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Sample records for therapy smart superimposing

  1. Synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy (SMART): superimposing tumor motion on IMRT MLC leaf sequences under realistic delivery conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jun; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Shi Chengyu; Jiang, Steve B

    2009-01-01

    Synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy (SMART) has been proposed to account for tumor motions during radiotherapy in prior work. The basic idea of SMART is to synchronize the moving radiation beam aperture formed by a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) with the tumor motion induced by respiration. In this paper, a two-dimensional (2D) superimposing leaf sequencing method is presented for SMART. A leaf sequence optimization strategy was generated to assure the SMART delivery under realistic delivery conditions. The study of delivery performance using the Varian LINAC and the Millennium DMLC showed that clinical factors such as collimator angle, dose rate, initial phase and machine tolerance affect the delivery accuracy and efficiency. An in-house leaf sequencing software was developed to implement the 2D superimposing leaf sequencing method and optimize the motion-corrected leaf sequence under realistic clinical conditions. The analysis of dynamic log (Dynalog) files showed that optimization of the leaf sequence for various clinical factors can avoid beam hold-offs which break the synchronization of SMART and fail the SMART dose delivery. Through comparison between the simulated delivered fluence map and the planed fluence map, it was shown that the motion-corrected leaf sequence can greatly reduce the dose error.

  2. Smart Radiation Therapy Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Boateng, Francis; Kumar, Rajiv; Irvine, Darrell J; Formenti, Silvia; Ngoma, Twalib; Herskind, Carsten; Veldwijk, Marlon R; Hildenbrand, Georg Lars; Hausmann, Michael; Wenz, Frederik; Hesser, Juergen

    2017-03-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is a crucial component of cancer care, used in the treatment of over 50% of cancer patients. Patients undergoing image guided RT or brachytherapy routinely have inert RT biomaterials implanted into their tumors. The single function of these RT biomaterials is to ensure geometric accuracy during treatment. Recent studies have proposed that the inert biomaterials could be upgraded to "smart" RT biomaterials, designed to do more than 1 function. Such smart biomaterials include next-generation fiducial markers, brachytherapy spacers, and balloon applicators, designed to respond to stimuli and perform additional desirable functions like controlled delivery of therapy-enhancing payloads directly into the tumor subvolume while minimizing normal tissue toxicities. More broadly, smart RT biomaterials may include functionalized nanoparticles that can be activated to boost RT efficacy. This work reviews the rationale for smart RT biomaterials, the state of the art in this emerging cross-disciplinary research area, challenges and opportunities for further research and development, and a purview of potential clinical applications. Applications covered include using smart RT biomaterials for boosting cancer therapy with minimal side effects, combining RT with immunotherapy or chemotherapy, reducing treatment time or health care costs, and other incipient applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lumbosacral multiradiculopathy responsive to antibiotic therapy: description of four patients with lumbar spondylosis and a superimposed Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luigetti, Marco; Vollaro, Stefano; Corbetto, Marzia; Salomone, Gaetano; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Scoppettuolo, Giancarlo; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    Lyme disease is a diffuse zoonosis caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi species complex. Neurological manifestations of the disease, involving central or peripheral nervous system, are common. This study describes four consecutive patients with an MRI-proven lumbosacral spondylosis, who complained of progressive worsening of symptoms in the last months in which serological evaluation suggested a superimposed B. Burgdorferi infection. Four patients, all from the Lazio region, were admitted to the Department of Neurology. Extensive laboratory studies and clinical, anamnestic and neurophysiological evaluation were performed in all cases. In all cases, anamnesis revealed a previous diagnosis of lumbosacral foraminal stenosis. Clinical and neurophysiological findings were consistent with a lumbosacral multiradiculopathy. Considering serological evaluation suggestive of a superimposed B. burgdorferi infection a proper antibiotic therapy was started. All cases showed a marked improvement of symptoms. Clinicians should be aware that in all cases of lumbosacral multiradiculopathy, even if a mechanical cause is documented, B. burgdorferi may be a simply treatable condition.

  4. Smart Drug Delivery Systems in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsoy, Gozde; Gunduz, Ufuk

    2018-02-08

    Smart nanocarriers have been designed for tissue-specific targeted drug delivery, sustained or triggered drug release and co-delivery of synergistic drug combinations to develop safer and more efficient therapeutics. Advances in drug delivery systems provide reduced side effects, longer circulation half-life and improved pharmacokinetics. Smart drug delivery systems have been achieved successfully in the case of cancer. These nanocarriers can serve as an intelligent system by considering the differences of tumor microenvironment from healthy tissue, such as low pH, low oxygen level, or high enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinases. The performance of anti-cancer agents used in cancer diagnosis and therapy is improved by enhanced cellular internalization of smart nanocarriers and controlled drug release. Here, we review targeting, cellular internalization; controlled drug release and toxicity of smart drug delivery systems. We are also emphasizing the stimulus responsive controlled drug release from smart nanocarriers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Extracranial vertebral artery rupture likely secondary to "cupping therapy" superimposed on spontaneous dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Young; Huh, Chae Wook; Choi, Chang Hwa; Lee, Jae Il

    2016-12-01

    The extracranial vertebral artery (VA) is vulnerable to dissection and the V3 segment is the most common location for dissection. Dissection accounts for about 2% of all ischemic strokes and can occur after trauma or chiropractic neck maneuvers. We report an extremely rare case of spontaneous extracranial VA dissection presenting with posterior neck hematoma aggravated after cupping therapy, a treatment in traditional Oriental medicine. We treated the patient successfully by endovascular treatment without any complication. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Smart Mesoporous Nanomaterials for Antitumor Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Martínez-Carmona

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanomaterials for the treatment of solid tumours is receiving increasing attention by the scientific community. Among them, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs exhibit unique features that make them suitable nanocarriers to host, transport and protect drug molecules until the target is reached. It is possible to incorporate different targeting ligands to the outermost surface of MSNs to selectively drive the drugs to the tumour tissues. To prevent the premature release of the cargo entrapped in the mesopores, it is feasible to cap the pore entrances using stimuli-responsive nanogates. Therefore, upon exposure to internal (pH, enzymes, glutathione, etc. or external (temperature, light, magnetic field, etc. stimuli, the pore opening takes place and the release of the entrapped cargo occurs. These smart MSNs are capable of selectively reaching and accumulating at the target tissue and releasing the entrapped drug in a specific and controlled fashion, constituting a promising alternative to conventional chemotherapy, which is typically associated with undesired side effects. In this review, we overview the recent advances reported by the scientific community in developing MSNs for antitumor therapy. We highlight the possibility to design multifunctional nanosystems using different therapeutic approaches aimed at increasing the efficacy of the antitumor treatment.

  7. [Superimposed lichen planus pigmentosus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, Benigno; Suarez-Amor, Óscar; Cabanillas, Miguel; de Las Heras, Cristina; Álvarez, Juan Carlos

    2014-05-16

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus that is characterized by the insidious onset of dark brown macules in sun-exposed areas and flexural folds. Superimposed linear lichen planus is an exceedingly rare disorder, but it has been found in both lichen planopilaris and lichen planus types. A 39-year-old woman is presented showing a segmental and linear lichen planus associated with non-segmental lesions meeting all criteria for the diagnosis of superimposed linear planus pigmentosus. The segmental lesions were always more pronounced.

  8. SUPERIMPOSED MESH PLOTTING IN MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. HENDRICKS

    2001-02-01

    The capability to plot superimposed meshes has been added to MCNP{trademark}. MCNP4C featured a superimposed mesh weight window generator which enabled users to set up geometries without having to subdivide geometric cells for variance reduction. The variance reduction was performed with weight windows on a rectangular or cylindrical mesh superimposed over the physical geometry. Experience with the new capability was favorable but also indicated that a number of enhancements would be very beneficial, particularly a means of visualizing the mesh and its values. The mathematics for plotting the mesh and its values is described here along with a description of other upgrades.

  9. Development of Smart Phthalocyanine-based Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yun Sang

    Phthalocyanines are versatile functional dyes that have shown great potential in cancer theranostics, especially in photodynamic therapy (PDT). This research work aims to develop "smart" phthalocyanine-based photosensitizers for targeted PDT. This thesis describes the synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, photophysical properties, and in vitro photodynamic activities of several series of carefully designed phthalocyanine-based photosensitizers. Chapter 1 presents an overview of PDT, including its historical development, photophysical mechanisms, and biological mechanisms. Various classes of photosensitizers are introduced with emphasis putting on phthalocyanines, which exhibit ideal characteristics of photosensitizers for PDT. In recent years, several approaches have been used to develop photosensitizers with higher tumor selectivity and minimal skin photosensitivity after PDT. Activatable photosensitizers can provide a "turn on" mechanism to offer an additional control of the specificity of treatment. Photosensitizers can also work cooperatively with the tumor-targeting groups or anticancer drugs so as to achieve targeted or dual therapy, which can enhance the efficacy of PDT. The novel approaches mentioned above have been widely used and combined to form multi-functional photosensitizing agents. These novel concepts and development of PDT are discussed and illustrated with relevant examples at the end of this chapter. To minimize the prolonged skin photosensitivity, photosensitizers that can only be activated by tumor-associated stimuli have been developed. Due to the abnormal metabolism in tumor tissues, their surface usually exhibits a lower pH compared to that of the normal tissues. Also, the pH difference between the intracellular and the physiological environment provides a pH-activation mechanism. Chapter 2 presents the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of a pH-responsive zinc(II) phthalocyanine tetramer, in which the phthalocyanine units

  10. Infantile osteopetrosis with superimposed rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Korcan Aysun; Yazici, Zeynep; Gokalp, Gokhan; Ucar, Ayse Kalyoncu

    2013-01-01

    Rickets is a complication of infantile osteopetrosis and pre-treatment recognition of this complication is important. To describe four children with infantile osteopetrosis complicated by rickets (osteopetrorickets) and review the relevant literature. Retrospective chart analysis of four infants with osteopetrorickets and a systematic review of the relevant literature. We saw five children with infantile osteopetrosis, of whom four had superimposed rickets, for a period of 12 years. The review of the literature (including the current four children), yielded 20 children with infantile osteopetrorickets. The children ranged in age from 2 months to 12 months. In all children, hepatosplenomegaly was found. Sixteen (80%) children had visual impairments and eight (40%) children had hearing impairments. Serum calcium-phosphorus product was less than 30 in 18 children (90%). Twelve children (60%) were hypocalcemic and 18 (90%) were hypophosphatemic. In all children, the radiological examination demonstrated diffuse bony sclerosis and metaphyseal splaying and fraying of long bones. Five children (25%) had pathological fracture of extremities and 15 (75%) had rachitic rosary. Rickets as a complication to infantile osteopetrosis is not uncommon. Skeletal roentgenograms are of critical importance in the diagnosis of both osteopetrosis and superimposed rickets.

  11. Internal and External Triggering Mechanism of "Smart" Nanoparticle-Based DDSs in Targeted Tumor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiana, Xian-Ling; Li, Jun; Wei, Ran; Lin, Hui; Xiong, Li-Xia

    2018-05-09

    Anticancer chemotherapeutics have a lot of problems via conventional drug delivery systems (DDSs), including non-specificity, burst release, severe side-effects, and damage to normal cells. Owing to its potential to circumventing these problems, nanotechnology has gained increasing attention in targeted tumor therapy. Chemotherapeutic drugs or genes encapsulated in nanoparticles could be used to target therapies to the tumor site in three ways: "passive", "active", and "smart" targeting. To summarize the mechanisms of various internal and external "smart" stimulating factors on the basis of findings from in vivo and in vitro studies. A thorough search of PubMed was conducted in order to identify the majority of trials, studies and novel articles related to the subject. Activated by internal triggering factors (pH, redox, enzyme, hypoxia, etc.) or external triggering factors (temperature, light of different wavelengths, ultrasound, magnetic fields, etc.), "smart" DDSs exhibit targeted delivery to the tumor site, and controlled release of chemotherapeutic drugs or genes. In this review article, we summarize and classify the internal and external triggering mechanism of "smart" nanoparticle-based DDSs in targeted tumor therapy, and the most recent research advances are illustrated for better understanding. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Stimuli-Regulated Smart Polymeric Systems for Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansuja Pulickal Mathew

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The physiological condition of the human body is a composite of different environments, each with its own parameters that may differ under normal, as well as diseased conditions. These environmental conditions include factors, such as pH, temperature and enzymes that are specific to a type of cell, tissue or organ or a pathological state, such as inflammation, cancer or infection. These conditions can act as specific triggers or stimuli for the efficient release of therapeutics at their destination by overcoming many physiological and biological barriers. The efficacy of conventional treatment modalities can be enhanced, side effects decreased and patient compliance improved by using stimuli-responsive material that respond to these triggers at the target site. These stimuli or triggers can be physical, chemical or biological and can be internal or external in nature. Many smart/intelligent stimuli-responsive therapeutic gene carriers have been developed that can respond to either internal stimuli, which may be normally present, overexpressed or present in decreased levels, owing to a disease, or to stimuli that are applied externally, such as magnetic fields. This review focuses on the effects of various internal stimuli, such as temperature, pH, redox potential, enzymes, osmotic activity and other biomolecules that are present in the body, on modulating gene expression by using stimuli-regulated smart polymeric carriers.

  13. Unusual case of recurrent SMART (stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnath Santosh Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART syndrome is a rare delayed complication of cerebral radiation therapy. A 53-year-old female initially presented with headache, confusion and left homonymous hemianopia. Her medical history was notable for cerebellar hemangioblastoma, which was treated with radiation in 1987. Her initial brain MRI (magnetic resonance imaging revealed cortical enhancement in the right temporo-parieto-occipital region. She improved spontaneously in 2 weeks and follow-up scan at 4 weeks revealed no residual enhancement or encephalomalacia. She presented 6 weeks later with aphasia. Her MRI brain revealed similar contrast-enhancing cortical lesion but on the left side. Repeat CSF studies was again negative other than elevated protein. She was treated conservatively and recovered completely within a week. Before diagnosing SMART syndrome, it is important to rule out tumor recurrence, encephalitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES and stroke. Typically the condition is self-limiting, and gradually resolves.

  14. Unusual case of recurrent SMART (stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Ramnath Santosh; Sreedher, Gayathri; Malhotra, Konark; Guduru, Zain; Agarwal, Deeksha; Flaherty, Mary; Leichliter, Timothy; Rana, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome is a rare delayed complication of cerebral radiation therapy. A 53-year-old female initially presented with headache, confusion and left homonymous hemianopia. Her medical history was notable for cerebellar hemangioblastoma, which was treated with radiation in 1987. Her initial brain MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) revealed cortical enhancement in the right temporo-parieto-occipital region. She improved spontaneously in 2 weeks and follow-up scan at 4 weeks revealed no residual enhancement or encephalomalacia. She presented 6 weeks later with aphasia. Her MRI brain revealed similar contrast-enhancing cortical lesion but on the left side. Repeat CSF studies was again negative other than elevated protein. She was treated conservatively and recovered completely within a week. Before diagnosing SMART syndrome, it is important to rule out tumor recurrence, encephalitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and stroke. Typically the condition is self-limiting, and gradually resolves.

  15. Smart sensors and virtual physiology human approach as a basis of personalized therapies in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Peruchena, Carlos M; Prado-Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has a growing incidence and prevalence in modern societies, pushed by the aging and change of life styles. Despite the huge resources dedicated to improve their quality of life, mortality and morbidity rates, these are still very poor. In this work, DM pathology is revised from clinical and metabolic points of view, as well as mathematical models related to DM, with the aim of justifying an evolution of DM therapies towards the correction of the physiological metabolic loops involved. We analyze the reliability of mathematical models, under the perspective of virtual physiological human (VPH) initiatives, for generating and integrating customized knowledge about patients, which is needed for that evolution. Wearable smart sensors play a key role in this frame, as they provide patient's information to the models.A telehealthcare computational architecture based on distributed smart sensors (first processing layer) and personalized physiological mathematical models integrated in Human Physiological Images (HPI) computational components (second processing layer), is presented. This technology was designed for a renal disease telehealthcare in earlier works and promotes crossroads between smart sensors and the VPH initiative. We suggest that it is able to support a truly personalized, preventive, and predictive healthcare model for the delivery of evolved DM therapies.

  16. Synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy (SMART): improvement of breathing pattern reproducibility using respiratory coaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neicu, Toni; Berbeco, Ross; Wolfgang, John; Jiang, Steve B

    2006-01-01

    Recently, at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) we proposed a new treatment technique called synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy (SMART) to account for tumour motion during radiotherapy. The basic idea of SMART is to synchronize the moving radiation beam aperture formed by a dynamic multileaf collimator with the tumour motion induced by respiration. The two key requirements for being able to successfully use SMART in clinical practice are the precise and fast detection of tumour position during the simulation/treatment and the good reproducibility of the tumour motion pattern. To fulfil the first requirement, an integrated radiotherapy imaging system is currently being developed at MGH. The results of a previous study show that breath coaching techniques are required to make SMART an efficient technique in general. In this study, we investigate volunteer and patient respiratory coaching using a commercial respiratory gating system as a respiration coaching tool. Five healthy volunteers, observed during six sessions, and 33 lung cancer patients, observed during one session when undergoing 4D CT scans, were investigated with audio and visual promptings, with free breathing as a control. For all five volunteers, breath coaching was well tolerated and the intra- and inter-session reproducibility of the breathing pattern was greatly improved. Out of 33 patients, six exhibited a regular breathing pattern and needed no coaching, four could not be coached at all due to the patient's medical condition or had difficulty following the instructions, 13 could only be coached with audio instructions and 10 could follow the instructions of and benefit from audio-video coaching. We found that, for all volunteers and for those patients who could be properly coached, breath coaching improves the duty cycle of SMART treatment. However, about half of the patients could not follow both audio and video instructions simultaneously, suggesting that the current coaching

  17. Synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy (SMART): improvement of breathing pattern reproducibility using respiratory coaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neicu, Toni; Berbeco, Ross; Wolfgang, John; Jiang, Steve B [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2006-02-07

    Recently, at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) we proposed a new treatment technique called synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy (SMART) to account for tumour motion during radiotherapy. The basic idea of SMART is to synchronize the moving radiation beam aperture formed by a dynamic multileaf collimator with the tumour motion induced by respiration. The two key requirements for being able to successfully use SMART in clinical practice are the precise and fast detection of tumour position during the simulation/treatment and the good reproducibility of the tumour motion pattern. To fulfil the first requirement, an integrated radiotherapy imaging system is currently being developed at MGH. The results of a previous study show that breath coaching techniques are required to make SMART an efficient technique in general. In this study, we investigate volunteer and patient respiratory coaching using a commercial respiratory gating system as a respiration coaching tool. Five healthy volunteers, observed during six sessions, and 33 lung cancer patients, observed during one session when undergoing 4D CT scans, were investigated with audio and visual promptings, with free breathing as a control. For all five volunteers, breath coaching was well tolerated and the intra- and inter-session reproducibility of the breathing pattern was greatly improved. Out of 33 patients, six exhibited a regular breathing pattern and needed no coaching, four could not be coached at all due to the patient's medical condition or had difficulty following the instructions, 13 could only be coached with audio instructions and 10 could follow the instructions of and benefit from audio-video coaching. We found that, for all volunteers and for those patients who could be properly coached, breath coaching improves the duty cycle of SMART treatment. However, about half of the patients could not follow both audio and video instructions simultaneously, suggesting that the current coaching

  18. Celecoxib-Induced Self-Assembly of Smart Albumin-Doxorubicin Conjugate for Enhanced Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Leilei; Xu, Li; Wu, Chenwei; Xue, Bai; Jin, Xin; Yang, Jiapei; Zhu, Xinyuan

    2018-03-14

    Recent years have witnessed the great contributions that drug combination therapy has made for enhanced cancer therapy. However, because of the complicated pharmacokinetics of combined drug formulations, the majority of combination strategies show severe adverse effects at high dosage and poor biodistribution in vivo. To overcome these deficiencies and achieve enhanced cancer therapy, we put forward a method to construct a smart albumin-based nanoplatform, denoted as K237-HSA-DC, for codelivery of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor (celecoxib) and chemotherapeutic agent (doxorubicin, DOX). Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that K237-HSA-DC exhibits the best therapeutic efficacy on tumor cells compared with all the other formulations. Moreover, K237-HSA-DC shows fewer side effects on normal organs in contrast to other formulations. To understand the reasons behind the improved drug efficacy in depth, we performed a cell metabonomics-based mechanism study and found that celecoxib could enhance the inhibitory effect of DOX on the transport of glucose into cells and then lead to subsequent significant energy metabolism inhibition. Considering the above-mentioned advantages of K237-HSA-DC, we believe the smart albumin-based nanoplatform can serve as a promising drug delivery system for enhanced cancer therapy.

  19. Synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy (SMART): average tumour trajectory for lung patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neicu, Toni; Shirato, Hiroki; Seppenwoolde, Yvette; Jiang, Steve B

    2003-01-01

    Synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy (SMART) is a new technique for treating mobile tumours under development at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). The basic idea of SMART is to synchronize the moving radiation beam aperture formed by a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) with the tumour motion induced by respiration. SMART is based on the concept of the average tumour trajectory (ATT) exhibited by a tumour during respiration. During the treatment simulation stage, tumour motion is measured and the ATT is derived. Then, the original IMRT MLC leaf sequence is modified using the ATT to compensate for tumour motion. During treatment, the tumour motion is monitored. The treatment starts when leaf motion and tumour motion are synchronized at a specific breathing phase. The treatment will halt when the tumour drifts away from the ATT and will resume when the synchronization between tumour motion and radiation beam is re-established. In this paper, we present a method to derive the ATT from measured tumour trajectory data. We also investigate the validity of the ATT concept for lung tumours during normal breathing. The lung tumour trajectory data were acquired during actual radiotherapy sessions using a real-time tumour-tracking system. SMART treatment is simulated by assuming that the radiation beam follows the derived ATT and the tumour follows the measured trajectory. In simulation, the treatment starts at exhale phase. The duty cycle of SMART delivery was calculated for various treatment times and gating thresholds, as well as for various exhale phases where the treatment begins. The simulation results show that in the case of free breathing, for 4 out of 11 lung datasets with tumour motion greater than 1 cm from peak to peak, the error in tumour tracking can be controlled to within a couple of millimetres while maintaining a reasonable delivery efficiency. That is to say, without any breath coaching/control, the ATT is a valid concept for some lung

  20. SMART Syndrome: Case report of a rare complication after cerebral radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truntzer, P.; Salze, P.; Monjour, A.; Gaultier, C.; Ahle, G.; Guillerme, F.; Boutenbat, G.; Atlani, D.; Stilhart, B

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a 71-year-old woman case who developed, 7 years after a cerebral radiation therapy for a parieto-occipital glioblastoma, a stroke-like migraine attacks after radiotherapy syndrome (SMART syndrome), a rare complication characterized by reversible neurologic deficits with migraine described after cerebral irradiation. Transient gyri-form reversible enhancement is found on MRI during crises. This case report allows discussing the clinical, iconographic presentation and the clinical outcome of this syndrome at the light of the literature publication. (authors)

  1. Electrical stimulation superimposed onto voluntary muscular contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric; Passelergue, Philippe; Dupui, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) reverses the order of recruitment of motor units (MU) observed with voluntary muscular contraction (VOL) since under ES, large MU are recruited before small MU. The superimposition of ES onto VOL (superimposed technique: application of an electrical stimulus during a voluntary muscle action) can theoretically activate more motor units than VOL performed alone, which can engender an increase of the contraction force. Two superimposed techniques can be used: (i) the twitch interpolation technique (ITT), which consists of interjecting an electrical stimulus onto the muscle nerve; and (ii) the percutaneous superimposed electrical stimulation technique (PST), where the stimulation is applied to the muscle belly. These two superimposed techniques can be used to evaluate the ability to fully activate a muscle. They can thus be employed to distinguish the central or peripheral nature of fatigue after exhausting exercise. In general, whatever the technique employed, the superimposition of ES onto volitional exercise does not recruit more MU than VOL, except with eccentric actions. Nevertheless, the neuromuscular response associated with the use of the superimposed technique (ITT and PST) depends on the parameter of the superimposed current. The sex and the training level of the subjects can also modify the physiological impact of the superimposed technique. Although the motor control differs drastically between training with ES and VOL, the integration of the superimposed technique in training programmes with healthy subjects does not reveal significant benefits compared with programmes performed only with voluntary exercises. Nevertheless, in a therapeutic context, training programmes using ES superimposition compensate volume and muscle strength deficit with more efficiency than programmes using VOL or ES separately.

  2. Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy (CogSMART) for veterans with traumatic brain injury: pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twamley, Elizabeth W; Jak, Amy J; Delis, Dean C; Bondi, Mark W; Lohr, James B

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in cognitive impairments and persistent postconcussive symptoms that limit functional recovery, including return to work. We evaluated a 12 wk compensatory cognitive training intervention (Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy [CogSMART]) in the context of supported employment for Veterans with mild to moderate TBI. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 12 wk of supported employment plus CogSMART or enhanced supported employment that controlled for therapist attention (control). CogSMART sessions were delivered by the employment specialist and included psychoeducation regarding TBI; strategies to improve sleep, fatigue, headaches, and tension; and compensatory cognitive strategies in the domains of prospective memory, attention, learning and memory, and executive functioning. Compared with controls, those assigned to supported employment plus CogSMART demonstrated significant reductions in postconcussive symptoms (Cohen d = 0.97) and improvements in prospective memory functioning (Cohen d = 0.72). Effect sizes favoring CogSMART for posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity, depressive symptom severity, and attainment of competitive work within 14 wk were in the small to medium range (Cohen d = 0.35-0.49). Those who received CogSMART rated the intervention highly. Results suggest that adding CogSMART to supported employment may improve postconcussive symptoms and prospective memory. These effects, as well as smaller effects on psychiatric symptoms and ability to return to work, warrant replication in a larger trial.

  3. Highly Selective Photothermal Therapy by a Phenoxylated-Dextran-Functionalized Smart Carbon Nanotube Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungmin; Kwon, Taeyun; Um, Jo-Eun; Haam, Seungjoo; Kim, Woo-Jae

    2016-05-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) photothermal therapy using biocompatible single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is advantageous because as-produced SWNTs, without additional size control, both efficiently absorb NIR light and demonstrate high photothermal conversion efficiency. In addition, covalent attachment of receptor molecules to SWNTs can be used to specifically target infected cells. However, this technique interrupts SWNT optical properties and inevitably lowers photothermal conversion efficiency and thus remains major hurdle for SWNT applications. This paper presents a smart-targeting photothermal therapy platform for inflammatory disease using newly developed phenoxylated-dextran-functionalized SWNTs. Phenoxylated dextran is biocompatible and efficiently suspends SWNTs by noncovalent π-π stacking, thereby minimizing SWNT bundle formations and maintaining original SWNT optical properties. Furthermore, it selectively targets inflammatory macrophages by scavenger-receptor binding without any additional receptor molecules; therefore, its preparation is a simple one-step process. Herein, it is experimentally demonstrated that phenoxylated dextran-SWNTs (pD-SWNTs) are also biocompatible, selectively penetrate inflammatory macrophages over normal cells, and exhibit high photothermal conversion efficiency. Consequently, NIR laser-triggered macrophage treatment can be achieved with high accuracy by pD-SWNT without damaging receptor-free cells. These smart targeting materials can be a novel photothermal agent candidate for inflammatory disease. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Fast and robust online adaptive planning in stereotactic MR-guided adaptive radiation therapy (SMART) for pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohoudi, O; Bruynzeel, A M E; Senan, S; Cuijpers, J P; Slotman, B J; Lagerwaard, F J; Palacios, M A

    2017-12-01

    To implement a robust and fast stereotactic MR-guided adaptive radiation therapy (SMART) online strategy in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). SMART strategy for plan adaptation was implemented with the MRIdian system (ViewRay Inc.). At each fraction, OAR (re-)contouring is done within a distance of 3cm from the PTV surface. Online plan re-optimization is based on robust prediction of OAR dose and optimization objectives, obtained by building an artificial neural network (ANN). Proposed limited re-contouring strategy for plan adaptation (SMART 3CM ) is evaluated by comparing 50 previously delivered fractions against a standard (re-)planning method using full-scale OAR (re-)contouring (FULLOAR). Plan quality was assessed using PTV coverage (V 95% , D mean , D 1cc ) and institutional OAR constraints (e.g. V 33Gy ). SMART 3CM required a significant lower number of optimizations than FULLOAR (4 vs 18 on average) to generate a plan meeting all objectives and institutional OAR constraints. PTV coverage with both strategies was identical (mean V 95% =89%). Adaptive plans with SMART 3CM exhibited significant lower intermediate and high doses to all OARs than FULLOAR, which also failed in 36% of the cases to adhere to the V 33Gy dose constraint. SMART 3CM approach for LAPC allows good OAR sparing and adequate target coverage while requiring only limited online (re-)contouring from clinicians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. "Smart" nickel oxide based core-shell nanoparticles for combined chemo and photodynamic cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Shazia; Nazir, Samina; Munir, Saeeda; AlAjmi, Mohamed Fahad; Afzal, Muhammad; Mazhar, Kehkashan

    2016-01-01

    We report "smart" nickel oxide nanoparticles (NOPs) as multimodal cancer therapy agent. Water-dispersible and light-sensitive NiO core was synthesized with folic acid (FA) connected bovine serum albumin (BSA) shell on entrapped doxorubicin (DOX). The entrapped drug from NOP-DOX@BSA-FA was released in a sustained way (64 hours, pH=5.5, dark conditions) while a robust release was found under red light exposure (in 1/2 hour under λmax=655 nm, 50 mW/cm(2), at pH=5.5). The cell viability, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and diphenylisobenzofuran assays conducted under light and dark conditions revealed a high photodynamic therapy potential of our construct. Furthermore, we found that the combined effect of DOX and NOPs from NOP-DOX@BSA-FA resulted in cell death approximately eightfold high compared to free DOX. We propose that NOP-DOX@BSA-FA is a potential photodynamic therapy agent and a collective drug delivery system for the systemic administration of cancer chemotherapeutics resulting in combination therapy.

  6. Controlled acceleration of superimposed Bessel beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available spatial light modulator (SLM) to create superimposed, non-canonical, higher-order Bessel beams and a CCD camera to investigate the propagation of the resulting field. It is already known that the intensity profile of the resulting field experiences...

  7. Statistical properties of superimposed stationary spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deger, Moritz; Helias, Moritz; Boucsein, Clemens; Rotter, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    The Poisson process is an often employed model for the activity of neuronal populations. It is known, though, that superpositions of realistic, non- Poisson spike trains are not in general Poisson processes, not even for large numbers of superimposed processes. Here we construct superimposed spike trains from intracellular in vivo recordings from rat neocortex neurons and compare their statistics to specific point process models. The constructed superimposed spike trains reveal strong deviations from the Poisson model. We find that superpositions of model spike trains that take the effective refractoriness of the neurons into account yield a much better description. A minimal model of this kind is the Poisson process with dead-time (PPD). For this process, and for superpositions thereof, we obtain analytical expressions for some second-order statistical quantities-like the count variability, inter-spike interval (ISI) variability and ISI correlations-and demonstrate the match with the in vivo data. We conclude that effective refractoriness is the key property that shapes the statistical properties of the superposition spike trains. We present new, efficient algorithms to generate superpositions of PPDs and of gamma processes that can be used to provide more realistic background input in simulations of networks of spiking neurons. Using these generators, we show in simulations that neurons which receive superimposed spike trains as input are highly sensitive for the statistical effects induced by neuronal refractoriness.

  8. Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Superimposed with Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann-Ling Chen

    2006-09-01

    Conclusion: The most frequent causes of PNH-related fetomaternal morbidity and mortality are hemolysis and thrombosis. The situation becomes even more complicated when PNH is superimposed with preeclampsia. Appropriate clinical surveillance, awareness of the potential risks of hemolysis and thrombosis, as well as evaluation of fetal wellbeing are essential.

  9. Glucose-Responsive Implantable Polymeric Microdevices for "Smart" Insulin Therapy of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Michael Kok Loon

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic illness manifested by improper blood glucose management, affecting over 350 million worldwide. As a result, all type 1 patients and roughly 20% of type 2 patients require exogenous insulin therapy to survive. Typically, daily multiple injections are taken to maintain normal glucose levels in response glucose spikes from meals. However, patient compliance and dosing accuracy can fluctuate with variation in meals, exercise, glucose metabolism or stress, leading to poor clinical outcomes. A 'smart', closed-loop insulin delivery system providing on-demand release kinetics responding to circulating glucose levels would be a boon for diabetes patients, replacing constant self monitoring and insulin. This thesis focuses on the development of a novel, 'smart' insulin microdevice that can provide on-demand insulin release in response to blood glucose levels. In the early stage, the feasibility of integrating a composite membrane with pH-responsive nanoparticles embedded in ethylcellulose membrane to provide pH-responsive in vitro release was examined and confirmed using a model drug, vitamin B12. In the second microdevice, glucose oxidase for generating pH signals from glucose oxidation, catalase and manganese dioxide nanoparticles, as peroxide scavengers, were used in a bioinorganic, albumin-based membrane cross-linked with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) grid-microdevice system. This prototype device demonstrated insulin release in response to glucose levels in vitro and regulating plasma glucose in type 1 diabetic rats when implanted intraperitoneally. Advancement allowing for subcutaneous implantation and improved biocompatibility was achieved with surface modification of PDMS microdevices grafted with activated 20 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains, dramatically reducing immune response and local inflammation. When implanted subcutaneously in diabetic rats, glucose-responsive insulin delivery microdevices showed short and long

  10. Smart Porous Silicon Nanoparticles with Polymeric Coatings for Sequential Combination Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wujun; Thapa, Rinez; Liu, Dongfei; Nissinen, Tuomo; Granroth, Sari; Närvänen, Ale; Suvanto, Mika; Santos, Hélder A; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka

    2015-11-02

    In spite of the advances in drug delivery, the preparation of smart nanocomposites capable of precisely controlled release of multiple drugs for sequential combination therapy is still challenging. Here, a novel drug delivery nanocomposite was prepared by coating porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles with poly(beta-amino ester) (PAE) and Pluronic F-127, respectively. Two anticancer drugs, doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX), were separately loaded into the core of PSi and the shell of F127. The nanocomposite displayed enhanced colloidal stability and good cytocompatibility. Moreover, a spatiotemporal drug release was achieved for sequential combination therapy by precisely controlling the release kinetics of the two tested drugs. The release of PTX and DOX occurred in a time-staggered manner; PTX was released much faster and earlier than DOX at pH 7.0. The grafted PAE on the external surface of PSi acted as a pH-responsive nanovalve for the site-specific release of DOX. In vitro cytotoxicity tests demonstrated that the DOX and PTX coloaded nanoparticles exhibited a better synergistic effect than the free drugs in inducing cellular apoptosis. Therefore, the present study demonstrates a promising strategy to enhance the efficiency of combination cancer therapies by precisely controlling the release kinetics of different drugs.

  11. [Electroencephalography in delirium superimposed on dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanemaaijer, Judith I; Wijnen, Viona J M; van Gool, W A

    2017-09-01

    Recognizing delirium superimposed on pre-existing cognitive impairment or dementia, 'delirium superimposed on dementia' (DSD), is challenging because signs of delirium might be interpreted as symptoms of pre-existing cognitive dysfunction.In this paper, we review the literature on the role of electrencephalography (EEG) in the differential diagnosis of delirium, dementia and DSD.Conventional EEG, applying twenty to thirty electrodes, taking thirty minutes registration, is not feasible in psychogeriatric patients. Recent studies suggest that it is possible to reliably detect delirium using only a limited number of EEG electrodes for a short period of time.With this, use of EEG in the detection of delirium in patients with cognitive impairment or clinically manifest dementia could be possible.

  12. Smart multifunctional drug delivery towards anticancer therapy harmonized in mesoporous nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seonmi; Singh, Rajendra K.; Khanal, Dipesh; Patel, Kapil D.; Lee, Eun-Jung; Leong, Kam W.; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Kim, Hae-Won

    2015-08-01

    Nanomedicine seeks to apply nanoscale materials for the therapy and diagnosis of diseased and damaged tissues. Recent advances in nanotechnology have made a major contribution to the development of multifunctional nanomaterials, which represents a paradigm shift from single purpose to multipurpose materials. Multifunctional nanomaterials have been proposed to enable simultaneous target imaging and on-demand delivery of therapeutic agents only to the specific site. Most advanced systems are also responsive to internal or external stimuli. This approach is particularly important for highly potent drugs (e.g. chemotherapeutics), which should be delivered in a discreet manner and interact with cells/tissues only locally. Both advances in imaging and precisely controlled and localized delivery are critically important in cancer treatment, and the use of such systems - theranostics - holds great promise to minimise side effects and boost therapeutic effectiveness of the treatment. Among others, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) are considered one of the most promising nanomaterials for drug delivery. Due to their unique intrinsic features, including tunable porosity and size, large surface area, structural diversity, easily modifiable chemistry and suitability for functionalization, and biocompatibility, MSNPs have been extensively utilized as multifunctional nanocarrier systems. The combination or hybridization with biomolecules, drugs, and other nanoparticles potentiated the ability of MSNPs towards multifunctionality, and even smart actions stimulated by specified signals, including pH, optical signal, redox reaction, electricity and magnetism. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art of multifunctional, smart drug delivery systems centered on advanced MSNPs, with special emphasis on cancer related applications.

  13. A neurochemical closed-loop controller for deep brain stimulation: toward individualized smart neuromodulation therapies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jonas Grahn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current strategies for optimizing deep brain stimulation (DBS therapy involve multiple postoperative visits. During each visit, stimulation parameters are adjusted until desired therapeutic effects are achieved and adverse effects are minimized. However, the efficacy of these therapeutic parameters may decline with time due at least in part to disease progression, interactions between the host environment and the electrode, and lead migration. As such, development of closed-loop control systems that can respond to changing neurochemical environments, tailoring DBS therapy to individual patients, is paramount for improving the therapeutic efficacy of DBS.Evidence obtained using electrophysiology and imaging techniques in both animals and humans suggests that DBS works by modulating neural network activity. Recently, animal studies have shown that stimulation-evoked changes in neurotransmitter release that mirror normal physiology are associated with the therapeutic benefits of DBS. Therefore, to fully understand the neurophysiology of DBS and optimize its efficacy, it may be necessary to look beyond conventional electrophysiological analyses and characterize the neurochemical effects of therapeutic and non-therapeutic stimulation. By combining electrochemical monitoring and mathematical modeling techniques, we can potentially replace the trial-and-error process used in clinical programming with deterministic approaches that help attain optimal and stable neurochemical profiles. In this manuscript, we summarize the current understanding of electrophysiological and electrochemical processing for control of neuromodulation therapies. Additionally, we describe a proof-of-principle closed-loop controller that characterizes DBS-evoked dopamine changes to adjust stimulation parameters in a rodent model of DBS. The work described herein represents the initial steps toward achieving a smart neuroprosthetic system for treatment of neurologic and

  14. Smart pH-responsive upconversion nanoparticles for enhanced tumor cellular internalization and near-infrared light-triggered photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Chunhong; Su, Lin; Wang, Hanjie; Chang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    A smart pH-responsive photodynamic therapy system based on upconversion nanoparticle loaded PEG coated polymeric lipid vesicles (RB-UPPLVs) was designed and prepared. These RB-UPPLVs which are promising agents for deep cancer photodynamic therapy applications can achieve enhanced tumor cellular internalization and near-infrared light-triggered photodynamic therapy.

  15. Temperature fluctuations superimposed on background temperature change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, James; Roberts, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Proxy data allows the temperature of the Earth to be mapped over long periods of time. In this work the temperature fluctuations for over 200 proxy data sets were examined and from this set 50 sets were analyzed to test for periodic and quasi-periodic fluctuations in the data sets. Temperature reconstructions over 4 different time scales were analyzed to see if patterns emerged. Data were put into four time intervals; 4,000 years, 14,000 years, 1,000,000 years, and 3,000,000 years and analyzed with a goal to understanding periodic and quasi-periodic patterns in global temperature change superimposed on a “background” average temperature change. Quasi-periodic signatures were identified that predate the Industrial Revolution, during much of which direct data on temperature are not available. These data indicate that Earth temperatures have undergone a number of periodic and quasi-periodic intervals that contain both global warming and global cooling cycles. The fluctuations are superimposed on a background of temperature change that has a declining slope during the two periods, pre-ice age and post ice age with a transition about 12,000 BCE. The data are divided into “events” that span the time periods 3,000,000 BCE to “0” CE, 1,000,000 BCE to “0” CE, 12,000 BCE to 2,000 CE and 2,000 BCE to 2,000 CE. An equation using a quasi-periodic (frequency modulated sine waves) patterns was developed to analyze the date sets for quasi-periodic patterns. “Periodicities” which show reasonable agreement with the predictions of Milankovitch and other investigators were found in the data sets.

  16. Smart dual-functional warhead for folate receptor-specific activatable imaging and photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jisu; Tung, Ching-Hsuan; Choi, Yongdoo

    2014-09-21

    A smart dual-targeted theranostic agent becomes highly fluorescent and phototoxic only when its linker is cleaved by tumor-associated lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B after internalization into folate receptor-positive cancer cells.

  17. Opportunistic disease and mortality in patients coinfected with hepatitis B or C virus in the strategic management of antiretroviral therapy (SMART) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedaldi, Ellen; Peters, Lars; Neuhaus, Jacquie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Strategic Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) study, the risk of opportunistic disease (OD) and/or death due to any cause was elevated in the drug conservation (i.e., interrupt antiretroviral therapy until the CD4(+) cell count is

  18. Percutaneous therapy of inoperable biliary stenoses and occlusions with a new self-expanding nitinol stent (SMART); Perkutane Therapie inoperabler maligner Stenosen und Verschluesse der Gallenwege mit einem neu entwickelten selbstexpandierbaren Nitinolstent (SMART)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorger, N.; Lenhart, M.; Strotzer, M.; Paetzel, C.; Hamer, O.; Feuerbach, S.; Link, J. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2002-10-01

    Objective: To evaluate the treatment of malignant biliary stenoses and occlusions using a new stent. Methods: In a prospective study, 25 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice were treated with SMART stents. The handling and the quality of stent expansion were documented. Stent function was assessed 2-4 days after intervention by cholangiography and laboratory tests. A follow-up was performed three months, after stent placement. Results: All lesions were treated successfully, with a total of 35 stents implanted. In 14 patients a further balloon dilatation was performed after stent placement (8-10 mm diameter/40-80 mm length). The mean serum bilirubin level decreased significantly from 11.6 mg/dl to 4.6 mg/dl after intervention (p<0.05). The follow-up showed a mean serum bilirubin level at 4.0 mg/dl. In 4 cases (16%) a further intervention (PTCD or stent) was performed. Six patients died due to tumor progression. The stents proved to be patent in 79% (n=15) of patients alive at the time of follow-up. Conclusions: Placement of the SMART stent for the therapy of malignant biliary lesions yields good technical and clinical results. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Evaluation der technischen Handhabung und Effizienz eines neu entwickelten Stents zur Therapie maligner Gallenwegsstenosen und Verschluesse. Material und Methodik: In einer prospektiven Studie wurden 25 Patienten mit Verschlussikterus bei maligner Gallengangsstenose palliativ mit dem SMART {sup trademark} -Stent behandelt. Evaluiert wurden die Handhabung des Stents und die Qualitaet der Stententfaltung. Die Stentfunktion wurde nach 2-4 Tagen ueber eine liegende interne/externe Drainage cholangiographisch sowie anhand des Verlaufs der Laborparameter kontrolliert. Eine zusaetzliche Kontrolle der Stentfunktion erfolgte nach drei Monaten. Dabei wurden das subjektive Wohlbefinden des Patienten, der aktuelle Gesamtbilirubinspiegel im Serum und die Anzahl weiterer, im Nachsorgezeitraum durchgefuehrter

  19. Mn2+-coordinated PDA@DOX/PLGA nanoparticles as a smart theranostic agent for synergistic chemo-photothermal tumor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi J

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Juqun Xi,1–3 Lanyue Da,1 Changshui Yang,1 Rui Chen,4 Lizeng Gao,2 Lei Fan,5 Jie Han5 1Pharmacology Department, Medical School, Yangzhou University, 2Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Prevention and Treatment of Senile Diseases, 3Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, 4Department of Nephrology, Subei People’s Hospital, Yangzhou University, 5School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanoparticle drug delivery carriers, which can implement high performances of multi-functions, are of great interest, especially for improving cancer therapy. Herein, we reported a new approach to construct Mn2+-coordinated doxorubicin (DOX-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles as a platform for synergistic chemo-photothermal tumor therapy. DOX-loaded PLGA (DOX/PLGA nanoparticles were first synthesized through a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method, and then modified with polydopamine (PDA through self-polymerization of dopamine, leading to the formation of PDA@DOX/PLGA nanoparticles. Mn2+ ions were then coordinated on the surfaces of PDA@DOX/PLGA to obtain Mn2+-PDA@DOX/PLGA nanoparticles. In our system, Mn2+-PDA@DOX/PLGA nanoparticles could destroy tumors in a mouse model directly, by thermal energy deposition, and could also simulate the chemotherapy by thermal-responsive delivery of DOX to enhance tumor therapy. Furthermore, the coordination of Mn2+ could afford the high magnetic resonance (MR imaging capability with sensitivity to temperature and pH. The results demonstrated that Mn2+-PDA@DOX/PLGA nanoparticles had a great potential as a smart theranostic agent due to their imaging and tumor-growth-inhibition properties. Keywords: PLGA nanoparticles, polydopamine, chemo-photothermal therapy, smart theranostic agent

  20. Smart activatable and traceable dual-prodrug for image-guided combination photodynamic and chemo-therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fang; Yuan, Youyong; Mao, Duo; Wu, Wenbo; Liu, Bin

    2017-11-01

    Activatable photosensitizers (PSs) and chemo-prodrugs are highly desirable for anti-cancer therapy to reduce systemic toxicity. However, it is difficult to integrate both together into a molecular probe for combination therapy due to the complexity of introducing PS, singlet oxygen quencher, chemo-drug, chemo-drug inhibitor and active linker at the same time. To realize activatable PS and chemo-prodrug combination therapy, we develop a smart therapeutic platform in which the chemo-prodrug serves as the singlet oxygen quencher for the PS. Specifically, the photosensitizing activity and fluorescence of the PS (TPEPY-SH) are blocked by the chemo-prodrug (Mitomycin C, MMC) in the probe. Meanwhile, the cytotoxicity of MMC is also inhibited by the electron-withdrawing acyl at the nitrogen position next to the linker. Upon glutathione activation, TPEPY-S-MMC can simultaneously release active PS and MMC for combination therapy. The restored fluorescence of TPEPY-SH is also used to report the activation for both PS and MMC as well as to guide the photodynamic therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interruption of antiretroviral therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease in persons with HIV-1 infection: exploratory analyses from the SMART trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Andrew N; Carr, Andrew; Neuhaus, Jacquie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The SMART trial found a raised risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in patients undergoing CD4+ T cell-count guided intermittent antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared with patients on continuous ART. Exploratory analyses were performed to better understand the reasons for this ...

  2. Smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Bae

    2001-11-01

    This book describes press smart grid from basics to recent trend. It is divided into ten chapters, which deals with smart grid as green revolution in energy with introduction, history, the fields, application and needed technique for smart grid, Trend of smart grid in foreign such as a model business of smart grid in foreign, policy for smart grid in U.S.A, Trend of smart grid in domestic with international standard of smart grid and strategy and rood map, smart power grid as infrastructure of smart business with EMS development, SAS, SCADA, DAS and PQMS, smart grid for smart consumer, smart renewable like Desertec project, convergence IT with network and PLC, application of an electric car, smart electro service for realtime of electrical pricing system, arrangement of smart grid.

  3. Mn2+-coordinated PDA@DOX/PLGA nanoparticles as a smart theranostic agent for synergistic chemo-photothermal tumor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Juqun; Da, Lanyue; Yang, Changshui; Chen, Rui; Gao, Lizeng; Fan, Lei; Han, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticle drug delivery carriers, which can implement high performances of multi-functions, are of great interest, especially for improving cancer therapy. Herein, we reported a new approach to construct Mn 2+ -coordinated doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded poly(lactic- co -glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles as a platform for synergistic chemo-photothermal tumor therapy. DOX-loaded PLGA (DOX/PLGA) nanoparticles were first synthesized through a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method, and then modified with polydopamine (PDA) through self-polymerization of dopamine, leading to the formation of PDA@DOX/PLGA nanoparticles. Mn 2+ ions were then coordinated on the surfaces of PDA@DOX/PLGA to obtain Mn 2+ -PDA@DOX/PLGA nanoparticles. In our system, Mn 2+ -PDA@DOX/PLGA nanoparticles could destroy tumors in a mouse model directly, by thermal energy deposition, and could also simulate the chemotherapy by thermal-responsive delivery of DOX to enhance tumor therapy. Furthermore, the coordination of Mn 2+ could afford the high magnetic resonance (MR) imaging capability with sensitivity to temperature and pH. The results demonstrated that Mn 2+ -PDA@ DOX/PLGA nanoparticles had a great potential as a smart theranostic agent due to their imaging and tumor-growth-inhibition properties.

  4. Dynamic and static strain gauge using superimposed fiber Bragg gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y C; Yang, Y H; Yang, M W; Li, J M; Tang, J; Liang, T

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a simple and fast interrogation method for the dynamic and/or static strain gauge using a reflection spectrum from two superimposed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The superimposed FBGs are designed to decrease nonequidistant space of generated a sensing pulse train in a time domain during dynamic strain gauge. By combining centroid finding with smooth filtering methods, both the interrogation speed and accuracy are improved. A four times increase in the interrogation speed of dynamic strain, by generating a 2 kHz optical sensing pulse train from a 500 Hz scanning frequency, is demonstrated experimentally. The interrogation uncertainty and total harmonic distortion characterization of superimposed FBGs are tested and less than 4 pm standard deviation is obtained. (paper)

  5. "Smart" nickel oxide based core–shell nanoparticles for combined chemo and photodynamic cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shazia Bano,1–3,* Samina Nazir,2,* Saeeda Munir,3 Mohamed Fahad AlAjmi,4 Muhammad Afzal,1 Kehkashan Mazhar3 1Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, 2Nanosciences and Technology Department, National Centre for Physics, Islamabad, 3Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: We report “smart” nickel oxide nanoparticles (NOPs as multimodal cancer therapy agent. Water-dispersible and light-sensitive NiO core was synthesized with folic acid (FA connected bovine serum albumin (BSA shell on entrapped doxorubicin (DOX. The entrapped drug from NOP-DOX@BSA-FA was released in a sustained way (64 hours, pH=5.5, dark conditions while a robust release was found under red light exposure (in 1/2 hour under λmax=655 nm, 50 mW/cm2, at pH=5.5. The cell viability, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and diphenylisobenzofuran assays conducted under light and dark conditions revealed a high photodynamic therapy potential of our construct. Furthermore, we found that the combined effect of DOX and NOPs from NOP-DOX@BSA-FA resulted in cell death approximately eightfold high compared to free DOX. We propose that NOP-DOX@BSA-FA is a potential photodynamic therapy agent and a collective drug delivery system for the systemic administration of cancer chemotherapeutics resulting in combination therapy. Keywords: light-triggered drug release, cancer, bovine serum albumin, multi-model therapy

  6. Selective attention in vision: recognition memory for superimposed line drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, E B; Fink, S I

    1981-10-01

    These experiments show that observers can selectively attend to one of two stationary superimposed pictures. If superimposed line drawings are presented to observers who are told to attend to one line drawing in the pair and to ignore the other line drawing in the pair, then a subsequent recognition test in which the pictures are presently singly, the attended picture in each pair is recognized much more frequently than the unattended picture in each pair. This selective recognition occurs both with large (11 degrees-22 degrees) displays in which observers are free to make eye movements during a 3-sec exposure and with small (1 degree) displays in which observers are instructed to fixate steadily on a point during a 1-sec exposure. The results of the steady fixation experiments show that in the absence of eye movements, attention to one of two superimposed stimuli can cause an observer to remember the attended image and not to remember the other, clearly visible, unattended image in a superimposed pair.

  7. Selective Attention in Vision: Recognition Memory for Superimposed Line Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, E. Bruce; Fink, Susan I.

    1981-01-01

    Four experiments show that observers can selectively attend to one of two stationary superimposed pictures. Selective recognition occurred with large displays in which observers were free to make eye movements during a 3-sec exposure and with small displays in which observers were instructed to fixate steadily on a point. (Author/RD)

  8. Tools to Detect Delirium Superimposed on Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Alessandro; McCurley, Jessica; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Fick, Donna M.; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Lee, Patricia; Jackson, James C.; Shenkin, Susan D.; Trabucchi, Marco; Schnelle, John; Inouye, Sharon K.; Ely, Wesley E.; MacLullich, Alasdair

    2012-01-01

    Background Delirium commonly occurs in patients with dementia. Though several tools for detecting delirium exist, it is unclear which are valid in patients with delirium superimposed on dementia. Objectives Identify valid tools to diagnose delirium superimposed on dementia Design We performed a systematic review of studies of delirium tools, which explicitly included patients with dementia. Setting In-hospital patients Participants Studies were included if delirium assessment tools were validated against standard criteria, and the presence of dementia was assessed according to standard criteria that used validated instruments. Measurements PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for articles in English published between January 1960 and January 2012. Results Nine studies fulfilled the selection criteria. Of the total of 1569 patients, 401 had dementia, and 50 had delirium superimposed on dementia. Six delirium tools were evaluated. One studyusing the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) with 85% patients with dementia showed a high specificity (96–100%) and moderate sensitivity (77%).Two intensive care unit studies that used the CAM for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) ICU reported 100% sensitivity and specificity for delirium among 23 dementia patients. One study using electroencephalography reported a sensitivity of 67% and a specificity of 91% among a population with 100% prevalence of dementia. No studies examined potential effects of dementia severity or subtype upon diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions The evidence base on tools for detection of delirium superimposed on dementia is limited, although some existing tools show promise. Further studies of existing or refined tools with larger samples and more detailed characterization of dementia are now required to address the identification of delirium superimposed on dementia. PMID:23039270

  9. Smart Grid, Smart Europe

    OpenAIRE

    VITIELLO SILVIA; FULLI Gianluca; MENGOLINI Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Le smart grid, o reti elettriche intelligenti, aprono la strada a nuove applicazioni con conseguenze di vasta portata per l’intero sistema elettrico, tra le quali la principale è la capacità di integrare nella rete esistente più fonti di energia rinnovabili (FER), veicoli elettrici e fonti di generazione distribuita. Le smart grid inoltre garantiscono una più efficiente ed affidabile risposta alla domanda di energia, sia da un punto di vista tecnico, permettendo un monitoraggio e un controll...

  10. Valencia's Palau d'En Bou. Superimposed architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Soler Verdú

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of the Palau díen Bou is a sample of the complexity that arises when practising an intervention on a building with indefinite superimposed architectures, in other words, an accumulation of interventions from different periods and in different styles, but difficult to understand in its original condition. Architect Rafael Soler describes his reading and interpretation of the building during the initial study and the solutions recommended by research that were applied during the restoration stage

  11. Smart assistants for smart homes

    OpenAIRE

    Rasch, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    The smarter homes of tomorrow promise to increase comfort, aid elderly and disabled people, and help inhabitants save energy. Unfortunately, smart homes today are far from this vision – people who already live in such a home struggle with complicated user interfaces, inflexible home configurations, and difficult installation procedures. Under these circumstances, smart homes are not ready for mass adoption. This dissertation addresses these issues by proposing two smart assistants for smart h...

  12. Smart Cities for Smart Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Jensen, Martin Lynge; Wøldike, Niels Peter

    This position paper presents the concept of smart cities for smart children before highlighting three concrete projects we are currently running in order to investigate different aspects of the underlying concept like social-relational interaction and situated and experiential learning.......This position paper presents the concept of smart cities for smart children before highlighting three concrete projects we are currently running in order to investigate different aspects of the underlying concept like social-relational interaction and situated and experiential learning....

  13. "Smart" theranostic lanthanide nanoprobes with simultaneous up-conversion fluorescence and tunable T1-T2 magnetic resonance imaging contrast and near-infrared activated photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Das, Gautom Kumar; Vijayaragavan, Vimalan; Xu, Qing Chi; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Bhakoo, Kishore K; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2014-11-07

    The current work reports a type of "smart" lanthanide-based theranostic nanoprobe, NaDyF4:Yb(3+)/NaGdF4:Yb(3+),Er(3+), which is able to circumvent the up-converting poisoning effect of Dy(3+) ions to give efficient near infrared (980 nm) triggered up-conversion fluorescence, and offers not only excellent dark T2-weighted MR contrast but also tunable bright and T1-weighted MR contrast properties. Due to the efficient up-converted energy transfer from the nanocrystals to chlorin e6 (Ce6) photosensitizers loaded onto the nanocrystals, cytotoxic singlet oxygen was generated and photodynamic therapy was demonstrated. Therefore, the current multifunctional nanocrystals could be potentially useful in various image-guided diagnoses where bright or dark MRI contrast could be selectively tuned to optimize image quality, but also as an efficient and more penetrative near-infrared activated photodynamic therapy agent.

  14. ``Smart'' theranostic lanthanide nanoprobes with simultaneous up-conversion fluorescence and tunable T1-T2 magnetic resonance imaging contrast and near-infrared activated photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Das, Gautom Kumar; Vijayaragavan, Vimalan; Xu, Qing Chi; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Bhakoo, Kishore K.; Tamil Selvan, Subramanian; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2014-10-01

    The current work reports a type of ``smart'' lanthanide-based theranostic nanoprobe, NaDyF4:Yb3+/NaGdF4:Yb3+,Er3+, which is able to circumvent the up-converting poisoning effect of Dy3+ ions to give efficient near infrared (980 nm) triggered up-conversion fluorescence, and offers not only excellent dark T2-weighted MR contrast but also tunable bright and T1-weighted MR contrast properties. Due to the efficient up-converted energy transfer from the nanocrystals to chlorin e6 (Ce6) photosensitizers loaded onto the nanocrystals, cytotoxic singlet oxygen was generated and photodynamic therapy was demonstrated. Therefore, the current multifunctional nanocrystals could be potentially useful in various image-guided diagnoses where bright or dark MRI contrast could be selectively tuned to optimize image quality, but also as an efficient and more penetrative near-infrared activated photodynamic therapy agent.The current work reports a type of ``smart'' lanthanide-based theranostic nanoprobe, NaDyF4:Yb3+/NaGdF4:Yb3+,Er3+, which is able to circumvent the up-converting poisoning effect of Dy3+ ions to give efficient near infrared (980 nm) triggered up-conversion fluorescence, and offers not only excellent dark T2-weighted MR contrast but also tunable bright and T1-weighted MR contrast properties. Due to the efficient up-converted energy transfer from the nanocrystals to chlorin e6 (Ce6) photosensitizers loaded onto the nanocrystals, cytotoxic singlet oxygen was generated and photodynamic therapy was demonstrated. Therefore, the current multifunctional nanocrystals could be potentially useful in various image-guided diagnoses where bright or dark MRI contrast could be selectively tuned to optimize image quality, but also as an efficient and more penetrative near-infrared activated photodynamic therapy agent. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01717j

  15. Physicochemical analog for modeling superimposed and coded memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensanian, Minas

    1992-07-01

    The mammalian brain is distinguished by a life-time of memories being stored within the same general region of physicochemical space, and having two extraordinary features. First, memories to varying degrees are superimposed, as well as coded. Second, instantaneous recall of past events can often be affected by relatively simple, and seemingly unrelated sensory clues. For the purposes of attempting to mathematically model such complex behavior, and for gaining additional insights, it would be highly advantageous to be able to simulate or mimic similar behavior in a nonbiological entity where some analogical parameters of interest can reasonably be controlled. It has recently been discovered that in nonlinear accumulative metal fatigue memories (related to mechanical deformation) can be superimposed and coded in the crystal lattice, and that memory, that is, the total number of stress cycles can be recalled (determined) by scanning not the surfaces but the `edges' of the objects. The new scanning technique known as electrotopography (ETG) now makes the state space modeling of metallic networks possible. The author provides an overview of the new field and outlines the areas that are of immediate interest to the science of artificial neural networks.

  16. A smart magnetic nanoplatform for synergistic anticancer therapy: manoeuvring mussel-inspired functional magnetic nanoparticles for pH responsive anticancer drug delivery and hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, Arathyram Ramachandra Kurup; Ghavaminejad, Amin; Unnithan, Afeesh Rajan; Thomas, Reju George; Moon, Myeongju; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2015-10-01

    We report the versatile design of a smart nanoplatform for thermo-chemotherapy treatment of cancer. For the first time in the literature, our design takes advantage of the outstanding properties of mussel-inspired multiple catecholic groups - presenting a unique copolymer poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-dopamine methacrylamide) p(HEMA-co-DMA) to surface functionalize the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as well as to conjugate borate containing anticancer drug bortezomib (BTZ) in a pH-dependent manner for the synergistic anticancer treatment. The unique multiple anchoring groups can be used to substantially improve the affinity of the ligands to the surfaces of the nanoparticles to form ultrastable iron oxide nanoparticles with control over their hydrodynamic diameter and interfacial chemistry. Thus the BTZ-incorporated-bio-inspired-smart magnetic nanoplatform will act as a hyperthermic agent that delivers heat when an alternating magnetic field is applied while the BTZ-bound catechol moieties act as chemotherapeutic agents in a cancer environment by providing pH-dependent drug release for the synergistic thermo-chemotherapy application. The anticancer efficacy of these bio-inspired multifunctional smart magnetic nanoparticles was tested both in vitro and in vivo and found that these unique magnetic nanoplatforms can be established to endow for the next generation of nanomedicine for efficient and safe cancer therapy.We report the versatile design of a smart nanoplatform for thermo-chemotherapy treatment of cancer. For the first time in the literature, our design takes advantage of the outstanding properties of mussel-inspired multiple catecholic groups - presenting a unique copolymer poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-dopamine methacrylamide) p(HEMA-co-DMA) to surface functionalize the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as well as to conjugate borate containing anticancer drug bortezomib (BTZ) in a pH-dependent manner for the synergistic

  17. Mortality in well controlled HIV in the continuous antiretroviral therapy arms of the SMART and ESPRIT trials compared with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Alison J; Lodwick, Rebecca; Schechter, Mauro; Deeks, Steven; Amin, Janaki; Gilson, Richard; Paredes, Roger; Bakowska, Elzbieta; Engsig, Frederik N; Phillips, Andrew

    2013-03-27

    Due to the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), it is relevant to ask whether death rates in optimally treated HIV are higher than the general population. The objective was to compare mortality rates in well controlled HIV-infected adults in the SMART and ESPRIT clinical trials with the general population. Non-IDUs aged 20-70 years from the continuous ART control arms of ESPRIT and SMART were included if the person had both low HIV plasma viral loads (≤400 copies/ml SMART, ≤500 copies/ml ESPRIT) and high CD4(+) T-cell counts (≥350 cells/μl) at any time in the past 6 months. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated by comparing death rates with the Human Mortality Database. Three thousand, two hundred and eighty individuals [665 (20%) women], median age 43 years, contributed 12,357 person-years of follow-up. Sixty-two deaths occurred during follow up. Commonest cause of death was cardiovascular disease (CVD) or sudden death (19, 31%), followed by non-AIDS malignancy (12, 19%). Only two deaths (3%) were AIDS-related. Mortality rate was increased compared with the general population with a CD4(+) cell count between 350 and 499 cells/μl [SMR 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-2.55]. No evidence for increased mortality was seen with CD4(+) cell counts greater than 500 cells/μl (SMR 1.00, 95% CI 0.69-1.40). In HIV-infected individuals on ART, with a recent undetectable viral load, who maintained or had recovery of CD4(+) cell counts to at least 500 cells/μl, we identified no evidence for a raised risk of death compared with the general population.

  18. Smart mobility in smart cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baucells, Aleta N.

    2016-07-01

    Cities are currently undergoing a transformation into the Smart concept, like Smartphones or SmartTV. Many initiatives are being developed in the framework of the Smart Cities projects, however, there is a lack of consistent indicators and methodologies to assess, finance, prioritize and implement this kind of projects. Smart Cities projects are classified according to six axes: Government, Mobility, Environment, Economy, People and Living. (Giffinger, 2007). The main objective of this research is to develop an evaluation model in relation to the mobility concept as one of the six axes of the Smart City classification and apply it to the Spanish cities. The evaluation was carried out in the 62 cities that made up in September 2015 the Spanish Network of Smart Cities (RECI- Red Española de Ciudades Inteligentes). This research is part of a larger project about Smart Cities’ evaluation (+CITIES), the project evaluates RECI’s cities in all the axes. The analysis was carried out taking into account sociodemographic indicators such as the size of the city or the municipal budget per inhabitant. The mobility’s evaluation in those cities has been focused in: sustainability mobility urban plans and measures to reduce the number of vehicles. The 62 cities from the RECI have been evaluated according to their degree of progress in several Smart Cities’ initiatives related to smart mobility. The applied methodology has been specifically made for this project. The grading scale has different ranks depending on the deployment level of smart cities’ initiatives. (Author)

  19. A case of localized juvenile periodontitis: treatment and 3 years follow-up with superimposable radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrez, B; Baehni, P; Cimasoni, G

    1996-06-01

    A 17-year-old male patient with localized juvenile periodontitis was treated by subgingival instrumentation with full thickness flap on the lower molars, combined with a 3-week course of systemic tetracycline, and a programme of supervised oral hygiene. The treatment was rapidly followed by dramatic clinical and microbiological improvement. However, despite good oral hygiene, gingival inflammation recurred at regular intervals. It was necessary to maintain the clinical results by periodic subgingival instrumentation with an ultrasonic scaler. Healing of alveolar bone was monitored in the lower 1st molar regions over 3 years by using superimposable radiographs. Quantitative analysis of bone density performed with a high-resolution digitalisation technique showed a considerable improvement 1 year after therapy. However, continuous remodelling, probably related to variations in inflammation, occurred during the 3 postoperative years.

  20. Electrocardiographic spatial QRS-T angle and incident cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients (from the Strategies for the Management of Antiretroviral Therapy [SMART] study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawood, Farah Z; Khan, Faraaz; Roediger, Mollie P

    2013-01-01

    the baseline resting 12-lead electrocardiogram of 4,453 HIV-infected patients aged 43.5 ± 9.3 years from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) trial. CVD events were identified during a median follow-up of 28.7 months. Quartiles of the spatial QRS-T angle was calculated for men......Widening of the electrocardiographic (ECG) spatial QRS-T angle has been predictive of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in the general population. However, its prognostic significance in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients remains unknown. The spatial QRS-T angle was derived from...... and women separately, and values in the upper quartile were considered as a widened angle (values >74° for women and >93° for men). A multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to examine the association between a widened baseline spatial QRS-T angle and incident CVD events. During 11...

  1. Major clinical outcomes in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive participants and in those not receiving ART at baseline in the SMART study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens; Emery, Sean; Neuhaus, Jacqueline A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The SMART study randomized 5,472 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/microL to intermittent antiretroviral therapy (ART; the drug conservation [DC] group) versus continuous ART (the viral suppression [VS] group). In the DC group......, participants started ART when the CD4+ cell count was ART at entry inform the early use of ART. METHODS: Patients who were either ART naive (n=249) or who had not been receiving ART for >or= 6 months (n=228) were analyzed. The following......). RESULTS: A total of 477 participants (228 in the DC group and 249 in the VS group) were followed (mean, 18 months). For outcome (iv), 21 and 6 events occurred in the DC (7 in ART-naive participants and 14 in those who had not received ART for >or= 6 months) and VS (2 in ART-naive participants and 4...

  2. Smart logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woensel, van T.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture focuses on Smart Logistics referring to these intelligent managerial decisions related to the design, operations and control of the transportation chain processes in an efficient and cost-effective way. The starting point for Smart Logistics is the key observation that the real-life

  3. Smart Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Hedman, Jonas; Albinsson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    transaction costs by providing seamless real-time payments. In addition, digital legal tender that is based on blockchain technology can provide a foundation for customizable “smart money” which can be used to manage the appropriation of money and its use. In essence, the smart money is a customizable value...

  4. Association of Suboptimal Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence With Inflammation in Virologically Suppressed Individuals Enrolled in the SMART Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo-Mancilla, Jose R; Phillips, Andrew N; Neaton, James D

    2018-01-01

    Suboptimal (ie, <100%) antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence has been associated with heightened inflammation in cohort studies, even among people with virologic suppression. We aimed to evaluate this association among participants in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMAR...

  5. Discharge Characteristic of VHF-DC Superimposed Magnetron Sputtering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Hirotaka; Fukuoka, Yushi; Fukui, Takashi; Takada, Noriharu; Sasai, Kensuke

    2014-10-01

    Magnetron plasmas are one of the most important tools for sputter deposition of thin films. However, energetic particles from the sputtered target such as backscattered rare gas atoms or oxygen negative ions from oxide targets sometimes induce physical and chemical damages as well as surface roughening to the deposited film surface during the sputtering processes. To suppress kinetic energy of such particles, superposition of RF or VHF power to the DC power has been investigated. In this study, influence of the VHF power superposition on the DC target voltage, which is important factor to determine kinetic energy of high energy particles, is investigated. In the study, 40 MHz VHF power was superimposed to an ITO target and decrease in the target DC voltage was measured as well as deposited film deposition properties such as deposition rate or electrical conductivity. From systematic measurement of the target voltage, it was revealed that the target voltage can be determined by a very simple parameter, i.e., a ratio of VHF power to the total input power (DC and VHF powers) in spite of the DC discharge current. Part of this work was supported by ASTEP, JST.

  6. Superimposed Training-Based Channel Estimation for MIMO Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the superimposed training strategy into the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO amplify-and-forward (AF one-way relay network (OWRN to perform the individual channel estimation at the destination. Through the superposition of a group of additional training vectors at the relay subject to power allocation, the separated estimates of the source-relay and relay-destination channels can be obtained directly at the destination, and the accordance with the two-hop AF strategy can be guaranteed at the same time. The closed-form Bayesian Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB is derived for the estimation of two sets of flat-fading MIMO channel under random channel parameters and further exploited to design the optimal training vectors. A specific suboptimal channel estimation algorithm is applied in the MIMO AF OWRN using the optimal training sequences, and the normalized mean square error performance for the estimation is provided to verify the Bayesian CRLB results.

  7. Speed and the coherence of superimposed chromatic gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosten, J M; Smith, L; Mollon, J D

    2016-05-01

    On the basis of measurements of the perceived coherence of superimposed drifting gratings, Krauskopf and Farell (1990) proposed that motion is analysed independently in different chromatic channels. They found that two gratings appeared to slip if each modulated one of the two 'cardinal' color mechanisms S/(L+M) and L/(L+M). If the gratings were defined along intermediate color directions, observers reported a plaid, moving coherently. We hypothesised that slippage might occur in chromatic gratings if the motion signal from the S/(L+M) channel is weak and equivalent to a lower speed. We asked observers to judge coherence in two conditions. In one, S/(L+M) and L/(L+M) gratings were physically the same speed. In the other, the two gratings had perceptually matched speeds. We found that the relative incoherence of cardinal gratings is the same whether gratings are physically or perceptually matched in speed. Thus our hypothesis was firmly contradicted. In a control condition, observers were asked to judge the coherence of stationary gratings. Interestingly, the difference in judged coherence between cardinal and intermediate gratings remained as strong as it was when the gratings moved. Our results suggest a possible alternative interpretation of Krauskopf and Farell's result: the processes of object segregation may precede the analysis of the motion of chromatic gratings, and the same grouping signals may prompt object segregation in the stationary and moving cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Decision making by superimposing information from parallel cognitive channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aityan, Sergey K.

    1993-08-01

    A theory of decision making with perception through parallel information channels is presented. Decision making is considered a parallel competitive process. Every channel can provide confirmation or rejection of a decision concept. Different channels provide different impact on the specific concepts caused by the goals and individual cognitive features. All concepts are divided into semantic clusters due to the goals and the system defaults. The clusters can be alternative or complimentary. The 'winner-take-all' concept nodes firing takes place within the alternative cluster. Concepts can be independently activated in the complimentary cluster. A cognitive channel affects a decision concept by sending an activating or inhibitory signal. The complimentary clusters serve for building up complex concepts by superimposing activation received from various channels. The decision making is provided by the alternative clusters. Every active concept in the alternative cluster tends to suppress the competitive concepts in the cluster by sending inhibitory signals to the other nodes of the cluster. The model accounts for a time delay in signal transmission between the nodes and explains decreasing of the reaction time if information is confirmed by different channels and increasing of the reaction time if deceiving information received from the channels.

  9. SMART POLYMERS: INNOVATIONS IN NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY

    OpenAIRE

    Apoorva Mahajan; Geeta Aggarwal

    2011-01-01

    Smart polymers are attracting the researchers for development of novel drug delivery systems. Importance of smart polymers is rising day by day as these polymers undergo large reversible, physical or chemical changes in response to small changes in the environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, dual- stimuli, light and phase transition. Smart polymers are representing promising means for targeted drug delivery, enhanced drug delivery, gene therapy, actuator stimuli and protein folders....

  10. Percutaneous therapy of inoperable biliary stenoses and occlusions with a new self-expanding nitinol stent (SMART)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorger, N.; Lenhart, M.; Strotzer, M.; Paetzel, C.; Hamer, O.; Feuerbach, S.; Link, J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the treatment of malignant biliary stenoses and occlusions using a new stent. Methods: In a prospective study, 25 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice were treated with SMART stents. The handling and the quality of stent expansion were documented. Stent function was assessed 2-4 days after intervention by cholangiography and laboratory tests. A follow-up was performed three months, after stent placement. Results: All lesions were treated successfully, with a total of 35 stents implanted. In 14 patients a further balloon dilatation was performed after stent placement (8-10 mm diameter/40-80 mm length). The mean serum bilirubin level decreased significantly from 11.6 mg/dl to 4.6 mg/dl after intervention (p [de

  11. The Diagnosis of Delirium Superimposed on Dementia: An Emerging Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Alessandro; Davis, Daniel; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Arora, Rakesh C.; Caplan, Gideon A.; Kamholz, Barbara; Kolanowski, Ann; Fick, Donna Marie; Kreisel, Stefan; MacLullich, Alasdair; (UK), MRCP; Meagher, David; Neufeld, Karen; Pandharipande, Pratik P.; Richardson, Sarah; Slooter, Arjen J.C.; Taylor, John P.; Thomas, Christine; Tieges, Zoë; Teodorczuk, Andrew; Voyer, Philippe; Rudolph, James L.

    2017-01-01

    Delirium occurring in patients with dementia is referred to as delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD). People who are older with dementia and who are institutionalized are at increased risk of developing delirium when hospitalized. In addition, their prior cognitive impairment makes detecting their delirium a challenge. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision are considered the standard reference for the diagnosis of delirium and include criteria of impairments in cognitive processes such as attention, additional cognitive disturbances, or altered level of arousal. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision does not provide guidance regarding specific tests for assessment of the cognitive process impaired in delirium. Importantly, the assessment or inclusion of preexisting cognitive impairment is also not addressed by these standards. The challenge of DSD gets more complex as types of dementia, particularly dementia with Lewy bodies, which has features of both delirium and dementia, are considered. The objective of this article is to critically review key elements for the diagnosis of DSD, including the challenge of neuropsychological assessment in patients with dementia and the influence of particular tests used to diagnose DSD. To address the challenges of DSD diagnosis, we present a framework for guiding the focus of future research efforts to develop a reliable reference standard to diagnose DSD. A key feature of a reliable reference standard will improve the ability to clinically diagnose DSD in facility-based patients and research studies. PMID:27650668

  12. Palatoplasty with flap superimposed in dog - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo Gosuen Gonçalves Dias

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Gonçalves Dias L.G.G., Gonçalves Dias F.G.G., Ikenaga F.M., Honsho C.S., Souza F.F., Selmi A.L. & Mattos Junior E. [Palatoplasty with flap superimposed in dog - Case report.] Palatoplastia com retalho sobreposto em cão - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(3:179-185, 2015. Curso de Graduação em Medicina Veterinária e Programa de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Medicina Veterinária de Pequenos Animais, Universidade de Franca, Av. Dr. Armando Salles de Oliveira, 201, Parque Universitário, Cx. Postal 82, Franca, SP 14404-600, Brasil. E-mail: luisgd@unifran.br The oral cleft palate deformities are characterized by disruption in the integrity of the bone and palatal mucosa, having variable extensions and multifactorial etiologic character. Frequently are unnoticed by owners and veterinarians at birth and are diagnosed only when the animal begins to demonstrate clinical respiratory signs. Affected patients have direct communication between the oral and nasal cavity, which can cause aspiration pneumonia and hinder the negative intraoral pressure necessary for the suction of milk, these being factors contributors to the deficit in body growth and death. This paper aimed to highlight important points about this rare oral disease in small animals, moreover, report the case of a dog with cleft palate treated successfully with the technique of overlapping flap palatoplasty.

  13. Smart biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Narain, Ravin; Idota, Naokazu; Kim, Young-Jin; Hoffman, John M; Uto, Koichiro; Aoyagi, Takao

    2014-01-01

    This book surveys smart biomaterials, exploring the properties, mechanics and characterization of hydrogels, particles, assemblies, surfaces, fibers and conjugates. Reviews applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, bioseparation and more.

  14. CD4+ Count-Guided Interruption of Antiretroviral Treatment. The Strategies for Mangement of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Sadr, WM; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Neaton, JD

    2006-01-01

    had a CD4+ cell count of more than 350 per cubic millimeter to the continuous use of antiretroviral therapy (the viral suppression group) or the episodic use of antiretroviral therapy (the drug conservation group). Episodic use involved the deferral of therapy until the CD4+ count decreased to less......BACKGROUND: Despite declines in morbidity and mortality with the use of combination antiretroviral therapy, its effectiveness is limited by adverse events, problems with adherence, and resistance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: We randomly assigned persons infected with HIV who...... the risk of adverse events that have been associated with antiretroviral therapy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00027352 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society....

  15. Optical stress investigations of notched bars with superimposed types of loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, H.A.; Theis, W.

    1982-01-01

    Starting from the notch effect for various types of load, notch stresses are determined by optical methods for superimposed tensile and shearing stress and for superimposed tensile and bending stress. The superimposed stresses are induced by a device developed at the Technical Mechanics Department of Kaiserslautern University; only tensile stress needs to be applied to this testing device. The investigations have shown that in notched bars subject to superimposed tensile and shearing stress, stress increases will be higher than the maximum values of the two types of stress. For superimposed tensile and bending stress, notches on the outer side of the test piece and eccentric notches on the inner side may lead to a considerable stress increase. However, the stress distribution can be improved by an optimum arrangement of notches. (orig.) [de

  16. Novel concept of the smart NIR-light-controlled drug release of black phosphorus nanostructure for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Meng; Wang, Dou; Liang, Weiyuan; Liu, Liping; Zhang, Yin; Chen, Xing; Sang, David Kipkemoi; Xing, Chenyang; Li, Zhongjun; Dong, Biqin; Xing, Feng; Fan, Dianyuan; Bao, Shiyun; Zhang, Han; Cao, Yihai

    2018-01-16

    A biodegradable drug delivery system (DDS) is one the most promising therapeutic strategies for cancer therapy. Here, we propose a unique concept of light activation of black phosphorus (BP) at hydrogel nanostructures for cancer therapy. A photosensitizer converts light into heat that softens and melts drug-loaded hydrogel-based nanostructures. Drug release rates can be accurately controlled by light intensity, exposure duration, BP concentration, and hydrogel composition. Owing to sufficiently deep penetration of near-infrared (NIR) light through tissues, our BP-based system shows high therapeutic efficacy for treatment of s.c. cancers. Importantly, our drug delivery system is completely harmless and degradable in vivo. Together, our work proposes a unique concept for precision cancer therapy by external light excitation to release cancer drugs. If these findings are successfully translated into the clinic, millions of patients with cancer will benefit from our work.

  17. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  18. CD4+ Count-Guided Interruption of Antiretroviral Treatment. The Strategies for Mangement of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Sadr, WM; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Neaton, JD

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite declines in morbidity and mortality with the use of combination antiretroviral therapy, its effectiveness is limited by adverse events, problems with adherence, and resistance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: We randomly assigned persons infected with HIV wh...

  19. Smart Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floarea NASTASE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reforms in electronic business have presented new opportunities to use smart card technology as an enabling tool. The network-centric applications, where resources are located throughout the Internet and access to them is possible from any location, require authenticated access and secured transactions. Smart cards represent an ideal solution: they offers an additional layer of electronic security and information assurance for user authentication, confidentiality, non-repudiation, information integrity, physical access control to facilities, and logical access control to an computer systems.

  20. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    that smart beta investing probably will do better than passive market capitalization investing over time, we believe many are coming to a conclusion too quickly regarding active managers. Institutional investors are able to guide managers through benchmarks and risk frameworks toward the same well......Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented......-documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures...

  1. A smart drug: a pH-responsive photothermal ablation agent for Golgi apparatus activated cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fengfeng; Wen, Ying; Wei, Peng; Gao, Yilin; Zhou, Zhiguo; Xiao, Shuzhang; Yi, Tao

    2017-06-13

    We report a pH-responsive photothermal ablation agent (pH-PTT) based on cyanine dyes for photothermal therapy (PTT). The nanoparticles formed by BSA and pH-PTT preferentially accumulated in the Golgi apparatus of cancer cells compared to normal cells, and thus can be specifically activated by the acidic Golgi apparatus in cancer cells for effective PTT both ex vivo and in vivo.

  2. Smart roadside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Smart Roadside is a system envisioned to be deployed at strategic points along commercial vehicle routes to : improve the safety, mobility, and efficiency of truck movement and operations on the roadway. It is a concept : where private- and public-se...

  3. Smart Surroundings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Jansen, P.G.; Lijding, M.E.M.; Scholten, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Ambient systems are networked embedded systems integrated with everyday environments and supporting people in their activities. These systems will create a Smart Surrounding for people to facilitate and enrich daily life and increase productivity at work. Such systems will be quite different from

  4. Hydrophilic MoSe2 Nanosheets as Effective Photothermal Therapy Agents and Their Application in Smart Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhouyue; Zhu, Wencheng; Xu, Shengjie; Ding, Jian; Wan, Jiaxun; Wu, Peiyi

    2016-08-17

    A facile poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-assisted exfoliation method is utilized to simultaneously exfoliate and noncovalently modify MoSe2 nanosheets. The resultant hydrophilic nanosheets are shown to be promising candidates for biocompatible photothermal therapy (PTT) agents, and they could also be encapsulated into a hydrogel matrix for some intelligent devices. This work not only provides novel insights into exfoliation and modification of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) nanosheets but also might spark more research into engineering multifunctional TMD-related nanocomposites, which is in favor of further exploiting the attractive properties of these emerging layered two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials.

  5. Superimposed disturbance in the ionosphere triggered by spacecraft launches in China

    OpenAIRE

    L. M. He; L. X. Wu; L. X. Wu; S. J. Liu; S. N. Liu

    2015-01-01

    Using GPS dual-frequency observations collected by continuously operating GPS tracking stations in China, superimposed disturbances caused by the integrated action of spacecraft's physical effect and chemical effect on ionosphere during the launches of the spacecrafts Tiangong-1 and Shenzhou-8 in China were firstly determined. The results show that the superimposed disturbance was composed of remarkable ionospheric waves and significant ionospheric depletion emerged after bo...

  6. Smart governance for smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutiara, Dewi; Yuniarti, Siti; Pratama, Bambang

    2018-03-01

    Some of the local government in Indonesia claimed they already created a smart city. Mostly the claim based of IT utilization for their governance. In general, a smart city definition is to describe a developed urban area that creates sustainable economic development and high quality of life by excelling in multiple key; economy, mobility, environment, people, living, and government. For public services, the law guarantees good governance by setting the standard for e-government implicitly including for local government or a city. Based on the arguments, this research tries to test the condition of e-government of the Indonesian city in 34 provinces. The purpose is to map e-government condition by measuring indicators of smart government, which are: transparent governance and open data for the public. This research is departing from public information disclosure law and to correspond with the existence law. By examining government transparency, the output of the research can be used to measure the effectiveness of public information disclosure law and to determine the condition of e-government in local government in which as part of a smart city.

  7. GET SMART: EPA'S SMARTE INITIATIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA's Office of Research and Development with the assistance of the U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group and the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC), is developing Site-specific Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools (SMART) that will help stakeholders over...

  8. HER2 Targeted Breast Cancer Therapy with Switchable "Off/On" Multifunctional "Smart" Magnetic Polymer Core-Shell Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Raju; Thangam, Ramar; Kumar, Selvaraj Rajesh; Rejeeth, Chandrababu; Kumar, Gopal Senthil; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Vincent, Savariar; Gopi, Dhanaraj; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2016-01-27

    Multifunctional magnetic polymer nanocombinations are gaining importance in cancer nanotheranostics due to their safety and their potential in delivering targeted functions. Herein, we report a novel multifunctional core-shell magnetic polymer therapeutic nanocomposites (NCs) exhibiting pH dependent "Off-On" release of drug against breast cancer cells. The NCs are intact in blood circulation ("Off" state), i.e., at physiological pH, whereas activated ("On" state) at intracellular acidic pH environment of the targeted breast cancer cells. The NCs are prepared by coating the cannonball (iron nanocore) with hydrophobic nanopockets of pH-responsive poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer nanoshell that allows efficient loading of therapeutics. Further, the nanocore-polymer shell is stabilized by poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and functionalized with a targeting HER2 ligand. The prepared Her-Fe3O4@PLGA-PVP nanocomposites facilitate packing of anticancer drug (Tamoxifen) without premature release in the bloodstream, recognizing the target cells through binding of Herceptin antibody to HER2, a cell surface receptor expressed by breast cancer cells to promote HER2 receptor mediated endocytosis and finally releasing the drug at the intracellular site of tumor cells ("On" state) to induce apoptosis. The therapeutic efficiency of hemo/cytocompatible NCs drug delivery system (DDS) in terms of targeted delivery and sustained release of therapeutic agent against breast cancer cells was substantiated by in vitro and in vivo studies. The multifunctional properties of Her-Tam-Fe3O4@PLGA-PVP NCs may open up new avenues in cancer therapy through overcoming the limitations of conventional cancer therapy.

  9. Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne; Radziwon, Agnieszka; Grube Hansen, David

    2017-01-01

    their innovation and competitive advantage by focusing at their competences, strengths and opportunities. The project suggests innovative solutions and business models through collaboration and use of new technologies. In the Smart Factory, SMEs should be able to collaborate on new products, markets and production......, and to target their challenges and ensure sustainable growth and business in these enterprises. Therefore the focus of the Smart Factory project was to support the growth and sustainable development of the small and medium sized manufacturing industry in Denmark. The project focused on SMEs and how to improve......A large part of Danish Industry is based on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs), which account for –99% of the companies in Denmark and about two third of the job positions (source: statistikbanken.dk) . That is why, it is so important also to focus research and development at SMEs...

  10. Smart technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The success of smart technology in the pursuit of the Gulf War has accentuated the awareness of how the Safeguards and Security disciplines are changing in response to new weaponry. Throughout the Department of Energy Integrated Complex (IC) Safeguards and Security efforts such as: Protection Programs Operations; Materials, Controls and Accountability; Information Security; Computer Security; Operational Security; Personnel Security, Safeguards and/or Security (S and S) surveys, and Inspections and Evaluations are undergoing a reassessment and refocusing. Some of this is in response to such things as the DOE initiated Freeze Report and the Drell Report. An important aspect is also technological, adjusting the way business is done in light of the weapons, tools and processes/procedures becoming available. This paper addresses the S and S issues with the promise of using smart technology to develop new approaches and equipment across the IC

  11. Smart Growth and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  12. Deep smarts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Dorothy; Swap, Walter

    2004-09-01

    When a person sizes up a complex situation and rapidly comes to a decision that proves to be not just good but brilliant, you think, "That was smart." After you watch him do this a few times, you realize you're in the presence of something special. It's not raw brainpower, though that helps. It's not emotional intelligence, either, though that, too, is often involved. It's deep smarts. Deep smarts are not philosophical--they're not"wisdom" in that sense, but they're as close to wisdom as business gets. You see them in the manager who understands when and how to move into a new international market, in the executive who knows just what kind of talk to give when her organization is in crisis, in the technician who can track a product failure back to an interaction between independently produced elements. These are people whose knowledge would be hard to purchase on the open market. Their insight is based on know-how more than on know-what; it comprises a system view as well as expertise in individual areas. Because deep smarts are experienced based and often context specific, they can't be produced overnight or readily imported into an organization. It takes years for an individual to develop them--and no time at all for an organization to lose them when a valued veteran walks out the door. They can be taught, however, with the right techniques. Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap say the best way to transfer such expertise to novices--and, on a larger scale, to make individual knowledge institutional--isn't through PowerPoint slides, a Web site of best practices, online training, project reports, or lectures. Rather, the sage needs to teach the neophyte individually how to draw wisdom from experience. Companies have to be willing to dedicate time and effort to such extensive training, but the investment more than pays for itself.

  13. Smart Pricing for Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    Flat-rate electricity tariffs in Great Britain, which have no price variation throughout a day or a year, have been ongoing for decades to recover the cost of energy production and delivery. However, this type of electricity tariff has little incentives to encourage customers to modify their demands to suit the condition of the power supply system. Hence, it is challenged in the new smart grid environment, where demand side responses have important roles to play to encourage conventional ener...

  14. Superimpose of images by appending two simple video amplifier circuits to color television

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Kazuhiko; Hiraki, Tatsunosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Maekawa, Ryuichi; Hisada, Kinichi.

    1979-01-01

    Images are very useful to obtain diagnostic informations in medical fields. Also by superimposing two or three images obtained from the same patient, various informations, for example a degree of overlapping and anatomical land mark, which can not be found in only one image, can be often found. In this paper characteristics of our trial color television system for the purpose of superimposing x-ray images and/or radionuclide images are described. This color television system superimposing two images in each different color consists of two monochromatic vidicon cameras and 20 inches conventional color television in which only two simple video amplifier circuits are added. Signals from vidicon cameras are amplified about 40 dB and are directly applied to cathode terminals of color CRT in the television. This system is very simple and economical color displays, and enhance a degree of overlapping and displacement between images. As one of typical clinical applications, pancreas images were superimposed in color by this method. As a result, size and position of pancreas was enhanced. Also x-ray image and radionuclide image were superimposed to find exactly the position of tumors. Furthermore this system was very useful for color display of multinuclides scintigraphy. (author)

  15. Superimpose of images by appending two simple video amplifier circuits to color television

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, K; Hiraki, T; Koshida, K; Maekawa, R [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Hisada, K

    1979-09-01

    Images are very useful to obtain diagnostic informations in medical fields. Also by superimposing two or three images obtained from the same patient, various informations, for example a degree of overlapping and anatomical land mark, which can not be found in only one image, can be often found. In this paper characteristics of our trial color television system for the purpose of superimposing x-ray images and/or radionuclide images are described. This color television system superimposing two images in each different color consists of two monochromatic vidicon cameras and 20 inches conventional color television in which only two simple video amplifier circuits are added. Signals from vidicon cameras are amplified about 40 dB and are directly applied to cathode terminals of color CRT in the television. This system is very simple and economical color displays, and enhance a degree of overlapping and displacement between images. As one of typical clinical applications, pancreas images were superimposed in color by this method. As a result, size and position of pancreas was enhanced. Also x-ray image and radionuclide image were superimposed to find exactly the position of tumors. Furthermore this system was very useful for color display of multinuclides scintigraphy.

  16. Smart Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Hedman, Jonas; Albinsson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Legal tender in the form of coins and banknotes is expected to be replaced at one point in the future by digital legal tender. This transformation is an opportunity for central banks to rethink the idea of money and overhaul the prevailing payment systems. Digital legal tender is expected to reduce...... exchange instrument that relies on computer protocols to facilitate, verify, and enforce certain conditions for its appropriation as payment, e.g. who may use the money, where, and for what. If we believe that digital legal tender will become ubiquitous, then the emergence and diffusion of smart money...

  17. Identification of igneous rocks in a superimposed basin through integrated interpretation dominantly based on magnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, S.

    2017-12-01

    Identification of igneous rocks in the basin environment is of great significance to the exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs hosted in igneous rocks. Magnetic methods are often used to alleviate the difficulties faced by seismic imaging in basins with thick cover and complicated superimposed structures. We present a case study on identification of igneous rocks in a superimposed basin through integrated interpretation based on magnetic and other geophysical data sets. The study area is located in the deepest depression with sedimentary cover of 14,000 m in Huanghua basin, which is a Cenozoic basin superimposed on a residual pre-Cenozoic basin above the North China craton. Cenozoic and Mesozoic igneous rocks that are dominantly intermediate-basic volcanic and intrusive rocks are widespread at depth in the basin. Drilling and seismic data reveal some volcanic units and intrusive rocks in Cenozoic stratum at depths of about 4,000 m. The question remains to identify the lateral extent of igneous rocks in large depth and adjacent areas. In order to tackle the difficulties for interpretation of magnetic data arisen from weak magnetic anomaly and remanent magnetization of igneous rocks buried deep in the superimposed basin, we use the preferential continuation approach to extract the anomaly and magnetic amplitude inversion to image the 3D magnetic units. The resultant distribution of effective susceptibility not only correlates well with the locations of Cenozoic igneous rocks known previously through drilling and seismic imaging, but also identifies the larger scale distribution of Mesozoic igneous rocks at greater depth in the west of the basin. The integrated interpretation results dominantly based on magnetic data shows that the above strategy is effective for identification of igneous rocks deep buried in the superimposed basin. Keywords: Identification of igneous rocks; Superimposed basin; Magnetic data

  18. A dual-wavelength tunable laser with superimposed fiber Bragg gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Tamayo, R I; Durán-Sánchez, M; Pottiez, O; Ibarra-Escamilla, B; Kuzin, E A; Cruz, J L; Andrés, M V

    2013-01-01

    We report a dual-wavelength tunable fiber laser. The cavity is formed by two superimposed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a temperature tunable high-birefringence fiber optical loop mirror (FOLM). FBGs with wavelengths of 1548.5 and 1538.5 nm were printed in the same section of a fiber using two different masks. The superimposed FBGs were placed on a mechanical mount that allows stretch or compression of the FBGs. As a result of the FBG strain both lines are shifted simultaneously. Dual-wavelength generation requires a fine adjustment of the cavity loss for both wavelengths. (paper)

  19. Additive non-uniform random sampling in superimposed fiber Bragg grating strain gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y C; Liu, H Y; Yan, S B; Li, J M; Tang, J; Yang, Y H; Yang, M W

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an additive non-uniform random sampling and interrogation method for dynamic and/or static strain gauge using a reflection spectrum from two superimposed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The superimposed FBGs are designed to generate non-equidistant space of a sensing pulse train in the time domain during dynamic strain gauge. By combining centroid finding with smooth filtering methods, both the interrogation speed and accuracy are improved. A 1.9 kHz dynamic strain is measured by generating an additive non-uniform randomly distributed 2 kHz optical sensing pulse train from a mean 500 Hz triangular periodically changing scanning frequency. (paper)

  20. Additive non-uniform random sampling in superimposed fiber Bragg grating strain gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y. C.; Liu, H. Y.; Yan, S. B.; Yang, Y. H.; Yang, M. W.; Li, J. M.; Tang, J.

    2013-05-01

    This paper demonstrates an additive non-uniform random sampling and interrogation method for dynamic and/or static strain gauge using a reflection spectrum from two superimposed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The superimposed FBGs are designed to generate non-equidistant space of a sensing pulse train in the time domain during dynamic strain gauge. By combining centroid finding with smooth filtering methods, both the interrogation speed and accuracy are improved. A 1.9 kHz dynamic strain is measured by generating an additive non-uniform randomly distributed 2 kHz optical sensing pulse train from a mean 500 Hz triangular periodically changing scanning frequency.

  1. Smart energy and smart energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the terms “Smart Energy” and “Smart Energy Systems” have been used to express an approach that reaches broader than the term “Smart grid”. Where Smart Grids focus primarily on the electricity sector, Smart Energy Systems take an integrated holistic focus on the inclusion of more...... sectors (electricity, heating, cooling, industry, buildings and transportation) and allows for the identification of more achievable and affordable solutions to the transformation into future renewable and sustainable energy solutions. This paper first makes a review of the scientific literature within...... the field. Thereafter it discusses the term Smart Energy Systems with regard to the issues of definition, identification of solu- tions, modelling, and integration of storage. The conclusion is that the Smart Energy System concept represents a scientific shift in paradigms away from single-sector thinking...

  2. Smarter energy from smart metering to the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Hongjian; Poor, H Vincent; Carpanini, Laurence; Fornié, Miguel Angel Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge perspectives and research results in smart energy spanning multiple disciplines across four main topics: smart metering, smart grid modeling, control and optimisation, and smart grid communications and networking.

  3. Glucose clearance in aged trained skeletal muscle during maximal insulin with superimposed exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Mikines, K J; Larsen, J J

    1999-01-01

    Insulin and muscle contractions are major stimuli for glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and have in young healthy people been shown to be additive. We studied the effect of superimposed exercise during a maximal insulin stimulus on glucose uptake and clearance in trained (T) (1-legged bicycle tra...

  4. Modelling snow ice and superimposed ice on landfast sea ice in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixin Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Snow ice and superimposed ice formation on landfast sea ice in a Svalbard fjord, Kongsfjorden, was investigated with a high-resolution thermodynamic snow and sea-ice model, applying meteorological weather station data as external forcing. The model shows that sea-ice formation occurs both at the ice bottom and at the snow/ice interface. Modelling results indicated that the total snow ice and superimposed ice, which formed at the snow/ice interface, was about 14 cm during the simulation period, accounting for about 15% of the total ice mass and 35% of the total ice growth. Introducing a time-dependent snow density improved the modelled results, and a time-dependent oceanic heat flux parameterization yielded reasonable ice growth at the ice bottom. Model results suggest that weather conditions, in particular air temperature and precipitation, as well as snow thermal properties and surface albedo are the most critical factors for the development of snow ice and superimposed ice in Kongsfjorden. While both warming air and higher precipitation led to increased snow ice and superimposed ice forming in Kongsfjorden in the model runs, the processes were more sensitive to precipitation than to air temperature.

  5. Superimposed chirped pulse parameter estimation based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, JC

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is proposed to estimate the frequencies and chirp rate of multiple superimposed chirped pulses. The estimation problem is a difficult one, where maximum likelyhood methods are very complex especially if more than two...

  6. Resemblance of the properties of superimposed volume holograms to the properties of human memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, V. V.

    2006-09-01

    According to current concepts in psychology, a collection of patterns stored in human memory has the property of integrity and contains new information not contained in the individual patterns. It is shown that superimposed volume holograms possess similar properties if the information in them is written by a method that excludes the appearance of crosstalk of the holograms.

  7. Smart Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    GWS takes plans for a new home and subjects them to intensive computerized analysis that does 10,000 calculations relative to expected heat loss and heat gain, then provides specifications designed specifically for each structure as to heating, cooling, ventilation and insulation. As construction progresses, GWS inspects the work of the electrical, plumbing and insulation contractors and installs its own Smart House Radiant Barrier. On completion of the home, GWS technicians use a machine that creates a vacuum in the house and enables computer calculation of the air exchanged, a measure of energy efficiency. Key factor is the radiant barrier, borrowed from the Apollo program. This is an adaptation of a highly effective aluminized heat shield as a radiation barrier holding in or keeping out heat, cold air and water vapor.

  8. Smart Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  9. Smart Grid: Smart Customer Policy Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In September 2010, the International Energy Agency (IEA) held a workshop on the regulatory, market and consumer policies necessary to ensure that smart grids are deployed with adequate consideration of their risks and benefits to all stakeholders. This was one of several workshops that brought together energy providers, network operators, technology developers, regulators, customers and government policy makers to discuss smart grid technology and policy. The Smart Grid - Smart Customer Policies workshop allowed stakeholders to: gain a perspective on key issues and barriers facing early deployment of smart grids; hear expert opinion on regulatory, consumer and market challenges to smart grids; discuss smart grid-smart customer policy priorities; and build consensus on the technology and policy ingredients needed for customer-friendly smart grid deployments. Drawing on workshop discussions, the following paper lays out a logical framework to maximise the benefits and minimise the risks that smart grids pose for customers. The paper also describes key policy research questions that will guide future IEA research on this topic.

  10. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Wirtz, Christoph Zinner, Ulrike Doermann, Heinz Kleinoeder, Joachim Mester

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E. Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre, one week after (post and three weeks (re following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05, with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05. Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic muscle groups.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Damage during Forging with Superimposed Hydrostatic Pressure by Active Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Hagen, T.; Roehr, S.; Sidhu, K. B.

    2007-01-01

    The effective reduction of energy consumption and a reasonable treatment of resources can be achieved by minimizing a component's weight using lightweight metals. In this context, aluminum alloys play a major role. Due to their material-sided restricted formability, the mentioned aluminum materials are difficult to form. The plasticity of a material is ascertained by its maximum forming limit. It is attained, when the deformation causes mechanical damage within the material. Damage of that sort is reached more rapidly, the greater the tensile strength rate in relation to total tension rate. A promising approach of handling these low ductile, high-strength aluminum alloys within a forming process, is forming with a synchronized superposition of comprehensive stress by active media such as by controlling oil pressure. The influence of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on the flow stress was analyzed as well as the formability for different procedures at different hydrostatic pressures and temperature levels. It was observed that flow stress is independent of superimposed hydrostatic pressure. Neither the superimposed pressure has an influence on the plastic deformation, nor does a pressure dependent material hardening due to increasing hydrostatic pressure take place. The formability increases with rising hydrostatic pressure. The relative gain at room temperature and increase of the superimposed pressure from 0 to 600 bar for tested materials was at least 140 % and max. 220 %. Therefore in this paper, based on these experimental observations, it is the intended to develop a numerical simulation in order to predict ductile damage that occurs in the bulk forging process with superimposed hydrostatic pressure based Lemaitre's damage model

  12. Smart grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Sanjay; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Kloza, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This book on smart grid security is meant for a broad audience from managers to technical experts. It highlights security challenges that are faced in the smart grid as we widely deploy it across the landscape. It starts with a brief overview of the smart grid and then discusses some of the reported attacks on the grid. It covers network threats, cyber physical threats, smart metering threats, as well as privacy issues in the smart grid. Along with the threats the book discusses the means to improve smart grid security and the standards that are emerging in the field. The second part of the b

  13. From Smart Rooms to Smart Hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Petrevska, Biljana; Cingoski, Vlatko; Gelev, Saso

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a potential path that new hotels have to satisfy to improve their status from a hotel with smart rooms towards a full-scale smart hotel facility. It presents a possible transitional way including innovative applications based on modern information technology for ambient settings in the domain of hotel industry that aims to improve the quality of offered services towards clients, starting from the present level of smart rooms. The main objective i...

  14. Smart hydrogel functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Liang-Yin; Ju, Xiao-Jie

    2014-01-01

    This book systematically introduces smart hydrogel functional materials with the configurations ranging from hydrogels to microgels. It serves as an excellent reference for designing and fabricating artificial smart hydrogel functional materials.

  15. Superimposed disturbance in the ionosphere triggered by spacecraft launches in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L. M.; Wu, L. X.; Liu, S. J.; Liu, S. N.

    2015-11-01

    Using GPS dual-frequency observations collected by continuously operating GPS tracking stations in China, superimposed disturbances caused by the integrated action of spacecraft's physical effect and chemical effect on ionosphere during the launches of the spacecrafts Tiangong-1 and Shenzhou-8 in China were firstly determined. The results show that the superimposed disturbance was composed of remarkable ionospheric waves and significant ionospheric depletion emerged after both launches. Meanwhile, we found for the first time that the ionospheric waves were made up of two periods of wave by wavelet analysis. The first period of ∼ 4 min shows one event in the near stations and two sub-events in the few far stations. The second period of ∼ 9 min shows only one event in all the observed stations. Finally, the time characteristics for ionospheric waves and depletions were examined.

  16. Superimposed disturbance in the ionosphere triggered by spacecraft launches in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. He

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using GPS dual-frequency observations collected by continuously operating GPS tracking stations in China, superimposed disturbances caused by the integrated action of spacecraft's physical effect and chemical effect on ionosphere during the launches of the spacecrafts Tiangong-1 and Shenzhou-8 in China were firstly determined. The results show that the superimposed disturbance was composed of remarkable ionospheric waves and significant ionospheric depletion emerged after both launches. Meanwhile, we found for the first time that the ionospheric waves were made up of two periods of wave by wavelet analysis. The first period of ∼ 4 min shows one event in the near stations and two sub-events in the few far stations. The second period of ∼ 9 min shows only one event in all the observed stations. Finally, the time characteristics for ionospheric waves and depletions were examined.

  17. Smart grid security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuellar, Jorge (ed.) [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology

    2013-11-01

    The engineering, deployment and security of the future smart grid will be an enormous project requiring the consensus of many stakeholders with different views on the security and privacy requirements, not to mention methods and solutions. The fragmentation of research agendas and proposed approaches or solutions for securing the future smart grid becomes apparent observing the results from different projects, standards, committees, etc, in different countries. The different approaches and views of the papers in this collection also witness this fragmentation. This book contains the following papers: 1. IT Security Architecture Approaches for Smart Metering and Smart Grid. 2. Smart Grid Information Exchange - Securing the Smart Grid from the Ground. 3. A Tool Set for the Evaluation of Security and Reliability in Smart Grids. 4. A Holistic View of Security and Privacy Issues in Smart Grids. 5. Hardware Security for Device Authentication in the Smart Grid. 6. Maintaining Privacy in Data Rich Demand Response Applications. 7. Data Protection in a Cloud-Enabled Smart Grid. 8. Formal Analysis of a Privacy-Preserving Billing Protocol. 9. Privacy in Smart Metering Ecosystems. 10. Energy rate at home Leveraging ZigBee to Enable Smart Grid in Residential Environment.

  18. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-24

    A \\'smart city\\' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents. Yanbu Industrial City- Smart City Project - First large scale smart city in The kingdom.

  19. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings -- 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, G.K.; van de Burgwal, M.D.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it

  20. Controlling total spot power from holographic laser by superimposing a binary phase grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Jian; Gan, Yu; Wu, Liying

    2011-04-25

    By superimposing a tunable binary phase grating with a conventional computer-generated hologram, the total power of multiple holographic 3D spots can be easily controlled by changing the phase depth of grating with high accuracy to a random power value for real-time optical manipulation without extra power loss. Simulation and experiment results indicate that a resolution of 0.002 can be achieved at a lower time cost for normalized total spot power.

  1. Spatial mapping of multi-year superimposed ice on the glacier Kongsvegen, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Ola; Kohler, Jack; Lüthje, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    by GPR. Using the SI spatial depth distribution, we estimate the mean annual accumulation of superimposed ice to be 0.16 +/- 0.06 mw.e.a(-1) (locally up to 0.43 ma(-1) w.e.). This corresponds to similar to 15-33% of the local winter balance and similar to 5-10% of the total winter balance measured since...

  2. The effects of superimposed tilt and lower body negative pressure on anterior and posterior cerebral circulations

    OpenAIRE

    Tymko, Michael M.; Rickards, Caroline A.; Skow, Rachel J.; Ingram?Cotton, Nathan C.; Howatt, Michael K.; Day, Trevor A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Steady?state tilt has no effect on cerebrovascular reactivity to increases in the partial pressure of end?tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO 2). However, the anterior and posterior cerebral circulations may respond differently to a variety of stimuli that alter central blood volume, including lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Little is known about the superimposed effects of head?up tilt (HUT; decreased central blood volume and intracranial pressure) and head?down tilt (HDT; increased ce...

  3. Integrative solutions for intelligent energy management. Smart metering, smart home, smart grid; Integrative Loesungsansaetze fuer ein intelligentes Energiemanagement. Smart Metering, Smart Home and Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungfleisch, Achim [Hager Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH und Co. KG, Blieskastel (Germany). Marketing

    2011-07-01

    Smart Metering, Smart Home, Smart Grid - these key words significantly determine the current debate about intelligent energy management, or new energy concepts. The author of the contribution under consideration describes the interactions between Smart Metering, Smart Home and Smart Grids and the technical connection of these interactions. Thus, the compact tebis KNX demovea server connects Windows computer and the Internet with the building automation based on KNX. The technically simple combination of smart metering and smart home via Hager radio tower of the building automation provides an access to key energy data for an intelligent load management.

  4. Chronic hypertension and the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome after superimposed pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, M; Sheiner, E; Levy, A; Mazor, M

    2004-07-01

    To determine the risk factors and pregnancy outcome of patients with chronic hypertension during pregnancy after controlling for superimposed preeclampsia. A comparison of all singleton term (>36 weeks) deliveries occurring between 1988 and 1999, with and without chronic hypertension, was performed. Stratified analyses, using the Mantel-Haenszel technique, and a multiple logistic regression model were performed to control for confounders. Chronic hypertension complicated 1.6% (n=1807) of all deliveries included in the study (n=113156). Using a multivariable analysis, the following factors were found to be independently associated with chronic hypertension: maternal age >40 years (OR=3.1; 95% CI 2.7-3.6), diabetes mellitus (OR=3.6; 95% CI 3.3-4.1), recurrent abortions (OR=1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.8), infertility treatment (OR=2.9; 95% CI 2.3-3.7), and previous cesarean delivery (CD; OR=1.8 CI 1.6-2.0). After adjustment for superimposed preeclampsia, using the Mantel-Haenszel technique, pregnancies complicated with chronic hypertension had higher rates of CD (OR=2.7; 95% CI 2.4-3.0), intra uterine growth restriction (OR=1.7; 95% CI 1.3-2.2), perinatal mortality (OR=1.6; 95% CI 1.01-2.6) and post-partum hemorrhage (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.4-3.7). Chronic hypertension is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome, regardless of superimposed preeclampsia.

  5. Additional ion bombardment in PVD processes generated by a superimposed pulse bias voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbrich, W.; Kampschulte, G.

    1993-01-01

    The superimposed pulse bias voltage is a tool to apply an additional ion bombardment during deposition in physical vapour deposition (PVD) processes. It is generated by the combination of a d.c. ground voltage and a higher d.c. pulse voltage. Using a superimposed pulse bias voltage in ion-assisted PVD processes effects an additional all-around ion bombardment on the surface with ions of higher energy. Both metal and reactive or inert-gas ions are accelerated to the surface. The basic principles and important characteristics of this newly developed process such as ion fluxes or deposition rates are shown. Because of pulsing the high voltage, the deposition temperature does not increase much. The adhesion, structure, morphology and internal stresses are influenced by these additional ion impacts. The columnar growth of the deposited films could be suppressed by using the superimposed pulse bias voltage without increasing the deposition temperature. Different metallizations (Cr and Cu) produced by arc and sputter ion plating are investigated. Carbon-fibre-reinforced epoxy are coated with PVD copper films for further treatment in electrochemical processes. (orig.)

  6. Challenging 'smart' in smart city strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Knudsen, Jacob

    and development. Focusing on processes of citizen participation and co-creation as the main driving force, we introduce a concept of 'smart city at eye level'. The introduction of new media technology and new media uses need to emerge from a profound understanding of the wants, needs and abilities of the citizens......Smart city strategies concern the improvement of economic and political efficiency and the enabling of social, cultural and urban development (Hollands 2008) and covers a variety of fields from improving infrastructures, social and cultural development, resilience strategies (e.g. green energy......), improving schools, social welfare institutions, public and private institutions etc. The 'smart' in smart city strategies implies that these efforts are accomplished by the introduction and embedding of smart media technology into the very fabric of society. This is often done in a top-down and technology...

  7. Smart Cities - Smart Homes and Smart Home Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Faanes, Erlend Kydland

    2014-01-01

    This master’s thesis consists of two articles where the first article is theoretical and the second is the empirical study. Article I The purpose with this paper is to explore and illuminate how smart home and smart home technology can contribute to enhance health and Quality of Life in elderly citizens and allow them to live longer in their home. The paper provides a brief introduction to health promotion and highlights the thesis theoretical framework and foundation of Aaron Antonov...

  8. SmartCampusAAU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene; Thomsen, Bent; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes SmartCampusAAU - an open, extendable platform that supports the easy creation of indoor location based systems. SmartCampusAAU offers an app and backend that can be used to enable indoor positioning and navigation in any building. The SmartCampusAAU app is available on all ma...... major mobile platforms (Android, iPhone and Windows Phone) and supports both device- and infrastructure-based positioning. SmartCampusAAU also offers a publicly available OData backend that allows researchers to share radio map and location tracking data.......This paper describes SmartCampusAAU - an open, extendable platform that supports the easy creation of indoor location based systems. SmartCampusAAU offers an app and backend that can be used to enable indoor positioning and navigation in any building. The SmartCampusAAU app is available on all...

  9. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chi Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It’s also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  10. Towards smart environments using smart objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmayr, Martin; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Münch, Ulli

    2011-01-01

    Barcodes, RFID, WLAN, Bluetooth and many more technologies are used in hospitals. They are the technological bases for different applications such as patient monitoring, asset management and facility management. However, most of these applications exist side by side with hardly any integration and even interoperability is not guaranteed. Introducing the concept of smart objects inspired by the Internet of Things can improve the situation by separating the capabilities and functions of an object from the implementing technology such as RFID or WLAN. By aligning technological and business developments smart objects have the power to transform a hospital from an agglomeration of technologies into a smart environment.

  11. Observation and modeling of snow melt and superimposed ice formation on sea ice

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolaus, Marcel; Haas, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Sea ice plays a key role within the global climate system. It covers some 7% of earths surface and processes a strong seasonal cycle. Snow on sea ice even amplifies the importance of sea ice in the coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean system, because it dominates surface properties and energy balance (incl. albedo).Several quantitative observations of summer sea ice and its snow cover show the formation of superimposed ice and a gap layer underneath, which was found to be associated to high standing ...

  12. Experimental Verification and Capacity Prediction of FE-OCDMA Using Superimposed FBG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Simon; Rochette, Martin; Magné, Julien; Rusch, Leslie A.; Larochelle, Sophie

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents the experimental demonstration and simulation results of a frequency-encoded optical code-division multiple-access (FE-OCDMA) system using broad-band incoherent source, superimposed fiber Bragg gratings for encoding/decoding of unipolar m -sequence codes, and balanced detection. The bit-error rate is measured for up to four simultaneous users at 155 and 622 Mb/s. Exploiting the excellent match between simulation and experiment, the paper concludes with a prediction of the potential capacity of an optimized FE-CDMA system.

  13. Properties of DLC coatings deposited by dc and dc with superimposed pulsed vacuum arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavaleyev, V.; Walkowicz, J.; Aksyonov, D.S.; Luchaninov, A.A.; Reshetnyak, E.N.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of the structure, mechanical and tribological properties of DLC coatings deposited in DC and DC with superimposed high current pulse modes of operation vacuum-arc plasma source with the graphite cathode are presented. Imposition the pulses of high current on DC vacuum-arc discharge allows both increase the deposition rate of DLC coating and reduce the residual compressive stress in the coatings what promotes substantial improvement the adhesion to the substrate. Effect of vacuum arc plasma filtration with Venetian blind filter on the deposition rate and tribological characteristics of the coatings analyzed.

  14. Smart infrastructure design for Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    OTA, Kaoru; KUMRAI, Teerawat; DONG, Mianxiong; KISHIGAMI, Jay (Junichi); GUO, Minyi

    2017-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is one of the keywords to describe smart cities, aiming at efficient public transport, smart parking, enhanced road safety, intelligent traffic management, onvehicle entertainment, and so on. In ITS, Roadside Unit (RSU) deployment should be well-designed due to it serves as a service provider and a gateway to the Internet for vehicular users. In this article, we propose an RSU deployment strategy which maximizes the communication coverage and reduces t...

  15. Randomised controlled trial of a digitally assisted low intensity intervention to promote personal recovery in persisting psychosis: SMART-Therapy study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil; Farhall, John; Foley, Fiona; Rossell, Susan L; Castle, David; Ladd, Emma; Meyer, Denny; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Leitan, Nuwan; Nunan, Cassy; Frankish, Rosalie; Smark, Tara; Farnan, Sue; McLeod, Bronte; Sterling, Leon; Murray, Greg; Fossey, Ellie; Brophy, Lisa; Kyrios, Michael

    2016-09-07

    Psychosocial interventions have an important role in promoting recovery in people with persisting psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Readily available, digital technology provides a means of developing therapeutic resources for use together by practitioners and mental health service users. As part of the Self-Management and Recovery Technology (SMART) research program, we have developed an online resource providing materials on illness self-management and personal recovery based on the Connectedness-Hope-Identity-Meaning-Empowerment (CHIME) framework. Content is communicated using videos featuring persons with lived experience of psychosis discussing how they have navigated issues in their own recovery. This was developed to be suitable for use on a tablet computer during sessions with a mental health worker to promote discussion about recovery. This is a rater-blinded randomised controlled trial comparing a low intensity recovery intervention of eight one-to-one face-to-face sessions with a mental health worker using the SMART website alongside routine care, versus an eight-session comparison condition, befriending. The recruitment target is 148 participants with a schizophrenia-related disorder or mood disorder with a history of psychosis, recruited from mental health services in Victoria, Australia. Following baseline assessment, participants are randomised to intervention, and complete follow up assessments at 3, 6 and 9 months post-baseline. The primary outcome is personal recovery measured using the Process of Recovery Questionnaire (QPR). Secondary outcomes include positive and negative symptoms assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, subjective experiences of psychosis, emotional symptoms, quality of life and resource use. Mechanisms of change via effects on self-stigma and self-efficacy will be examined. This protocol describes a novel intervention which tests new therapeutic methods including in-session tablet computer use and

  16. Smart Information Management in Health Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muteba A, Eustache

    2017-01-01

    The smart information management system (SIMS) is concerned with the organization of anonymous patient records in a big data and their extraction in order to provide needful real-time intelligence. The purpose of the present study is to highlight the design and the implementation of the smart information management system. We emphasis, in one hand, the organization of a big data in flat file in simulation of nosql database, and in the other hand, the extraction of information based on lookup table and cache mechanism. The SIMS in the health big data aims the identification of new therapies and approaches to delivering care.

  17. Synergisms between smart metering and smart grid; Synergien zwischen Smart Metering und Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Peter [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    With the implementation of a smart metering solution, it is not only possible to acquire consumption data for billing but also to acquire relevant data of the distribution grid for grid operation. There is still a wide gap between the actual condition and the target condition. Synergies result from the use of a common infrastructure which takes account both of the requirements of smart metering and of grid operation. An open architecture also enables the future integration of further applications of the fields of smart grid and smart home. (orig.)

  18. Smart Location Database - Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  19. Smart space technology innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Mu-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Recently, ad hoc and wireless communication technologies have made available the device, service and information rich environment for users. Smart Space and ubiquitous computing extend the ""Living Lab"" vision of everyday objects and provide context-awareness services to users in smart living environments. This ebook investigates smart space technology and its innovations around the Living Labs. The final goal is to build context-awareness smart space and location-based service applications that integrate information from independent systems which autonomously and securely support human activ

  20. Conceptualizing smart service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beverungen, Daniel; Müller, Oliver; Matzner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of physical products that are digitally networked with other products and with information systems to enable complex business scenarios in manufacturing, mobility, or healthcare. These “smart products”, which enable the co-creation of “smart service” that is b......Recent years have seen the emergence of physical products that are digitally networked with other products and with information systems to enable complex business scenarios in manufacturing, mobility, or healthcare. These “smart products”, which enable the co-creation of “smart service......” that is based on monitoring, optimization, remote control, and autonomous adaptation of products, profoundly transform service systems into what we call “smart service systems”. In a multi-method study that includes conceptual research and qualitative data from in-depth interviews, we conceptualize “smart...... service” and “smart service systems” based on using smart products as boundary objects that integrate service consumers’ and service providers’ resources and activities. Smart products allow both actors to retrieve and to analyze aggregated field evidence and to adapt service systems based on contextual...

  1. The People's Smart Sculpture

    OpenAIRE

    Koplin, Martin; Nedelkovski, Igor; Salo, Kari

    2016-01-01

    The People’s Smart Sculpture (PS2) panel discusses future oriented approaches in smart media-art, developed, designed and exploited for artistic and public participation in the change and re-design of our living environment. The actual debate about a smart future is not taking into account any idea of media art as an instrument for to realize the social sculpture, mentioned by Beuys [1] or as social sculpture itself. The People’s Smart Sculpture is the only large scale Creative Europe media-a...

  2. Smart Location Database - Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  3. Electricity Markets, Smart Grids and Smart Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcey, Jonathan M.

    A smart grid is an electricity network that accommodates two-way power flows, and utilizes two-way communications and increased measurement, in order to provide more information to customers and aid in the development of a more efficient electricity market. The current electrical network is outdated and has many shortcomings relating to power flows, inefficient electricity markets, generation/supply balance, a lack of information for the consumer and insufficient consumer interaction with electricity markets. Many of these challenges can be addressed with a smart grid, but there remain significant barriers to the implementation of a smart grid. This paper proposes a novel method for the development of a smart grid utilizing a bottom up approach (starting with smart buildings/campuses) with the goal of providing the framework and infrastructure necessary for a smart grid instead of the more traditional approach (installing many smart meters and hoping a smart grid emerges). This novel approach involves combining deterministic and statistical methods in order to accurately estimate building electricity use down to the device level. It provides model users with a cheaper alternative to energy audits and extensive sensor networks (the current methods of quantifying electrical use at this level) which increases their ability to modify energy consumption and respond to price signals The results of this method are promising, but they are still preliminary. As a result, there is still room for improvement. On days when there were no missing or inaccurate data, this approach has R2 of about 0.84, sometimes as high as 0.94 when compared to measured results. However, there were many days where missing data brought overall accuracy down significantly. In addition, the development and implementation of the calibration process is still underway and some functional additions must be made in order to maximize accuracy. The calibration process must be completed before a reliable

  4. Bilateral rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip joint resulting from subchondral fracture with superimposed secondary osteonecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Takuaki; Iwamoto, Yukihide [Kyushu University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fukuoka (Japan); Schneider, Robert [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Radiology, New York (United States); Bullough, Peter G. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Laboratory Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-02-15

    A 57-year-old woman suffered rapid destruction of both hip joints over a 10 months period. At the first visit, her radiographs demonstrated slight joint space narrowing and acetabular cyst formation in both hips. Five months later, joint space narrowing had further progressed, and intra-articular injection of steroid was given in both hips. However, the hip pain gradually became worse. Five months later, both joint spaces had totally disappeared and both femoral heads had undergone massive collapse. At gross examination, both resected femoral heads showed extensive opaque yellow areas consistent with osteonecrosis. Microscopic examination of these areas revealed evidence of both extensive fracture and callus formation, as well as necrosis throughout, indicating that the osteonecrosis observed in this case was a secondary phenomenon superimposed on pre-existing osteoarthritis and subchondral fracture. There were many pseudogranulomatous lesions in the marrow space and necrotic area, where tiny fragments of bone and articular cartilage, surrounded by histiocytes and giant cells, were embedded, such as are typically seen in rapidly destructive arthrosis. No radiologic or morphologic evidence of primary osteonecrosis was noted. This case indicates that at least some cases of rapidly destructive arthritis are the result of subchondral fracture with superimposed secondary osteonecrosis. (orig.)

  5. Bilateral rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip joint resulting from subchondral fracture with superimposed secondary osteonecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takuaki; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Schneider, Robert; Bullough, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman suffered rapid destruction of both hip joints over a 10 months period. At the first visit, her radiographs demonstrated slight joint space narrowing and acetabular cyst formation in both hips. Five months later, joint space narrowing had further progressed, and intra-articular injection of steroid was given in both hips. However, the hip pain gradually became worse. Five months later, both joint spaces had totally disappeared and both femoral heads had undergone massive collapse. At gross examination, both resected femoral heads showed extensive opaque yellow areas consistent with osteonecrosis. Microscopic examination of these areas revealed evidence of both extensive fracture and callus formation, as well as necrosis throughout, indicating that the osteonecrosis observed in this case was a secondary phenomenon superimposed on pre-existing osteoarthritis and subchondral fracture. There were many pseudogranulomatous lesions in the marrow space and necrotic area, where tiny fragments of bone and articular cartilage, surrounded by histiocytes and giant cells, were embedded, such as are typically seen in rapidly destructive arthrosis. No radiologic or morphologic evidence of primary osteonecrosis was noted. This case indicates that at least some cases of rapidly destructive arthritis are the result of subchondral fracture with superimposed secondary osteonecrosis. (orig.)

  6. A System on a Programmable Chip Architecture for Data-Dependent Superimposed Training Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martín del Campo

    2009-01-01

    with the information, a series of known symbols, whose analysis is used to define the parameters of the filters that remove the distortion of the data. Nevertheless, a part of the available bandwidth has to be destined to these symbols. Until now, no alternative solution has demonstrated to be fully satisfying for commercial use, but one technique that looks promising is superimposed training (ST. This work describes a hybrid software-hardware FPGA implementation of a recent algorithm that belongs to the ST family, known as Data-dependent Superimposed Training (DDST, which does not need extra bandwidth for its training sequences (TS as it adds them arithmetically to the data. DDST also adds a third sequence known as data-dependent sequence, that destroys the interference caused by the data over the TS. As DDST's computational burden is too high for the commercial processors used in mobile systems, a System on a Programmable Chip (SOPC approach is used in order to solve the problem.

  7. Current-voltage characteristics of a superconducting slab under a superimposed small AC magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Teruo; Yamafuji, Kaoru; Sakamoto, Nobuyoshi.

    1977-01-01

    In case of applying superconductors to electric machinery or high intensity field magnets for fusion reactors, the superconductors are generally expected to be sensible to small field fluctuation besides DC magnetic field. The behavior of superconductors in DC magnetic field superimposed with small AC magnetic field has been investigated often experimentally, and the result has been obtained that the critical current at which DC flow voltage begins to appear extremely decreased or disappeared. Some theoretical investigations have been carried out on this phenomenon so far, however, their application has been limited to the region where frequency is sufficiently low or which is close to the critical magnetic field. Purpose of this report is to deal with the phenomenon in more unified way by analyzing the behavior of magnetic flux lines in a superconductor under a superimposed small AC field using the criticalstate model including viscous force. In order to solve the fundamental equation in this report, first the solution has been obtained in the quasi-static state neglecting viscous force, then about the cases that current density J is not more than Jc and J is larger than Jc, concerning the deviation from the quasi-static limit by employing successive approximation. Current-voltage characteristics have been determined by utilizing the above results. This method seems to be most promising at present except the case of extremely high frequency. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Drug therapy smartens up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The submission of the first 'smart pill' for market approval, combined with progress in the European nanomedicine landscape, illustrates the positive outlook for drug therapy and health monitoring, explains Christian Martin.

  9. Smart SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. A smart SDHW is a system in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top an...

  10. Making Smart Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Making Smart Food Choices Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Everyday ... NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Making Smart Food Choices To maintain a healthy weight, balance the calories ...

  11. Playing the Smart Card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzack, Christine A.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced magnetic strip cards and "smart cards" offer varied service options to college students. Enhanced magnetic strip cards serve as cash cards and provide access to services. Smart cards, which resemble credit cards but contain a microchip, can be used as phone cards, bus passes, library cards, admission tickets, point-of-sale debit…

  12. SMART Boards Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Rebecca M.; Shaw, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    SMART Board is a technology that combines the functionality of a whiteboard, computer, and projector into a single system. The interactive nature of the SMART Board offers many practical uses for providing an introduction to or review of material, while the large work area invites collaboration through social interaction and communication. As a…

  13. Smart grid in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Simon; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    China is planning to transform its traditional power grid in favour of a smart grid, since it allows a more economically efficient and a more environmentally friendly transmission and distribution of electricity. Thus, a nationwide smart grid is likely to save tremendous amounts of resources...

  14. Smart Icon Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Icons are frequently used in the music classroom to depict concepts in a developmentally appropriate way for students. SmartBoards provide music educators yet another way to share these manipulatives with students. This article provides a step-by-step tutorial to create Smart Icon Cards using the folk song "Lucy Locket."

  15. Planning in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The electricity supply chain is changing, due to increasing awareness for sustainability and an improved energy efficiency. The traditional infrastructure where demand is supplied by centralized generation is subject to a transition towards a Smart Grid. In this Smart Grid, sustainable generation

  16. Smart Fabrics Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cory; Potter, Elliott; Potter, Elliott; McCabe, Mary; Baggerman, Clint

    2010-01-01

    Advances in Smart Fabrics technology are enabling an exciting array of new applications for NASA exploration missions, the biomedical community, and consumer electronics. This report summarizes the findings of a brief investigation into the state of the art and potential applications of smart fabrics to address challenges in human spaceflight.

  17. Smart City Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    This article reflects on the challenges for urban planning posed by the emergence of smart cities in network societies. In particular, it reflects on reductionist tendencies in existing smart city planning. Here the concern is with the implications of prior reductions of complexity which have been...... undertaken by placing primacy in planning on information technology, economical profit, and top-down political government. Rather than pointing urban planning towards a different ordering of these reductions, this article argues in favor of approaches to smart city planning via complexity theory....... Specifically, this article argues in favor of approaching smart city plans holistically as topologies of organized complexity. Here, smart city planning is seen as a theory and practice engaging with a complex adaptive urban system which continuously operates on its potential. The actualizations in the face...

  18. Smart Sustainable Islands VS Smart Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Moussas, V. C.; Murgante, B.; Daverona, A. C.; Stratakis, P.; Vlissidis, N.; Kavadias, A.; Economou, D.; Santimpantakis, K.; Karathanasis, B.; Kyriakopoulou, V.; Gadolou, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper has several aims: a) the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms "smart sustainable cities" and "smart sustainable islands" b) the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors) which concern the insular municipalities c) the creation of an island's smartification and sustainability index d) the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e) the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  19. Smart houses for a smart grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, J.K.; Warmer, C.J. [ECN Efficiency and Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands); Karnouskos, S.; Weidlich, A. [SAP Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, (Germany); Nestle, D.; Strauss, P. [The Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik ISET, University of Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Dimeas, A.; Hatziargyriou, N. [Institute Computers Communications Systems ICCS, National Technical University of Athens NTUA, Athens (Greece); Buchholz, B.; Drenkard, S. [MVV Energie, Berlin (Germany); Lioliou, V. [Public Power Corporation PPC, Athens (Greece)

    2009-08-15

    Innovative technologies and concepts will emerge as we move towards a more dynamic, service-based, market-driven infrastructure, where energy efficiency and savings can be facilitated by interactive distribution networks. A new generation of fully interactive Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructure has to be developed to support the optimal exploitation of the changing, complex business processes and to enable the efficient functioning of the deregulated energy market for the benefit of citizens and businesses. The architecture of such distributed system landscapes must be designed and validated, standards need to be created and widely supported, and comprehensive, reliable IT applications will need to be implemented. The collaboration between a smart house and a smart grid is a promising approach which, with the help of ICT can fully unleash the capabilities of the smart electricity network.

  20. The behaviour of radionuclides in gas adsorption chromatographic processes with superimposed chemical reactions (chlorides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, B.

    1996-01-01

    Thermochemical relationships are derived describing the gas adsorption chromatographic transport of carrier-free radionuclides. Especially, complex adsorption processes such as dissociative, associative and substitutive adsorption are dealt with. The comparison of experimental with calculated data allows the determination of the type of adsorption reaction, which is the basis of the respective gas chromatographic process. The behaviour of carrier-free radionuclides of elements Pu, Ce, Ru, Co and Cr in thermochromatographic experiments with chlorinating carrier gases can be described as dissociative adsorption of chlorides in higher oxidation states. The gas adsorption chromatographic transport of Zr with oxygen and chlorine containing carrier gas is shown to be a substitutive adsorption process. The consequences of superimposed chemical reactions on the interpretation of results and the conception of gas adsorption chromatographic experiments with carrier-free radionuclides in isothermal columns and in temperature gradient tubes is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Resolving superimposed ground-water contaminant plumes characterized by chromium, nitrate, uranium, and technetium--99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.H.

    1990-02-01

    Leakage from a liquid waste storage and solar evaporation basin at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has resulted in a ground-water contaminant plume characterized by nitrate, hexavalent chromium, uranium, and technetium-99. The plume is superimposed on a larger, pre-existing plume extending from upgradient sites and having the same suite of contaminants. However, the relative abundance of contaminant species is quite different for each plume source. Thus, characteristic concentration ratios, rather than concentrations of individual species, are used as geochemical tracers, with emphasis on graphical analysis. Accordingly, it has been possible to resolve the boundaries of the smaller plume and to estimate the contribution of each plume to the observed contamination downgradient from the storage basin. 11 refs., 7 figs

  2. Application of Semantic Tagging to Generate Superimposed Information on a Digital Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Piedad; Tramullas, Jesus; Martinez, Francisco J.

    We can find in the literature several works regarding the automatic or semi-automatic processing of textual documents with historic information using free software technologies. However, more research work is needed to integrate the analysis of the context and provide coverage to the peculiarities of the Spanish language from a semantic point of view. This research work proposes a novel knowledge-based strategy based on combining subject-centric computing, a topic-oriented approach, and superimposed information. It subsequent combination with artificial intelligence techniques led to an automatic analysis after implementing a made-to-measure interpreted algorithm which, in turn, produced a good number of associations and events with 90% reliability.

  3. The theoretical shear strength of fcc crystals under superimposed triaxial stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerny, M., E-mail: cerny.m@fme.vutbr.cz [Institute of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2, CZ-616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Pokluda, J. [Institute of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2, CZ-616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2010-05-15

    The influence of a triaxial stress applied normally to shear planes and shear direction during affine shear deformation of face-centered cubic crystals on the theoretical shear strength is studied for the <112-bar >{l_brace}111{r_brace} shear system using first-principles methods. The applied relaxation procedure guarantees that the modeled system is subjected to a superposition of shear, normal and in-plane stresses with individually adjustable in-plane and normal stress values. The theoretical shear strengths of individual elements prove to be qualitatively different functions of the superimposed stresses. In the special case of hydrostatic loading, however, these functions are qualitatively uniform. This behavior is discussed in terms of the electronic structure.

  4. Monte Carlo, hypothesis-tests for rare events superimposed on a background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avignone, F.T. III; Miley, H.S.; Padgett, W.J.; Weier, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    We describe two techniques to search for small numbers of counts under a peak of known shape and superimposed on a background with statistical fluctuations. Many comparisons of a single experimental spectrum with computer simulations of the peak and background are made. From these we calculate the probability that y hypothesized counts in the peaks of the simulations, will result in a number larger than that observed in a given energy interval (bin) in the experimental spectrum. This is done for many values of the hypothesized number y. One procedure is very similar to testing a statistical hypothesis and can be analytically applied. Another is presented which is related to pattern recognition techniques and is less sensitive to the uncertainty in the mean. Sample applications to double beta decay data are presented. (orig.)

  5. Smart IR780 Theranostic Nanocarrier for Tumor-Specific Therapy: Hyperthermia-Mediated Bubble-Generating and Folate-Targeted Liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Yu, Meng; Wang, Jinping; Tan, Fengping; Li, Nan

    2015-09-23

    The therapeutic effectiveness of chemotherapy was hampered by dose-limiting toxicity and was optimal only when tumor cells were subjected to a maximum drug exposure. The purpose of this work was to design a dual-functional thermosensitive bubble-generating liposome (BTSL) combined with conjugated targeted ligand (folate, FA) and photothermal agent (IR780), to realize enhanced therapeutic and diagnostic functions. This drug carrier was proposed to target tumor cells owing to FA-specific binding, followed by triggering drug release due to the decomposition of encapsulated ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) (generated CO2 bubbles) by being subjected to near-infrared (near-IR) laser irradiation, creating permeable defects in the lipid bilayer that rapidly release drug. In vitro temperature-triggered release study indicated the BTSL system was sensitive to heat triggering, resulting in rapid drug release under hyperthermia. For in vitro cellular uptake experiments, different results were observed on human epidermoid carcinoma cells (KB cells) and human lung cancer cells (A549 cells) due to their different (positive or negative) response to FA receptor. Furthermore, in vivo biodistribution analysis and antitumor study indicated IR780-BTSL-FA could specifically target KB tumor cells, exhibiting longer circulation time than free drug. In the pharmacodynamics experiments, IR780-BTSL-FA efficiently inhibited tumor growth in nude mice with no evident side effect to normal tissues and organs. Results of this study demonstrated that the constructed smart theranostic nanocarrier IR780-BTSL-FA might contribute to establishment of tumor-selective and effective chemotherapy.

  6. Towards a smart home framework

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Muddasser; Alan, Alper; Rogers, Alex; Ramchurn, Sarvapali D.

    2013-01-01

    We present our Smart Home Framework (SHF) which simplifies the modelling, prototyping and simulation of smart infrastructure (i.e., smart home and smart communities). It provides the buildings blocks (e.g., home appliances) that can be extended and assembled together to build a smart infrastructure model to which appropriate AI techniques can be applied. This approach enables rapid modelling where new research initiatives can build on existing work.

  7. Validation of Lifetime Prediction of IGBT Modules Based on Linear Damage Accumulation by Means of Superimposed Power Cycling Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Ui-Min; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the lifetime prediction of power device modules based on the linear damage accumulation is studied in conjunction with simple mission profiles of converters. Superimposed power cycling conditions, which are called simple mission profiles in this paper, are made based on a lifetime ...... prediction of IGBT modules under power converter applications.......In this paper, the lifetime prediction of power device modules based on the linear damage accumulation is studied in conjunction with simple mission profiles of converters. Superimposed power cycling conditions, which are called simple mission profiles in this paper, are made based on a lifetime...... model in respect to junction temperature swing duration. This model has been built based on 39 power cycling test results of 600-V 30-A three-phase-molded IGBT modules. Six tests are performed under three superimposed power cycling conditions using an advanced power cycling test setup. The experimental...

  8. Smart grids for smart cities: Smart energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieny, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Smart grids are currently a hot topic. Growing numbers of municipalities are experimenting with smart grids as the foundation for tomorrow's smart cities. And yet, end users are struggling to understand the innovative new energy distribution models just over the horizon. Our energy system is at a crossroads. And the coming years will tell us whether smart grids - whether they integrate renewable energy sources or not - will develop as a hybrid industry combining energy and IT or emerge as a full-fledged sector in and of itself. First and foremost, smart grids must be considered from a local, micro-economic standpoint, but one that also takes into account issues and interactions at the regional, national, EU, and global levels. Today, fighting climate change is a major challenge at both the national and global levels. The Kyoto Protocol and the Copenhagen Summit established a framework for crucial initiatives to combat climate change. The EU and France followed suit with their Climate and Energy Package and Grenelle de l'environnement environmental agenda. These policies set forth measures to fight climate change and to adapt to its impacts on people and the economy. France, for instance, set two basic targets to be achieved by 2020: - Make renewable energy a priority by promoting the development of energy from renewable sources to achieve the target of 23% renewables in the final energy mix. - Promote energy savings and increase energy efficiency by 20% and limit global warming to less than 2 deg. C over pre-industrial temperatures in industrialized nations by 2050 (around 1.2 deg. C above current temperatures). Tomorrow's grids will have to be smarter, which means incorporating information and communication technologies to provide the responsiveness and enhanced communication capabilities needed to meet the following challenges: - Integrating electricity from renewable sources; - Controlling demand; - Managing peak consumption; - Promoting widespread adoption of

  9. Smart sensors and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kyung, Chong-Min; Yasuura, Hiroto; Liu, Yongpan

    2015-01-01

     This book describes for readers technology used for effective sensing of our physical world and intelligent processing techniques for sensed information, which are essential to the success of Internet of Things (IoTs).  The authors provide a multidisciplinary view of sensor technology from MEMS, biological, chemical, and electrical domains and showcase smart sensor systems in real applications including smart home, transportation, medical, environmental, agricultural, etc.  Unlike earlier books on sensors, this book will provide a “global” view on smart sensors covering abstraction levels from device, circuit, systems, and algorithms.  .

  10. Becoming a smart student

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Ulla

    English abstract When teachers and students interact in everyday academic activities, some students are ascribed social roles as “smart”, which lead other students to contest these roles. Such struggles around what it means to be smart and which students come to be viewed as smart are a pertinent...... as smart and favoured by the teacher are at risk of being ostracized by peers, of encountering greater pressure for classroom performance and of suffering reduced learning opportunities. The study inspires teachers to create wiggle room for their students by becoming aware of the conventional definitions...

  11. Corporate Smart Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavazotte, Flávia; Heloisa Lemos, Ana; Villadsen, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how the adoption of company sponsored smart phones inflicts upon the lives of professionals. Drawing upon qualitative interviews at a law firm in Brazil, the experiences of new smart phone users are reported upon in detail. Increased accessibility, accuracy and speed...... that negatively affected their private spheres, yet many of them paradoxically requested more efficient smart phone connectivity. The article focuses on the justifications, the different narrative strategies, employed by professionals for their conscious engagement in escalating work connectivity. It is suggested...

  12. Smart security proven practices

    CERN Document Server

    Quilter, J David

    2014-01-01

    Smart Security: Understanding and Contributing to the Business is a video presentation. Length: 68 minutes. In Smart Security: Understanding and Contributing to the Business, presenter J. David Quilter demonstrates the benefits of how a fully integrated security program increases business profits and delivers smart security practices at the same time. The presentation does away with the misconception that security is only an expense. In fact, a well-integrated security program can protect business interests, thereby enhancing productivity and net income. Quilter covers cost analysis and secu

  13. A Smart Home Center Platform Solution Based on Smart Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xibo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the popularization of the concept of smart home, people have raised requirements on the experience of smart living. A smart home platform center solution is put forward in order to solve the intelligent interoperability and information integration of smart home, which enable people to have a more intelligent and convenient life experience. This platform center is achieved through the Smart Mirror. The Smart Mirror refers to a smart furniture, on the basis of the traditional concept of mirror, combining Raspberry Pi, the application of one-way mirror imaging principle, the touch-enabled design, voice and video interaction. Smart Mirror can provide a series of intelligent experience for the residents, such as controlling all the intelligent furniture through Smart Mirror; accessing and displaying the weather, time, news and other life information; monitoring the home environment; remote interconnection operation.

  14. Diagnosis and Management of Waldenström Macroglobulinemia: Mayo Stratification of Macroglobulinemia and Risk-Adapted Therapy (mSMART) Guidelines 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Prashant; Ansell, Stephen M; Fonseca, Rafael; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Kyle, Robert A; Kumar, Shaji K; Mikhael, Joseph R; Witzig, Thomas E; Mauermann, Michelle; Dispenzieri, Angela; Ailawadhi, Sikander; Stewart, A Keith; Lacy, Martha Q; Thompson, Carrie A; Buadi, Francis K; Dingli, David; Morice, William G; Go, Ronald S; Jevremovic, Dragan; Sher, Taimur; King, Rebecca L; Braggio, Esteban; Novak, Ann; Roy, Vivek; Ketterling, Rhett P; Greipp, Patricia T; Grogan, Martha; Micallef, Ivana N; Bergsagel, P Leif; Colgan, Joseph P; Leung, Nelson; Gonsalves, Wilson I; Lin, Yi; Inwards, David J; Hayman, Suzanne R; Nowakowski, Grzegorz S; Johnston, Patrick B; Russell, Steven J; Markovic, Svetomir N; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Hwa, Yi L; Lust, John A; Porrata, Luis F; Habermann, Thomas M; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Gertz, Morie A; Reeder, Craig B

    2017-09-01

    Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM), an IgM-associated lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, has witnessed several practice-altering advances in recent years. With availability of a wider array of therapies, the management strategies have become increasingly complex. Our multidisciplinary team appraised studies published or presented up to December 2015 to provide consensus recommendations for a risk-adapted approach to WM, using a grading system. Waldenström macroglobulinemia remains a rare, incurable cancer, with a heterogeneous disease course. The major classes of effective agents in WM include monoclonal antibodies, alkylating agents, purine analogs, proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. However, the highest-quality evidence from rigorously conducted randomized clinical trials remains scant. Recognizing the paucity of data, we advocate participation in clinical trials, if available, at every stage of WM. Specific indications exist for initiation of therapy. Outside clinical trials, based on the synthesis of available evidence, we recommend bendamustine-rituximab as primary therapy for bulky disease, profound hematologic compromise, or constitutional symptoms attributable to WM. Dexamethasone-rituximab-cyclophosphamide is an alternative, particularly for nonbulky WM. Routine rituximab maintenance should be avoided. Plasma exchange should be promptly initiated before cytoreduction for hyperviscosity-related symptoms. Stem cell harvest for future use may be considered in first remission for patients 70 years or younger who are potential candidates for autologous stem cell transplantation. At relapse, retreatment with the original therapy is reasonable in patients with prior durable responses (time to next therapy ≥3 years) and good tolerability to previous regimen. Ibrutinib is efficacious in patients with relapsed or refractory disease harboring MYD88 L265P mutation. In the absence of neuropathy, a bortezomib

  15. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-01

    A 'smart city' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis

  16. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  17. Smart Location Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Smart Location Database, Access to Jobs and Workers via Transit, and National Walkability Index tools can help assess indicators related to the built environment, transit accessibility, and walkability.

  18. Guest Editorial - Smart materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barber, Z. H.; Clyne, T. W.; Šittner, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 30, 13a (2014), s. 1515-1516 ISSN 0267-0836 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : smart materials * shape memory effect (SME) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.995, year: 2014

  19. Smart Book Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnapongse, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    Smart book charts for TPSM: Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET), Conformal Ablative TPS (CA-TPS), 3D Woven Multifunctional Ablative TPS (3D MAT), and Adaptable, Deployable, Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT).

  20. Becoming a Smart Student

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Ulla

    identification” and “participation framework”. Methodologically, the study is based on three years of linguistic ethnographic fieldwork in a public primary school in Copenhagen and with students and their families. This study documents -in broad ethnographic scope and interactional detail -how smart student...... through future explorations of children’s academic trajectories in and out of school, and on how those trajectories often become linked to the trajectories of siblings, vis-à-vis institutional conceptions of smartness.......When teachers and students interact in everyday academic activities, some students are ascribed social roles as “smart”, which lead other students to contest these roles. Such struggles around what it means to be smart and which students come to be viewed as smart are a pertinent problem...

  1. Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The development of Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids -- which the IEA defines as an electricity network that uses digital and other advanced technologies to monitor and manage the transport of electricity from all generation sources to meet the varying electricity demands of end users -- is essential if the global community is to achieve shared goals for energy security, economic development and climate change mitigation. Unfortunately, existing misunderstandings of exactly what smart grids are and the physical and institutional complexity of electricity systems make it difficult to implement smart grids on the scale that is needed. This roadmap sets out specific steps needed over the coming years to achieve milestones that will allow smart grids to deliver a clean energy future.

  2. SMART : de ontwerplogica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Jelsma, J.; Kamphuis, I.G.

    2005-01-01

    Het vakgebied van de regeltechniek is zeer geschikt om ontwikkelingen vanuit de computertechnologie toe te passen. Zo zijn er systemen met regelalgoritmes gebaseerd op technieken zoals neurale netwerken, fuzzy logic, genetische algoritmes en kennissystemen gebouwd. Binnen het onderzoeksproject SMART

  3. Ammonia chemistry at SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, J. W.; Seong, G. W.; Lee, E. H.; Kim, W. C.; Choi, B. S.; Kim, J. P.; Lee, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    Ammonia is used as the pH control agent of primary water at SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor). Some of this ammonia is decomposed to hydrogen and nitrogen by radiation in the reactor core. The produced hydrogen gas is used for the removal of dissolved oxygen in the coolant. Some of nitrogen gas in pressurizer is dissolved into the primary water. Because ammonia, hydrogen and nitrogen which is produced by ammonia radiolysis are exist in the coolant at SMART, ammonia chemistry at SMART is different with lithium-boron chemistry at commercial PWR. In this study, the pH characteristics of ammonia and the solubility characteristics of hydrogen and nytrogen were analyzed for the management of primary water chemistry at SMART

  4. Controlling smart grid adaptivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption

  5. Home, Smart Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj; Mullins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The article places focus on how smart technologies integrated in a one family- home and particular the window offer unique challenges and opportunities for designing buildings with the best possible environments for people and nature. Toward an interdisciplinary approach, we address the interaction...... between daylight defined in technical terms and daylight defined in aesthetic, architectural terms. Through field-tests of a Danish carbon-neutral home and an analysis of five key design parameters, we explore the contradictions and potentials in smart buildings, using the smart window as example of how...... to the energy design is central. The study illuminates an approach of the design of smart houses as living organisms by connecting technology with the needs of the occupants with the power and beauty of daylight....

  6. The Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays we live in a world, which a decade ago would only be described in the science fiction literature. More and more things become smart and both scientists and engineers strive for developing not only new and innovative devices, but also homes, factories, or even cities. Despite of continuous...... development, many of those concepts are still being just a vision of the future, which still needs a lot of effort to become true. This paper reviews the usage of adjective smart in respect to technology and with a special emphasis on the smart factory concept placement among contemporary studies. Due...... to a lack of a consensus of common understanding of this term, a unified definition is proposed. The conceptualization will not only refer to various smart factory visions reported in the literature, but also link the crucial characteristics of this emerging manufacturing concept to usual manufacturing...

  7. Smart Home Hacking

    OpenAIRE

    Kodra, Suela

    2016-01-01

    Smart Home is an intelligent home equipped with devices and communications systems that enables the residents to connect and control their home appliances and systems. This technology has changed the way a consumer interacts with his home, enabling more control and convenience. Another advantage of this technology is the positive impact it has on savings on energy and other resources. However, despite the consumer's excitement about smart home, security and privacy have shown to be the strong...

  8. Smart bomb for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagiannis, Tom

    2006-01-01

    recognise cell-surface receptors on cancer cells that are either not found on healthy cells or that are found on healthy cells but are expressed at much lower levels. The main focus of our research in the Molecular Radiation Biology Laboratory at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre is to develop a type of monoclonal antibody-based cancer therapy referred to as radio-immunotherapy. In its simplest form, radio-immunotherapy involves the use of a monoclonal antibody to deliver a radioactive atom specifically to cancer cells. The idea is that targeting the radiation specifically to cancer cells using a monoclonal antibody will deliver a sufficient radiation dose to kill diseased cells, while minimising the damage to healthy surrounding tissue. To date, the monoclonal antibodies ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) and tositumomab (Bexxar), which are labelled with a radioactive atom, have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for radio-immunotherapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Our strategy is a more complex multi-step approach. It involves targeting the radioactive atom not only to cancer cells but also to the DNA of those cells. Our smart molecular bombs that consist of three different parts. The first part is a special type of radioactive atom known as an Auger electron-emitting isotope, which is used to destroy the cancer cell. The radioactive atom is then linked to a small drug molecule that binds very tightly to DNA. This DNA-binding drug delivers the radiation in close proximity to the DNA so that the radioactive atom can kill the cancer cell by breaking the genetic material. To make our potential therapy specific for cancer cells we then chemically link the radiation-containing DNA-binding drug to an anti-cancer monoclonal antibody

  9. SMART performance analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H. S.; Kim, H. C.; Lee, D. J.

    2001-04-01

    To ensure the required and desired operation over the plant lifetime, the performance analysis for the SMART NSSS design is done by means of the specified analysis methodologies for the performance related design basis events(PRDBE). The PRDBE is an occurrence(event) that shall be accommodated in the design of the plant and whose consequence would be no more severe than normal service effects of the plant equipment. The performance analysis methodology which systematizes the methods and procedures to analyze the PRDBEs is as follows. Based on the operation mode suitable to the characteristics of the SMART NSSS, the corresponding PRDBEs and allowable range of process parameters for these events are deduced. With the developed control logic for each operation mode, the system thermalhydraulics are analyzed for the chosen PRDBEs using the system analysis code. Particularly, because of different system characteristics of SMART from the existing commercial nuclear power plants, the operation mode, PRDBEs, control logic, and analysis code should be consistent with the SMART design. This report presents the categories of the PRDBEs chosen based on each operation mode and the transition among these and the acceptance criteria for each PRDBE. It also includes the analysis methods and procedures for each PRDBE and the concept of the control logic for each operation mode. Therefore this report in which the overall details for SMART performance analysis are specified based on the current SMART design, would be utilized as a guide for the detailed performance analysis

  10. Smart acquisition EELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sader, Kasim; Schaffer, Bernhard; Vaughan, Gareth; Brydson, Rik; Brown, Andy; Bleloch, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a novel acquisition methodology for the recording of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM): 'Smart Acquisition'. Smart Acquisition allows the independent control of probe scanning procedures and the simultaneous acquisition of analytical signals such as EELS. The original motivation for this work arose from the need to control the electron dose experienced by beam-sensitive specimens whilst maintaining a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio in the EEL signal for the extraction of useful analytical information (such as energy loss near edge spectral features) from relatively undamaged areas. We have developed a flexible acquisition framework which separates beam position data input, beam positioning, and EELS acquisition. In this paper we demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on beam-sensitive thin films of amorphous aluminium trifluoride. Smart Acquisition has been used to expose lines to the electron beam, followed by analysis of the structures created by line-integrating EELS acquisitions, and the results are compared to those derived from a standard EELS linescan. High angle annular dark-field images show clear reductions in damage for the Smart Acquisition areas compared to the conventional linescan, and the Smart Acquisition low loss EEL spectra are more representative of the undamaged material than those derived using a conventional linescan. Atomically resolved EELS of all four elements of CaNdTiO show the high resolution capabilities of Smart Acquisition.

  11. Smart acquisition EELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sader, Kasim, E-mail: k.sader@leeds.ac.uk [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Schaffer, Bernhard [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Vaughan, Gareth [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brydson, Rik [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brown, Andy [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Bleloch, Andrew [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We have developed a novel acquisition methodology for the recording of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM): 'Smart Acquisition'. Smart Acquisition allows the independent control of probe scanning procedures and the simultaneous acquisition of analytical signals such as EELS. The original motivation for this work arose from the need to control the electron dose experienced by beam-sensitive specimens whilst maintaining a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio in the EEL signal for the extraction of useful analytical information (such as energy loss near edge spectral features) from relatively undamaged areas. We have developed a flexible acquisition framework which separates beam position data input, beam positioning, and EELS acquisition. In this paper we demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on beam-sensitive thin films of amorphous aluminium trifluoride. Smart Acquisition has been used to expose lines to the electron beam, followed by analysis of the structures created by line-integrating EELS acquisitions, and the results are compared to those derived from a standard EELS linescan. High angle annular dark-field images show clear reductions in damage for the Smart Acquisition areas compared to the conventional linescan, and the Smart Acquisition low loss EEL spectra are more representative of the undamaged material than those derived using a conventional linescan. Atomically resolved EELS of all four elements of CaNdTiO show the high resolution capabilities of Smart Acquisition.

  12. The Smart Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurowetzki, Roman; Dyrelund, Anders; Hummelmose, Lars

    Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses on...... production, large scale solar heat, fuel cells, heat storage, waste incineration, among others, the report draws a picture of Denmark as a research and development hub for smart energy system solutions.......Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses...... on the synergies which are obtained through integration of the district heating and district cooling, gas, and electricity grid into a single smart energy system. Besides documenting the technology and innovation strengths that Danish companies possess particularly relating to wind, district heating, CHP...

  13. Fracture predictions for cracks exposed to superimposed normal and shear stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    The author developed a special device and a fracture mechanics specimen and proposed a procedure for determining the fracture toughness when Mixed Mode and Mode II stresses are applied. This device makes it possible to generate pure normal stresses, superimposed normal and shearing stresses as well as pure shearing stresses in the cross section of the crack in the specimen, as desired. The so-called CTS fracture mechanics specimen has an edge crack. The load is transferred statically determind from the device to the specimen by means of six studs altogether. The experiments described, which were carried out with specimens made of the brittle materials PMMA (Plexiglas) and Araldit B, clearly show that it is possible to evaluate the validity of the individual fracture hypotheses by suitable experiments. It is also found that the fracture behaviour of different materials varies considerably both in quality and quantity. In conclusion, a practice-oriented fracture criterion is indicated which enables a practice-conforming evaluation of Mixed-Mode crack problems, as is shown by way of examples. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Dataset of red light induced pupil constriction superimposed on post-illumination pupil response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Lei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We collected and analyzed pupil diameter data from of 7 visually normal participants to compare the maximum pupil constriction (MPC induced by “Red Only” vs. “Blue+Red” visual stimulation conditions.The “Red Only” condition consisted of red light (640±10 nm stimuli of variable intensity and duration presented to dark-adapted eyes with pupils at resting state. This condition stimulates the cone-driven activity of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC. The “Blue+Red” condition consisted of the same red light stimulus presented during ongoing blue (470±17 nm light-induced post-illumination pupil response (PIPR, representing the cone-driven ipRGC activity superimposed on the melanopsin-driven intrinsic activity of the ipRGCs (“The Absence of Attenuating Effect of Red light Exposure on Pre-existing Melanopsin-Driven Post-illumination Pupil Response” Lei et al. (2016 [1].MPC induced by the “Red Only” condition was compared with the MPC induced by the “Blue+Red” condition by multiple paired sample t-tests with Bonferroni correction. Keywords: Pupil light reflex, Chromatic pupillometry, Melanopsin, Post-illumination pupil response

  15. Superimposed noninterfering probes to extend the capabilities of phase Doppler anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofri, Fabrice; Lenoble, Anne; Radev, Stefan

    2002-06-20

    We propose using multiple superimposed noninterfering probes (SNIPs) of the same wavelength but different beam angles to extend the capabilities of phase Doppler anemometry. When a particle is moving in a SNIP the Doppler signals that are produced exhibit multiple Doppler frequencies and phase shifts. The resolution of the measurements of particle size (i.e., by fringe spacing and Doppler frequency) increases with beam angle. Then, with the solution proposed, even with only two detectors several measurements of size can be obtained for the same particle with increasing resolution if we consider higher frequencies in the signal. Several optical solutions to produce SNIPs as well as a signal-processing algorithm to treat the multiple-frequency Doppler signals are proposed. Experimental validations of the sizing of spherical and cylindrical particles demonstrate the applicability of this technique for particle measurement. We believe that this new technique can be of great interest when high resolution of size, velocity, and even refractive index is required.

  16. Configurable Transmitter and Systolic Channel Estimator Architectures for Data-Dependent Superimposed Training Communications Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romero-Aguirre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a configurable superimposed training (ST/data-dependent ST (DDST transmitter and architecture based on array processors (APs for DDST channel estimation are presented. Both architectures, designed under full-hardware paradigm, were described using Verilog HDL, targeted in Xilinx Virtex-5 and they were compared with existent approaches. The synthesis results showed a FPGA slice consumption of 1% for the transmitter and 3% for the estimator with 160 and 115 MHz operating frequencies, respectively. The signal-to-quantization-noise ratio (SQNR performance of the transmitter is about 82 dB to support 4/16/64-QAM modulation. A Monte Carlo simulation demonstrates that the mean square error (MSE of the channel estimator implemented in hardware is practically the same as the one obtained with the floating-point golden model. The high performance and reduced hardware of the proposed architectures lead to the conclusion that the DDST concept can be applied in current communications standards.

  17. Optimal Superimposed Training Sequences for Channel Estimation in MIMO-OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnam V. Raja Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work an iterative time domain Least Squares (LS based channel estimation method using superimposed training (ST for a Multiple Input Multiple Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM system over time varying frequency selective fading channels is proposed. The performance of the channel estimator is analyzed in terms of the Mean Square Estimation Error (MSEE and its impact on the uncoded Bit Error Rate (BER of the MIMO-OFDM system is studied. A new selection criterion for the training sequences that jointly optimizes the MSEE and the BER of the OFDM system is proposed. Chirp based sequences are proposed and shown to satisfy the same. These are compared with the other sequences proposed in the literature and are found to yield a superior performance. The sequences, one for each transmitting antenna, offers fairness through providing equal interference in all the data carriers unlike earlier proposals. The effectiveness of the mathematical analysis presented is demonstrated through a comparison with the simulation studies. Experimental studies are carried out to study and validate the improved performance of the proposed scheme. The scheme is applied to the IEEE 802.16e OFDM standard and a case is made with the required design of the sequence.

  18. Reliability of the Superimposed-Burst Technique in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain: A Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norte, Grant E; Frye, Jamie L; Hart, Joseph M

    2015-11-01

    The superimposed-burst (SIB) technique is commonly used to quantify central activation failure after knee-joint injury, but its reliability has not been established in pathologic cohorts. To assess within-session and between-sessions reliability of the SIB technique in patients with patellofemoral pain. Descriptive laboratory study. University laboratory. A total of 10 patients with self-reported patellofemoral pain (1 man, 9 women; age = 24.1 ± 3.8 years, height = 167.8 ± 15.2 cm, mass = 71.6 ± 17.5 kg) and 10 healthy control participants (3 men, 7 women; age = 27.4 ± 5.0 years, height = 173.5 ± 9.9 cm, mass = 78.2 ± 16.5 kg) volunteered. Participants were assessed at 6 intervals spanning 21 days. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs [3,3]) were used to assess reliability. Quadriceps central activation ratio, knee-extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction force, and SIB force. The quadriceps central activation ratio was highly reliable within session (ICC [3,3] = 0.97) and between sessions through day 21 (ICC [3,3] = 0.90-0.95). Acceptable reliability of knee extension (ICC [3,3] = 0.75-0.91) and SIB force (ICC [3,3] = 0.77-0.89) was observed through day 21. The SIB technique was reliable for clinical research up to 21 days in patients with patellofemoral pain.

  19. RF-superimposed DC and pulsed DC sputtering for deposition of transparent conductive oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowell, Michael; Mueller, Joachim; Ruske, Manfred; Lutz, Mark; Linz, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Transparent conductive oxide films are widely used materials for electronic applications such as flat panel displays and solar cells. The superposition of DC and pulsed DC power by a certain fraction of RF power was applied to deposit indium tin oxide films. This technique allows an additional tuning of different parameters relevant to film growth, and yields high quality films even under kinetically limited conditions. A long-term stable RF/DC process could be realized by using different combinations of standard power supply components, which includes a fully reliable arc handling system for both the RF and DC generators. The effectiveness of the arc handling system is illustrated by the current and voltage behavior recorded for actual arcing events. The resistivity of indium tin oxide films is strongly influenced by the respective sputtering mode. The best resistivity values of 145-148 μΩ cm were obtained by RF-superimposed pulsed DC sputtering at a pulse frequency between 100 and 200 kHz and a substrate temperature as low as 140 deg. C. In addition, the films were extremely smooth with a surface roughness of 1-2.5 nm

  20. NO removal characteristics of a corona radical shower system under DC and AC/DC superimposed operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Kanazawa, S.; Ohkubo, T.; Nomoto, Y.; Chang, Jen-Shih

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of the applied voltage modes on the positive corona discharge morphology and NO removal characteristics from air streams are experimentally investigated. By using a DC superimposed high frequency AC power supply (10-60 kHz), a uniform streamer corona can be generated,

  1. Comparison of different undulator schemes with superimposed alternating gradients for the VUV-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflueger, J.; Nikitina, Y.M. [DESY/HASYLAB, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    For the VUV-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility an undulator with a total length of 30 m is needed. In this study three different approaches to realize an undulator with a sinusoidal plus a superimposed quadrupolar field were studied with the 3D code MAFIA.

  2. The carbonaceous matter in the uraniferous dequartzified and albitized leucogranite of Saraya (Senegal): an example of superimposed hydrothermal alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouthier, B.

    1988-01-01

    Two superimposed early hydrothermal alterations have been recognized in the Proterozoic Saraya leucogranite. Successively are described a major dequartzification leading to an episyenite infilled with carbonaceous matter and sulfate during an interruption of the system, succeeded by a mobilization of U and other elements during an albitization. A dolomite filling up followed by a silicopotassic feed-back alteration, close down the system [fr

  3. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxell, Wade [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3

  4. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  5. Towards the Smart World. Smart Platform: Infrastructure and Analytics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Velthausz, D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation the author outlines the 'smart world' concept and how technology (smart infrastructure, analytics) can foster smarter cities, smarter regions and a smarter world....

  6. SMART SUSTAINABLE ISLANDS VS SMART SUSTAINABLE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Pantazis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper has several aims: a the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms “smart sustainable cities” and “smart sustainable islands” b the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors which concern the insular municipalities c the creation of an island’s smartification and sustainability index d the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  7. Smart Demand Response Based on Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart homes (SHs are crucial parts for demand response management (DRM of smart grid (SG. The aim of SHs based demand response (DR is to provide a flexible two-way energy feedback whilst (or shortly after the consumption occurs. It can potentially persuade end-users to achieve energy saving and cooperate with the electricity producer or supplier to maintain balance between the electricity supply and demand through the method of peak shaving and valley filling. However, existing solutions are challenged by the lack of consideration between the wide application of fiber power cable to the home (FPCTTH and related users’ behaviors. Based on the new network infrastructure, the design and development of smart DR systems based on SHs are related with not only functionalities as security, convenience, and comfort, but also energy savings. A new multirouting protocol based on Kruskal’s algorithm is designed for the reliability and safety of the SHs distribution network. The benefits of FPCTTH-based SHs are summarized at the end of the paper.

  8. Benchmarking the ERG valve tip and MRI Interventions Smart Flow neurocatheter convection-enhanced delivery system's performance in a gel model of the brain: employing infusion protocols proposed for gene therapy for Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillay, Karl; Schomberg, Dominic; Hinchman, Angelica; Kumbier, Lauren; Ross, Chris; Kubota, Ken; Brodsky, Ethan; Miranpuri, Gurwattan

    2012-04-01

    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is an advanced infusion technique used to deliver therapeutic agents into the brain. CED has shown promise in recent clinical trials. Independent verification of published parameters is warranted with benchmark testing of published parameters in applicable models such as gel phantoms, ex vivo tissue and in vivo non-human animal models to effectively inform planned and future clinical therapies. In the current study, specific performance characteristics of two CED infusion catheter systems, such as backflow, infusion cloud morphology, volume of distribution (mm3) versus the infused volume (mm3) (Vd/Vi) ratios, rate of infusion (µl min-1) and pressure (mmHg), were examined to ensure published performance standards for the ERG valve-tip (VT) catheter. We tested the hypothesis that the ERG VT catheter with an infusion protocol of a steady 1 µl min-1 functionality is comparable to the newly FDA approved MRI Interventions Smart Flow (SF) catheter with the UCSF infusion protocol in an agarose gel model. In the gel phantom models, no significant difference was found in performance parameters between the VT and SF catheter. We report, for the first time, such benchmark characteristics in CED between these two otherwise similar single-end port VT with stylet and end-port non-stylet infusion systems. Results of the current study in agarose gel models suggest that the performance of the VT catheter is comparable to the SF catheter and warrants further investigation as a tool in the armamentarium of CED techniques for eventual clinical use and application.

  9. [Smart therapeutics based on synthetic gene circuits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shuguang; Xie, Zhen

    2017-03-25

    Synthetic biology has an important impact on biology research since its birth. Applying the thought and methods that reference from electrical engineering, synthetic biology uncovers many regulatory mechanisms of life systems, transforms and expands a series of biological components. Therefore, it brings a wide range of biomedical applications, including providing new ideas for disease diagnosis and treatment. This review describes the latest advances in the field of disease diagnosis and therapy based on mammalian cell or bacterial synthetic gene circuits, and provides new ideas for future smart therapy design.

  10. Less Smart More City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart is an expression used in recent years in science, and it refers to someone or something that shows a lively intelligence, with a quick learning curve and a fast response to external stimuli. The present scenario is dominated by the accelerated technological development that involves every aspect of life, enhancing the everyday tools through the use of information and digital processing: everything is smart, even cities. But when you pair the term smart to a complex organism such as the city the significance of the two together is open to a variety of interpretations, as shown by the vast and varied landscape of definitions that have occurred in recent years. Our contribution presents the results of research aimed at analyzing and interpreting this fragmented scene mainly, but not exclusively, through lexical analysis, applied to a textual corpus of 156 definitions of smart city. In particular, the study identified the main groups of stakeholders that have taken part in the debate, and investigated the differences and convergences that can be detected: Academic, Institutional, and Business worlds. It is undeniable that the term smart has been a veritable media vehicle that, on the one hand brought to the center of the discussion the issue of the city, of increasing strategic importance for the major challenges that humanity is going to face,  and on the other has been a fertile ground on which to pour the interests of different groups and individuals. In a nutshell we can say that from the analysis the different approaches that each group has used and supported emerge clearly and another, alarming, consideration occurs: of the smart part of “Smart City” we clearly grasp the tools useful to the each group of stakeholders, and of the city part, as a collective aspiration, there is often little or nothing.

  11. Reversible hemispheric hypoperfusion in two cases of SMART syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Karmen; Balabanski, Anna; Chia, Nicholas; Kleinig, Timothy

    2017-09-01

    Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome manifests as prolonged episodes of cortical dysfunction, years after cranial irradiation. We present two cases demonstrating reversible hemispheric hypoperfusion. Case 1 presented with left hemispheric symptoms following previous similar episodes. CT perfusion (CTP) demonstrated reversible hemispheric hypoperfusion; subsequent investigations were consistent with SMART syndrome. Case 2 presented following the third episode of a hemispheric syndrome with near-identical CTP abnormalities. L-arginine was administered with rapid reversal of clinical and CTP abnormalities. We conclude that SMART syndrome may demonstrate significant hypoperfusion on hyperacute CTP without subsequent infarction. Impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation probably contributes to cortical dysfunction in SMART syndrome. L-arginine warrants investigation as a potential treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Market Acceptance of Smart Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report finds that smart growth developments enjoy market acceptance because of stability in prices over time. Housing resales in smart growth developments often have greater appreciation than their conventional suburban counterparts.

  13. The Future of Smart Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of smart cards from digital signatures and other innovations into the realm of magnetic-stripe cards to expand their applications. Examples of magnetic-strip smart card usage are examined. (GR)

  14. A smart upconversion-based light-triggered polymer for synergetic chemo-photodynamic therapy and dual-modal MR/UCL imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bin; Han, Shuping; Zhao, Feifei; Lim, Kok Hwa; Xi, Hongwei; Su, Xiangjie; Yao, Hanchun; Zhou, Jie

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a novel nanocomposite to achieve effective therapy and live surveillance of tumor tissue. In this study, fullerene (C 60 ) with iron oxide (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles and upconversion nanophosphors (UCNPs) was loaded into N-succinyl-N'-4-(2-nitrobenzyloxy)-succinyl-chitosan micelles (SNSC) with good biocompatibility. In addition, hydrophobic anticancer drug docetaxel (DTX) was also loaded into the nanocomposites. The experiments conducted in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that C 60 /Fe 3 O 4 -UCNPs@DTX@SNSC can act synergistically to kill tumor cells by releasing chemotherapy drugs at specific target site as well as generating reactive oxygen using 980nm. In addition, it can also be used for non-invasive deep magnetic resonance and upconversion fluorescence dual-mode imaging. The results indicated that this system provided an efficient method to surmount the drawback of UV or visible light-responsive polymeric systems for controlled drug release and generated reactive oxygen in deep tissues and ultimately realized the integration of dual-modal imaging and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Augmented vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and adhesion when hypertension is superimposed on aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgel, Nancy L; Sun, Zhe; Hong, Zhongkui; Hunter, William C; Hill, Michael A; Vatner, Dorothy E; Vatner, Stephen F; Meininger, Gerald A

    2015-02-01

    Hypertension and aging are both recognized to increase aortic stiffness, but their interactions are not completely understood. Most previous studies have attributed increased aortic stiffness to changes in extracellular matrix proteins that alter the mechanical properties of the vascular wall. Alternatively, we hypothesized that a significant component of increased vascular stiffness in hypertension is due to changes in the mechanical and adhesive properties of vascular smooth muscle cells, and that aging would augment the contribution from vascular smooth muscle cells when compared with the extracellular matrix. Accordingly, we studied aortic stiffness in young (16-week-old) and old (64-week-old) spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto wild-type controls. Systolic and pulse pressures were significantly increased in young spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared with young Wistar-Kyoto rats, and these continued to rise in old spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared with age-matched controls. Excised aortic ring segments exhibited significantly greater elastic moduli in both young and old spontaneously hypertensive rats versus Wistar-Kyoto rats. were isolated from the thoracic aorta, and stiffness and adhesion to fibronectin were measured by atomic force microscopy. Hypertension increased both vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion, and these increases were both augmented with aging. By contrast, hypertension did not affect histological measures of aortic collagen and elastin, which were predominantly changed by aging. These findings support the concept that stiffness and adhesive properties of vascular smooth muscle cells are novel mechanisms contributing to the increased aortic stiffness occurring with hypertension superimposed on aging. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Dynamic tensile tests with superimposed ultrasonic oscillations for stainless steel type 321 at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinke, B.; Malmberg, T.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years various containment codes for Fast Breeder Reactor accidents have been assessed by comparison with explosion tests in water-filled vessels (COVA experiments). Common to the various codes, a systematic underestimation of the circumferential vessel strains was found. In the COVA tests high frequency pressure oscillations in the ultrasonic range were observed and thus it has been conjectured that the phenomenon of ''acoustic softening'' might be relevant in explaining the discrepancies in the strains. To validate this conjecture a hydro-pneumatic tensile test apparatus was developed which allows dynamic tensile testing at room temperature with and without superimposed ultrasonic oscillations. The dynamic tensile tests on the COVA sheet material (stainless steel AISI 321) without ultrasonic insonation show a linear dependence of the flow stress on the logarithm of the strain rate. The results at low strain rates (10 -3 s -1 ) agree favourably with previous measurements but at high rates (50 s -1 ) at 20% lower flow stress is observed. The dynamic tensile tests with continuous and intermittent insonation show the phenomenon of ''acoustic softening'': The average flow stress is reduced by an amount of about half the oscillating amplitude. At high strain rates the reduction is less. A severe ''acoustic softening'' observed by several authors for various metals at low strain rates was not observed. The experimental results were compared with the theory of the superpositon mechanism assuming a rate-independent elastic-plastic and an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive model. Although the rate-independent model is capable to predict qualitatively some of the observed effects, a better description is obtained with the viscoplastic model. The conclusion is that the ''acoustic softening'' of the COVA material is far too small to explain the discrepancies between measured and computed strains found in the containment code validation studies. (orig.)

  17. The effects of superimposed tilt and lower body negative pressure on anterior and posterior cerebral circulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymko, Michael M; Rickards, Caroline A; Skow, Rachel J; Ingram-Cotton, Nathan C; Howatt, Michael K; Day, Trevor A

    2016-09-01

    Steady-state tilt has no effect on cerebrovascular reactivity to increases in the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2). However, the anterior and posterior cerebral circulations may respond differently to a variety of stimuli that alter central blood volume, including lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Little is known about the superimposed effects of head-up tilt (HUT; decreased central blood volume and intracranial pressure) and head-down tilt (HDT; increased central blood volume and intracranial pressure), and LBNP on cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses. We hypothesized that (a) cerebral blood velocity (CBV; an index of CBF) responses during LBNP would not change with HUT and HDT, and (b) CBV in the anterior cerebral circulation would decrease to a greater extent compared to posterior CBV during LBNP when controlling PETCO2 In 13 male participants, we measured CBV in the anterior (middle cerebral artery, MCAv) and posterior (posterior cerebral artery, PCAv) cerebral circulations using transcranial Doppler ultrasound during LBNP stress (-50 mmHg) in three body positions (45°HUT, supine, 45°HDT). PETCO2 was measured continuously and maintained at constant levels during LBNP through coached breathing. Our main findings were that (a) steady-state tilt had no effect on CBV responses during LBNP in both the MCA (P = 0.077) and PCA (P = 0.583), and (b) despite controlling for PETCO2, both the MCAv and PCAv decreased by the same magnitude during LBNP in HUT (P = 0.348), supine (P = 0.694), and HDT (P = 0.407). Here, we demonstrate that there are no differences in anterior and posterior circulations in response to LBNP in different body positions. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  18. Adding Concurrency to Smart Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, Thomas; Gazzillo, Paul; Herlihy, Maurice; Koskinen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Modern cryptocurrency systems, such as Ethereum, permit complex financial transactions through scripts called smart contracts. These smart contracts are executed many, many times, always without real concurrency. First, all smart contracts are serially executed by miners before appending them to the blockchain. Later, those contracts are serially re-executed by validators to verify that the smart contracts were executed correctly by miners. Serial execution limits system throughput and fails ...

  19. Wireless Smart Systems Beyond RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Vermesan, Ovidiu

    2008-01-01

    It is expected that in the coming 20 years the IoT will be pervasive, and ubiquitous: smart devices, embedded in smart materials, will work in synergy to improve the quality of our lives. In this context wireless smart systems will play an essential role that is far beyond the ID information that is part of RFID devices today. Wireless Smart Systems Beyond RFID

  20. Smart Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhou Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of system reliability and resilience is changing the way distribution systems are planned and operated. To achieve a distribution system self-healing against power outages, emerging technologies and devices, such as remote-controlled switches (RCSs and smart meters, are being deployed. The higher level of automation is transforming traditional distribution systems into the smart distribution systems (SDSs of the future. The availability of data and remote control capability in SDSs provides distribution operators with an opportunity to optimize system operation and control. In this paper, the development of SDSs and resulting benefits of enhanced system capabilities are discussed. A comprehensive survey is conducted on the state-of-the-art applications of RCSs and smart meters in SDSs. Specifically, a new method, called Temporal Causal Diagram (TCD, is used to incorporate outage notifications from smart meters for enhanced outage management. To fully utilize the fast operation of RCSs, the spanning tree search algorithm is used to develop service restoration strategies. Optimal placement of RCSs and the resulting enhancement of system reliability are discussed. Distribution system resilience with respect to extreme events is presented. Test cases are used to demonstrate the benefit of SDSs. Active management of distributed generators (DGs is introduced. Future research in a smart distribution environment is proposed.

  1. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabari, Anil [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States); Fadipe, Oloruntomi [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States)

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  2. Smart meter incorporating UWB technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, T.A.; Khan, A.B.; Babar, M.; Taj, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Smart Meter is a key element in the evolving concept of Smart Grid, which plays an important role in interaction between the consumer and the supplier. In general, the smart meter is an intelligent digital energy meter that measures the consumption of electrical energy and provides other additional

  3. Smart metering design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weranga, K S K; Chandima, D P

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the present day trends and the requirements, this Brief focuses on smart metering of electricity for next generation energy efficiency and conservation. The contents include discussions on the smart metering concepts and existing technologies and systems as well as design and implementation of smart metering schemes together with detailed examples.

  4. The Science of Smart Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boohan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few decades, smart materials have become increasingly important in the design of products. Essentially, a smart material is one that has been designed to respond to a stimulus, such as a change in temperature or magnetic field, in a particular and useful way. This article looks at a range of smart materials that are relatively…

  5. What is a smart grid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Indian Smart Grid Forum defines a smart grid as "a power system capable of two-way communication between all the entities of the network-generation, transmission, distribution and the consumers". Like most work on smart grids, this view is also mainly technical. This paper aims to progress the

  6. Electromagnetic Interference in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank; Keyer, Cees

    2017-01-01

    The increasing conducted interference caused by modern electronic equipment is causing more problems for electronic, or static, energy meters. If equipped with a communication link they are called smart meter. Because the smart meter is a key device in smart grids, any deviation has huge impact on

  7. Smart TV and data protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breda, B.; van Eijk, N.; Irion, K.; McGonagle, T.; van Voorst, S.

    2016-01-01

    What is smart TV? How does smart TV compare with other forms of audiovisual media? What regulatory frameworks govern smart TV? What guidance can be found in selected country-specific case studies? What are the dangers associated with the collection, storage and processing of private user information

  8. Realisering af Smart City/Smart House i Nordjylland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe

    2008-01-01

    beskriver tankerne, visionerne og perspektiverne i forhold til at realisere Smart House-konceptet i Region Nordjylland. Smart House-tankerne er baseret på at bygge smarte huse og smarte byggekomponenter til fremtidens brugere, hvor den nyeste teknologi indenfor byggematerialer kombineres med nye værdier....... Formålet med Smart House Nordjylland er at flytte byggeindustriens og forskernes fokus fra en indbyrdes konkurrence lokalt til et udviklende innovationssamarbejde, som sigter mod det globale marked. På denne måde kan regionen skabe et udstillingsvindue indenfor fremtidens byggeri gennem en interaktion...

  9. SmartCityWare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Nader; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Jawhar, Imad

    2017-01-01

    Smart cities are becoming a reality. Various aspects of modern cities are being automated and integrated with information and communication technologies to achieve higher functionality, optimized resources utilization, and management, and improved quality of life for the residents. Smart cities...... rely heavily on utilizing various software, hardware, and communication technologies to improve the operations in areas, such as healthcare, transportation, energy, education, logistics, and many others, while reducing costs and resources consumption. One of the promising technologies to support...... technology is Fog Computing, which extends the traditional Cloud Computing paradigm to the edge of the network to enable localized and real-time support for operating-enhanced smart city services. However, proper integration and efficient utilization of CoT and Fog Computing is not an easy task. This paper...

  10. SMART product innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Petersen, Claus L.; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Li, Xuemeng

    2016-01-01

    Among the inspirations for the SMART process is “design to customer value,” where products are modified based on a thorough understanding of customers that allows product developers to eliminate features that do not affect customer satisfaction while including only the elements and functionality...... that customers really appreciate. The SMART process includes methods to understand product value for the customer and the user; analyse the cost of components and processes; combine customer value and cost reduction potentials into feasible, high-value concepts; and generate prototypes that can be tested...... with users and customers....

  11. Smart business for smart users? : A social science agenda for developing smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbong, G.P.J.; Verkade, N.; Verhees, B.; Huijben, J.C.C.M.; Höffken, J.I.; Beaulieu, A.; de Wilde, J.; Scherpen, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The promise of smart grids is very attractive. However, it is not yet clear what the future smart grid will look like. Although most researchers acknowledge that users will play a more prominent role in smart grids, there is a lot of uncertainty on this issue. To counter the strong techno-logical

  12. Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Preeclampsia Superimposed on Chronic Hypertension with and without Severe Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Hind N; Leon, Mateo G; Marti, Ana; Chediak, Alissar; Pedroza, Claudia; Blackwell, Sean C; Sibai, Baha M

    2017-03-01

    Objective  The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) task force on hypertension in pregnancy introduced a new definition of superimposed preeclampsia (SIP) adding severe features (SF) as new criteria to define severe disease. They also recommended that those with SIP be delivered ≥ 37 weeks, whereas those with SF be delivered ≤ 34 weeks. Our aim was to investigate the validity of this new definition by comparing adverse pregnancy outcomes in SIP with (SIP-SF) and without SF (SIP). Study Design  Women with chronic hypertension (CHTN) enrolled in a multicenter trial were studied. SIP was reclassified according to the new definition to SIP and SIP-SF (persistent systolic blood pressure [BP] > 160 or diastolic BP > 110, platelets  70, creatinine > 1.1, or persistent central nervous system/abdominal symptoms). Composite adverse outcomes including rates of indicated preterm birth, abruptio placentae, postpartum hemorrhage, and maternal death were compared by chi-square. Adjustment was done with a multivariate logistic-regression analysis and all statistical tests were two-sided. Results  A total of 216 women (28%) out of 774 with CHTN developed SIP, 87 (11%) had SIP-SF, and 129 (17%) didn't have SF. Baseline characteristics including maternal age, baseline BP, and assignment to low-dose aspirin were similar between groups. Using univariate analysis, the composite adverse outcome was higher among the SIP-SF group ( p  = 0.04), as well as indicated preterm birth ( p  = 0.02), cesarean section ( p  = 0.02), and SGA ( p  = 0.02). After adjustment, composite adverse outcomes were not significantly different between groups. The rate of SGA, however, was higher among SIP-SF (adjusted odds ratio: 3.12, p  = 0.02). Conclusion  The rate of SIP-SF in this study was 11% of all women with CHTN. Surprisingly, pregnancy outcomes were not significantly different in those with and without SF. We suggest a

  13. Smart grids - French Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The adaptation of electrical systems is the focus of major work worldwide. Bringing electricity to new territories, modernizing existing electricity grids, implementing energy efficiency policies and deploying renewable energies, developing new uses for electricity, introducing electric vehicles - these are the challenges facing a multitude of regions and countries. Smart Grids are the result of the convergence of electrical systems technologies with information and communications technologies. They play a key role in addressing the above challenges. Smart Grid development is a major priority for both public and private-sector actors in France. The experience of French companies has grown with the current French electricity system, a system that already shows extensive levels of 'intelligence', efficiency and competitiveness. French expertise also leverages substantial competence in terms of 'systems engineering', and can provide a tailored response to meet all sorts of needs. French products and services span all the technical and commercial building blocks that make up the Smart Grid value chain. They address the following issues: Improving the use and valuation of renewable energies and decentralized means of production, by optimizing the balance between generation and consumption. Strengthening the intelligence of the transmission and distribution grids: developing 'Supergrid', digitizing substations in transmission networks, and automating the distribution grids are the focus of a great many projects designed to reinforce the 'self-healing' capacity of the grid. Improving the valuation of decentralized flexibilities: this involves, among others, deploying smart meters, reinforcing active energy efficiency measures, and boosting consumers' contribution to grid balancing, via practices such as demand response which implies the aggregation of flexibility among residential, business, and/or industrial sites. Addressing current technological challenges, in

  14. Theoretical analysis of turbulent transport through the diffuse boundary layer in the dynamic stabilization of superimposed miscible liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhauser, H.

    1980-02-01

    Two superimposed miscible liquids are separated by a diffuse boundary layer providing a steady transition of density. If the heavy fluid is on top of the light one, Rayleigh-Taylor-instabilities develop and cause a rapid interchange and eventually an intermixing. This process can be subjected to dynamic stabilization by enforcing vertical oscillations upon the whole system. However, since only part of the unstable mode spectrum is completely stabilized, the remaining weakly unstable modes lead to turbulent transport processes through the boundary layer ('anomalous diffusion'), so that only a quasistationary equilibrium is achieved. In the present paper, previous experimental results on the dynamic stabilization of water superimposed by an aqueous ZnJ-solution are theoretically interpreted, and the observed spatial structure as well as the time development of the density profiles are explained. There exists an analogy between these phenomena and turbulent transport processes in tokamak discharges such as the sawtooth oscillations of internal disruptions. (orig.) [de

  15. 4. 7s nearly periodic oscillations superimposed on the solar microwave great burst of 28 March 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, P; Piazza, L R; Raffaelli, J C [Universidade Mackenzie, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Radio-Astronomia e Astrofisica

    1977-09-01

    An unusual fast oscillation was found superimposed on the solar great burst on 28 March 1976, as measured at 7 GHz. The period of the oscillation was 4.7 +- 0.9 s, defined over the entire duration of the event. The amplitude of the oscillation was proportional to the flux density in the range 50

  16. Smart Tourism: a practice approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Nielsen, Tanja Knoblauch

    2018-01-01

    by technology and data, but must be understood as a socio-technical and collaborative accomplishment. This entails seeing seemingly mundane issues as central to developing Smart Tourism and to link the development of Smart Tourism to transformations in the practices of everyday organizational life.......In this chapter, we explore how a Smart Destination is imagined and grappled with at an organizational level in its first and tentative stages of development. Drawing on practice theory and research in the North Denmark Region, we show how the idea of Smart Tourism is embraced by almost all...... of the stakeholders in the area, while the full potentials of this new phenomenon are experienced as difficult to realize. Abstaining from seeing Smart Tourism as a unilinear technological or digital evolution, we present four situated configurations of Smart Tourism. We argue that Smart Tourism is not made up solely...

  17. Smart Circuit Breaker Communication Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Mihai MACHIDON

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the Internet of Things has fostered the development of smart technologies in fields such as power transmission and distribution systems (as is the Smart Grid and also in regard to home automation (the Smart Home concept. This paper addresses the network communication infrastructure for a Smart Circuit Breaker system, a novel application at the edge of the two afore-mentioned systems (Smart Grid and Smart Home. Such a communication interface has high requirements from functionality, performance and security point of views, given the large amount of distributed connected elements and the real-time information transmission and system management. The paper describes the design and implementation of the data server, Web interface and the embedded networking capabilities of the smart circuit breakers, underlining the protocols and communication technologies used.

  18. Effects of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on flow and fracture of a Zr-Ti-Ni-Cu-Be bulk amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowhaphandu, P.; Montgomery, S.L.; Lewandowski, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent successes in producing bulk amorphous alloys have renewed interest in this class of materials. Although amorphous metallic alloys have been shown to exhibit strengths in excess of 2.0 GPa, most of the earlier studies on such materials were conducted on tape or ribbon specimens due to the high cooling rates required to achieve the amorphous structure. The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on the flow and fracture behavior of a Zr-Ti-Ni-Cu-Be bulk metallic glass utilizing procedures successfully utilized on a range of structural materials, as reviewed recently. In general, few studies of this type have been conducted on metallic glasses, although thin ribbons (i.e., 300 microm thick) of a Pd-Cu-Si amorphous material tested with superimposed pressure have been reported previously. In particular, the effects of superimposed hydrostatic pressure over levels ranging from 50 MPa to 575 MPa on the flow/fracture behavior of cylindrical tensile specimens were compared to the flow and fracture behavior of identical materials tested in uniaxial tension and compression. It is shown that changes in stress triaxiality, defined as σ m /bar σ, over the range of -0.33 to 0.33 produced a negligible effect on the fracture stress and fracture strain, while the orientation of the macroscopic fracture plane with respect to the loading axis was significantly affected by changes in σ m /bar σ

  19. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  20. Smart homes as a base for smart grids; Smart Home als Basis fuer Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segbusch, Klaus von [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany). Team Business Development Smart Grids; Struwe, Christian [Busch-Jaeger Elektro GmbH, Luedenscheid (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Integration of renewable energy sources requires more intelligent distribution systems, i.e. so-called smart grids. For this, it is necessary to integrate the end customers in grid operation, giving them financial incentives, information in near real time from the utility, and means for automatic control of their consumption. (orig.)

  1. Smart(er) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This is an answer and an elaboration to Carsten Sørensens’ “The Curse of the Smart Machine?”. My answer disagrees with the postulate of a mainframe focus within the IS field. Instead I suggest that it is a struggle between old and new science. The answer then agrees with the notion that we need n...

  2. Smart, stretchable supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuli; Lin, Huijuan; Chen, Peining; Guan, Guozhen; Deng, Jue; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-07-09

    Smart supercapacitors are developed by depositing conducting polymers onto aligned carbon-nanotube sheets. These supercapacitors rapidly and reversibly demonstrate color changes in response to a variation in the level of stored energy and the chromatic transitions can be directly observed by the naked eye. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  4. Towards Smart City Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Stan, Catalin; Wøldike, Niels Peter

    2015-01-01

    , the concept of smart city learning is exploited to situate learning about geometric shapes in concrete buildings and thus make them more accessible for younger children. In close collaboration with a local school a game for 3rd graders was developed and tested on a field trip and in class. A mixed measures...

  5. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals. (paper)

  6. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities. 

  7. Smart grid voor comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Vissers, D.R.; Maaijen, H.N.; Kling, W.L.; Velden, van der J.A.J.; Larsen, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Er vindt onderzoek plaats naar een nieuwe regelstrategie gebaseerd op de toepassing van een draadloos sensor netwerk dat is gekoppeld aan het smart grid. Doel van deze regelstrategie is om op gebruikersniveau energie te kunnen besparen met behoud of zelfs verbetering van het individueel comfort. Er

  8. Smart Start Evaluation Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Donna; Burchinal, Margaret; Buysse, Virginia; Kotch, Jonathan; Maxwell, Kelly; Neenan, Peter; Noblit, George; Orthner, Dennis; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Telfair, Joseph

    Smart Start is North Carolina's partnership between state government and local leaders, service providers, and families to better serve children under 6 years of age and their families. This report describes the comprehensive plan to evaluate the state and local goals and objectives of the program, focusing on the components addressing the…

  9. Smart Structures and Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    function. It is reasonable to expect that all engineering design should be smart, and not dumb. But one can still make a distinction .... among the sensors, the actuators and the decision-making centre(s). ..... basic emotions like fear or pleasure.

  10. Modelling the smart farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. O'Grady

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Smart farming envisages the harnessing of Information and Communication Technologies as an enabler of more efficient, productive, and profitable farming enterprises. Such technologies do not suffice on their own; rather they must be judiciously combined to deliver meaningful information in near real-time. Decision-support tools incorporating models of disparate farming activities, either on their own or in combination with other models, offer one popular approach; exemplars include GPFARM, APSIM, GRAZPLAN amongst many others. Such models tend to be generic in nature and their adoption by individual farmers is minimal. Smart technologies offer an opportunity to remedy this situation; farm-specific models that can reflect near real-time events become tractable using such technologies. Research on the development, and application of farm-specific models is at a very early stage. This paper thus presents an overview of models within the farming enterprise; it then reviews the state-of the art in smart technologies that promise to enable a new generation of enterprise-specific models that will underpin future smart farming enterprises.

  11. Controlling smart grid adaptivity

    OpenAIRE

    Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption data. Forecast errors are shown to affect worst case behavior in particular, the severity of which depends on the chosen adaptivity strategy and error model.

  12. An integral effect test facility of the SMART, SMART ITL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Sik; Moon, Sang Ki; Kim, Yeon Sik; Cho, Seok; Choi, Ki Yong; Bae, Hwang; Kim, Dong Eok; Choi, Nam Hyun; Min, Kyoung Ho; Ko, Yung Joo; Shin, Yong Cheol; Park, Rae Joon; Lee, Won Jae; Song, Chul Hwa; Yi, Sung Jae [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    SMART (System integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is a 330 MWth integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) developed by KAERI and had obtained standard design approval (SDA) from Korean regulatory authority on July 2012. In this SMART design main components including a pressurizer, reactor coolant pumps and steam generators are installed in a reactor pressure vessel without any large connecting pipes. As the LBLOCA scenario is inherently excluded, its safety systems could be simplified only to ensure the safety during the SBLOCA scenarios and the other system transients. An integral effect test loop for the SMART (SMART ITL), or called as FESTA, had been designed to simulate the integral thermal hydraulic behavior of the SMART. The objectives of the SMART ITL are to investigate and understand the integral performance of reactor systems and components and the thermal hydraulic phenomena occurred in the system during normal, abnormal and emergency conditions, and to verify the system safety during various design basis events of the SMART. The integral effect test data will also be used to validate the related thermal hydraulic models of the safety analysis code such as TASS/SMR S, which is used for performance and accident analysis of the SMART design. This paper introduces the scaling analysis and scientific design of the integral test facility of the SMART, SMART ITL and its scaling analysis results.

  13. Association between delirium superimposed on dementia and mortality in hospitalized older adults: A prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago J Avelino-Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hospitalized older adults with preexisting dementia have increased risk of having delirium, but little is known regarding the effect of delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD on the outcomes of these patients. Our aim was to investigate the association between DSD and hospital mortality and 12-mo mortality in hospitalized older adults.This was a prospective cohort study completed in the geriatric ward of a university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. We included 1,409 hospitalizations of acutely ill patients aged 60 y and over from January 2009 to June 2015. Main variables and measures included dementia and dementia severity (Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, Clinical Dementia Rating and delirium (Confusion Assessment Method. Primary outcomes were time to death in the hospital and time to death in 12 mo (for the discharged sample. Comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed at admission, and additional clinical data were documented upon death or discharge. Cases were categorized into four groups (no delirium or dementia, dementia alone, delirium alone, and DSD. The no delirium/dementia group was defined as the referent category for comparisons, and multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for possible confounders (sociodemographic information, medical history and physical examination data, functional and nutritional status, polypharmacy, and laboratory covariates. Overall, 61% were women and 39% had dementia, with a mean age of 80 y. Dementia alone was observed in 13% of the cases, with delirium alone in 21% and DSD in 26% of the cases. In-hospital mortality was 8% for patients without delirium or dementia, 12% for patients with dementia alone, 29% for patients with delirium alone, and 32% for DSD patients (Pearson Chi-square = 112, p < 0.001. DSD and delirium alone were independently associated with in-hospital mortality, with respective hazard ratios (HRs of 2.14 (95% CI

  14. Smart photonic materials for theranostic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Do Hee; Beack, Songeun; Hahn, Sei Kwang

    2017-05-01

    We developed melanoidin nanoparticles for in vivo noninvasive photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes, photoacoustic tomography of gastro-intestinal tracts, and photothermal ablation cancer therapy. In addition, we developed cell-integrated poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels for in vivo optogenetic sensing and therapy. Real-time optical readout of encapsulated heat-shock-protein-coupled fluorescent reporter cells made it possible to measure the nanotoxicity of cadmium-based quantum dots in vivo. Using optogenetic cells producing glucagon-like peptide-1, we performed lightcontrolled diabetic therapy for glucose homeostasis. Finally, we developed a smart contact lens composed of biosensors, drug delivery systems, and power sources for the treatment of diabetes as a model disease.

  15. SmartInspect: Smart Contract Inspection Technical Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bragagnolo , Santiago; Rocha , Henrique ,; Denker , Marcus; Ducasse , Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Smart contracts are embedded procedures stored with the data they act upon. Debugging deployed Smart Contracts is a difficult task since once deployed, the code cannot be reexecuted and inspecting a simple attribute is not easily possible because data is encoded. In this technical report, we present SmartInspect to address the lack of inspectability of a deployed contract. Our solution analyses the contract state by using decompilation techniques and a mirror-based architecture to represent t...

  16. Smart City and Smart Tourism: A Case of Dubai

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sajid Khan; Mina Woo; Kichan Nam; Prakash K. Chathoth

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the advent of new technology has brought about the emergence of smart cities aiming to provide their stakeholders with technology-based solutions that are effective and efficient. Insofar as the objective of smart cities is to improve outcomes that are connected to people, systems and processes of businesses, government and other public- and private-sector entities, its main goal is to improve the quality of life of all residents. Accordingly, smart tourism has emerged o...

  17. Towards a smart learning environment for smart city governance

    OpenAIRE

    Hammad, R.; Ludlow, D.; Computer Science and Creative Technology; Centre for Sustainable Planning

    2016-01-01

    Educational services provided to various stakeholders need to be actively developed to accommodate the diversity of learning models and to get the advantages of available resources (e.g. data) in smart cities governance. Despite the substantial literature on smart cities, for Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL) and its related domains such as learning analytics and big data, little effort has been given to the creation of connectivity to smart cities governance to meet stakeholders’ demands, e...

  18. Smart blood pressure holter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, İlhan

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a wireless blood pressure holter that can be used with smart mobile devices was developed. The developed blood pressure holter consists of two parts, which are a smart mobile device and a cuff. The smart mobile device is used as a recording, control and display device through a developed interface, while the cuff was designed to take measurements from the arm. Resistor-Capacitor (RC) and digital filters were used on the cuff that communicates with the smart mobile device via Bluetooth. The blood pressure was estimated using the Simple Hill Climbing Algorithm (HCA). It is possible to measure instantaneous or programmable blood pressure and heart rate values at certain intervals using this holter. The test was conducted with 30 individuals at different ages with the guidance of a specialist health personnel. The results showed that an accuracy at 93.89% and 91.95% rates could be obtained for systolic and diastolic pressure values, respectively, when compared with those obtained using a traditional sphygmomanometer. The accuracy level for the heart rate was measured as 97.66%. Furthermore, this device was tested day and night in the holter mode in terms of working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The test results were evaluated separately in terms of measurement accuracy, working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The measurement accuracy for systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate values was obtained as 93.89%, 91.95% and 97.66%, respectively. The maximum number of measurements which can be conducted with four 1000 mA alkaline batteries at 20 min intervals was found approximately 79 (little more than 24 h). In addition, it was determined that the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results were automatically achieved through the features in the interface developed for the

  19. Smart learning services based on smart cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Svetlana; Song, Su-Mi; Yoon, Yong-Ik

    2011-01-01

    Context-aware technologies can make e-learning services smarter and more efficient since context-aware services are based on the user's behavior. To add those technologies into existing e-learning services, a service architecture model is needed to transform the existing e-learning environment, which is situation-aware, into the environment that understands context as well. The context-awareness in e-learning may include the awareness of user profile and terminal context. In this paper, we propose a new notion of service that provides context-awareness to smart learning content in a cloud computing environment. We suggest the elastic four smarts (E4S)--smart pull, smart prospect, smart content, and smart push--concept to the cloud services so smart learning services are possible. The E4S focuses on meeting the users' needs by collecting and analyzing users' behavior, prospecting future services, building corresponding contents, and delivering the contents through cloud computing environment. Users' behavior can be collected through mobile devices such as smart phones that have built-in sensors. As results, the proposed smart e-learning model in cloud computing environment provides personalized and customized learning services to its users.

  20. Smart Learning Services Based on Smart Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ik Yoon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Context-aware technologies can make e-learning services smarter and more efficient since context-aware services are based on the user’s behavior. To add those technologies into existing e-learning services, a service architecture model is needed to transform the existing e-learning environment, which is situation-aware, into the environment that understands context as well. The context-awareness in e-learning may include the awareness of user profile and terminal context. In this paper, we propose a new notion of service that provides context-awareness to smart learning content in a cloud computing environment. We suggest the elastic four smarts (E4S—smart pull, smart prospect, smart content, and smart push—concept to the cloud services so smart learning services are possible. The E4S focuses on meeting the users’ needs by collecting and analyzing users’ behavior, prospecting future services, building corresponding contents, and delivering the contents through cloud computing environment. Users’ behavior can be collected through mobile devices such as smart phones that have built-in sensors. As results, the proposed smart e-learning model in cloud computing environment provides personalized and customized learning services to its users.

  1. The smart - development and technology; Der smart - Entwicklung und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goppelt, G.

    1999-06-01

    The smart is the first representative of a radically new vehicle concept, with minimum space requirements and trend-setting in terms of ecology, safety, and individualism. The new design is not rooted in any tradition. The contribution describes the development process and constructional features of the smart. [Deutsch] Der smart ist der erste Vertreter eines voellig neuen Fahrzeugkonzepts. Bei kleinstem Raumbedarf soll er neue Massstaebe bei Oekologie, Sicherheit und Individualitaet setzen. Entstanden ist eine konsequente Neukonstruktion, die sich von bisherigen Traditionen loest. In diesem Beitrag sind der Entwicklungsprozess sowie die Konstruktionsmerkmale des smart beschrieben. (orig.)

  2. Smart City and Smart Tourism: A Case of Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sajid Khan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the advent of new technology has brought about the emergence of smart cities aiming to provide their stakeholders with technology-based solutions that are effective and efficient. Insofar as the objective of smart cities is to improve outcomes that are connected to people, systems and processes of businesses, government and other public- and private-sector entities, its main goal is to improve the quality of life of all residents. Accordingly, smart tourism has emerged over the past few years as a subset of the smart city concept, aiming to provide tourists with solutions that address specific travel related needs. Dubai is an emerging tourism destination that has implemented smart city and smart tourism platforms to engage various stakeholders. The objective of this study is to identify best practices related to Dubai’s smart city and smart tourism. In so doing, Dubai’s mission and vision along with key dimensions and pillars are identified in relation to the advancements in the literature while highlighting key resources and challenges. A Smart Tourism Dynamic Responsive System (STDRS framework is proposed while suggesting how Dubai may able to enhance users’ involvement and their overall experience.

  3. Smart Grid: Network simulator for smart grid test-bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, L C; Ong, H S; Che, Y X; Do, N Q; Ong, X J

    2013-01-01

    Smart Grid become more popular, a smaller scale of smart grid test-bed is set up at UNITEN to investigate the performance and to find out future enhancement of smart grid in Malaysia. The fundamental requirement in this project is design a network with low delay, no packet drop and with high data rate. Different type of traffic has its own characteristic and is suitable for different type of network and requirement. However no one understands the natural of traffic in smart grid. This paper presents the comparison between different types of traffic to find out the most suitable traffic for the optimal network performance.

  4. Smart grid: hope or hype?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Morten; Røpke, Inge; Heiskanen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    how their (intentional or unintentional) choices serve to create or maintain certain boundaries in smart grid development: for example, an exclusive focus on electricity within the broader context of a sustainable energy system. As serious investment starts being made in the smart grid, concepts like......The smart grid is an important but ambiguous element in the future transition of the European energy system. The current paper unpacks one influential national vision of the smart grid to identify what kinds of expectations guide the work of smart grid innovators and how the boundaries of the smart...... research and development and to attract new players into the field. A scenario process such as that demonstrated in this article can serve to articulate some of these implicit assumptions and help actors to navigate the ongoing transition. On the basis of our analysis, European policy makers might consider...

  5. Smart Sensor ASIC for Nuclear Power Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerwin, David B.; Merkel, Kenneth G.; Rouxel, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    Mixed-signal integrated circuits are used in a variety of applications where ionizing radiation is present, including satellites, space vehicles, nuclear reactor monitoring, medical imaging, and cancer therapy. While total ionizing radiation is present in each of these environments, the type of radiation (e.g. heavy ions vs. high-energy x-rays) and other environmental factors present unique challenges to the mixed-signal designer. This paper discusses a Smart Sensor radiation hardened, mixed-signal, application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) specifically designed for sensor monitoring in a nuclear reactor environment. Results after exposure to gamma rays, neutrons, and temperatures up to 200 deg. C are reported. (authors)

  6. Smart Energi i Hjemmet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Michael

    Med denne rapport foreligger en evaluering af det såkaldte SEIH-projekt: Smart Energi i Hjemmet. Projektet er gennemført i samarbejde med 191 husejere i Middelfart Kommune med formål at afsøge mulighederne for at opnå energibesparelser i enfamiliehuse ved at bruge automatik til at sænke temperatu......Med denne rapport foreligger en evaluering af det såkaldte SEIH-projekt: Smart Energi i Hjemmet. Projektet er gennemført i samarbejde med 191 husejere i Middelfart Kommune med formål at afsøge mulighederne for at opnå energibesparelser i enfamiliehuse ved at bruge automatik til at sænke...

  7. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  8. Engineering the smart factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert; Vera, Daniel; Ahmad, Bilal

    2016-10-01

    The fourth industrial revolution promises to create what has been called the smart factory. The vision is that within such modular structured smart factories, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralised decisions. This paper provides a view of this initiative from an automation systems perspective. In this context it considers how future automation systems might be effectively configured and supported through their lifecycles and how integration, application modelling, visualisation and reuse of such systems might be best achieved. The paper briefly describes limitations in current engineering methods, and new emerging approaches including the cyber physical systems (CPS) engineering tools being developed by the automation systems group (ASG) at Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, UK.

  9. Communication technologies in smart grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of communication technologies in Smart Grid lies in integration of large number of devices into one telecommunication system. This paper provides an overview of the technologies currently in use in electric power grid, that are not necessarily in compliance with the Smart Grid concept. Considering that the Smart Grid is open to the flow of information in all directions, it is necessary to provide reliability, protection and security of information.

  10. Smart metering gateway works as Smart Home Energy Manager; Smart Metering Gateway als Smart Home Energy Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Klaus-Dieter [SSV Software Systems GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The installation of smart meters together with real time consumption data visualization doesn't help to save energy CO2 emissions. With regards to refinancing options, the situation in Germany has been quite different since the middle of last year for buildings equipped with a photovoltaic system. If a heat pump system is also present, intelligent energy use in conjunction with smart meters can save considerable amounts of money. A Smart Home Energy Manager (SHEM) automates the energy saving. (orig.)

  11. Advanced smart-photosensitizers for more effective cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wooram; Cho, Soojeong; Han, Jieun; Shin, Heejun; Na, Kun; Lee, Byeongdu; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2017-12-19

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) based upon the use of light and photosensitizers (PSs) has been used as a novel treatment approach for a variety of tumors. It, however, has several major limitations in the clinic: poor water solubility, long-term phototoxicity, low tumor targeting efficacy, and limited light penetration. With advances in nanotechnology, materials science, and clinical interventional imaging procedures, various smart-PSs have been developed for improving their cancer-therapeutic efficacy while reducing the adverse effects. Here, we briefly review state-of-the-art smart-PSs and discuss the future directions of PDT technology.

  12. Air Force Smart Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-19

    initiates notification to all personnel on the base, the giant voice announces a lock down, everyone’s smart device shows an alarm requesting...location of the detected sound, they easily find a hunter and send his picture back to the IOC, where the hunter’s identity is verified through facial...computer goes into sleep mode, the thermostat goes back to unoccupied mode and his door locks as he walks through. Meanwhile over in the IOC

  13. Simulating the Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Pöchacker, Manfred; Sobe, Anita; Elmenreich, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Major challenges for the transition of power systems do not only tackle power electronics but also communication technology, power market economy and user acceptance studies. Simulation is an important research method therein, as it helps to avoid costly failures. A common smart grid simulation platform is still missing. We introduce a conceptual model of agents in multiple flow networks. Flow networks extend the depth of established power flow analysis through use of networks of information ...

  14. Smart Cities Will Need Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru WOINAROSCHY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A smart city is a sustainable and efficient urban centre that provides a high quality of life to its inhabitants through optimal management of its resources. Chemical industry has a key role to play in the sustainable evolution of the smart cities. Additionally, chemistry is at the heart of all modern industries, including electronics, information technology, biotechnology and nano-technology. Chemistry can make the smart cities project more sustainable, more energy efficient and more cost effective. There are six broad critical elements of any smart city: water management systems; infrastructure; transportation; energy; waste management and raw materials consumption. In all these elements chemistry and chemical engineering are deeply involved.

  15. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  16. Smart nanomaterials for biomedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonmo; Tripathi, Anuj; Singh, Deepti

    2014-10-01

    Nanotechnology has become important in various disciplines of technology and science. It has proven to be a potential candidate for various applications ranging from biosensors to the delivery of genes and therapeutic agents to tissue engineering. Scaffolds for every application can be tailor made to have the appropriate physicochemical properties that will influence the in vivo system in the desired way. For highly sensitive and precise detection of specific signals or pathogenic markers, or for sensing the levels of particular analytes, fabricating target-specific nanomaterials can be very useful. Multi-functional nano-devices can be fabricated using different approaches to achieve multi-directional patterning in a scaffold with the ability to alter topographical cues at scale of less than or equal to 100 nm. Smart nanomaterials are made to understand the surrounding environment and act accordingly by either protecting the drug in hostile conditions or releasing the "payload" at the intended intracellular target site. All of this is achieved by exploiting polymers for their functional groups or incorporating conducting materials into a natural biopolymer to obtain a "smart material" that can be used for detection of circulating tumor cells, detection of differences in the body analytes, or repair of damaged tissue by acting as a cell culture scaffold. Nanotechnology has changed the nature of diagnosis and treatment in the biomedical field, and this review aims to bring together the most recent advances in smart nanomaterials.

  17. Integrated smart structures wingbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Solomon H.

    1993-09-01

    One objective of smart structures development is to demonstrate the ability of a mechanical component to monitor its own structural integrity and health. Achievement of this objective requires the integration of different technologies, i.e.: (1) structures, (2) sensors, and (3) artificial intelligence. We coordinated a team of experts from these three fields. These experts used reliable knowledge towards the forefront of their technologies and combined the appropriate features into an integrated hardware/software smart structures wingbox (SSW) test article. A 1/4 in. hole was drilled into the SSW test article. Although the smart structure had never seen damage of this type, it correctly recognized and located the damage. Based on a knowledge-based simulation, quantification and assessment were also carried out. We have demonstrated that the SSW integrated hardware & software test article can perform six related functions: (1) identification of a defect; (2) location of the defect; (3) quantification of the amount of damage; (4) assessment of performance degradation; (5) continued monitoring in spite of damage; and (6) continuous recording of integrity data. We present the successful results of the integrated test article in this paper, along with plans for future development and deployment of the technology.

  18. For smart electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul; Leger, Sebastien; Bressand, Florian; Perez, Yannick; Bacha, Seddik; Laurent, Daniel; Perrin, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The authors identify and discuss the main challenges faced by the French electric grid: the management of electricity demand and the needed improvement of energy efficiency, the evolution of consumer's state of mind, and the integration of new production capacities. They notably outline that France have been living until recently with an electricity abundance, but now faces the highest consumption peaks in Europe, and is therefore facing higher risks of power cuts. They also notice that the French energy mix is slowly evolving, and outline the problems raised by the fact that renewable energies which are to be developed, are decentralised and intermittent. They propose an overview of present developments of smart grids, and outline their innovative characteristics, challenges raised by their development and compare international examples. They show that smart grids enable a better adapted supply and decentralisation. A set of proposals is formulated about how to finance and to organise the reconfiguration of electric grids, how to increase consumer's responsibility for peak management and demand management, how to create the conditions of emergence of a European market of smart grids, and how to support self-consumption and the building-up of an energy storage sector

  19. Smart Meter Rollout: Intelligente Messsysteme als Schnittstelle zum Kunden im Smart Grid und Smart Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vortanz, Karsten; Zayer, Peter

    Das Gesetz zur Digitalisierung der Energiewende ist verabschiedet. Ab 2017 sind moderne Messeinrichtungen (mME) und intelligente Messsysteme (iMSys) zu verbauen und zu betreiben. Der "deutsche Weg" für die Einführung von Smart Metern sieht einen stufenweisen Rollout sowie ein Höchstmaß an Informations- und Datensicherheit vor. Dabei spielen iMSys und mME eine wichtige Rolle bei der Neugestaltung der intelligenten Netze (Smart Grids) und des neuen Marktmodells (Smart Market). Dieser Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit den neuen Gesetzen, den Marktrollen und ihren Aufgaben, Datenschutz und Datensicherheit, dem iMSys als sichere Lösung, dem sicheren Betrieb von Smart Meter Gateways, Smart Grid - Smart Market, dem Zusammenspiel zwischen reguliertem Bereich und Markt, den Einsatzbereichen der iMSys sowie den Auswirkungen auf Prozesse und Systeme und gibt Handlungsempfehlungen.

  20. Dependence of the frequency spectrum of small amplitude vibrations superimposed on finite deformations of a nonlinear, cylindrical elastic body on residual stress

    KAUST Repository

    Gorb, Yuliya; Walton, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    We model and analyze the response of nonlinear, residually stressed elastic bodies subjected to small amplitude vibrations superimposed upon large deformations. The problem derives from modeling the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging

  1. The role of smart home in smart real estate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allameh, E.; Heidari Jozam, M.; Vries, de B.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Beetz, J.; Mozaffar, F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review an emerging type of dwelling, indicated as Smart Home, with a focus on future user lifestyles and needs. Trends toward sustainability and technological changes dramatically alter the concepts of Smart Home. Consequently, real estate decisions are

  2. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  3. SMART-NPA evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Lee, G. H.; Yoon, H. Y.; Kim, H. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is a 330 MWt integral reactor which is currently under development at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for desalination and electricity generation. SMART-NPA is the second user interface part of TASS/SMR in order to improve GUI(Graphic User Interface). Using SMART-NPA the analyzer not only can see the running status of SMART but make change of major SMART parameters. TASS/SMR, the calculation part, was written in Fortran whereas the first user interface part, called TASSWin, was written in Visual C{sup ++}. For these reason, the ActiveX control was chosen as the solution of SMART-NPA development. The five ActiveX controls were built in Visual Basic. They were Overview, Primary, Secondary, PRHRS and Control Panel ActiveX controls. They were contained in tab control, and can easily selected by user. They could communicate with TASSWin using many interface functions. The graph screens were also developed for the display of major variable's trend. The purpose of this report is the verification of SMART-NPA. The input decks were 100-200-100% power maneuvering operation, Feed Line Break Accident and user's input on Control Panel. The results of SMART-NPA for these cases were compared with the results of TASS/SMR stand alone version. The comparison results were same respectively. And all screens of SMART-NPA reflected the calculated results of TASS/SMR very well. That means SMART-NPA was calculated results of TASS/SMR very well. That means SMART-NPA was verified. 9 refs., 30 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  4. Managing Emergency Situations in the Smart City: The Smart Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Asensio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In a city there are numerous items, many of them unnoticed but essential; this is the case of the signals. Signals are considered objects with reduced technological interest, but in this paper we prove that making them smart and integrating in the IoT (Internet of Things could be a relevant contribution to the Smart City. This paper presents the concept of Smart Signal, as a device conscious of its context, with communication skills, able to offer the best message to the user, and as a ubiquitous element that contributes with information to the city. We present the design considerations and a real implementation and validation of the system in one of the most challenging environments that may exist in a city: a tunnel. The main advantages of the Smart Signal are the improvement of the actual functionality of the signal providing new interaction capabilities with users and a new sensory mechanism of the Smart City.

  5. Managing Emergency Situations in the Smart City: The Smart Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Ángel; Blanco, Teresa; Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto

    2015-06-18

    In a city there are numerous items, many of them unnoticed but essential; this is the case of the signals. Signals are considered objects with reduced technological interest, but in this paper we prove that making them smart and integrating in the IoT (Internet of Things) could be a relevant contribution to the Smart City. This paper presents the concept of Smart Signal, as a device conscious of its context, with communication skills, able to offer the best message to the user, and as a ubiquitous element that contributes with information to the city. We present the design considerations and a real implementation and validation of the system in one of the most challenging environments that may exist in a city: a tunnel. The main advantages of the Smart Signal are the improvement of the actual functionality of the signal providing new interaction capabilities with users and a new sensory mechanism of the Smart City.

  6. Accuracy of biopsy needle navigation using the Medarpa system - computed tomography reality superimposed on the site of intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Fawad; Maataoui, Adel; Gurung, Jessen; Schiemann, Mirko; Vogl, Thomas J.; Dogan, Selami; Ackermann, Hanns; Wesarg, Stefan; Sakas, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the accuracy of a new navigational system, Medarpa, with a transparent display superimposing computed tomography (CT) reality on the site of intervention. Medarpa uses an optical and an electromagnetic tracking system which allows tracking of instruments, the radiologist and the transparent display. The display superimposes a CT view of a phantom chest on a phantom chest model, in real time. In group A, needle positioning was performed using the Medarpa system. Three targets (diameter 1.5 mm) located inside the phantom were punctured. In group B, the same targets were used to perform standard CT-guided puncturing using the single-slice technique. The same needles were used in both groups (15 G, 15 cm). A total of 42 punctures were performed in each group. Post puncture, CT scans were made to verify needle tip positions. The mean deviation from the needle tip to the targets was 6.65±1.61 mm for group A (range 3.54-9.51 mm) and 7.05±1.33 mm for group B (range 4.10-9.45 mm). No significant difference was found between group A and group B for any target (p>0.05). No significant difference was found between the targets of the same group (p>0.05). The accuracy in needle puncturing using the augmented reality system, Medarpa, matches the accuracy achieved by CT-guided puncturing technique. (orig.)

  7. Who will buy smart glasses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauschnabel, Philipp; Brem, Alexander; Ivens, Bjørn S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent market studies reveal that augmented reality (AR) devices, such as smart glasses, will substantially influence the media landscape. Yet, little is known about the intended adoption of smart glasses, particularly: Who are the early adopters of such wearables? We contribute to the growing bo...

  8. Smart City trends and ambitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wijs, Lisanne; Witte, P.A.; de Klerk, Daniel; Geertman, S.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Research into smart city projects and applications has been increasing in recent years (Meijer & Bolivar, 2015). The smart city concept is mostly considered from a technology-oriented perspective that stresses the usage of data technologies, big data and ICT to ‘smarten up’ cities. In contrast,

  9. Design considerations for smart microgrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattjes, F.D.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The sustainable transition towards a smarter electricity system with an emphasis on decentralized systems and additional functionalities will be facilitated in the near future by smart (micro) grids. Smart (micro) Grids are very complex systems which must be developed in an efficient, effective and

  10. Preliminary design of smart fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Ha, D.; Park, S.; Nahm, K.; Lee, K.; Kim, J.

    2007-01-01

    SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is a novel light water rector with a modular, integral primary system configuration. This concept has been developing a 660 MWt by Korean Nuclear Power Industry Group with KAERI. SMART is being developed for use as an energy source for small-scale power generation and seawater desalination. Although the design of SMART is based on the current pressurized water reactor technology, new technologies such as enhanced safety, and passive safety have been applied, and system simplification and modularization, innovations in manufacturing and installation technologies have been implemented culminating in a design that has enhanced safety and economy, and is environment -friendly. In this paper described the preliminary design of the nuclear Fuel for this SMART, the design concept and the characteristics of SMART Fuel. In specially this paper describe the optimization of grid span adjustment to improve the thermal performance of the SMART Fuel as well as to improve the seismic resistance performance of the SMART Fuel, it is not easy to improve the both performance simultaneously because of design parameter of each performance inversely proportional. SMART Fuel enable to extra-long extended fuel cycle length and resistance of proliferation, enhanced safety, improved economics and reduced nuclear waste

  11. Good standards for smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenkamp, R.A.; Huitema, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines what lessons can be learned from the rollout of smart meters in the Netherlands to improve the European smart meter standardization. This study is based on the case of the Dutch meter rollout which preparations started in 2005 but finally was delayed until 2011 by governmental

  12. What is smart for retailing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantano, Eleonora; Timmermans, Harry

    2014-01-01

    While the last decade has seen increasing interest in the smart city phenomenon from both scholars and practitioners, little attention has been paid to what extent retailing might be considered as part of smart cities, with benefits for all the actors involved in the process. In fact, retailing is

  13. Smart Cards and remote entrusting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussel, Jean-Daniel; D'Annoville, Jerome; Castillo, Laurent; Durand, Stephane; Fabre, Thierry; Lu, Karen; Ali, Asad

    Smart cards are widely used to provide security in end-to-end communication involving servers and a variety of terminals, including mobile handsets or payment terminals. Sometime, end-to-end server to smart card security is not applicable, and smart cards must communicate directly with an application executing on a terminal, like a personal computer, without communicating with a server. In this case, the smart card must somehow trust the terminal application before performing some secure operation it was designed for. This paper presents a novel method to remotely trust a terminal application from the smart card. For terminals such as personal computers, this method is based on an advanced secure device connected through the USB and consisting of a smart card bundled with flash memory. This device, or USB dongle, can be used in the context of remote untrusting to secure portable applications conveyed in the dongle flash memory. White-box cryptography is used to set the secure channel and a mechanism based on thumbprint is described to provide external authentication when session keys need to be renewed. Although not as secure as end-to-end server to smart card security, remote entrusting with smart cards is easy to deploy for mass-market applications and can provide a reasonable level of security.

  14. Smart antennas in aerospace applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorte, Jaco; Schippers, Harmen; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Marpaung, D.A.I.

    2010-01-01

    The interest in Smart Antennas for aerospace applications is growing. This paper describes smart antennas which can be used on aircraft. Two aerospace applications are discussed in more detail: a phased array antenna with optical beam forming and a large vibrating phased array antenna with

  15. Prototyping a Smart City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case...... in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city....

  16. SMART Product Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Petersen, Claus L.; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Li, Xuemeng

    2016-01-01

    . The ambition of The Danish Industry Foundation and The Kata Foundation was to develop a method; a robust and specific approach to ensure that product innovation in Danish enterprises in practice would result in products of the highest quality, producible at lower costs and profitable at competitive prices...... products to our neighboring countries continues to suffer. The customers’ financial capacity has been reduced and cheaper products from Asia and other regions have found their way into our local markets. Competition is fierce – especially pricewise. This was the starting point for the SMART project...

  17. Smart power grids 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Keyhani, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Electric power systems are experiencing significant changes at the worldwide scale in order to become cleaner, smarter, and more reliable. This edited book examines a wide range of topics related to these changes, which are primarily caused by the introduction of information technologies, renewable energy penetration, digitalized equipment, new operational strategies, and so forth. The emphasis will be put on the modeling and control of smart grid systems. This book addresses research topics such as high efficiency transforrmers, wind turbines and generators, fuel cells, or high speed turbines

  18. Smart contracts sobre Bitcoin

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Alemany, Josep Miquel

    2016-01-01

    El present treball final de màster realitza una introducció als smart contracts. El treball introdueix el concepte de contracte intel·ligent, els seus usos i alguns exemples existents. Seguidament proporciona les nocions necessàries de les transaccions del protocol Bitcoin per poder implementar un contracte intel·ligent, usant la blockchain que ofereix el protocol. Per últim, s'explica la implementació d'un contracte intel·ligent usant bitcoin: un canal de micropagaments. El presente traba...

  19. Neuropathic osteoarthropathy with and without superimposed osteomyelitis in patients with a diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leone, Antonio; Semprini, Alessia; Tonetti, Laura; Magarelli, Nicola; Colosimo, Cesare; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N.

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue and bone infection involving the foot is one of the most common long-term complications of diabetes mellitus, implying a serious impairment in quality of life for patients in the advanced stages of the disease. Neuropathic osteoarthropathy often coexists and differentiating between these two entities is commonly challenging, but crucial, as the management may differ substantially. The importance of correct diagnosis cannot be understated and effective management requires a multidisciplinary approach owing to the complicated nature of therapy in such patients. A missed diagnosis has a high likelihood of major morbidity for the patient, including limb amputation, and over-diagnosis results in a great socioeconomic challenge for healthcare systems, the over-utilization of healthcare resources, and the unwise use of antibiotics. Diagnosis is largely based on clinical signs supplemented by various imaging modalities such as radiography, MR imaging, and hybrid imaging techniques such as F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. In the interests of the management of diabetic foot complications, this review article is aimed on the one hand at providing radiologists with important clinical knowledge, and on the other hand to equip clinicians with relevant radiological semiotics. (orig.)

  20. Neuropathic osteoarthropathy with and without superimposed osteomyelitis in patients with a diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, Antonio; Semprini, Alessia; Tonetti, Laura; Magarelli, Nicola; Colosimo, Cesare [Catholic University, Institute of Radiology, School of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N. [The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Soft tissue and bone infection involving the foot is one of the most common long-term complications of diabetes mellitus, implying a serious impairment in quality of life for patients in the advanced stages of the disease. Neuropathic osteoarthropathy often coexists and differentiating between these two entities is commonly challenging, but crucial, as the management may differ substantially. The importance of correct diagnosis cannot be understated and effective management requires a multidisciplinary approach owing to the complicated nature of therapy in such patients. A missed diagnosis has a high likelihood of major morbidity for the patient, including limb amputation, and over-diagnosis results in a great socioeconomic challenge for healthcare systems, the over-utilization of healthcare resources, and the unwise use of antibiotics. Diagnosis is largely based on clinical signs supplemented by various imaging modalities such as radiography, MR imaging, and hybrid imaging techniques such as F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. In the interests of the management of diabetic foot complications, this review article is aimed on the one hand at providing radiologists with important clinical knowledge, and on the other hand to equip clinicians with relevant radiological semiotics. (orig.)

  1. Mischief Humor in Smart and Playable Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nijholt, Anton

    2017-01-01

    In smart cities we can expect to witness human behavior that is not be different from human behavior in present-day cities. There will be demonstrations, flash mobs, and organized events to provoke the smart city establishment. Smart cities will have bugs that can be exploited by hackers. Smart

  2. Smart Inverters for Utility and Industry Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Yaosuo; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Smart inverters are emerging with increasing renewable energy and smart grid development. While the recent work reviewed mostly focuses on defining standardized control functionalities and smart grid communication protocols, we take a holistic approach in this paper and propose a holon-type smart...

  3. Interactive application of a virtual smart home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allameh, E.; Heidari Jozam, M.; Vries, de B.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Smart Homes confront many challenges trying to move from vision to reality. Poor understanding of the concept of Smart Homes by both designers and end users causes many challenges in accepting smart homes by public. To overcome this problem, user participation in Smart Home design is advocated. On

  4. Electricity usage scheduling in smart building environments using smart devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunji; Bahn, Hyokyung

    2013-01-01

    With the recent advances in smart grid technologies as well as the increasing dissemination of smart meters, the electricity usage of every moment can be detected in modern smart building environments. Thus, the utility company adopts different price of electricity at each time slot considering the peak time. This paper presents a new electricity usage scheduling algorithm for smart buildings that adopts real-time pricing of electricity. The proposed algorithm detects the change of electricity prices by making use of a smart device and changes the power mode of each electric device dynamically. Specifically, we formulate the electricity usage scheduling problem as a real-time task scheduling problem and show that it is a complex search problem that has an exponential time complexity. An efficient heuristic based on genetic algorithms is performed on a smart device to cut down the huge searching space and find a reasonable schedule within a feasible time budget. Experimental results with various building conditions show that the proposed algorithm reduces the electricity charge of a smart building by 25.6% on average and up to 33.4%.

  5. From climate-smart agriculture to climate-smart landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherr Sara J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For agricultural systems to achieve climate-smart objectives, including improved food security and rural livelihoods as well as climate change adaptation and mitigation, they often need to be take a landscape approach; they must become ‘climate-smart landscapes’. Climate-smart landscapes operate on the principles of integrated landscape management, while explicitly incorporating adaptation and mitigation into their management objectives. Results An assessment of climate change dynamics related to agriculture suggests that three key features characterize a climate-smart landscape: climate-smart practices at the field and farm scale; diversity of land use across the landscape to provide resilience; and management of land use interactions at landscape scale to achieve social, economic and ecological impacts. To implement climate-smart agricultural landscapes with these features (that is, to successfully promote and sustain them over time, in the context of dynamic economic, social, ecological and climate conditions requires several institutional mechanisms: multi-stakeholder planning, supportive landscape governance and resource tenure, spatially-targeted investment in the landscape that supports climate-smart objectives, and tracking change to determine if social and climate goals are being met at different scales. Examples of climate-smart landscape initiatives in Madagascar’s Highlands, the African Sahel and Australian Wet Tropics illustrate the application of these elements in contrasting contexts. Conclusions To achieve climate-smart landscape initiatives widely and at scale will require strengthened technical capacities, institutions and political support for multi-stakeholder planning, governance, spatial targeting of investments and multi-objective impact monitoring.

  6. Conversion of SMART I. Zur Konvertierung von SMART I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyris, J H; Szimmat, J; William, K J [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Statik und Dynamik der Luft- und Raumfahrtkonstruktionen

    1977-01-01

    The report describes the conversion of the programming system SMART I on CDC, UNIVAC and IBM computers under the BMFT grant RK 21 I/SBB 31. There were four tasks for the development of a machine-independent SMART-version: a) Updating of the CDC source library (ca. 180.000 Fortran statements); b) Conversion into double precision; c) Primary installation on UNIVAC; d) Primary installation on IBM. The conversion of the SMART I program was carried out in cooperation with the consulting firms RIB, Stuttgart, and IKOSS Stuttgart, under the leadership of ISD.

  7. Smart nanoparticles as targeting platforms for HIV infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Rishi Rajat; More, Prachi; Banerjee, Rinti

    2015-04-01

    While Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections are reducing in incidence with the advent of Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy (HAART), there remain a number of challenges including the existence of reservoirs, drug resistance and anatomical barriers to antiretroviral therapy. To overcome these, smart nanoparticles with stimuli responsive release are proposed for delivery of anti-retroviral agents. The paper highlights the strategic similarities between the design of smart antiretroviral nanocarriers and those optimized for cancer chemotherapy. This includes the development of nanoparticles capable of passive and active targeting as well as those that are responsive to various internal and external triggers. For antiretroviral therapy, the relevant triggers for stimuli responsive release of drugs include semen, enzymes, endosomal escape, temperature and magnetic field. Deriving from the experience of cancer chemotherapy, additional potential triggers are light and ultrasound which remain hitherto unexplored in HIV therapy. In addition, the roles of nanomicrobicides (nanogels) and virus mimetic nanoparticles are discussed from the point of view of prevention of HIV transmission. The challenges associated with translation of smart nanoparticles for HIV infections to realize the Millennium Development Goal of combating HIV infections are discussed.

  8. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  9. A smart rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressel, Phil

    2014-12-01

    This project was to design and build a protective weapon for a group of associations that believed in aliens and UFO's. They collected enough contributions from societies and individuals to be able to sponsor and totally fund the design, fabrication and testing of this equipment. The location of this facility is classified. It also eventually was redesigned by the Quartus Engineering Company for use at a major amusement park as a "shoot at targets facility." The challenge of this project was to design a "smart rock," namely an infrared bullet (the size of a gallon can of paint) that could be shot from the ground to intercept a UFO or any incoming suspicious item heading towards the earth. Some of the challenges to design this weapon were to feed cryogenic helium at 5 degrees Kelvin from an inair environment through a unique rotary coupling and air-vacuum seal while spinning the bullet at 1500 rpm and maintain its dynamic stability (wobble) about its spin axis to less than 10 micro-radians (2 arc seconds) while it operated in a vacuum. Precision optics monitored the dynamic motion of the "smart rock."

  10. Smart energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Aniruddha; Singh, Jugdutt

    2010-04-01

    Peak and average energy usage in domestic and industrial environments is growing rapidly and absence of detailed energy consumption metrics is making systematic reduction of energy usage very difficult. Smart energy management system aims at providing a cost-effective solution for managing soaring energy consumption and its impact on green house gas emissions and climate change. The solution is based on seamless integration of existing wired and wireless communication technologies combined with smart context-aware software which offers a complete solution for automation of energy measurement and device control. The persuasive software presents users with easy-to-assimilate visual cues identifying problem areas and time periods and encourages a behavioural change to conserve energy. The system allows analysis of real-time/statistical consumption data with the ability to drill down into detailed analysis of power consumption, CO2 emissions and cost. The system generates intelligent projections and suggests potential methods (e.g. reducing standby, tuning heating/cooling temperature, etc.) of reducing energy consumption. The user interface is accessible using web enabled devices such as PDAs, PCs, etc. or using SMS, email, and instant messaging. Successful real-world trial of the system has demonstrated the potential to save 20 to 30% energy consumption on an average. Low cost of deployment and the ability to easily manage consumption from various web enabled devices offers gives this system a high penetration and impact capability offering a sustainable solution to act on climate change today.

  11. Smart city analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper; Hansen, Christian; Alstrup, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We present an ensemble learning method that predicts large increases in the hours of home care received by citizens. The method is supervised, and uses different ensembles of either linear (logistic regression) or non-linear (random forests) classifiers. Experiments with data available from 2013 ...... is very useful when full records are not accessible or available. Smart city analytics does not necessarily require full city records. To our knowledge this preliminary study is the first to predict large increases in home care for smart city analytics.......We present an ensemble learning method that predicts large increases in the hours of home care received by citizens. The method is supervised, and uses different ensembles of either linear (logistic regression) or non-linear (random forests) classifiers. Experiments with data available from 2013...... to 2017 for every citizen in Copenhagen receiving home care (27,775 citizens) show that prediction can achieve state of the art performance as reported in similar health related domains (AUC=0.715). We further find that competitive results can be obtained by using limited information for training, which...

  12. Gene expression profile associated with superimposed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younossi, Zobair M; Afendy, Arian; Stepanova, Maria; Hossain, Noreen; Younossi, Issah; Ankrah, Kathy; Gramlich, Terry; Baranova, Ancha

    2009-10-01

    Hepatic steatosis occurs in 40-70% of patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus [chronic hepatitis C (CH-C)]. Hepatic steatosis in CH-C is associated with progressive liver disease and a low response rate to antiviral therapy. Gene expression profiles were examined in CH-C patients with and without hepatic steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis. This study included 65 CH-C patients who were not receiving antiviral treatment. Total RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, quantified and used for one-step reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to profile 153 mRNAs that were normalized with six 'housekeeping' genes and a reference RNA. Multiple regression and stepwise selection assessed differences in gene expression and the models' performances were evaluated. Models predicting the grade of hepatic steatosis in patients with CH-C genotype 3 involved two genes: SOCS1 and IFITM1, which progressively changed their expression level with the increasing grade of steatosis. On the other hand, models predicting hepatic steatosis in non-genotype 3 patients highlighted MIP-1 cytokine encoding genes: CCL3 and CCL4 as well as IFNAR and PRKRIR. Expression levels of PRKRIR and SMAD3 differentiated patients with and without superimposed NASH only in the non-genotype 3 cohort (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.822, P-value 0.006]. Gene expression signatures related to hepatic fibrosis were not genotype specific. Gene expression might predict moderate to severe hepatic steatosis, NASH and fibrosis in patients with CH-C, providing potential insights into the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in these patients.

  13. RANCANG BANGUN APLIKASI SMART CARD INTERFACE

    OpenAIRE

    I Putu Agus Swastika; Siti Saibah Pua Luka; Yanno Dwi Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Opportunity to development smart card -based application is quite large as the need for smart card technology in various fields of both business and government agencies and BUMN. One brand that is widely used smart card is a smart card type from a vendor production NFC ACR122U ACS (Advanced Card System Limited) because prices are relatively affordable, but fairly tough. At the Thesis is done, the ACS (Advanced Card System Limited) as a manufacturer of smart card vendor type ...

  14. The Internet of things and Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao; Lv, Sen; Pan, Qing

    2018-02-01

    The Internet of things and smart grid are the frontier of information and Industry. The combination of Internet of things and smart grid will greatly enhance the ability of smart grid information and communication support. The key technologies of the Internet of things will be applied to the smart grid, and the grid operation and management information perception service centre will be built to support the commanding heights of the world’s smart grid.

  15. Ecosystem Based Business Model of Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgaard, Morten Raahauge; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper tries to investigate the ecosystem based business model in a smart grid infrastructure and the potential of value capture in the highly complex macro infrastructure such as smart grid. This paper proposes an alternative perspective to study the smart grid business ecosystem to support the infrastructural challenges, such as the interoperability of business components for smart grid. So far little research has explored the business ecosystem in the smart grid concept. The study on t...

  16. Green Technology for Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, M.

    2017-08-01

    In view of the enormous social and environmental changes at the global level, more and more cities worldwide have directed their development strategies towards smart policies aimed at sustainable mobility, energy upgrading of the building stock, increase of energy production from renewable sources, improvement of waste management and implementation of ICT infrastructures. The goal is to turn into Smart Cities, able to improve the quality of life of their inhabitants by offering a lasting opportunity for cultural, economic and social growth within a healthy, safe, stimulating and dynamic environment. After an overview of the role of cities in climate changes and environmental pollution worldwide, the article provides an up to date definition of Smart City and of its main expected features, focussing on technology innovation, smart governance and main financing and support programs. An analysis of the most interesting initiatives at the international level pursued by cities investigating the three main areas of Green Buildings, Smart grid-Smart lighting, and Smart mobility is given, with the objective to offer a broad reference for the identification of development sustainable plans and programs at the urban level within the current legislative framework.

  17. Smart market. From smart grid to the intelligent energy market; Smart Market. Vom Smart Grid zum intelligenten Energiemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aichele, Christian [Hochschule Kaiserslautern, Zweibruecken (Germany). Fachbereich Betriebswirtschaft; Doleski, Oliver D. (ed.)

    2014-07-01

    Dare more market. - The design of this postulate provides an important contribution to the success of the German energy transition. The Bundesnetzagentur has shown with its highly regarded benchmark paper on smart grids and markets leads the way towards more market in the energy sector. The therein required differentiation in a network and market sphere contributes to greater transparency on the consumer side and enables a gid releaving shift in energy consumption. The book focuses on actors and roles in the modified market circumstances as well as components and products of a future Smart Markets. Finally, to the reader concrete business models are offered. Authors from science and practice give in this book answers on how the interaction of Smart Grid and Smart Market works. [German] Mehr Markt wagen. - Die Ausgestaltung dieses Postulats liefert einen wichtigen Beitrag zum Gelingen der deutschen Energiewende. Die Bundesnetzagentur hat mit ihrem vielbeachteten Eckpunktepapier zu intelligenten Netzen und Maerkten diesen Weg in Richtung mehr Markt in der Energiewirtschaft gewiesen. Die darin geforderte Differenzierung in eine Netz- und Marktsphaere traegt zu mehr Transparenz auf der Verbraucherseite bei und ermoeglicht eine netzentlastende Verlagerung des Energieverbrauchs. Das Buch beleuchtet Akteure und Rollen im geaenderten Marktumfeld ebenso wie Komponenten und Produkte eines zukuenftigen Smart Markets. Schliesslich werden dem Leser konkrete Geschaeftsmodelle angeboten. Autoren aus Wissenschaft und Praxis geben in diesem Buch Antworten darauf, wie das Zusammenspiel von Smart Grid und Smart Market funktioniert.

  18. Does a global budget superimposed on fee-for-service payments mitigate hospitals' medical claims in Taiwan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pi-Fem

    2014-12-01

    Taiwan's global budgeting for hospital health care, in comparison to other countries, assigns a regional budget cap for hospitals' medical benefits claimed on the basis of fee-for-service (FFS) payments. This study uses a stays-hospitals-years database comprising acute myocardial infarction inpatients to examine whether the reimbursement policy mitigates the medical benefits claimed to a third-payer party during 2000-2008. The estimated results of a nested random-effects model showed that hospitals attempted to increase their medical benefit claims under the influence of initial implementation of global budgeting. The magnitudes of hospitals' responses to global budgeting were significantly attributed to hospital ownership, accreditation status, and market competitiveness of a region. The results imply that the regional budget cap superimposed on FFS payments provides only blunt incentive to the hospitals to cooperate to contain medical resource utilization, unless a monitoring mechanism attached with the payment system.

  19. Development of smart solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar tanks. A smart solar tank is a tank in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated...... by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot-water demand the volume is small. Based on measurements and calculations the advantage of smart SDHW systems is visualised....

  20. Smart market. From smart grid to the intelligent energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aichele, Christian; Doleski, Oliver D.

    2014-01-01

    Dare more market. - The design of this postulate provides an important contribution to the success of the German energy transition. The Bundesnetzagentur has shown with its highly regarded benchmark paper on smart grids and markets leads the way towards more market in the energy sector. The therein required differentiation in a network and market sphere contributes to greater transparency on the consumer side and enables a gid releaving shift in energy consumption. The book focuses on actors and roles in the modified market circumstances as well as components and products of a future Smart Markets. Finally, to the reader concrete business models are offered. Authors from science and practice give in this book answers on how the interaction of Smart Grid and Smart Market works. [de

  1. Smart earphone: Controlling tasks by earphone in smart phone by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol. ... Using this technique Authors have implemented that a smart earphone system can be used to make ..... aware home: A living laboratory for ubiquitous computing research, ...

  2. Gerontechnology for demented patients: smart homes for smart aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisardi, Vincenza; Imbimbo, Bruno P

    2011-01-01

    In an aging world, maintaining good health and independence for as long as possible is essential. Instead of hospitalization or institutionalization, the elderly with chronic conditions, especially those with cognitive impairment, can be assisted in their own environment with numerous 'smart' devices that support them in their activity of daily living. A "smart home" is a residence equipped with technology that facilitates monitoring of residents to improve quality of life and promote physical independence, as well as to reduce caregiver burden. Several projects worldwide have been conducted, but some ethical and legal issues are still unresolved and, at present, there is no evidence of the effects of smart homes on health outcomes. Randomized controlled trials are needed to understand the plus and minuses of these projects, but this will only be possible with a widespread proliferation and penetration of smart homes in the social network.

  3. Survey report on smart-tribo-mechanics; Smart tribo mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Survey results of smart-tribo-mechanics are described. For the smart-tribo-mechanics differing from the conventional tribology, an intelligent system is constructed by making full use of various science and technology ranging from basic to application, to solve problems. Self-diagnosis and self-remediation, active control, passive control, and smart-biotribo-mechanics are typical methods. Electronics, telecommunication, healthcare, and new biotechnology are new and advanced application areas. In these areas, tribology to control and act to the material surface in the atomic and molecular scale should be the key technology. In addition, the smart-tribo-mechanics is expected to be used for sustaining basic industry, such as material, transportation, and life industries. 101 refs., 67 figs., 14 tabs.

  4. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mui, Ming [Long Island Power Authority, Uniondale, NY (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) has teamed with Stony Brook University (Stony Brook or SBU) and Farmingdale State College (Farmingdale or FSC), two branches of the State University of New York (SUNY), to create a “Smart Energy Corridor.” The project, located along the Route 110 business corridor on Long Island, New York, demonstrated the integration of a suite of Smart Grid technologies from substations to end-use loads. The Smart Energy Corridor Project included the following key features: -TECHNOLOGY: Demonstrated a full range of smart energy technologies, including substations and distribution feeder automation, fiber and radio communications backbone, advanced metering infrastructure (AM”), meter data management (MDM) system (which LIPA implemented outside of this project), field tools automation, customer-level energy management including automated energy management systems, and integration with distributed generation and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. -MARKETING: A rigorous market test that identified customer response to an alternative time-of-use pricing plan and varying levels of information and analytical support. -CYBER SECURITY: Tested cyber security vulnerabilities in Smart Grid hardware, network, and application layers. Developed recommendations for policies, procedures, and technical controls to prevent or foil cyber-attacks and to harden the Smart Grid infrastructure. -RELIABILITY: Leveraged new Smart Grid-enabled data to increase system efficiency and reliability. Developed enhanced load forecasting, phase balancing, and voltage control techniques designed to work hand-in-hand with the Smart Grid technologies. -OUTREACH: Implemented public outreach and educational initiatives that were linked directly to the demonstration of Smart Grid technologies, tools, techniques, and system configurations. This included creation of full-scale operating models demonstrating application of Smart Grid technologies in business and residential

  5. Smart material screening machines using smart materials and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaei, Daryoush; Corradi, Gary; Waigand, Al

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this product is to address the specific need for improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness in physical separation technologies in the screening areas. Currently, the mining industry uses approximately 33 billion kW-hr per year, costing 1.65 billion dollars at 0.05 cents per kW-hr, of electrical energy for physical separations. Even though screening and size separations are not the single most energy intensive process in the mining industry, they are often the major bottleneck in the whole process. Improvements to this area offer tremendous potential in both energy savings and production improvements. Additionally, the vibrating screens used in the mining processing plants are the most costly areas from maintenance and worker health and safety point of views. The goal of this product is to reduce energy use in the screening and total processing areas. This goal is accomplished by developing an innovative screening machine based on smart materials and smart actuators, namely smart screen that uses advanced sensory system to continuously monitor the screening process and make appropriate adjustments to improve production. The theory behind the development of Smart Screen technology is based on two key technologies, namely smart actuators and smart Energy Flow ControlT (EFCT) strategies, developed initially for military applications. Smart Screen technology controls the flow of vibration energy and confines it to the screen rather than shaking much of the mass that makes up the conventional vibratory screening machine. Consequently, Smart Screens eliminates and downsizes many of the structural components associated with conventional vibratory screening machines. As a result, the surface area of the screen increases for a given envelope. This increase in usable screening surface area extends the life of the screens, reduces required maintenance by reducing the frequency of screen change-outs and improves throughput or productivity.

  6. Smart and Intelligent Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansaw, John; Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) provides rocket engine propulsion testing for NASA's space programs. Since the development of the Space Shuttle, every Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has undergone acceptance testing at SSC before going to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for integration into the Space Shuttle. The SSME is a large cryogenic rocket engine that uses Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) as the fuel. As NASA moves to the new ARES V launch system, the main engines on the new vehicle, as well as the upper stage engine, are currently base lined to be cryogenic rocket engines that will also use LH2. The main rocket engines for the ARES V will be larger than the SSME, while the upper stage engine will be approximately half that size. As a result, significant quantities of hydrogen will be required during the development, testing, and operation of these rocket engines.Better approaches are needed to simplify sensor integration and help reduce life-cycle costs. 1.Smarter sensors. Sensor integration should be a matter of "plug-and-play" making sensors easier to add to a system. Sensors that implement new standards can help address this problem; for example, IEEE STD 1451.4 defines transducer electronic data sheet (TEDS) templates for commonly used sensors such as bridge elements and thermocouples. When a 1451.4 compliant smart sensor is connected to a system that can read the TEDS memory, all information needed to configure the data acquisition system can be uploaded. This reduces the amount of labor required and helps minimize configuration errors. 2.Intelligent sensors. Data received from a sensor be scaled, linearized; and converted to engineering units. Methods to reduce sensor processing overhead at the application node are needed. Smart sensors using low-cost microprocessors with integral data acquisition and communication support offer the means to add these capabilities. Once a processor is embedded, other features can be added; for example, intelligent sensors can make

  7. Educating the smart city: Schooling smart citizens through computational urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Williamson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Coupled with the ‘smart city’, the idea of the ‘smart school’ is emerging in imaginings of the future of education. Various commercial, governmental and civil society organizations now envisage education as a highly coded, software-mediated and data-driven social institution. Such spaces are to be governed through computational processes written in computer code and tracked through big data. In an original analysis of developments from commercial, governmental and civil society sectors, the article examines two interrelated dimensions of an emerging smart schools imaginary: (1 the constant flows of digital data that smart schools depend on and the mobilization of analytics that enable student data to be used to anticipate and shape their behaviours; and (2 the ways that young people are educated to become ‘computational operatives’ who must ‘learn to code’ in order to become ‘smart citizens’ in the governance of the smart city. These developments constitute an emerging educational space fabricated from intersecting standards, technologies, discourses and social actors, all infused with the aspirations of technical experts to govern the city at a distance through both monitoring young people as ‘data objects’ and schooling them as active ‘computational citizens’ with the responsibility to compute the future of the city.

  8. Hydro One smart meter/smart grid : realizing the vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Ontario's Hydro One Networks has been installing smart meters as part of its smart grid plan since 2007. The smart grid plan forms part of the utility's overall aim to create an energy conservation culture across the province. The utility now has over 1 million installed meters over a 640,000{sup 2} km territory. The smart grid planning team has adopted the use of an upgraded open protocol standards-based communications as part of its 2-way high bandwidth network. The utility is using a 1.8 Ghz worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) spectrum designed specifically for the protection of electric utility infrastructure. The utility is now incorporating proof-of-concept applications including automated reclosers, remote terminal units, demand management devices and mobile technologies for use in its smart grid procedures. Various smart zone business scenarios were also described in this power point presentation, as well as details of Hydro One's integration plans for vendors and other power systems. tabs., figs.

  9. Smart practice: smart card design considerations in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, R A; Pacheco, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent innovations in microelectronics and advances in cryptography are driving the appearance of a new generation of smart cards with wider applications; this has important repercussions for our society in the coming years. Essentially, these breakthroughs include built-in microprocessors capable of generating cryptographic transactions (e.g.,Jelectronic blinded signatures, digital pseudonyms, and digital credentials), developments toward a single electronic card offering multi-access to services such as transport, telecommunications, health, financial, and entertainment (Universal Access Services), and incorporation of personal identification technologies such as voice, eye, or skin pattern recognition. For example, by using electronic representatives or cryptographic blinded signatures, a smart card can be used for multi transactions across different organizations and under different generated pseudonyms. These pseudonyms are capable of recognizing an individual unambiguously, while none of her records can be linked [1]. Moreover, tamper-proof electronic observers would make smart cards a very attractive technology for high-security based applications, such as those in the health care field. New trends in smart card technology offer excellent privacy and confidentiality safeguards. Therefore, smart cards constitute a promising technology for the health sector in Australia and other countries around the world in their pursuit of technology to support the delivery of quality care services. This paper addresses the main issues and the key design criteria which may be of strategic importance to the success of future smart card technology in the health care sector.

  10. Smart electromechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This carefully edited book introduces the latest achievements of the scientists of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the field of theory and practice of Smart Electromechanical Systems (SEMS). The book also focuses on methods of designing and modeling of SEMS based on the principles of adaptability, intelligence, biomorphism of parallel kinematics and parallelism in information processing and control computation. The book chapters are dedicated to the following points of interest: - methods of design of SEMS modules and intelligent robots based on them; - synthesis of neural systems of automatic control over SEMS modules; - mathematical and computer modeling of SEMS modules and Cyber Physical Systems based on them; - vitality control and reliability analysis based on logic-and-probabilistic and logic-and-linguistic forecasting; - methods of optimization of SEMS control systems based on mathematical programming methods in ordinal scale and generalized mathematical programming; - information-measuring software...

  11. Smart network. The information nework in the smart grid; Smart Network. Das Informationsnetz im Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horrmeyer, Bernd [Phoenix Contact GmbH und Co. KG, Blomberg (Germany). Industrielle Netzwerkverkabelung; Wissig, Claus [Phoenix Contact GmbH und Co. KG, Blomberg (Germany). Geraeteverbindungstechnik

    2012-07-01

    So far, the distribution of electricity was constructed unidirectional - from the generating power plant over the power distribution systems to the consumer. In the last decade, the utilization of renewable energies became popular. Thus the energy flows bi-directionally in the lines. Since the current has to be consumed at the moment of generation, the control becomes more difficult when bi-directional feeding. The techniques are demanding, and the number of devices for controlling and monitoring the of the distribution networks increases. The need for digital communication between the devices increases - the existing information networks in the energy sector are not dimensioned for this. With its bi-directional supply of energy, the smart grid requires a more frequent and faster communication between the devices. New cabling concepts according to IEC 61850 provide reliable and easy to maintain electrical and optical ethernet connections.

  12. Smart Energy Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B. V.

    2016-01-01

    is presented in terms of energy (primary energy supply), environment (carbon dioxide emissions), and economy (total annual socio-economic cost). The steps are ordered in terms of their scientific and political certainty as follows: Decommissioning nuclear power, implementing a large amount of heat savings......This study presents one scenario for a 100% renewable energy system in Europe by the year 2050. The transition from a business-as-usual situation in 2050, to a 100% renewable energy Europe is analysed in a series of steps. Each step reflects one major technological change. For each step, the impact......, converting the private car fleet to electricity, providing heat in rural areas with heat pumps, providing heat in urban areas with district heating, converting fuel in heavy-duty vehicles to a renewable electrofuel, and replacing natural gas with methane. The results indicate that by using the Smart Energy...

  13. The Market for Smart Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on several studies of market demand, the authors determined that consumer demand for smart growth would translate into more than 600,000 houses out of the approximately 2 million new housing units built in 2007.

  14. Imaging standards for smart cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellson, Richard N.; Ray, Lawrence A.

    1996-02-01

    "Smart cards" are plastic cards the size of credit cards which contain integrated circuits for the storage of digital information. The applications of these cards for image storage has been growing as card data capacities have moved from tens of bytes to thousands of bytes. This has prompted the recommendation of standards by the X3B10 committee of ANSI for inclusion in ISO standards for card image storage of a variety of image data types including digitized signatures and color portrait images. This paper will review imaging requirements of the smart card industry, challenges of image storage for small memory devices, card image communications, and the present status of standards. The paper will conclude with recommendations for the evolution of smart card image standards towards image formats customized to the image content and more optimized for smart card memory constraints.

  15. Smart roadside initiative : user manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This document provides the user instructions for the Smart Roadside Initiative (SRI) applications including mobile and web-based SRI applications. These applications include smartphone-enabled information exchange and notification, and software compo...

  16. Smart roadside initiative : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This is the Final Report for the Smart Roadside Initiative (SRI) prototype system deployment project. The SRI prototype was implemented at weigh stations in Grass Lake, Michigan and West Friendship, Maryland. The prototype was developed to integrate ...

  17. SMART SKINS - A Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochocki, Joseph M.

    1990-02-01

    The Air Force Project Forecast II identified a number of key technology initiatives for development. This paper addresses one such initiative, PT-16, Smart Skins. The concept of the Smart Skin is introduced by briefly highlighting its attributes and potential advantages over standard avionics packaging and maintenance, and then goes on to describe some of the key ingredients necessary for its development. Problem areas are brought out along with some of the required trades that must be made. Finally, a time phased development roadmap is introduced which shows Calspan's proposed sequence of technology development programs that can, in combination, lead to first functional Smart Skins implementations in narrowband form in the late 1990's and in wideband form in first decade of the twenty - first century. A Smart Skins implementation in integral aircraft skin structure form will take at least until 2010.

  18. Hadoop Oriented Smart Cities Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bologa, Ana-Ramona; Bologa, Razvan

    2018-01-01

    A smart city implies a consistent use of technology for the benefit of the community. As the city develops over time, components and subsystems such as smart grids, smart water management, smart traffic and transportation systems, smart waste management systems, smart security systems, or e-governance are added. These components ingest and generate a multitude of structured, semi-structured or unstructured data that may be processed using a variety of algorithms in batches, micro batches or in real-time. The ICT architecture must be able to handle the increased storage and processing needs. When vertical scaling is no longer a viable solution, Hadoop can offer efficient linear horizontal scaling, solving storage, processing, and data analyses problems in many ways. This enables architects and developers to choose a stack according to their needs and skill-levels. In this paper, we propose a Hadoop-based architectural stack that can provide the ICT backbone for efficiently managing a smart city. On the one hand, Hadoop, together with Spark and the plethora of NoSQL databases and accompanying Apache projects, is a mature ecosystem. This is one of the reasons why it is an attractive option for a Smart City architecture. On the other hand, it is also very dynamic; things can change very quickly, and many new frameworks, products and options continue to emerge as others decline. To construct an optimized, modern architecture, we discuss and compare various products and engines based on a process that takes into consideration how the products perform and scale, as well as the reusability of the code, innovations, features, and support and interest in online communities. PMID:29649172

  19. Nuclear design characteristics of SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chung Chan; Park, Sang Yoon; Lee, Ki Bog; Zee, Sung Quun; Chang, Moon Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Nuclear design bases for System-Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor(SMART) core are presented. Based on the proposed design bases, a SMART core loading pattern is constructed and its nuclear characteristics are studied. The proposed core loading pattern satisfies 3-year cycle length and soluble boron-free operation requirements at any time during the cycle. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  20. Wireless smart shipboard sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    Nozik, Andrew B.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis studies the feasibility of developing a smart shipboard sensor network. The objective of the thesis is to prove that sensors can be made smart by keeping calibration constants and other relevant data such as network information stored on the sensor and a server computer. Study will focus on the design and implementation of an Ipsil IP(micro)8930 microcontroller, which is then connected, by the standard TCP/IP implementation, to a network where the sensor information can be see...

  1. Smart BIT/TSMD Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    integracion . Smart BIT/TSMD provides Rome Laboratory with a laboratory testbed to evaluate and assess the individual characteristics as well as the integration...that assessment. These windows are color-keyed to tie together multiple windows for the same Smart BIT techniques. The display of the neural net- work... Multiple accelerometer icons of any type may therefore be placed (non-overlapping) in the accelerometer Time Line region. The BIT Time Line Editor allows

  2. Hadoop Oriented Smart Cities Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Diaconita

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A smart city implies a consistent use of technology for the benefit of the community. As the city develops over time, components and subsystems such as smart grids, smart water management, smart traffic and transportation systems, smart waste management systems, smart security systems, or e-governance are added. These components ingest and generate a multitude of structured, semi-structured or unstructured data that may be processed using a variety of algorithms in batches, micro batches or in real-time. The ICT architecture must be able to handle the increased storage and processing needs. When vertical scaling is no longer a viable solution, Hadoop can offer efficient linear horizontal scaling, solving storage, processing, and data analyses problems in many ways. This enables architects and developers to choose a stack according to their needs and skill-levels. In this paper, we propose a Hadoop-based architectural stack that can provide the ICT backbone for efficiently managing a smart city. On the one hand, Hadoop, together with Spark and the plethora of NoSQL databases and accompanying Apache projects, is a mature ecosystem. This is one of the reasons why it is an attractive option for a Smart City architecture. On the other hand, it is also very dynamic; things can change very quickly, and many new frameworks, products and options continue to emerge as others decline. To construct an optimized, modern architecture, we discuss and compare various products and engines based on a process that takes into consideration how the products perform and scale, as well as the reusability of the code, innovations, features, and support and interest in online communities.

  3. Nuclear design characteristics of SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chung Chan; Park, Sang Yoon; Lee, Ki Bog; Zee, Sung Quun; Chang, Moon Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    Nuclear design bases for System-Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor(SMART) core are presented. Based on the proposed design bases, a SMART core loading pattern is constructed and its nuclear characteristics are studied. The proposed core loading pattern satisfies 3-year cycle length and soluble boron-free operation requirements at any time during the cycle. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  4. Smart grid applications and developments

    CERN Document Server

    Mah, Daphne; Li, Victor OK; Balme, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Meeting today's energy and climate challenges require not only technological advancement but also a good understanding of stakeholders' perceptions, political sensitivity, well-informed policy analyses and innovative interdisciplinary solutions. This book will fill this gap. This is an interdisciplinary informative book to provide a holistic and integrated understanding of the technology-stakeholder-policy interactions of smart grid technologies. The unique features of the book include the following: (a) interdisciplinary approach - by bringing in the policy dimensions to smart grid technologi

  5. The energy aware smart home

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, M.; Jentsch, M.; Prause, C.R.; Pramudianto, F.; Al-Akkad, A.; Reiners, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel smart home system integrating energy efficiency features. The smart home application is built on top of Hydra, a middleware framework that facilitates the intelligent communication of heterogeneous embedded devices through an overlay P2P network. We interconnect common devices available in private households and integrate wireless power metering plugs to gain access to energy consumption data. These data are used for monitoring and analyzing consumed energy o...

  6. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, ...

  7. Hadoop Oriented Smart Cities Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconita, Vlad; Bologa, Ana-Ramona; Bologa, Razvan

    2018-04-12

    A smart city implies a consistent use of technology for the benefit of the community. As the city develops over time, components and subsystems such as smart grids, smart water management, smart traffic and transportation systems, smart waste management systems, smart security systems, or e-governance are added. These components ingest and generate a multitude of structured, semi-structured or unstructured data that may be processed using a variety of algorithms in batches, micro batches or in real-time. The ICT architecture must be able to handle the increased storage and processing needs. When vertical scaling is no longer a viable solution, Hadoop can offer efficient linear horizontal scaling, solving storage, processing, and data analyses problems in many ways. This enables architects and developers to choose a stack according to their needs and skill-levels. In this paper, we propose a Hadoop-based architectural stack that can provide the ICT backbone for efficiently managing a smart city. On the one hand, Hadoop, together with Spark and the plethora of NoSQL databases and accompanying Apache projects, is a mature ecosystem. This is one of the reasons why it is an attractive option for a Smart City architecture. On the other hand, it is also very dynamic; things can change very quickly, and many new frameworks, products and options continue to emerge as others decline. To construct an optimized, modern architecture, we discuss and compare various products and engines based on a process that takes into consideration how the products perform and scale, as well as the reusability of the code, innovations, features, and support and interest in online communities.

  8. Smart Markets for Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, John

    2017-04-01

    Commercial water users often want to trade water, but their trades can hurt other users and the environment. So government has to check every transaction. This checking process is slow and expensive. That's why "free market" water trading doesn't work, especially with trading between a single buyer and a single seller. This talk will describe a water trading mechanism designed to solve these problems. The trading mechanism is called a "smart market". A smart market allows simultaneous many-to-many trades. It can reduce the transaction costs of water trading, while improving environmental outcomes. The smart market depends on a combination of recent technologies: hydrology simulation, computer power, and the Internet. Our smart market design uses standard hydrological models, user bids from a web page, and computer optimization to maximize the economic value of water while meeting all environmental constraints. Before the smart market can be implemented, however, users and the water agency must meet six critical prerequisites. These prerequisites may be viewed as simply good water management that should be done anyway. I will describe these prerequisites, and I will briefly discuss common arguments against water markets. This talk will be an abstract of a forthcoming book, "Smart Markets for Water Resources: A Manual for Implementation," by John F. Raffensperger and Mark W. Milke, from Springer Publishing.

  9. Research Advance in Smart Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Xiang-long

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials, man-made materials, enable us to design our own "atoms", and thereby to create materials with unprecedented effective properties that have not yet been found in nature. Smart metamaterial is one of those that is an intelligent perceptive to the changes from external environments and simultaneously having the capability to respond to thermal and mechanical stimuli. This paper can provide a review on these smart metamaterials in perspective of science, engineering and industrial products. We divide smart metamaterials according to what they are tuning into: optical, mechanical, thermal and coupled smart metamaterials. The rest of two techniques we addressed are modelling/simulation and fabrication/gene engineering. All of these types smart materials presented here are associated with at least five fundamental research: coupled mechanism of multi-physics fields, man-made design for atom/molecular, metamaterials coupled with natural materials, tunability of metamaterials, and mechanism of sensing metamaterials. Therefore, we give a systematic overview of various potential smart metamaterials together with the upcoming challenges in the intriguing and promising research field.

  10. Smart Nacre-inspired Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jingsong; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2018-03-15

    Nacre-inspired nanocomposites with excellent mechanical properties have achieved remarkable attention in the past decades. The high performance of nacre-inspired nanocomposites is a good basis for the further application of smart devices. Recently, some smart nanocomposites inspired by nacre have demonstrated good mechanical properties as well as effective and stable stimuli-responsive functions. In this Concept, we summarize the recent development of smart nacre-inspired nanocomposites, including 1D fibers, 2D films and 3D bulk nanocomposites, in response to temperature, moisture, light, strain, and so on. We show that diverse smart nanocomposites could be designed by combining various conventional fabrication methods of nacre-inspired nanocomposites with responsive building blocks and interface interactions. The nacre-inspired strategy is versatile for different kinds of smart nanocomposites in extensive applications, such as strain sensors, displays, artificial muscles, robotics, and so on, and may act as an effective roadmap for designing smart nanocomposites in the future. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Smart Grid Communications System Blueprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adrian; Pavlovski, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Telecommunications operators are well versed in deploying 2G and 3G wireless networks. These networks presently support the mobile business user and/or retail consumer wishing to place conventional voice calls and data connections. The electrical power industry has recently commenced transformation of its distribution networks by deploying smart monitoring and control devices throughout their networks. This evolution of the network into a `smart grid' has also motivated the need to deploy wireless technologies that bridge the communication gap between the smart devices and information technology systems. The requirements of these networks differ from traditional wireless networks that communications operators have deployed, which have thus far forced energy companies to consider deploying their own wireless networks. We present our experience in deploying wireless networks to support the smart grid and highlight the key properties of these networks. These characteristics include application awareness, support for large numbers of simultaneous cell connections, high service coverage and prioritized routing of data. We also outline our target blueprint architecture that may be useful to the industry in building wireless and fixed networks to support the smart grid. By observing our experiences, telecommunications operators and equipment manufacturers will be able to augment their current networks and products in a way that accommodates the needs of the emerging industry of smart grids and intelligent electrical networks.

  12. From smart grid to micro grid. Energy active settlements of the future; Vom Smart Grid zum Micro Grid. Energieaktive Siedlungen der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauner, G. [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Energiesysteme und Elektrische Antriebe

    2012-07-01

    The path to a mainly sustainable energy supply is predetermined by European and national directives. It is to be expected that the sustainable energy supply is growing much faster than the infrastructure can follow. Bottlenecks in the transmission system in particular by the development of onshore and offshore wind energy are probable. Also the expansion of photovoltaics in the settlements demands from the distribution networks. The idea of smart grids to store the excess energy in the superimposed classical energy system is negatively impacted by new problems. The micro grid expands the decentralized technology by allowing for temporary autonomy and energy balance especially if central storage systems and transmission capacities can not be used due to temporary bottlenecks. Concepts of decentralized supply are interesting that offer a temporary opportunity for a restricted island operation with reduced load.

  13. Enhancing integrated indoor/outdoor mobility in a smart campus

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Sospedra, Joaquín; Avariento, Joan; Rambla Risueño, David; Montoliu Colás, Raúl; Casteleyn, Sven; Benedito Bordonau, Mauri; Gould Carlson, Michael; Huerta Guijarro, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    A Smart City relies on six key factors: Smart Governance, Smart People, Smart Economy, Smart Environment, Smart Living and Smart Mobility. This paper focuses on Smart Mobility by improving one of its key components: positioning. We developed and deployed a novel indoor positioning system (IPS) that is combined with an outdoor positioning system to support seamless indoor and outdoor navigation and wayfinding. The positioning system is implemented as a service in our broader cartography-based ...

  14. Smart grids are advancing, light and supple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitot, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    While indicating some innovations produced by the Greenlys laboratory (SmartScan to localize losses by means of smart counters, a system for grid self-healing, Sequoia to manage a low voltage network, a tool for the prediction of photovoltaic production in real time), and also the main smart grid projects in France (Nice Grid, Solenn, SoGrid, Smart Electric Lyon, Poste intelligent, Greenlys, Smart Grids Vendee, BienVEnu), this article comments the emergence of several experiments on smart grids in France, the first drawn conclusions and recommendations. Some issues for this new architecture are discussed: the active demand management, cut-offs and flexibility, and the search for profitability

  15. Smart Home, Smart Grid, Smart Meter - digitale Konzepte und das Recht an Daten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiecker genannt Döhmann, Indra

    Modernes Energiemanagement setzt auf ein intelligent gesteuertes Energieinformationsnetz, das Smart Grid. In diesem ist der Smart Meter, die intelligente Messstelle beim Nutzer, ein zentrales Instrument für den wechselseitigen Austausch von Informationen. Allerdings werfen die über diverse Gesetze forcierten Informationsströme erhebliche datenschutzrechtliche Fragen auf. Der Beitrag stellt zentrale datenschutzrechtliche Leitlinien und Probleme vor und behandelt auch offene Fragestellungen.

  16. Increasing the use of 'smart' pump drug libraries by nurses: a continuous quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    The use of infusion pumps that incorporate "smart" technology (smart pumps) can reduce the risks associated with receiving IV therapies. Smart pump technology incorporates safeguards such as a list of high-alert medications, soft and hard dosage limits, and a drug library that can be tailored to specific patient care areas. Its use can help to improve patient safety and to avoid potentially catastrophic harm associated with medication errors. But when one independent community hospital in Massachusetts switched from older mechanical pumps to smart pumps, it neglected to assign an "owner" to oversee the implementation process. One result was that nurses were using the smart pump library for only 37% of all infusions.To increase pump library usage percentage-thereby reducing the risks associated with infusion and improving patient safety-the hospital undertook a continuous quality improvement project over a four-month period in 2009. With the involvement of direct care nurses, and using quantitative data available from the smart pump software, the nursing quality and pharmacy quality teams identified ways to improve pump and pump library use. A secondary goal was to calculate the hospital's return on investment for the purchase of the smart pumps. Several interventions were developed and, on the first of each month, implemented. By the end of the project, pump library usage had nearly doubled; and the hospital had completely recouped its initial investment.

  17. Cyclic steps and superimposed antidune deposits: important elements of coarse-grained deepwater channel-levée complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Joerg; Brandes, Christian; Winsemann, Jutta

    2017-04-01

    The facies distribution and architecture of submarine fans can be strongly impacted by erosion and deposition by supercritical density flows. We present field examples from the Sandino Forearc Basin (southern Central America), where cyclic-step and antidune deposits represent important sedimentary facies of coarse-grained channel-levée complexes. These bedforms occur in all sub-environments of the depositional systems and relate to the different stages of avulsion, bypass, levée construction and channel backfilling. Large-scale scours (18 to 29 m deep, 18 to 25 m wide, 60 to >120 m long) with an amalgamated infill, comprising massive, normally coarse-tail graded or spaced subhorizontally stratified conglomerates and pebbly sandstones, are interpreted as deposits of the hydraulic-jump zone of cyclic steps. These cyclic steps probably formed during avulsion, when high-density flows were routed into the evolving channel. The large-scale scour fills can be distinguished from small-scale channel fills based on the preservation of a steep upper margin and a coarse-grained infill comprising mainly amalgamated hydraulic-jump deposits. Channel fills include repetitive successions deposited by cyclic steps with superimposed antidunes. The hydraulic-jump zone of cyclic-step deposits comprises regularly spaced scours (0.2 to 2.6 m deep, 0.8 to 23 m wide), which are infilled by intraclast-rich conglomerates or pebbly sandstones and display normal coarse-tail grading or backsets. Laterally and vertically these deposits are associated with subhorizontally stratified, low-angle cross-stratified or sinusoidal stratified pebbly sandstones and sandstones (wavelength 0.5 to 18 m), interpreted as representing antidune deposits formed on the stoss-side of the cyclic steps during flow re-acceleration. The field examples indicate that so-called crudely or spaced stratified deposits may commonly represent antidune deposits with varying stratification styles controlled by the aggradation

  18. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy in primary care asthma management : effects on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemersma, Roland A.; Postma, Dirkje; van der Molen, Thys

    Background: The management of asthma has changed since the introduction of budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort (R)) as both maintenance and reliever therapy (SMART). SMART and its effects on bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) have not been studied in primary care. Aims: To compare the effects of SMART

  19. Smart portable rehabilitation devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leahey Matt

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s. Methods In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Results Laboratory tests of the devices

  20. Smart portable rehabilitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos; Nikitczuk, Jason; Weinberg, Brian; Danaher, Gil; Jensen, Katherine; Pelletier, Philip; Prugnarola, Jennifer; Stuart, Ryan; Arango, Roberto; Leahey, Matt; Pavone, Robert; Provo, Andrew; Yasevac, Dan

    2005-07-12

    The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s). In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Laboratory tests of the devices demonstrated that they were able to meet their design

  1. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  2. National Smart Water Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13

    The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water

  3. Smart Metering. Technological, economic and legal aspects. 2. ed.; Smart Metering. Technologische, wirtschaftliche und juristische Aspekte des Smart Metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler-Schute, Christiana (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    Smart metering comprises more than just meter technology, and the use of information and communication technologies is indispensable. Processes, roles and business models must be reconsidered as further challenges arise in the context of smart metering. For one, there is the operator of the metering points. Secondly, there is the end user who is in the role of an active market partner. Further, there is smart metering as a basic technology, e.g. for smart grids and smart homes. In spite of the need for action, many utilities are reluctant to introduce smart metering. Reasons for this are the cost, a lack of defined standards, and an unclear legal situation. On the other hand, smart metering offers potential for grids and distribution that should be made use of. The authors discuss all aspects of the subject. The point out the chances and limitations of smart metering and present their own experience. [German] Smart Metering geht weit ueber die Zaehlertechnologie hinaus und der Einsatz von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien ist unabdingbar. Damit einhergehend muessen Prozesse, Rollen und auch Geschaeftsmodelle neu durchdacht werden. Denn weitere Herausforderungen stehen im direkten Zusammenhang mit Smart Metering. Das ist zum einen die Rolle des Messstellenbetreibers / Messdienstleisters. Das ist zum anderen der Endnutzer, dem die Rolle des aktiven Marktpartners zugedacht wird. Das ist des Weiteren das Smart Metering als Basistechnologie beispielsweise fuer Smart Grid und Smart Home. Trotz des Handlungsdrucks stehen viele Unternehmen der Energiewirtschaft dem Smart Metering zurueckhaltend gegenueber. Drei gewichtige Gruende werden ins Feld gefuehrt: die Kostenfrage, nicht definierte Standards und die in vielen Bereichen ungeklaerte Gesetzeslage. Demgegenueber bietet das Smart Metering Potenziale fuer Netz und Vertrieb, die es zu nutzen gilt. Die Autoren setzen sich in ihren Beitraegen mit diesen Themen auseinander, zeigen Chancen, aber auch Grenzen des

  4. Experimental demonstration of an OFDM based visible light communication system using inter-block precoding and superimposed pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwei; Hong, Xuezhi; Liu, Jie; Guo, Changjian

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we investigate and experimentally demonstrate an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based high speed wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) visible light communication (VLC) system using an inter-block data precoding and superimposed pilots (DP-SP) based channel estimation (CE) scheme. The residual signal-to-pilot interference (SPI) can be eliminated by using inter-block data precoding, resulting in a significant improvement in estimated accuracy and the overall system performance compared with uncoded SP based CE scheme. We also study the power allocation/overhead problem of the training for DP-SP, uncoded SP and conventional preamble based CE schemes, from which we obtain the optimum signal-to-pilot power ratio (SPR)/overhead percentage for all above cases. Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging (ISFA) is also adopted to further enhance the accuracy of CE. By using the DP-SP based CE scheme, aggregate data rates of 1.87-Gbit/s and 1.57-Gbit/s are experimentally demonstrated over 0.8-m and 2-m indoor free space transmission, respectively, using a commercially available red, green and blue (RGB) light emitting diode (LED) with WDM. Experimental results show that the DP-SP based CE scheme is comparable to the conventional preamble based CE scheme in term of received Q factor and data rate while entailing a much smaller overhead-size.

  5. Renovascular hypertension in spontaneous hypertensive rats: an experimental model of renal artery stenosis superimposed on essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, T; Bass, A; Grossman, E; Shani, M; Griffel, B; Adar, R

    1987-09-01

    Renovascular hypertension superimposed on essential hypertension, a condition encountered in the elderly, was studied. An experimental animal model consisting of a two-kidney one-clip Goldblatt preparation in the spontaneous hypertensive (SHR) rat, that would simulate this condition, was designed. A 0.25 mm silver clip was placed on the left renal artery of SHR male rats. The same procedure performed on WKY rats served as control. All experiments were performed on low, normal, and rich sodium diet. Systolic blood pressure (BP) was measured by tail-cuff method. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) was determined before and after clipping of the renal artery. Results were as follows: Mean systolic BP increased significantly in clipped rats fed with normal and rich sodium diets. SHR showed an increase from 144 +/- 3 (mean + s.e.m.) to 168 +/- 3 mmHg, and WKY rats showed an increase from 120 +/- 2 to 139 +/- 5 mmHg. There was a two- to threefold rise in PRC. A low-salt diet given prior to clipping prevented the appearance of renovascular hypertension despite a significant rise in PRC. We concluded that renal artery narrowing plays a significant role in the rise of BP in the basically essential type of hypertension.

  6. Persistent 1.5s oscillations superimposed to a solar burst observed at two mm-wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zodi, A.M.; Kaufmann, P.; Zirin, H.

    1983-05-01

    Long-enduring quasi-periodic oscillations (1.5s) superimposed to a solar burst were by the first time observed simultaneously at two different mm-wayelengths (22 GHz and 44 GHz). The oscillations were present throughout the burst duration (about 10 min), and were delayed at 44 GHz with respect to 22 GHz by 0.3s. The relative amplitude of the oscillation was of about 20 percent at 44 GHz and of about 5 percent at 22 GHz. Interferometer measurements at 10.6 GHz indicated the burst source stable within 1 arcsec. HeD3 line flare indicated two persistent small spots separated by about 10 arcsec. The 22/44 GHz burst position has good correspondence with the HeD3 spots' location. The oscillations display features which appear to distinguish them from ultrafast time structures found in other bursts. One possible interpretation was suggested by assuming a modulation of the gyrosynchrotron emission of trapped electrons by a variable magnetic field on a double burst source, optically thin at 44 GHz and with optical thickness > or equivalent 0.3 at 22 GHz. (Author) [pt

  7. Performance of engine-driven rotary endodontic instruments with a superimposed bending deflection: V. Gates Glidden and Peeso drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, W A; Luebke, N H; Luebke, F L; Mitchell, J C

    1994-05-01

    A laboratory study was performed on Gates Glidden and Peeso drills to determine the incidence of shaft fracture when a bending deflection was superimposed on the rotating drills. Samples of sizes #1 to #6 stainless steel Gates Glidden drills, sizes #1 to #6 stainless steel and carbon steel-type P Peeso drills, and sizes #009 to #023 carbon steel-type B-1 Peeso drills from each of two manufacturers were evaluated with a unique apparatus that applied a 2-mm bending deflection while rotating the instruments. The apparatus did not restrict movement of the bur head during rotation. The test drills were rotated at 2500, 4000, and 7000 revolutions per minute, and the number of revolutions at failure was recorded. Scanning electron microscopic observations established that the stainless steel Gates Glidden and Peeso drills failed by ductile fracture, whereas the carbon steel Peeso drills failed by brittle fracture. Instrument fracture was always near the handpiece shank with this test, and the length of the fractured drills was measured from the working tip. It is recommended that this additional test be adopted to determine fatigue properties of engine-driven rotary endodontic instruments in establishing international performance standards.

  8. Development of a prototype apparatus visualizing on a screen the gamma sources superimposed on the image of the vision field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imbard, G.; Lemaire, J.E. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Dept. d`Exploitation du Retraitement et de Demantelement; Carcreff, H.; Marchand, L.; Thellier, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Reacteurs Experimentaux

    1994-12-31

    Mapping the gamma activity of irradiating zones is often an important prerequisite in dismantling nuclear facilities. The operation is necessary to define a suitable decommissioning strategy before any work begins; it is also required during the procedure to measure the residual activity wherever dose rates are too high to allow human intervention. This report summarizes the work carried out under CEC contract FIED-0055, covering a prototype imaging system designed to display radioactive sources superimposed in real time over a visible light image on a video monitor. This project was developed from an earlier off-line system. The gamma photons are collimated by a double cone system. The imaging system comprises a transparent scintillator bonded to the fiber-optic window of an ultrasensitive camera. The camera was miniaturized to meet specification requirements: with its radiological shielding, the gamma camera weighs 40 kg and is 120 mm in diameter. The processing system is compatible with a realtime camera, and small enough for use at any nuclear. The point-source angular resolution is 1.4 deg. for {sup 60} Co and 0.8 deg. for {sup 137} Cs. The dose rate sensitivity limit is approximately 0.01 mGy.h{sup -1}. Process reliability was confirmed by tests in a high-level radio-metallurgy cell at actual decommissioning site. (authors). 7 figs.

  9. Superimpose methods for uncooled infrared camera applied to the micro-scale thermal characterization of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Junko

    2015-05-01

    The mobile type apparatus for a quantitative micro-scale thermography using a micro-bolometer was developed based on our original techniques such as an achromatic lens design to capture a micro-scale image in long-wave infrared, a video signal superimposing for the real time emissivity correction, and a pseudo acceleration of a timeframe. The total size of the instrument was designed as it was put in the 17 cm x 28 cm x 26 cm size carrying box. The video signal synthesizer enabled to record a direct digital signal of monitoring temperature or positioning data. The encoded digital signal data embedded in each image was decoded to read out. The protocol to encode/decode the measured data was originally defined. The mixed signals of IR camera and the imposed data were applied to the pixel by pixel emissivity corrections and the pseudo-acceleration of the periodical thermal phenomena. Because the emissivity of industrial materials and biological tissues were usually inhomogeneous, it has the different temperature dependence on each pixel. The time-scale resolution for the periodic thermal event was improved with the algorithm for "pseudoacceleration". It contributes to reduce the noise by integrating the multiple image data, keeping a time resolution. The anisotropic thermal properties of some composite materials such as thermal insulating materials of cellular plastics and the biometric composite materials were analyzed using these techniques.

  10. High-quality and small-capacity e-learning video featuring lecturer-superimposing PC screen images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoshihiko; Murakami, Michinobu; Sakamoto, Ryota; Sugiura, Tokuhiro; Matsui, Hirokazu; Kato, Norihiko

    2006-10-01

    Information processing and communication technology are progressing quickly, and are prevailing throughout various technological fields. Therefore, the development of such technology should respond to the needs for improvement of quality in the e-learning education system. The authors propose a new video-image compression processing system that ingeniously employs the features of the lecturing scene. While dynamic lecturing scene is shot by a digital video camera, screen images are electronically stored by a PC screen image capturing software in relatively long period at a practical class. Then, a lecturer and a lecture stick are extracted from the digital video images by pattern recognition techniques, and the extracted images are superimposed on the appropriate PC screen images by off-line processing. Thus, we have succeeded to create a high-quality and small-capacity (HQ/SC) video-on-demand educational content featuring the advantages: the high quality of image sharpness, the small electronic file capacity, and the realistic lecturer motion.

  11. Best practices for rural smart growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Smart growth is a development strategy that encompasses economic, environmental and social objectives to manage : the growth of a community. The basic principles of smart growth are to: : Mix land uses. : Take advantage of compact building de...

  12. Smart grids opportunities, developments, and trends

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, A B M Shawkat

    2013-01-01

    This book provides up to date knowledge, research results, and innovations in smart grids spanning design, implementation, analysis and evaluation of smart grid solutions to the challenging problems in all areas of the power industry.

  13. Ecosystem Based Business Model of Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Morten Raahauge; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper tries to investigate the ecosystem based business model in a smart grid infrastructure and the potential of value capture in the highly complex macro infrastructure such as smart grid. This paper proposes an alternative perspective to study the smart grid business ecosystem to support...... the infrastructural challenges, such as the interoperability of business components for smart grid. So far little research has explored the business ecosystem in the smart grid concept. The study on the smart grid with the theory of business ecosystem may open opportunities to understand market catalysts. This study...... contributes an understanding of business ecosystem applicable for smart grid. Smart grid infrastructure is an intricate business ecosystem, which have several intentions to deliver the value proposition and what it should be. The findings help to identify and capture value from markets....

  14. Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture is an overview course for landscape architecture students interested in sustainability in landscape architecture and how it might apply to smart growth principles in urban, suburban, and rural areas

  15. Management of pregnancy in pancreas alone transplant recipient complicated with stage-4 chronic renal insufficiency and superimposed pre-eclampsia: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Shih Lee

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Child-bearing in solid organ transplantation recipients has become more promising nowadays, even for a difficult case of pancreas-alone transplant recipient complicated with chronic renal insufficiency and superimposed pre-eclampsia. Thorough antepartum counseling and cautious monitoring of maternal, fetal and graft conditions by multidisciplinary specialties are key to favorable pregnancy outcomes.

  16. Smart dental practice: capitalising on smart mobile technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plangger, K; Bredican, J; Mills, A J; Armstrong, J

    2015-08-14

    To keep pace with consumer adoption of smart mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, and the applications ('apps') developed for these devices, dental professionals should consider how this technology could be used to simultaneously improve both patient service experiences and dental practice management. Using U-Commerce as a theoretical lens, this article discusses the potential value of smart mobile technology to the dental practice context, with a particular focus on the unique and customisable capabilities of apps. To take full advantage of this technology, a process is outlined for identifying and designing bespoke dental apps that takes into account the unique advantages of these devices. Dental practices, with increasing financial and competitive pressures, may improve the efficiency and profitability of operations and better manage patients, employees and stakeholders by integrating smart mobile technology.

  17. Smart cities of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  18. Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Saifur [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Since the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 was enacted, there has been a large number of websites that discusses smart grid and relevant information, including those from government, academia, industry, private sector and regulatory. These websites collect information independently. Therefore, smart grid information was quite scattered and dispersed. The objective of this work was to develop, populate, manage and maintain the public Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC) web portal. The information in the SGIC website is comprehensive that includes smart grid information, research & development, demonstration projects, technical standards, costs & benefit analyses, business cases, legislation, policy & regulation, and other information on lesson learned and best practices. The content in the SGIC website is logically grouped to allow easily browse, search and sort. In addition to providing the browse and search feature, the SGIC web portal also allow users to share their smart grid information with others though our online content submission platform. The Clearinghouse web portal, therefore, serves as the first stop shop for smart grid information that collects smart grid information in a non-bias, non-promotional manner and can provide a missing link from information sources to end users and better serve users’ needs. The web portal is available at www.sgiclearinghouse.org. This report summarizes the work performed during the course of the project (September 2009 – August 2014). Section 2.0 lists SGIC Advisory Committee and User Group members. Section 3.0 discusses SGIC information architecture and web-based database application functionalities. Section 4.0 summarizes SGIC features and functionalities, including its search, browse and sort capabilities, web portal social networking, online content submission platform and security measures implemented. Section 5.0 discusses SGIC web portal contents, including smart grid 101, smart grid projects

  19. Data privacy for the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Herold, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Smart Grid and PrivacyWhat Is the Smart Grid? Changes from Traditional Energy Delivery Smart Grid Possibilities Business Model Transformations Emerging Privacy Risks The Need for Privacy PoliciesPrivacy Laws, Regulations, and Standards Privacy-Enhancing Technologies New Privacy Challenges IOT Big Data What Is the Smart Grid?Market and Regulatory OverviewTraditional Electricity Business SectorThe Electricity Open Market Classifications of Utilities Rate-Making ProcessesElectricity Consumer

  20. Hardware Design of a Smart Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko; Anthony A. Olaomi

    2014-01-01

    Smart meters are electronic measurement devices used by utilities to communicate information for billing customers and operating their electric systems. This paper presents the hardware design of a smart meter. Sensing and circuit protection circuits are included in the design of the smart meter in which resistors are naturally a fundamental part of the electronic design. Smart meters provides a route for energy savings, real-time pricing, automated data collection and elimina...

  1. Basic design report of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, M. H.; Yeo, J. W.; Zee, Q. S.; Lee, D. J.; Park, K. B.; Koo, I. S.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, J. I.

    2002-03-01

    KAERI has been developing a 330MWt integral reactor, SMART and its application system since 1997. SMART is being developed for use as an energy source for small-scale power generation and seawater desalination. The SMART system can produce portable water of 40.000m 3 /day using the MED-TVC desalination process and about 90MW of electricity. Although the design of SMART is based on the current pressurized water reactor technology, new technologies such as inherent safety and passive safety have been applied, and system simplification and modularization, innovations in manufacturing and installation technologies have been implemented culminating in a design that has enhanced safety and economy, and is environment-friendly. The objective of this design report is to provide the overall information on the basic design of SMART NSSS, and the applied technologies. The information covers mainly NSSS design with some information on the desalination system. For the secondary system, only the information directly related to the coupling with NSSS are covered

  2. A Review of Systems and Technologies for Smart Homes and Smart Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Lobaccaro, Gabriele; Carlucci, Salvatore; Löfström, Erica

    2016-01-01

    In the actual era of smart homes and smart grids, advanced technological systems that allow the automation of domestic tasks are developing rapidly. There are numerous technologies and applications that can be installed in smart homes today. They enable communication between home appliances and users, and enhance home appliances’ automation, monitoring and remote control capabilities. This review article, by introducing the concept of the smart home and the advent of the smart grid, investiga...

  3. Smart Grid Security A Smart Meter-Centric Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Yuksel, Ender; Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana

    2012-01-01

    , leading to what is known as the Smart Grid. The development of this Cyber-Physical System introduces new security issues, thus calling for efforts in studying possible attacks and devising suitable countermeasures. In this paper, we review a generic model for the Smart Grid, and present possible attacks......The electricity grid is a key infrastructure for our society, therefore its security is a critical public concern. This physical system is becoming more and more complex as it is coupled with a cyber layer carrying information about power usage and control instructions for intelligent appliances...

  4. Smart City Governance: A Local Emergent Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a local emergent perspective on smart city governance. Smart city governance is about using new technologies to develop innovative governance arrangements. Cities all around the world are struggling to find smart solutions to wicked problems and they hope to learn from

  5. Scalable Open Source Smart Grid Simulator (SGSim)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Stefanni, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    . This paper presents an open source smart grid simulator (SGSim). The simulator is based on open source SystemC Network Simulation Library (SCNSL) and aims to model scalable smart grid applications. SGSim has been tested under different smart grid scenarios that contain hundreds of thousands of households...

  6. Ontologies for commitment-based smart contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruijff, Joost; Weigand, Hans; Panetto, H; Debruyne, C.; Gaaloul, W.; Papazoglou, M.; Paschke, A.; Ardagna, C.A.; Meersman, R.

    2017-01-01

    Smart contracts gain rapid exposure since the inception of blockchain technology. Yet there is no unified ontology for smart contracts. Being categorized as coded contracts or substitutes of conventional legal contracts, there is a need to reduce the conceptual ambiguity of smart contracts. We

  7. Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

  8. Rancangbangun Smart Green House untuk Tanaman Hidroponik

    OpenAIRE

    Syam, Rafiuddin

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan merancang sistem kendali dan membuat manipulator smart green house. Metode penelitian yang dilakukan adalah eksperimen pada model smart green house. Dalam sistem ini mengggunakan mikrokontroller sebagai antar muka untuk melakukan peregerakan manipulator dalam sistem secara integritas. Smart greenhouse menggunakan sensor suhu, cahaya dan mikrokontroller yang digunakan adalah ATMEGA 8535. Torsi motor digunakan untuk mengangkat dan mendorong jendela dengan lengan manipul...

  9. Smart Mobility Stakeholders - Curating Urban Data & Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the curation of urban data and models through engaging SMART mobility stakeholders. SMART Mobility Urban Science Efforts are helping to expose key data sets, models, and roles for the U.S. Department of Energy in engaging across stakeholders to ensure useful insights. This will help to support other Urban Science and broader SMART initiatives.

  10. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    of the so-called big data possible. This can improve energy management, e.g., help utilities improve the management of energy and services, and help customers save money. As this regard, the paper focuses on building an innovative software solution to streamline smart meter data analytic, aiming at dealing......Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social......-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, data-mining and the emerging cloud computing technologies make the collection, management, and analysis...

  11. Co-designing smart tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liburd, Janne J.; Nielsen, Tanja K.; Heape, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Emerging theories of smart tourism are chiefly concerned with how Internet Communication Technology and Big Data can influence marketing, product and destination development. The risk being that an overt focus on formal outcomes, namely technology, products and services, diverts attention from how...... things and operations are actually achieved. This paper challenges the notions of smart and value co-creation by introducing tourism co-design as a learning and experiment driven development process. Tourism co-design leverages the communicative interaction between people and enables tourism operators...... to change their practices. Based on fieldwork in the northern part of Denmark we explore how smart tourism can become smarter through tourism co-design processes. We argue that a shift is needed from: How can we efficiently achieve a more or less known goal? To: How can we effectively explore and give sense...

  12. Smart Phones and their Substitutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Gimpel, Gregory; Hedman, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on data from a longitudinal field study, this paper investigates the influence of existing, better and stand-alone technology substitutes on the use of smart phones. By applying prospect theory, media richness theory, and business model literature, the purpose of this paper is to improve...... our understanding of the role of substitutes, device content fit issues, and implications for business models by asking the question: What is an effective business model to address the relationship between user preference and the fit of the smart phone and everyday task? The field study data suggest...... the need for business models to recognize that adoption decisions are reference-dependent and strongly influenced by the fit between task and smart phone....

  13. Aging well with smart technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Penny; Nikpour, Linda; Nowlin, Heather D

    2005-01-01

    As baby-boomers age, the need for long-term nursing care services increases. In the future, there will simply not be enough long-term care facilities to accommodate all of these patients. In addition, many people prefer to grow old at home, a concept known as aging-in-place. Smart home technology facilities aging-in-place by assisting patients with emergency assistance, fall prevention/detection, reminder systems, medication administration and assistance for those with hearing, visual or cognitive impairments. Benefits include making aging-in-place a reality, continuous monitoring, and improved psychosocial effects. Concerns of this technology include cost, availability of technology, retrofitting complications, and potential inappropriate use of the technology. Overall, the concept of smart homes is gaining in popularity and will expand the role of the nurse in the future. It is important for all nurses to understand how their practices will be transformed as smart homes become a reality for the aging population.

  14. Smart systems integration and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Poncino, Massimo; Pravadelli, Graziano

    2016-01-01

    This book-presents new methods and tools for the integration and simulation of smart devices. The design approach described in this book explicitly accounts for integration of Smart Systems components and subsystems as a specific constraint. It includes methodologies and EDA tools to enable multi-disciplinary and multi-scale modeling and design, simulation of multi-domain systems, subsystems and components at all levels of abstraction, system integration and exploration for optimization of functional and non-functional metrics. By covering theoretical and practical aspects of smart device design, this book targets people who are working and studying on hardware/software modelling, component integration and simulation under different positions (system integrators, designers, developers, researchers, teachers, students etc.). In particular, it is a good introduction to people who have interest in managing heterogeneous components in an efficient and effective way on different domains and different abstraction l...

  15. SMART POWER TURBINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirm V. Nirmalan

    2003-11-01

    Gas turbines are the choice technology for high-performance power generation and are employed in both simple and combined cycle configurations around the world. The Smart Power Turbine (SPT) program has developed new technologies that are needed to further extend the performance and economic attractiveness of gas turbines for power generation. Today's power generation gas turbines control firing temperatures indirectly, by measuring the exhaust gas temperature and then mathematically calculating the peak combustor temperatures. But temperatures in the turbine hot gas path vary a great deal, making it difficult to control firing temperatures precisely enough to achieve optimal performance. Similarly, there is no current way to assess deterioration of turbine hot-gas-path components without shutting down the turbine. Consequently, maintenance and component replacements are often scheduled according to conservative design practices based on historical fleet-averaged data. Since fuel heating values vary with the prevalent natural gas fuel, the inability to measure heating value directly, with sufficient accuracy and timeliness, can lead to maintenance and operational decisions that are less than optimal. GE Global Research Center, under this Smart Power Turbine program, has developed a suite of novel sensors that would measure combustor flame temperature, online fuel lower heating value (LHV), and hot-gas-path component life directly. The feasibility of using the ratio of the integrated intensities of portions of the OH emission band to determine the specific average temperature of a premixed methane or natural-gas-fueled combustion flame was demonstrated. The temperature determined is the temperature of the plasma included in the field of view of the sensor. Two sensor types were investigated: the first used a low-resolution fiber optic spectrometer; the second was a SiC dual photodiode chip. Both methods worked. Sensitivity to flame temperature changes was

  16. Sensor technology for smart homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A; Pasquina, Paul F; Fici-Pasquina, Lavinia

    2011-06-01

    A smart home is a residence equipped with technology that observes the residents and provides proactive services. Most recently, it has been introduced as a potential solution to support independent living of people with disabilities and older adults, as well as to relieve the workload from family caregivers and health providers. One of the key supporting features of a smart home is its ability to monitor the activities of daily living and safety of residents, and in detecting changes in their daily routines. With the availability of inexpensive low-power sensors, radios, and embedded processors, current smart homes are typically equipped with a large amount of networked sensors which collaboratively process and make deductions from the acquired data on the state of the home as well as the activities and behaviors of its residents. This article reviews sensor technology used in smart homes with a focus on direct environment sensing and infrastructure mediated sensing. The article also points out the strengths and limitations of different sensor technologies, as well as discusses challenges and opportunities from clinical, technical, and ethical perspectives. It is recommended that sensor technologies for smart homes address actual needs of all stake holders including end users, their family members and caregivers, and their doctors and therapists. More evidence on the appropriateness, usefulness, and cost benefits analysis of sensor technologies for smart homes is necessary before these sensors should be widely deployed into real-world residential settings and successfully integrated into everyday life and health care services. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hiring for smarts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, Justin

    2005-11-01

    Yes, it's nice when a leader is charismatic and confident. And a great resume can tell you a lot about a person's knowledge and experience. But such assets are no substitute for sheer business intelligence, and they reveal very little about a leader's ability to consistently reach the "right" answer. How can hiring managers flag individuals with such smarts? Historically, the only reliable measure of brainpower has been the standard IQ test, which is rarely used in business settings because of the specific subjects it tests for-math, reading, and spatial reasoning-and because of its multiple-choice format. Despite its shortcomings, the standard IQ test is still a better predictor of managerial success than any other assessment tool companies currently use, Justin Menkes argues. It's true that there isn't a version of IQ testing that applies to the corporate world, but in rejecting IQ tests altogether, hiring managers have thwarted their own attempts to identify true business stars. The author defines the specific subjects that make up "executive intelligence"-namely, accomplishing tasks, working with people, and judging oneself. He describes how to formulate questions to test job candidates for their mastery of these subjects, offering several examples based on real situations. Knowledge questions, such as those used in standard behavioral interviews, require people to recite what they have learned or experienced; intelligence questions call for individuals to demonstrate their abilities. Therefore, the questions in an executive intelligence test shouldn't require specific industry expertise or experience; any knowledge they call for must be rudimentary and common to all executives. And the questions should not be designed to ask whether the candidate has a particular skill; they should be configured so that the candidate will have to demonstrate that skill in the course of answering them.

  18. Smart Sensors for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sabooj; Mathews, Sheeja; Abraham, Sheena; Pradeep, N.; Vinod, P.

    2017-12-01

    Smart Sensors bring a paradigm shift in the data acquisition mechanism adopted for launch vehicle telemetry system. The sensors integrate signal conditioners, digitizers and communication systems to give digital output from the measurement location. Multiple sensors communicate with a centralized node over a common digital data bus. An in-built microcontroller gives the sensor embedded intelligence to carry out corrective action for sensor inaccuracies. A smart pressure sensor has been realized and flight-proven to increase the reliability as well as simplicity in integration so as to obtain improved data output. Miniaturization is achieved by innovative packaging. This work discusses the construction, working and flight performance of such a sensor.

  19. Smart wheelchairs: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard C

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that both children and adults benefit substantially from access to a means of independent mobility. While the needs of many individuals with disabilities can be satisfied with traditional manual or powered wheelchairs, a segment of the disabled community finds it difficult or impossible to use wheelchairs independently. To accommodate this population, researchers have used technologies originally developed for mobile robots to create "smart wheelchairs." Smart wheelchairs have been the subject of research since the early 1980s and have been developed on four continents. This article presents a summary of the current state of the art and directions for future research.

  20. SODA: Smart Objects, Dumb Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.

  1. Smart Grid enabled heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Detlefsen, Nina; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2014-01-01

    The transition towards a 100 % fossil-free energy system, while achieving extreme penetration levels of intermittent wind and solar power in electricity generation, requires demand-side technologies that are smart (intermittency-friendly) and efficient. The integration of Smart Grid enabling...... with an empirical study in order to achieve a number of recommendations with respect to technology concepts and control strategies that would allow residential vapor-compression heat pumps to support large-scale integration of intermittent renewables. The analysis is based on data gathered over a period of up to 3...

  2. Smart Grid Security. White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    One of the biggest concerns for smart grid developers is cyber security due to the reliance on IT communication networks. While the current grid is not immune to energy theft, fraud and malicious cyber-attacks, the smart grid poses new security issues. It is more likely now that theft, malicious attack and fraud will be committed by people working remotely from a laptop several miles away, even in a different country, than someone physically manipulating meters. This makes it difficult to predict where attacks will come from.

  3. IBM SmartCloud essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Schouten, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    A practical, user-friendly guide that provides an introduction to cloud computing using IBM SmartCloud, along with a thorough understanding of resource management in a cloud environment.This book is great for anyone who wants to get a grasp of what cloud computing is and what IBM SmartCloud has to offer. If you are an IT specialist, IT architect, system administrator, or a developer who wants to thoroughly understand the cloud computing resource model, this book is ideal for you. No prior knowledge of cloud computing is expected.

  4. Smart Grids and Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin BICĂ

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the main characteristics of Smart Grids and distributed generation. Smart Grids can be defined as a modernization of the power system so it monitors, protects and automatically optimizes the operation of its interconnected elements (power plants, transmission and distribution system, industrial and residential loads. Distributed generation (DG refers to the production of electricity near the consumption place using renewable energy sources. A load flow analysis is performed for the IEEE14 system in which a DG source (a 5MW wind turbine is added that is on-grid or off-grid. The power losses are determined for these two cases.

  5. Smart query answering for marine sensor data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriar, Md Sumon; de Souza, Paulo; Timms, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We review existing query answering systems for sensor data. We then propose an extended query answering approach termed smart query, specifically for marine sensor data. The smart query answering system integrates pattern queries and continuous queries. The proposed smart query system considers both streaming data and historical data from marine sensor networks. The smart query also uses query relaxation technique and semantics from domain knowledge as a recommender system. The proposed smart query benefits in building data and information systems for marine sensor networks.

  6. Evaluation of Smart Gun Technologies preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Smart Gun Technology Project has a goal to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing {open_quote}smart{close_quote} technologies. Smart technologies are those that can in some manner identify an officer. This report will identify, describe, and grade various technologies as compared to the requirements that were obtained from officers. This report does not make a final recommendation for a smart gun technology, nor does it give the complete design of a smart gun system.

  7. Communication and Networking in Smart Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate for researchers, practitioners, and students alike, Communication and Networking in Smart Grids presents state-of-the-art approaches and novel technologies for communication networks in smart grids. It explains how contemporary grid networks are developed and deployed and presents a collection of cutting-edge advances to help improve current practice. Prominent researchers working on smart grids and in related fields around the world explain the fundamental aspects and applications of smart grids. Describing the role that communication and networking will play in future smart grids

  8. Smart Query Answering for Marine Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We review existing query answering systems for sensor data. We then propose an extended query answering approach termed smart query, specifically for marine sensor data. The smart query answering system integrates pattern queries and continuous queries. The proposed smart query system considers both streaming data and historical data from marine sensor networks. The smart query also uses query relaxation technique and semantics from domain knowledge as a recommender system. The proposed smart query benefits in building data and information systems for marine sensor networks.

  9. Detection of Social Interaction in Smart Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron; Singla, Geetika; Thomas, Brian

    2010-02-01

    The pervasive sensing technologies found in smart environments offer unprecedented opportunities for monitoring and assisting the individuals who live and work in these spaces. An aspect of daily life that is important for one's emotional and physical health is social interaction. In this paper we investigate the use of smart environment technologies to detect and analyze interactions in smart spaces. We introduce techniques for collect and analyzing sensor information in smart environments to help in interpreting resident behavior patterns and determining when multiple residents are interacting. The effectiveness of our techniques is evaluated using two physical smart environment testbeds.

  10. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron S; Thomas, Brian L; Krishnan, Narayanan C

    2013-07-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS "smart home in a box", a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies.

  11. Smart Distribution Boxes, Complete Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platise, Uros

    2010-09-15

    Present households demand side management implementations are turning conventional appliances into smart ones to support auto demand (AutoDR) response function. Present concept features a direct link between the power meters and appliances. In this paper new concept and example of implementation of a so-called Smart Distribution Box (SmartDB) is represented for complete energy and power management. SmartDBs, as an intermediate layer, are extending smart grid power meter functionality to support AutoDR with fast and guaranteed response times, distributed power sources, and besides provide full control over energy management and extra safety functions to the consumers.

  12. Smart grid standards specifications, requirements, and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Takuro; Duan, Bin; Macuha, Martin; Zhou, Zhenyu; Wu, Jun; Tariq, Muhammad; Asfaw, Solomon A

    2015-01-01

    With numerous existing Smart Grid standards, it is clear that governments and industrial organizations world-wide have understood and acknowledged the critical role they play. This timely book is a useful guide for Smart Grid professionals in easily classifying fundamental Smart Grid standards, and to quickly find the building blocks they need to analyse and implement a Smart Grid system. The standards are organized in a systematic manner that aids identification, according to grid requirements. It also covers broader Smart Grid areas including, but not limited to, the following: A fully c

  13. Smart cities, smart lights. Digital signane and the city experience

    OpenAIRE

    Fiori, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    This article is about the experience of light in the smart and digital city or, in other words, the existing and widening use of visual digital signane in the urban environment, open air and in public places. This research focuses on where in towns this digital "contamination" is more visible and accessible, i.e. in shopping districts.

  14. Smart Grids. Innovators talking; Smart Grids. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on Smart Grids [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar Smart Grids.

  15. Ten questions concerning integrating smart buildings into the smart grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Thomas M.; Boudreau, Marie-Claude; Helsen, Lieve; Henze, Gregor; Mohammadpour, Javad; Noonan, Doug; Patteeuw, Dieter; Pless, Shanti; Watson, Richard T.

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in information and communications technology (ICT) have initiated development of a smart electrical grid and smart buildings. Buildings consume a large portion of the total electricity production worldwide, and to fully develop a smart grid they must be integrated with that grid. Buildings can now be 'prosumers' on the grid (both producers and consumers), and the continued growth of distributed renewable energy generation is raising new challenges in terms of grid stability over various time scales. Buildings can contribute to grid stability by managing their overall electrical demand in response to current conditions. Facility managers must balance demand response requests by grid operators with energy needed to maintain smooth building operations. For example, maintaining thermal comfort within an occupied building requires energy and, thus an optimized solution balancing energy use with indoor environmental quality (adequate thermal comfort, lighting, etc.) is needed. Successful integration of buildings and their systems with the grid also requires interoperable data exchange. However, the adoption and integration of newer control and communication technologies into buildings can be problematic with older legacy HVAC and building control systems. Public policy and economic structures have not kept up with the technical developments that have given rise to the budding smart grid, and further developments are needed in both technical and non-technical areas.

  16. Smart Grids. Innovators talking; Smart Grids. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on Smart Grids [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar Smart Grids.

  17. 3rd international KES conference on Smart Education and Smart e-Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2016-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented at the 3rd international KES conference on Smart Education and Smart e-Learning, which took place in Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, June 15-17, 2016. It contains a total of 56 peer-reviewed book chapters that are grouped into several parts: Part 1 - Smart University: Conceptual Modeling, Part 2 – Smart Education: Research and Case Studies, Part 3 – Smart e-Learning, Part 4 – Smart Education: Software and Hardware Systems, and Part 5 – Smart Technology as a Resource to Improve Education and Professional Training. We believe that the book will serve as a useful source of research data and valuable information for faculty, scholars, Ph.D. students, administrators, and practitioners - those who are interested in innovative areas of smart education and smart e-learning. .

  18. 2nd international KES conference on Smart Education and Smart e-Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented at the 2nd international KES conference on Smart Education and Smart e-Learning, which took place in Sorrento, Italy, June 17-19, 2015. It contains a total of 45 peer-reviewed book chapters that are grouped into several parts: Part 1 - Smart Education, Part 2 – Smart Educational Technology, Part 3 – Smart e-Learning, Part 4 – Smart Professional Training and Teachers’ Education, and Part 5 – Smart Teaching and Training related Topics.  This book can be a useful source of research data and valuable information for faculty, scholars, Ph.D. students, administrators, and practitioners  - those who are interested in innovative areas of smart education and smart e-learning.  .

  19. Complex IoT Systems as Enablers for Smart Homes in a Smart City Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2016-01-01

    The world is entering a new era, where Internet-of-Things (IoT), smart homes, and smart cities will play an important role in meeting the so-called big challenges. In the near future, it is foreseen that the majority of the world’s population will live their lives in smart homes and in smart cities...... the “smart” vision. This paper proposes a specific solution in the form of a hierarchical layered ICT based infrastructure that handles ICT issues related to the “big challenges” and seamlessly integrates IoT, smart homes, and smart city structures into one coherent unit. To exemplify benefits......% of the wastewater energy in a smart residential building. By letting the smart city infrastructure coordinate and control the harvest time and duration, it is possible to achieve considerable energy savings in the smart homes, and it is possible to reduce the peak-load for district heating plants....

  20. Gamification in the context of smart cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zica, M. R.; Ionica, A. C.; Leba, M.

    2018-01-01

    The recent emergence of smart cities is highly supported by the development of IT and IoT technologies. Nevertheless, a smart city needs to be built to meet the needs and requirements of its citizens. In order to build a smart city it is necessary to understand the benefits of such a city. A smart city is, beyond technology, populated by people. A smart city can be raised by its citizens’ contribution, and gamification is the means to motivate them. In this paper we included gamification techniques in the stage of capturing the citizens’ requirements for building a smart city. The system proposed in the paper is to create an application that allows the building of a virtual smart city customized by each user. From this virtual city, the most relevant features are extracted.

  1. Metacognitive components in smart learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumadyo, M.; Santoso, H. B.; Sensuse, D. I.

    2018-03-01

    Metacognitive ability in digital-based learning process helps students in achieving learning goals. So that digital-based learning environment should make the metacognitive component as a facility that must be equipped. Smart Learning Environment is the concept of a learning environment that certainly has more advanced components than just a digital learning environment. This study examines the metacognitive component of the smart learning environment to support the learning process. A review of the metacognitive literature was conducted to examine the components involved in metacognitive learning strategies. Review is also conducted on the results of study smart learning environment, ranging from design to context in building smart learning. Metacognitive learning strategies certainly require the support of adaptable, responsive and personalize learning environments in accordance with the principles of smart learning. The current study proposed the role of metacognitive component in smart learning environment, which is useful as the basis of research in building environment in smart learning.

  2. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance plus reliever therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Le Roux, Pascal; Bjåmer, Ditlef

    2006-01-01

    on ICS investigated whether a novel regimen using budesonide/formoterol for maintenance and reliever therapy (Symbicort maintenance and relief therapy [SMART]) [Symbicort; AstraZeneca R&D, Lund, Sweden] could reduce exacerbations. METHODS: Patients received SMART (budesonide/formoterol 80/4.5 microg qd...... maintenance plus additional inhalations for symptom relief), budesonide/formoterol 80/4.5 microg qd for maintenance (fixed combination), or higher-dose budesonide 320 microg qd (fixed-dose budesonide). Blinded as-needed medication (terbutaline 0.4 microg) was provided in both fixed-dose groups. RESULTS: SMART...... prolonged the time to first exacerbation vs fixed-dose budesonide (p = 0.02) and fixed-dose combination (p SMART vs fixed-dose budesonide and fixed-dose combination (0.08/patient vs 0.28/patient and 0.40/patient...

  3. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  4. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-07

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting.

  5. Smart ampholytic ABC block copolypeptide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlaad, H.; Sun, J.; Černoch, Peter; Ruokolainen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 254, 20 August (2017), s. 79 ISSN 0065-7727. [ACS National Meeting & Exposition /254./. 20.08.2017-24.08.2017, Washington] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : block copolypeptide * smart ampholytic Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science

  6. The smart grid research network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troi, Anders; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Larsen, Emil Mahler

    2013-01-01

    Grid Network’s recommendations’, which relate to strengthening and marketing the research infrastructure that will position Denmark as the global hub for Smart Grid development; strengthening basic research into the complex relationships in electric systems with large quantities of independent parties...

  7. Smart Grid Control and Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciontea, Catalin-Iosif; Pedersen, Rasmus; Kristensen, Thomas le Fevre

    2015-01-01

    to the reliability due to the stochastic behavior found in such networks. Therefore, key concepts are presented in this paper targeting the support of proper smart grid control in these network environments and its Real-Time Hardware-In-the Loop (HIL) verification. An overview on the required Information...

  8. Designing Smart Charter School Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Erin

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, Andrew J. Rotherham proposed a new approach to the contentious issue of charter school caps, the statutory limits on charter school growth in place in several states. Rotherham's proposal, termed "smart charter school caps," called for quality sensitive caps that allow the expansion of high-performing charter schools while also…

  9. Smart Houses and Uncomfortable Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Norman; Arnott, John

    2015-01-01

    In order for smart houses to achieve acceptance from potential beneficiaries they will need to match the users' expectation that their house is also their home, with the sense of privacy and control that this implies. Designers of this technology will need to be aware of findings in this regard from fields such as architecture and design ethnography.

  10. Smart Home Wireless Sensor Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    . This paper introduces an approach that considerably lowers the wireless sensor node power consumption and the amount of transmitted sensor events. It uses smart objects that include artificial intelligence to efficiently process the sensor event on location and thereby saves the costly wireless...

  11. Conducted interference on smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyer, Cornelis H.A.; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The increasing conducted interference caused by modern electronic equipment is causing more problems for electronic, or static, energy meters. These meters are called smart meters when equipped with a communication link, and are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. It is known that

  12. Privacy concerns in smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van Zoonen (Liesbet)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a framework is constructed to hypothesize if and how smart city technologies and urban big data produce privacy concerns among the people in these cities (as inhabitants, workers, visitors, and otherwise). The framework is built on the basis of two recurring dimensions in

  13. Business case for smart homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franck, E.; Nauta, J.; Haan, R. de

    2016-01-01

    The application of home automation in “smart homes” has been successful from a technological point of view. In practice, however, few projects seem able to survive after the initial financing period has ended, failing to establish a positive business case. This chapter addresses why the positive

  14. Smart lighting using LED luminaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhardwaj, S.; Ozcelebi, T.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The target of a smart lighting system is to control light sources in an environment (e.g. home, office) adaptively according to user contexts and preferences. Literature work in this area focuses on traditional light sources such as incandescent and fluorescent lights, whereas this paper takes a

  15. European and Italian experience of Smart Cities: A model for the smart planning of city built

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starlight Vattano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction of the city through smart measures is now a frontier reached from many cities in the world. The built environment requires smart planning able to relate urban realities that are relegated to a marginal change. But how does the smart cities can create a relationship between sustainable cities of the future and their heritage? The article highlights the way of smart urban transformation of reality European and Italian proposing critical comparisons from which to infer smart parameters most used and easy to apply for the sustainable construction of these smart cities focusing on the urban sources of intelligent retrieval for quality their historical and cultural heritage.

  16. A Smart Home Gateway Platform for Data Collection and Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Pan; Ye, Feng; Chen, Xuejiao

    2018-01-01

    Smart homes have attracted much attention due to the expanding of Internet-of-Things (IoT) and smart devices. In this paper, we propose a smart gateway platform for data collection and awareness in smart home networks. A smart gateway will replace the traditional network gateway to connect the home network and the Internet. A smart home network supports different types of smart devices, such as in home IoT devices, smart phones, smart electric appliances, etc. A traditional network gateway is...

  17. Determining the feasibility of objective adherence measurement with blister packaging smart technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzenoort, H.A. van; Neef, C.; Verberk, W.W.; van Iperen, H.P.; Leeuw, P.W. de; van der Kuy, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The results of a feasibility study of blister-pack smart technology for monitoring medication adherence are reported. METHODS: Research in the area of objective therapy compliance measurement has led to the development of microprocessor-driven systems that record the time a unit dose is

  18. 2-Iminobiotin Superimposed on Hypothermia Protects Human Neuronal Cells from Hypoxia-Induced Cell Damage: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Zitta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia represents one of the major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Hypothermia is currently the only established treatment for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE, but additional pharmacological strategies are being explored to further reduce the damage after perinatal asphyxia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether 2-iminobiotin (2-IB superimposed on hypothermia has the potential to attenuate hypoxia-induced injury of neuronal cells. In vitro hypoxia was induced for 7 h in neuronal IMR-32 cell cultures. Afterwards, all cultures were subjected to 25 h of hypothermia (33.5°C, and incubated with vehicle or 2-IB (10, 30, 50, 100, and 300 ng/ml. Cell morphology was evaluated by brightfield microscopy. Cell damage was analyzed by LDH assays. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS was measured using fluorometric assays. Western blotting for PARP, Caspase-3, and the phosphorylated forms of akt and erk1/2 was conducted. To evaluate early apoptotic events and signaling, cell protein was isolated 4 h post-hypoxia and human apoptosis proteome profiler arrays were performed. Twenty-five hour after the hypoxic insult, clear morphological signs of cell damage were visible and significant LDH release as well as ROS production were observed even under hypothermic conditions. Post-hypoxic application of 2-IB (10 and 30 ng/ml reduced the hypoxia-induced LDH release but not ROS production. Phosphorylation of erk1/2 was significantly increased after hypoxia, while phosphorylation of akt, protein expression of Caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP were only slightly increased. Addition of 2-IB did not affect any of the investigated proteins. Apoptosis proteome profiler arrays performed with cellular protein obtained 4 h after hypoxia revealed that post-hypoxic application of 2-IB resulted in a ≥ 25% down regulation of 10/35 apoptosis-related proteins: Bad, Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved Caspase-3, TRAILR1, TRAILR2, PON2, p21, p27, and phospho

  19. Dependence of the frequency spectrum of small amplitude vibrations superimposed on finite deformations of a nonlinear, cylindrical elastic body on residual stress

    KAUST Repository

    Gorb, Yuliya

    2010-11-01

    We model and analyze the response of nonlinear, residually stressed elastic bodies subjected to small amplitude vibrations superimposed upon large deformations. The problem derives from modeling the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging to interrogate atherosclerotic plaques in vivo in large arteries. The goal of this investigation is twofold: (i) introduce a modeling framework for residual stress that unlike traditional Fung type classical opening angle models may be used for a diseased artery, and (ii) investigate the sensitivity of the spectra of small amplitude high frequency time harmonic vibrations superimposed on a large deformation to the details of the residual stress stored in arteries through a numerical simulation using physiologic parameter values under both low and high blood pressure loadings. The modeling framework also points the way towards an inverse problem using IVUS techniques to estimate residual stress in healthy and diseased arteries. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determining the feasibility of objective adherence measurement with blister packaging smart technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Onzenoort, Hein A; Neef, Cees; Verberk, Willem W; van Iperen, H Peter; de Leeuw, Peter W; van der Kuy, Paul-Hugo M

    2012-05-15

    The results of a feasibility study of blister-pack smart technology for monitoring medication adherence are reported. Research in the area of objective therapy compliance measurement has led to the development of microprocessor-driven systems that record the time a unit dose is removed from blister packaging. One device under development is the Smart Blister-a label imprinted with event-detection circuitry that can be affixed to standard commercial blister cards. In the first trial of the device in actual clinical practice, 115 community-dwelling Dutch patients receiving valsartan maintenance therapy (160 mg once daily) were given 14-day blister packages equipped with the Smart Blister. On the return of empty blister cards to the 20 participating community pharmacies, the stored information was scanned and downloaded for data analysis and patient counseling purposes. A total of 245 Smart Blister-equipped packages were used by valsartan recipients during the eight-month study. The device was largely effective in recording patient and blister-card identification data and other desired information. However, in 17% of cases, the Smart Blister system registered multiple tablet-removal events at the same time, presumably indicating unintentional breakage of nearby conductive circuits and the need for design refinements. The Smart Blister-equipped medication cards were generally well received by patients and pharmacies. An evaluation of the functionality and robustness of the Smart Blister in a real-world clinical practice situation yielded some promising results, but the findings also indicated a need for design refinements and additional performance testing of the device.

  1. How a 10-day heatwave impacts barley grain yield when superimposed onto future levels of temperature and CO2 as single and combined factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz Ingvordsen, Cathrine; Lyngkjær, Michael F.; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo

    2018-01-01

    Heatwaves pose a threat to crop production and are predicted to increase in frequency, length and intensity as a consequence of global warming. Future heatwaves will occur in addition to the ongoing increase of mean temperature and CO2. To test effects of heatwaves superimposed to future climate ...... exposure, leading to a strong decline in the harvest index. Our results strongly emphasize the need to produce heatwave resilient cultivars....

  2. Energy conservation through smart homes in a smart city: A lesson for Singapore households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, Abhishek; Hansen, Michael; Chan, Ching Man

    2017-01-01

    Energy saving is a hot topic due to the proliferation of climate changes and energy challenges globally. However, people's perception about using smart technology for energy saving is still in the concept stage. This means that people talk about environmental awareness readily, yet in reality, they accept to pay the given energy bill. Due to the availability of electricity and its integral role, modulating consumers’ attitudes towards energy savings can be a challenge. Notably, the gap in today's smart technology design in smart homes is the understanding of consumers’ behaviour and the integration of this understanding into the smart technology. As part of the Paris Climate change agreement (2015), it is paramount for Singapore to introduce smart technologies targeted to reduce energy consumption. This paper focused on the perception of Singapore households on smart technology and its usage to save energy. Areas of current research include: (1) energy consumption in Singapore households, (2) public programs and policies in energy savings, (3) use of technology in energy savings, and (4) household perception of energy savings in smart homes. Furthermore, three case studies are reviewed in relation to smart homes and smart technology, while discussing the maturity of existing solutions. - Highlights: • Analyse perception of Singapore households about the usage of smart technology to save energy. • Reviews energy consumption, public policies and household perception of energy savings. • Three case studies were developed and reviewed in relation to smart homes and smart technology. • Analyse research gap of household behaviours and perceptions as smart home design focus.

  3. Smart Energy 2012. How smart is the way towards the turnaround in the energy policy; Smart Energy 2012. Wie smart ist der Weg zur Energiewende?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossmann, Uwe; Kunold, Ingo (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The contribution under consideration contains fifteen contributions of well-known authors from commercial enterprises, public institutions and universities on smart energy: (1) Smart grids, but surely (Claudia Eckert); (2) Requirements concerning the further development of data protection and data security as part of the technological change (Reinhold Harnisch); (3) Standardization in the smart grid (Harald Orlamuender); (4) IEC 61850 - The standard for energy automation (Georg Harnischmacher); (5) Smart City, the intelligent grid in the city (Michael Laskowski); (6) IKT is a basis for a real smart power distribution system (Justus Bross); (7) Power transparency and optimized building optimization by means of a holistic automation concepts (Joerg Wollert); (8) Distributed architecture for a balancing aggregation of consumption and generation of power in private households (Kilian Hemmeboehle); (9) Development of an e-energy market place and first experiences from the field test in the E-DeMa project (Bernd Werner); (10) Smart metering rollout pilot ''30,000er'' (Axel Lauterkorn); (11) Experiences with the connexion and communication to smart meters in the project eTelligence (Guenter Pistoor); (12) Smart Phoenix - Intelligent energy networks in Dortmund (Roland Brueggemann); (13) Smart planning (C. Engels); Intelligent house control by means of smart metering (Sabine Wieland); (14) Dynamic billing of energy and value-added service in the networked home (Frank C. Bormann).

  4. Superimposed dual-isotope SPECT using 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate and 201Tl-chloride to assess cartilage invasion in laryngohypopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Yuka; Yokoe, Koiku; Miyabe, Kazunori; Iwasaki, Takanobu; Toyama, Yoshihiro; Satoh, Katashi; Ohkawa, Motoomi

    2004-01-01

    Cartilage invasion in laryngohypopharyngeal cancer has a significant impact on the choice of treatment modality and outcome of the disease. We examined invasion of cartilage in laryngohypopharyngeal cancer by simultaneous bone and tumor dual-isotope SPECT using 99m Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate and 201 Tl-chloride. Early and delayed simultaneous bone and tumor dual-isotope SPECT were performed on 19 patients with laryngohypopharyngeal cancer. Dual-isotope SPECT images were superimposed to project tumor location from tumor SPECT onto the osseous structures shown by bone SPECT. The presence or absence of cartilage invasion was evaluated histopathologically or by radiological studies such as CT and/or MRI. Histopathological or radiological examination of the cartilage revealed invasion in 5 patients and no invasion in 14 patients. The results of both early and delayed dual-isotope SPECT were exactly the same. Using dual-isotope SPECT, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in detecting cartilage invasion by laryngohypopharyngeal cancer were: 80% (4/5), 92.9% (13/14), and 89.5% (17/19), respectively. Results of the present study suggest that superimposed early bone and tumor dual-isotope SPECT images may be sufficient for the diagnostic evaluation of cartilage invasion by laryngohypopharyngeal cancer. Superimposed dual-isotope SPECT imaging is a useful technique in the evaluation of cartilage invasion in laryngohypopharyngeal cancer. (author)

  5. Where's the smartness of learning in smart territories ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giovannella

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the future smarter territories are expected to induce transformations of many aspects of the learning processes, but how their smartness is and will be related to that of the learning ecosystems ? In this paper, by means of Principal Component Analysis, we critically analyse methods presently used to benchmark and produce University rankings, by focusing on the case study of the Italian Universities. The outcomes of such analysis allow us to demonstrate the existence of a strong correlation between smart cities' and universities' rankings, i.e. between learning ecosystems and their territories of reference. Present benchmarking approaches, however, need to take in more consideration people feelings and expectations. Accordingly we suggest an innovative point of view on the benchmarking of learning ecosystems based, also, on the so called flow.

  6. Smart City Through a Flexible Approach to Smart Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutule, A.; Teremranova, J.; Antoskovs, N.

    2018-02-01

    The paper provides an overview of the development trends of the smart city. Over the past decades, the trend of the new urban model called smart city has been gaining momentum, which is an aggregate of the latest technologies, intelligent administration and conscious citizens, which allows the city to actively develop, and effectively and efficiently solve the problems it is facing. Profound changes are also taking place in the energy sector. Researchers and other specialists offer a wide variety of innovative solutions and approaches for the concepts of intelligent cities. The paper reviews and analyses the existing methodological solutions in the field of power industry, as well as provides recommendations how to introduce the common platform on the basis of disparate sources of information on energy resources existing in the city as an optimal solution for developing the city's intelligence, flexibility and sustainability based on its starting conditions.

  7. Fall Detection Using Commodity Smart Watch and Smart Phone

    OpenAIRE

    Maglogiannis , Ilias; Ioannou , Charalampos; Spyroglou , George; Tsanakas , Panayiotis

    2014-01-01

    Part 3: Social Media and Mobile Applications of AI; International audience; Human motion data captured from wearable devices such as smart watches can be utilized for activity recognition or emergency event detection, especially in the case of elderly or disabled people living independently in their homes. The output of such sensors is data streams that require real-time recognition, especially in emergency situations. This paper presents a novel application that utilizes the low-cost Pebble ...

  8. SMART-ITEM: IoT-Enabled Smart Living

    OpenAIRE

    Kor, A; Pattinson, C; Yanovsky, M; Kharchenko, V

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this proposed project is to harness the emerging IoT technology to empower elderly population to self-manage their own health, stay active, healthy, and independent as long as possible within a smart and secured living environment. An integrated open-sourced IoT ecosystem will be developed. It will encompass the entire data lifecycle which involves the following processes: data acquisition, data transportation; data integration, processing, manipulation and computation; visua...

  9. Smart grid for comfort; Smart grid voor comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, W.; Van der Velden, J.A.J. [Kropman, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Vissers, D.R.; Maaijen, H.N. [Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kling, W.L. [Faculteit Electrical Engineering, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Larsen, J.P. [Sense Observation Systems, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    A new control strategy was developed based on the application of wireless sensor network with the connection to a smart grid to investigate if it is possible to save energy on the level of the user under the condition of maintaining the same or even improved level of individual comfort. By using different scenarios, for individual comfort and energy consumption, agents provide the steering of the process control This forms the basis of a new approach to optimize the energy consumption, after which the effect of it can be used on the level of residential building to optimize the interaction with the electrical infrastructure, the smart grid. [Dutch] Er vindt onderzoek plaats naar een nieuwe regelstrategie gebaseerd op de toepassing van een draadloos sensor netwerk dat is gekoppeld aan het smart grid. Doel van deze regelstrategie is om op gebruikersniveau energie te kunnen besparen met behoud of zelfs verbetering van het individueel comfort. Er zijn verschillende scenario's voor individueel comfort en energiegebruik van apparatuur met behulp van agents die voor de aansturing kunnen zorgen. Zo wordt de kern van de energievraag geoptimaliseerd. De doorwerking hiervan tot op het niveau van woninggebouw en de koppeling met het externe elektriciteitsnet kan vervolgens worden geoptimaliseerd.

  10. Design of smart functional apparel products for moxa moxibustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Au, Wai-man; Ding, Feng; Wong, Kwok-shing

    2013-08-01

    Moxa Moxibustion is a common traditional Chinese therapy in which burning Moxa is applied to affected body areas. This method has been employed for thousands of years to achieve certain medical objectives, such as pain relief or antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. Its therapeutic effectiveness has been demonstrated successfully both in research and clinical studies. However, this traditional approach may cause undesirable side effects, for example: 1) burning of Moxa produces by-products such as smoke and ash; 2) patients are at risk of being burnt; 3) the active ingredients of the Moxa leaf oil are volatile, odorous, unstable in air and easy to dissipate, and difficult to store and transport; 4) it is inconvenient to operate. These side effects limit its further high-potential and high-value applications. This study is aimed at developing a multi-functional smart textile system that will adopt smart fabrics containing encapsulated Moxa oil integrated with thermally conductive materials to replace the conventional Moxa products. This will efficiently deliver the active ingredients of Moxa to a human body at optimum conditions, i.e., in a precise and controllable way, with maximum convenience and a high level of comfort. Doing so would solve the existing problems mentioned above. Both garment design skill and textile technology will be applied to Moxa Moxibustion textile to enhance the aesthetics and functionality. The smart garment performance will be assessed subjectively in a clinical trial and objectively by a number of instrumental methods.

  11. Traffic Information Systems for Smart Mobility as part of Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Suske, David; Touko Tcheumadjeu, Louis Calvin; Sohr, Alexander; Xiaoxu, Bei

    2016-01-01

    The unlimited and unrestricted mobility of people and goods in urban areas is one of the key factors for economic and social development of the city. Today with the availability of smart technologies and various intelligent transportation and telematics solutions the Smart Mobility as part of a Smart City is possible to maintain the mobility ecosystem in the city. But to make the urban mobility smart by assuring the sustainability, safety, low emission and comfort in urban transport new mobil...

  12. Smart Home Test Bed: Examining How Smart Homes Interact with the Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Smart Home Test Bed capability at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working on one of the new frontiers of smart home research: finding ways for smart home technologies and systems to enhance grid operations in the presence of distributed, clean energy technologies such as photovoltaics (PV). To help advance this research, NREL has developed a controllable, flexible, and fully integrated Smart Home Test Bed.

  13. 2016 SmartWay Affiliate Challenge Recognition Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA presentation gives an overview of the SmartWay program and showcases the SmartWay Affiliate awardees raising awareness of the benefits of the SmartWay program and sustainable freight transportation.

  14. Smart Cards 101: Everything a Beginner Needs To Get Started.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to implement a smart card system at a college or university, and explains what smart cards are, their potential applications, benefits, and costs. Provides a resource for obtaining additional information about smart cards. (GR)

  15. Comprehensive measures of sound exposures in cinemas using smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Markus E; Popelka, Gerald R; Blevins, Nikolas H

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss from sound overexposure has a considerable prevalence. Identification of sound hazards is crucial, as prevention, due to a lack of definitive therapies, is the sole alternative to hearing aids. One subjectively loud, yet little studied, potential sound hazard is movie theaters. This study uses smart phones to evaluate their applicability as a widely available, validated sound pressure level (SPL) meter. Therefore, this study measures sound levels in movie theaters to determine whether sound levels exceed safe occupational noise exposure limits and whether sound levels in movie theaters differ as a function of movie, movie theater, presentation time, and seat location within the theater. Six smart phones with an SPL meter software application were calibrated with a precision SPL meter and validated as an SPL meter. Additionally, three different smart phone generations were measured in comparison to an integrating SPL meter. Two different movies, an action movie and a children's movie, were measured six times each in 10 different venues (n = 117). To maximize representativeness, movies were selected focusing on large release productions with probable high attendance. Movie theaters were selected in the San Francisco, CA, area based on whether they screened both chosen movies and to represent the largest variety of theater proprietors. Measurements were analyzed in regard to differences between theaters, location within the theater, movie, as well as presentation time and day as indirect indicator of film attendance. The smart phone measurements demonstrated high accuracy and reliability. Overall, sound levels in movie theaters do not exceed safe exposure limits by occupational standards. Sound levels vary significantly across theaters and demonstrated statistically significant higher sound levels and exposures in the action movie compared to the children's movie. Sound levels decrease with distance from the screen. However, no influence on

  16. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... devices in their costumers household e.g. heat pumps. With these smart services, utility companies can do load balancing on the grid by shifting load using resources the customers have. The problem investigated in this paper is what bandwidth require-ments can be expected when implementing such network...... to utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...

  17. Smart city planning and development shortcomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Angelidou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores smart city planning and development shortcomings. In particular, it investigates eleven cases of smart city strategies and the shortcomings that were observed during their planning and implementation stages. The cases include: Barcelona Smart City, PlanlT Valley, Stockholm Smart City, Cyberjaya, King Abdullah Economic City, Masdar City, Skolkovo, Songdo International Business District, Chicago Smart City, Rio de Janeiro Smart City, and Konza Technology City. The paper proceeds with the synthesis of the findings and their critical appraisal. Shortcomings are classified into economic and budget shortages, bureaucratic and organizational challenges, challenges in the development and layout of digital services, poor physical planning, struggle to attract investment and support the development of new businesses, low performance in attracting and engaging users, and stakeholder resistance. In turn, the shortcomings are clustered in two distinct groups and analyzed in terms of causes and effects. The paper closes with mitigation propositions, accounting for past experience and novel approaches to this end.

  18. Triple-layer smart grid business model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Lundgaard, Morten; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2016-01-01

    Viewing the smart grid with the theory of business models may open opportunities in understanding and capturing values in new markets. This study tries to discover and map the smart grid ecosystem-based business model framework with two different environments (sub-Saharan Africa and Denmark......), and identifies the parameters for the smart grid solutions to the emerging markets. This study develops a triple-layer business model including the organizational (Niche), environmental (Intermediate), and global (Dominators) factors. The result uncovers an interface of market factors and stakeholders...... in a generic smart grid constellation. The findings contribute the transferability potential of the smart grid solutions between countries, and indicate the potential to export and import smart grid solutions based on the business modeling....

  19. Basis of valve operator selection for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H. S.; Lee, D. J.; See, J. K.; Park, C. K.; Choi, B. S.

    2000-05-01

    SMART, an integral reactor with enhanced safety and operability, is under development for use of the nuclear energy. The valve operator of SMART system were selected through the data survey and technical review of potential valve fabrication vendors, and it will provide the establishment and optimization of the basic system design of SMART. In order to establish and optimize the basic system design of SMART, the basis of selection for the valve operator type were provided based on the basic design requirements. The basis of valve operator selection for SMART will be used as a basic technical data for the SMART basic and detail design and a fundamental material for the new reactor development in the future

  20. A DISTRIBUTED SMART HOME ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    A majority of the research performed today explore artificial intelligence in smart homes by using a centralized approach where a smart home server performs the necessary calculations. This approach has some disadvantages that can be overcome by shifting focus to a distributed approach where...... the artificial intelligence system is implemented as distributed as agents running parts of the artificial intelligence system. This paper presents a distributed smart home architecture that distributes artificial intelligence in smart homes and discusses the pros and cons of such a concept. The presented...... distributed model is a layered model. Each layer offers a different complexity level of the embedded distributed artificial intelligence. At the lowest layer smart objects exists, they are small cheap embedded microcontroller based smart devices that are powered by batteries. The next layer contains a more...

  1. Minat Masyarakat dalam Menggunakan Smart Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Harga sumber energi yang semakin naik dari tahun ke tahun dan kemajuan teknologi telah mendorong perkembangan smart grid. Smart appliance merupakan salah satu komponen penting dalam smart grid. Penerapan smart appliance sejalan dengan kebijakan untuk mengurangi konsumsi energi, mengurangi emisi karbon dan penyediaan energi dari energi terbarukan. Penetrasi telepon bergerak turut memudahkan manajemen energi dan otomatisasi home appliance. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis minat masyarakat, yang merupakan aktor aktif dalam konsumsi dan manajemen energi di rumah tangga. Data penelitian dianalisis  dengan menggunakan metode structural equation modeling (SEM Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa variabel enjoyment memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap minat dalam menggunakan smart appliance. Sedangkan, variabel compatibility ease of use, relative advantage dan image tidak memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap minat menggunakan smart appliance.

  2. Basis of valve operator selection for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H. S.; Lee, D. J.; See, J. K.; Park, C. K.; Choi, B. S

    2000-05-01

    SMART, an integral reactor with enhanced safety and operability, is under development for use of the nuclear energy. The valve operator of SMART system were selected through the data survey and technical review of potential valve fabrication vendors, and it will provide the establishment and optimization of the basic system design of SMART. In order to establish and optimize the basic system design of SMART, the basis of selection for the valve operator type were provided based on the basic design requirements. The basis of valve operator selection for SMART will be used as a basic technical data for the SMART basic and detail design and a fundamental material for the new reactor development in the future.

  3. Japan. Superconductivity for Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.

    2012-11-15

    Currently, many smart grid projects are running or planned worldwide. These aim at controlling the electricity supply more efficiently and more stably in a new power network system. In Japan, especially superconductivity technology development projects are carried out to contribute to the future smart grid. Japanese cable makers such as Sumitomo Electric and Furukawa Electric are leading in the production of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. The world's largest electric current and highest voltage superconductivity proving tests have been started this year. Big cities such as Tokyo will be expected to introduce the HTS power cables to reduce transport losses and to meet the increased electricity demand in the near future. Superconducting devices, HTS power cables, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and flywheels are the focus of new developments in cooperations between companies, universities and research institutes, funded by the Japanese research and development funding organization New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)

  4. Smart Metering System for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios-Garcia, Emilio; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    suppliers, but they can also play a big role in the control of the Microgrid since the recorded power and energy profiles can be integrated in energy management systems (EMS). In addition, basic power quality (PQ) disturbance can de detected and reported by some advanced metering systems. Thus, this paper...... will expose an example of Smart Meters integration in a Microgrid scenario, which is the Intelligent Microgrid Lab of Aalborg University (AAU). To do this, first the installation available in the Microgrid Lab will be introduced. Then, three different test scenarios and their respective results...... will be presented, regarding the capabilities of this system and the advantages of integration the Smart Meters information in the Microgrid control....

  5. Hierarchical Control for Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    of autonomous consumers. The control system is tasked with balancing electric power production and consumption within the smart grid, and makes active use of the flexibility of a large number of power producing and/or power consuming units. The objective is to accommodate the load variation on the grid, arising......This paper deals with hierarchical model predictive control (MPC) of smart grid systems. The design consists of a high level MPC controller, a second level of so-called aggregators, which reduces the computational and communication-related load on the high-level control, and a lower level...... on one hand from varying consumption, and on the other hand by natural variations in power production e.g. from wind turbines. The high-level MPC problem is solved using quadratic optimisation, while the aggregator level can either involve quadratic optimisation or simple sorting-based min-max solutions...

  6. SMART core protection system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. K.; Park, H. Y.; Koo, I. S.; Park, H. S.; Kim, J. S.; Son, C. H.

    2003-01-01

    SMART COre Protection System(SCOPS) is designed with real-tims Digital Signal Processor(DSP) board and Network Interface Card(NIC) board. SCOPS has a Control Rod POSition (CRPOS) software module while Core Protection Calculator System(CPCS) consists of Core Protection Calculators(CPCs) and Control Element Assembly(CEA) Calculators(CEACs) in the commercial nuclear plant. It's not necessary to have a independent cabinets for SCOPS because SCOPS is physically very small. Then SCOPS is designed to share the cabinets with Plant Protection System(PPS) of SMART. Therefor it's very easy to maintain the system because CRPOS module is used instead of the computer with operating system

  7. [Smart cards in health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienhoff, O

    2001-10-01

    Since the early 1980-ties it has been tried to utilise smart cards in health care. All industrialised countries participated in those efforts. The most sustainable analyses took place in Europe--specifically in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. The first systems installed (the service access cards in F and G, the Health Professional Card in F) are already conceptionally outdated today. The senior understanding of the great importance of smart cards for security of electronic communication in health care does contrast to a hesitating behaviour of the key players in health care and health politics in Germany. There are clear hints that this may relate to the low informatics knowledge of current senior management.

  8. Smart antennas for nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Ranjan Bala; Singhi, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    The advances in the field of computer and communications are leading to the development of smart embedded nuclear instruments. These instruments have highly sophisticated signal-processing algorithms based on FPGA and ASICS, provisions of present day connectivity and user interfaces. The developments in the connectivity, standards and bus technologies have made possible to access these instruments on LAN and WAN with suitable reliability and security. To get rid of wires i.e. in order to access these instruments, without wires at any place, wireless technology has evolved and become integral part of day-to-day activities. The environment monitoring can be done remotely, if smart antennas are incorporated on these instruments

  9. Reliability evaluation of smart distribution grids

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Shahram

    2011-01-01

    The term "Smart Grid" generally refers to a power grid equipped with the advanced technologies dedicated for purposes such as reliability improvement, ease of control and management, integrating of distributed energy resources and electricity market operations. Improving the reliability of electric power delivered to the end users is one of the main targets of employing smart grid technologies. The smart grid investments targeted for reliability improvement can be directed toward the generati...

  10. PLCs used in smart home control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, C.; Deaconu, S. I.; Latinovic, T.; Berdie, A.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Horgos, M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the realization of a smart home automation using Siemens PLCs. The smart home interface is realized using the HMI Weintek eMT3070a touchscreen, which shows the window for controlling and monitoring the lighting, room temperature, irrigation systems, swimming pool, etc. By using PLCs, the smart home can be controlled via Ethernet and it can be programmed to the needs of tenants.

  11. Development of a Smart Grid Simulation Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Delamare, J; Bitachon, B.; Peng, Z.; Wang, Y.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Jongerden, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    With the increased integration of renewable energy sources the interaction between energy producers and consumers has become a bi-directional exchange. Therefore, the electrical grid must be adapted into a smart grid which effectively regulates this two-way interaction. With the aid of simulation, stakeholders can obtain information on how to properly develop and control the smart grid. In this paper, we present the development of an integrated smart grid simulation model, using the Anylogic ...

  12. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kirkham, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. It measures 21 metrics to provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This report looks across a spectrum of smart grid concerns to measure the status of smart grid deployment and impacts.

  13. SMART - Structure mechanical analysis in reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Faust, G.; Szimmat, J.; Warnke, E.P.; Willam, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    The programme system SMART was developed in the years 1970-75 to calculate prestressed-concrete reactor pressure vessels with finite elements. The present report outlines the course and present state of research and development work. Following the specification of SMART, a brief presentation of the analytical possibilities and of the expansions for investigating creep, ultimate load behaviour and thermodiffusion is given. In conclusion, the fields of application of SMART are illustrated by means of examples. (orig./LH) [de

  14. Smart TV Privacy Risks and Protection Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiglieri, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Smart TVs have been becoming more popular in recent years. They are not entirely new devices, they are rather traditional TVs with current technology and increased functionality. In addition to streaming traditional broadcast content, Smart TVs facilitate access to Internet content and services. Thus, different Internet functionality on Smart TVs is available. For instance, Facebook, different video on demand services or online games. Some Internet functionality can access and uti...

  15. Securing the smart grid information exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Steffen; Falk, Rainer [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The smart grid is based on information exchange between various stakeholders using open communication technologies, to control the physical electric grid through the information grid. Protection against cyber attacks is essential to ensure a reliable operation of the smart grid. This challenge is addressed by various regulatory, standardization, and research activities. After giving an overview of the security demand of a smart grid, existing and appearing standardization activities are described. (orig.)

  16. Smart TV privacy risks and protection measures

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiglieri, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Smart TVs have been becoming more popular in recent years. They are not entirely new devices, they are rather traditional TVs with current technology and increased functionality. In addition to streaming traditional broadcast content, Smart TVs facilitate access to Internet content and services. Thus, different Internet functionality on Smart TVs is available. For instance, Facebook, different video on demand services or online games. Some Internet functionality can access and uti...

  17. Complex IoT Systems as Enablers for Smart Homes in a Smart City Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynggaard, Per; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2016-11-02

    The world is entering a new era, where Internet-of-Things (IoT), smart homes, and smart cities will play an important role in meeting the so-called big challenges. In the near future, it is foreseen that the majority of the world's population will live their lives in smart homes and in smart cities. To deal with these challenges, to support a sustainable urban development, and to improve the quality of life for citizens, a multi-disciplinary approach is needed. It seems evident, however, that a new, advanced Information and Communications Technology ICT infrastructure is a key feature to realize the "smart" vision. This paper proposes a specific solution in the form of a hierarchical layered ICT based infrastructure that handles ICT issues related to the "big challenges" and seamlessly integrates IoT, smart homes, and smart city structures into one coherent unit. To exemplify benefits of this infrastructure, a complex IoT system has been deployed, simulated and elaborated. This simulation deals with wastewater energy harvesting from smart buildings located in a smart city context. From the simulations, it has been found that the proposed infrastructure is able to harvest between 50% and 75% of the wastewater energy in a smart residential building. By letting the smart city infrastructure coordinate and control the harvest time and duration, it is possible to achieve considerable energy savings in the smart homes, and it is possible to reduce the peak-load for district heating plants.

  18. A Brief Survey on the Advancement of Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Mukherjee,; Pratibha Bharti

    2014-01-01

    The Smart Grid, regarded as the next generation power grid, uses two-way communication of electricity and information to create a widely distributed automated energy delivery network. In this article, a review work on different aspects on the enabling technologies for the Smart Grid is being presented. Infrastructure of Smart Grid can be broadly classified into three terms namely the smart infrastructure system, the smart management system, and the smart protection system. We ...

  19. Healthcare Applications of Smart Watches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsung-Chien; Fu, Chia-Ming; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Fang, Cheng-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize research studies involving the use of smart watch devices for healthcare. Materials and Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was chosen as the systematic review methodology. We searched PubMed, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, ACM, and IEEE Xplore. In order to include ongoing clinical trials, we also searched ClinicalTrials.gov. Two investigators evaluated the retrieved articles for inclusion. Discrepancies between investigators regarding article inclusion and extracted data were resolved through team discussion. Results 356 articles were screened and 24 were selected for review. The most common publication venue was in conference proceedings (13, 54%). The majority of studies were published or presented in 2015 (19, 79%). We identified two registered clinical trials underway. A large proportion of the identified studies focused on applications involving health monitoring for the elderly (6, 25%). Five studies focused on patients with Parkinson’s disease and one on cardiac arrest. There were no studies which reported use of usability testing before implementation. Discussion Most of the reviewed studies focused on the chronically ill elderly. There was a lack of detailed description of user-centered design or usability testing before implementation. Based on our review, the most commonly used platform in healthcare research was that of the Android Wear. The clinical application of smart watches as assistive devices deserves further attention. Conclusion Smart watches are unobtrusive and easy to wear. While smart watch technology supplied with biosensors has potential to be useful in a variety of healthcare applications, rigorous research with their use in clinical settings is needed. PMID:27623763

  20. SMART SECURITY SYSTEM FOR CARS

    OpenAIRE

    Akshay V. Balki*, Ankit A. Ramteke, Akshay Dhankar, Prof. Nilesh S. Panchbudhe

    2017-01-01

    This propose work is an attempt to model design an smart advance vehicle security system that uses biometric scanner and RFID card reader to give ignition pulse using two main module and to prevent theft. The system contains biometric scanner, RFID card reader, alcohol sensor, vibration sensor, GSM module, microcontroller (8051), relay switch, high voltage mesh..The safety of car is exceptionally essential. It provides pulse to ignition system by synchronizing driver’s data from license and t...

  1. Metrics for smart security awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, William A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available informing the response teams for reparations. These capabilities are possible by collecting data from the environment and ensuring intelligence is developed to react automatically without human intervention. The concept of smart cities has also been.... The data would be transported to a centralized situational awareness capability for analyses and create the appropriate response in the form of remedial action. The use of threat intelligence feeds could automatically sense the existence of a new threat...

  2. Inkjet printed wireless smart bandage

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Shamim, Atif

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wounds affect millions of patients around the world and requires a major portion of health care budget for treatment. In this article, we present an unprecedented low cost continuous wireless monitoring system, realized through inkjet printing on a standard bandage strip, which can send early warnings as well as record long term wound progression data. The smart bandage can communicate upto a distance of 60 m when worn on the body.

  3. Micro Grid: A Smart Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Naveenkumar, M; Ratnakar, N

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Generation (DG) is an approach that employs small-scale technologies to produce electricity close to the end users of power. Todays DG technologies often consist of renewable generators, and offer a number of potential benefits. This paper presents a design of micro grid as part of Smart grid technologies with renewable energy resources like solar, wind and Diesel generator. The design of the microgrid with integration of Renewable energy sources are done in PSCAD/EMTDC.This paper...

  4. Privacy concerns in smart cities

    OpenAIRE

    van Zoonen, Liesbet

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a framework is constructed to hypothesize if and how smart city technologies and urban big data produce privacy concerns among the people in these cities (as inhabitants, workers, visitors, and otherwise). The framework is built on the basis of two recurring dimensions in research about people's concerns about privacy: one dimensions represents that people perceive particular data as more personal and sensitive than others, the other dimension represents that people'...

  5. Inkjet printed wireless smart bandage

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2016-12-19

    Chronic wounds affect millions of patients around the world and requires a major portion of health care budget for treatment. In this article, we present an unprecedented low cost continuous wireless monitoring system, realized through inkjet printing on a standard bandage strip, which can send early warnings as well as record long term wound progression data. The smart bandage can communicate upto a distance of 60 m when worn on the body.

  6. A Development Framework for Smart Cities Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Khudhair Al-Alwani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A smart city is rising as an approach and strategy to reduce the troubles produced by rapid urbanization and the growth of urban population. Although, cities continue to develop and purify their social, economic and environmental goals along with the strategies to achieve them, this phenomenon has been discussed by little research yet. However, due to the requiring immediate action or attention for practical application of the principles of smart cities, city authorities, stakeholders and local communities need to know the current reality of their city and where development is being attained in their systems. Therefore, constructing a framework for smart cities assessment will help share or exchange the newcomer strong and weak points, and emphasize where actual development is taking place and update a plan for future developments. Moreover, this assessment is able to assist cities prioritizes actions. This paper developed a guiding assessment framework for smart cites that will help the creating, carefully choosing and priorities of crucial indicators. These indicators can then show the way to the smart cites performance assessment and monitoring. Drawing on the investigation of an extensive and wide collection of literature from a variety of disciplinary areas and based on the conceptual literature on smart cities, in addition to interviews this study identify a good tool to help recognizing of virtual achievement of smart city. Furthermore, it is significant to be taken into consideration in assessing smart city smartness level.

  7. A Framework to Develop Persuasive Smart Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Pedro; Romão, Teresa; Dias, A. Eduardo; Danado, José Carlos

    This paper presents a framework for the creation of context-sensitive persuasive applications. The framework allows the authoring of new persuasive smart environments producing the appropriate feedback to the users based on different sensors spread throughout the environment to capture contextual information. Using this framework, we created an application, Smart Bins, aimed at promoting users' behavioural changes regarding the recycling of waste materials. Furthermore, to evaluate the usability of our authoring tool, we performed user tests to analyze if developers could successfully create the Smart Bins application using the framework. A description of the Smart Bins application, as well as the results of the user tests, are also presented in this paper.

  8. Handbook of smart antennas for RFID systems

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The Handbook of Smart Antennas for RFID Systems is a single comprehensive reference on the smart antenna technologies applied to RFID. This book will provide a timely reference book for researchers and students in the areas of both smart antennas and RFID technologies. It is the first book to combine two of the most important wireless technologies together in one book. The handbook will feature chapters by leading experts in both academia and industry offering an in-depth description of terminologies and concepts related to smart antennas in various RFID systems applications.

  9. FRP confined smart concrete/mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y.; Zhu, P. S.; Choi, K. G.; Wu, Y. T.; Huang, Z. Y.; Shan, B.

    2006-03-01

    In this study, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) confined smart concrete/mortar sensors were invented and validated for significantly improved measurement range. Several trial mixes were made using cement mortar and micron-phase graphite powders at different mix proportions. Compressive loading tests were conducted on smart mortar cylinder specimens with or without FRP confinement. Two-probe method was used to detect the electrical resistance of the smart cement mortar specimens. Strong correlation was recognized between the stress and electric resistance of the smart mortar. The test results indicated that the FRP wrapping could significantly enlarge the range of such self-sensing property as a consequence of confinement.

  10. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Diane J.; Crandall, Aaron S.; Thomas, Brian L.; Krishnan, Narayanan C.

    2012-01-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS “smart home in a box”, a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and...

  11. Security and privacy in smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Presenting the work of prominent researchers working on smart grids and related fields around the world, Security and Privacy in Smart Grids identifies state-of-the-art approaches and novel technologies for smart grid communication and security. It investigates the fundamental aspects and applications of smart grid security and privacy and reports on the latest advances in the range of related areas-making it an ideal reference for students, researchers, and engineers in these fields. The book explains grid security development and deployment and introduces novel approaches for securing today'

  12. Smart Grid Technologies: Trends and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buran Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explores the role of Smart Grid technologies, giving sustainable, reliable and safe energy. These technologies will provide an economic benefit to the government, the investors and the consumers. The paper overviews global trends and perspectives of using Smart Grid technologies in Russia and in other countries. The Smart Grid concept is especially important for Russia, because there are many power supply problems in the energy sector. This study is expected to be important for researchers and engineers studying Smart Grid technologies.

  13. Smart Steps to Sustainability 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart Steps to Sustainability provides small business owners and managers with practical advice and tools to implementsustainable and environmentally-preferable business practices that go beyond compliance.

  14. Smart grid business case for private homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villefrance, Rasmus; Brandt, Jonas; Eriksen, Poul Svante

    2013-01-01

    We describe and consider how the potential of energy savings may drive the penetration of smart grid technology into private homes. We assess the sociological processes which lead to energy savings when the residents have access to smart grid technology. We propose a way to establish a cash flow...... from consumers via electrical distribution companies to smart grid technology providers on the Danish market. Finally, we assess the impact of such a business development on the society, as well as relating the penetration of smart grid technology in private homes to the societal goal of 100% renewable...

  15. Smart grid fundamentals of design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Momoh, James

    2012-01-01

    The book is written as primer hand book for addressing the fundamentals of smart grid. It provides the working definition the functions, the design criteria and the tools and techniques and technology needed for building smart grid. The book is needed to provide a working guideline in the design, analysis and development of Smart Grid. It incorporates all the essential factors of Smart Grid appropriate for enabling the performance and capability of the power system. There are no comparable books which provide information on the how to of the design and analysis. The book prov.

  16. Cultural Heritage in Smart City Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidou, M.; Karachaliou, E.; Angelidou, T.; Stylianidis, E.

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates how the historical and cultural heritage of cities is and can be underpinned by means of smart city tools, solutions and applications. Smart cities stand for a conceptual technology-and-innovation driven urban development model. By becoming `smart', cities seek to achieve prosperity, effectiveness and competitiveness on multiple socio-economic levels. Although cultural heritage is one of the many issues addressed by existing smart city strategies, and despite the documented bilateral benefits, our research about the positioning of urban cultural heritage within three smart city strategies (Barcelona, Amsterdam, and London) reveals fragmented approaches. Our findings suggest that the objective of cultural heritage promotion is not substantially addressed in the investigated smart city strategies. Nevertheless, we observe that cultural heritage management can be incorporated in several different strategic areas of the smart city, reflecting different lines of thinking and serving an array of goals, depending on the case. We conclude that although potential applications and approaches abound, cultural heritage currently stands for a mostly unexploited asset, presenting multiple integration opportunities within smart city contexts. We prompt for further research into bridging the two disciplines and exploiting a variety of use cases with the purpose of enriching the current knowledge base at the intersection of cultural heritage and smart cities.

  17. Smart built-in test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Dale W.

    1990-03-01

    The work which built-in test (BIT) is asked to perform in today's electronic systems increases with every insertion of new technology or introduction of tighter performance criteria. Yet the basic purpose remains unchanged -- to determine with high confidence the operational capability of that equipment. Achievement of this level of BIT performance requires the management and assimilation of a large amount of data, both realtime and historical. Smart BIT has taken advantage of advanced techniques from the field of artificial intelligence (AI) in order to meet these demands. The Smart BIT approach enhances traditional functional BIT by utilizing AI techniques to incorporate environmental stress data, temporal BIT information and maintenance data, and realtime BIT reports into an integrated test methodology for increased BIT effectiveness and confidence levels. Future research in this area will incorporate onboard fault-logging of BIT output, stress data and Smart BIT decision criteria in support of a singular, integrated and complete test and maintenance capability. The state of this research is described along with a discussion of directions for future development.

  18. Photoresponsive Smart Coloration Electrochromic Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Tae Gwang; Kim, Donghyuk; Kim, Yong Ho; Park, Minkyu; Hyun, Seungmin; Han, Seung Min

    2017-08-01

    Electrochromic devices have been widely adopted in energy saving applications by taking advantage of the electrode coloration, but it is critical to develop a new electrochromic device that can undergo smart coloration and can have a wide spectrum in transmittance in response to input light intensity while also functioning as a rechargeable energy storage system. In this study, a photoresponsive electrochromic supercapacitor based on cellulose-nanofiber/Ag-nanowire/reduced-graphene-oxide/WO 3 -composite electrode that is capable of undergoing "smart" reversible coloration while simultaneously functioning as a reliable energy-storage device is developed. The fabricated device exhibits a high coloration efficiency of 64.8 cm 2 C -1 and electrochemical performance with specific capacitance of 406.0 F g -1 , energy/power densities of 40.6-47.8 Wh kg -1 and 6.8-16.9 kW kg -1 . The electrochromic supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycle reliability, where 75.0% and 94.1% of its coloration efficiency and electrochemical performance is retained, respectively, beyond 10 000 charge-discharge cycles. Cyclic fatigue tests show that the developed device is mechanically durable and suitable for wearable electronics applications. The smart electrochromic supercapacitor system is then integrated with a solar sensor to enable photoresponsive coloration where the transmittance changes in response to varying light intensity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system

  20. Smart meters. Smart metering. A solution module for a future-oriented energy system; Intelligente Zaehler. Smart Metering. Ein Loesungsbaustein fuer ein zukunftsfaehiges Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Nadia; Seidl, Hans [comps.

    2011-12-15

    The German Energy Agency GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on smart metering as a solution module for a future-oriented energy system by means of the following contributions: (1) Key role for smart meters; (2) What is smart metering? (3) Implementation of smart metering in Europe; (4) The market development to date in Germany; (5) Practical experiences with smart metering in Germany; (6) Frequently asked questions; (7) Smart metering in intelligent networks; (8) Legal framework conditions; (9) Data security and data protection in the utilisation of smart meters; (10) Ongoing information; (11) Efficient energy systems.