-09

    One of the major challenges in current cancer therapy is to maximize therapeutic effect and evaluate tumor progression under the scheduled treatment protocol. To address these challenges, we synthesized the cytotoxic peptide (KLAKLAK)2 (named KLAK) conjugated amphiphilic poly(β-thioester)s copolymers (H-P-K) composed of reactive oxygen species (ROS) sensitive backbones and hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) side chains. H-P-K could self-assemble into micelle-like nanoparticles by hydrophobic interaction with copolymer backbones as cores and PEG and KLAK as shells. The assembled polymer-peptide nanoparticles remarkably improved cellular internalization and accumulation of therapeutic KLAK in cells. Compared to free KLAK peptide, the antitumor activity of H-P-K was significantly enhanced up to ∼400 times, suggesting the effectiveness of the nanoscaled polymer-peptide conjugation as biopharmaceuticals. The higher antitumor activity of nanoparticles was attributed to the efficient disruption of mitochondrial membranes and subsequent excessive ROS production in cells. To realize the ROS monitoring and treatment evaluation, we encapsulated squaraine (SQ) dyes as built-in reporters in ROS-sensitive H-P-K micelles. The overgenerated ROS around mitochondria stimulated the swelling of nanoparticles and subsequent release of SQ, which formed H-aggregates and significantly increased the photoacoustic (PA) signal. We believed that this self-assembled polymer-peptide nanotherapeutics incorporating built-in reporters has great potential for high antitumor performance and in situ treatment evaluation.

  2. The relationship between interpersonal problems, therapeutic alliance, and outcomes following group and individual cognitive behaviour therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Peter M; Burgess, Melissa M; Nathan, Paula

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is efficacious, but there remains individual variability in outcomes. Patient's interpersonal problems may affect treatment outcomes, either directly or through a relationship mediated by helping alliance. Interpersonal problems may affect alliance and outcomes differentially in individual and group (CBGT) treatments. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between interpersonal problems, alliance, dropout and outcomes for a clinical sample receiving either individual or group CBT for anxiety or depression in a community clinic. Patients receiving individual CBT (N=84) or CBGT (N=115) completed measures of interpersonal problems, alliance, and disorder specific symptoms at the commencement and completion of CBT. In CBGT higher pre-treatment interpersonal problems were associated with increased risk of dropout and poorer outcomes. This relationship was not mediated by alliance. In individual CBT those who reported higher alliance were more likely to complete treatment, although alliance was not associated with symptom change, and interpersonal problems were not related to attrition or outcome. Allocation to group and individual therapy was non-random, so selection bias may have influenced these results. Some analyses were only powered to detect large effects. Helping alliance ratings were high, so range restriction may have obscured the relationship between helping alliance, attrition and outcomes. Pre-treatment interpersonal problems increase risk of dropout and predict poorer outcomes in CBGT, but not in individual CBT, and this relationship is not mediated by helping alliance. Stronger alliance is associated with treatment completion in individual, but not group CBT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of Statin Therapy in Inducing Coronary Plaque Regression in Patients with Low Baseline Cholesterol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozue, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Tohyama, Shinichi; Fukui, Kazuki; Umezawa, Shigeo; Onishi, Yuko; Kunishima, Tomoyuki; Sato, Akira; Miyake, Shogo; Morino, Yoshihiro; Yamauchi, Takao; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Michishita, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The efficacy of statin therapy in inducing coronary plaque regression may depend on baseline cholesterol levels. We aimed to determine the efficacy of statin therapy in inducing coronary plaque regression in statin-naïve patients with low cholesterol levels using serial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) data from the treatment with statin on atheroma regression evaluated by virtual histology IVUS (TRUTH) study. Methods: The TRUTH study is a prospective, multicenter trial, comparing the efficacies of pitavastatin and pravastatin in coronary plaque regression in 164 patients. All patients were statin-naïve and received statin therapy only after study enrollment. The primary endpoint was the observation of coronary plaque progression, despite statin therapy. Results: Serial IVUS data, at baseline and after an 8-month follow-up, were available for 119 patients. The patients were divided into three groups based on non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels—low: ≤ 140 mg/dl, n = 38; moderate: 141–169 mg/dl, n = 42; and high: ≥ 170 mg/dl, n = 39. Coronary plaque progression was noted in the low cholesterol group, whereas plaque regression was noted in the moderate and high cholesterol groups [%Δplaque volume: 2.3 ± 7.4 vs. − 2.7 ± 10.7 vs. − 3.2 ± 7.5, p = 0.004 (analysis of variance)]. After adjusting for all variables, a low non-HDLC level (≤ 140 mg/dl) was identified as an independent predictor of coronary plaque progression [odds ratio, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.5–9.1, p = 0.004]. Conclusion: Serial IVUS data analysis indicated that statin therapy was less effective in inducing coronary plaque regression in patients with low cholesterol levels but more effective in those with high cholesterol levels at baseline. University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) (UMIN ID: C000000311). PMID:27040362

  4. Efficacy of Low-Dose Corticosteroid Therapy Versus High-Dose Corticosteroid Therapy in Bell's Palsy in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arican, Pinar; Dundar, Nihal Olgac; Gencpinar, Pinar; Cavusoglu, Dilek

    2017-01-01

    Bell's palsy is the most common cause of acute peripheral facial nerve paralysis, but the optimal dose of corticosteroids in pediatric patients is still unclear. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose corticosteroid therapy compared with high-dose corticosteroid therapy in children with Bell's palsy. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the dose of oral prednisolone regimen initiated. The severity of idiopathic facial nerve paralysis was graded according to the House-Brackmann Grading Scale. The patients were re-assessed in terms of recovery rate at the first, third, and sixth months of treatment. There was no significant difference in complete recovery between the 2 groups after 1, 3, and 6 months of treatment. In our study, we concluded that even at a dose of 1 mg/kg/d, oral prednisolone was highly effective in the treatment of Bell's palsy in children.

  5. From Molecular Classification to Targeted Therapeutics: The Changing Face of Systemic Therapy in Metastatic Gastroesophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Murphy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological classification of adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma for esophageal cancer or using the Lauren classification for intestinal and diffuse type gastric cancer has limited clinical utility in the management of advanced disease. Germline mutations in E-cadherin (CDH1 or mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome were identified many years ago but given their rarity, the identification of these molecular alterations does not substantially impact treatment in the advanced setting. Recent molecular profiling studies of upper GI tumors have added to our knowledge of the underlying biology but have not led to an alternative classification system which can guide clinician’s therapeutic decisions. Recently the Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network has proposed four subtypes of gastric cancer dividing tumors into those positive for Epstein-Barr virus, microsatellite unstable tumors, genomically stable tumors, and tumors with chromosomal instability. Unfortunately to date, many phase III clinical trials involving molecularly targeted agents have failed to meet their survival endpoints due to their use in unselected populations. Future clinical trials should utilize molecular profiling of individual tumors in order to determine the optimal use of targeted therapies in preselected patients.

  6. Genetic markers as therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis: A game changer in clinical therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A M Mohamed Thoufic; Vino, S

    2016-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory, multi-systemic autoimmune disease unremitted by genetic and environmental factors. The factors are crucial but inadequate in the development of disease; however, these factors can be representative of potential therapeutic targets and response to clinical therapy. Insights into the contribution of genetic risk factors are currently in progress with studies querying the genetic variation, their role in gene expression of coding and non-coding genes and other mechanisms of disease. In this review, we describe the significance of genetic markers architecture of RA through genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis studies. Further, it also reveals the mechanism of disease pathogenesis investigated through the mutual findings of functional and genetic studies of individual RA-associated genes, which includes HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DPB1, PADI4, PTPN22, TRAF1-C5, STAT4 and C5orf30. However, the genetic background of RA remains to be clearly depicted. Prospective efforts of the post-genomic and functional genomic period can travel toward real possible assessment of the genetic effect on RA. The discovery of novel genes associated with the disease can be appropriate in identifying potential biomarkers, which could assist in early diagnosis and aggressive treatment.

  7. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy of budesonide in experimental colitis with enzyme/pH dual-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Naeem, Jiafu Cao, Moonjeong Choi, Woo Seong Kim, Hyung Ryong Moon, Bok Luel Lee, Min-Soo Kim, Yunjin Jung, Jin-Wook Yoo College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea Abstract: Current colon-targeted drug-delivery approaches for colitis therapy often utilize single pH-triggered systems, which are less reliable due to the variation of gut pH in individuals and in disease conditions. Herein, we prepared budesonide-loaded dual-sensitive nanoparticles using enzyme-sensitive azo-polyurethane and pH-sensitive methacrylate copolymer for the treatment of colitis. The therapeutic potential of the enzyme/pH dual-sensitive nanoparticles was evaluated using a rat colitis model and compared to single pH-triggered nanoparticles. Clinical activity scores, colon/body weight ratios, myeloperoxidase activity, and proinflammatory cytokine levels were markedly decreased by dual-sensitive nanoparticles compared to single pH-triggered nanoparticles and budesonide solution. Moreover, dual-sensitive nanoparticles accumulated selectively in inflamed segments of the colon. In addition, dual-sensitive nanoparticle plasma concentrations were lower than single pH-triggered nanoparticles, and no noticeable in vitro or in vivo toxicity was observed. Our results demonstrate that enzyme/pH dual-sensitive nanoparticles are an effective and safe colon-targeted delivery system for colitis therapy. Keywords: azo-polyurethane, methacrylate copolymer, budesonide, colon-targeted nanoparticles, colitis

  8. Perceived Effectiveness, Self-Efficacy, And Social Support For Oral Appliance Therapy Among Older Veterans With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Carballo, Nancy J.; Alessi, Cathy A.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Mitchell, Michael N.; Hays, Ron D.; Col, Nananda; Patterson, Emily S.; Jouldjian, Stella; Josephson, Karen; Fung, Constance H.

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a prevalent sleep disorder among older adults. Oral appliances are increasingly prescribed as therapy for obstructive sleep apnea. Adherence to oral appliance therapy is highly variable. Based on value-expectancy theory and other social-psychological theories, adherence to oral appliance therapy may be influenced by patients' perceived effectiveness of the therapy, self-efficacy, and availability of social support. We examined these perceptions among older adults wi...

  9. The impact of early symptom change and therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioural therapy for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Hannah; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel; Marshall, Emily

    2015-10-01

    The present study explored the impact of early symptom change (cognitive and behavioural) and the early therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders. Participants were 94 adults with diagnosed eating disorders who completed a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment, following the 6th session and at the end of treatment. They also completed a measure of therapeutic alliance following the 6th session. Greater early reduction in dietary restraint and eating concerns, and smaller levels of change in shape concern, significantly predicted later reduction in global eating pathology. The early therapeutic alliance was strong across the three domains of tasks, goals and bond. Early symptom reduction was a stronger predictor of later reduction in eating pathology than early therapeutic alliance. The early therapeutic alliance did not mediate the relationship between early symptom reduction and later reduction in global eating pathology. Instead, greater early symptom reduction predicted a strong early therapeutic alliance. Early clinical change was the strongest predictor of treatment outcome and this also facilitated the development of a strong early alliance. Clinicians should be encouraged to deliver all aspects of evidence-based CBT, including behavioural change. The findings suggest that this will have a positive impact on both the early therapeutic alliance and later change in eating pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular Imaging in Therapeutic Efficacy Assessment of Targeted Therapy for Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation is a thermally driven membrane process for seawater desalination and purification at moderate temperatures and pressures. A hydrophobic micro-porous membrane is used in this process, which separates hot and cold water, allowing water vapor to pass through; while restricting the movement of liquid water, due to its hydrophobic nature. This paper provides an experimental investigation of heat and mass transfer in tubular membrane module for water desalination. Different operating parameters have been examined to determine the mass transport mechanism of water vapor. Based on the experimental results, the effects of operating parameters on permeate flux and the heat transfer analysis have been presented and discussed in details.

  11. Irradiation enhances the tumor tropism and therapeutic potential of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-secreting human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in glioma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Muk; Oh, Ji Hyeon; Park, Soon A; Ryu, Chung Heon; Lim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Dal-Soo; Chang, Jong Wook; Oh, Wonil; Jeun, Sin-Soo

    2010-12-01

    Irradiation is a standard therapy for gliomas and many other cancers. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is one of the most promising candidates for cancer gene therapy. Here, we show that tumor irradiation enhances the tumor tropism of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) and the therapeutic effect of TRAIL delivered by UCB-MSCs. The sequential treatment with irradiation followed by TRAIL-secreting UCB-MSCs (MSC-TRAIL) synergistically enhanced apoptosis in either TRAIL-sensitive or TRAIL-resistant glioma cells by upregulating the death receptor 5 and by inducing caspase activation. Migration assays showed greater MSC migration toward irradiated glioma cells and the tumor site in glioma-bearing mice compared with unirradiated tumors. Irradiated glioma cells had increased expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), which leads to the upregulation of the IL-8 receptor on MSCs. This upregulation, which is involved in the migratory capacity of UCB-MSCs, was confirmed by siRNA inhibition and an antibody-neutralizing assay. In vivo survival experiments in orthotopic xenografted mice showed that MSC-based TRAIL gene delivery to irradiated tumors had greater therapeutic efficacy than a single treatment. These results suggest that clinically relevant tumor irradiation increases the therapeutic efficacy of MSC-TRAIL by increasing tropism of MSCs and TRAIL-induced apoptosis, which may be a more useful strategy for cancer gene therapy.

  12. β2 Agonists Enhance the Efficacy of Simultaneous Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Murine Pompe Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeberl, Dwight D.; Li, Songtao; Dai, Jian; Thurberg, Beth L.; Bali, Deeksha; Kishnani, Priya S.

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human acid α-glucosidase (rhGAA) has improved clinical outcomes in patients with Pompe disease; however, the response of skeletal muscle and the central nervous system to ERT has been attenuated. The poor response of skeletal muscle to ERT has been attributed to the low abundance of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR), which mediates receptor-mediated uptake of rhGAA. Hence the ability of adjunctive therapy with β2-agonists to increase CI-MPR expression in skeletal muscle was evaluated during ERT in murine Pompe disease with regard to reversal of neuromuscular involvement. Mice with Pompe disease were treated with weekly rhGAA injections (20 mg/kg) and a selective β2-agonist, either albuterol (30 mg/l in drinking water) or low-dose clenbuterol (6 mg/l in drinking water). Biochemical correction was enhanced by β2-agonist treatment in both muscle and the cerebellum, indicating that adjunctive therapy could enhance efficacy from ERT in Pompe disease with regard to neuromuscular involvement. Intriguingly, clenbuterol slightly reduced muscle glycogen content independent of CI-MPR expression, as demonstrated in CI-MPR knockout/GAA knockout mice that were otherwise resistant to ERT. Thus, adjunctive therapy with β2 agonists might improve the efficacy of ERT in Pompe disease and possibly other lysosomal storage disorders through enhancing receptor-mediated uptake of recombinant lysosomal enzymes. PMID:22154081

  13. Liposomes and hyperthermia in mice: increased tumor uptake and therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in sterically stabilized liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S K; Stauffer, P R; Hong, K; Guo, J W; Phillips, T L; Huang, A; Papahadjopoulos, D

    1994-04-15

    We have shown that sterically stabilized (Stealth) liposomes (SL), can accumulate in the extracellular space within tumors, and may improve pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of encapsulated doxorubicin (SL-DOX). When SL-DOX were incubated in vitro at different temperatures with 50% bovine serum, approximately 20% of the encapsulated DOX was released at 42 degrees C within 1 min, compared with less than 1% DOX released at 37 degrees C. In vivo, mice were implanted s.c. with C-26 colon carcinoma in both flanks to produce matched tumors 6-10 mm in diameter. Topical hyperthermia treatment consisting of 42 degrees C minimum tumor temperature for 30 min was applied with a microwave device to the tumor on one side only at 1 h after i.v. injection of SL-DOX or free DOX. Tumor DOX concentration in the group which was given injections of SL-DOX and sacrificed 2 h after drug injection was 1.5-fold higher compared with the nonheated tumor in mice given injections of SL-DOX. At 24 h after injection the thermal enhancement ratio for DOX accumulation in tumor remained at 1.5. In addition, there was a 15-fold higher concentration of DOX in tumor from the group given injections of SL-DOX compared to mice given injections of free doxorubicin. To assess therapeutic efficacy, we treated mice with hyperthermia for 15 min either at 1, or at 24 h or at both time points after injection of SL-DOX. We have found that the life span of the group of mice treated with SL-DOX and two 15-min hyperthermia treatments increased 51% compared with control groups receiving the same dosage of SL-DOX but without hyperthermia, and 59% compared to those receiving two hyperthermia treatments but with free DOX. A single hyperthermia treatment either at 1 or 24 h was less effective in increasing life span compared with two treatments, but all groups treated with SL-DOX and single hyperthermia were still superior to the control groups, showing a 27-38% increase in life span.

  14. Efficacy and Side Effects of Natalizumab Therapy in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hoepner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natalizumab (Nat is a humanized monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS. Nat inhibits lymphocyte migration via the blood brain barrier (BBB by blockage of an integrin adhesion molecule, very late antigen 4. During the phase III clinical trials, it was shown that Nat reduces disease activity and prevents disability progression. In addition, several smaller studies indicate a positive influence of Nat on cognition, depression, fatigue, and quality of life (Qol. Therapeutic efficacy has to be weighed against the risk of developing potentially fatal progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML, an opportunistic infection by JC-virus (JCV with an incidence of 3.4/1000 (95% CI 3.08–3.74 in Nat treated MS patients. In this review article, we will review data on the presumed mechanism of Nat action, clinical and paraclinical efficacy parameters, and adverse drug reactions with a special focus on PML.

  15. How music training enhances working memory: a cerebrocerebellar blending mechanism that can lead equally to scientific discovery and therapeutic efficacy in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervert, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Following in the vein of studies that concluded that music training resulted in plastic changes in Einstein's cerebral cortex, controlled research has shown that music training (1) enhances central executive attentional processes in working memory, and (2) has also been shown to be of significant therapeutic value in neurological disorders. Within this framework of music training-induced enhancement of central executive attentional processes, the purpose of this article is to argue that: (1) The foundational basis of the central executive begins in infancy as attentional control during the establishment of working memory, (2) In accordance with Akshoomoff, Courchesne and Townsend's and Leggio and Molinari's cerebellar sequence detection and prediction models, the rigors of volitional control demands of music training can enhance voluntary manipulation of information in thought and movement, (3) The music training-enhanced blending of cerebellar internal models in working memory as can be experienced as intuition in scientific discovery (as Einstein often indicated) or, equally, as moments of therapeutic advancement toward goals in the development of voluntary control in neurological disorders, and (4) The blending of internal models as in (3) thus provides a mechanism by which music training enhances central executive processes in working memory that can lead to scientific discovery and improved therapeutic outcomes in neurological disorders. Within the framework of Leggio and Molinari's cerebellar sequence detection model, it is determined that intuitive steps forward that occur in both scientific discovery and during therapy in those with neurological disorders operate according to the same mechanism of adaptive error-driven blending of cerebellar internal models. It is concluded that the entire framework of the central executive structure of working memory is a product of the cerebrocerebellar system which can, through the learning of internal models

  16. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of therapeutic bandage contact lenses on post-cataract surgery patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Na Shi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the safety of therapeutic bandage contact lens for post-cataract surgery patients and to illustrate its efficacy on post-operative comfort and tear-film stability. METHODS: A total of 40 participants were recruited and randomly divided into two groups. Group one was instructed to wear bandage contact lenses for a week and use antibiotic eye drops for a month since the first day after surgery. Group two received sub-conjunctival injection of tobramycin and was asked to wear eye pads on the first day after surgery and then were instructed to use antibiotic eye drops as the first group did. Ocular surface disease index (OSDI questionnaire, slit-lamp microscope examination of tear break-up time (TBUT, corneal fluorescein score (CFS, tear meniscus height (TMH together with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT and corneal topography were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS: The subjective feeling (P=0.004, TBUT (P<0.001 and TMH (P=0.02 post-surgery had improved in patients who used bandage contact lenses compared with those who did not at 1wk post-surgery. Until three month postoperatively, the comfort degree (P=0.004 and TMH (P=0.01 of group two were still worse than group one. Moreover, TBUT (P<0.001 and CFS (P=0.004 of the group with eye pads got worse than the results before, whereas the group with bandage contact lenses recovered to normal. None of these patients had infections or other complications. CONCLUSION: Wearing therapeutic bandage contact lens after cataract surgery, compared with traditional eye-pads, is a safe method to improve tear-film stability and reduce post-operative discomfort without hindering corneal incision recovery.

  17. Investigation of comparative efficacy of eugenol and benzyl benzoate in therapy of sheep mange

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    Jezdimirović Milanka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The acaricide efficacy, tolerance and safety of eugenol (10 and 20 % in the treatment of sarcoptic mange in sheep have been investigated. The results were compared with those corresponding for benzyl benzoate (25 %, which was applied to sheep in the same way. The treatment was applied on sheep three times in one-week intervals. Skin scrapings were sampled seven days after each treatment, as well as twenty-eight days following the third one. The changes on the skin were quantified and the mean recovery response (MRR was calculated. The clinical efficacy was assessed according to the MRR and the number of mites in the samples. Following the first treatment 10%eugenol was not significantly less efficacious in comparison with the higher concentration. Having been applied twice 20% eugenol was significantly more efficacious when compared to the lower concentration, which remained the same seven and twenty-eight days after the third application. The efficacy of 10% eugenol in the therapy of mange was significantly higher in comparison with benzyl benzoate following one, two or three administrations. The efficacy of benzyl benzoate four weeks after the third treatment was still significantly lower in comparison with 10% eugenol. The efficacy of 20% eugenol was significantly higher in comparison with its lower concentration as well as that of benzyl benzoate, following the second, and seven and twenty-eight days after the third one. No signs of local or systemic intolerance were observed in sheep treated with either 10 or 20% eugenol, or 25 % benzyl benzoate. .

  18. Safety and efficacy of interferon-ribavirin combination therapy in HCV-HIV coinfected subjects: an early report

    OpenAIRE

    Zylberberg, H; Benhamou, Y; Lagneaux, J; Landau, A; Chaix, M; Fontaine, H; Bochet, M; Poynard, T; Katlama, C; Pialoux, G; Brechot, C; Pol, S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—More severe liver disease together with a poor response rate to α interferon argue for the use of more potent anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-HCV coinfected patients, but the efficacy and safety of interferon-ribavirin combination therapy in HIV infected subjects are unknown.
AIM—To retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-HCV combination therapy in 21 HCV-HIV coinfected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy, and to a...

  19. [Experimental validation of the efficacy of laser-magnetic therapy for chronic placental insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordzhonikidze, N V; Filimonov, V G; Klimenko, P A; Kondrikov, N I; Akin'shina, V S; Berlin, Iu V

    1994-01-01

    A new pathogenetically based non-medicamentous method for correction of uteroplacental bloodflow disturbances has been developed on the model of chronic placental insufficiency in rats. A single 5 min laser-magnetic exposure on day 21 of normal pregnancy resulted in a vasodilating effect with reduction of the peripheral resistance in the uterine horn vessels and with improvement of their blood supply. A new LAMA laser magneto-therapeutic device was employed. Daily 5 min sessions of laser magnetic therapy administered to rats with chronic placental insufficiency from pregnancy days 15-16 to 21 normalized uterine horn contractility and resulted in positive morphofunctional changes in the components of the uterine horns and placenta, being associated with a noticeable improvement of fetal functions. Hence, laser magnetic therapy may be regarded as an effective non-drug method for therapy of chronic placental insufficiency.

  20. The efficacy and tolerability of leflunomide (Arava® in therapy for psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vasilyevich Badokin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives data on differentiated disease-modifying anti-rheumatic therapy for psoriatic arthritis (PsA. When performing the therapy, account must be taken of the presence and magnitude of the major manifestations of this disease: the pattern of arthritis and spondylosis, the number of inflamed entheses, the number of swollen fingers or toes, the pattern of psoriasis in terms of its extent and stage, the presence and magnitude of systemic manifestations and the functional state of involved organs. There are data on the biological activity of leflunomide, its effect on the main manifestations of PsA with an analysis of its efficacy and tolerability, as well as the results of a comparative investigation of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs used for the therapy of this disease.

  1. Therapeutic Alliance in Telephone-Administered Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Allison J.; DuHamel, Katherine N.; Winkel, Gary; Rini, Christine; Greene, Paul B.; Mosher, Catherine E.; Redd, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A strong therapeutic alliance has been found to predict psychotherapeutic treatment success across a variety of therapeutic modalities and patient populations. However, only a few studies have examined therapeutic alliance as a predictor of psychotherapy outcome among cancer survivors, and none have examined this relation in…

  2. Effect of dexamethasone on the efficacy of daptomycin in the therapy of experimental pneumococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, M; Force, E; Tubau, F; El Haj, C; Ariza, J; Cabellos, C

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of dexamethasone in combination with low-dose or high-dose daptomycin for the treatment of penicillin- and cephalosporin-resistant pneumococcal meningitis. Efficacy (ΔCFU/mL) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of daptomycin at 15mg/kg and 25mg/kg were studied in a rabbit model of pneumococcal meningitis, comparing them with the same doses in combination with dexamethasone at 0.125mg/kg every 12h over a 26-h period against two different Streptococcus pneumoniae strains, HUB 2349 and ATCC 51916 with daptomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.09mg/L and 0.19mg/L, respectively. Daptomycin levels in CSF were lower when dexamethasone was given concurrently. Against strain HUB 2349, therapeutic failure occurred with daptomycin 15mg/kg+dexamethasone; daptomycin 25mg/kg+dexamethasone was better at reducing bacterial counts than the lower dose throughout treatment. Against the highly cephalosporin-resistant ATCC 51916 strain, daptomycin 15mg/kg+dexamethasone achieved a lower bacterial decrease than daptomycin 15mg/kg alone, and therapeutic failure at 24h occurred in the daptomycin 15mg/kg+dexamethasone group. Addition of dexamethasone to a 25mg/kg daptomycin dose did not affect the efficacy of daptomycin: it remained bactericidal throughout treatment. In conclusion, against the studied strains, low-dose (15mg/kg/day) daptomycin is affected by concomitant use of dexamethasone: CSF levels are reduced and its bacterial efficacy is affected. At a higher daptomycin dose (25mg/kg/day), however, the use of dexamethasone does not alter efficacy; the combination appears to be a good choice for the treatment of pneumococcal meningitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving volitional competence is crucial for the efficacy of psychosomatic therapy: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstmeier, Simon; Rueddel, Heinz

    2007-01-01

    Although skills of will (volitional competences), such as self-motivation or emotion regulation, are particularly necessary for patients with psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders, it is unknown whether volitional deficits can be reduced and thereby the efficacy of psychotherapy increased. We investigated the effect of a group therapy for improving volitional competence in an inpatient rehabilitation program. In a controlled clinical trial, patients from a rehabilitation clinic participated either in the volition group therapy in addition to the standard cognitive behavioral therapy (volition group, VG) or in the standard cognitive behavioral therapy (standard group, SG). Patients were tested for volitional competence, depressive symptoms, total psychiatric symptomatology, and physical complaints prior to, at the end of inpatient therapy and after 6 months of follow-up (n = 242). At the end of inpatient therapy, better improvement in volitional competence was observed in the VG than in the SG [e.g. self-motivation: effect size (ES) 0.96 vs. 0.39; ANCOVA: F(1, 209) = 16.58; p training. These results might lead to a more systematic assessment and training of volitional competence. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Different bismuth-based therapies for eradicating Helicobacter pylori: Randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcan, Hale; Oztas, Erkin; Onal, Ibrahim Koral

    2016-02-01

    Bismuth salts are used for treating dyspepsia, and they exert antibacterial effects on Helicobacter pylori. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of three bismuth-containing combination regimens for H. pylori eradication in a Turkish population. In this single-center study, 149 patients, who were diagnosed with H. pylori infection with urea breath test and histopathological examination, were randomized to receive the following therapies for 14 days: (1) bismuth-containing clarithromycin-based triple therapy (CBS-LAC), (2) bismuth-containing levofloxacin-based triple therapy (CBS-LAL), and (3) bismuth-containing quadruple therapy (BCQT). Eradication rates were evaluated six weeks after the treatment by performing intention to treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses. In addition, data on side effect profiles and patient compliance were collected. PP and ITT analyses showed that eradication rates were 86% and 81.1%, respectively, with BCQT; 68.3% and 66.7%, respectively, with CBS-LAL therapy; and 65.3% and 59.3%, respectively, with CBS-LAC therapy. Eradication rates obtained using PP and ITT analyses were statistically significant for all the regimens. Addition of bismuth to standard triple and levofloxacin-based regimen did not show an acceptable increase in eradication rates. Therefore, BCQT may be preferred for the first-line treatment of H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficacy of Infliximab Biosimilar CT-P13 Induction Therapy on Mucosal Healing in Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Klaudia; Rutka, Mariann; Golovics, Petra A; Végh, Zsuzsanna; Lovász, Barbara D; Nyári, Tibor; Gecse, Krisztina B; Kolar, Martin; Bortlik, Martin; Duricova, Dana; Machkova, Nadezda; Hruba, Veronika; Lukas, Martin; Mitrova, Katarina; Malickova, Karin; Bálint, Anita; Nagy, Ferenc; Bor, Renáta; Milassin, Ágnes; Szepes, Zoltán; Palatka, Károly; Lakatos, Péter L; Lukas, Milan; Molnár, Tamás

    2016-11-01

    CT-P13 is the first biosimilar to infliximab that has been approved for the same indications as its originator infliximab. No data are available on the effect of infliximab biosimilar on mucosal healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CT-P13 induction therapy on mucosal healing in patients with ulcerative colitis [UC]. UC patients, who received CT-P13 therapy from its local introduction at three Hungarian and one Czech inflammatory bowel disease centres, were prospectively enrolled. Sigmoidoscopy was performed after the end of the induction therapy at week 14. Mucosal healing was defined as Mayo endoscopic subscore 0 or 1. Complete mucosal healing was defined as Mayo endoscopic subscore 0. Trough level of CT-P13 was measured at week 14. Sixty-three UC patients who underwent CT-P13 induction therapy were enrolled in the study. Indication for the therapy was acute, severe flare up and chronic, refractory activity in 24 and 39 patients, respectively. Cumulative clinical response and steroid-free remission at week 14 were achieved in 82.5% and 47.6% of the patients, respectively. Sigmoidoscopy revealed steroid-free mucosal healing in 47.6% of the patients, and complete mucosal healing was present in 27%. Mayo endoscopic subscore decreased significantly at week 14 compared to baseline. Trough levels of infliximab correlated with mucosal healing. This is, to our knowledge, the first study examining the efficacy of CT-P13 induction therapy on mucosal healing in UC. The results indicate that mucosal healing is achieved in two-thirds of UC patients by the end of the induction treatment with CT-P13. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. [Analysis of Therapeutic Regularities and Characteristics of Blood-letting Therapy for Acne Patients Based on Data Mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu-zhu; Jia, Chun-sheng; Wang, Jian-ling; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-xu; Liu, Xin; Gang, Wei-juan

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the therapeutic regularities and characteristics of blood-letting therapy for acne in the past clinical practice by using data mining. Original papers about acne treated by pricking blood therapy were searched and screened from common databases as Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), WanFang Data, SinoMed, Ovid, ScienceDirect, Socolar, SciFinder, Foreign Medical Journal Full-Text Service (FMJS) and PubMed using keywords of acne+bleeding therapy, acne+blood-letting, acne+ pricking blood, followed by establishing a data plateform to conduct a data mining using Online Analytical Processing (OLAP). A total of 230 original journal articles about acne treated by pricking blood therapy were collected. The included acne cases with wind-heat pattern were predoment, being 56 in frequency-times and acounting for 24. 78 %. In the treatment of acne, the therapeutic tool, three-edged needle was often used, being 168 in frequency and acounting for 71.79%. The frequently employed acupoints were those of the Governor Vessel and Bladder Meridian, such as Dazhui (GV 14) and back-shu points. When auricular points used for blood-letting, Erjian (EX-HN 6) and the Vena of the auricular back were most frequently selected. In addition to blood-letting, other therapies such as Chinese herbal medicines, filiform needles, and otopoint-pellet pressure were also used in combination, being 166 in items and constituting 72. 17%. Generally, blood-letting treatment was conducted once every three days (twice a week) or once every two days (three times a week) for about 20 sessions for each acne patient. Blood-letting therapy is effective in the treatment of acne. But if used in combination with other therapies, the therapeutic effect would be better.

  7. siRNA-loaded cationic liposomes for cancer therapy: Development, characterization and efficacy evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Bo

    Cancer is a major health problem in the United States and many other parts of the world. However, cancer treatment is severely limited by the lack of highly effective cytotoxic agents and selective delivery methods which can serve as the "magic bullet" (first raised by Dr. Paul Ehrlich, the goal of targeting a specific location without causing harm to surrounding tissues or to more distant regions in the body). The revolutionary finding that tumors cannot grow beyond a microscopic size without dedicated blood supply provided a highly effective alternative for the treatment of cancer. Currently, anti-angiogenic therapy and the discovery of RNA interference makes it possible to treat some conditions by silencing disorder-causing genes of targeting cells which are otherwise difficult to eradicate with more conventional therapies. However, before siRNA technology could be widely used as a therapeutic approach, the construct must be efficiently and safely delivered to target cells. Strategies used for siRNA delivery should minimize uptake by phagocytes, enzymatic degradation by nucleases and should be taken up preferentially, if not specifically, by the intended cell population. Kinesin spindle proteins (KSP) are the motor proteins which play critical roles during mitosis. Different from tubulins which are also present in post-mitotic cells, such as axons, KSP is exclusively expressed in mitotic cells, which makes them the ideal target for anti-mitotics. In the present study, we intend to develop, characterize and evaluate a liposome-based delivery system which can deliver KSP siRNA selectively to the tumor vasculature (thus inhibiting angiogenesis, destroying tumor vasculature and eventually, eradicating tumor growth). We first developed ten different liposome preparation types with different compositions of lipids. Next, the capacity for loading siRNA and efficiency of targeting the tumor vascular supply was evaluated using relevant cellular and tumor models

  8. The Efficacy of Combination of Cognitive-behavioral Therapy and Choice Theory and Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Noroozi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Obsessive - Compulsive Disorder (OCD is a disabling disorder that affects one's performance, while the effectiveness of cognitive - behavioral therapy has been shown in several studies, but recurrences of the disease is reported by patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy and choice theory and obsessive-compulsive disorder on patients referred to psychological clinics in Arak, Iran. Methods: In the present case study, 3 females diagnosed with OCD on the bases of Yale-Brown scale (Y-BOCS were chosen. They were trained 8 sessions which included cognitive-behavioral treatment and choice theory.  Five sessions of 8 sessions were on the bases of cognitive behavioral therapy and other sessions were on the basis of choice theory. Finally, the results were presented using tables and graphs. Results: The results of the Yale-Brown scale (Y-BOCS was used as a pretest and posttest assessment and self-report form (Report of the clients who had a 5-degree scale demonstrated the effectiveness of integrating of two cognitive-behavioral and choice theory. Conclusion: According to the results, it was concluded that people with knowledge of the choice and intrinsic motivation in the using cognitive-behavioral trainings (Relaxation, recognition of cognitive distortions, avoiding the respondents are efficient in reducing symptoms of obsessive-compulsive will operate. Combining of these two approaches in advancing therapeutic targets in the treatment of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder can be effective.

  9. [Efficacy of pulmonary surfactant therapy in neonates with meconium aspiration syndrome: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fei-Fei; Yang, Di-Yuan; Chen, Pan; Hua, Zi-Yu

    2012-06-01

    The efficacy of pulmonary surfactant (PS) replacement therapy for meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PS therapy in neonates with MAS by a meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the treatment of MAS with PS were searched electronically in medical debases including PubMed, Science Citation Index, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid, EBSCOhost, BIOSIS previews, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, Wanfang Database and VIP Chinese Sci-Tech Periodical Database. The Cochrane Handbook 5.0.2 was employed to evaluate methodological quality. RevMan 5.0.25 software was used for the meta-analysis. Eight RCTs including 512 MAS neonates (257 cases in the PS treatment group and 255 cases in the control group) were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that PS treatment reduced oxygenation index (MD=-2.59; 95%CI: -4.33, -0.86; P=0.003), increased arterial oxygen/alveolar oxygen ratio (MD=0.05; 95%CI: 0.05, 0.06; P<0.00001), shortened hospitalization days (MD=-4.94; 95%CI: -7.44, -2.44; P=0.0001) and decreased mortality rate (OR=0.47; 95%CI: 0.24, 0.93; P=0.03) significantly. There were no statistical differences in the durations of mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy, and the incidences of air leak, pulmonary hemorrhage and intracranial hemorrhage between the PS treatment and control groups. Currently published evidence from RCTs suggests that PS replacement therapy is effective for MAS, however because of the limited quantity and quality of trials enrolled in the study, further evidence from RCTs is needed to prove the efficacy.

  10. Pretreatment with 5-Fluorouracil Cream Enhances the Efficacy of Daylight-mediated Photodynamic Therapy for Actinic Keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Christoffer V; Heerfordt, Ida Marie; Wiegell, Stine R

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolevulinate is reduced when treating actinic keratosis (AK) on the extremities in comparison with the face and scalp. Studies indicate that PDT efficacy can be improved by combining PDT with other treatment modalities. This randomized int...

  11. A randomized comparative trial on the therapeutic efficacy of topical aloe vera and Calendula officinalis on diaper dermatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Sharif, Mohamad Reza; Sharif, Alireza; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Zahiri, Zahra; Amirchoopani, Golnoush; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2012-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis (DD) is a common inflammatory disorder among children and infants. The objective of the present randomized and double-blind trial was to compare the therapeutic efficacies of aloe vera cream and Calendula officinalis ointment on the frequency and severity of DD in children. Sixty-six infants with DD (aged Calendula ointment (n = 34). Infants were treated with these drugs 3 times a day for 10 days. The severity of dermatitis was graded at baseline as well as at the end of trial using a 5-point scale. The adverse effects of study medications were assessed during the trial. Although improvement in the severity of DD was observed in both treatment groups (P Calendula ointment had significantly fewer rash sites compared to aloe group (P = 0.001). No adverse effect was reported from either of the medications. The evidence from this study suggests that topical aloe and in particular Calendula could serve as safe and effective treatment for the treatment of diaper dermatitis in infants.

  12. Therapeutic Efficacy of Orally Delivered Doxorubicin Nanoparticles in Rat Tongue Cancer Induced by 4-Nitroquinoline 1-Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Moradzadeh Khiavi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Oral cancer is one of the most significant cancers in the world, and squamous cell carcinoma makes up about 94% of oral malignancies. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of doxorubicin plus methotrexate - loaded nanoparticles on tongue squamous cell carcinoma induced by 4NQO and compare it with the commercial doxorubicin and methotrexate delivered orally on seventy SD male rats. Methods: 70 rats were divided into five groups. During the study, the animals were weighed by a digital scale once a week. Number of mortalities was recorded in the data collection forms. At the end of the treatment, biopsy samples were taken from rat tongues in order to evaluate the severity of dysplasia and the extent of cell proliferation. The results were analyzed using ANOVA, descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in the mean weight of five groups (p>0.05. No significant relationship was found between groups and mortality rate (P = 0. 39. In addition, there was a significant relationship between groups and the degree of dysplasia (P <0.001. The statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between groups and the rate of cell proliferation (p <0.001. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the use of doxorubicin plus methotrexate - loaded nanoparticles orally had more therapeutic effects than commercial doxorubicin plus methotrexate.

  13. Combined therapy in vulvar lichen sclerosus: does topical tretinoin improve the efficacy of mometasone furoate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Minghetti, Sara; Toni, Giulia; Virgili, Annarosa; Corazza, Monica

    2017-09-01

    Abstrract Purpose: To assess efficacy and safety profile of combining a potent corticosteroid with a retinoid in the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus (VLS). We retrospectively compared 21 VLS patients treated with tretinoin (T) in short-contact therapy and mometasone furoate (MMF) (group A) and 20 treated with cold cream (CC) and MMF (group B) for 5 consecutive days/week for 12 weeks. The efficacy parameters were the response rate, the percentage of patients achieving an improvement from baseline of ≥75% in subjective and objective scores and the mean reduction in subjective and objective scores. Thirteen patients (75.2%) were considered as responders in group A and 15 (78.9%) in group B; 50% and 61.1% of patients in group A and 100% and 63.1% in group B achieved an improvement of at least 75% in subjective and objective scores, respectively. The scheme combining MMF and CC was better tolerated than the combination of MMF and T. The combination with a topical retinoid did not enhance the effectiveness of a potent corticosteroid in the treatment of VLS. Either the scarce efficacy of the short-contact therapy regimen or a less favorable safety profile of such combination may account for these findings.

  14. [Prognostic evaluations of recurrent gliomas and preliminary efficacies of combined modality therapy].<