WorldWideScience

Sample records for therapy physical principles

  1. Vedic principles of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, R W

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces Vedic principles of therapy as a holistic integration of healing and human development. The most integrative aspect is a "consciousness-based" approach in which the bottom line of the mind is consciousness itself, accessed by transcending mental activity to its simplest ground state. This directly contrasts with "unconscious-based" approaches that hold the basis of conscious mind is the unconscious, such as analytic, humanistic, and cognitive-behavioral approaches. Although not presented as a specific therapeutic approach, interventions associated with this Vedic approach have extensive support in the applied research literature. A brief review of experimental research toward a general model of mind-and cutting-edge developments in quantum physics toward nonlocal mind-shows a convergence on the ancient Vedic model of mind. Comparisons with contemporary therapies further show that the simplicity, subtlety, and holistic nature of the Vedic approach represent a significant advance over approaches which have overlooked the fundamental ground state of the mind. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  3. Principles & practice of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mazur, Eric; Dourmashkin, Peter A; Pedigo, Daryl; Bieniek, Ronald J

    2015-01-01

    Putting physics first Based on his storied research and teaching, Eric Mazur's Principles & Practice of Physics builds an understanding of physics that is both thorough and accessible. Unique organization and pedagogy allow you to develop a true conceptual understanding of physics alongside the quantitative skills needed in the course. *New learning architecture: The book is structured to help you learn physics in an organized way that encourages comprehension and reduces distraction.*Physics on a contemporary foundation: Traditional texts delay the introduction of ideas that we now see as unifying and foundational. This text builds physics on those unifying foundations, helping you to develop an understanding that is stronger, deeper, and fundamentally simpler.*Research-based instruction: This text uses a range of research-based instructional techniques to teach physics in the most effective manner possible. The result is a groundbreaking book that puts physics first, thereby making it more accessible to...

  4. Differences between the family-centered "COPCA" program and traditional infant physical therapy based on neurodevelopmental treatment principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Tineke; Blauw-Hospers, Cornill H; Hulshof, Lily J; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-09-01

    Evidence for effectiveness of pediatric physical therapy in infants at high risk for developmental motor disorders is limited. Therefore, "Coping With and Caring for Infants With Special Needs" (COPCA), a family-centered, early intervention program, was developed. The COPCA program is based on 2 components: (1) family involvement and educational parenting and (2) the neuromotor principles of the neuronal group selection theory. The COPCA coach uses principles of coaching to encourage the family's own capacities for solving problems of daily care and incorporating variation, along with trial and error in daily activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the content of sessions of the home-based, early intervention COPCA program differs from that of traditional infant physical therapy (TIP) sessions, which in the Netherlands are largely based on neurodevelopmental treatment. The study was conducted at the University Medical Center Groningen in the Netherlands. A quantitative video analysis of therapy sessions was conducted with infants participating in a 2-arm randomized trial. Forty-six infants at high risk for developmental motor disorders were randomly assigned to receive COPCA (n=21) or TIP (n=25) between 3 and 6 months corrected age. Intervention sessions were videotaped at 4 and 6 months corrected age and analyzed with a standardized observation protocol for the classification of physical therapy actions. Outcome parameters were relative amounts of time spent on specific physical therapy actions. The content of COPCA and TIP differed substantially. For instance, in TIP sessions, more time was spent on facilitation techniques, including handling, than in COPCA sessions (29% versus 3%, respectively). During COPCA, more time was spent on family coaching and education than during TIP (16% versus 4%, respectively). The major limitation of the study was its restriction to the Netherlands, implying that findings cannot be generalized automatically to

  5. The viper fangs: clinical anatomy, principles of physical examination and therapy (a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Oliveri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of fangs is a fundamental part of clinical examination of viperid snakes. The long curved venom fang is carried by short, highly mobile maxilla. Short anaesthesia is advised for safe physical examination and radiography of the mouth cavity. The fangs are gently forced outside the fang pocket by passing the bar or forceps on the palato-maxillary arch, and rotating them rostrally shifting the mucosal fold. Functional fangs are periodically shed and several generations of replacement teeth lie behind and beneath each fang. In case of fang fracture, therapy should be limited to flushing with a solution of chlorhexidine or povidone iodine, and topical application of pro-coagulant and antibacterial cream. Therapy of chronic fang inflammation is based on removal of necrotized fang and repeated abundant irrigation of the fang pocket. Treatment of chronic stomatitis consists of flushing with chlorhexidine or povidone iodine, physical removal of the plaques, administration of analgesics and antibiotics (marbofloxacin, enrofloxacin or ceftazidime. Extra-oral surgical approach is the best method for odontogenic abscess removal. A vigorous flushing with sterile saline solution, chlorhexidine and povidone iodine and topical application of antibiotics (antibiotic embedded surgical sponge is advised. Force feeding of the anorectic patient suffering from fang inflammation is a mandatory part of the standard treatment protocol.

  6. Principles of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    Principles of Modern Physics, divided into twenty one chapters, begins with quantum ideas followed by discussions on special relativity, atomic structure, basic quantum mechanics, hydrogen atom (and Schrodinger equation) and periodic table, the three statistical distributions, X-rays, physics of solids, imperfections in crystals, magnetic properties of materials, superconductivity, Zeeman-, Stark- and Paschen Back- effects, Lasers, Nuclear physics (Yukawa's meson theory and various nuclear models), radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear fission, fusion and plasma, particle accelerators and detectors, the universe, Elementary particles (classification, eight fold way and quark model, standard model and fundamental interactions), cosmic rays, deuteron problem in nuclear physics, and cathode ray oscilloscope. NEW TO THE FOURTH EDITION: The CO2 Laser Theory of magnetic moments on the basis of shell model Geological dating Laser Induced fusion and laser fusion reactor. Hawking radiation The cosmological red ...

  7. Aspects of the physical principles of the proton therapy with inclusion of nuclear interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmer, W

    2016-01-01

    The radiotherapy of malignant diseases has reached much progress during the past decade. Thus, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and VMAT (Rapidarc) now belong to the standard modalities of tumor treatment with high energy radiation in clinical practice. In recent time, the particle therapy (protons and partially with heavy carbon ions) has reached an important completion of these modalities with regard to some suitable applications. In spite of this enrichment essential features need further research activities and publications in this field: Nuclear reactions and the role of the released neutrons, electron capture of positively charged nuclei at lower projectile energies (e.g. in the environment of the Bragg peak and at the distal end of the particle track), correct dose delivery in scanning methods by accounting for the influence of the lateral scatter of beam-lets. Deconvolution methods can help to overcome these problems, which already occur in radiotherapy of very small photon beams [1 - 8].

  8. Video games and rehabilitation: using design principles to enhance engagement in physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Keith; Shirzad, Navid; Verster, Alida; Hodges, Nicola; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2013-12-01

    Patient nonadherence with therapy is a major barrier to rehabilitation. Recovery is often limited and requires prolonged, intensive rehabilitation that is time-consuming, expensive, and difficult. We review evidence for the potential use of video games in rehabilitation with respect to the behavioral, physiological, and motivational effects of gameplay. In this Special Interest article, we offer a method to evaluate effects of video game play on motor learning and their potential to increase patient engagement with therapy, particularly commercial games that can be interfaced with adapted control systems. We take the novel approach of integrating research across game design, motor learning, neurophysiology changes, and rehabilitation science to provide criteria by which therapists can assist patients in choosing games appropriate for rehabilitation. Research suggests that video games are beneficial for cognitive and motor skill learning in both rehabilitation science and experimental studies with healthy subjects. Physiological data suggest that gameplay can induce neuroplastic reorganization that leads to long-term retention and transfer of skill; however, more clinical research in this area is needed. There is interdisciplinary evidence suggesting that key factors in game design, including choice, reward, and goals, lead to increased motivation and engagement. We maintain that video game play could be an effective supplement to traditional therapy. Motion controllers can be used to practice rehabilitation-relevant movements, and well-designed game mechanics can augment patient engagement and motivation in rehabilitation. We recommend future research and development exploring rehabilitation-relevant motions to control games and increase time in therapy through gameplay.Video Abstract available (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A61) for more insights from the authors.

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: Ultrasound contrast microbubbles in imaging and therapy: physical principles and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shengping; Caskey, Charles F.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2009-03-01

    Microbubble contrast agents and the associated imaging systems have developed over the past 25 years, originating with manually-agitated fluids introduced for intra-coronary injection. Over this period, stabilizing shells and low diffusivity gas materials have been incorporated in microbubbles, extending stability in vitro and in vivo. Simultaneously, the interaction of these small gas bubbles with ultrasonic waves has been extensively studied, resulting in models for oscillation and increasingly sophisticated imaging strategies. Early studies recognized that echoes from microbubbles contained frequencies that are multiples of the microbubble resonance frequency. Although individual microbubble contrast agents cannot be resolved—given that their diameter is on the order of microns—nonlinear echoes from these agents are used to map regions of perfused tissue and to estimate the local microvascular flow rate. Such strategies overcome a fundamental limitation of previous ultrasound blood flow strategies; the previous Doppler-based strategies are insensitive to capillary flow. Further, the insonation of resonant bubbles results in interesting physical phenomena that have been widely studied for use in drug and gene delivery. Ultrasound pressure can enhance gas diffusion, rapidly fragment the agent into a set of smaller bubbles or displace the microbubble to a blood vessel wall. Insonation of a microbubble can also produce liquid jets and local shear stress that alter biological membranes and facilitate transport. In this review, we focus on the physical aspects of these agents, exploring microbubble imaging modes, models for microbubble oscillation and the interaction of the microbubble with the endothelium.

  10. Physical principles in chemoreception

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegel, Frederik W

    1991-01-01

    Is it not sheer foolishness to try to apply the methods of theoretical physics to biological structures? Physics flowered because it limited itself to the study of very simple systems; on the other hand, the essence of "living things" seems to have to do with the extreme intricacy of their structure. Is it a hopeless endeavour to attempt to bring the two together, or should one try nevertheless? Most of my colleagues in theoretical physics feel one should not waste one's time and stick to "the good old hydrogen atom", but some of them feel one should try anyhow. This minority point of view was shared by Bohr in the thirties, Schrödinger in the fourties, Delbrück in the fifties and sixties, PurceIl in the seventies, etc. The theory of chemoreception represents only a very small part of this immense scientific question. Its study was started by Delbriick and others in the fifties. I was introduced to these problems by Charles DeLisi, during a visit to the National Institutes of Health in the summer of 1980. D...

  11. Differences Between the Family-Centered "COPCA" Program and Traditional Infant Physical Therapy Based on Neurodevelopmental Treatment Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, Tineke; Blauw-Hospers, Cornill H.; Hulshof, Lily J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Background. Evidence for effectiveness of pediatric physical therapy in infants at high risk for developmental motor disorders is limited. Therefore, "Coping With and Caring for Infants With Special Needs" (COPCA), a family-centered, early intervention program, was developed. The COPCA program is

  12. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

  13. Dystonia: Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Online Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Physical Therapy Physical therapy may be an important component of treating dystonia ... everyday tasks, Since dystonia is a neurological disorder, physical therapy does not treat the dystonia directly but rather ...

  14. Physical Consequences of Mathematical Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical consequences are derived from the following mathematical structures: the variational principle, Wigner’s classifications of the irreducible representations of the Poincar ́ e group and the duality invariance of the homogeneous Maxwell equations. The analysis is carried out within the validity domain of special relativity. Hierarchical re- lations between physical theories are used. Some new results are pointed out together with their comparison with experimental data. It is also predicted that a genuine Higgs particle will not be detected.

  15. The working principle of magnetic resonance therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Brizhik, Larissa; Fermi, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe briefly the basic aspects of magnetic resonance therapy, registered as TMR therapy. Clinical studies have shown that application of this therapy significantly accelerates wound healing and, in particular, healing of the diabetic foot disease. To understand the working principle of this therapy, we analyze relevant to it biological effects produced by magnetic fields. Based on these data, we show that there is a hierarchy of the possible physical mechanisms, which can produce such effects. The mutual interplay between the mechanisms can lead to a synergetic outcome delayed in time, which can affect the physiological state of the organism. In particular, we show that soliton mediated charge transport during the redox processes in living organisms is sensitive to magnetic fields, so that such fields can facilitate redox processes in particular, and can stimulate the healing effect of the organism in general. This and other non-thermal resonant mechanisms of the biological effects of mag...

  16. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Physical Therapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Physical Therapy Print en español Terapia física Physical Therapy Basics Doctors often recommend physical therapy (PT) for ...

  17. Physical acoustics principles and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Warren P

    1964-01-01

    Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume l-Part A focuses on high frequency sound waves in gases, liquids, and solids that have been proven as powerful tools in analyzing the molecular, defect, domain wall, and other types of motions. The selection first tackles wave propagation in fluids and normal solids and guided wave propagation in elongated cylinders and plates. Discussions focus on fundamentals of continuum mechanics; small-amplitude waves in a linear viscoelastic medium; representation of oscillations and waves; and special effects associated with guided elastic waves in plat

  18. Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer: Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Wilson

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of photodynamic therapy (PDT, using drugs (photosensitizers that are activated by light to become cytotoxic, provide the basis for understanding the current and potential future clinical applications in gastroenterology, general oncology and other specialities. The properties of photosensitizers are key to their biological efficacy, while lasers and optical fibres allow convenient and flexible light delivery for endoscopic use. PDT has several distinct and unique advantages, both as a stand-alone treatment and in combination with other established modalities. The current limitations are also recognized, as is the need for rigorous randomized trials of this emerging technology. The fluorescence of many photosensitizers may be useful, either for (endoscopic diagnosis or for PDT treatment guidance and monitoring.

  19. Nuclear medicine therapy principles and clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Aktolun, Cumali

    2012-01-01

    This book reviews nuclear medicine techniques and technology for therapy of malignant and benign diseases, covering scientific principles and clinical applications, and trials of experimental agents for treating tumors involving virtually every organ system.

  20. [Physical therapy in osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnjidić, Zoja

    2010-01-01

    Physical therapy has an important role in treating rheumatic diseases; its goal is to reduced pain, swelling and to keep joints mobile. The properly manage osteoarthritis is nonpharmacological and pharmacological modalities. Physical therapy applied as a remedy for osteoarthritis is a part of multimodal therapy. The basis for physical therapy management is determined by the recommendation of the physical therapeutic science and evidence-based medicine. When making a decision about application of different methods of treatment in physical therapy, it is important to correctly diagnose a structural transformation and functional problem. Systematic review of the scientific, evidence-based, international concensus recommendations for the management of the osteoarthritis published between 2000 and 2010 were identified high-quality evidence therapy practice that is efficient and effective in increasing movement capability function, and reduce pain, disability, medical intake and improved physical function for patients with osteoarthritis

  1. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Information for Families and Caretakers from The Progeria Research Foundation Written ... accelerated aging in children. Children with Progeria need Physical Therapy (PT) and Occupational Therapy (OT) as often as ...

  2. Principles and applications of nanomems physics

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Hector

    2005-01-01

    ""Principles and Applications of NanoMEMS Physics"" presents the first unified exposition of the physical principles at the heart of NanoMEMS-based devices and applications. In particular, after beginning with a comprehensive presentation of the fundamentals and limitations of nanotechnology and MEMS fabrication techniques, the book addresses the physics germane to this dimensional regime, namely, quantum wave-particle phenomena, including, the manifestation of charge discreteness, quantized electrostatic actuation, and the Casimir effect, and quantum wave phenomena, including, quantized elect

  3. Hendee's radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlicki, Todd; Starkschall, George

    2016-01-01

    The publication of this fourth edition, more than ten years on from the publication of Radiation Therapy Physics third edition, provides a comprehensive and valuable update to the educational offerings in this field. Led by a new team of highly esteemed authors, building on Dr Hendee’s tradition, Hendee’s Radiation Therapy Physics offers a succinctly written, fully modernised update. Radiation physics has undergone many changes in the past ten years: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become a routine method of radiation treatment delivery, digital imaging has replaced film-screen imaging for localization and verification, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is frequently used, in many centers proton therapy has become a viable mode of radiation therapy, new approaches have been introduced to radiation therapy quality assurance and safety that focus more on process analysis rather than specific performance testing, and the explosion in patient-and machine-related data has necessitated an ...

  4. Proton therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proton Therapy Physics goes beyond current books on proton therapy to provide an in-depth overview of the physics aspects of this radiation therapy modality, eliminating the need to dig through information scattered in the medical physics literature. After tracing the history of proton therapy, the book summarizes the atomic and nuclear physics background necessary for understanding proton interactions with tissue. It describes the physics of proton accelerators, the parameters of clinical proton beams, and the mechanisms to generate a conformal dose distribution in a patient. The text then covers detector systems and measuring techniques for reference dosimetry, outlines basic quality assurance and commissioning guidelines, and gives examples of Monte Carlo simulations in proton therapy. The book moves on to discussions of treatment planning for single- and multiple-field uniform doses, dose calculation concepts and algorithms, and precision and uncertainties for nonmoving and moving targets. It also exami...

  5. Nuclear physics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lilley, J S

    2001-01-01

    This title provides the latest information on nuclear physics. Based on a course entitled Applications of Nuclear Physics. Written from an experimental point of view this text is broadly divided into two parts, firstly a general introduction to Nuclear Physics and secondly its applications.* Includes chapters on practical examples and problems* Contains hints to solving problems which are included in the appendix* Avoids complex and extensive mathematical treatments* A modern approach to nuclear physics, covering the basic theory, but emphasising the many and important applicat

  6. Vapourisers: Physical principles and classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vithal Dhulkhed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vapourisers have evolved from rudimentary inhalers to the microprocessor controlled, temperature compensated and flow sensing devices, which are universal today. The improvements in the design was influenced by the development of potent inhalational anaesthetics, unique properties of some agents, a deeper understanding of their mechanism of action, inherent flaws in the older vapourisers, mechanical problems due to thymol deposition, factors influencing their output such as temperature and pressure variations. It is important to review the principles governing the design of the vapouriser to gain insight into their working. It is fascinating to know how some of the older vapourisers, popularly used in the past, functioned. The descendant of Oxford Miniature Vapourizer, the Triservice vapouriser is still a part of the military anaesthesia draw over equipment meant for field use whereas the Copper Kettle the first precision device is the fore-runner of the Tec 6 and Aladdin cassette vapouriser. Anaesthesia trainees if exposed to draw over techniques get a deeper understanding of equipment and improved skills for disaster situations. In the recent advanced versions of the vapouriser a central processing unit in the anaesthetic machine controls the operation by continuously monitoring and adjusting fresh gas flow through the vapouriser to maintain desired concentration of the vapour.

  7. Vapourisers: physical principles and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhulkhed, Vithal; Shetti, Akshaya; Naik, Shraddha; Dhulkhed, Pavan

    2013-09-01

    Vapourisers have evolved from rudimentary inhalers to the microprocessor controlled, temperature compensated and flow sensing devices, which are universal today. The improvements in the design was influenced by the development of potent inhalational anaesthetics, unique properties of some agents, a deeper understanding of their mechanism of action, inherent flaws in the older vapourisers, mechanical problems due to thymol deposition, factors influencing their output such as temperature and pressure variations. It is important to review the principles governing the design of the vapouriser to gain insight into their working. It is fascinating to know how some of the older vapourisers, popularly used in the past, functioned. The descendant of Oxford Miniature Vapourizer, the Triservice vapouriser is still a part of the military anaesthesia draw over equipment meant for field use whereas the Copper Kettle the first precision device is the fore-runner of the Tec 6 and Aladdin cassette vapouriser. Anaesthesia trainees if exposed to draw over techniques get a deeper understanding of equipment and improved skills for disaster situations. In the recent advanced versions of the vapouriser a central processing unit in the anaesthetic machine controls the operation by continuously monitoring and adjusting fresh gas flow through the vapouriser to maintain desired concentration of the vapour.

  8. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)-Basic Principles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 4. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) - Basic Principles. Bhaskar G Maiya. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 4 April 2000 pp 6-18. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/04/0006-0018 ...

  9. The physical principles of rock magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Frank

    1974-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 5: The Physical Principles of Rock Magnetism explores the physical principles of rock magnetism, with emphasis on the properties of finely divided magnetic materials. It discusses the origin and stability of rock magnetizations, the role of remanent magnetism in interpreting magnetic surveys, magnetic anisotropy as an indicator of rock fabric, and the relationship between piezomagnetic changes and seismic activity. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume discusses the properties of solids, magnetite and hematite grains, and rocks with magnetite grains

  10. Physical acoustics v.8 principles and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Warren P

    1971-01-01

    Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume VIII discusses a number of themes on physical acoustics that are divided into seven chapters. Chapter 1 describes the principles and applications of a tool for investigating phonons in dielectric crystals, the spin phonon spectrometer. The next chapter discusses the use of ultrasound in investigating Landau quantum oscillations in the presence of a magnetic field and their relation to the strain dependence of the Fermi surface of metals. The third chapter focuses on the ultrasonic measurements that are made by pulsing methods with velo

  11. Charged particle therapy: the physics of interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Antony J

    2009-01-01

    Particle therapy has a long and distinguished history with more than 50,000 patients having been treated, mainly with high-energy proton therapy. Particularly, for proton therapy, there is an increasing interest in exploiting the physical characteristics of charged particles for further improving the potential of radiation therapy. In this article, we review the most important interactions of charged particles with matter and describe the basic physical principles that underlie why particle beams behave the way they do and why such a behavior could bring many benefits in radiation therapy.

  12. Physical Principle for Generation of Randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2009-01-01

    A physical principle (more precisely, a principle that incorporates mathematical models used in physics) has been conceived as the basis of a method of generating randomness in Monte Carlo simulations. The principle eliminates the need for conventional random-number generators. The Monte Carlo simulation method is among the most powerful computational methods for solving high-dimensional problems in physics, chemistry, economics, and information processing. The Monte Carlo simulation method is especially effective for solving problems in which computational complexity increases exponentially with dimensionality. The main advantage of the Monte Carlo simulation method over other methods is that the demand on computational resources becomes independent of dimensionality. As augmented by the present principle, the Monte Carlo simulation method becomes an even more powerful computational method that is especially useful for solving problems associated with dynamics of fluids, planning, scheduling, and combinatorial optimization. The present principle is based on coupling of dynamical equations with the corresponding Liouville equation. The randomness is generated by non-Lipschitz instability of dynamics triggered and controlled by feedback from the Liouville equation. (In non-Lipschitz dynamics, the derivatives of solutions of the dynamical equations are not required to be bounded.)

  13. Principles and practice of proton beam therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Indra J

    2015-01-01

    Commissioned by The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) for their June 2015 Summer School, this is the first AAPM monograph printed in full color. Proton therapy has been used in radiation therapy for over 70 years, but within the last decade its use in clinics has grown exponentially. This book fills in the proton therapy gap by focusing on the physics of proton therapy, including beam production, proton interactions, biology, dosimetry, treatment planning, quality assurance, commissioning, motion management, and uncertainties. Chapters are written by the world's leading medical physicists who work at the pioneering proton treatment centers around the globe. They share their understandings after years of experience treating thousands of patients. Case studies involving specific cancer treatments show that there is some art to proton therapy as well as state-of-the-art science. Even though the focus lies on proton therapy, the content provided is also valuable to heavy charged particle th...

  14. Effect of physical therapy on breast cancer related lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambour, Mette; Tange, Berit; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical therapy treatment of patients with lymphedema includes treatment based on the principles of 'Complete Decongestive Therapy' (CDT). CDT consists of the following components; skin care, manual lymphatic drainage, bandaging and exercises. The scientific evidence regarding what...

  15. Physics for Students of Physical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadnik, Marjan; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses an introductory physics course which focuses on the practical applications of physics concepts within a three-semester program of physical therapy. Presents an overview and lists the 21 laboratory experiments and their corresponding lecture concepts. (MVL)

  16. Physical therapy for headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, María L

    2016-10-01

    Background Headache is the medical problem most commonly observed by neurologists. Non-pharmacological treatments are commonly demanded by individuals with headaches, but their evidence of effectiveness is conflicting. Aim The current review provides an updated discussion on what is supported by current scientific evidence about physical therapies for tension-type headache (TTH), migraine, and cervicogenic headache (CeH), and which gaps there still may be in our understanding of the interventions. Methods PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, EBSCO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Collaboration Trials Register, PEDro, and SCOPUS were searched from their inception through March 2015. Results/Discussion Several physical therapies including spinal joint manipulation/mobilization, soft tissue interventions, therapeutic exercises and needling therapies are proposed to be effective for the management of headaches. Current evidence has shown that the effectiveness of these interventions will depend on proper clinical reasoning since not all interventions are equally effective for all headache pain conditions. For instance, evidence of physical therapy in migraine is more controversial than in TTH, since migraine pathogenesis involves activation of sub-cortical structures and the trigemino-vascular system, whereas pathogenesis of TTH is more associated with musculoskeletal disorders, e.g. muscle pain. It seems that multimodal approaches including different interventions are more effective for patients with TTH, migraine and CeH.

  17. Physical therapy and manual physical therapy: Differences in patient characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, G.G.M.; Pool, J.J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  18. Physical Therapy and Manual Physical Therapy: Differences in Patient Characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G M; Pool, Jan J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  19. Physical Therapy and Manual Physical Therapy: Differences in Patient Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G. M.; Pool, Jan J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  20. Radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a uniquely comprehensive source of information on the entire field of radiation therapy physics. The very significant advances in imaging, computational, and accelerator technologies receive full consideration, as do such topics as the dosimetry of radiolabeled antibodies and dose calculation models. The scope of the book and the expertise of the authors make it essential reading for interested physicians and physicists and for radiation dosimetrists.

  1. Physics of electronic materials principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, Jorgen

    2017-01-01

    Adopting a uniquely pedagogical approach, this comprehensive textbook on the quantum mechanics of semiconductor materials and devices focuses on the materials, components and devices themselves whilst incorporating a substantial amount of fundamental physics related to condensed matter theory and quantum mechanics. Written primarily for advanced undergraduate students in physics and engineering, this book can also be used as a supporting text for introductory quantum mechanics courses, and will be of interest to anyone interested in how electronic devices function at a fundamental level. Complete with numerous exercises, and with all the necessary mathematics and physics included in appendices, this book guides the reader seamlessly through the principles of quantum mechanics and the quantum theory of metals and semiconductors, before describing in detail how devices are exploited within electric circuits and in the hardware of computers, for example as amplifiers, switches and transistors. Includes nume...

  2. Solid state physics principles and modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2018-01-01

    This book provides the basis for a two-semester graduate course on solid-state physics. The first half presents all the knowledge necessary for a one-semester survey of solid-state physics, but in greater depth than most introductory solid state physics courses. The second half includes most of the important research over the past half-century, covering both the fundamental principles and most recent advances. This new edition includes the latest developments in the treatment of strongly interacting two-dimensional electrons and discusses the generalization from small to larger systems. The book provides explanations in a class-tested tutorial style, and each chapter includes problems reviewing key concepts and calculations. The updated exercises and solutions enable students to become familiar with contemporary research activities, such as the electronic properties of massless fermions in graphene and topological insulators.

  3. Principles of Physics For Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Radi, Hafez A

    2013-01-01

    This textbook presents a basic course in physics to teach mechanics, mechanical properties of matter, thermal properties of matter, elementary thermodynamics, electrodynamics, electricity, magnetism, light and optics and sound. It includes simple mathematical approaches to each physical principle, and all examples and exercises are selected carefully to reinforce each chapter. In addition, answers to all exercises are included that should ultimately help solidify the concepts in the minds of the students and increase their confidence in the subject. Many boxed features are used to separate the examples from the text and to highlight some important physical outcomes and rules. The appendices are chosen in such a way that all basic simple conversion factors, basic rules and formulas, basic rules of differentiation and integration can be viewed quickly, helping student to understand the elementary mathematical steps used for solving the examples and exercises. Instructors teaching form this textbook will be able...

  4. Thermodynamics principles characterizing physical and chemical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Honig, Jurgen M

    1999-01-01

    This book provides a concise overview of thermodynamics, and is written in a manner which makes the difficult subject matter understandable. Thermodynamics is systematic in its presentation and covers many subjects that are generally not dealt with in competing books such as: Carathéodory''s approach to the Second Law, the general theory of phase transitions, the origin of phase diagrams, the treatment of matter subjected to a variety of external fields, and the subject of irreversible thermodynamics.The book provides a first-principles, postulational, self-contained description of physical and chemical processes. Designed both as a textbook and as a monograph, the book stresses the fundamental principles, the logical development of the subject matter, and the applications in a variety of disciplines. This revised edition is based on teaching experience in the classroom, and incorporates many exercises in varying degrees of sophistication. The stress laid on a didactic, logical presentation, and on the relat...

  5. Medical physics aspects of particle therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäkel, Oliver

    2009-11-01

    Charged particle beams offer an improved dose conformation to the target volume when compared with photon radiotherapy, with better sparing of normal tissue structures close to the target. In addition, beams of heavier ions exhibit a strong increase of the linear energy transfer in the Bragg peak when compared with the entrance region. These physical and biological properties make ion beams more favourable for radiation therapy of cancer than photon beams. As a consequence, particle therapy with protons and heavy ions has gained increasing interest worldwide. This contribution summarises the physical and biological principles of charged particle therapy with ion beams and highlights some of the developments in the field of beam delivery, the principles of treatment planning and the determination of absorbed dose in ion beams. The clinical experience gathered so far with carbon ion therapy is briefly reviewed.

  6. The physical principles of the quantum theory

    CERN Document Server

    Heisenberg, Werner Karl

    1930-01-01

    The contributions of few contemporary scientists have been as far reaching in their effects as those of Nobel Laureate Werner Heisenberg. His matrix theory is one of the bases of modern quantum mechanics, while his ""uncertainty principle"" has altered our whole philosophy of science.In this classic, based on lectures delivered at the University of Chicago, Heisenberg presents a complete physical picture of quantum theory. He covers not only his own contributions, but also those of Bohr, Dirac, Bose, de Broglie, Fermi, Einstein, Pauli, Schrodinger, Somerfield, Rupp, ·Wilson, Germer, and others

  7. Physical Therapy Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Loredan Biomedical, Inc.'s LIDO, a computerized physical therapy system, was purchased by NASA in 1985 for evaluation as a Space Station Freedom exercise program. In 1986, while involved in an ARC muscle conditioning project, Malcom Bond, Loredan's chairman, designed an advanced software package for NASA which became the basis for LIDOSOFT software used in the commercially available system. The system employs a "proprioceptive" software program which perceives internal body conditions, induces perturbations to muscular effort and evaluates the response. Biofeedback on a screen allows a patient to observe his own performance.

  8. Molecular Physics: Theoretical Principles and Experimental Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2005-11-01

    The richly illustrated book comprehensively explains the important principles of diatomic and polyatomic molecules and their spectra in two separate, distinct parts. The first part concentrates on the theoretical aspects of molecular physics, such as the vibration, rotation, electronic states, potential curves, and spectra of molecules. The different methods of approximation for the calculation of electronic wave functions and their energy are also covered. The introduction of basics terms used in group theory and their meaning in molecular physics enables an elegant description of polyatomic molecules and their symmetries. Molecular spectra and the dynamic processes involved in their excited states are given its own chapter. The theoretical part then concludes with a discussion of the field of Van der Waals molecules and clusters. The second part is devoted entirely to experimental techniques, such as laser, Fourier, NMR, and ESR spectroscopies, used in the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, and material science. Time-resolved measurements and the influence of chemical reactions by coherent controls are also treated. A list of general textbooks and specialized literature is provided for further reading. With specific examples, definitions, and notes integrated within the text to aid understanding, this is suitable for undergraduates and graduates in physics and chemistry with a knowledge of atomic physics and familiar with the basics of quantum mechanics.

  9. Physical therapy in spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D

    2002-05-01

    Physiotherapists are part of the rehabilitation team involved in the management of adult spasticity. Physical therapy is one part of the armoury in the fight against this disabling symptom of the upper motor neurone syndrome. Identifying the physiological changes brought about by physical therapy or physiotherapy, is difficult. As with many interventions in rehabilitation, this area is poorly studied and, until recently, there was little or no evidence for its effectiveness. The aim of this presentation is to identify key components of a physiotherapy approach and outline specific techniques. The key components considered are: education of the patient and their carers; the 'intervention cycle' - involving accurate assessment, careful measurement, intervention and evaluation; accurate goal setting and a staged stepwise approach over prolonged periods. The specific techniques used include treatments targeted at: muscle length changes, muscle strengthening and functional performance. Broadly these techniques can be divided into biomechanical, cognitive and neurophysiological, each being interdependent on the others. Physiotherapy combined with the other available treatments should meet the challenge arising from adult spasticity.

  10. Building physics from physical principles to international standards

    CERN Document Server

    Pinterić, Marko

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides thorough coverage of the most important building physics phenomena: heat transfer, moisture, sound/acoustics, and illumination. Since the book is primarily aimed at engineers, it addresses professional issues with due pragmatism, and by including many practical examples and related ISO standards. Nevertheless, in order to guarantee full comprehension, it also explains the underlying physical principles and relates them to practical aspects in a simple and clear way. This is achieved with the aid of more than 100 figures and consistent cross-referencing of formulas and ideas. In addition, interrelationships between the different building physics phenomena are elucidated in a way that will enable readers to develop performance specifications that inform the design process. The book will primarily appeal to students of civil engineering and architecture, as well as to all practitioners in these areas who wish to broaden their fundamental understanding of topics in building physics.

  11. [Fibromyalgia and physical therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tits, M

    2011-09-01

    Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by the existence of widespread musculoskeletal pain, present above and below the waist and the axial skeleton for a period of at least three months. Other symptoms are frequently present, intolerance to exercise, fatigue, trouble sleeping, morning stiffness, paresthesias, anxiety, headaches, etc. The exact etiology and pathophysiology of the disease are not clearly established. Currently, we primarily retain a bad handling of pain pathways. An understanding of these mechanisms is important as a basis for a global therapeutic program and the rehabilitation of patients with fibromyalgia. By the multiple nature of these symptoms associated with fibromyalgia, an accurate assessment of the patient will be a preamble to any optimal care. Current guidelines recommend comprehensive and multidisciplinary care, however centers that offer this type of care are rare. In mono-disciplinary treatment, the physical therapy recommended is aerobic exercise and the strengthening of muscles associated with different manual techniques to decrease the nociceptive input.

  12. Physical principles for scalable neural recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marblestone, Adam H; Zamft, Bradley M; Maguire, Yael G; Shapiro, Mikhail G; Cybulski, Thaddeus R; Glaser, Joshua I; Amodei, Dario; Stranges, P Benjamin; Kalhor, Reza; Dalrymple, David A; Seo, Dongjin; Alon, Elad; Maharbiz, Michel M; Carmena, Jose M; Rabaey, Jan M; Boyden, Edward S; Church, George M; Kording, Konrad P

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneously measuring the activities of all neurons in a mammalian brain at millisecond resolution is a challenge beyond the limits of existing techniques in neuroscience. Entirely new approaches may be required, motivating an analysis of the fundamental physical constraints on the problem. We outline the physical principles governing brain activity mapping using optical, electrical, magnetic resonance, and molecular modalities of neural recording. Focusing on the mouse brain, we analyze the scalability of each method, concentrating on the limitations imposed by spatiotemporal resolution, energy dissipation, and volume displacement. Based on this analysis, all existing approaches require orders of magnitude improvement in key parameters. Electrical recording is limited by the low multiplexing capacity of electrodes and their lack of intrinsic spatial resolution, optical methods are constrained by the scattering of visible light in brain tissue, magnetic resonance is hindered by the diffusion and relaxation timescales of water protons, and the implementation of molecular recording is complicated by the stochastic kinetics of enzymes. Understanding the physical limits of brain activity mapping may provide insight into opportunities for novel solutions. For example, unconventional methods for delivering electrodes may enable unprecedented numbers of recording sites, embedded optical devices could allow optical detectors to be placed within a few scattering lengths of the measured neurons, and new classes of molecularly engineered sensors might obviate cumbersome hardware architectures. We also study the physics of powering and communicating with microscale devices embedded in brain tissue and find that, while radio-frequency electromagnetic data transmission suffers from a severe power-bandwidth tradeoff, communication via infrared light or ultrasound may allow high data rates due to the possibility of spatial multiplexing. The use of embedded local recording and

  13. The physics of proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhauser, Wayne D; Zhang, Rui

    2015-04-21

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy.

  14. The physics of proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Zhang, Rui

    2015-04-01

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy.

  15. The physics of proton therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Newhauser, Wayne D; ZHANG, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes a...

  16. Physics and principles of breast ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staren, E D

    1996-02-01

    Ultrasound refers to sound of any frequency greater than 20 kilohertz; that is, above the frequency for which humans can normally hear. All sound, including ultrasound, travels through different tissues at different rates of speed. The point at which adjacent tissues with different speeds of sound meet is referred to as an acoustic interface. When sound hits an acoustic interface, an echo is created. Medical ultrasound is essentially a means of producing visual images based on echoes that occur at such acoustic interfaces. Crystals within the ultrasound transducer are capable of generating and receiving sound waves based on the "piezo-electric" effect. By this effect, the mechanical energy of the echo is converted into electrical energy that can be imaged on the ultrasound monitor. The resolution of ultrasound images of the breast has been greatly improved by computer-enhancement capabilities and the availability of high-frequency transducers. Although the detailed imaging of modern ultrasound allows for satisfactory evaluation of most breast lesions, there are a variety of artifacts inherent to breast ultrasound of which one must be cognizant, so as to avoid misinterpretation. This article will address a number of these issues, thereby presenting an introduction to the basic physics and principles relevant to breast ultrasound.

  17. Physics Without Physics. The Power of Information-theoretical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2017-01-01

    David Finkelstein was very fond of the new information-theoretic paradigm of physics advocated by John Archibald Wheeler and Richard Feynman. Only recently, however, the paradigm has concretely shown its full power, with the derivation of quantum theory (Chiribella et al., Phys. Rev. A 84:012311, 2011; D'Ariano et al., 2017) and of free quantum field theory (D'Ariano and Perinotti, Phys. Rev. A 90:062106, 2014; Bisio et al., Phys. Rev. A 88:032301, 2013; Bisio et al., Ann. Phys. 354:244, 2015; Bisio et al., Ann. Phys. 368:177, 2016) from informational principles. The paradigm has opened for the first time the possibility of avoiding physical primitives in the axioms of the physical theory, allowing a re-foundation of the whole physics over logically solid grounds. In addition to such methodological value, the new information-theoretic derivation of quantum field theory is particularly interesting for establishing a theoretical framework for quantum gravity, with the idea of obtaining gravity itself as emergent from the quantum information processing, as also suggested by the role played by information in the holographic principle (Susskind, J. Math. Phys. 36:6377, 1995; Bousso, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74:825, 2002). In this paper I review how free quantum field theory is derived without using mechanical primitives, including space-time, special relativity, Hamiltonians, and quantization rules. The theory is simply provided by the simplest quantum algorithm encompassing a countable set of quantum systems whose network of interactions satisfies the three following simple principles: homogeneity, locality, and isotropy. The inherent discrete nature of the informational derivation leads to an extension of quantum field theory in terms of a quantum cellular automata and quantum walks. A simple heuristic argument sets the scale to the Planck one, and the currently observed regime where discreteness is not visible is the so-called "relativistic regime" of small wavevectors, which

  18. The physics of radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Faiz M

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Khan's classic textbook on radiation oncology physics is now in its thoroughly revised and updated Fourth Edition. It provides the entire radiation therapy team—radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists, and radiation therapists—with a thorough understanding of the physics and practical clinical applications of advanced radiation therapy technologies, including 3D-CRT, stereotactic radiotherapy, HDR, IMRT, IGRT, and proton beam therapy. These technologies are discussed along with the physical concepts underlying treatment planning, treatment delivery, and dosimetry. This Fourth Edition includes brand-new chapters on image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and proton beam therapy. Other chapters have been revised to incorporate the most recent developments in the field. This edition also features more than 100 full-color illustrations throughout.

  19. MODERN PRINCIPLES OF ALLERGIC RHINITIS THERAPY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Vishneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to allergic rhinitis (AR in children. AR is widespread among children and adolescents; it negatively affects physical and psychological condition, social life and school performance and reduces life quality of both patients and members of their families. The authors consider the most modern approaches to diagnostics and control over the disease and present evidence-based recommendations. The authors offer the relevant classification; describe classic and additional disease symptoms and list the key nosological forms of differential diagnostic search. The complex of therapeutic measures to be taken at AR is aimed at relieving devastating symptoms of the disease and involves limitation of contacts with pathogenetically significant allergens, drug therapy, specific immunotherapy and education. Preventive measures are aimed at preventing development of sensitization/manifestation/aggravation of the AR course. The information given in the article is aimed at spreading the main principles of AR therapy and increasing accessibility of the modern methods of control over allergic diseases.Key words: allergic rhinitis; children; control; therapy

  20. Striding Towards Better Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion on a new rehabilitative device that promises to improve physical therapy for patients working to regain the ability to walk after facing traumatic injuries or a degenerative illness. Produced by Enduro Medical Technology, of East Hartford, Connecticut, the Secure Ambulation Module (S.A.M.) creates a stable and secure environment for patients as they stand during ambulation therapy.

  1. [Physical therapy for idiopathic scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffan, K

    2015-11-01

    The objective is the description and summary of the current state of idiopathic scoliosis treatment with physical therapy based on new scientific knowledge and concluded from more than 15 years of experience as a leading physician in two well-known clinics specializing in the conservative treatment of scoliosis. Based on current scientific publications on physical therapy in scoliosis treatment and resulting from the considerable personal experience gained working with conservative treatment and consulting scoliosis patients (as inpatients and outpatients), the current methods of physical therapy have been compared and evaluated. Physical therapy according to Schroth and Vojta therapy are at present the most common and effective methods in the physical treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. These methods can be applied during inpatient or outpatient treatment or intensified in the practice of specialized therapists. As there are only a few scientific studies on this subject, the author's findings are based mainly on his own experiences of the conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Athough these experiences are the results of over 15 years of working in the field of therapy, and the Schroth method in combination with corrective bracing presents highly promising results, it would nevertheless be desirable to conduct detailed scientific studies to verify the effectiveness of conservative treatment.

  2. Nuclear physics and particle therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, G.

    2016-05-01

    The use of charged particles and nuclei in cancer therapy is one of the most successful cases of application of nuclear physics to medicine. The physical advantages in terms of precision and selectivity, combined with the biological properties of densely ionizing radiation, make charged particle approach an elective choice in a number of cases. Hadron therapy is in continuous development and nuclear physicists can give important contributions to this discipline. In this work some of the relevant aspects in nuclear physics will be reviewed, summarizing the most important directions of research and development.

  3. Physics and Speech Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, M.; Lowe, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes development and content of a speech science course taught to speech therapists for two years, modified by feedback from those two classes. Presents basic topics and concepts covered. Evaluates a team teaching approach as well as the efficacy of teaching physics relevant to vocational interests. (JM)

  4. Physics controversies in proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelsman, Martijn; Schwarz, Marco; Dong, Lei

    2013-04-01

    The physical characteristics of proton beams are appealing for cancer therapy. The rapid increase in operational and planned proton therapy facilities may suggest that this technology is a "plug-and-play" valuable addition to the arsenal of the radiation oncologist and medical physicist. In reality, the technology is still evolving, so planning and delivery of proton therapy in patients face many practical challenges. This review article discusses the current status of proton therapy treatment planning and delivery techniques, indicates current limitations in dealing with range uncertainties, and proposes possible developments for proton therapy and supplementary technology to try to realize the actual potential of proton therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Learning Styles of Physical Therapy and Physical Therapy Assistant Students in Accredited Physical Therapy Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowdermilk, Margaret; Lampley, Jim; Tweed, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the learning styles of Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) students and associate degree Physical Therapist Assistant (PTA) students and identify any association between their learning styles and examine the association between gender and age by learning style. Participants included 337 DPT and PTA students…

  6. Enhancing the Therapy Experience Using Principles of Video Game Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkins, John Wm; Brackenbury, Tim; Krause, Miriam; Haviland, Allison

    2016-02-01

    This article considers the potential benefits that applying design principles from contemporary video games may have on enhancing therapy experiences. Six principles of video game design are presented, and their relevance for enriching clinical experiences is discussed. The motivational and learning benefits of each design principle have been discussed in the education literature as having positive impacts on student motivation and learning and are related here to aspects of clinical practice. The essential experience principle suggests connecting all aspects of the experience around a central emotion or cognitive connection. The discovery principle promotes indirect learning in focused environments. The risk-taking principle addresses the uncertainties clients face when attempting newly learned skills in novel situations. The generalization principle encourages multiple opportunities for skill transfer. The reward system principle directly relates to the scaffolding of frequent and varied feedback in treatment. Last, the identity principle can assist clients in using their newly learned communication skills to redefine self-perceptions. These principles highlight areas for research and interventions that may be used to reinforce or advance current practice.

  7. Hadron therapy physics and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    d’Ávila Nunes, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an in-depth overview of the physics of hadron therapy, ranging from the history to the latest contributions to the subject. It covers the mechanisms of protons and carbon ions at the molecular level (DNA breaks and proteins 53BP1 and RPA), the physics and mathematics of accelerators (Cyclotron and Synchrotron), microdosimetry measurements (with new results so far achieved), and Monte Carlo simulations in hadron therapy using FLUKA (CERN) and MCHIT (FIAS) software. The text also includes information about proton therapy centers and carbon ion centers (PTCOG), as well as a comparison and discussion of both techniques in treatment planning and radiation monitoring. This brief is suitable for newcomers to medical physics as well as seasoned specialists in radiation oncology.

  8. [Physical therapy for parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, M

    2011-09-01

    Parkinson's disease is a complex neurologic and progressive incapacitating disease. Parkinson's disease severely threatens the quality of live and the number of patients worldwide is expected to rise considerably in the coming decade due to aging of the population. Even with optimal medical management using drugs or neurosurgery, patients are faced with progressively increasing impairments (e.g. in speech, mental and movement related functions), and restrictions in participation (e.g. domestic life and social activities). Physical therapy is often prescribed next to medical treatment but there is a lack of uniform treatment. A systematic literature search for guidelines, systematic reviews, trials, and expert opinions lead to a better understanding. The key question: Is physiotherapy able to optimally treat the Parkinson's disease symptoms? In which way, how and on which scientific bases can the physiotherapist participate to improve autonomy and to help them living independently and avoid, as long as possible, institutionalization? This article has integrated clinical research findings to provide clinicians with an overview to physical therapist management of disorders in people with Parkinson's disease. An Evidence-Based Physical Therapy Guideline providing practice recommendations was developed by the Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF). Evidence from research was supplemented with clinical expertise and patients values. Randomized clinical trials reflect specific core areas of physical therapy, that is, transfer, posture, balance, reaching and grasping, gait and physical condition. Another aspect is that of educating patients (as well as their partners and family) about the disease process and the benefits of exercise therapy. Alternative therapies can be helpful like Tai Chi, virtual games, dancing, yoga, ball games for example.

  9. Principles of physics in surgery: the laws of flow dynamics physics for surgeons - Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anurag; Sood, Akshay; Joy, S Parijat; Woodcock, John

    2009-08-01

    In the field of medicine and surgery many principles of physics find numerous applications. In this article we have summarized some prominent applications of the laws of fluid mechanics and hydrodynamics in surgery. Poiseuille's law sets the limits of isovolaemic haemodilution, enumerates limiting factors during fluid resuscitation and is a guiding principle in surgery for vascular stenoses. The equation of continuity finds use in non-invasive measurement of blood flow. Bernoulli's theorem explains the formation of post-stenotic dilatation. Reynolds number explains the origin of murmurs, haemolysis and airflow disturbances. Various forms of oxygen therapy are a direct application of the gas laws. Doppler effect is used in ultrasonography to find the direction and velocity of blood flow. In this first part of a series of articles we describe some applications of the laws of hydrodynamics governing the flow of blood and other body fluids.

  10. Introduction to Equine Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Catherine M; Cottriall, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    Physical therapy (physiotherapy, or PT) can be broadly defined as the restoration of movement and function and includes assessment, treatment, and rehabilitation. This review outlines the history, definition, and regulation of PT, followed by the core scientific principles of PT. Because musculoskeletal physiotherapy is the predominant subdiscipline in equine PT, encompassing poor performance, back pain syndromes, other musculoskeletal disorders, and some neuromuscular disorders, the sciences of functional biomechanics, neuromotor control, and the sensorimotor system in the spine, pelvis, and peripheral joints are reviewed. Equine PT also may involve PT assessment and treatment of riders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PRINCIPLES OF DRUG THERAPY IN NEWBORNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Yatsyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the neonats adequate pharmacotherapy, including use of medications off-label. The authors emphasize the characteristics of a newborn child organism (as a full-term and preterm that define the distinct processes of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the older children. This paper discusses the problem of the optimal route of administration choice, provides basic information about medications used in the most common pathological conditions in newborns. Key words: drug therapy, drugs, newborns, premature infants. (Pediatric pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (6: 50–56.

  12. Physical Therapy and Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Therapy & FSHD Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy A Guide for Patients & Physical Therapists Authors: Wendy M. King, P.T., ... expertise and patient preferences. The goals of any physical therapy plan of care are to assist patients to:  ...

  13. Orff Music Therapy: History, Principles and Further Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Voigt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Orff Music Therapy, a developmental approach to music therapy, was developed by Gertrud Orff within the framework of social paediatrics in Munich, Germany. A short historical background of Orff Music Therapy is discussed. The history of the clinical setting in which it was developed is described as is Gertrud Orff’s professional background. The role of Orff-Schulwerk in Orff Music Therapy and the development of theoretical foundations are discussed. Current principles and practice of Orff Music Therapy, illustrated by a case example show how the profile of Orff Music Therapy has developed. On the basis of the case example, theory is related to practice. Finally, changes influencing Orff Music Therapy today, training and research are considered.

  14. Physical working principles of medical radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aardal, Øyvind; Paichard, Yoann; Brovoll, Sverre; Berger, Tor; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2013-04-01

    There has been research interest in using radar for contactless measurements of the human heartbeat for several years. While many systems have been demonstrated, not much attention have been given to the actual physical causes of why this work. The consensus seems to be that the radar senses small body movements correlated with heartbeats, but whether only the movements of the body surface or reflections from internal organs are also monitored have not been answered definitely. There has recently been proposed another theory that blood perfusion in the skin could be the main reason radars are able to detect heartbeats. In this paper, an experimental approach is given to determine the physical causes. The measurement results show that it is the body surface reflections that dominate radar measurements of human heartbeats.

  15. Using Case Studies in the Teaching of Physical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Ian

    1975-01-01

    Proposes the use of problems of the everyday world to motivate students to master basic physical principles. Cites the example of conversion of solar energy by a photovoltaic cell as a source of topics in electricity and solid state physics. (CP)

  16. A Survey of Physical Principles Attempting to Define Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oas, Gary; Acacio de Barros, J.

    Quantum mechanics, one of the most successful theories in the history of science, was created to account for physical systems not describable by classical physics. Though it is consistent with all experiments conducted thus far, many of its core concepts (amplitudes, global phases, etc.) can not be directly accessed and its interpretation is still the subject of intense debate, more than 100 years since it was introduced. So, a fundamental question is why this particular mathematical model is the one that nature chooses, if indeed it is the correct model. In the past two decades there has been a renewed effort to determine what physical or informational principles define quantum mechanics. In this chapter, recent attempts at establishing reasonable physical principles are reviewed and their degree of success is tabulated. An alternative approach using joint quasi-probability distributions is shown to provide a common basis of representing most of the proposed principles. It is argued that having a common representation of the principles can provide intuition and guidance to relate current principles or advance new principles. The current state of affairs, along with some alternative views are discussed.

  17. Epitaxy physical principles and technical implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, Marian A; Sitter, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    Epitaxy provides readers with a comprehensive treatment of the modern models and modifications of epitaxy, together with the relevant experimental and technological framework. This advanced textbook describes all important aspects of the epitaxial growth processes of solid films on crystalline substrates, including a section on heteroepitaxy. It covers and discusses in details the most important epitaxial growth techniques, which are currently widely used in basic research as well as in manufacturing processes of devices, namely solid-phase epitaxy, liquid-phase epitaxy, vapor-phase epitaxy, including metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy and molecular-beam epitaxy. Epitaxy’s coverage of science and texhnology thin-film is intended to fill the need for a comprehensive reference and text examining the variety of problems related to the physical foundations and technical implementation of epitaxial crystallization. It is intended for undergraduate students, PhD students, research scientists, lecturers and practic...

  18. Epitaxy of Semiconductors Introduction to Physical Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Pohl, Udo W

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Epitaxy provides the essential information for a comprehensive upper-level graduate course treating the crystalline growth of semiconductor heterostructures. Heteroepitaxy represents the basis of advanced electronic and optoelectronic devices today and is considered one of the top fields in materials research. The book covers the structural and electronic properties of strained epitaxial layers, the thermodynamics and kinetics of layer growth, and the description of the major growth techniques metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, molecular beam epitaxy and liquid phase epitaxy. Cubic semiconductors, strain relaxation by misfit dislocations, strain and confinement effects on electronic states, surface structures and processes during nucleation and growth are treated in detail. The Introduction to Epitaxy requires only little knowledge on solid-state physics. Students of natural sciences, materials science and electrical engineering as well as their lecturers benefit from elementary introductions t...

  19. Solid State Physics Principles and Modern Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2009-01-01

    Intended for a two semester advanced undergraduate or graduate course in Solid State Physics, this treatment offers modern coverage of the theory and related experiments, including the group theoretical approach to band structures, Moessbauer recoil free fraction, semi-classical electron theory, magnetoconductivity, electron self-energy and Landau theory of Fermi liquid, and both quantum and fractional quantum Hall effects. Integrated throughout are developments from the newest semiconductor devices, e.g. space charge layers, quantum wells and superlattices. The first half includes all material usually covered in the introductory course, but in greater depth than most introductory textbooks. The second half includes most of the important developments in solid-state researches of the past half century, addressing e.g. optical and electronic properties such as collective bulk and surface modes and spectral function of a quasiparticle, which is a basic concept for understanding LEED intensities, X ray fine struc...

  20. Principles and Reality of Proton Therapy Treatment Allocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekelman, Justin E., E-mail: bekelman@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Asch, David A. [Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); The Wharton School and Penn Medicine Center for Health Care Innovation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Tochner, Zelig [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Friedberg, Joseph [Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Vaughn, David J. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Rash, Ellen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Raksowski, Kevin [Department of Internal Medicine, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To present the principles and rationale of the Proton Priority System (PROPS), a priority points framework that assigns higher scores to patients thought to more likely benefit from proton therapy, and the distribution of PROPS scores by patient characteristics Methods and Materials: We performed multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the association between PROPS scores and receipt of proton therapy, adjusted for insurance status, gender, race, geography, and the domains that inform the PROPS score. Results: Among 1529 adult patients considered for proton therapy prioritization during our Center's ramp-up phase of treatment availability, PROPS scores varied by age, diagnosis, site, and other PROPS domains. In adjusted analyses, receipt of proton therapy was lower for patients with non-Medicare relative to Medicare health insurance (commercial vs Medicare: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.64; managed care vs Medicare: OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.28-0.56; Medicaid vs Medicare: OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.13-0.44). Proton Priority System score and age were not significantly associated with receipt of proton therapy. Conclusions: The Proton Priority System is a rationally designed and transparent system for allocation of proton therapy slots based on the best available evidence and expert opinion. Because the actual allocation of treatment slots depends mostly on insurance status, payers may consider incorporating PROPS, or its underlying principles, into proton therapy coverage policies.

  1. Nuclear Physics and Hadron Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunn, B. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Caen, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3 Caen (France); CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SPhN, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Colin, J.; Courtois, C.; Cussol, D.; Fontbonne, J. M.; Labalme, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Caen, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3 Caen (France)

    2011-12-13

    Hadron therapy uses light charged particles beams (mainly proton and {sup 12}C ions) to irradiate tumors. These beams present a ballistic advantage with a maximum energy deposition at the end of the path. A large dose can be delivered inside a deep tumor while the surrounding healthy tissues are preserved. There is an obvious advantage in using these beams but the beam control has to be achieved and all the physical processes leading to the energy deposition have to be fully under control. This treatment protocol requires accurate control devices and a good knowledge of the physical processes occurring all along the path of the projectile in human tissues. In this report, we will present one example of a beam monitor for the proton therapy. We will also present the experimental program which has been initiated to obtain fundamental data on the nuclear fragmentation process.

  2. Nuclear Physics and Hadron Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunn, B.; Colin, J.; Courtois, C.; Cussol, D.; Fontbonne, J. M.; Labalme, M.

    2011-12-01

    Hadron therapy uses light charged particles beams (mainly proton and 12C ions) to irradiate tumors. These beams present a ballistic advantage with a maximum energy deposition at the end of the path. A large dose can be delivered inside a deep tumor while the surrounding healthy tissues are preserved. There is an obvious advantage in using these beams but the beam control has to be achieved and all the physical processes leading to the energy deposition have to be fully under control. This treatment protocol requires accurate control devices and a good knowledge of the physical processes occurring all along the path of the projectile in human tissues. In this report, we will present one example of a beam monitor for the proton therapy. We will also present the experimental program which has been initiated to obtain fundamental data on the nuclear fragmentation process.

  3. The beauty of physics patterns, principles, and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Rau, A R P

    2014-01-01

    The beauty of physics lies in its coherence in terms of a few fundamental concepts and principles. Even physicists have occasion to marvel at the overarching reach of basic principles and their ability to account for features stretching from the microscopic sub-atomic world to the cosmological expanses of the Universe. While mathematics is its natural language, physics is mostly about patterns, connections, and relations between objects and phenomena, and it is this aspect that is emphasized in this book. Since science tries to connect phenomena that at first sight appear widely different, while boiling them down to a small set of essential principles and laws, metaphor and analogy pervade our subject. Consider the pendulum, its swing from one extreme to the other often invoked in social or economic contexts. In molecular vibrations, such as in the CO2 molecule, the quantum motions of electrons and nuclei are metaphorically the pendulums. In electromagnetic radiation, including the visible light we observe, t...

  4. Teaching Energy Conservation as a Unifying Principle in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbes, Jordi; Guisasola, Jenaro; Tarin, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present the design and assessment of a teaching sequence aimed at introducing the principle of energy conservation at post-compulsory secondary school level (16-18 year olds). The proposal is based on the result of research into teaching-learning difficulties and on the analysis of the physics framework. Evidence is shown that this…

  5. Auditory physics. Physical principles in hearing theory. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, E.

    1980-06-01

    Many disciplines meet in the study of the auditory system. It is necessary to know the principal results of work in the fields of anatomy and physiology before an attempt can be made to isolate specific physical subjects. Furthermore, it is necessary to obtain a crude representation of what the entire auditory system, from ear-lobe to perception, can accomplish. A partial answer to this problem is provided by the discipline of psychophysics. Accordingly, the first three sections of the present paper are devoted to a description of the most pertinent findings in psychophysics , in addition to presenting knowledge from the fields of anatomy and physiology. In section 4 the physics of the middle ear is described. The fundamental impedance transformation function as well as the modifications introduced by stiffness, mass and cavity resonance effects are treated in some detail. Section 5 presents the results of physical measurements of the mechanics of the cochlea (inner ear), it is possible to discern a gradual transition from a ‘classical’ to a more ‘modern’ viewpoint. On the basis of the findings presented, it is possible to develop a mathematical model of cochlear mechanics. The simplest possible solution, a one-dimensional model, is worked out in considerable detail in section 6. Since a complete solution can only be obtained by numerical methods, several approximations are worked out to obtain analytical relationships and to deepen insight into fundamental physical factors.

  6. Comparison of efficacy of neural therapy and physical therapy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of neural therapy, and physical therapy on level of pain, disability, quality of life, and psychological status in patients with chronic low back pain. Patients admitted to the physical therapy and rehabilitation outpatient clinic with the complaint of low back pain of at ...

  7. Auditory physics. Physical principles in hearing theory. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, E.

    1984-03-01

    In the first part of this series of papers [Phys. Reports 62 (1980) 87-174] several physical problems are described that are relevant for the study of the auditory system. The present paper extends this treatment, it describes more facts upon which auditory theory is to be based and it delves considerably deeper into the mechanics of the cochlea (inner ear). The first two chapters treat nonlinear phenomena that are found in physiological and mechanical responses of the cochlea and in psychophysical experiments (listening tests carried out in human subjects). The main part of the paper is devoted to the mechanics of the cochlea. This part is preceded by an overview of the results of mechanical measurements on the cochlea. As it turns out, the newest experimental data present a specific challenge for cochlear mechanics. The central three chapters of the paper describe the development of a linear three-dimensional model of the cochlea. The main intention is to describe this model in a step-by-step fashion (hence the chapter headings borrowed from the field of architecture). Even in this simplified case, the solution for the response of the cochlear model is far from easy. Therefore, a few excursions are made into fields of physics and engineering in which related problems are worked out in analytical form. Just as in Part I of this series of papers, this extended treatment considerably deepens insight into the physical factors involved. Confrontation of the requirements for modelling described in the first few chapters with what has been achieved in the final part reveals how much study in the field of auditory physics remains to be done.

  8. Special Help: Physical and Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Linda; Della Corte, Suzanne

    1988-01-01

    This issue of "Special Parent/Special Child" describes the role of occupational and physical therapy in maximizing the potential of special needs children. Physical and occupational therapy are defined and the training and functions of therapists in each area are outlined. Also discussed are the goals of therapy programs in developing gross and…

  9. Principles of maximum entropy and maximum caliber in statistical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressé, Steve; Ghosh, Kingshuk; Lee, Julian; Dill, Ken A.

    2013-07-01

    The variational principles called maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and maximum caliber (MaxCal) are reviewed. MaxEnt originated in the statistical physics of Boltzmann and Gibbs, as a theoretical tool for predicting the equilibrium states of thermal systems. Later, entropy maximization was also applied to matters of information, signal transmission, and image reconstruction. Recently, since the work of Shore and Johnson, MaxEnt has been regarded as a principle that is broader than either physics or information alone. MaxEnt is a procedure that ensures that inferences drawn from stochastic data satisfy basic self-consistency requirements. The different historical justifications for the entropy S=-∑ipilog⁡pi and its corresponding variational principles are reviewed. As an illustration of the broadening purview of maximum entropy principles, maximum caliber, which is path entropy maximization applied to the trajectories of dynamical systems, is also reviewed. Examples are given in which maximum caliber is used to interpret dynamical fluctuations in biology and on the nanoscale, in single-molecule and few-particle systems such as molecular motors, chemical reactions, biological feedback circuits, and diffusion in microfluidics devices.

  10. Basic Principles of Interpersonal Social Rhythm Therapy in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokben Hizli Sayar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal Social Rhythm Therapy is a psychotherapy modality that helps the patient recognize the relationship between disruptions in social rhythms and the onset of previous episodes of psychiatric disorders. It uses psychoeducation and behavioral techniques to maintain social rhythm and sleep/wake regularity. It is closely related to and ldquo;social zeitgeber theory and rdquo; that emphasizes the importance that social rhythm regularity may play in synchronization of circadian rhythms in individuals with or at risk for bipolar spectrum disorders. Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy have been shown to stabilize social rhythms and enhance course and outcome in bipolar disorder. This review focuses on the theoretical principles and the basic steps of interpersonal and social rhythm therapy as a psychotherapy approach in bipolar disorder. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar databases were searched without temporal restriction. Search terms included interpersonal social rhythm therapy, bipolar, mood disorders. Abstracts were reviewed for relevance, and randomized controlled trials of interpersonal and social rhythm therapy in bipolar disorder selected. These researches also summarized on the final part of this review. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 438-446

  11. Low dimensional physics and gauge principles : Matinyan Festschrift

    CERN Document Server

    Klümper, Andreas; Sedrakyan, A G

    2013-01-01

    This is a collection of articles on fundamental physical principles and methods, the topics ranging from matrix models, random surfaces, quantum dots and rings, to black holes, cosmology and testing of the tiny effects predicted by General Relativity. Among the authors are Sir Roger Penrose and other well-known experts and the articles are addressed to graduate students and researchers. The volume is a Festschrift to a noted physicist and mentor Sergei Matinyan.

  12. Principles of physics from quantum field theory to classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jun, Ni

    2014-01-01

    This book starts from a set of common basic principles to establish the formalisms in all areas of fundamental physics, including quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, general relativity, electromagnetic field, and classical mechanics. Instead of the traditional pedagogic way, the author arranges the subjects and formalisms in a logical-sequential way, i.e. all the formulas are derived from the formulas before them. The formalisms are also kept self-contained. Most of the required mathematical tools are also given in the appendices. Although this book covers all the disciplines of fundamental physics, the book is concise and can be treated as an integrated entity. This is consistent with the aphorism that simplicity is beauty, unification is beauty, and thus physics is beauty. The book may be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students. It is also suitable for physicists who wish to have an overview of fundamental physics. Readership: This is an advanced gradua...

  13. Gene therapy for human osteoarthritis: principles and clinical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madry, Henning; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent chronic joint disease. Its key feature is a progressive articular cartilage loss. Gene therapy for OA aims at delivering gene-based therapeutic agents to the osteoarthritic cartilage, resulting in a controlled, site-specific, long-term presence to rebuild the damaged cartilage. An overview is provided of the principles of gene therapy for OA based on a PubMed literature search. Gene transfer to normal and osteoarthritic cartilage in vitro and in animal models in vivo is reviewed. Results from recent clinical gene therapy trials for OA are discussed and placed into perspective. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors enable to directly transfer candidate sequences in human articular chondrocytes in situ, providing a potent tool to modulate the structure of osteoarthritic cartilage. However, few preclinical animal studies in OA models have been performed thus far. Noteworthy, several gene therapy clinical trials have been carried out in patients with end-stage knee OA based on the intraarticular injection of human juvenile allogeneic chondrocytes overexpressing a cDNA encoding transforming growth factor-beta-1 via retroviral vectors. In a recent placebo-controlled randomized trial, clinical scores were improved compared with placebo. These translational results provide sufficient reason to proceed with further clinical testing of gene transfer protocols for the treatment of OA.

  14. Microfluidics and nanofluidics handbook chemistry, physics, and life science principles

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Sushanta K

    2011-01-01

    The Microfluidics and Nanofluidics Handbook: Two-Volume Set comprehensively captures the cross-disciplinary breadth of the fields of micro- and nanofluidics, which encompass the biological sciences, chemistry, physics and engineering applications. To fill the knowledge gap between engineering and the basic sciences, the editors pulled together key individuals, well known in their respective areas, to author chapters that help graduate students, scientists, and practicing engineers understand the overall area of microfluidics and nanofluidics. Topics covered include Cell Lysis Techniques in Lab-on-a-Chip Technology Electrodics in Electrochemical Energy Conversion Systems: Microstructure and Pore-Scale Transport Microscale Gas Flow Dynamics and Molecular Models for Gas Flow and Heat Transfer Microscopic Hemorheology and Hemodynamics Covering physics and transport phenomena along with life sciences and related applications, Volume One: Chemistry, Physics, and Life Science Principles provides readers with the fun...

  15. Clinical reasoning strategies in physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ian; Jones, Mark; Carr, Judi; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Jensen, Gail M

    2004-04-01

    Clinical reasoning remains a relatively under-researched subject in physical therapy. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the clinical reasoning of expert physical therapists in 3 different fields of physical therapy: orthopedic (manual) physical therapy, neurological physical therapy, and domiciliary care (home health) physical therapy. The subjects were 6 peer-designated expert physical therapists (2 from each field) nominated by leaders within the Australian Physiotherapy Association and 6 other interviewed experts representing each of the same 3 fields. Guided by a grounded theory method, a multiple case study approach was used to study the clinical practice of the 6 physical therapists in the 3 fields. A model of clinical reasoning in physical therapy characterized by the notion of "clinical reasoning strategies" is proposed by the authors. Within these clinical reasoning strategies, the application of different paradigms of knowledge and their interplay within reasoning is termed "dialectical reasoning." The findings of this study provide a potential clinical reasoning framework for the adoption of emerging models of impairment and disability in physical therapy.

  16. 42 CFR 413.106 - Reasonable cost of physical and other therapy services furnished under arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable cost of physical and other therapy... SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.106 Reasonable cost of physical and other therapy services furnished under arrangements. (a) Principle. The reasonable cost of the services of...

  17. SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY CURRICULA IN PHYSICAL THERAPIST PROFESSIONAL DEGREE PROGRAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Edward P; DeVahl, Julie

    2017-10-01

    The specialty niche of sports physical therapy has grown at a significant rate over the past 40 years. Despite this growth there is little information or direction from the physical therapy education accreditation body or professional association to guide academic programs on the interest or necessity of this type of practice content in physical therapy professional degree programs. The purpose of this survey study is to report on the prevalence, attitudes, barriers, resources, and faculty expertise in providing required or elective sports physical therapy course work. Cross-sectional descriptive survey. A 57-item questionnaire with branching logic was distributed via a web-based electronic data capture tool to survey all Commission on Accreditation for Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) accredited and candidate schools in the United States. Response data was analyzed to describe typical educational program profiles, faculty demographics, and correlational factors consistent with the presence or absence of specific sports physical therapy curricular content. Thirty one percent of the schools responded to the survey and the program demographics were consistent with all currently accredited schools in regards to their geography, Carnegie classification, and faculty and student size. Forty three percent of programs offered a required or elective course distinct to the practice of sports physical therapy. Descriptive information regarding the sequencing, curricular make-up, resources, and assessment of content competence is reported. The odds of providing this content nearly doubles for programs that have faculty with sports clinical specialist credentials, accredited sports residency curriculums, or state practice acts that allow sports venue coverage. This survey provides an initial overview of sports physical therapy educational efforts in professional physical therapy degree programs. The data can used to spur further discussion on the necessity, structure, and

  18. SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY CURRICULA IN PHYSICAL THERAPIST PROFESSIONAL DEGREE PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVahl, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Background The specialty niche of sports physical therapy has grown at a significant rate over the past 40 years. Despite this growth there is little information or direction from the physical therapy education accreditation body or professional association to guide academic programs on the interest or necessity of this type of practice content in physical therapy professional degree programs. Purpose The purpose of this survey study is to report on the prevalence, attitudes, barriers, resources, and faculty expertise in providing required or elective sports physical therapy course work. Study Design Cross-sectional descriptive survey Methods A 57-item questionnaire with branching logic was distributed via a web-based electronic data capture tool to survey all Commission on Accreditation for Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) accredited and candidate schools in the United States. Response data was analyzed to describe typical educational program profiles, faculty demographics, and correlational factors consistent with the presence or absence of specific sports physical therapy curricular content. Results Thirty one percent of the schools responded to the survey and the program demographics were consistent with all currently accredited schools in regards to their geography, Carnegie classification, and faculty and student size. Forty three percent of programs offered a required or elective course distinct to the practice of sports physical therapy. Descriptive information regarding the sequencing, curricular make-up, resources, and assessment of content competence is reported. The odds of providing this content nearly doubles for programs that have faculty with sports clinical specialist credentials, accredited sports residency curriculums, or state practice acts that allow sports venue coverage. Conclusions This survey provides an initial overview of sports physical therapy educational efforts in professional physical therapy degree programs. The data can used to

  19. Physical limits and design principles for plant and fungal movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Jan M; Mahadevan, L

    2005-05-27

    The typical scales for plant and fungal movements vary over many orders of magnitude in time and length, but they are ultimately based on hydraulics and mechanics. We show that quantification of the length and time scales involved in plant and fungal motions leads to a natural classification, whose physical basis can be understood through an analysis of the mechanics of water transport through an elastic tissue. Our study also suggests a design principle for nonmuscular hydraulically actuated structures: Rapid actuation requires either small size or the enhancement of motion on large scales via elastic instabilities.

  20. [Basic principles and clinical application of retinal laser therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framme, C; Roider, J; Brinkmann, R; Birngruber, R; Gabel, V-P

    2008-04-01

    The scientific background of laser photocoagulation of the ocular fundus was studied extensively by several investigators in the 1970 s and 1980 s. The basic principles were successfully resolved during that time and clinical consequences for proper application of the laser photocoagulation for various diseases were deduced. The present paper gives an overview about the physical basics of laser-tissue interactions during and after retinal laser treatment and the particular laser strategies in the treatment of different retinal diseases. Thus, it addresses the issue of the impact on tissue of laser parameters as wavelength, spot size, pulse duration and laser power. Additionally, the different biological tissue reactions after laser treatment are presented, such as, e. g., for retinopexia or macular treatments as well as for diabetic retinopathies. Specific laser strategies such as the selective laser treatment of the RPE (SRT) or the transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) are presented and discussed.

  1. Physical therapy and occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radder, D.L.M.; Sturkenboom, I.H.W.M.; Nimwegen, M. van; Keus, S.H.; Bloem, B.R.; Vries, N.M. de

    2017-01-01

    Current medical management is only partially effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. As part of comprehensive multidisciplinary care, physical therapy and occupational therapy aim to support people with Parkinson's disease in dealing with the consequences of their disease in

  2. Children apply principles of physical ownership to ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alex; Li, Vivian; Olson, Kristina R

    2012-01-01

    Adults apply ownership not only to objects but also to ideas. But do people come to apply principles of ownership to ideas because of being taught about intellectual property and copyrights? Here, we investigate whether children apply rules from physical property ownership to ideas. Studies 1a and 1b show that children (6-8 years old) determine ownership of both objects and ideas based on who first establishes possession of the object or idea. Study 2 shows that children use another principle of object ownership, control of permission-an ability to restrict others' access to the entity in question-to determine idea ownership. In Study 3, we replicate these findings with different idea types. In Study 4, we determine that children will not apply ownership to every entity, demonstrating that they do not apply ownership to a common word. Taken together, these results suggest that, like adults, children as young as 6 years old apply rules from ownership not only to objects but to ideas as well. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. The Physical Principles of Magneto-optical Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    1998-08-01

    This book covers the physics of magneto-optical recording, beginning with first principles, and working through to contemporary state-of-the-art topics. The first half of the book teaches the theory of diffraction using an original unified approach. It also covers the optics of multilayers, polarization optics, noise in photodetection, and thermal aspects. The second half of the book describes the basics of magnetism and magnetic materials, magneto-static field calculations, domains and domain walls, the mean-field theory, magnetization dynamics, the theory of coercivity, and the process of thermomagnetic recording. Numerous examples based on real-world problems encountered in the engineering design of magneto-optical media and systems will give the reader valuable insights into the science and technology of optical recording. Extensive problem sets are included.

  4. A New "Principal Principle" (#14) of Physical Activity Education Is Emerging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Earle F.

    2011-01-01

    There is every reason to believe that a new "principal principle" of physical activity education is emerging. In this article, the author talks about the new "principal principle"(#14) of physical education. Revisiting a historical milestone in the field's history to explain the origin of the term "principal principle," Dr. Arthur H. Steinhaus,…

  5. 75 FR 50880 - TRICARE: Non-Physician Referrals for Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ..., Occupational Therapy, and Speech Therapy AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Defense. ACTION: Final... engage in referrals of beneficiaries to the Military Health System for physical therapy, occupational..., occupational therapy, and speech therapy without having the patient see a physician. This rule will align...

  6. Using Axline's Eight Principles of Play Therapy with Mexican-American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Flores-Torres, Leila L.; Kranz, Peter L.; Lund, Nick L.

    2005-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature on the application of client-centered play therapy to diverse cultures. In this regard, the purpose of the article is to discuss considerations related to using Axline's eight principles of play therapy with Mexican-American children. The principles involve multicultural acceptance and understanding, relationship…

  7. The quantum beat the physical principles of atomic clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Major, F G

    1998-01-01

    One of the indicators of the level of technological development of a society has been, throughout history, the precision of clocks it was able to build. This book examines the physical principles underlying the workings of clocks--from the earliest mechanical clocks to the present-day sophisticated clocks based on the properties of individual atoms. Intended for non-specialists with some knowledge of physics or engineering,the book treats the material in a broad intuitive manner, with a minimum of mathematical formalism. The presentation covers a broad range of salient topics relevant to the measurement of frequency and time intervals. The main focus is on electronic time-keeping: clocks based on quartz crystal oscillators and, at greater length, atomic clocks based on quantum resonance in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen atoms, and, more recently, mercury ions. The book treats the revolutionary changes that the optical laser has wrought on atomic standards through laser cooling and optical pumping, and it disc...

  8. Physical therapy for patients with back pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, R.W.A. van der; Dekker, J.; Baar, M.E. van

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the physical therapy diagnosis and treatment in patients with back pain. More specifically, the relationship between the duration of the complaint and the diagnosis and treatment was analysed. Data were used from a representative survey of physical therapeutic

  9. Nuclear physics in particle therapy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-09-01

    Charged particle therapy has been largely driven and influenced by nuclear physics. The increase in energy deposition density along the ion path in the body allows reducing the dose to normal tissues during radiotherapy compared to photons. Clinical results of particle therapy support the physical rationale for this treatment, but the method remains controversial because of the high cost and of the lack of comparative clinical trials proving the benefit compared to x-rays. Research in applied nuclear physics, including nuclear interactions, dosimetry, image guidance, range verification, novel accelerators and beam delivery technologies, can significantly improve the clinical outcome in particle therapy. Measurements of fragmentation cross-sections, including those for the production of positron-emitting fragments, and attenuation curves are needed for tuning Monte Carlo codes, whose use in clinical environments is rapidly increasing thanks to fast calculation methods. Existing cross sections and codes are indeed not very accurate in the energy and target regions of interest for particle therapy. These measurements are especially urgent for new ions to be used in therapy, such as helium. Furthermore, nuclear physics hardware developments are frequently finding applications in ion therapy due to similar requirements concerning sensors and real-time data processing. In this review we will briefly describe the physics bases, and concentrate on the open issues.

  10. Nuclear physics in particle therapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-09-01

    Charged particle therapy has been largely driven and influenced by nuclear physics. The increase in energy deposition density along the ion path in the body allows reducing the dose to normal tissues during radiotherapy compared to photons. Clinical results of particle therapy support the physical rationale for this treatment, but the method remains controversial because of the high cost and of the lack of comparative clinical trials proving the benefit compared to x-rays. Research in applied nuclear physics, including nuclear interactions, dosimetry, image guidance, range verification, novel accelerators and beam delivery technologies, can significantly improve the clinical outcome in particle therapy. Measurements of fragmentation cross-sections, including those for the production of positron-emitting fragments, and attenuation curves are needed for tuning Monte Carlo codes, whose use in clinical environments is rapidly increasing thanks to fast calculation methods. Existing cross sections and codes are indeed not very accurate in the energy and target regions of interest for particle therapy. These measurements are especially urgent for new ions to be used in therapy, such as helium. Furthermore, nuclear physics hardware developments are frequently finding applications in ion therapy due to similar requirements concerning sensors and real-time data processing. In this review we will briefly describe the physics bases, and concentrate on the open issues.

  11. Temporomandibular Disorders and Physical Therapy Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilke Coskun Benlidayi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular disorders are comprised of clinical problems associated with masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joint and neighboring tissues. The frequency of temporomandibular disorders is high among premenopausal women. Patient education and behavioral therapy, occlusal splints, pharmacological agents, intra-articular and surgical approaches and physical therapy methods are used in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders. Physical therapy approaches include exercise (passive stretching, resistive and posture exercises, superficial heat and cold applications, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, therapeutic ultrasound, trigger point injections, acupuncture and laser. In this article, temporomandibular disorders were reviewed and physical therapy methods used for treatment were discussed in detail. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 542-554

  12. Pelvic floor physical therapy in urogynecologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarinos, Rhonda K

    2003-08-01

    Physical therapists are uniquely qualified to treat pelvic floor dysfunction with conservative management techniques. Techniques associated with incontinence and support functions of the pelvic floor include bladder training and pelvic floor rehabilitation: pelvic floor exercises, biofeedback therapy, and pelvic floor electrical stimulation. Pain associated with mechanical pelvic floor dysfunction can be treated by physical therapists utilizing various manual techniques and modalities. Research documents that conservative management is effective in treating many conditions associated with pelvic floor dysfunction. Research should be conducted to determine if addressing diastasis recti and contracture of the pelvic floor musculature should be a component of the standard physical therapy protocol.

  13. Physical therapy for persons with vestibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Susan L; Alghwiri, Alia; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    Persons with vestibular disorders experience symptoms of dizziness and balance dysfunction, resulting in falls, as well as impairments of daily life. Various interventions provided by physical therapists have been shown to decrease dizziness and improve postural control. In the present review, we will focus on the role of physical therapy in the management of vestibular symptoms in patients with peripheral and central vestibular disorders. Persons with both acute and chronic central and peripheral vestibular disorders improve with vestibular rehabilitation. New interventions during the past 5 years have been designed to enhance recovery from problems with balance and dizziness. Examples include the use of virtual reality, vibrotactile feedback, optokinetic flow, YouTube videos, and innovative methods to change the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Patients with central and peripheral vestibular disorders benefit from physical therapy interventions. Advances in physical therapy interventions include new methods to stimulate adaptation of the VOR and the vestibulospinal systems.

  14. Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres Luis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR at energies above ≃ 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHECR data can hopefully be used to test relativity, quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum properties... as well as the elementariness of standard particles. Data on cosmic rays at energies ≃ 1020 eV may also be sensitive to new physics generated well beyond Planck scale. A typical example is provided by the search for possible signatures of a Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV associated to a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF. If a VRF exists, the internal structure of standard particles at ultra-high energy can undergo substantial modifications. Similarly, the conventional particle symmetries may cease to be valid at such energies instead of heading to a grand unification and the structure of vacuum may no longer be governed by standard quantum field theory. Then, the question whether the notion of Planck scale still makes sense clearly becomes relevant and the very grounds of Cosmology can undergo essential modifications. UHECR studies naturally interact with the interpretation of WMAP and Planck observations. Recent Planck data analyses tend to confirm the possible existence of a privileged space direction. If the observed phenomenon turns out to be a signature of the spinorial space-time (SST we suggested in 1996-97, then conventional Particle Physics may correspond to the local properties of standard matter at low enough energy and large enough distances. This would clearly strengthen the cosmological

  15. Principles of antibacterial dosing in continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gordon; Gomersall, Charles D; Tian, Qi; Joynt, Gavin M; Freebairn, Ross; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2009-07-01

    To outline the concepts involved in optimizing antibacterial dosing in critically ill patients with acute renal failure undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), provide a strategy for optimizing dosing, and summarize the data required to implement the strategy. MEDLINE search from February 1986 to 2008. Optimal dosing of antibacterials is dependent on achieving pharmacokinetic targets associated with maximal killing of bacteria and improved outcomes. The initial dose is dependent on the volume of distribution. Maintenance doses are dependent on clearance. Both should be adjusted according to the pharmacokinetic target associated with optimal bacterial killing, when known. The volume of distribution of some antibacterials is altered by critical illness or acute renal failure or both. Clearance by CRRT is dependent on the dose and mode of CRRT and the sieving or saturation coefficient of the drug. Both sieving and saturation coefficient are related to the plasma protein binding and thus may be altered in renal failure. Appropriate dose calculation requires knowledge of the pharmacokinetic target and the usual minimum inhibitory concentration of the suspected organism in the patient's locality (or if unavailable, the break point for the organism), published pharmacokinetic data (volume of distribution, non-CRRT clearance) on critically ill patients receiving CRRT (which may differ substantially from noncritically ill patients or those without renal failure), the sieving or saturation coefficient of the relevant drug in critically ill patients, the dose and mode of CRRT being used, and the actual dose of CRRT that is delivered. This large number of variables results in considerable inter- and intrapatient heterogeneity in dose requirements. This article provides basic principles and relevant data to guide the clinician in prescribing individualized dosing regimes.

  16. Physical principles of filamentous protein self-assembly kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Liu, Lucie X.; Meisl, Georg; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.

    2017-04-01

    The polymerization of proteins and peptides into filamentous supramolecular structures is an elementary form of self-organization of key importance to the functioning biological systems, as in the case of actin biofilaments that compose the cellular cytoskeleton. Aberrant filamentous protein self-assembly, however, is associated with undesired effects and severe clinical disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, which, at the molecular level, are associated with the formation of certain forms of filamentous protein aggregates known as amyloids. Moreover, due to their unique physicochemical properties, protein filaments are finding extensive applications as biomaterials for nanotechnology. With all these different factors at play, the field of filamentous protein self-assembly has experienced tremendous activity in recent years. A key question in this area has been to elucidate the microscopic mechanisms through which filamentous aggregates emerge from dispersed proteins with the goal of uncovering the underlying physical principles. With the latest developments in the mathematical modeling of protein aggregation kinetics as well as the improvement of the available experimental techniques it is now possible to tackle many of these complex systems and carry out detailed analyses of the underlying microscopic steps involved in protein filament formation. In this paper, we review some classical and modern kinetic theories of protein filament formation, highlighting their use as a general strategy for quantifying the molecular-level mechanisms and transition states involved in these processes.

  17. First Principles Investigation of Hydrogen Physical Adsorption on Graphynes' layers

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolomei, Massimiliano; Giorgi, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Graphynes are 2D porous structures deriving from graphene featuring triangular and regularly distributed subnanometer pores, which may be exploited to host small gaseous species. First principles adsorption energies of molecular hydrogen (H2) on graphene, graphdiyne and graphtriyne molecular prototypes are obtained at the MP2C level of theory. First, a single layer is investigated and it is found that graphynes are more suited than graphene for H2 physical adsorption since they provide larger binding energies at equilibrium distances much closer to the 2D plane. In particular, for graphtriyne a flat minimum located right in the geometric center of the pore is identified. A novel graphite composed of graphtriyne stacked sheets is then proposed and an estimation of its 3D arrangement is obtained at the DFT level of theory. In contrast to pristine graphite this new carbon material allow both H2 intercalation and out-of-plane diffusion by exploiting the larger volume provided by its nanopores. Related H2 binding ...

  18. Basics of particle therapy I: physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ParK, Seo Hyun; Kang, Jin Oh [Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    With the advance of modern radiation therapy technique, radiation dose conformation and dose distribution have improved dramatically. However, the progress does not completely fulfil the goal of cancer treatment such as improved local control or survival. The discordances with the clinical results are from the biophysical nature of photon, which is the main source of radiation therapy in current field, with the lower linear energy transfer to the target. As part of a natural progression, there recently has been a resurgence of interest in particle therapy, specifically using heavy charged particles, because these kinds of radiations serve theoretical advantages in both biological and physical aspects. The Korean government is to set up a heavy charged particle facility in Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. This review introduces some of the elementary physics of the various particles for the sake of Korean radiation oncologists' interest.

  19. Basics of particle therapy I: physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seo Hyun; Kang, Jin Oh

    2011-09-01

    With the advance of modern radiation therapy technique, radiation dose conformation and dose distribution have improved dramatically. However, the progress does not completely fulfill the goal of cancer treatment such as improved local control or survival. The discordances with the clinical results are from the biophysical nature of photon, which is the main source of radiation therapy in current field, with the lower linear energy transfer to the target. As part of a natural progression, there recently has been a resurgence of interest in particle therapy, specifically using heavy charged particles, because these kinds of radiations serve theoretical advantages in both biological and physical aspects. The Korean government is to set up a heavy charged particle facility in Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences. This review introduces some of the elementary physics of the various particles for the sake of Korean radiation oncologists' interest.

  20. Principles of Technology Student Achievement in Advanced Physics Measured by a Normed Physics Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, James Alan

    1991-02-01

    The Principles of Technology (PT) curriculum, now in approximately 1,200 schools, has produced a profound change in the delivery of applied physics. If high school PT programs and traditional physics courses deliver comparable student outcomes, as some research suggests, the PT curriculum may find wider acceptance in vocational programs and postsecondary schools may have rationale for accepting PT as physics. This study measured PT student performance on an advanced physics test, after they have had one year (7 units) of PT. The 1988R version of the National Association of Physics Teachers and National Science Teachers Association physics test, with more than 7500 copies sold, was selected as the research instrument. This test covers advanced aspects of traditional high school physics. A secondary enquiry included an attempt to link PT teacher preparation and credentialing and/or PT site demographics to variation in PT student scores on the 1988R test. The 10 PT sites in this study were self-selected from the 29 PT field study schools, the most mature PT sites. The researcher determined, that the 1988R physics test lacked content validity for the PT students tested. The PT students tested had a composite mean score of 17.67 questions correct out of 80, (below the second percentile), not statistically different than a chance score. No differences were found between site mean scores. Interpretation of the results regarding the effect of teachers, or demographics was not justified. The value of PT to the vocational-technical programs that it was designed for was not measured, nor was the awarding of general science credit for PT completion. One year of the PT curriculum, at the sampled schools, has not prepared students in the advanced scientific aspects of traditional physics found on the 1988R examination. The primary implication is that educators should not expect year one PT to prepare students for classes or curricula that include traditional physics as a

  1. 42 CFR 409.17 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., physical therapy, occupational therapy, or speech-language pathology services must be furnished by.... (2) Physical therapy, occupational therapy or speech-language pathology services must be furnished... therapist furnishing the physical therapy services. (4) A speech-language pathologist furnishing the speech...

  2. Principles of creation of complex physical rehabilitation program for children after cochlear implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Zastavna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to elucidate main principles of complex physical rehabilitation program for senior pre-school age children after cochlear implantation. Material: 40 hard hearing children of senior pre-school (main group were tested. Main group N1 consisted of hard hearing children (10 boys and 11 girls, who did not underwent cochlear implantation and learned by program of pre-school educational establishment for hard-hearing children. Main group N2 consisted of 19 children after cochlear implantation, registered at oral-aural specialists (10 boys and 9 girls. For them the author’s program of physical rehabilitation was worked out. Comparison group consisted of 40 children with normal hearing (18 boys and 22 girls. Effectiveness of the worked out program was assessed by parameters of physical and psycho-motor condition, by children’s physical qualities. Results: the offered program of children’s physical rehabilitation was developed on the base of assessment of physical and psycho-motor condition, physical fitness. The program is of complex character and includes the following elements: domestic habilitation, kinetisotherapy methodic (morning hygienic exercises, Yoga for children, health related training complex, fit-ball training, breathing and articulation exercises, massage (general, speech therapy massage, hardening. Conclusions: Complex character of the worked out program implies diverse influence on different disorders in children’s organisms. All these are realized against the background of main etiological factor of these changes (deafness removal. Such approach results in improvement of children’s condition, their quicker socialization and possibility to study in comprehensive school in due time.

  3. Review of electron beam therapy physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Almond, Peter R

    2006-07-07

    For over 50 years, electron beams have been an important modality for providing an accurate dose of radiation to superficial cancers and disease and for limiting the dose to underlying normal tissues and structures. This review looks at many of the important contributions of physics and dosimetry to the development and utilization of electron beam therapy, including electron treatment machines, dose specification and calibration, dose measurement, electron transport calculations, treatment and treatment-planning tools, and clinical utilization, including special procedures. Also, future changes in the practice of electron therapy resulting from challenges to its utilization and from potential future technology are discussed.

  4. Music-evoked emotions: principles, brain correlates, and implications for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes principles underlying the evocation of emotion with music: evaluation, resonance, memory, expectancy/tension, imagination, understanding, and social functions. Each of these principles includes several subprinciples, and the framework on music-evoked emotions emerging from these principles and subprinciples is supposed to provide a starting point for a systematic, coherent, and comprehensive theory on music-evoked emotions that considers both reception and production of music, as well as the relevance of emotion-evoking principles for music therapy. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Vestibular physical therapy intervention: utilizing a computer assisted rehabilitation environment in lieu of traditional physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottshall, Kim R; Sessoms, Pinata H; Bartlett, Jamie L

    2012-01-01

    Advanced technology such as virtual reality or immersive environments increases the complexities and challenges therapists can impose on their patients. In this study, four patients with mild traumatic brain injury utilized a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN) in place of traditional vestibular physical therapy. Patients visited the CAREN twice weekly for 6 weeks. Therapy sessions included a variety of applications that tasked the cognitive and physical capabilities of individual patients. After the 6 weeks, all patients showed improvement on balance, gait and visual measures. Virtual reality based therapy is an engaging and effective tool to treat patients with deficiencies related to a prior brain injury.

  6. Modern Principles of Oral Rehydration Therapy in Treatment of Acute Enteric Infections In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ye. Abaturov

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with basic principles of oral rehydration therapy in children with infectious diarrhea, which occur with the development of exsicosis. It was emphasized that prescription of oral rehydration therapy promotes more rapid recovery of children and prevents adverse outcomes.

  7. Autoimmune Thyroiditis: Clinical Course Features and Principles of Differential Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Ye. Bobyryova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Constant increase in the incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT in different regions of Ukraine puts this problem in actual number that determines the need to identify features of the clinical course of AIT, the principles of differentiated treatment depending on the nature of the metabolic changes and taking into account regional differences in thyroid pathology, particularly AIT. The paper presents data on the study of features of clinical course and complex treatment of AIT.

  8. Physical therapy in persons with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakke, Rachel; Singh, Jaspal; Sullivan, William

    2012-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of musculoskeletal pain and disability. According to a study by Lawrence et al, an estimated 27 million Americans were living with OA in 2008. This number will continue to increase as the population of persons older than 65 years grows. Because of the increasing number of persons who have this chronic condition that causes pain and decreases function, the prevalence of this diagnosis in primary care and musculoskeletal clinics likely will increase. The reduction of pain and improvement in function should be goals of providers who treat these patients. Physical therapy (PT) is a commonly used treatment modality for persons with OA. Many treatment modalities are available within the scope of PT, including strength training, manual therapy, aquatic therapy, electrical stimulation, and balance and perturbation training. A review of the most recent and highest-quality literature regarding these modalities found that strength training, aquatic therapy, and balance and perturbation therapy were the most beneficial with respect to reducing pain and improving function. Evidence clearly indicates that electrical stimulation likely has very little impact on these variables, and evidence regarding manual therapy is equivocal. Literature reviewing prognostic indicators for persons with OA who will likely respond to PT reveal that persons with milder disease (ie, unilateral OA, symptoms for less than 1 year, and a 40-m self-paced walking test of less than 25.9 seconds) and those who have pain of 6 or greater on the numerical pain rating scale are likely to have better outcomes with PT, which suggests that earlier referral is preferable. Barriers to the acceptance of PT as a therapeutic treatment for OA include fatalistic patient and provider perspectives, inadequate analgesia, and a fear among some patients and providers that increased activity will lead to progression of their OA. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and

  9. Gamification in physical therapy: More than using games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J; Verschuren, O.; Renger, W.J.; Ermers, J.; Ketelaar, M.; Ee, R. van

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of computer games in physical therapy is motivated by characteristics such as attractiveness, motivation, and engagement, but these do not guarantee the intended therapeutic effect of the interventions. Yet, these characteristics are important variables in physical therapy

  10. Gamification in Physical Therapy : More Than Using Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Joep; Verschuren, Olaf; Renger, Willem Jan; Ermers, Jose; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; van Ee, Raymond

    The implementation of computer games in physical therapy is motivated by characteristics such as attractiveness, motivation, and engagement, but these do not guarantee the intended therapeutic effect of the interventions. Yet, these characteristics are important variables in physical therapy

  11. [Acupoint catgut-embedding therapy: superiorities and principles of application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan-Ping; Jia, Chun-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Ling; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Kang; Qin, Liang; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Kang, Su-Gang; Duan, Xiao-Dong

    2012-10-01

    To analyze the superiorities of acupoint catgut-embedding therapy, discuss its law of clinical application and provide scientific decision-making for clinical treatment. Literatures on acupoint catgut-embedding therapy in the recent 40 years were selected, input, examined and verified, picked up and analyzed by establishing database with the modern computer technology. (1) One thousand and seventy-five literatures were input. It shows that the acupoint catgut-embedding therapy has an extensive application in all departments, especially in the internal department, accounting for 48.54% (50/103) of the total disease category. It has the most extensive application on treatment of epigastric pain, with the frequency of 102 times, and obesity of 74 times. The next is surgery, accounting for 14.56% (15/103). The major application is on low back pain and leg pain with the frequency of 79 times. Psoriasis, with the frequency of 30 times, holds the major application in dermatological department. And blepharoplasty, with the frequency of 30 times, gains the most application in department of ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology. (2) In the included literatures, selection of adjacent acupoints and distal acupoints are held as the major method of acupoint selection. The adjusted lumbar puncture needle is taken as the major tool for the acupoint catgut-embedding therapy. And catguts of different sizes are adopted for the operation. (3) Analysis of the therapeutic effect shows that acupoint catgut-embedding therapy has obvious effect in all departments, especially in surgery and dermatology, with the total effective rate over 90%. Epigastric pain, obesity, epilepsy, asthma, abdominal pain, facial paralysis and constipation of the internal medicine, low back pain and leg pain of the surgical department, psoriasis of the dermatological department and blepharoplasty of the department of ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology are considered as the dominant diseases for acupoint

  12. Gender and physical therapy career success factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozier, C K; Raymond, M J; Goldstein, M S; Hamilton, B L

    1998-07-01

    Gender and profession are thought to affect how career success is perceived as well as how it is achieved. This study investigated items considered important in defining career success for male and female physical therapists. The study also explored the relationship among gender, beliefs about career success, and career experiences. Data were obtained through an investigator-developed survey. The self-report questionnaire consisted of 78 items in 4 areas: descriptive information, items important in characterizing career success, items perceived to enhance or inhibit career success, and items assessing self-esteem. Questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of active physical therapist members of the American Physical Therapy Association (N = 5,000). The response rate was 38.1% (n = 1,906). Both men and women selected indicators such as practicing ethically, improving patient health, and feeling satisfied over high income or status when describing career success. All respondents agreed that clinical competency and motivation are key factors related to achieving career success. Family issues, full-time employment, and flexibility of practice conditions emerged as primary gender differences. A unique set of indicators describe physical therapy career success. Gender differences in its description and factors that influence its achievement are related primarily to family issues. Career success for women depends to a greater degree on the ability to manage family responsibilities in conjunction with employment opportunities.

  13. Occupational therapy and physiotherapy for the patient with burns: principles and management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, M; King, S; Edgar, D

    2003-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are a tool to assist with clinical decision making. They provide information about the care for a condition and make recommendations based on research evidence, which can be adapted locally. A focus group within the Allied Health Interest Group of the Australian and New Zealand Burn Association has compiled the "Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy for the Patient with Burns--Principles and Management Guidelines." These guidelines are designed as a practical guide to the relevant clinical knowledge and therapy intervention techniques required for effective patient management. Content areas include respiratory management, edema management, splinting and positioning, physical function (mobility, function, exercise), scar management, and psychosocial and mutual elements. The document has undergone extensive review by members of the Australian and New Zealand Burn Association to ensure clarity, internal consistency, and acceptability. The guidelines have been endorsed by the Australian and New Zealand Burn Association. An abridged version of the guidelines is included in this article, with the full document available from www.anzba.org.au.

  14. Physical Principles of Discrete Hierarchies Formation in Protein Macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshko, E. V.; Tverdislov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    A model for chiral periodicity with alternating chiral sense in hierarchies of protein and nucleic acid structures is proposed and substantiated. Regular alternation of the chirality sense is revealed in transitions from the lowest to higher levels of structural-functional organization in proteins where it is L-D-L-D. The stratification principle combines the ideas of biomacromolecules folding and molecular biological machines.

  15. 42 CFR 409.23 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech-language pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 409.23 Physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech-language pathology. Medicare pays for... therapy or speech-language pathology services must be furnished— (1) By qualified physical therapists, physical therapist assistants, occupational therapists, occupational therapy assistants or speech-language...

  16. Use of Physical Therapy Following Total Knee Replacement Surgery: Implications of Orthopedic Surgeons' Ownership of Physical Therapy Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jean M; Reschovsky, James D; Reicherter, Elizabeth Anne

    2016-10-01

    To examine whether the course of physical therapy treatments received by patients who undergo total knee replacement (TKR) surgery differs depending on whether the orthopedic surgeon has a financial stake in physical therapy services. Sample of Medicare beneficiaries who underwent TKR surgery during the years 2007-2009. We used regression analysis to evaluate the effect of physician self-referral on the following outcomes: (1) time from discharge to first physical therapy visit; (2) episode length; (3) number of physical therapy visits per episode; (4) number of physical therapy service units per episode; and (5) number of physical therapy services per episode expressed in relative value units. TKR patients who underwent physical therapy treatment at a physician-owned clinic received on average twice as many physical therapy visits (8.3 more) than patients whose TKR surgery was performed by a orthopedic surgeon who did not self-refer physical therapy services (p physical therapy service units during an episode compared with patients treated by nonself-referring providers (p physical therapy services rendered to the patient look virtually identical to episodes where the TKR surgery was performed by a surgeon nonowner. Physical therapists not involved with physician-owned clinics saw patients for fewer visits, but the composition of physical therapy services rendered during each visit included more individualized therapeutic exercises. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. Principles of Bobath neuro-developmental therapy in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimont, L

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the basics of Bobath Neurodevelopment Therapy (NDT) for the rehabilitation of patients with cerebral palsy, based on the fundamentals of neurophysiology. Two factors are continually stressed in therapy: first, postural tension, whose quality provides the foundation for the development of motor coordination, both normal and pathological, and plays a role in shaping the mechanism of the normal postural reflex; and secondly, the impact of damage to the central nervous system on the process of its growth and development. The practical application of the theoretical assumptions includes the use of inhibition, facilitation, and stimulation by key points of control, preparatory to evoking more nearly normal motor responses.

  18. Systematics and principles of therapy for depressive disorders in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Usyukina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Relying on a comprehensive investigation, the author proposes the typology of depressive disorders in epilepsy by identifying ictal, preictal, interictal, and postictal conditions. Risk factors for depressive symptoms are considered. Main approaches to therapy for depressions are offered. Particular emphasis is placed on the normothymic activity of a number of anticonvulsants. Valproates, and depakine in particular, as a normothymic agent are shown to be beneficial in treating affective disorders.

  19. Increasing physical activity levels in primary school physical education: The SHARP Principles Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Emma; Woodfield, Lorayne A; Nevill, Alan M

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a one-year teaching intervention to increase moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during primary school physical education (PE). A quasi-experimental, non-equivalent group design involving four classes from two primary schools in the West Midlands, UK. In March 2014 schools were selected through purposive sampling to match schools in terms of size and demographics (baseline, n = 111: post-intervention, n = 95); data were collected from children in school years 3 and 4 (aged 7 to 9 years). The intervention involved developing teacher effectiveness through the SHARP Principles Model which was grounded in the Self Determination Theory (SDT), the Social Ecological Model (SEM) and three key ingredients from the Behaviour Change Taxonomy (BCT). MVPA was assessed at baseline and four weeks post-intervention using the System for Observing Fitness and Instruction Time (SOFIT). Four individual teacher interviews were conducted with the intervention school, to explore teachers' perceptions of the intervention. A two-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) indicated large interaction effect sizes for time spent in MVPA (F(1, 27) = 11.07, p = 0.003, ηp (2) = .316) and vigorous activity (VPA) (F = (1,27) = 8.557, p = .007, ηp (2) = .263). PA in the intervention school increased significantly whereas in the control school MVPA remained relatively constant and VPA decreased. The qualitative findings revealed two main emergent themes: a paradigm shift and teacher's developing pedagogy. The intervention was effective in increasing MVPA in PE. Recommendations based on this evaluation would be for the SHARP Principles Model to be replicated and evaluated on a wider scale across a variety of contexts.

  20. Applying principles of intercultural communication to personality disorder therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    Psychotherapy with patients who were diagnosed with a personality disorder bears a strong resemblance to intercultural communication. I suggest conceptualizing the situation of a patient with a personality disorder as being similar to that of an overseas traveller. Like the traveller, the patient faces the task of getting along in a social environment that does not share many of his or her ingrained values regarding 'appropriate' interpersonal behaviour. In order to reduce the potential for misunderstandings and interpersonal problems, the patient would benefit from (a) learning about the culturally accepted rules of interacting and (b) partly adopting those rules. Borrowing from training manuals for intercultural communication, I suggest a number of therapeutic principles that specifically address the discrepancies between the patient's habits and internalized values, and the cultural conventions that govern the social environment in which the patient lives.

  1. [Eating habits in physical therapy students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayona-Marzo, I; Navas-Cámara, F J; Fernández de Santiago, F J; Mingo-Gómez, T; de la Fuente-Sanz, Ma A; Cacho del Amo, A

    2007-01-01

    a) To know the eating and exercising habits of undergraduate Physical Therapy students; b) To promote awareness among these future health professionals and educators of the need to foster adequate eating habits among patients and the general population. A dietary and physical activity questionnaire, regarding a seven-day period, distributed among students of the School of Physical Therapy (University of Valladolid) in the city of Soria, Spain (n = 131; sex (m/f): 38/93). Results show that a high percentage of the subjects follow the recommendations of the new Nutritional Pyramid of the Spanish Nutrition Society (SEN) regarding intake of meat, fish, milk, dairy products and exercise habits. This is not the case, however, for products such as pasta, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruits, legumes and olive oil. Furthermore, fast food is taken, on average, once a week despite the recommended sporadic monthly intakes. According to results, formative programmes should be carried out to enable these students to encourage healthy diets. Thus, diseases related to non-healthy eating habits could be prevented, and information on the issue could be spread among the population.

  2. Polymer electrolyte fuel cells physical principles of materials and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Eikerling, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The book provides a systematic and profound account of scientific challenges in fuel cell research. The introductory chapters bring readers up to date on the urgency and implications of the global energy challenge, the prospects of electrochemical energy conversion technologies, and the thermodynamic and electrochemical principles underlying the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The book then presents the scientific challenges in fuel cell research as a systematic account of distinct components, length scales, physicochemical processes, and scientific disciplines. The main part of t

  3. Generalized Tellegen Principle and Physical Correctness of System Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Cerny

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a new problem of physical correctness detection in the area of strictly causal system representations. The proposed approach to the problem solution is based on generalization of Tellegen's theorem well known from electrical engineering. Consequently, mathematically as well as physically correct results are obtained. Some known and often used system representation structures are discussed from the developed point of view as an addition.

  4. [Physical ageing of amorphous polymeric excipients I. physicochemical principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkó, Romána; Kiss, Dorottya

    2005-01-01

    Most of the polymeric excipients applied in pharmaceutical technology are amorphous, which, as a result of physical ageing, can lead to changes in the stability of these materials and dosage forms prepared from them. For the tracking of physical aging and understanding its consequences, a complex knowledge of the physicochemical properties and behaviour of amorphous polymers is necessary. In the case of these materials, three single-phase physical states can be distinguished: glassy, rubbery and viscous. The transition from glassy to rubbery state occurs at the glass transition temperature, the change of which as a function of the storage conditions provides information about the physical ageing of the material. The ageing process is usually accompanied by enthalpy and volume relaxation, which are considerably influenced by the presence of different plasticizers, e.g. water. These materials usually change the glass transition temperature of the polymer, which is a result of their effect on the free volume of the system. In view of the hygroscopic behaviour and water-uptake mechanisms of polymers, the probability and extent of structural changes caused by physical aging can be predicted.

  5. Heisenberg uncertainty principle and economic analogues of basic physical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Soloviev, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    From positions, attained by modern theoretical physics in understanding of the universe bases, the methodological and philosophical analysis of fundamental physical concepts and their formal and informal connections with the real economic measurings is carried out. Procedures for heterogeneous economic time determination, normalized economic coordinates and economic mass are offered, based on the analysis of time series, the concept of economic Plank's constant has been proposed. The theory has been approved on the real economic dynamic's time series, including stock indices, Forex and spot prices, the achieved results are open for discussion.

  6. Current principles of effective therapy for ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ashrafyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of all of modern medicine»s advances, ovarian cancer (OC mortality remains to be incommensurably high and to hold the lead among gynecological cancers. The initial cause of this deplorable statistics is the absence of a clear concept of the pathogenesis of OC and hence the justified prevention and methodology of early diagnosis of the disease; in this connection, therapy that proves to be ineffective is frequently used by medical oncologists in their daily practice. As a consequence, there is a high proportion of its further progression: the rates of early and late recurrences were about 30 and 60–65 %, respectively; most of which are drug resistant to further chemotherapy cycles. By taking into account these strikingly modest statistics, it becomes apparent that oncologists desire to make changes in the existing treatment regimen to achieve meaningful results. To use target drugs is one of these promising areas owing to new views on the concept of the pathogenesis of OC.Nevertheless, considering a wide variety of the signaling cascades and molecules, which are involved in the process of carcinogenesis, even target compounds, if they have only one point of application, cannot always produce their desirable therapeutic effect and their co-administration is responsible for high toxicity. In this light, the most effective drugs are indole-3-carbinol and epigallocathechin-3-gallate, which virtually cause no adverse reactions and can block various molecular targets at different levels of the mechanism of malignant transformation. Based on L. A. Ashrafyan, s concept of two pathogenetic variants of sporadic OC (2009 and on the recent findings in molecular biology and epigenetics, the incorporation of the above medications into the standard treatment regimen for OC should increase survival rates and change the nature of recurrence by that of more locally advanced forms. On this basis, a clinical trial was carried out to study

  7. Type 2 diabetes: principles of pathogenesis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumvoll, Michael; Goldstein, Barry J; van Haeften, Timon W

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has become an epidemic, and virtually no physician is without patients who have the disease. Whereas insulin insensitivity is an early phenomenon partly related to obesity, pancreas beta-cell function declines gradually over time already before the onset of clinical hyperglycaemia. Several mechanisms have been proposed, including increased non-esterified fatty acids, inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and mitochondrial dysfunction for insulin resistance, and glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, and amyloid formation for beta-cell dysfunction. Moreover, the disease has a strong genetic component, but only a handful of genes have been identified so far: genes for calpain 10, potassium inward-rectifier 6.2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, insulin receptor substrate-1, and others. Management includes not only diet and exercise, but also combinations of anti-hyperglycaemic drug treatment with lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, and anti platelet therapy.

  8. Using spatial principles to optimize distributed computing for enabling the physical science discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaowei; Wu, Huayi; Huang, Qunying; Li, Zhenlong; Li, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary physical science studies rely on the effective analyses of geographically dispersed spatial data and simulations of physical phenomena. Single computers and generic high-end computing are not sufficient to process the data for complex physical science analysis and simulations, which can be successfully supported only through distributed computing, best optimized through the application of spatial principles. Spatial computing, the computing aspect of a spatial cyberinfrastructure, refers to a computing paradigm that utilizes spatial principles to optimize distributed computers to catalyze advancements in the physical sciences. Spatial principles govern the interactions between scientific parameters across space and time by providing the spatial connections and constraints to drive the progression of the phenomena. Therefore, spatial computing studies could better position us to leverage spatial principles in simulating physical phenomena and, by extension, advance the physical sciences. Using geospatial science as an example, this paper illustrates through three research examples how spatial computing could (i) enable data intensive science with efficient data/services search, access, and utilization, (ii) facilitate physical science studies with enabling high-performance computing capabilities, and (iii) empower scientists with multidimensional visualization tools to understand observations and simulations. The research examples demonstrate that spatial computing is of critical importance to design computing methods to catalyze physical science studies with better data access, phenomena simulation, and analytical visualization. We envision that spatial computing will become a core technology that drives fundamental physical science advancements in the 21st century. PMID:21444779

  9. Using spatial principles to optimize distributed computing for enabling the physical science discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaowei; Wu, Huayi; Huang, Qunying; Li, Zhenlong; Li, Jing

    2011-04-05

    Contemporary physical science studies rely on the effective analyses of geographically dispersed spatial data and simulations of physical phenomena. Single computers and generic high-end computing are not sufficient to process the data for complex physical science analysis and simulations, which can be successfully supported only through distributed computing, best optimized through the application of spatial principles. Spatial computing, the computing aspect of a spatial cyberinfrastructure, refers to a computing paradigm that utilizes spatial principles to optimize distributed computers to catalyze advancements in the physical sciences. Spatial principles govern the interactions between scientific parameters across space and time by providing the spatial connections and constraints to drive the progression of the phenomena. Therefore, spatial computing studies could better position us to leverage spatial principles in simulating physical phenomena and, by extension, advance the physical sciences. Using geospatial science as an example, this paper illustrates through three research examples how spatial computing could (i) enable data intensive science with efficient data/services search, access, and utilization, (ii) facilitate physical science studies with enabling high-performance computing capabilities, and (iii) empower scientists with multidimensional visualization tools to understand observations and simulations. The research examples demonstrate that spatial computing is of critical importance to design computing methods to catalyze physical science studies with better data access, phenomena simulation, and analytical visualization. We envision that spatial computing will become a core technology that drives fundamental physical science advancements in the 21st century.

  10. [Physiotherapy and physical therapy in pain management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, M; Seeger, D; Schöps, P

    2015-10-01

    Patients attend physiotherapy and physical therapy (PT) due to pain problems and/or functional impairments. Although the main focus for therapists has traditionally been physical examination and treatment of tissue structures and biomechanics, over the last few decades a growing body of research has highlighted the importance of central nervous system processing and psychosocial contributors to pain perception. Treatment with PT aims to reduce disability and suffering by reducing pain and increasing tolerance to movement. In Germany, pain management conducted by physiotherapists is currently undergoing major changes. Firstly, PT education is transitioning from a vocational to a degree level and additionally new concepts for improved multidisciplinary treatment approaches are being developed. However, there still remain substantial differences between therapists working in multidisciplinary pain clinics and those following medical referral in private practices. This article provides information on how national and international impulses have contributed to the development of different concepts of passive therapies and active/functional pain rehabilitation in Germany. In the future PT will need to provide more evidence about efficiency and modes of actions for different treatment options to selectively reason the application to patients with acute, subacute and chronic pain.

  11. Inorganic scintillators for detector systems physical principles and crystal engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, Paul; Korzhik, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    This second edition features new chapters highlighting advances in our understanding of the behavior and properties of scintillators, and the discovery of new families of materials with light yield and excellent energy resolution very close to the theoretical limit. The book focuses on the discovery of next-generation scintillation materials and on a deeper understanding of fundamental processes. Such novel materials with high light yield as well as significant advances in crystal engineering offer exciting new perspectives. Most promising is the application of scintillators for precise time tagging of events, at the level of 100 ps or higher, heralding a new era in medical applications and particle physics. Since the discovery of the Higgs Boson with a clear signature in the lead tungstate scintillating blocks of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter detector, the current trend in particle physics is toward very high luminosity colliders, in which timing performance will ultimately be essential to mitigating...

  12. Inorganic Scintillators for Detector Systems Physical Principles and Crystal Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068219; Gektin, Alexander; Korzhik, Mikhail; Pédrini, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The development of new scintillators as components of modern detector systems is increasingly defined by the end user's needs. This book provides an introduction to this emerging topic at the interface of physics and materials sciences, with emphasis on bulk inorganic scintillators. After surveying the end user's needs in a vast range of applications, ranging from astrophysics to industrial R & D, the authors move on to review scintillating mechanisms and the properties of the most important materials used. A chapter on crystal engineering and examples of recent developments in the field of high-energy physics and medical imaging introduce the reader to the practical aspects. This book will benefit researchers and scientists working in academic and industrial R & D related to the development of scintillators.

  13. Variational Principles and Methods in Theoretical Physics and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbet, Robert K.

    2005-07-01

    Preface; Part I. Classical Mathematics and Physics: 1. History of variational theory; 2. Classical mechanics; 3. Applied mathematics; Part II. Bound States in Quantum Mechanics: 4. Time-independent quantum mechanics; 5. Independent-electron models; 6. Time-dependent theory and linear response; Part III. Continuum States and Scattering Theory: 7. Multiple scattering theory for molecules and solids; 8. Variational methods for continuum states; 9. Electron-impact rovibrational excitation of molecules; Part IV. Field Theories: 10. Relativistic Lagrangian theories.

  14. Feeling force: physical and physiological principles enabling sensory mechanotransduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katta, Samata; Krieg, Michael; Goodman, Miriam B

    2015-01-01

    Organisms as diverse as microbes, roundworms, insects, and mammals detect and respond to applied force. In animals, this ability depends on ionotropic force receptors, known as mechanoelectrical transduction (MeT) channels, that are expressed by specialized mechanoreceptor cells embedded in diverse tissues and distributed throughout the body. These cells mediate hearing, touch, and proprioception and play a crucial role in regulating organ function. Here, we attempt to integrate knowledge about the architecture of mechanoreceptor cells and their sensory organs with principles of cell mechanics, and we consider how engulfing tissues contribute to mechanical filtering. We address progress in the quest to identify the proteins that form MeT channels and to understand how these channels are gated. For clarity and convenience, we focus on sensory mechanobiology in nematodes, fruit flies, and mice. These themes are emphasized: asymmetric responses to applied forces, which may reflect anisotropy of the structure and mechanics of sensory mechanoreceptor cells, and proteins that function as MeT channels, which appear to have emerged many times through evolution.

  15. Physics for health from diagnosis to therapy; La physique pour la sante du diagnostic a la therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibler, M.; Poizat, J.C. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2003-07-01

    The different titles of conferences and contributions are as follow: interaction of waves and particles with biological matter; living signals and their interpretation; scanner: principle, technology, applications; nuclear medicine: gamma camera and positron cameras; medical physics: outlets and professions; electro neurology: electric signals (EEG) and magnetic signals (M.E.G.); medical imaging: the photons techniques; lasers, diagnostic tools: example of application to the detection of dental caries; nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); ultrasonics: medical applications; animals models and imaging; laboratories on chips: physics and chemistry in the wings of the genomic revolution; biomaterials; ultrasonics: from fundamental physics to medicine; imaging by ultrashort laser pulses; Pull and twist a molecule of DNA or how watch an enzyme working; treatment of cancers by ionizing radiations; hadron therapy by light ions: situation of the E.T.O.I.L.E. project; PET imaging in hadron therapy; evaluation and management of risks linked to the physical methods of investigation. (N.C.)

  16. Laser physics from principles to practical work in the lab

    CERN Document Server

    Eichhorn, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This textbook originates from a lecture course in laser physics at the Karlsruhe School of Optics and Photonics at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). A main goal in the conception of this textbook was to describe the fundamentals of lasers in a uniform and especially lab-oriented notation and formulation as well as many currently well-known laser types, becoming more and more important in the future. It closes a gap between the measureable spectroscopic quantities and the whole theoretical description and modeling. This textbook contains not only the fundamentals and the context of laser physics in a mathematical and methodical approach important for university-level studies. It allows simultaneously, owing to its conception and its modern notation, to directly implement and use the learned matter in the practical lab work. It is presented in a format suitable for everybody who wants not only to understand the fundamentals of lasers but also use modern lasers or even develop and make laser setups. T...

  17. Extreme Scale Computing for First-Principles Plasma Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Choogn-Seock [Princeton University

    2011-10-12

    World superpowers are in the middle of the “Computnik” race. US Department of Energy (and National Nuclear Security Administration) wishes to launch exascale computer systems into the scientific (and national security) world by 2018. The objective is to solve important scientific problems and to predict the outcomes using the most fundamental scientific laws, which would not be possible otherwise. Being chosen into the next “frontier” group can be of great benefit to a scientific discipline. An extreme scale computer system requires different types of algorithms and programming philosophy from those we have been accustomed to. Only a handful of scientific codes are blessed to be capable of scalable usage of today’s largest computers in operation at petascale (using more than 100,000 cores concurrently). Fortunately, a few magnetic fusion codes are competing well in this race using the “first principles” gyrokinetic equations.These codes are beginning to study the fusion plasma dynamics in full-scale realistic diverted device geometry in natural nonlinear multiscale, including the large scale neoclassical and small scale turbulence physics, but excluding some ultra fast dynamics. In this talk, most of the above mentioned topics will be introduced at executive level. Representative properties of the extreme scale computers, modern programming exercises to take advantage of them, and different philosophies in the data flows and analyses will be presented. Examples of the multi-scale multi-physics scientific discoveries made possible by solving the gyrokinetic equations on extreme scale computers will be described. Future directions into “virtual tokamak experiments” will also be discussed.

  18. The role of photodynamic therapy (PDT) physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Timothy C; Finlay, Jarod C

    2008-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment modality that employs the photochemical interaction of three components: light, photosensitizer, and oxygen. Tremendous progress has been made in the last 2 decades in new technical development of all components as well as understanding of the biophysical mechanism of PDT. The authors will review the current state of art in PDT research, with an emphasis in PDT physics. They foresee a merge of current separate areas of research in light production and delivery, PDT dosimetry, multimodality imaging, new photosensitizer development, and PDT biology into interdisciplinary combination of two to three areas. Ultimately, they strongly believe that all these categories of research will be linked to develop an integrated model for real-time dosimetry and treatment planning based on biological response.

  19. Experiential learning in physical therapy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith SN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Susan N Smith, Amy F Crocker School of Physical Therapy, University of the Incarnate Word, San Antonio, TX, USA Background and purpose: Experiential learning can provide students in entry-level physical therapy (PT education programs the opportunity to practice skills and techniques, learned in the classroom, in a real-world setting. Experiential learning is currently being utilized in all entry-level PT programs in the form of professional practice experiences but may be integrated throughout the curriculum to enhance student engagement and knowledge application and retention. The purpose of this paper is to express the need for increased integration of experiential learning into entry-level PT education curricula. Position and rationale: Experiential learning can effectively replace a portion of in-class laboratory time in entry-level PT education programs. Several methods of experiential learning exist, including simulation, integrated clinical experiences, service learning, community patient resource groups, and professional practice opportunities. Students benefit from the ability to practice hands-on skills in a safe, nonjudgmental environment. Students can still experience consequences of poor decisions but can have multiple opportunities to master the skill without the fear of negative outcomes. Incorporation of high-risk age ranges and diagnoses can be achieved through simulation. Discussion and conclusion: Experiential learning can be integrated into any PT curriculum if faculties are committed and flexible. Experiential learning may be particularly useful in specialty practice areas where there are fewer opportunities for students to practice skills. The practice of reflection upon experiences that is commonly performed in conjunction with experiential learning will help prepare students for the type of reflective practice that is essential to transition from novice to expert practitioners. Keywords: simulation, integrated clinical

  20. Counting on Beauty: The role of aesthetic, ethical, and physical universal principles for interstellar communication

    OpenAIRE

    Lemarchand, Guillermo A.

    2008-01-01

    SETI researchers believe that the basic principles of our science and the science of extraterrestrial beings should be fundamentally the same, and we should be able to communicate with them by referring to those things we share, such as the principles of mathematics, physics, and chemistry (a similar cognitive map of nature). This view assumes that there is only one way to conceptualize the laws of nature. Consequently, mathematics and the language of nature should be universal. In this essay...

  1. a University Course on the Physical Principles of Ultrasound Nondestructive Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genis, Vladimir

    2009-03-01

    The ultrasound nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials course was offered to Applied Engineering Technology (AET) students at Drexel University for last two years. The main objective of this three-credit (thirty-hour) course is to introduce students to physical principles of ultrasound measurements and to demonstrate the basic principles of ultrasound nondestructive evaluation of materials by combining hands-on laboratory experience with lectures. The work in the laboratory enhances the fundamentals taught in the classroom sessions.

  2. [The application of methods of physical therapy in the military health resort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, I G; Didenko, S V

    2015-03-01

    Presented the main guidelines concerning the application of methods and forms of physical therapy in the complex sanatorium treatment and rehabilitation in sanatoria and health resorts of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. It is concluded that the basis for the application and further development of forms and methods of physical therapy should be based on the methodological principle of a differentiated approach to the assessment of the severity of dysfunction cardiorespiratory and nervous system, musculoskeletal system, the mode of motor activity and exercise tolerance.

  3. Questionnaire Survey of Physical Therapy Students' View of General Education

    OpenAIRE

    日高, 正巳; 嶋田, 智明; 武政, 誠一; 篠原, 英記; 米田, 稔彦; 講武, 芳英; 松尾, 智; 松原, 貴子; 三木, 明徳; 平田, 総一郎; 石川, 斉

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze students' view of the relationship between general education and physical therapy education in the university. Fifty-six physical therapy students administered the questionnaire in this survey and completed it on their own. Nineteen subjects selected in general education were categorized into seven grades, indicating Grade 0 (no relation to physical therapy education) to Grade 6 (closest relation). It was characteristic that the students looked on the ...

  4. PERCIVED STRESS AMONG PHYSICAL THERAPY STUDENTS OF ISRA UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Atiq ur Rehman memon; Shireen Rahat Khanzada; Kashmala khan; Jam Feroz; Hafiz Muhammad Hussain; Syed Zulqarnain Ali; Ahson Khwaja.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently increasing concern among stress is seen during health care undergraduate students but there is lack of such studies in physical therapy students in Pakistan. Higher stress levels the students in their education the effect of stress in physical therapy students throughout is well documented in western countries. This study aims at assessing the level of perceived stress among physical therapy students of Isra University. Method: It’s a Cross-sectional type of descriptiv...

  5. Quantum Physics Principles and Communication in the Acute Healthcare Setting: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Heidi L; Peyerl, Colleen Kraft; Solheim-Witt, Marit

    This pilot study explores whether clinician awareness of quantum physics principles could facilitate open communication between patients and providers. In the spirit of action research, this study was conceptualized with a holistic view of human health, using a mixed method design of grounded theory as an emergent method. Instrumentation includes surveys and a focus group discussion with twelve registered nurses working in an acute care hospital setting. Findings document that the preliminary core phenomenon, energy as information, influences communication in the healthcare environment. Key emergent themes include awareness, language, validation, open communication, strategies, coherence, incoherence and power. Research participants indicate that quantum physics principles provide a language and conceptual framework for improving their awareness of communication and interactions in the healthcare environment. Implications of this pilot study support the feasibility of future research and education on awareness of quantum physics principles in other clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alternative approaches to research in physical therapy: positivism and phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, K F; Jensen, G M; Schmoll, B J; Hack, L M; Gwyer, J

    1993-02-01

    This article presents philosophical approaches to research in physical therapy. A comparison is made to demonstrate how the research purpose, research design, research methods, and research data differ when one approaches research from the philosophical perspective of positivism (predominantly quantitative) as compared with the philosophical perspective of phenomenology (predominantly qualitative). Differences between the two approaches are highlighted by examples from research articles published in Physical Therapy. The authors urge physical therapy researchers to become familiar with the tenets, rigor, and knowledge gained from the use of both approaches in order to increase their options in conducting research relevant to the practice of physical therapy.

  7. Yin-Yang balance : a dialectical view of variational principles of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qiuping A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a possible philosophical motivation to the variational principles of physics and a possible way to unify the axiomatic formulations of classical mechanics and statistical mechanics. The leitmotif of this work is a dialectical view of the world: any smooth motion in nature is the consequence of the interplay and dynamical balance between pairs of opposite, mutually exclusive but complementary and mutually transformable essences or elements of the motion. This dynamical balance is expressed by an invariant variational relationship between all the pairs of opposite elements in the considered phenomenon. Derivation of several principles of physics from this idea is given.

  8. Conventional physical therapy and physical therapy based on reflex stimulation showed similar results in children with myelomeningocele

    OpenAIRE

    Aizawa, Carolina Y. P.; Morales, Mariana P.; Lundberg, Carolina; Moura, Maria Clara D. Soares de; Pinto, Fernando C. G.; Voos, Mariana C.; Hasue, Renata H.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We aimed to investigate whether infants with myelomeningocele would improve their motor ability and functional independence after ten sessions of physical therapy and compare the outcomes of conventional physical therapy (CPT) to a physical therapy program based on reflex stimulation (RPT). Twelve children were allocated to CPT (n = 6, age 18.3 months) or RPT (n = 6, age 18.2 months). The RPT involved proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation. Children were assessed with the Gross Mo...

  9. Acrophobia and pathological height vertigo: indications for vestibular physical therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Susan L; Jacob, Rolf G; Sparto, Patrick J; Olshansky, Ellen F; Detweiler-Shostak, Gail; Brown, Emily L; Furman, Joseph M

    2005-05-01

    Acrophobia (fear of heights) may be related to a high degree of height vertigo caused by visual dependence in the maintenance of standing balance. The purpose of this case report is to describe the use of vestibular physical therapy intervention following behavioral therapy to reduce a patient's visual dependence and height vertigo. Mr N was a 37-year-old man with agoraphobia (fear of open spaces) that included symptoms of height phobia. Exposure to heights triggered symptoms of dizziness. Intervention. Mr N underwent 8 sessions of behavioral therapy that involved exposure to heights using a head-mounted virtual reality device. Subsequently, he underwent 8 weeks of physical therapy for an individualized vestibular physical therapy exercise program. After behavioral therapy, the patient demonstrated improvements on the behavioral avoidance test and the Illness Intrusiveness Rating Scale, but dizziness and body sway responses to moving visual scenes did not decrease. After physical therapy, his dizziness and sway responses decreased and his balance confidence increased. Symptoms of acrophobia and sway responses to full-field visual motion appeared to respond to vestibular physical therapy administered after completion of a course of behavioral therapy. Vestibular physical therapy may have a role in the management of height phobia related to excessive height vertigo.

  10. Physical therapy management of low back pain has changed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, J.J.; Swinkels, I.C.S.; Bakker, D. de; Dekker, J.; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2007-01-01

    Background: Since the 1990s, new insights in the physical therapy management of low back pain have been described in guidelines. Furthermore, insurance companies introduced a volume policy to control the costs for physical therapy. Objective: This study aims to establish if developments in knowledge

  11. Suggested physical therapy protocol for reduction of lipomatosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of suggested physical therapy protocol in lipomatosis dolorosa of the legs. Twenty female patients with stage I lipomatosis dolorosa of the legs ranged in age from 30 to 45 years. They received a complete decongestive physical therapy program and diet regimen.

  12. Physical Therapy Intervention in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Eilish; Garber, June

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the elements of the Intervention section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy interventions presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these interventions is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert…

  13. Strength training versus chest physical therapy on pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zeinab Ahmed Hussein

    Strength training versus chest physical therapy on pulmonary functions in children with Down syndrome. Zeinab Ahmed Hussein*. Pediatric Physical Therapy, Egypt. Received 9 January 2016; accepted 19 February 2016. Available online 4 March 2016. KEYWORDS. Down syndrome;. Pulmonary functions;. Strength ...

  14. Randomized Controlled Trial on Physical Therapy for TMJ Closed Lock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craane, B.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Stappaerts, K.; De Laat, A.

    This study evaluated the one-year effect of physical therapy on pain and mandibular dysfunction associated with anterior disc displacement without reduction of the temporomandibular joint (closed lock). Forty-nine individuals were randomly assigned to either a physical therapy group [n = 23, mean

  15. Controlling Split Attention and Redundancy in Physical Therapy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pociask, Fredrick D.; Morrison, Gary R.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effectiveness of instructional materials designed to control redundancy and split attention in the teaching of complex orthopedic physical therapy skills. Participants included 41 first-year physical therapy students. The modified instruction group received a modified unit of instruction designed to reduce cognitive…

  16. Suggested physical therapy protocol for reduction of lipomatosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed M. Khalaf

    2012-11-11

    Nov 11, 2012 ... The results revealed a significant improvement (P < 0.05) in BMI and the lower limb volumes. It could be concluded that, suggested physical therapy protocol consisting of a complete decongestive physical therapy program and diet regimen had an effect in the treatment of lipomatosis dolorosa of the legs in.

  17. [Physical activity has a key role in hypertension therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börjesson, Mats; Dahlöf, Björn

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular health, including hypertension. Increased physical activity is a major goal for increased cardiovascular health. Physical activity is still under-utilized in health care, for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. The blood pressure lowering effect of physical activity is equal to pharmacological (mono)therapy. In addition, physical activity has an additional effect besides blood pressure lowering, by having a positive effect on other classical cardiovascular risk factors such as insuline resistance and the blood lipid profile. Possibly, another frequently over-looked effect may be the added effect of physical activity in combination with pharmacological therapy.

  18. Exercise therapy and other types of physical therapy for patients with neuromuscular diseases: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cup, E.H.C.; Pieterse, A.J.; Broek-Pastoor, J.M. Ten; Munneke, M.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Hendricks, H.T.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Oostendorp, R.A.B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize and critically appraise the available evidence on exercise therapy and other types of physical therapies for patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMD). DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Medline, CINAHL,

  19. Nuclear medicine: proof of principle for targeted drugs in diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitha, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Delivering a drug to a specific target in the body is comparable to the "magic bullet principle" applied in Nuclear Medicine. If clinical medicine today found treatment options by targeting specific receptors, proteins or enzymes by "small-molecule drugs" it utilizes concepts that have been initially described by Nobel Laureate George von Hevesy as "tracer principle". This article is going to show that molecular imaging probes in Nuclear Medicine can be regarded as proof of principle of many of recent trends in diagnosis and therapy and offers exciting opportunities for further developments. Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid disease has been established in Nuclear Medicine over six decades ago and is a fine example for using the same highly specific probe for diagnosis and treatment of a given disease. The use of radio labeled monoclonal antibodies against surface receptors of tumor cells (e.g. CEA) dominated diagnostic Nuclear Medicine in the eighties and sees a recent revival in lymphoma treatment radioimmunotherapy. Finally Nuclear Medicine has shown that it may advance drug development by visualizing its biodistribution and site of action. On the other hand some drugs like somatostatin analogues have been reinvented as diagnostic and therapeutic probes over a decade after their initial introduction as therapeutics. Molecular Imaging and targeted therapy are merging and potentiate their individual strength. Nuclear Medicine has ample experience in applying Molecular Imaging in clinical research and practice and has a bright future in this exciting field.

  20. Extending the Extreme Physical Information to Universal Cognitive Models via a Confident Information First Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhao Zhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The principle of extreme physical information (EPI can be used to derive many known laws and distributions in theoretical physics by extremizing the physical information loss K, i.e., the difference between the observed Fisher information I and the intrinsic information bound J of the physical phenomenon being measured. However, for complex cognitive systems of high dimensionality (e.g., human language processing and image recognition, the information bound J could be excessively larger than I (J ≫ I, due to insufficient observation, which would lead to serious over-fitting problems in the derivation of cognitive models. Moreover, there is a lack of an established exact invariance principle that gives rise to the bound information in universal cognitive systems. This limits the direct application of EPI. To narrow down the gap between I and J, in this paper, we propose a confident-information-first (CIF principle to lower the information bound J by preserving confident parameters and ruling out unreliable or noisy parameters in the probability density function being measured. The confidence of each parameter can be assessed by its contribution to the expected Fisher information distance between the physical phenomenon and its observations. In addition, given a specific parametric representation, this contribution can often be directly assessed by the Fisher information, which establishes a connection with the inverse variance of any unbiased estimate for the parameter via the Cramér–Rao bound. We then consider the dimensionality reduction in the parameter spaces of binary multivariate distributions. We show that the single-layer Boltzmann machine without hidden units (SBM can be derived using the CIF principle. An illustrative experiment is conducted to show how the CIF principle improves the density estimation performance.

  1. Manual physical therapy and perturbation exercises in knee osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Rhon, Daniel; Deyle, Gail; Gill, Norman; Rendeiro, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) causes disability among the elderly and is often associated with impaired balance and proprioception. Perturbation exercises may help improve these impairments. Although manual physical therapy is generally a well-tolerated treatment for knee OA, perturbation exercises have not been evaluated when used with a manual physical therapy approach. The purpose of this study was to observe tolerance to perturbation exercises and the effect of a manual physical th...

  2. Computational Models of HIV-1 Resistance to Gene Therapy Elucidate Therapy Design Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviran, Sharon; Shah, Priya S.; Schaffer, David V.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy is an emerging alternative to conventional anti-HIV-1 drugs, and can potentially control the virus while alleviating major limitations of current approaches. Yet, HIV-1's ability to rapidly acquire mutations and escape therapy presents a critical challenge to any novel treatment paradigm. Viral escape is thus a key consideration in the design of any gene-based technique. We develop a computational model of HIV's evolutionary dynamics in vivo in the presence of a genetic therapy to explore the impact of therapy parameters and strategies on the development of resistance. Our model is generic and captures the properties of a broad class of gene-based agents that inhibit early stages of the viral life cycle. We highlight the differences in viral resistance dynamics between gene and standard antiretroviral therapies, and identify key factors that impact long-term viral suppression. In particular, we underscore the importance of mutationally-induced viral fitness losses in cells that are not genetically modified, as these can severely constrain the replication of resistant virus. We also propose and investigate a novel treatment strategy that leverages upon gene therapy's unique capacity to deliver different genes to distinct cell populations, and we find that such a strategy can dramatically improve efficacy when used judiciously within a certain parametric regime. Finally, we revisit a previously-suggested idea of improving clinical outcomes by boosting the proliferation of the genetically-modified cells, but we find that such an approach has mixed effects on resistance dynamics. Our results provide insights into the short- and long-term effects of gene therapy and the role of its key properties in the evolution of resistance, which can serve as guidelines for the choice and optimization of effective therapeutic agents. PMID:20711350

  3. Computational models of HIV-1 resistance to gene therapy elucidate therapy design principles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Aviran

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is an emerging alternative to conventional anti-HIV-1 drugs, and can potentially control the virus while alleviating major limitations of current approaches. Yet, HIV-1's ability to rapidly acquire mutations and escape therapy presents a critical challenge to any novel treatment paradigm. Viral escape is thus a key consideration in the design of any gene-based technique. We develop a computational model of HIV's evolutionary dynamics in vivo in the presence of a genetic therapy to explore the impact of therapy parameters and strategies on the development of resistance. Our model is generic and captures the properties of a broad class of gene-based agents that inhibit early stages of the viral life cycle. We highlight the differences in viral resistance dynamics between gene and standard antiretroviral therapies, and identify key factors that impact long-term viral suppression. In particular, we underscore the importance of mutationally-induced viral fitness losses in cells that are not genetically modified, as these can severely constrain the replication of resistant virus. We also propose and investigate a novel treatment strategy that leverages upon gene therapy's unique capacity to deliver different genes to distinct cell populations, and we find that such a strategy can dramatically improve efficacy when used judiciously within a certain parametric regime. Finally, we revisit a previously-suggested idea of improving clinical outcomes by boosting the proliferation of the genetically-modified cells, but we find that such an approach has mixed effects on resistance dynamics. Our results provide insights into the short- and long-term effects of gene therapy and the role of its key properties in the evolution of resistance, which can serve as guidelines for the choice and optimization of effective therapeutic agents.

  4. Physical therapy in the management of myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, A M; el-Dibany, M M; el-Garf, A

    1986-01-01

    A study of the effectiveness of physical therapy for patients with myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome was performed. Clinical evaluation of 120 patients revealed marked male preponderance, distribution according to age showed a great prevalence of the third decade, and most common chief complaints were pain and muscle tenderness. Patients were classified randomly into three equal groups treated by muscle relaxant drugs, shortwave diathermy, and ultrasonic therapy, respectively. Regular follow-up was carried out for 6 to 12 months to assess patients' responses to different forms of treatment. Evaluation revealed marked relief of symptoms by the use of physical therapy, and the best results were obtained by the use of ultrasonic therapy.

  5. Gamification in Physical Therapy: More Than Using Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Joep; Verschuren, Olaf; Renger, Willem Jan; Ermers, Jose; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; van Ee, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of computer games in physical therapy is motivated by characteristics such as attractiveness, motivation, and engagement, but these do not guarantee the intended therapeutic effect of the interventions. Yet, these characteristics are important variables in physical therapy interventions because they involve reward-related dopaminergic systems in the brain that are known to facilitate learning through long-term potentiation of neural connections. In this perspective we propose a way to apply game design approaches to therapy development by "designing" therapy sessions in such a way as to trigger physical and cognitive behavioral patterns required for treatment and neurological recovery. We also advocate that improving game knowledge among therapists and improving communication between therapists and game designers may lead to a novel avenue in designing applied games with specific therapeutic input, thereby making gamification in therapy a realistic and promising future that may optimize clinical practice.

  6. TEACHING PHYSICS: An experiment to demonstrate the principles and processes involved in medical Doppler ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D. G. H.

    2000-09-01

    Doppler ultrasound is widely used in medicine for measuring blood velocity. This paper describes an experiment illustrating the principles of medical Doppler ultrasound. It is designed with A-level/undergraduate physics students in mind. Ultrasound is transmitted in air and reflected from a moving target. The return signal is processed using a series of modules, so that students can discover for themselves how each stage in the instrument works. They can also obtain a quantitative value of the speed of the target.

  7. Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy With Comprehensive Development of the Physical Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Golden, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This book presents experiments which will teach physics relevant to astronomy. The astronomer, as instructor, frequently faces this need when his college or university has no astronomy department and any astronomy course is taught in the physics department. The physicist, as instructor, will find this intellectually appealing when faced with teaching an introductory astronomy course. From these experiments, the student will acquire important analytical tools, learn physics appropriate to astronomy, and experience instrument calibration and the direct gathering and analysis of data. Experiments that can be performed in one laboratory session as well as semester-long observation projects are included. This textbook is aimed at undergraduate astronomy students.

  8. Physical therapy in Parkinson's disease: evolution and future challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keus, S.H.J.; Munneke, M.; Nijkrake, M.J.; Kwakkel, G.; Bloem, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    Even with optimal medical management using drugs or neurosurgery, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are faced with progressively increasing mobility problems. For this reason, many patients require additional physical therapy. Here, we review the professional evolution and scientific validation

  9. Physical therapy in Parkinson's disease: evolution and future challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keus, S.H.J.; Munneke, M.; Nijkrake, M.J.; Kwakkel, G.; Bloem, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    Even with optimal medical management using drugs or neurosurgery, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are faced with progressively increasing mobility problems. For this reason, many patients require additional physical therapy. Here, we review the professional evolution and scientific validation

  10. The physical basis and future of radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortfeld, T; Jeraj, R

    2011-01-01

    The remarkable progress in radiation therapy over the last century has been largely due to our ability to more effectively focus and deliver radiation to the tumour target volume. Physics discoveries and technology inventions have been an important driving force behind this progress. However, there is still plenty of room left for future improvements through physics, for example image guidance and four-dimensional motion management and particle therapy, as well as increased efficiency of more compact and cheaper technologies. Bigger challenges lie ahead of physicists in radiation therapy beyond the dose localisation problem, for example in the areas of biological target definition, improved modelling for normal tissues and tumours, advanced multicriteria and robust optimisation, and continuous incorporation of advanced technologies such as molecular imaging. The success of physics in radiation therapy has been based on the continued “fuelling” of the field with new discoveries and inventions from physics research. A key to the success has been the application of the rigorous scientific method. In spite of the importance of physics research for radiation therapy, too few physicists are currently involved in cutting-edge research. The increased emphasis on more “professionalism” in medical physics will tip the situation even more off balance. To prevent this from happening, we argue that medical physics needs more research positions, and more and better academic programmes. Only with more emphasis on medical physics research will the future of radiation therapy and other physics-related medical specialties look as bright as the past, and medical physics will maintain a status as one of the most exciting fields of applied physics. PMID:21606068

  11. The physical basis and future of radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortfeld, T; Jeraj, R

    2011-06-01

    The remarkable progress in radiation therapy over the last century has been largely due to our ability to more effectively focus and deliver radiation to the tumour target volume. Physics discoveries and technology inventions have been an important driving force behind this progress. However, there is still plenty of room left for future improvements through physics, for example image guidance and four-dimensional motion management and particle therapy, as well as increased efficiency of more compact and cheaper technologies. Bigger challenges lie ahead of physicists in radiation therapy beyond the dose localisation problem, for example in the areas of biological target definition, improved modelling for normal tissues and tumours, advanced multicriteria and robust optimisation, and continuous incorporation of advanced technologies such as molecular imaging. The success of physics in radiation therapy has been based on the continued "fuelling" of the field with new discoveries and inventions from physics research. A key to the success has been the application of the rigorous scientific method. In spite of the importance of physics research for radiation therapy, too few physicists are currently involved in cutting-edge research. The increased emphasis on more "professionalism" in medical physics will tip the situation even more off balance. To prevent this from happening, we argue that medical physics needs more research positions, and more and better academic programmes. Only with more emphasis on medical physics research will the future of radiation therapy and other physics-related medical specialties look as bright as the past, and medical physics will maintain a status as one of the most exciting fields of applied physics.

  12. The physical basis and future of radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bortfeld, T.; Jeraj, R

    2011-01-01

    The remarkable progress in radiation therapy over the last century has been largely due to our ability to more effectively focus and deliver radiation to the tumour target volume. Physics discoveries and technology inventions have been an important driving force behind this progress. However, there is still plenty of room left for future improvements through physics, for example image guidance and four-dimensional motion management and particle therapy, as well as increased efficiency of more...

  13. Testing principle working mechanisms of the health action process approach for subjective physical age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; Fink, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in social-cognitive predictors and self-regulatory planning, as proposed by the health action process approach (HAPA), across three different subjective physical age groups for physical activity. With a cross-sectional design, 521 participants across the chronological age span from 25 to 86 years (M = 48.79; SD = 12.66) were separated into three groups: those who feel physically younger than they are in terms of chronological age, the same perceived and chronological age, and feeling physically older compared to their chronological age. Participants were assessed regarding their perceived vulnerability, outcome expectancies, general intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and stages of physical activity (non-intenders, intenders, and actors). Data were analysed via mean comparison and multigroup structural equation modelling. Mean differences for all but one construct were eminent in all groups, generally showing that those feeling physically younger also report better social-cognitive predictors of physical activity (e.g. lower perceived vulnerability) in comparison to those who feel the same age or older. The model showed that basic working mechanisms of the HAPA can be applied to all groups. With that, the results provide for the first time evidence that principle working mechanism of the HAPA can be applied to all subjective physical age groups. These may be used to tailor health promoting interventions according to participants' needs as a more suitable proxy than chronological age.

  14. Constructing the principles: Method and metaphysics in the progress of theoretical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Lawrence C.

    This thesis presents a new framework for the philosophy of physics focused on methodological differences found in the practice of modern theoretical physics. The starting point for this investigation is the longstanding debate over scientific realism. Some philosophers have argued that it is the aim of science to produce an accurate description of the world including explanations for observable phenomena. These scientific realists hold that our best confirmed theories are approximately true and that the entities they propose actually populate the world, whether or not they have been observed. Others have argued that science achieves only frameworks for the prediction and manipulation of observable phenomena. These anti-realists argue that truth is a misleading concept when applied to empirical knowledge. Instead, focus should be on the empirical adequacy of scientific theories. This thesis argues that the fundamental distinction at issue, a division between true scientific theories and ones which are empirically adequate, is best explored in terms of methodological differences. In analogy with the realism debate, there are at least two methodological strategies. Rather than focusing on scientific theories as wholes, this thesis takes as units of analysis physical principles which are systematic empirical generalizations. The first possible strategy, the conservative, takes the assumption that the empirical adequacy of a theory in one domain serves as good evidence for such adequacy in other domains. This then motivates the application of the principle to new domains. The second strategy, the innovative, assumes that empirical adequacy in one domain does not justify the expectation of adequacy in other domains. New principles are offered as explanations in the new domain. The final part of the thesis is the application of this framework to two examples. On the first, Lorentz's use of the aether is reconstructed in terms of the conservative strategy with respect to

  15. Bibliometric Analysis of Articles Published from 1980 to 2009 in Physical Therapy, Journal of the American Physical Therapy Association

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogelio A. Coronado; Daniel L. Riddle; Wendy A. Wurtzel; Steven Z. George

    2011-01-01

    ... (including perspectives and nonsystematic reviews), and case reports were included. Articles were coded based on type, participant characteristics, physical therapy focus, research design, purpose of article, clinical condition, and intervention...

  16. Physical Therapy as Treatment for Childhood Obesity in Primary Health Care: Clinical Recommendation From AXXON (Belgian Physical Therapy Association)

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Dominique; Hens, Wendy; Peeters,Stefaan; Wittebrood, Carla; Van Ussel, Sofi; Verleyen, Dirk; Vissers, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, an obesity epidemic among children and adolescents is apparent. In the care of obesity in children and adolescents, exercise therapy is considered a cornerstone. Official position statements describe and endorse the need and effect of exercise therapy and increased physical activity in children and adolescents with obesity. Physical therapists working in private and home care settings (first-line treatment) can play a key role in maximizing participation rates in exercise and physi...

  17. Providing Educationally Relevant Occupational and Physical Therapy Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverdure, Patricia A.; Rose, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    As defined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, occupational and physical therapists provide services to support students to access, participate, and progress in their educational program within the least restrictive educational environment. Educationally relevant occupational and physical therapy services in school…

  18. 42 CFR 410.60 - Outpatient physical therapy services: Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outpatient physical therapy services: Conditions. 410.60 Section 410.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.60 Outpatient physical...

  19. Application of the Pareto principle to identify and address drug-therapy safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Fabian; Dormann, Harald; Pfistermeister, Barbara; Sonst, Anja; Patapovas, Andrius; Vogler, Renate; Hartmann, Nina; Plank-Kiegele, Bettina; Kirchner, Melanie; Bürkle, Thomas; Maas, Renke

    2014-06-01

    Adverse drug events (ADE) and medication errors (ME) are common causes of morbidity in patients presenting at emergency departments (ED). Recognition of ADE as being drug related and prevention of ME are key to enhancing pharmacotherapy safety in ED. We assessed the applicability of the Pareto principle (~80 % of effects result from 20 % of causes) to address locally relevant problems of drug therapy. In 752 cases consecutively admitted to the nontraumatic ED of a major regional hospital, ADE, ME, contributing drugs, preventability, and detection rates of ADE by ED staff were investigated. Symptoms, errors, and drugs were sorted by frequency in order to apply the Pareto principle. In total, 242 ADE were observed, and 148 (61.2 %) were assessed as preventable. ADE contributed to 110 inpatient hospitalizations. The ten most frequent symptoms were causally involved in 88 (80.0 %) inpatient hospitalizations. Only 45 (18.6 %) ADE were recognized as drug-related problems until discharge from the ED. A limited set of 33 drugs accounted for 184 (76.0 %) ADE; ME contributed to 57 ADE. Frequency-based listing of ADE, ME, and drugs involved allowed identification of the most relevant problems and development of easily to implement safety measures, such as wall and pocket charts. The Pareto principle provides a method for identifying the locally most relevant ADE, ME, and involved drugs. This permits subsequent development of interventions to increase patient safety in the ED admission process that best suit local needs.

  20. Plantar Fasciitis: Will Physical Therapy Help My Foot Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    One out of 10 people in the United States experience persistent pain along the bottom of the foot, a condition known as plantar fasciitis. In 2014, the Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association published updated clinical practice guidelines on the best treatments for patients with plantar fasciitis. The guidelines present evidence that strongly suggests a combination of manual therapy and rehabilitative exercises to help patients with this foot condition. In a more recent study published in the February 2017 issue of JOSPT, researchers reviewed the records of people with plantar fasciitis who were sent to physical therapy. The results of this study support prior studies that show faster recovery time for those who receive evidence-based physical therapy for their foot pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(2):56. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0501.

  1. 42 CFR 418.74 - Waiver of requirement-Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling. 418.74 Section 418.74 Public Health... requirement—Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling. (a) A... providing physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and dietary counseling services...

  2. Prevalence of Physical Disability and Accommodation Needs among Students in Physical Therapy Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Martha R.; Peterson, Cathryn A.; Gibbs, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Most research on graduate students with disabilities (SWDs) has focused on medical education. The purposes of this study were to: (1) estimate the prevalence of students with physical disabilities (SWPDs) in physical therapy programs, (2) identify common types of physical disabilities, (3) document the types of accommodations requested by SWPDs,…

  3. PERCIVED STRESS AMONG PHYSICAL THERAPY STUDENTS OF ISRA UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiq ur Rehman memon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently increasing concern among stress is seen during health care undergraduate students but there is lack of such studies in physical therapy students in Pakistan. Higher stress levels the students in their education the effect of stress in physical therapy students throughout is well documented in western countries. This study aims at assessing the level of perceived stress among physical therapy students of Isra University. Method: It’s a Cross-sectional type of descriptive study that was conducted on hundred physical therapy students of Isra institute of rehabilitation sciences, ISRA University, Hyderabad. A Convenient, non-probability technique of sampling is used. All the Physical therapy students were included. Results: Overall response rate was 100%. Moderate level of stress was found in 73% students (scored between 51-75%, severe level of stress was found in 8% students (scored >75% whereas low level of stress was found in 19% of students (scored between 25-50%. Conclusion: The current study presents the level of stress perceived by physical therapy students of Isra University, Hyderabad. The findings of the study revealed higher levels of stress in the physical therapy students. Majority of student perceived moderate stress and about 8% of students reported severe stress. Further detailed and generalized studies are needed to evaluate the causes, effects and coping approaches adapted by the students. Furthermore level of stress should also be correlated with academic performance of the students. Findings of such studies may help to initiate certain strategies that may help students overcome their stress and cope efficiently with the upcoming problems.

  4. Let physics substantiate music and music enhance physics- give principle to the other disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui-Yiing

    2006-03-01

    A conventional practice in K-12 education is to synchronize the arts and the sciences. Physics, traditionally been considered the mother of the sciences, and music, the mother of the arts, are interdependent and help to establishing a complete understanding of the other disciplines. Intense musical expression is attained when progression aims towards infinity. Motions are made in curves across time, imitating physical phenomena. The meaning of each element is enhanced according to the relative duration and dynamics of its context. Complete musical expression considers the three dimensions of space- length, breadth and height- and the three dimensions of time- past, present and future when balancing the instrumental parts and developing the structural elements. Overall, equilibrium is sought for like gravitational forces as expressed in equations. In learning processes, sensing precedes reasoning. Music attunes one to sensitive reactions towards the environment while physics substantiates the concepts by imposing a hierarchical order, the highest form of which is elegantly beautiful and most effectively expressed in music.

  5. Counting on Beauty: The role of aesthetic, ethical, and physical universal principles for interstellar communication

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Guillermo A

    2008-01-01

    SETI researchers believe that the basic principles of our science and the science of extraterrestrial beings should be fundamentally the same, and we should be able to communicate with them by referring to those things we share, such as the principles of mathematics, physics, and chemistry (a similar cognitive map of nature). This view assumes that there is only one way to conceptualize the laws of nature. Consequently, mathematics and the language of nature should be universal. In this essay, we discuss the epistemological bases of the last assumptions. We describe all the hypotheses behind the universality of the laws of nature and the restrictions that any technology should have to establish contact with other galactic technological civilization. We introduce some discussions about the limitations of homocentric views. We discuss about the possible use of aesthetic cognitive universals as well as ethical ones in the design of interstellar messages. We discuss the role of symmetry as a universal cognitive m...

  6. Paperless medical physics QA in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J; Yau, S; White, S; Wilfert, L

    2012-06-01

    Physics quality assurance (QA) is an integral part of a medical physicist's role in the radiotherapy centre. Management of physics QA documents is an issue with a long-term accumulation. Storage space, archive administration and paper consumption are just some of the difficulties faced by physicists. Plotting trends and drawing meaningful conclusions from these results can be challenging using traditional QA methods. Remote checking of QA within a hospital network can also be problematic. The aim of this project is introduce a paperless QA system that will provide solutions to many of these issues.

  7. Physical therapy and occupational therapy: partners in rehabilitation for persons with movement impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David L; Cipriani, Daniel J; Thomas, Julie J

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY The professions of physical therapy and occupational therapy have legitimate roles in the restoration of human movement in the rehabilitation process. This paper first presents a physical therapy perspective on changing trends in therapeutic exercise. Recent trends in physical therapy reflect a shift away from isolating patterns of movement and open kinetic chain exercises toward a new emphasis on functional patterns of movement and closed kinetic chain exercises. Rehabilitation of persons with hip fracture is used as an example of these shifting trends. Next, the paper presents an occupational therapy perspective. Occupational therapy's historical emphasis on the use of naturalistic occupations as the context for therapeutic exercise is described. Theoretical advantages of occupationally embedded movement are listed, and recent research in support of naturalistic occupations is summarized. Physical therapy and occupational therapy are distinct professions with autonomous outlooks and terminologies, but the responsibilities of physical therapists and occupational therapists potentially overlap in the restoration of movement. Suggestions are made for interdisciplinary teamwork whereby the holistically considered welfare of the patient is always the primary concern of all therapists.

  8. Assessing participants' perceptions on group-based principles for action in community-based health enhancing physical activity programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, Marion; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    In community-based health enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programmes, group-based principles for action such as active participation, enjoyment, and fostering group processes are widely advocated. However, not much is known about participants' perceptions of these principles as there are no

  9. High-energy cosmic rays and tests of basic principles of Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres L.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the present understanding of data, the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR at energies above 4.1019 eV can be a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK cutoff or be related to a similar mechanism. But it may also correspond, for instance, to the maximum energies available at the relevant sources. In both cases, violations of special relativity modifying cosmic-ray propagation or acceleration at very high energy can potentially play a role. Other violations of fundamental principles of standard particle physics (quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum homogeneity and “static” properties, effective space dimensions, quark confinement… can also be relevant at these energies. In particular, UHECR data would in principle allow to set bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV in patterns incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the “vacuum rest frame”, VRF. But the precise analysis is far from trivial, and other effects can also be present. The effective parameters can be related to Planckscale physics, or even to physics beyond Planck scale, as well as to the dynamics and effective symmetries of LSV for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon. LSV can also be at the origin of GZK-like effects. In the presence of a VRF, and contrary to a “grand unification” view, LSV and other violations of standard principles can modify the internal structure of particles at very high energy and conventional symmetries may cease to be valid at energies close to the Planck scale. We present an updated discussion of these topics, including experimental prospects, new potentialities for high-energy cosmic ray phenomenology and the possible link with unconventional pre-Big Bang scenarios, superbradyon (superluminal preon patterns… The subject of a possible superluminal propagation of neutrinos at accelerator energies is also dealt with.

  10. Core journals that publish clinical trials of physical therapy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; Moseley, Anne M; Sherrington, Catherine; Maher, Christopher G; Herbert, Robert D; Elkins, Mark R

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify core journals in physical therapy by identifying those that publish the most randomized controlled trials of physical therapy interventions, provide the highest-quality reports of randomized controlled trials, and have the highest journal impact factors. This study was an audit of a bibliographic database. All trials indexed in the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) were analyzed. Journals that had published at least 80 trials were selected. The journals were ranked in 4 ways: number of trials published; mean total PEDro score of the trials published in the journal, regardless of publication year; mean total PEDro score of the trials published in the journal from 2000 to 2009; and 2008 journal impact factor. The top 5 core journals in physical therapy, ranked by the total number of trials published, were Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clinical Rehabilitation, Spine, British Medical Journal (BMJ), and Chest. When the mean total PEDro score was used as the ranking criterion, the top 5 journals were Journal of Physiotherapy, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Stroke, Spine, and Clinical Rehabilitation. When the mean total PEDro score of the trials published from 2000 to 2009 was used as the ranking criterion, the top 5 journals were Journal of Physiotherapy, JAMA, Lancet, BMJ, and Pain. The most highly ranked physical therapy-specific journals were Physical Therapy (ranked eighth on the basis of the number of trials published) and Journal of Physiotherapy (ranked first on the basis of the quality of trials). Finally, when the 2008 impact factor was used for ranking, the top 5 journals were JAMA, Lancet, BMJ, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, and Thorax. There were no significant relationships among the rankings on the basis of trial quality, number of trials, or journal impact factor. Physical therapists who are trying to keep up-to-date by reading the best

  11. Hydraulics and geothermal energy: physical principles and utilization modalities; Hydraulique et geothermie: principes physiques et modalites d'utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madet, D.

    2001-08-15

    The author presents for the hydroelectricity and the geothermal energy, the physical principles, the different types of utilization, some technical elements, economical data, the environmental impacts, the today world situation and the evolution perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  12. Education Research in Physical Therapy: Visions of the Possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gail M; Nordstrom, Terrence; Segal, Richard L; McCallum, Christine; Graham, Cecilia; Greenfield, Bruce

    2016-12-01

    Education research has been labeled the "hardest science" of all, given the challenges of teaching and learning in an environment encompassing a mixture of social interactions, events, and problems coupled with a persistent belief that education depends more on common sense than on disciplined knowledge and skill. The American Educational Research Association specifies that education research-as a scientific field of study-examines teaching and learning processes that shape educational outcomes across settings and that a learning process takes place throughout a person's life. The complexity of learning and learning environments requires not only a diverse array of research methods but also a community of education researchers committed to exploring critical questions in the education of physical therapists. Although basic science research and clinical research in physical therapy have continued to expand through growth in the numbers of funded physical therapist researchers, the profession still lacks a robust and vibrant community of education researchers. In this perspective article, the American Council of Academic Physical Therapy Task Force on Education Research proposes a compelling rationale for building a much-needed foundation for education research in physical therapy, including a set of recommendations for immediate action. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  13. High school physical educators' and sport coaches' knowledge of resistance training principles and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGladrey, Brian W; Hannon, James C; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Shultz, Barry B; Shaw, Janet M

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge that current and preservice high school (HS) physical educators and sport coaches possess regarding the principles and methods involved in youth resistance training (RT) and to determine if that knowledge was acceptable based on a predetermined criterion (passing score). A panel of 10 experts in RT or sport pedagogy used a Delphi technique to create a 90-question assessment (examination) that was administered to 287 HS physical educators and sport coaches and 140 university physical education teacher education (PETE) students. An analysis of the results revealed that neither group demonstrated the minimal knowledge necessary to design, implement, and supervise RT programs based on a passing score of 75%: HS physical educators/coaches, mean = 59.30, SD = 14.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 57.64-60.96], t(286) = -18.61, p = 0.000; university PETE students, mean = 56.61, SD = 16.59, 95% CI = 53.84-59.38, t(139) = -13.12, p = 0.000. The pass rate for physical educators and sport coaches was 14.3% and for university PETE students it was 20.7%. The results of this study indicate that both current and preservice physical educators and sport coaches need additional education and training specific to the design and implementation of RT programs for HS students. Given that school districts typically require their educators attend in-service training programs, it may be advisable to develop an in-service program that allows both current and preservice HS physical educators and sport coaches to earn an RT certification that specifically addresses the unique physical and psychosocial needs of school-aged youth.

  14. The Doctor of Physical Therapy Degree: A New Curriculum for a New Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Mary Jane K.; Stelzner, Denise; Rodriguez, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    By 2020, all graduates of accredited physical therapy programs will receive the Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) degree. Bachelor degrees in physical therapy are no longer granted, and over 83% (N = 176 accredited programs) of the entry-level physical therapy education programs already grant the DPT degree. The purpose of this article is to…

  15. 42 CFR 485.713 - Condition of participation: Physical therapy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Agencies as Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.713 Condition of participation: Physical therapy services. If the organization offers physical therapy services... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Physical therapy...

  16. [Physical therapy for temporomandibular joint anterior disc displacement without reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, B

    2017-03-09

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDwoR) is a common type of temporomandibular joint disorders. Most patients experience limited mouth opening and joint pain at the same time. The standpoint of physical therapy is the function of the joint instead of the displaced disc. The treatment aims to make symptoms disappeared and joint function regained through 3M techniques, including modality, manual and movement. For ADDwoR patients with limited mouth opening within 2 month, manual therapy may reposition disc and the following splint and movement therapy can maintain disc-condyle relationship. Even so, restoring anatomical relationship is not the end of physical therapy. Enhanced health education and multidisciplinary cooperation are important for successful management of the ADDwoR patients.

  17. Effectiveness of Manual Therapy Combined With Physical Therapy in Treatment of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espí-López, Gemma Victoria; Arnal-Gómez, Anna; Balasch-Bernat, Mercè; Inglés, Marta

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the treatment effectiveness of the combination of manual therapy (MT) with other physical therapy techniques. Systematic searches of scientific literature were undertaken on PubMed and the Cochrane Library (2004-2014). The following terms were used: "patellofemoral pain syndrome," "physical therapy," "manual therapy," and "manipulation." RCTs that studied adults diagnosed with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) treated by MT and physical therapy approaches were included. The quality of the studies was assessed by the Jadad Scale. Five RCTs with an acceptable methodological quality (Jadad ≥ 3) were selected. The studies indicated that MT combined with physical therapy has some effect on reducing pain and improving function in PFPS, especially when applied on the full kinetic chain and when strengthening hip and knee muscles. The different combinations of MT and physical therapy programs analyzed in this review suggest that giving more emphasis to proximal stabilization and full kinetic chain treatments in PFPS will help better alleviation of symptoms.

  18. Differentiation with Stratification: A Principle of Theoretical Physics in the Tradition of the Memory Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombo, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    The art of memory started with Aristotle's questions on memory. During its long evolution, it had important contributions from alchemists, was transformed by Ramon Llull and apparently ended with Giordano Bruno, who was considered the best known representative of this art. This tradition did not disappear, but lives in the formulations of our modern scientific theories. From its initial form as a method of keeping information via associations, it became a principle of classification and structuring of knowledge. This principle, which we here name differentiation with stratification, is a structural design behind classical mechanics. Integrating two different traditions of science in one structure, this physical theory became the modern paradigm of science. In this paper, we show that this principle can also be formulated as a set of questions. This is done via an analysis of theories, based on the epistemology of observational realism. A combination of Rudolph Carnap's concept of theory as a system of observational and theoretical languages, with a criterion for separating observational languages, based on analytical psychology, shapes this epistemology. The `nuclear' role of the observational laws and the differentiations from these nucleus, reproducing the general cases of phenomena, reveals the memory art's heritage in the theories. Here in this paper we argue that this design is also present in special relativity and in quantum mechanics.

  19. Amount and Focus of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy for Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisano, Robert J.; Begnoche, Denise M.; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Chang, Hui-Ju

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) services for a cohort of 399 children with cerebral palsy (CP), 2-6 years old, residing in the United States and Canada. Parents completed a services questionnaire by telephone interview. Therapists classified children's Gross Motor Function Classification…

  20. Occupational Therapy, Physical Therapy, and Orientation and Mobility Services in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, J; Bigby ,L; Nicholson, R

    2004-01-01

    The related service areas of occupational therapy, physical therapy, and orientation and mobility share some areas of professional practice but are quite distinct in the way services allow children with disabilities to fully participate in contemporary school environments. This article presents an overview of the roles and responsibilities of…

  1. Feasibility and Safety of Physical Therapy during Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonstra, Amy L; Zanni, Jennifer M; Sperati, C John; Nelliot, Archana; Mantheiy, Earl; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Needham, Dale M

    2016-05-01

    Early rehabilitation in an intensive care unit is associated with improved physical functioning and patient outcomes. However, relatively few data have been reported on physical therapy interventions during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for patients in intensive care units. To evaluate the feasibility and safety of physical therapy interventions, delivered as part of routine clinical care, for patients undergoing CRRT in an intensive care unit. Consecutive patients in the adult medical intensive care unit of one large tertiary care hospital who received physical therapy sessions while on CRRT were prospectively evaluated over 13 months. Physical therapy sessions were individualized on the basis of patients' physical impairments and activity tolerance, with patients' highest level of mobility recorded. Data on 15 different physiological abnormalities and potential safety events, including bleeding, dislodgement, or dysfunction of the CRRT catheter or circuit, were prospectively collected. Eleven physical therapists delivered 268 rehabilitation sessions to 57 patients while they were receiving CRRT, with the following highest levels of mobility achieved during individual sessions: 78 (29%) bed exercises, 72 (27%) supine cycle ergometry, 80 (30%) sitting at edge of bed, 13 (5%) transfer to chair, and 25 (9%) standing or marching in place. No CRRT-specific safety events occurred (0%; 95% upper confidence interval, 6.3%). There were six non-CRRT-related potential safety events (2.2% of all physical therapy sessions; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-8.2%), all of which were transient changes in blood pressure. In this prospective observational study at one adult medical intensive care unit, we found that provision of bedside physical therapy while patients underwent CRRT is feasible, and appears safe.

  2. Kinesiotherapy and physical therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sochová, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    Author: Jitka Sochová Institution: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine The Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové Title: Kinesiotherapy and physical therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome Supervisor: Mgr. Zuzana Hamarová Pages: 128 Inserts: 7 The year of presentation: 2013 Keywords: Carpal tunnel, rehabilitation therapy, entrapment syndromes, electromyography This Bachelor Diploma deals with carpal tunnel syndrome. In theoretical part I focus on anatomy, lead and innervation of the median nerve,...

  3. Manual physical therapy and perturbation exercises in knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhon, Daniel; Deyle, Gail; Gill, Norman; Rendeiro, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) causes disability among the elderly and is often associated with impaired balance and proprioception. Perturbation exercises may help improve these impairments. Although manual physical therapy is generally a well-tolerated treatment for knee OA, perturbation exercises have not been evaluated when used with a manual physical therapy approach. The purpose of this study was to observe tolerance to perturbation exercises and the effect of a manual physical therapy approach with perturbation exercises on patients with knee OA. Methods: This was a prospective observational cohort study of 15 patients with knee OA. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), global rating of change (GROC), and 72-hour post-treatment tolerance were primary outcome measures. Patients received perturbation balance exercises along with a manual physical therapy approach, twice weekly for 4 weeks. Follow-up evaluation was done at 1, 3, and 6 months after beginning the program. Results: Mean total WOMAC score significantly improved (P = 0.001) after the 4-week program (total WOMAC: initial, 105; 4 weeks, 56; 3 months, 54; 6 months, 57). Mean improvements were similar to previously published trials of manual physical therapy without perturbation exercises. The GROC score showed a minimal clinically important difference (MCID)≥+3 in 13 patients (87%) at 4 weeks, 12 patients (80%) at 3 months, and 9 patients (60%) at 6 months. No patients reported exacerbation of symptoms within 72 hours following each treatment session. Discussion: A manual physical therapy approach that also included perturbation exercises was well tolerated and resulted in improved outcome scores in patients with knee OA. PMID:24421635

  4. Principles Supporting the Perceptional Teaching of Physics: A ``Practical Teaching Philosophy''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurki-Suonio, Kaarle

    2011-03-01

    This article sketches a framework of ideas developed in the context of decades of physics teacher-education that was entitled the "perceptional approach". Individual learning and the scientific enterprise are interpreted as different manifestations of the same process aimed at understanding the natural and social worlds. The process is understood to possess the basic nature of perception, where empirical meanings are first born and then conceptualised. The accumulation of perceived gestalts in the "structure of the mind" leads to structural perception and the generation of conceptual hierarchies, which form a general principle for the expansion of our understanding. The process undergoes hierarchical development from early sensory perception to individual learning and finally to science. The process is discussed in terms of a three-process dynamic. Scientific and technological processes are driven by the interaction of the mind and nature. They are embedded in the social process due to the interaction of individual minds. These sub-processes are defined by their aims: The scientific process affects the mind and aims at understanding; the technological process affects nature and aims at human well-being; and the social process aims at mutual agreement and cooperation. In hierarchical development the interaction of nature and the mind gets structured into a "methodical cycle" by procedures involving conscious activities. Its intuitive nature is preserved due to subordination of the procedures to empirical meanings. In physics, two dimensions of hierarchical development are distinguished: Unification development gives rise to a generalisation hierarchy of concepts; Quantification development transfers the empirical meanings to quantities, laws and theories representing successive hierarchical levels of quantitative concepts. Consequences for physics teaching are discussed in principle, and in the light of examples and experiences from physics teacher education.

  5. Licensure Portability: Assuring Access to Quality Care in Physical Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lane

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The concurrent circumstances of an increasingly mobile workforce, disparities in access to healthcare, and the ability to deliver care through technology (e.g., telehealth present the need and the opportunity to practice across state borders. Over the past four years, the Federation of State Boards of Physical Therapy (FSBPT has explored professional licensure models that will allow cross border practice. This paper reviews FSBPT's exploratory process and describes some of the advantages of an interstate compact. It concludes that if agreement among state licensing boards can be achieved, a compact could serve as a viable means to increase patient access to quality physical therapy care. 

  6. Khan's lectures handbook of the physics of radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Faiz M; Mihailidis, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Khan's Lectures: Handbook of the Physics of Radiation Therapy will provide a digest of the material contained in The Physics of Radiation Therapy. Lectures will be presented somewhat similar to a PowerPoint format, discussing key points of individual chapters. Selected diagrams from the textbook will be used to initiate the discussion. New illustrations will used, wherever needed, to enhance the understanding of important concepts. Discussion will be condensed and often bulleted. Theoretical details will be referred to the textbook and the cited literature. A problem set (practice questions) w

  7. Manual therapy, physical therapy, or continued care by a general practitioner for patients with neck pain. A randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, Jan Lucas; Koes, Bart W.; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; van der Windt, Danielle A. W. M.; Assendelft, Willem J. J.; van Mameren, Henk; Devillé, Walter L. J. M.; Pool, Jan J. M.; Scholten, Rob J. P. M.; Bouter, Lex M.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neck pain is a common problem, but the effectiveness of frequently applied conservative therapies has never been directly compared. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of manual therapy, physical therapy, and continued care by a general practitioner. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled

  8. Manual therapy, physical therapy, or continued care by a general practitioner for patients with neck pain: a randomized, controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, J.L.; Koes, B.W.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Windt, D.A.W.M. van der; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Mameren, H. van; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Pool, J.J.M.; Scholten, R.J.P.M.; Bouter, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neck pain is a common problem, but the effectiveness of frequently applied conservative therapies has never been directly compared. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of manual therapy, physical therapy, and continued care by a general practitioner. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled

  9. A systematic review on reminder systems in physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangi, Majid; Ferandez-de-Las-Penas, Cesar; Tara, Mahmoud; Moghbeli, Fateme; Ghaderi, Fariba; Javanshir, Khodabakhsh

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of physical therapy is to help the patient gain a better health status. Several studies have investigated the use of reminders to prevent such failures on the patients' side. This article presents a systematic review of the literature concerning reminders in physical therapy. Databases were searched until May 2017 and literatures were found from April 1992 until 2017. The literature recruitment strategy was based on applying several keywords and Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) combination running against title and abstract, including concepts such as reminder, physical therapy. The finally selected articles were categorized through reminder aspects such as how, who feedback. Data were extracted according to PRISMA guidelines. In 47% of studies, the reminder was sent to the patients, 29% to the physical therapists and 12% to the caretaker team. In 24% of the studies, paper-based letters were main medium for reminders while the rest were various types of media like emails and SMS mobile text messages. 35% of the articles showed positive effects of the reminders. Many reminder methods consisted of SMS, phone calls, letters, emails and notices on the wall were used in physical therapy. Reminders may be used to improve patients' adherence to exercise programs.

  10. Manual therapy compared with physical therapy in patients with non-specific neck pain : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneweg, Ruud; van Assen, Luite; Kropman, Hans; Leopold, Huco; Mulder, Jan; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C.M.; Ostelo, Raymond W.J.G.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; van Tulder, Maurits W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Manual therapy according to the School of Manual Therapy Utrecht (MTU) is a specific type of passive manual joint mobilization. MTU has not yet been systematically compared to other manual therapies and physical therapy. In this study the effectiveness of MTU is compared to physical

  11. DEGRO practical guidelines for radiotherapy of non-malignant disorders. Part I: physical principles, radiobiological mechanisms, and radiogenic risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichl, Berthold [Hospital Weiden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Weiden (Germany); Block, Andreas [Hospital Dortmund, Institute for Medical Radiation Physics and Radiation Protection, Dortmund (Germany); Schaefer, Ulrich [Lippe Hospital, Dept. of Radiotherapy, Lemgo (Germany); Bert, Christoph; Mueller, Reinhold [University Hospitals Erlangen, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Jung, Horst [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Hamburg (Germany); Roedel, Franz [University Hospital Goethe-University, Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Collaboration: the German Cooperative Group on Radiotherapy for Benign Diseases (GCG-BD)

    2015-09-15

    Synopsis of the introductory paragraph of the DEGRO consensus S2e-guideline recommendations for the radiotherapy of benign disorders, including physical principles, radiobiological mechanisms, and radiogenic risk. This work is based on the S2e-guideline recommendations published November 14, 2013. The basic principles of radiation physics and treatment delivery, evaluation of putative underlying radiobiological mechanisms, and the assessment of genetic and cancer risk following low-dose irradiation will be presented. Radiation therapy of benign diseases is performed according to similar physical principles as those governing treatment of malignant diseases in radiation oncology, using the same techniques and workflows. These methods comprise usage of orthovoltage X-ray units, gamma irradiation facilities, linear accelerators (LINACs), and brachytherapy. Experimental in vitro and in vivo models recently confirmed the clinically observed anti-inflammatory effect of low-dose X-irradiation, and implicated a multitude of radiobiological mechanisms. These include modulation of different immunological pathways, as well as the activities of endothelial cells, mono- and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and macrophages. The use of effective dose for radiogenic risk assessment and the corresponding tumor incidence rate of 5.5 %/Sv are currently controversially discussed. Some authors argue that the risk of radiation-induced cancers should be estimated on the basis of epidemiological data. However, such data are rarely available at present and associated with high variability. Current radiobiological studies clearly demonstrate a therapeutic effectiveness of radiation therapy used to treat benign diseases and implicate various molecular mechanisms. Radiogenic risks should be taken into account when applying radiation treatment for benign diseases. (orig.) [German] Zusammenfassung des einfuehrenden Kapitels der DEGRO-S2e-Leitlinie zur Strahlentherapie gutartiger Erkrankungen

  12. Competency revalidation study of specialty practice in sports physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Edward P; Weber, Mark D; Reinking, Mark F

    2014-12-01

    Every ten years the American Board of Physical Therapy Specialties conducts a practice analysis to revalidate and revise the description of specialty practice for sports physical therapy (SPT). The primary purpose of this paper is to describe the process and results of the most recent analysis, which defines the competencies that distinguish the subspecialty practice of (SPT). Additionally, the study allowed for the comparison of responses of board certified specialists in SPT to respondents who were not specialists while reflecting on demographic changes and evolving trends since the previous analysis of this physical therapy specialty practice was conducted 10 years ago. A survey instrument based on guidelines from the American Board of Physical Therapy Specialties was developed by the Sports Specialty Council (SSC) and a panel of subject matter experts (SME) in SPT to re-evaluate contemporary practice. The instrument was pilot tested and following revisions, was sent to 1780 physical therapists, 930 of whom were board certified specialists in SPT and 850 of whom were randomly selected members of the Sports Physical Therapy Section (SPTS) who were not board certified specialists in SPT. 414 subjects returned completed surveys for a 23% response rate. 235 of the respondents were known to be board certified sports specialists, 120 did not indicate their specialty status, and 35 were non-specialists in SPT. All were members of the SPTS of the American Physical Therapy Association. The survey responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Univariate comparisons were performed using parametric and nonparametric statistical tests in order to evaluate differences between specialist and non-specialist item responses. The survey results were reviewed by the SSC and a panel of SME. Using a defined decision making process, the results were used to determine the competencies that define the specialty practice of SPT. Survey results were also used to develop the SPT

  13. OUTCOME OF PHYSICAL THERAPY IN LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafinë Ibrahimi-Kaçuri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical exercise can be helpful for patients with chronic low back pain to return to work and to normal activities. Application of regular exercise 3-4 a week is the best solution for reducing the pain of back. Low back pain pose significant problem in clinics and public health. It presents one of the main problems with adults, since 70-80% of adults face this problem at least once in their life. The aims of this study is to define: is the obesity one of factors which prolong the healing time in rehabilitation of physical therapy? Materials and Methodology: This study has been conducted in Physiatry Service of the Institution of Occupational Medicine, in a one year timeframe. The total was 101 patients that were employed with Kosovo Energy Corporation (KEK. The study was long-term and retrospective, whereas the material was gathered particularly. The patients were treated with physical therapy in IMP , all of 101 patients have applied physical therapy. Results – from 101 sick individuals from the research, based on the body weight index, 69.3% are classified as non-obese and 30.7% obese. There are no major statistical differences found in comparison between the groups in relation to age, job position, pain localization, sick leave and radiography. With the T-Test we have found a difference with high statistical significance between the average number of applied physical therapy sessions in relation to examined groups (T-Test=2.78, P=0.0065, so, P<0.01. Conclusion: Obesity and age have no direct influence in the back pain, but affects in prolonging healing. Loss of weight helps in treating with physical therapy the sick suffering from ostemuscular problems, also psycho-social factors affect in prolonging the healing process.

  14. Modeling mammary organogenesis from biological first principles: Cells and their physical constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montévil, Maël; Speroni, Lucia; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2016-10-01

    In multicellular organisms, relations among parts and between parts and the whole are contextual and interdependent. These organisms and their cells are ontogenetically linked: an organism starts as a cell that divides producing non-identical cells, which organize in tri-dimensional patterns. These association patterns and cells types change as tissues and organs are formed. This contextuality and circularity makes it difficult to establish detailed cause and effect relationships. Here we propose an approach to overcome these intrinsic difficulties by combining the use of two models; 1) an experimental one that employs 3D culture technology to obtain the structures of the mammary gland, namely, ducts and acini, and 2) a mathematical model based on biological principles. The typical approach for mathematical modeling in biology is to apply mathematical tools and concepts developed originally in physics or computer sciences. Instead, we propose to construct a mathematical model based on proper biological principles. Specifically, we use principles identified as fundamental for the elaboration of a theory of organisms, namely i) the default state of cell proliferation with variation and motility and ii) the principle of organization by closure of constraints. This model has a biological component, the cells, and a physical component, a matrix which contains collagen fibers. Cells display agency and move and proliferate unless constrained; they exert mechanical forces that i) act on collagen fibers and ii) on other cells. As fibers organize, they constrain the cells on their ability to move and to proliferate. The model exhibits a circularity that can be interpreted in terms of closure of constraints. Implementing the mathematical model shows that constraints to the default state are sufficient to explain ductal and acinar formation, and points to a target of future research, namely, to inhibitors of cell proliferation and motility generated by the epithelial cells

  15. [Physical therapy in pediatric primary care: a review of experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Miriam Ribeiro Calheiros; Thomazinho, Paula de Almeida; Santos, Fabiano Luiz; Cavalcanti, Nicolette Celani; Ribeiro, Carla Trevisan Martins; Negreiros, Maria Fernanda Vieira; Vinhaes, Marcia Regina

    2014-11-01

    To review pediatric physical therapy experiences described in the literature and to analyze the production of knowledge on physical therapy in the context of pediatric primary health care (PPHC). A systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA criteria. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane; Brazilian Ministry of Health's CAPES doctoral dissertations database; and System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (SIGLE). The following search terms were used: ["primary health care" and ("physical therapy" or "physiotherapy") and ("child" or "infant")] and equivalent terms in Portuguese and Spanish, with no restriction on publication year. Thirteen articles from six countries were analyzed and grouped into three main themes: professional dilemmas (three articles), specific competencies and skills required in a PPHC setting (seven articles), and practice reports (four articles). Professional dilemmas involved expanding the role of physical therapists to encompass community environments and sharing the decision-making process with the family, as well as collaborative work with other health services to identify the needs of children. The competencies and skills mentioned in the literature related to the identification of clinical and sociocultural symptoms that go beyond musculoskeletal conditions, the establishment of early physical therapy diagnoses, prevention of overmedication, and the ability to work as team players. Practice reports addressed stimulation in children with neurological diseases, respiratory treatment, and establishing groups with mothers of children with these conditions. The small number of studies identified in this review suggests that there is little knowledge regarding the roles of physical therapists in PPHC and possibly regarding the professional abilities required in this setting. Therefore, further studies are required to provide data on the field, along with a continuing

  16. Impact of Faculty Development on Physical Therapy Professors' Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Zafar, Mueen A.; Roberts, Kellie W.

    2012-01-01

    Physical therapy faculty share similarities with faculty across allied health fields, such as nursing, and other clinical disciplines that educate students in licensing and board certification programs. Most have clinical experience and discipline-based expertise, however they may not have had the benefit of continuous learning aimed at enhancing…

  17. Strength training versus chest physical therapy on pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Children with Down syndrome clinically show a diminished activity limit at all ages due to muscle weakness and respiratory problems. Purpose: To compare the effect of strength exercises to lower limb muscles and effect of chest physical therapy treatment program on pulmonary functions in Down syndrome ...

  18. Virtual Physical Therapy Clinician: Development, Validation and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Clinical reasoning skills develop through repeated practice in realistic patient scenarios. Time constraints, declining availability of clinical education sites and patient safety are some of the factors that limit physical therapy educators' ability to expose students to realistic patient scenarios. Computerized simulations may be…

  19. Human Nature and Research Paradigms: Theory Meets Physical Therapy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plack, Margaret M.

    2005-01-01

    Human nature is a very complex phenomenon. In physical therapy this complexity is enhanced by the need to understand the intersection between the art and science of human behavior and patient care. A paradigm is a set of basic beliefs that represent a worldview, defines the nature of the world and the individual's place in it, and helps to…

  20. Brugada syndrome during physical therapy : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frolke, J.P.M.; Bruggeman, A.W.A.; Klomp, F.P.; Smeets, J.L.R.M.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This case report describes about a young, male patient with persisting syncope during physical therapy for complex regional pain syndrome type 1 after metatarsal fractures. The patient was referred to the Emergency Department, where Brugada syndrome was diagnosed. A cardioverter

  1. Popular physical therapy modalities in the management of whiplash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Popular physical therapy modalities in the management of whiplash-associated disorders. ED Watson, Y Coopoo. Abstract. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine current physiotherapy practice in private clinics across the UK in the management of whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) injuries. Design.

  2. 42 CFR 418.72 - Condition of participation: Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology. 418.72 Section 418.72 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology. Physical therapy services, occupational therapy services, and speech-language pathology services must be available, and when provided, offered in...

  3. Investigating and improving introductory physics students’ understanding of the electric field and superposition principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-09-01

    We discuss an investigation of the difficulties that students in a university introductory physics course have with the electric field and superposition principle and how that research was used as a guide in the development and evaluation of a research-validated tutorial on these topics to help students learn these concepts better. The tutorial uses a guided enquiry-based approach to learning and involved an iterative process of development and evaluation. During its development, we obtained feedback both from physics instructors who regularly teach introductory physics in which these concepts are taught and from students for whom the tutorial is intended. The iterative process continued and the feedback was incorporated in the later versions of the tutorial until the researchers were satisfied with the performance of a diverse group of introductory physics students on the post-test after they worked on the tutorial in an individual one-on-one interview situation. Then the final version of the tutorial was administered in several sections of the university physics course after traditional instruction in relevant concepts. We discuss the performance of students in individual interviews and on the pre-test administered before the tutorial (but after traditional lecture-based instruction) and on the post-test administered after the tutorial. We also compare student performance in sections of the class in which students worked on the tutorial with other similar sections of the class in which students only learned via traditional instruction. We find that students performed significantly better in the sections of the class in which the tutorial was used compared to when students learned the material via only lecture-based instruction.

  4. First-Principles, Physically Motivated Force Field for the Ionic Liquid [BMIM][BF4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsong; McDaniel, Jesse G; Schmidt, J R; Yethiraj, Arun

    2014-08-07

    Molecular simulations play an important role in establishing structure-property relations in complex fluids such as room-temperature ionic liquids. Classical force fields are the starting point when large systems or long times are of interest. These force fields must be not only accurate but also transferable. In this work, we report a physically motivated force field for the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]) based on symmetry-adapted perturbation theory. The predictions (from molecular dynamics simulations) of the liquid density, enthalpy of vaporization, diffusion coefficients, viscosity, and conductivity are in excellent agreement with experiment, with no adjustable parameters. The explicit energy decomposition inherent in the force field enables a quantitative analysis of the important physical interactions in these systems. We find that polarization is crucial and there is little evidence of charge transfer. We also argue that the often used procedure of scaling down charges in molecular simulations of ionic liquids is unphysical for [BMIM][BF4]. Because all intermolecular interactions in the force field are parametrized from first-principles, we anticipate good transferability to other ionic liquid systems and physical conditions.

  5. Basis for spinal manipulative therapy: A physical therapist perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialosky, Joel E.; Simon, Corey B.; Bishop, Mark D.; George, Steven Z.

    2012-01-01

    Physical therapists internationally provide spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) to patients with musculoskeletal pain complaints. SMT has been a part of physical therapist practice since the profession’s beginning. Early physical therapist clinical decision making for SMT was influenced by the approaches of osteopathic and orthopedic physicians at the time. Currently a segmental clinical decision making approach and a responder clinical decision making approach are two of the more common models through which physical therapist clinical use of SMT is directed. The focus of segmental clinical decision making is upon identifying a dysfunctional vertebral segment with the application of SMT to restore mobility and/or alleviate pain. The responder clinical decision making approach attempts to categorize individuals based on a pattern of signs and symptoms suggesting a likely positive response to SMT. The present manuscript provides an overview of common physical therapist clinical decision making approaches to SMT and presents areas requiring further study in order to optimize patient response. PMID:22197083

  6. Applications of the principle of maximum entropy: from physics to ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banavar, Jayanth R; Maritan, Amos; Volkov, Igor

    2010-02-17

    There are numerous situations in physics and other disciplines which can be described at different levels of detail in terms of probability distributions. Such descriptions arise either intrinsically as in quantum mechanics, or because of the vast amount of details necessary for a complete description as, for example, in Brownian motion and in many-body systems. We show that an application of the principle of maximum entropy for estimating the underlying probability distribution can depend on the variables used for describing the system. The choice of characterization of the system carries with it implicit assumptions about fundamental attributes such as whether the system is classical or quantum mechanical or equivalently whether the individuals are distinguishable or indistinguishable. We show that the correct procedure entails the maximization of the relative entropy subject to known constraints and, additionally, requires knowledge of the behavior of the system in the absence of these constraints. We present an application of the principle of maximum entropy to understanding species diversity in ecology and introduce a new statistical ensemble corresponding to the distribution of a variable population of individuals into a set of species not defined a priori.

  7. Predicting Success: A Study of Admission Processes and Passing the National Physical Therapy Examination for Physical Therapist Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaab, Kathryn R.

    2013-01-01

    In order to practice physical therapy, physical therapist assistants (PTAs) must graduate from an accredited academic program and pass the National Physical Therapy Examination for Physical Therapist Assistants (PTA-NPTE). The primary objective of academic programs is to prepare students to successfully complete these two milestones to become…

  8. Methods of Celestial Mechanics Volume I: Physical, Mathematical, and Numerical Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    G. Beutler's Methods of Celestial Mechanics is a coherent textbook for students in physics, mathematics and engineering as well as an excellent reference for practitioners. This Volume I gives a thorough treatment of celestial mechanics and presents all the necessary mathematical details that a professional would need. After a brief review of the history of celestial mechanics, the equations of motion (Newtonian and relativistic versions) are developed for planetary systems (N-body-problem), for artificial Earth satellites, and for extended bodies (which includes the problem of Earth and lunar rotation). Perturbation theory is outlined in an elementary way from generally known mathematical principles without making use of the advanced tools of analytical mechanics. The variational equations associated with orbital motion - of fundamental importance for parameter estimation (e.g., orbit determination), numerical error propagation, and stability considerations - are introduced and their properties discussed in ...

  9. Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound: Physical Principles and Principal Applications in Neurocritical Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Andrea, Antonello; Conte, Marianna; Scarafile, Raffaella; Riegler, Lucia; Cocchia, Rosangela; Pezzullo, Enrica; Cavallaro, Massimo; Carbone, Andreina; Natale, Francesco; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Gregorio, Giovanni; Calabrò, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography is a noninvasive ultrasound study, which has been extensively applied on both outpatient and inpatient settings. It involves the use of a low-frequency (≤2 MHz) transducer, placed on the scalp, to insonate the basal cerebral arteries through relatively thin bone windows and to measure the cerebral blood flow velocity and its alteration in many different conditions. In neurointensive care setting, TCD is useful for both adults and children for day-to-day bedside assessment of critical conditions including vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, acute ischemic stroke, and brain stem death. It also allows to investigate the cerebrovascular autoregulation in setting of carotid disease and syncope. In this review, we will describe physical principles underlying TCD, flow indices most frequently used in clinical practice and critical care applications in Neurocritical Unit care. PMID:28465958

  10. Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound: Physical Principles and Principal Applications in Neurocritical Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Antonello; Conte, Marianna; Scarafile, Raffaella; Riegler, Lucia; Cocchia, Rosangela; Pezzullo, Enrica; Cavallaro, Massimo; Carbone, Andreina; Natale, Francesco; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Gregorio, Giovanni; Calabrò, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography is a noninvasive ultrasound study, which has been extensively applied on both outpatient and inpatient settings. It involves the use of a low-frequency (≤2 MHz) transducer, placed on the scalp, to insonate the basal cerebral arteries through relatively thin bone windows and to measure the cerebral blood flow velocity and its alteration in many different conditions. In neurointensive care setting, TCD is useful for both adults and children for day-to-day bedside assessment of critical conditions including vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, acute ischemic stroke, and brain stem death. It also allows to investigate the cerebrovascular autoregulation in setting of carotid disease and syncope. In this review, we will describe physical principles underlying TCD, flow indices most frequently used in clinical practice and critical care applications in Neurocritical Unit care.

  11. Short-term efficacy of physical therapy compared to splint therapy in treatment of arthrogenous TMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, F; Demling, A; Hessling, K; Fink, M; Stiesch-Scholz, M

    2007-11-01

    A prospective randomized study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of physical therapy in addition to splint therapy on treatment outcome in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) with respect to objective and subjective parameters. Twenty-six patients suffering from an arthrogenic TMD and exhibiting a painfully restricted jaw opening were randomized in two groups. Thirteen patients were treated solely with Michigan splint (group I), 13 patients received supplementary physical therapy (group II). Before treatment a clinical examination and electronic recording of jaw movements were performed and subjective pain level was evaluated by visual analogue scales. After 3 months of therapy maintenance of improvement was evaluated. Within treatment groups comparison of data before and after treatment was analysed using Wilcoxon test. Groups were compared by Mann-Withney-U test. A P-value treatment, whereas subjective pain decreased significantly (P treatment outcome of patients with TMD.

  12. Production cost structure in US outpatient physical therapy health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubiani, Gregory G; Okunade, Albert A

    2013-02-01

    This paper investigates the technology cost structure in US physical therapy care. We exploit formal economic theories and a rich national data of providers to tease out implications for operational cost efficiencies. The 2008-2009 dataset comprising over 19 000 bi-weekly, site-specific physical therapy center observations across 28 US states and Occupational Employment Statistics data (Bureau of Labor Statistics) includes measures of output, three labor types (clinical, support, and administrative), and facilities (capital). We discuss findings from the iterative seemingly unrelated regression estimation system model. The generalized translog cost estimates indicate a well-behaved underlying technology structure. We also find the following: (i) factor demands are downwardly sloped; (ii) pair-wise factor relationships largely reflect substitutions; (iii) factor demand for physical therapists is more inelastic compared with that for administrative staff; and (iv) diminishing scale economies exist at the 25%, 50%, and 75% output (patient visits) levels. Our findings advance the timely economic understanding of operations in an increasingly important segment of the medical care sector that has, up-to-now (because of data paucity), been missing from healthcare efficiency analysis. Our work further provides baseline estimates for comparing operational efficiencies in physical therapy care after implementations of the 2010 US healthcare reforms. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. [Clinical nutrition therapy in patients with short bowel syndrome in line with principles of personalized medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Péter; Molnár, Andrea; Varga, Mária; Bíró, Ilona; Kőmíves, Csilla; Fejér, Csaba; Futó, Judit; Tomsits, Erika; Topa, Lajos

    2014-12-21

    Home parenteral nutrition administered in selected care centres has been financed in Hungary since January, 2013. The authors discuss diagnostic issues, treatment and nutrition therapy of short bowel syndrome patients in line with the principles of personalised medicine. The most severe form of short bowel syndrome occurs in patients having jejunostomy, whose treatment is discussed separately. The authors give a detailed overview of home parenteral feeding, its possible complications, outcomes and adaptation of the remaining bowel. They describe how their own care centre operates where they administer home parenteral nutrition to 12 patients with short bowel syndrome (5 females and 7 males aged 51.25±14.4 years). The body mass index was 19.07±5.08 kg/m2 and 20.87±3.3 kg/m2, skeletal muscle mass was 25.7±6.3 kg and 26.45±5.38 kg, and body fat mass was 14.25±8.55 kg and 11.77±2.71 kg at the start of home parenteral nutrition and presently, respectively. The underlying conditions of short bowel syndrome were tumours in 4 patients, bowel ischaemia in four patients, surgical complications in three patients, Crohn's disease in one patient, and Crohn's disease plus tumour in one patient.

  14. Innovative physical therapy practice: a qualitative verification of factors that support diffusion of innovation in outpatient physical therapy practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabus C

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carla Sabus,1 Ellen Spake2 1Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 2Rockhurst University, Kansas City, MO, USA Background and purpose: New ideas, methods, and technologies spread through cultures through typical patterns described by diffusion of innovation (DOI theory. Professional cultures, including the physical therapy profession, have distinctive features and traditions that determine the adoption of practice innovation. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR proposes a framework of innovation implementation specific to health care services. While the CFIR has been applied to medical and nursing practice, it has not been extended to rehabilitation professions. The purpose of this qualitative study was to verify the CFIR factors in outpatient physical therapy practice.Design: Through a nomination process of area rehabilitation managers and area directors of clinical education, 2 exemplar, outpatient, privately owned physical therapy clinics were identified as innovation practices. A total of 18 physical therapists (PTs, including 3 owners and a manager, participated in the study.Methods: The 2 clinics served as case studies within a qualitative approach of directed content analysis. Data were collected through observation, spontaneous, unstructured questioning, ­workflow analysis, structured focus group sessions, and artifact analysis including clinical documents. Focus group data were transcribed. All the data were analyzed and coded among 4 investigators.Results: Through data analysis and alignment with literature in DOI theory in health care practice, the factors that determine innovation adoption were verified. The phenomena of implementation in PT practice are largely consistent with models of implementation in health care service. Within the outpatient practices studied, patient-centered care and collaborative learning were foundational

  15. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a) Physical... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. 440.110 Section 440.110 Public...

  16. The 1979 Presidential Address. American Physical Therapy Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R C

    1979-11-01

    As I close this address, I do so with a certain sense of sadness about leaving a leadership team in a very exciting time of our professional history. I retire from this office with great faith in the leadership that will follow and with the optimism that the future will hold numerous excitements for our profession. The motivation and interactions that you have provided have caused me to dream of physical therapy in a manner I could have never envisioned on my own. Oh, how I thank you for the pleasures I have derived! I hope my remarks of today will serve to stimulate your dreams, your goals, inasmuch as the combination of our dreams and goals will bring greater fulfillment to the profession of physical therapy in the years that lie ahead.

  17. Physical therapy for Bell s palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Lázaro Juliano; Soares, Bernardo Garcia de Oliveira; Vieira, Vanessa Pedrosa; Prado, Gilmar F

    2008-07-16

    Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis) is commonly treated by physical therapy services with various therapeutic strategies and devices. There are many questions about their efficacy and effectiveness. To evaluate the efficacy of physical therapies on the outcome of Bell's palsy. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Trials Register (February 2008), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2007), MEDLINE (January 1966 to February 2008), EMBASE (January 1980 to February 2008), LILACS (January 1982 to February 2008), PEDro (from 1929 to February 2008), and CINAHL (January 1982 to February 2008). We selected randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials involving any physical therapy. We included participants of any age with a diagnosis of Bell's palsy and all degrees of severity. The outcome measures were: incomplete recovery six months after randomisation, motor synkinesis, crocodile tears or facial spasm six months after onset, incomplete recovery after one year and adverse effects attributable to the intervention. Titles and abstracts identified from the register were scrutinized. The assessment of methodological quality took into account secure method of randomisation, allocation concealment, observer blinding, patient blinding, differences at baseline of the experimental groups, and completeness of follow-up. Data were extracted using a specially constructed data extraction form. Separate subgroup analyses of participants with more and less severe disability were undertaken. The search identified 45 potentially relevant articles. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Three trials studied the efficacy of electrostimulation (294 participants) and three exercises (253 participants). Neither treatment produced significantly more improvement than the control treatment or no treatment. There was limited evidence that improvement began earlier in the exercise group. There is no evidence of significant

  18. Nanotechnology in hyperthermia cancer therapy: From fundamental principles to advanced applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beik, Jaber; Abed, Ziaeddin; Ghoreishi, Fatemeh S; Hosseini-Nami, Samira; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Shakeri-Zadeh, Ali; Kamrava, S Kamran

    2016-08-10

    In this work, we present an in-depth review of recent breakthroughs in nanotechnology for hyperthermia cancer therapy. Conventional hyperthermia methods do not thermally discriminate between the target and the surrounding normal tissues, and this non-selective tissue heating can lead to serious side effects. Nanotechnology is expected to have great potential to revolutionize current hyperthermia methods. To find an appropriate place in cancer treatment, all nanotechnology-based hyperthermia methods and their risks/benefits must be thoroughly understood. In this review paper, we extensively examine and compare four modern nanotechnology-based hyperthermia methods. For each method, the possible physical mechanisms of heat generation and enhancement due to the presence of nanoparticles are explained, and recent in vitro and in vivo studies are reviewed and discussed. Nano-Photo-Thermal Therapy (NPTT) and Nano-Magnetic Hyperthermia (NMH) are reviewed as the two first exciting approaches for targeted hyperthermia. The third novel hyperthermia method, Nano-Radio-Frequency Ablation (NaRFA) is discussed together with the thermal effects of novel nanoparticles in the presence of radiofrequency waves. Finally, Nano-Ultrasound Hyperthermia (NUH) is described as the fourth modern method for cancer hyperthermia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Two-dimensional models as testing ground for principles and concepts of local quantum physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [FU Berlin (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik

    2005-04-15

    In the past two-dimensional models of QFT have served as theoretical laboratories for testing new concepts under mathematically controllable condition. In more recent times low-dimensional models (e.g. chiral models, factoring models) often have been treated by special recipes in a way which sometimes led to a loss of unity of QFT. In the present work I try to counteract this apartheid tendency by reviewing past results within the setting of the general principles of QFT. To this I add two new ideas: (1) a modular interpretation of the chiral model Diff(S)-covariance with a close connection to the recently formulated local covariance principle for QFT in curved spacetime and (2) a derivation of the chiral model temperature duality from a suitable operator formulation of the angular Wick rotation (in analogy to the Nelson-Symanzik duality in the Ostertwalder-Schrader setting) for rational chiral theories. The SL(2,Z) modular Verlinde relation is a special case of this thermal duality and (within the family of rational models) the matrix S appearing in the thermal duality relation becomes identified with the statistics character matrix S. The relevant angular 'Euclideanization' is done in the setting of the Tomita-Takesaki modular formalism of operator algebras. I find it appropriate to dedicate this work to the memory of J. A. Swieca with whom I shared the interest in two-dimensional models as a testing ground for QFT for more than one decade. This is a significantly extended version of an 'Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics' contribution hep-th/0502125. (author)

  20. A content analysis of stroke physical therapy intervention using stroke physiotherapy intervention recording tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cho, Hyuk-shin; Cha, Hyun-gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical therapy for recovery of function in people with stroke is known to be effective, but which type of physical therapy intervention is most effective is uncertain because a concrete...

  1. Response to pediatric physical therapy in infants with positional preference and skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Pelsma, M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.; IJzerman, M.J.; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pediatric physical therapy seems to reduce skull deformation in infants with positional preference. However, not all infants show improvement. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to determine which infant and parent characteristics were related to responses to pediatric physical therapy

  2. Physical Therapy to Treat Torn Meniscus Comparable to Surgery for Many Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Room Spotlight on Research Spotlight on Research Physical Therapy to Treat Torn Meniscus Comparable to Surgery for ... to avoid surgery and achieve comparable relief from physical therapy, according to a recent, multisite study funded by ...

  3. IMPROVING FUNCTIONAL INDEPENDENCE OF PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS BY PHYSICAL THERAPY AND OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Ticărat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with multiple sclerosis can have a normal life despite of their real or possible disability and of the progressive nature of it. Scope. Patients who follow physical therapy and occupational therapy will have an increased quality of life and a greater functional independence.Methods. The randomized study was made on 7 patients with multiple sclerosis, from Oradea Day Centre, 3 times/week, ages between 35 – 55 years, functional level between mild and sever. Assessment and rehabilitation methods: inspection, BARTHEL Index. Frenkel method, brething exercises, weights exercises, gait exercises, writind exercises and games were used in the rehabilitation process. Group therapies: sociotherapy, arttherapy, music therapy. Results analysis consisted of the comparison of baseline and final means.Results. By analizing baseline and final means for Barthel Index for each functon separately, it was shown a mild improvement of functional independence for almost assessed functions, with at least 1-1,5 points.Conclusions. Persons with multiple sclerosis who follow physical therapy and occupational therapy presents a better functional independence after the treatment.

  4. Physical principles and current status of emerging non-volatile solid state memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Yang, C.-H.; Wen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Today the influence of non-volatile solid-state memories on persons' lives has become more prominent because of their non-volatility, low data latency, and high robustness. As a pioneering technology that is representative of non-volatile solidstate memories, flash memory has recently seen widespread application in many areas ranging from electronic appliances, such as cell phones and digital cameras, to external storage devices such as universal serial bus (USB) memory. Moreover, owing to its large storage capacity, it is expected that in the near future, flash memory will replace hard-disk drives as a dominant technology in the mass storage market, especially because of recently emerging solid-state drives. However, the rapid growth of the global digital data has led to the need for flash memories to have larger storage capacity, thus requiring a further downscaling of the cell size. Such a miniaturization is expected to be extremely difficult because of the well-known scaling limit of flash memories. It is therefore necessary to either explore innovative technologies that can extend the areal density of flash memories beyond the scaling limits, or to vigorously develop alternative non-volatile solid-state memories including ferroelectric random-access memory, magnetoresistive random-access memory, phase-change random-access memory, and resistive random-access memory. In this paper, we review the physical principles of flash memories and their technical challenges that affect our ability to enhance the storage capacity. We then present a detailed discussion of novel technologies that can extend the storage density of flash memories beyond the commonly accepted limits. In each case, we subsequently discuss the physical principles of these new types of non-volatile solid-state memories as well as their respective merits and weakness when utilized for data storage applications. Finally, we predict the future prospects for the aforementioned solid-state memories for

  5. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Physical Therapist Assistant (CIP: 51.0806--Physical Therapy Assistant). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the physical therapy assistant program. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies, and section…

  6. Comparison of efficacy of neural therapy and physical therapy in chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Nilgun Simsir; Sahin, Fusun; Atalay, Ali; Akkaya, Nuray

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of neural therapy, and physical therapy on level of pain, disability, quality of life, and psychological status in patients with chronic low back pain. Patients admitted to the physical therapy and rehabilitation outpatient clinic with the complaint of low back pain of at least 3 months duration. Group 1 (n=27), physical therapy (PT, hotpack, ultrasound, TENS 15 sessions), group 2 (n=33), neural therapy (NT, 1:1 mixture of 20 mg/mL Lidocaine HCl (Jetokain simplex®) and saline for 5 sessions. For pain, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), for disability Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), for quality-of-life Nottingham-Health-Profile (NHP), for depression, and anxiety, Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale (HADS) were used before and after the treatment. Mean age was 47.3±11.32 years, symptom time was 13.78±11.98 months. There were no differences for demographic variables between groups. Significant improvements were detected for VAS, RMDQ, NHP-Pain, NHP-Physical activity, HADS for both of two groups after treatment. In addition to these findings, significant improvements were found for NHP-Energy, NHP-Social isolation in NT group. The differences of pre- and post-treatment values of parameters were evaluated for each group. Although there were no differences for VAS, NHP-sleep, NHP-Emotional reaction, HADS between groups, RMDQ, NHP-Pain, NHP-Physical activity, NHP-Social isolation were higher in NT than PT before treatment, the improvements for these parameters were better in NT than PT. In conclusion both of NT and PT are effective on pain, function, quality of life, anxiety, and depression in patients with chronic low back pain.

  7. Bibliometric analysis of articles published from 1980 to 2009 in Physical Therapy, journal of the American Physical Therapy Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Rogelio A; Riddle, Daniel L; Wurtzel, Wendy A; George, Steven Z

    2011-05-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates growth in both the quality and quantity of evidence in physical therapy. Much of this work has focused on randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive bibliometric assessment of Physical Therapy (PTJ) over the past 30 years to examine trends for all types of studies. This was a bibliometric analysis. All manuscripts published in PTJ from 1980 to 2009 were reviewed. Research reports, topical reviews (including perspectives and nonsystematic reviews), and case reports were included. Articles were coded based on type, participant characteristics, physical therapy focus, research design, purpose of article, clinical condition, and intervention. Coding was performed by 2 independent reviewers, and author, institution, and citation information was obtained using bibliometric software. Of the 4,385 publications identified, 2,519 were included in this analysis. Of these, 67.1% were research reports, 23.0% were topical reviews, and 9.9% were case reports. Percentage increases over the past 30 years were observed for research reports, inclusion of "symptomatic" participants (defined as humans with a current symptomatic condition), systematic reviews, qualitative studies, prospective studies, and articles focused on prognosis, diagnosis, or metric topics. Percentage decreases were observed for topical reviews, inclusion of only "asymptomatic" participants (defined as humans without a current symptomatic condition), education articles, nonsystematic reviews, and articles focused on anatomy/physiology. Quality assessment of articles was not performed. These trends provide an indirect indication of the evolution of the physical therapy profession through the publication record in PTJ. Collectively, the data indicated an increased emphasis on publishing articles consistent with evidence-based practice and clinically based research. Bibliometric analyses indicated the most frequent

  8. A Novel Physical Sensing Principle for Liquid Characterization Using Paper-Based Hygro-Mechanical Systems (PB-HMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cruz, Angel; Stiharu, Ion; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio

    2017-07-20

    In recent years paper-based microfluidic systems have emerged as versatile tools for developing sensors in different areas. In this work; we report a novel physical sensing principle for the characterization of liquids using a paper-based hygro-mechanical system (PB-HMS). The PB-HMS is formed by the interaction of liquid droplets and paper-based mini-structures such as cantilever beams. The proposed principle takes advantage of the hygroscopic properties of paper to produce hygro-mechanical motion. The dynamic response of the PB-HMS reveals information about the tested liquid that can be applied to characterize certain properties of liquids. A suggested method to characterize liquids by means of the proposed principle is introduced. The experimental results show the feasibility of such a method. It is expected that the proposed principle may be applied to sense properties of liquids in different applications where both disposability and portability are of extreme importance.

  9. Update on behavioral and physical therapies for incontinence and overactive bladder: the role of pelvic floor muscle training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Kathryn L

    2013-10-01

    Behavioral and physical therapies have been used for many years to treat incontinence and overactive bladder (OAB). This paper focuses on programs that include pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) as a component in treatment for women or men. PFMT was long used almost exclusively for treatment of stress incontinence. When it became evident that voluntary pelvic floor muscle contraction can be used to control bladder function, PFMT was also integrated into the treatment of urge incontinence and OAB as part of a broader behavioral urge suppression strategy. PFMT has evolved over decades, both as a behavioral therapy and a physical therapy, combining principles from behavioral science, nursing, and muscle physiology into a widely recommended conservative treatment. The collective literature indicates that PFMT is effective for incontinence, as well as urgency, frequency, and nocturia. It can be combined with all other treatment modalities and holds potential for prevention of bladder symptoms.

  10. Conventional physical therapy and physical therapy based on reflex stimulation showed similar results in children with myelomeningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Y. P. Aizawa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We aimed to investigate whether infants with myelomeningocele would improve their motor ability and functional independence after ten sessions of physical therapy and compare the outcomes of conventional physical therapy (CPT to a physical therapy program based on reflex stimulation (RPT. Twelve children were allocated to CPT (n = 6, age 18.3 months or RPT (n = 6, age 18.2 months. The RPT involved proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation. Children were assessed with the Gross Motor Function Measure and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory before and after treatment. Mann-Whitney tests compared the improvement on the two scales of CPT versus RPT and the Wilcoxon test compared CPT to RPT (before vs. after treatment. Possible correlations between the two scales were tested with Spearman correlation coefficients. Both groups showed improvement on self-care and mobility domains of both scales. There were no differences between the groups, before, or after intervention. The CPT and RPT showed similar results after ten weeks of treatment.

  11. 21 CFR 890.5880 - Multi-function physical therapy table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multi-function physical therapy table. 890.5880 Section 890.5880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-function physical therapy table. (a) Identification. A multi-function physical therapy table is a device...

  12. Maximizing children’s physical activity using the LET US Play principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazendale, Keith; Chandler, Jessica L.; Beets, Michael W.; Weaver, Robert G.; Beighle, Aaron; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Moore, Justin B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Staff in settings that care for children struggle to implement standards designed to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), suggesting a need for effective strategies to maximize the amount of time children spend in MVPA during scheduled PA opportunities. The purpose of this study was to compare the MVPA children accumulate during commonly played games delivered in their traditional format versus games modified according to the LET US Play principles. Methods Children (K-5th) participated in 1-hour PA sessions delivered on non-consecutive days (summer 2014). Using a randomized, counterbalanced design, one of six games was played for 20min using either traditional rules or LET US Play followed by the other strategy with a 10min break in between. Physical activity was measured via accelerometry. Repeated-measures, mixed-effects regression models were used to estimate differences in percent of time spent sedentary and in MVPA. Results A total of 267 children (age 7.5 yrs, 43% female, 29% African American) participated in 50, 1-hour activity sessions. Games incorporating LET US Play elicited more MVPA from both boys and girls compared to the same games with traditional rules. For boys and girls, the largest MVPA difference occurred during tag games (+20.3%). The largest reduction in the percent of time sedentary occurred during tag games (boys −27.7%, girls −32.4%). Overall, the percentage of children meeting 50% time in MVPA increased in four games (+18.7% to +53.1%). Conclusion LET US Play led to greater accumulation of MVPA for boys and girls, and can increase the percent of children attaining the 50% of time in MVPA standard. PMID:25862947

  13. Progress in sensorimotor rehabilitative physical therapy programs for stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Ching; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2014-08-16

    Impaired motor and functional activity following stroke often has negative impacts on the patient, the family and society. The available rehabilitation programs for stroke patients are reviewed. Conventional rehabilitation strategies (Bobath, Brunnstrom, proprioception neuromuscular facilitation, motor relearning and function-based principles) are the mainstream tactics in clinical practices. Numerous advanced strategies for sensory-motor functional enhancement, including electrical stimulation, electromyographic biofeedback, constraint-induced movement therapy, robotics-aided systems, virtual reality, intermittent compression, partial body weight supported treadmill training and thermal stimulation, are being developed and incorporated into conventional rehabilitation programs. The concept of combining valuable rehabilitative procedures into "a training package", based on the patient's functional status during different recovery phases after stroke is proposed. Integrated sensorimotor rehabilitation programs with appropriate temporal arrangements might provide great functional benefits for stroke patients.

  14. Progress in sensorimotor rehabilitative physical therapy programs for stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Ching; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2014-01-01

    Impaired motor and functional activity following stroke often has negative impacts on the patient, the family and society. The available rehabilitation programs for stroke patients are reviewed. Conventional rehabilitation strategies (Bobath, Brunnstrom, proprioception neuromuscular facilitation, motor relearning and function-based principles) are the mainstream tactics in clinical practices. Numerous advanced strategies for sensory-motor functional enhancement, including electrical stimulation, electromyographic biofeedback, constraint-induced movement therapy, robotics-aided systems, virtual reality, intermittent compression, partial body weight supported treadmill training and thermal stimulation, are being developed and incorporated into conventional rehabilitation programs. The concept of combining valuable rehabilitative procedures into “a training package”, based on the patient’s functional status during different recovery phases after stroke is proposed. Integrated sensorimotor rehabilitation programs with appropriate temporal arrangements might provide great functional benefits for stroke patients. PMID:25133141

  15. The principle and physical models of novel jetting dispenser with giant magnetostrictive and a magnifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Li, J H; Duan, J A; Deng, G L

    2015-12-16

    In order to develop jetting technologies of glue in LED and microelectronics packaging, giant-magnetostrictive-material (GMM) is firstly applied to increase jetting response, and a new magnifying device including a lever and a flexible hinge is designed to improve jetting characteristics. Physical models of the jetting system are derived from the magnifying structure and working principle, which involves circuit model, electro-magneto-displacement model, dynamic model and fluid-solid coupling model. The system model is established by combining mathematical models with Matlab-Simulink. The effectiveness of the GMM-based dispenser is confirmed by simulation and experiments. The jetting frequency significantly increases to 250 Hz, and dynamic behaviors jetting needle are evaluated that the velocity and displacement of the jetting needle reaches to 320 mm•s-1 and 0.11 mm respectively. With the increasing of the filling pressure or the amplitude of the current, the dot size will become larger. The dot size and working frequency can be easily adjusted.

  16. Efficiencies and Physical Principles of Various Solar Energy Conversion Processes Leading to the Photolysis of Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergene, T.

    1995-12-31

    In the application of solar energy, hydrogen is likely to be used as an energy carrier and a storage medium. Production of molecular hydrogen and oxygen from water requires energy input, which may come from solar energy in various ways. This thesis begins with a literature survey of the different conversion processes and the efficiencies, which is an introduction to a series of enclosed papers. These papers are: (1) Trapping of Minority Charge Carriers at Irradiated Semiconductor/Electrolyte Heterojunctions, (2) Model Calculations on Flat-Plate Solar Heat Collector With Integrated Solar Cells, and (3) Efficiencies and Physical Principles of Photolysis of Water By Microalgae. In the papers, The qualitative features of the ``illumination-current``-characteristic curve are deduced. The hypothesis is that trapping originates in some specific cases because of confinement, which leads to charge injections into energy states above that corresponding to the band edge. The quantitative features of certain hybrid photovoltaic/thermal configuration are deduced. An analysis of the theoretical and realizable efficiencies of the photolysis of water by micro algae is given. 151 refs., 18 figs., 1 table

  17. Physical principles of fluid-mediated insect attachment - Shouldn’t insects slip?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Henning Dirks

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Insects use either hairy or smooth adhesive pads to safely adhere to various kinds of surfaces. Although the two types of adhesive pads are morphologically different, they both form contact with the substrate via a thin layer of adhesive fluid. To model adhesion and friction forces generated by insect footpads often a simple “wet adhesion” model is used, in which two flat undeformable substrates are separated by a continuous layer of fluid. This review summarizes the key physical and tribological principles that determine the adhesion and friction in such a model. Interestingly, such a simple wet-adhesion model falls short in explaining several features of insect adhesion. For example, it cannot predict the observed high static friction forces of the insects, which enable them to cling to vertical smooth substrates without sliding. When taking a closer look at the “classic” attachment model, one can see that it is based on several simplifications, such as rigid surfaces or continuous layers of Newtonian fluids. Recent experiments show that these assumptions are not valid in many cases of insect adhesion. Future tribological models for insect adhesion thus need to incorporate deformable adhesive pads, non-Newtonian properties of the adhesive fluid and/or partially “dry” or solid-like contact between the pad and the substrate.

  18. Physical principles of fluid-mediated insect attachment - Shouldn't insects slip?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Jan-Henning

    2014-01-01

    Insects use either hairy or smooth adhesive pads to safely adhere to various kinds of surfaces. Although the two types of adhesive pads are morphologically different, they both form contact with the substrate via a thin layer of adhesive fluid. To model adhesion and friction forces generated by insect footpads often a simple "wet adhesion" model is used, in which two flat undeformable substrates are separated by a continuous layer of fluid. This review summarizes the key physical and tribological principles that determine the adhesion and friction in such a model. Interestingly, such a simple wet-adhesion model falls short in explaining several features of insect adhesion. For example, it cannot predict the observed high static friction forces of the insects, which enable them to cling to vertical smooth substrates without sliding. When taking a closer look at the "classic" attachment model, one can see that it is based on several simplifications, such as rigid surfaces or continuous layers of Newtonian fluids. Recent experiments show that these assumptions are not valid in many cases of insect adhesion. Future tribological models for insect adhesion thus need to incorporate deformable adhesive pads, non-Newtonian properties of the adhesive fluid and/or partially "dry" or solid-like contact between the pad and the substrate.

  19. Physical Properties of Superhard Diamond-Like BC5 from a First-Principles Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Irem O.; Ciftci, Yasemin O.

    2018-01-01

    The first-principles calculations are carried out to investigate the structural, elastic, electronic, optical, vibrational and thermodynamic properties of superhard diamond-like BC5 (d-BC5). The structural stability of BC5 is examined for previously proposed and several probable phases including F-43m, P6/mmm, Cmcm, Pnma, P-1, P3m1, Imm2, I-4m2 and Pmma. The most energetically stable phase is predicted to be Pmma. Computed bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, elastic constant C 44 and theoretical Vickers hardness H confirm that BC5 is an ultra-incompressible and superhard material. The electronic character analysis reveals the metallicity of BC5, indicating that a strong covalent bond network through sp 3 hybridization is the origin of its excellent mechanical properties. However, P-1 is found to be dynamically stable, contrary to the other study. Therefore, the phonon, thermodynamic and electronic properties of P-1 which are not available in the literature are discussed. The calculated physical parameters are in good agreement with the theoretical and experimental results. This work is expected to provide a useful guide for designing novel boride materials having superior mechanical performance.

  20. Physical Properties of Superhard Diamond-Like BC5 from a First-Principles Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Irem O.; Ciftci, Yasemin O.

    2017-09-01

    The first-principles calculations are carried out to investigate the structural, elastic, electronic, optical, vibrational and thermodynamic properties of superhard diamond-like BC5 (d-BC5). The structural stability of BC5 is examined for previously proposed and several probable phases including F-43m, P6/mmm, Cmcm, Pnma, P-1, P3m1, Imm2, I-4m2 and Pmma. The most energetically stable phase is predicted to be Pmma. Computed bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, elastic constant C 44 and theoretical Vickers hardness H confirm that BC5 is an ultra-incompressible and superhard material. The electronic character analysis reveals the metallicity of BC5, indicating that a strong covalent bond network through sp 3 hybridization is the origin of its excellent mechanical properties. However, P-1 is found to be dynamically stable, contrary to the other study. Therefore, the phonon, thermodynamic and electronic properties of P-1 which are not available in the literature are discussed. The calculated physical parameters are in good agreement with the theoretical and experimental results. This work is expected to provide a useful guide for designing novel boride materials having superior mechanical performance.

  1. Clinical Prediction Rules for Physical Therapy Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneciuk, Jason M; Bishop, Mark D; George, Steven Z

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) involving physical therapy interventions have been published recently. The quality of the studies used to develop the CPRs was not previously considered, a fact that has potential implications for clinical applications and future research. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the quality of published CPRs developed for physical therapy interventions. Methods: Relevant databases were searched up to June 2008. Studies were included in this review if the explicit purpose was to develop a CPR for conditions commonly treated by physical therapists. Validated CPRs were excluded from this review. Study quality was independently determined by 3 reviewers using standard 18-item criteria for assessing the methodological quality of prognostic studies. Percentage of agreement was calculated for each criterion, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined for overall quality scores. Results: Ten studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Percentage of agreement for individual criteria ranged from 90% to 100%, and the ICC for the overall quality score was .73 (95% confidence interval=.27–.92). Criteria commonly not met were adequate description of inclusion or exclusion criteria, inclusion of an inception cohort, adequate follow-up, masked assessments, sufficient sample sizes, and assessments of potential psychosocial factors. Quality scores for individual studies ranged from 48.2% to 74.0%. Discussion and Conclusion: Validation studies are rarely reported in the literature; therefore, CPRs derived from high-quality studies may have the best potential for use in clinical settings. Investigators planning future studies of physical therapy CPRs should consider including inception cohorts, using longer follow-up times, performing masked assessments, recruiting larger sample sizes, and incorporating psychological and psychosocial assessments. PMID:19095806

  2. Use of Physical Therapy for Low Back Pain by Medicaid Enrollees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Julie M; Kim, Jaewhan; Thackeray, Anne; Dorius, Josette

    2015-12-01

    Medicaid insures an increasing proportion of adults in the United States. Physical therapy use for low back pain (LBP) in this population has not been described. The study objectives were: (1) to examine physical therapy use by Medicaid enrollees with new LBP consultations and (2) to evaluate associations with future health care use and LBP-related costs. The study was designed as a retrospective evaluation of claims data. A total of 2,289 patients with new LBP consultations were identified during 2012 (mean age=39.3 years [SD=11.9]; 68.2% women). The settings in which the patients entered care and comorbid conditions were identified. Data obtained at 1 year after entry were examined, and physical therapy use was categorized with regard to entry setting, early use (within 14 days of entry), or delayed use (>14 days after entry). The 1-year follow-up period was evaluated for use outcomes (imaging, injection, surgery, and emergency department visit) and LBP-related costs. Variables associated with physical therapy use and cost outcomes were evaluated with multivariate models. Physical therapy was used by 457 patients (20.0%); 75 (3.3%) entered care in physical therapy, 89 (3.9%) received early physical therapy, and 298 (13.0%) received delayed physical therapy. Physical therapy was more common with chronic pain or obesity comorbidities and less likely with substance use disorders. Entering care in the emergency department decreased the likelihood of physical therapy. Entering care in physical medicine increased the likelihood. Relative to primary care entry, physical therapy entry was associated with lower 1-year costs. A single state was studied. No patient-reported outcomes were included. Physical therapy was used often by Medicaid enrollees with LBP. High rates of comorbidities were evident and associated with physical therapy use. Although few patients entered care in physical therapy, this pattern may be useful for managing costs. © 2015 American Physical

  3. Ergonomic principles and tools for best interdisciplinary psycho-physical stress prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Cason, Dott Luigi

    2012-01-01

    The psycho-physical stress is a risk to all intents and purposes,finally acknowledged, it requires increasing attention. Measures forits protection are reflected in the appropriate application of organizational policies on a human scale, or in respect of the"macro-ergonomics". This work consists on several inter-disciplinary tools available to the proper prevention, outbreaks of work-related stress.During work, adequate rests are important to prevent work related physical and mental fatigue. The strategies for maintaining a healthy balance between work rate and work breaks, may differ depending on the individual, subjective habits and peculiarities related to the work environment. Resting does not necessarily mean "going to break". The break-time is important as the work-time. While the latter is regulated, the first is not always clearly defined, though necessary. Knowing the employment contract is the first step towards the implementation of their rights relating to periods of suspension from the activity of work is also essential for high performance working. Breathing exercises, massage therapy, biofeedback, role-playing are some of the tools used during work breaks to prevent mental and physical fatigue. At the end music has a rhythm by alternating strong and weak accents. If the musical notes represent the "vertical" trend of music (melody), figures and pauses, inserted into the rhythmic structure of the measure, regulate the duration of sounds over time and determine the "horizontal" trend of a song. Transferring this concept on work, is meant to understand, using a metaphor, the importance of respect of changes in both vertical and horizontal trends inside a cycle.

  4. Physical therapy after total mastectomy surgery in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Cismaş

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in the whole world. It is caused by the development of malignant cells in the breast. In cancer patients, physical therapy has resulted in improved physical functioning, cardiovascular fitness, sleep, quality of life, psychological and social well-being, and self esteem, and significant decreases in fatigue, anxiety and depression. Aim: The aim of this study is to underline the importance of physical therapy in the rehabilitation of patients after total mastectomy surgery in breast cancer. Material and methods: We investigated 14 women aged between 45 and 75 years old, diagnosed with breast cancer (stages I–III, having a total mastectomy surgery 6 months ago. At the beginning and after 2 weeks of intervention, the subject`s evaluations consisted in: each patient was evaluated in regard to shoulder flexibility (from Test 1 to Test 8; on the other hand, we measured the upper limb circumferences on the surgery side. The physical therapy programme consisted in 10 sessions of 20 minutes lymphatic drainage and 10 minutes individualized physical therapy programmes. Results: At the end of intervention, it was observed a score improvement at Test 2 (from 1.28±0.99 to 1.85±0.53, p=0.041, Test 3 (from 0.42±0.85 to 1.57±0.85, p=0.001, Test 7 (from 0.5±0.51 to 0.85±0.36, p=0.019 and Test 8 (from 1.28±0.99 to 1.85±0.53, p=0.041. In terms of total score (Total, the improvement was also significant increased (from 13.25±9.08 to 18.13±10.12, p=0.044. Circumference values significantly improved at arm (from 30.36±4.25 to 29.79±4.41, p=0.001, forearm (from 23±2.18 to 22.04±2.26, p=0.001 and wrist level (from 17.46±1.74 to 17.11±1.67, p=0.012. Despite the intervention, elbow circumference didn`t reached the statistical significance (p<0.05. Conclusions: After 2 weeks of intervention we noticed a significant improvement at most of the parameters which means a life quality increase in

  5. Using principles of learning to inform language therapy design for children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Ancharski, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Language treatment for children with specific language impairment (SLI) often takes months to achieve moderate results. Interventions often do not incorporate the principles that are known to affect learning in unimpaired learners. To outline some key findings about learning in typical populations and to suggest a model of how they might be applied to language treatment design as a catalyst for further research and discussion. Three main principles of implicit learning are reviewed: variability, complexity and sleep-dependent consolidation. After explaining these principles, evidence is provided as to how they influence learning tasks in unimpaired learners. Information is reviewed on principles of learning as they apply to impaired populations, current treatment designs are also reviewed that conform to the principles, and ways in which principles of learning might be incorporated into language treatment design are demonstrated. This paper provides an outline for how theoretical knowledge might be applied to clinical practice in an effort to promote discussion. Although the authors look forward to more specific details on how the principles of learning relate to impaired populations, there is ample evidence to suggest that these principles should be considered during treatment design. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  6. Synchrotron Radiation Therapy from a Medical Physics point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezado, Y.; Adam, J. F.; Berkvens, P.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Fois, G.; Thengumpallil, S.; Edouard, M.; Vautrin, M.; Deman, P.; Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Renier, M.; Elleaume, H.; Estève, F.; Bravin, A.

    2010-07-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) therapy is a promising alternative to treat brain tumors, whose management is limited due to the high morbidity of the surrounding healthy tissues. Several approaches are being explored by using SR at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), where three techniques are under development Synchrotron Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SSRT), Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) and Minibeam Radiation Therapy (MBRT). The sucess of the preclinical studies on SSRT and MRT has paved the way to clinical trials currently in preparation at the ESRF. With this aim, different dosimetric aspects from both theoretical and experimental points of view have been assessed. In particular, the definition of safe irradiation protocols, the beam energy providing the best balance between tumor treatment and healthy tissue sparing in MRT and MBRT, the special dosimetric considerations for small field dosimetry, etc will be described. In addition, for the clinical trials, the definition of appropiate dosimetry protocols for patients according to the well established European Medical Physics recommendations will be discussed. Finally, the state of the art of the MBRT technical developments at the ESRF will be presented. In 2006 A. Dilmanian and collaborators proposed the use of thicker microbeams (0.36-0.68 mm). This new type of radiotherapy is the most recently implemented technique at the ESRF and it has been called MBRT. The main advantage of MBRT with respect to MRT is that it does not require high dose rates. Therefore it can be more easily applied and extended outside synchrotron sources in the future.

  7. Metrics for Performance Evaluation of Patient Exercises during Physical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakanski, Aleksandar; Ferguson, Jake M; Lee, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    The article proposes a set of metrics for evaluation of patient performance in physical therapy exercises. Taxonomy is employed that classifies the metrics into quantitative and qualitative categories, based on the level of abstraction of the captured motion sequences. Further, the quantitative metrics are classified into model-less and model-based metrics, in reference to whether the evaluation employs the raw measurements of patient performed motions, or whether the evaluation is based on a mathematical model of the motions. The reviewed metrics include root-mean square distance, Kullback Leibler divergence, log-likelihood, heuristic consistency, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and similar. The metrics are evaluated for a set of five human motions captured with a Kinect sensor. The metrics can potentially be integrated into a system that employs machine learning for modelling and assessment of the consistency of patient performance in home-based therapy setting. Automated performance evaluation can overcome the inherent subjectivity in human performed therapy assessment, and it can increase the adherence to prescribed therapy plans, and reduce healthcare costs.

  8. Cerebral palsy: the meaning of physical therapy for mother caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pereira Domenech

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Exercise therapy, as applied by a physiotherapist, aims to improve the acquisition of functional skills by children with cerebral palsy (CP. Treatment instructions are given to mothers, but are frequently not followed. Objective: To get to know the meaning of the role of physiotherapy in the treatment of children with CP, according to their mothers' perception; and to check mothers' compliance with physiotherapists' recommendations at home. Methods: This was a qualitative study. Interviews were conducted with 11 mother caregivers. Data were collected through interviews based on a guide questions about the meaning of the role of physiotherapy in the treatment of children with CP, and about the continuity of care outside the outpatient setting. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using Bardin's content analysis technique. Results: These women have a positive perception of the physical therapy treatment; they value and recognize the benefits, by emphasizing that it provides for the physical, psychological and social recovery of their children. Mothers are aware of the benefits of treatment and that it is important to continue treatment at home. They show themselves willing and able to implement the recommendations given by the physical therapist, and demonstrate their constant concern for the welfare of their children. Conclusion: Physiotherapists should work more intensively with mothers who fail to adhere to home treatment programs. They should try and identify the reasons for their non-compliance, offer them guidance, advice, and assistance in order to clarify doubts and help solve difficulties faced by caregivers.

  9. Radiation Physics and Chemistry in Heavy-ion Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura, M.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy ions, such as carbon and oxygen ions, are classified as high-LET radiations, and produce a characteristic dose-depth distribution different from that of low-LET radiations such as γ-rays, xrays and electrons. Heavy ions lose less energy at the entrance to an irradiated biological system up to some depth than the low-LET radiations, while they deposit a large amount of dose within a very narrow range at a certain depth, producing the characteristic sharp peak called the Bragg peak. Therefore, by controlling the Bragg peak, it becomes possible to irradiate only the tumor region in a pin-point manner, while avoiding irradiation of the normal tissue, thus making heavyion therapy ideal for deep-seated tumor treatment. Clinical results on more than 2400 patients are very encouraging. However, very little is known about what is going on in terms of physics and chemistry inside the Bragg peak. In this paper the current status of our understanding of heavy-ion interactions and remaining problems of physics and chemistry for the heavy-ion treatment are explored, particularly in the Bragg peak region. Specially, the survey of the basic physical quantity, the mean energy required to form an ion pair (Wvalue for heavy ions of interest for radiotherapy is presented. Finally, the current clinical status of heavy-ion therapy is presented.

  10. Physical therapy on the wards after early physical activity and mobility in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Ramona O; Miller, Russell R; Rodriguez, Larissa; Spuhler, Vicki; Thomsen, George E

    2012-12-01

    Weakness and debilitation are common following critical illness. Studies that assess whether early physical activity initiated in the intensive care unit (ICU) continues after a patient is transferred to a ward are lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess whether physical activity and mobility initiated during ICU treatment were maintained after patients were discharged from a single ICU to a ward. This was a cohort study. Consecutive patients who were diagnosed with respiratory failure and admitted to the respiratory ICU (RICU) at LDS Hospital underwent early physical activity and mobility as part of usual care. Medical data, the number of requests for a physical therapy consultation or nursing assistance with ambulation at ICU discharge, and mobility data were collected during the first 2 full days on the ward. Of the 72 patients who participated in the study, 65 had either a physical therapy consultation or a request for nursing assistance with ambulation at ward transfer. Activity level decreased in 40 participants (55%) on the first full ward day. Of the 61 participants who ambulated 100 ft (30.48 m) or more on the last full RICU day, 14 did not ambulate, 22 ambulated less than 100 ft, and 25 ambulated 100 ft or more on the first ward day. Limitations include lack of data regarding why activity was not performed on the ward, lack of longitudinal follow-up to assess effects of activity, and lack of generalizability to patients not transferred to a ward or not treated in an ICU with an early mobility program. Despite the majority of participants having a physical therapy consultation or a request for nursing assistance with ambulation at the time of transfer to the medical ward, physical activity levels decreased in over half of participants on the first full ward day. The data suggest a need for education of ward staff regarding ICU debilitation, enhanced communication among care providers, and focus on the importance of patient-centered outcomes during

  11. Theoretical and experimental physical methods of neutron-capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, G. I.

    2011-09-01

    This review is based to a substantial degree on our priority developments and research at the IR-8 reactor of the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute. New theoretical and experimental methods of neutron-capture therapy are developed and applied in practice; these are: A general analytical and semi-empiric theory of neutron-capture therapy (NCT) based on classical neutron physics and its main sections (elementary theories of moderation, diffuse, reflection, and absorption of neutrons) rather than on methods of mathematical simulation. The theory is, first of all, intended for practical application by physicists, engineers, biologists, and physicians. This theory can be mastered by anyone with a higher education of almost any kind and minimal experience in operating a personal computer.

  12. Physical and mathematical modeling of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgermeister, Lisa; López, Fernando Romero; Schulz, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a promising method to treat local bacterial infections. The therapy is painless and does not cause bacterial resistances. However, there are gaps in understanding the dynamics of the processes, especially in periodontal treatment. This work describes the advances in fundamental physical and mathematical modeling of aPDT used for interpretation of experimental evidence. The result is a two-dimensional model of aPDT in a dental pocket phantom model. In this model, the propagation of laser light and the kinetics of the chemical reactions are described as coupled processes. The laser light induces the chemical processes depending on its intensity. As a consequence of the chemical processes, the local optical properties and distribution of laser light change as well as the reaction rates. The mathematical description of these coupled processes will help to develop treatment protocols and is the first step toward an inline feedback system for aPDT users.

  13. Physical therapy in a peacekeeping operation: Operation Joint Endeavor/Operation Joint Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyhen, D S

    1999-08-01

    This article describes the deployment and utilization of physical therapy services at a combat support hospital during a recent peacekeeping mission in Bosnia. Approximately 17% of all soldiers reporting to the 21st Combat Support Hospital were evaluated and treated by physical therapy. Physical therapy services provided musculoskeletal evaluations, developed field-expedient rehabilitative programs for the deployed soldiers, and provided injury prevention programs for the peace implementation and sustainment forces. Physical therapy helped to provide a high return to duty status and a low rate of air evacuation for deployed troops. The lessons learned from this deployment can help clarify the role of physical therapy in future support operations and sustainment operations.

  14. Heavy-ion tumor therapy: Physical and radiobiological benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, Dieter; Elsässer, Thilo; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    High-energy beams of charged nuclear particles (protons and heavier ions) offer significant advantages for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors in comparison to conventional megavolt photon therapy. Their physical depth-dose distribution in tissue is characterized by a small entrance dose and a distinct maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range with a sharp fall-off at the distal edge. Taking full advantage of the well-defined range and the small lateral beam spread, modern scanning beam systems allow delivery of the dose with millimeter precision. In addition, projectiles heavier than protons such as carbon ions exhibit an enhanced biological effectiveness in the Bragg peak region caused by the dense ionization of individual particle tracks resulting in reduced cellular repair. This makes them particularly attractive for the treatment of radio-resistant tumors localized near organs at risk. While tumor therapy with protons is a well-established treatment modality with more than 60 000 patients treated worldwide, the application of heavy ions is so far restricted to a few facilities only. Nevertheless, results of clinical phase I-II trials provide evidence that carbon-ion radiotherapy might be beneficial in several tumor entities. This article reviews the progress in heavy-ion therapy, including physical and technical developments, radiobiological studies and models, as well as radiooncological studies. As a result of the promising clinical results obtained with carbon-ion beams in the past ten years at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator facility (Japan) and in a pilot project at GSI Darmstadt (Germany), the plans for new clinical centers for heavy-ion or combined proton and heavy-ion therapy have recently received a substantial boost.

  15. ANALYSIS OF LEVEL OF BOTH SHOULDERS IN PHYSICAL THERAPY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazala Noor Nizami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: During lectures, usually students sit in an awkward position, for prolonged period of time and that may cause postural instability. For a good posture, bilateral landmarks should be on same level, when viewed from front or behind. Therefore, both shoulders should also be on same level as well. Any alteration in level of shoulders in healthy individual may lead to deformity in spine or extremity. The objective of this study was to analyze the level of both shoulders in the physical therapy students and to find its correlation with the perception of students about their shoulder balance. Methods: An observational (cross – sectional study was conducted on students of Doctor in Physical Therapy (DPT from colleges of Physical Therapy, Karachi. 100 Students were selected by Simple Random Sampling technique. Data from students was collected by administering a questionnaire. It includes close-ended questions. Afterwards, the level of both shoulders of the students, were assessed by using Scoliosis Meter. Results: Response from students showed that 79% of them assumed that both shoulders are in same level. When level of shoulder of students was assessed by scoliosis meter, it showed that 37% students have absolute level shoulder. Spearman’s Correlation coefficient (r = 0.046, p= 0.65 showed a weak, positive correlation between perception of the students about shoulder level and assessment of shoulder tilt. Conclusion: This showed that the perception of students about level of both shoulders was not correlated to the actual levels of the shoulders. Hence, as they were not assuming it uneven, so they may not pay any attention to keep themselves straight.

  16. Shoulder Impingement Syndromes: Implications on Physical Therapy Examination and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A painful shoulder presents challenges in examination, diagnosis and intervention for the physical therapist because of the complexity of the structures involved. A common cause of shoulder pain is shoulder impingement syndrome. This was first described as a condition in which the soft tissues of the subacromial space were chronically entrapped and compressed between the humeral head and the subacromial arch. This definition does not account for the myriad potential causes of shoulder impingement conditions, as forms of impingement other than subacromial soft tissue compression may explain different symptomatic shoulder injuries. This paper describes shoulder impingement syndromes that have been hypothesized, identified and analyzed in the literature. Physical Therapy examination and intervention for these syndromes are also discussed. PMID:25792938

  17. Physical therapy management of female chronic pelvic pain: Anatomic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Susan E; Clinton, Susan C; Borello-France, Diane F

    2013-01-01

    The multisystem nature of female chronic pelvic pain (CPP) makes this condition a challenge for physical therapists and other health care providers to manage. This article uses a case scenario to illustrate commonly reported somatic, visceral, and neurologic symptoms and their associated health and participation impact in a female with CPP. Differential diagnosis of pain generators requires an in-depth understanding of possible anatomic and physiologic contributors to this disorder. This article provides a detailed discussion of the relevant clinical anatomy with specific attention to complex interrelationships between anatomic structures potentially leading to the patient's pain. In addition, it describes the physical therapy management specific to this case, including examination, differential diagnosis, and progression of interventions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Group physical therapy during inpatient rehabilitation for acute spinal cord injury: findings from the SCIRehab Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanca, Jeanne M; Natale, Audrey; Labarbera, Jacqueline; Schroeder, Sally Taylor; Gassaway, Julie; Backus, Deborah

    2011-12-01

    Inpatient rehabilitation for spinal cord injury (SCI) includes the use of both individual and group physical therapy sessions. A greater understanding of group physical therapy use will help in the evaluation of the appropriateness of its use and contribute to the development of standards of practice. This report describes the extent to which group physical therapy is being used in inpatient rehabilitation for SCI, identifies group physical therapy interventions being delivered, and examines patterns in the types of activities being used for people with different levels and completeness of injury (ie, injury groups). The SCIRehab Study is a 5-year, multicenter investigation that uses practice-based evidence research methodology. Data on characteristics of participants and treatments provided were collected through detailed chart review and customized research documentation completed by clinicians at the point of care. The analyses described here included data from 600 participants enrolled during the first year of the project. Most of the participants (549/600) spent time in group physical therapy, and 23% of all documented physical therapy time was spent in group sessions. The most common group physical therapy activities were strengthening, manual wheelchair mobility, gait training, endurance activities, and range of motion/stretching. Time spent in group physical therapy and the nature of activities performed varied among the injury groups. Physical therapy use patterns observed in the 6 participating centers may not represent all facilities providing inpatient rehabilitation for SCI. Research documentation did not include all factors that may affect group physical therapy use, and some sessions were not documented. The majority of physical therapy was provided in individual sessions, but group physical therapy contributed significantly to total physical therapy time. Group physical therapy time and activities differed among the injury groups in patterns

  19. Delivery of physical therapy in the acute care setting: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freburger, Janet K; Heatwole Shank, Kendra; Knauer, Stefanie R; Montmeny, Richard M

    2012-02-01

    Population-based studies on physical therapy use in acute care are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine population-based, hospital discharge data from North Carolina to describe the demographic and diagnostic characteristics of individuals who receive physical therapy and, for common diagnostic subgroups, to identify factors associated with the receipt of and intensity of physical therapy use. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Hospital discharge data for 2006-2007 from the 128 acute care hospitals in the state were examined to identify the most common diagnoses that receive physical therapy and to describe the characteristics of physical therapy users. For 2 of the most common diagnoses, logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with the receipt and intensity of physical therapy. Of the more than 2 million people treated in acute care hospitals, 22.5% received physical therapy (mean age=66 years; 58% female). Individuals with osteoarthritis (admitted for joint replacement) and stroke were 2 of the most common patient types to receive physical therapy. Almost all individuals admitted for a joint replacement received physical therapy, with little between-hospital variation. Between-hospital variation in physical therapy use for stroke was greater. Demographic and hospital-related factors were associated with physical therapy use and physical therapy intensity for both diagnoses, after controlling for illness severity and comorbidities. Data from only one state were examined, and the studied variables were limited. The use and intensity of physical therapy for stroke and joint replacement in acute care hospitals in North Carolina vary by clinical and nonclinical factors. Reasons behind the association of hospital characteristics and physical therapy use need further investigation.

  20. Current and future regenerative medicine - principles, concepts, and therapeutic use of stem cell therapy and tissue engineering in equine medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Betts, Dean H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a bird's-eye perspective of the general principles of stem-cell therapy and tissue engineering; it relates comparative knowledge in this area to the current and future status of equine regenerative medicine.The understanding of equine stem cell biology, biofactors, and scaffolds......, and their potential therapeutic use in horses are rudimentary at present. Mesenchymal stem cell isolation has been proclaimed from several equine tissues in the past few years. Based on the criteria of the International Society for Cellular Therapy, most of these cells are more correctly referred to as multipotent...... factors, and biomaterials - are increasingly being applied in equine medicine, fuelled by better scaffolds and increased understanding of individual biofactors and cell sources.The effectiveness of stem cell-based therapies and most tissue engineering concepts has not been demonstrated sufficiently...

  1. Investigating elementary education and physical therapy majors' perceptions of an inquiry-based physics content course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John Martin

    This study investigates why physical therapy assistant majors engage and perform better than elementary education majors in an inquiry-based conceptual physics course at Mid-Atlantic Community College. The students from each major are demographically similar, both courses are similar in depth and structure, and each course supports the students' program. However, there is an observed difference in the levels of engagement with the curriculum and performance on writing-based assessments between the two groups. To explore possible explanations for the difference, I examine students' affinity for science, their beliefs about the nature of science and scientific knowledge in the classroom, and their perception of the usefulness of science to their program. During semi-structured interviews, students from both majors displayed nearly identical weak affinities for science, epistemological beliefs, and uncertainty about the usefulness of the class. However, the physical therapy majors' ability to see the relevance of the physics course experience to their program enhanced their interest and motivation. In contrast, the elementary education students do not see connections between the course and their program, and do not see a purpose for their learning of physics content. To improve the program, I propose a two-pronged approach - designing a faded-scaffolded-inquiry approach for both classes, and developing a field-based/seminar class for the elementary education majors. The scaffolded inquiry will help both groups develop better orientations toward lab activities, and the structured observations and reflection will help the elementary group connect the material to their program.

  2. Facilitating the use of implicit memory and learning in the physical therapy management of individuals with Alzheimer disease: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Laura; Ford, Matthew P; Brown, Cynthia J; Peel, Claire; Triebel, Kristen L

    2014-01-01

    Physical rehabilitation of individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) is often complicated by impairments in explicit memory and learning. Rehabilitation strategies that facilitate the use of the preserved implicit memory system may be effective in treating patients with AD. The purpose of this case series is to describe the application of these strategies, including high-repetition practice, errorless learning (EL), and spaced retrieval, to the physical therapy management of individuals with moderate AD. Three women aged 89 to 95 years with moderate AD who resided in an assisted living facility participated in physical therapy to address their mobility limitations. Twelve physical therapy sessions were scheduled over a period of 4 weeks. Interventions were individually designed to address the mobility needs of each patient, and rehabilitation strategies based on implicit learning principles were integrated into the interventions. All patients participated in at least 10 of the 12 physical therapy sessions. Improvements in performance of objective measures of balance were observed in all patients, although only 1 patient's balance score exceeded the minimal detectable change. No significant clinical change was observed in any patients on the Timed Up and Go Test or self-selected gait speed. Principles of implicit learning were integrated into the interventions for these patients with moderate AD. However, the feasibility of applying the EL paradigm was limited. Further research on the effectiveness of EL, spaced retrieval, and other rehabilitation strategies that facilitate implicit learning of mobility skills in patients with AD is needed to promote optimal physical therapy outcomes in this patient population.

  3. A distance learning model in a physical therapy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, T; Harrison, A L; Hart, A L

    1998-01-01

    In response to the rural health initiative established in 1991, the University of Kentucky has developed an innovative distance learning program of physical therapy instruction that combines classroom lecture and discussion via compressed video technology with laboratory experiences. The authors describe the process of planning, implementing, and evaluating a specific distance learning course in pathomechanics for the professional-level master's-degree physical therapy students at the University of Kentucky. This presentation may serve as a model for teaching distance learning. Descriptions of optimal approaches to preclass preparation, scheduling, course delivery, use of audiovisual aids, use of handout material, and video production are given. Special activities that may enhance or deter the achievement of the learning objectives are outlined, and a problem-solving approach to common problems encountered is presented. An approach to evaluating and comparing course outcomes for the distance learnere is presented. For this particular course, there was no statistically significant difference in the outcome measures utilized to compare the distance learners with the on-site learners.

  4. Factors associated with academic performance of physical therapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, C D; Williams, S K P; Hudson, G A; Stewart, J

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the pre-matriculation factors that influence academic success facilitates the recruitment and retention of students who are more likely to graduate on time. To determine the factors associated with the academic performance of students enrolled in the physical therapy diploma programme. Records of 250 students enrolled over a twenty-year period at the School of Physical Therapy were reviewed. Data were collected and organized using a data collection sheet. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Relationships between the independent variables: age, gender marital status, work history and entry qualifications, and the dependent variables: academic performance (percentage of subjects passed at the first sitting of examinations and success in the Final Qualifying Examination), withdrawal and delayed graduation were examined using correlation coefficient, t-test, ANOVA and chi-square as appropriate. Results revealed that students gaining the minimum entry qualifications at one sitting of GCE O' Level/CXC examinations (p Students without prior work experience performed better during the course of study (p students were more likely to withdraw (p students performed better on the Final Qualifying Practical and Theory Examinations taken at the end of the academic programme (p Students with better academic preparation demonstrated better academic performance. These findings were consistent with prior studies in the field.

  5. CORRIGENDUM: Ultrasound contrast microbubbles in imaging and therapy: physical principles and engineering Ultrasound contrast microbubbles in imaging and therapy: physical principles and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shengping; Caskey, Charles F.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2009-07-01

    In equation (7) the subscript 'S' should be included in the denominator of the first term on the right-hand side of the equation to denote the density of the shell. The corrected equation is given in the attached PDF file.

  6. Therapy behaviours in paediatric rehabilitation: essential attributes for intervention with children with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rezze, Briano; Law, Mary; Eva, Kevin; Pollock, Nancy; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2014-01-01

    Paediatric rehabilitation involves the therapist delivering intervention-specific and non-specific behaviours. Non-specific (or general therapy) characteristics are a key part of family-centred service (FCS); however, little research identifies observable behaviours to examine intervention fidelity to FCS principles and their impact on outcomes. To generate a list of observable general therapy attributes essential to FCS interventions for children with physical disabilities. Attributes of general therapy behaviours were derived based on a Delphi Process with multidisciplinary researchers. A separate method identified attributes through the content analysis of semi-structured interviews with occupational therapists and physiotherapists. A triangulation procedure identified general therapy behaviours for FCS. Eight researchers participated in the Delphi Process. Seventeen therapists participated in semi-structured interviews. The Delphi Process generated 35 behavioural attributes divided into three categories: therapist behaviours (21), client behaviours (9) and client-therapist behaviours (5). Of the 19 attributes generated from the therapist interviews, 17 mapped onto those identified in the Delphi Process. General therapy attributes addressed a range of behaviours including characteristics of the intervention procedure and the therapeutic process. This work provides an improved understanding of how practitioners conceive essential and observable behaviours of FCS that will enable future researchers to identify their presence within an intervention session. This article broadens the focus of fidelity measurement of paediatric rehabilitation to include observable behaviours relevant to family-centred service. Attributes of the therapist's practice behaviour in family-centred service were identified. Attributes of paediatric rehabilitation involving the child's response to intervention, parent participation and child and therapist interaction were generated.

  7. Attitudes towards fibromyalgia: A survey of Canadian chiropractic, naturopathic, physical therapy and occupational therapy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badwall Parminder

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequent use of chiropractic, naturopathic, and physical and occupational therapy by patients with fibromyalgia has been emphasized repeatedly, but little is known about the attitudes of these therapists towards this challenging condition. Methods We administered a cross-sectional survey to 385 senior Canadian chiropractic, naturopathic, physical and occupational therapy students in their final year of studies, that inquired about attitudes towards the diagnosis and management of fibromyalgia. Results 336 students completed the survey (response rate 87%. While they disagreed about the etiology (primarily psychological 28%, physiological 23%, psychological and physiological 15%, unsure 34%, the majority (58% reported that fibromyalgia was difficult to manage. Respondants were also conflicted in whether treatment should prioritize symptom relief (65% or functional gains (85%, with the majority (58% wanting to do both. The majority of respondents (57% agreed that there was effective treatment for fibromyalgia and that they possessed the required clinical skills to manage patients (55%. Chiropractic students were most skeptical in regards to fibromyalgia as a useful diagnostic entity, and most likely to endorse a psychological etiology. In our regression model, only training in naturopathic medicine (unstandardized regression coefficient = 0.33; 95% confidence interval = 0.11 to 0.56 and the belief that effective therapies existed (unstandardized regression coefficient = 0.42; 95% confidence interval = 0.30 to 0.54 were associated with greater confidence in managing patients with fibromyalgia. Conclusion The majority of senior Canadian chiropractic, naturopathic, physical and occupational therapy students, and in particular those with naturopathic training, believe that effective treatment for fibromyalgia exists and that they possess the clinical skillset to effectively manage this disorder. The majority place high priority

  8. Direct access compared with referred physical therapy episodes of care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Heidi A; Snyder, Rachel S; Davenport, Todd E

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that physical therapy through direct access may help decrease costs and improve patient outcomes compared with physical therapy by physician referral. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature on patients with musculoskeletal injuries and compare health care costs and patient outcomes in episodes of physical therapy by direct access compared with referred physical therapy. Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL (EBSCO), Web of Science, and PEDro were searched using terms related to physical therapy and direct access. Included articles were hand searched for additional references. Included studies compared data from physical therapy by direct access with physical therapy by physician referral, studying cost, outcomes, or harm. The studies were appraised using the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) levels of evidence criteria and assigned a methodological score. Of the 1,501 articles that were screened, 8 articles at levels 3 to 4 on the CEBM scale were included. There were statistically significant and clinically meaningful findings across studies that satisfaction and outcomes were superior, and numbers of physical therapy visits, imaging ordered, medications prescribed, and additional non-physical therapy appointments were less in cohorts receiving physical therapy by direct access compared with referred episodes of care. There was no evidence for harm. There is evidence across level 3 and 4 studies (grade B to C CEBM level of recommendation) that physical therapy by direct access compared with referred episodes of care is associated with improved patient outcomes and decreased costs. Primary limitations were lack of group randomization, potential for selection bias, and limited generalizability. Physical therapy by way of direct access may contain health care costs and promote high-quality health care. Third-party payers should consider paying for physical therapy by direct access to decrease health care costs and

  9. Effects of Brief Communication Skills Training for Workers Based on the Principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Norio; Somemura, Hironori; Nakamura, Saki; Yamamoto, Megumi; Isojima, Manabu; Shinmei, Issei; Horikoshi, Masaru; Tanaka, Katsutoshi

    2017-01-01

    Stimulating communication is an important workplace issue. We investigated the effects of a brief communication skills training (CST) program based on the principles of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 206 white-collar workers. The intervention group underwent a 2-hour CST group training conducted by an occupational physician. The results of the intention-to-treat analysis using a mixed-effects model showed that there was a significant interaction between group and time observed for the item "thinking together to solve problems and issues" (P = 0.02). The effect size (Cohen d) was 0.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.07 to 0.62). The present study suggests that a brief CST based on the principles of CBT could improve the communication behavior of workers.

  10. AAMFT Master Series Tapes: An Analysis of the Inclusion of Feminist Principles into Family Therapy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Shelley A.; MacPhee, David; Zimmerman, Toni Schindler

    2001-01-01

    Content analysis of 23 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Master Series tapes was used to determine how well feminist behaviors have been incorporated into ideal family therapy practice. Feminist behaviors were infrequent, being evident in fewer than 3% of time blocks in event sampling and 10 of 39 feminist behaviors of the…

  11. Oncologic photodynamic therapy: Basic principles, current clinical status and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, D. (Demian); Mashayekhi, V. (Vida); H.S. de Bruijn (Riette); S. Oliveira (Sabrina); D.J. Robinson (Dominic)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPhotodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved cancer therapy, based on a photochemical reaction between a light activatable molecule or photosensitizer, light, and molecular oxygen. When these three harmless components are present together, reactive oxygen species are formed. These

  12. Estimating Burst Swim Speeds and Jumping Characteristics of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Using Video Analyses and Principles of Projectile Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Applying principles of projectile physics to a subset of those fish (N=4), burst speeds were estimated as 7.78- 9.74 m/s, angle of leap as 44-70º, and...rectilinear and boundary layer flow. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 27:226–230. ERDC/TN ANSRP-16-2 September 2016 11 Hunn, J. B., and W. D. Youngs...1980. Role of physical barriers in the control of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37(11):2118–2122

  13. Continuous passive motion and physical therapy (CPM) versus physical therapy (PT) versus delayed physical therapy (DPT) after surgical release for elbow contractures; a study protocol for a prospective randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveen, Jetske; Doornberg, Job N.; Kodde, Izaak F.; Goossens, Pjotr; Koenraadt, Koen L. M.; The, Bertram; Eygendaal, Denise

    2017-01-01

    The elbow is prone to stiffness after trauma. To regain functional elbow motion several conservative- and surgical treatment options are available. Conservative treatment includes physical therapy, intra-articular injections with corticosteroids and a static progressive or dynamic splinting program.

  14. Measuring verbal communication in initial physical therapy encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa C; Whittle, Christopher T; Cleland, Jennifer; Wald, Mike

    2013-04-01

    Communication in clinical encounters is vital in ensuring a positive experience and outcome for both patient and clinician. The purpose of this study was to measure verbal communication between physical therapists and patients with back pain during their initial consultation and trial management of the data using a novel, Web-based application. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Nine musculoskeletal physical therapists and 27 patients with back pain participated in this study. Twenty-five initial consultations were observed, audio recorded, and categorized using the Medical Communications Behavior System. Data were managed using Synote, a freely available application enabling synchronization of audio recordings with transcripts and coded notes. In this sample, physical therapists spoke for 49.5% of the encounter and patients for 33.1%. Providers and patients spent little time overtly discussing emotions (1.4% and 0.9%, respectively). More-experienced clinicians used more "history/background probes," more "advice/suggestion," and less "restatement" than less-experienced staff, although they demonstrated a greater prevalence of talking concurrently and interrupting patients (7.6% compared with 2.6%). Although studies measuring actual behavior are considered to be the gold standard, audio recordings do not enable nonverbal behaviors to be recorded. This study investigated a method for measuring the verbal content of clinical encounters in a physical therapy outpatient setting. The study has directly contributed to developing a research-friendly version of the application (i.e., Synote Researcher). Given the pivotal role of communication in ensuring a positive experience and outcome for both patient and provider, investing time in further developing communication skills should be an on-going priority for providers. Further work is needed to explore affective behaviors and the prevalence of interrupting patients, considering differences in sex and provider

  15. Community-based physical activity intervention using principles of social marketing: a demonstration project in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subitha, L; Soudarssanane, M Bala; Murugesan, R

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to study the development and implementation of promotion of physical activity in a rural community by applying the principles of social marketing and to determine participation behaviour in a physical activity programme in a community setting. The intervention targeted 485 people, 20-49 years of age, residents of Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam villages, Tamil Nadu. This community-based participatory research was based on the principles of 'social marketing'. Health education by one-to-one counselling, written materials and community events were used to popularize moderate intensity physical activity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on 4 days/week). We formed 30 walking groups under four coordinators, in a home-based setting with professional supervision and guidance. A log of physical activity sessions for the 10-week intervention period was maintained in the form of group attendance record. Village leaders, self-help groups and youth clubs were involved in promoting physical activity. Of the 485 subjects, 265 people (54.6%) engaged in brisk walking >4 days a week, while 156 subjects (32.2%) performed walking on 1-4 days per week during the intervention. The drop-out rate was 13.2% (64 subjects). Age, occupation and educational status were important determinants of participation and adherence to the physical activity programme. Application of social marketing techniques in an intervention to promote physical activity was successful in a rural Indian community. Studying the determinants of adoption of a physical activity programme and addressing the barriers to behaviour change are essential for designing relevant policies and effective programmes. Copyright 2012, NMJI.

  16. The physics, biophysics and technology of photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brian C; Patterson, Michael S

    2008-05-07

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses light-activated drugs to treat diseases ranging from cancer to age-related macular degeneration and antibiotic-resistant infections. This paper reviews the current status of PDT with an emphasis on the contributions of physics, biophysics and technology, and the challenges remaining in the optimization and adoption of this treatment modality. A theme of the review is the complexity of PDT dosimetry due to the dynamic nature of the three essential components -- light, photosensitizer and oxygen. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the problem and in developing instruments to measure all three, so that optimization of individual PDT treatments is becoming a feasible target. The final section of the review introduces some new frontiers of research including low dose rate (metronomic) PDT, two-photon PDT, activatable PDT molecular beacons and nanoparticle-based PDT.

  17. The physics, biophysics and technology of photodynamic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Brian C [Division of Biophysics and Bioimaging, Ontario Cancer Institute and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 2M9 (Canada); Patterson, Michael S [Department of Medical Physics, Juravinski Cancer Centre and Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, 699 Concession Street, Hamilton, ON L8V 5C2 (Canada)], E-mail: wilson@uhnres.utoronto.ca, E-mail: mike.patterson@jcc.hhsc.ca

    2008-05-07

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses light-activated drugs to treat diseases ranging from cancer to age-related macular degeneration and antibiotic-resistant infections. This paper reviews the current status of PDT with an emphasis on the contributions of physics, biophysics and technology, and the challenges remaining in the optimization and adoption of this treatment modality. A theme of the review is the complexity of PDT dosimetry due to the dynamic nature of the three essential components-light, photosensitizer and oxygen. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the problem and in developing instruments to measure all three, so that optimization of individual PDT treatments is becoming a feasible target. The final section of the review introduces some new frontiers of research including low dose rate (metronomic) PDT, two-photon PDT, activatable PDT molecular beacons and nanoparticle-based PDT. (topical review)

  18. Integrated approaches to physical Therapy education: a new comprehensive model from the University of Illinois Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Girolami, Gay; Aruin, Alexander; Keil, Aaron; Sainsbury, Jenna; Phillips, Shane A

    2017-05-01

    Demand for physical therapists in the United States (U.S.) is currently robust and expected to grow further. There are currently 228 physical therapy programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE), and 30 more are in development in the U.S.; 29,246 students are currently enrolled in these programs (2014-2015 data). A shortage of physical therapy faculty with an advanced doctoral degree (i.e., PhD, EdD, DSc) is a primary concern for these programs. Specialized residency and fellowship training in physical therapy continue to expand, preparing professionals to deliver advanced clinical care. The American Board of Physical Therapy Residency and Fellowship Education (ABPTRFE) reports that there are currently 179 accredited residency programs and 35 accredited fellowship programs in the U.S. A number of academic physical therapy programs also currently operate a clinical faculty practice. Currently, these aspects and trends in physical therapy education, advanced training, and clinical practice, for the most part, lack synergy and connectivity, in both planning and implementation amongst the various components. This professional theoretical article describes a novel model for academic physical therapy, with potential transformative implications for entry-level physical therapy education, advanced clinical training, and academic preparation.

  19. Case report: Physical therapy management of axial dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voos, Mariana Callil; Oliveira, Tatiana de Paula; Piemonte, Maria Elisa Pimentel; Barbosa, Egberto Reis

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have described physical therapy approaches to provide functional independence and reduce pain in individuals with dystonia. This report describes the physical therapy treatment of a 46-year-old woman diagnosed with idiopathic segmental axial dystonia. For two years, the patient was treated with kinesiotherapy (active and resisted movements and stretching of neck and trunk muscles), abdominal taping (kinesiotaping techniques), functional training, and sensory tricks. She was assessed with parts I, II and III of Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS-I, TWSTRS-II and TWSTRS-III), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Six-Minute Walk Test (6-MWT), and the motor domain of Functional Independence Measure (FIM-motor) before and after the two-year treatment and after the one year follow-up. Postural control and symmetry improved (TWSTRS-I: from 30 to 18), functional independence increased (TWSTRS-II: from 27 to 15; BBS: from 36 to 46; 6-MWT: from 0 to 480 meters (m); FIM-motor: from 59 to 81), and the pain diminished (TWSTRS-III: from 12 to 5). The functional improvement was retained after one year (TWSTRS-I: 14/35; TWRTRS-II: 12/30; TWRTRS-III: 5/20; BBS: 48/56; 6-MWT: 450 m; FIM-motor: 81/91). This program showed efficacy on providing a better control of the dystonic muscles and thus the doses of botulinum toxin needed to treat them could be reduced. Outcomes support the therapeutic strategies used to deal with this type of dystonia.

  20. A biomechanical perspective on physical therapy management of knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Voycheck, Carrie A; Tashman, Scott; Fitzgerald, G Kelley

    2013-09-01

    Altered knee joint biomechanics and excessive joint loading have long been considered as important contributors to the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Therefore, a better understanding of how various treatment options influence the loading environment of the knee joint could have practical implications for devising more effective physical therapy management strategies. The aim of this clinical commentary was to review the pertinent biomechanical evidence supporting the use of treatment options intended to provide protection against excessive joint loading while offering symptomatic relief and functional improvements for better long-term management of patients with knee osteoarthritis. The biomechanical and clinical evidence regarding the effectiveness of knee joint offloading strategies, including contralateral cane use, laterally wedged shoe insoles, variable-stiffness shoes, valgus knee bracing, and gait-modification strategies, within the context of effective disease management is discussed. In addition, the potential role of therapeutic exercise and neuromuscular training to improve the mechanical environment of the knee joint is considered. Management strategies for treatment of joint instability and patellofemoral compartment disease are also mentioned. Based on the evidence presented as part of this clinical commentary, it is argued that special considerations for the role of knee joint biomechanics and excessive joint loading are necessary in designing effective short- and long-term management strategies for treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Therapy, level 5.

  1. The role of medical physics in prostate cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Seuntjens, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Medical physics, both as a scientific discipline and clinical service, hugely contributed and still contributes to the advances in the radiotherapy of prostate cancer. The traditional translational role in developing and safely implementing new technology and methods for better optimizing, delivering and monitoring the treatment is rapidly expanding to include new fields such as quantitative morphological and functional imaging and the possibility of individually predicting outcome and toxicity. The pivotal position of medical physicists in treatment personalization probably represents the main challenge of current and next years and needs a gradual change of vision and training, without losing the traditional and fundamental role of physicists to guarantee a high quality of the treatment. The current focus issue is intended to cover traditional and new fields of investigation in prostate cancer radiation therapy with the aim to provide up-to-date reference material to medical physicists daily working to cure prostate cancer patients. The papers presented in this focus issue touch upon present and upcoming challenges that need to be met in order to further advance prostate cancer radiation therapy. We suggest that there is a smart future for medical physicists willing to perform research and innovate, while they continue to provide high-quality clinical service. However, physicists are increasingly expected to actively integrate their implicitly translational, flexible and high-level skills within multi-disciplinary teams including many clinical figures (first of all radiation oncologists) as well as scientists from other disciplines. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. A Classification System to Guide Physical Therapy Management in Huntington Disease: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Nora E; Busse, Monica; Jones, Karen; Khalil, Hanan; Quinn, Lori

    2017-07-01

    Individuals with Huntington disease (HD), a rare neurological disease, experience impairments in mobility and cognition throughout their disease course. The Medical Research Council framework provides a schema that can be applied to the development and evaluation of complex interventions, such as those provided by physical therapists. Treatment-based classifications, based on expert consensus and available literature, are helpful in guiding physical therapy management across the stages of HD. Such classifications also contribute to the development and further evaluation of well-defined complex interventions in this highly variable and complex neurodegenerative disease. The purpose of this case series was to illustrate the use of these classifications in the management of 2 individuals with late-stage HD. Two females, 40 and 55 years of age, with late-stage HD participated in this case series. Both experienced progressive declines in ambulatory function and balance as well as falls or fear of falling. Both individuals received daily care in the home for activities of daily living. Physical therapy Treatment-Based Classifications for HD guided the interventions and outcomes. Eight weeks of in-home balance training, strength training, task-specific practice of functional activities including transfers and walking tasks, and family/carer education were provided. Both individuals demonstrated improvements that met or exceeded the established minimal detectible change values for gait speed and Timed Up and Go performance. Both also demonstrated improvements on Berg Balance Scale and Physical Performance Test performance, with 1 of the 2 individuals exceeding the established minimal detectible changes for both tests. Reductions in fall risk were evident in both cases. These cases provide proof-of-principle to support use of treatment-based classifications for physical therapy management in individuals with HD. Traditional classification of early-, mid-, and late

  3. A content analysis of stroke physical therapy intervention using stroke physiotherapy intervention recording tool

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Hyuk-Shin; Cha, Hyun-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical therapy for recovery of function in people with stroke is known to be effective, but which type of physical therapy intervention is most effective is uncertain because a concrete and detailed record of interventions is done. This study aimed to record, analyze, and describe the content of physical therapy interventions for recovery of function after stroke using stroke physiotherapy intervention recording tool (SPIRIT). [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 23 phys...

  4. Physical therapy in the postoperative of proximal femur fracture in elderly. Literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro,Mariana Barquet; Alves,Débora Pinheiro Lédio; Mercadante, Marcelo Tomanik

    2013-01-01

    The proximal femoral fracture in the elderly is a serious public health problem. Surgical treatment of this fracture is used to reduce morbidity, together with postoperative physical therapy. The objective was to conduct a systematic review of physical therapy protocols in postoperative for fractures of the proximal femur in elderly. We selected randomized controlled trials in elderly in the past 10 years, in Portuguese and English. There were 14 articles in the literature. Physical therapy h...

  5. Physical therapy for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Lázaro J; Valbuza, Juliana S; Prado, Gilmar F

    2011-12-07

    Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis) is commonly treated by various physical therapy strategies and devices, but there are many questions about their efficacy. To evaluate physical therapies for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial palsy). We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2011), MEDLINE (January 1966 to February 2011), EMBASE (January 1946 to February 2011), LILACS (January 1982 to February 2011), PEDro (from 1929 to February 2011), and CINAHL (January 1982 to February 2011). We included searches in clinical trials register databases until February 2011. We selected randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials involving any physical therapy. We included participants of any age with a diagnosis of Bell's palsy and all degrees of severity. The outcome measures were: incomplete recovery six months after randomisation, motor synkinesis, crocodile tears or facial spasm six months after onset, incomplete recovery after one year and adverse effects attributable to the intervention. Two authors independently scrutinised titles and abstracts identified from the search results. Two authors independently carried out risk of bias assessments, which , took into account secure methods of randomisation, allocation concealment, observer blinding, patient blinding, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other bias. Two authors independently extracted data using a specially constructed data extraction form. We undertook separate subgroup analyses of participants with more and less severe disability. For this update to the original review, the search identified 65 potentially relevant articles. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria (872 participants). Four trials studied the efficacy of electrical stimulation (313 participants), three trials studied exercises (199 participants), and five studies compared or combined some form of physical therapy

  6. The Reliability and Validity of the Clinical Competence Evaluation Scale in Physical Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoshino, Jun; Usuda, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] To examine the internal consistency, criterion-related validity, factorial validity, and content validity of the Clinical Competence Evaluation Scale in Physical Therapy (CEPT). [Subjects...

  7. A REVIEW ON COMPREHENSIVE EYE EXAMINATION IN PEDIATRIC PHYSICAL THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Pandey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even early in Eye disease, children have reduced economy of activity of daily living. Early eye examination, diagnosis and management will reduce the consequences of other system originated by eye problems. The current literature is aimed to provide and explore the knowledge of Pediatric Physical Therapist about pediatric eye examination. This will help in early detection of any eye disorder and in good prognosis of visual health, physical growth, social and mental health as well. Methods: The data and contents of current literature have been explored from different webpages, books and by personnel experience in pediatric physical therapy and optometry. Results: In the beginning disclosure and immediate treatment of ocular diseases in children is necessary to prevent lifelong visual deterioration. Checkup of the eyes should be carrying out early in the neonates period and at all well-child visits. Neonates should be checked for ocular structural abnormalities, such as cataract, corneal opacity, and ptosis, which are known to cause in visual problems. Every child who are bring into being have an ocular anomaly or who fail vision examination should be referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist or an eye care specialist appropriately trained to treat pediatric patients. Conclusions: Children account for a large and growing percentage of the population of the India. Studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of eye and vision disorders is substantial in this group. Researches also reveal that early detection and intervention are particularly important in children because of the very quick development of the visual system in early childhood and its sensitivity to interference. When disorders such as amblyopia and squint are undetected, the long-term consequences can be serious in terms of quality of life, comfort, appearance, and career opportunities.

  8. Evidence-Based Evaluation of Practice and Innovation in Physical Therapy Using the IDEAL-Physio Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, David; Hamilton, David; Davies, Loretta; Cook, Jonathan; Hirst, Allison; McCulloch, Peter; Paez, Arsenio

    2018-02-01

    The IDEAL framework is an established method for initial and ongoing evaluations of innovation and practice for complex health care interventions. First derived for surgical sciences and embedded at a global level for evaluating surgery/surgical devices, the IDEAL framework is based on the principle that innovation and evaluation in clinical practice can, and should, evolve together in an ordered manner: from conception to development and then to validation by appropriate clinical studies and, finally, longer-term follow-up. This framework is highly suited to other complex, nonpharmacological interventions, such as physical therapist interventions. This perspective outlines the application of IDEAL to physical therapy in the new IDEAL-Physio framework. The IDEAL-Physio framework comprises 5 stages. In stage 1, the idea phase, formal data collection should begin. Stage 2a is the phase for iterative improvement and adjustment with thorough data recording. Stage 2b involves the onset of formal evaluation using systematically collected group or cohort data. Stage 3 is the phase for formal comparative assessment of treatment, usually involving randomized studies. Stage 4 involves long-term follow-up. The IDEAL-Physio framework is recommended as a method for guiding and evaluating both innovation and practice in physical therapy, with the overall goal of providing better evidence-based care. © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association.

  9. When the uncertainty principle goes up to 11 or how to explain quantum physics with heavy metal

    CERN Document Server

    Moriarty, Philip

    2018-01-01

    There are deep and fascinating links between heavy metal and quantum physics. No, there are. Really. While teaching at the University of Nottingham, physicist Philip Moriarty noticed something odd--a surprising number of his students were heavily into metal music. Colleagues, too: a Venn diagram of physicists and metal fans would show a shocking amount of overlap. What's more, it turns out that heavy metal music is uniquely well-suited to explaining quantum principles. In When the Uncertainty Principle Goes Up to Eleven, Moriarty explains the mysteries of the universe's inner workings via drum beats and feedback: You'll discover how the Heisenberg uncertainty principle comes into play with every chugging guitar riff, what wave interference has to do with Iron Maiden, and why metalheads in mosh pits behave just like molecules in a gas. If you're a metal fan trying to grasp the complexities of quantum physics, a quantum physicist baffled by heavy metal, or just someone who'd like to know how the fundamental sci...

  10. Medical physics aspects of the synchrotron radiation therapies: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) and synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy (SSRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Adam, Jean-Francois; Alagoz, Enver; Bartzsch, Stefan; Crosbie, Jeff; DeWagter, Carlos; Dipuglia, Andrew; Donzelli, Mattia; Doran, Simon; Fournier, Pauline; Kalef-Ezra, John; Kock, Angela; Lerch, Michael; McErlean, Ciara; Oelfke, Uwe; Olko, Pawel; Petasecca, Marco; Povoli, Marco; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Siegbahn, Erik A; Sporea, Dan; Stugu, Bjarne

    2015-09-01

    Stereotactic Synchrotron Radiotherapy (SSRT) and Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) are both novel approaches to treat brain tumor and potentially other tumors using synchrotron radiation. Although the techniques differ by their principles, SSRT and MRT share certain common aspects with the possibility of combining their advantages in the future. For MRT, the technique uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams between 50 and 600 keV. Important features of highly brilliant Synchrotron sources are a very small beam divergence and an extremely high dose rate. The minimal beam divergence allows the insertion of so called Multi Slit Collimators (MSC) to produce spatially fractionated beams of typically ∼25-75 micron-wide microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns center-to-center(ctc)) spaces with a very sharp penumbra. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are extremely well tolerated by normal tissues and at the same time provide a higher therapeutic index for various tumor models in rodents. The hypothesis of a selective radio-vulnerability of the tumor vasculature versus normal blood vessels by MRT was recently more solidified. SSRT (Synchrotron Stereotactic Radiotherapy) is based on a local drug uptake of high-Z elements in tumors followed by stereotactic irradiation with 80 keV photons to enhance the dose deposition only within the tumor. With SSRT already in its clinical trial stage at the ESRF, most medical physics problems are already solved and the implemented solutions are briefly described, while the medical physics aspects in MRT will be discussed in more detail in this paper. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Group Versus Individual Physical Therapy for Veterans With Knee Osteoarthritis: Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelli D; Bongiorni, Dennis; Bosworth, Hayden B; Coffman, Cynthia J; Datta, Santanu K; Edelman, David; Hall, Katherine S; Lindquist, Jennifer H; Oddone, Eugene Z; Hoenig, Helen

    2016-05-01

    Efficient approaches are needed for delivering nonpharmacological interventions for management of knee osteoarthritis (OA). This trial compared group-based versus individual physical therapy interventions for management of knee OA. Three hundred twenty patients with knee OA at the VA Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, (mean age=60 years, 88% male, 58% nonwhite) were randomly assigned to receive either the group intervention (group physical therapy; six 1-hour sessions, typically 8 participants per group) or the individual intervention (individual physical therapy; two 1-hour sessions). Both programs included instruction in home exercise, joint protection techniques, and individual physical therapist evaluation. The primary outcome measure was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC; range=0-96, higher scores indicate worse symptoms), measured at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. The secondary outcome measure was the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB; range=0-12, higher scores indicate better performance), measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Linear mixed models assessed the difference in WOMAC scores between arms. At 12 weeks, WOMAC scores were 2.7 points lower in the group physical therapy arm compared with the individual physical therapy arm (95% confidence interval [CI]=-5.9, 0.5; P=.10), indicating no between-group difference. At 24 weeks, WOMAC scores were 1.3 points lower in the group physical therapy arm compared with the individual physical therapy arm (95% CI=-4.6, 2.0; P=.44), indicating no significant between-group difference. At 12 weeks, SPPB scores were 0.1 points lower in the group physical therapy arm compared with the individual physical therapy arm (95% CI=-0.5, 0.2; P=.53), indicating no difference between groups. This study was conducted in one VA medical center. Outcome assessors were blinded, but participants and physical therapists were not blinded. Group physical therapy was not more effective

  12. Is Pelvic-Floor Muscle Training a Physical Therapy or a Behavioral Therapy? A Call to Name and Report the Physical, Cognitive, and Behavioral Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Helena C; Dean, Sarah G; Slade, Susan C; Hay-Smith, E Jean C

    2017-04-01

    This perspective article explores whether pelvic-floor muscle training (PFMT) for the management of female urinary incontinence and prolapse is a physical therapy or a behavioral therapy. The primary aim is to demonstrate that it is both. A secondary aim is to show that the plethora of terms used for PFMT is potentially confusing and that current terminology inadequately represents the full intent, content, and delivery of this complex intervention. While physical therapists may be familiar with exercise terms, the details are often incompletely reported; furthermore, physical therapists are less familiar with the terminology used in accurately representing cognitive and behavioral therapy interventions, which results in these elements being even less well reported. Thus, an additional aim is to provide greater clarity in the terminology used in the reporting of PFMT interventions, specifically, descriptions of the exercise and behavioral elements. First, PFMT is described as a physical therapy and as an exercise therapy informed predominantly by the discipline of physical therapy. However, effective implementation requires use of the cognitive and behavioral perspectives of the discipline of psychology. Second, the theoretical underpinning of the psychology-informed elements of PFMT is summarized. Third, to address some identified limitations and confusion in current terminology and reporting, recommendations for ways in which physical therapists can incorporate the psychology-informed elements of PFMT alongside the more familiar exercise therapy-informed elements are made. Fourth, an example of how both elements can be described and reported in a PFMT intervention is provided. In summary, this perspective explores the underlying concepts of PFMT to demonstrate that it is both a physical intervention and a behavioral intervention and that it can and should be described as such, and an example of the integration of these elements into clinical practice is provided

  13. The creation of programs of physical rehabilitation/therapy in musculoskeletal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Hertsyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to reveal the structure of planning in physical rehabilitation/therapy and to analyze the peculiarities of the creation of rehabilitation programs in the musculoskeletal disorders. Material & Methods: the structure of planning was determined and analyzed as a functional subsystem of physical rehabilitation/therapy. Literature analysis, system analysis and synthesis, methods of analogies, abstraction and generalization were applied. Results: the concept of "program" in physical rehabilitation has been analyzed. The need has been justified and the method of creating programs of physical rehabilitation/therapy, taking into account the source and target levels of motor functions and the availability of system resources, has been given. Definition of "program of physical rehabilitation/therapy" has been proposed. Components of programs of physical rehabilitation / therapy in musculoskeletal disorders have been identified. Conclusions: planning is a functional subsystem of the physical rehabilitation/therapy. The purpose of planning is creating a program. Planning consists of the following functional subsystems of the second level: prognostication, goal setting, creating of an intervention technology, creating of a control technology and writing of a program. The program of physical rehabilitation/therapy is a plan of transformation of system resources into the goals and the purpose of physical rehabilitation/therapy using intervention and control technologies.

  14. A Review of the Principles for Culturally Appropriate Art Therapy Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Donna

    2013-01-01

    In an increasingly diverse society, and with the broadening scope of art therapy, the duty of art therapists to ensure responsible and appropriate assessment is ever more important. This article discusses considerations that are necessary for the successful adaptation and use of drawing-based assessments in cross-cultural and multicultural…

  15. Oncologic Photodynamic Therapy: Basic Principles, Current Clinical Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian van Straten

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a clinically approved cancer therapy, based on a photochemical reaction between a light activatable molecule or photosensitizer, light, and molecular oxygen. When these three harmless components are present together, reactive oxygen species are formed. These can directly damage cells and/or vasculature, and induce inflammatory and immune responses. PDT is a two-stage procedure, which starts with photosensitizer administration followed by a locally directed light exposure, with the aim of confined tumor destruction. Since its regulatory approval, over 30 years ago, PDT has been the subject of numerous studies and has proven to be an effective form of cancer therapy. This review provides an overview of the clinical trials conducted over the last 10 years, illustrating how PDT is applied in the clinic today. Furthermore, examples from ongoing clinical trials and the most recent preclinical studies are presented, to show the directions, in which PDT is headed, in the near and distant future. Despite the clinical success reported, PDT is still currently underutilized in the clinic. We also discuss the factors that hamper the exploration of this effective therapy and what should be changed to render it a more effective and more widely available option for patients.

  16. A Comparison of Osteopathic, Pharmacy, Physical Therapy, Physician Assistant and Occupational Therapy Students' Personality Styles: Implications for Education and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardigan, Patrick C.; Cohen, Stanley R.

    This study compared personality traits of students in five health professions. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator was completed by 1,508 osteopathic students, 654 pharmacy students, 165 physical therapy students, 211 physician assistant students, and 70 occupational therapy students. Comparing the extrovert/introvert dimension revealed that pharmacy…

  17. Physical therapy for chronic low back pain in North Carolina: overuse, underuse, or misuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freburger, Janet K; Carey, Timothy S; Holmes, George M

    2011-04-01

    There are limited population-based studies of determinants of physical therapy use for chronic low back pain (LBP) and of the types of treatments received by individuals who see a physical therapist. The purposes of this study were: (1) to identify determinants of physical therapy use for chronic LBP, (2) to describe physical therapy treatments for chronic LBP, and (3) to compare use of treatments with current best evidence on care for this condition. This study was a cross-sectional, population-based telephone survey of North Carolinians. Five hundred eighty-eight individuals with chronic LBP who had sought care in the previous year were surveyed on their health and health care use. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify predisposing, enabling, and need characteristics associated with physical therapy use. Descriptive analyses were conducted to determine the use of physical treatments for individuals who saw a physical therapist. Use of treatments was compared with evidence from systematic reviews. Of our sample, 29.7% had seen a physical therapist in the previous year, with a mean of 15.6 visits. In multivariable analyses, receiving workers' compensation, seeing physician specialists, and higher Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-12) physical component scores were positively associated with physical therapy use. Having no health insurance was negatively associated with physical therapy use. Exercise was the most frequent treatment received (75% of sample), and traction was the least frequent treatment received (7%). Some effective treatments were underutilized, whereas some ineffective treatments were overutilized. Only one state was examined, and findings were based on patient report. Fewer than one third of individuals with chronic LBP saw a physical therapist. Health-related and non-health-related factors were associated with physical therapy use. Individuals who saw a physical therapist did not

  18. A SHORT COURSE OF TRIPLE TELAPREVIR-BASED ANTIVIRAL THERAPY: THE PRINCIPLES OF PATIENTS SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Bogomolov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The beginning of a new era of direct acting antivirals sets up its own rules, that is, to achieve the highest efficacy with the shortest duration of treatment. It is assumed that the use of the first generation of direct acting antivirals, similarly to interferon-free regimens, would allow for personalization of approaches to their prescriptions.Aim: To identify the most important parameters that can predict the greatest efficacy of triple antiviral therapy of 12 week duration in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1.Materials and methods: The study included 204 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV genotype 1 at an early stage of liver disease (METAVIR score F0-F2, who were either treatment-naive or had a history of relapse after standard of care antiviral therapy. In addition to routine work-up, all patients were screened for IL28B polymorphism; in the course of the treatment viral kinetics was assessed by an ultrasensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR (with lower limit of quantification of 12 IU/ml. Duration of the triple therapy (pegylated interferon-α2a, ribavirin and telaprevir was reduced to 12 weeks if a rapid virological response was achieved; otherwise the patients continued their treatment in according with guidelines. Results: A complete rapid virological response was achieved in 174 patients (81.6%, in whom the duration of triple therapy was 12 weeks. According to the protocol, 25 patients with a partial rapid virological response continued their standard antiviral therapy for 12 weeks more. In those who achieved a rapid virological response, there was an association between IL28B-CC genotype at rs12979860 and maintenance of zero viremia at 12 weeks after termination of antiviral therapy (r = 0.38, p < 0.001. In all such patients there was a stable virological response at 12 weeks of the follow-up. Monitoring of viral load after 14 days of antiviral treatment was not predictive of its success. The

  19. Knowledge translation in physical therapy: from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidarov, Diana; Thomas, Aliki; Poissant, Lise

    2013-08-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) has emerged as a concept that can lead to a greater utilization of evidence-based research in systems of care. Despite a rise in KT research, the literature on KT in relation to physical therapy practice is scarce. This article provides physical therapists (PTs) with recommendations that can support the effective implementation of new knowledge and scientific evidence in clinical practice. Recommendations are grounded in the Ottawa Model of Research Use and in the literature in KT in the health professions. A well-established KT process, which is supported by a planning model, is essential to guide the implementation of scientific evidence. Consensus among all stakeholders about what evidence will be implemented must be reached. Context-related barriers and facilitators should be assessed and tailored active and multi-component interventions should be considered. Participation from individuals in intermediary positions (e.g. opinion leaders) supports implementation of KT interventions. Monitoring of the process and assessment of intended outcomes should be performed in order to assess the success of the implementation. Five major recommendations grounded in the Ottawa model are provided that can assist PTs with the complex task of implementing new knowledge in their clinical practice. In order to support EBP, knowledge translation interventions can be used to support best practice. Implementation of new knowledge should be guided by a framework or a conceptual model. Consensus on the evidence must be reached and assessment of context-related factors should be done prior to the implementation of any KT intervention. Intervention strategies should be active, multi-component and include individuals with intermediary positions that can facilitate the KT process.

  20. Allergic Rhinitis in Children: Principles of Early Diagnosis and Effective Therapy. Overview of Clinical Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Baranov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly summarizes the key provisions of the clinical recommendations on medical care delivery for children with allergic rhinitis: modern approaches to diagnosis and therapy. The current document was developed by the professional association of pediatric specialists —the Union of Pediatricians of Russia — together with the leading experts of the Russian Association of Allergists and Clinical Immunologists. The recommendations are regularly updated due to the latest evidence-based results of effectiveness and safety of various medical interventions. The article presents information on the epidemiology of allergic rhinitis in children, specific diagnostic features which provide the opportunity for the timely and correct diagnosis and an effective therapy with personal approach.

  1. THE PRINCIPLES OF USING GAME AND ANIMAL THERAPY OF CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys MYKHAYLOV

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The specifics of the animal-assisted play therapy of children with special needs mental retardation is focused on child-oriented relationship development, where the therapist came in the childworld, examining the thoughts, feelings, perceptions and ideas that are important for the child, and through the relationships that follow, provides emotional safe environment where children could overcome the problems, to cope with fear and anxiety, and to move forward in the direction of psychosocial health.Used on the basis of the Centre's psychosocial rehabilitation of children and adolescents “Feldman”, the Ecoparkanimal-assisted play therapy for children with special needs are sustained on the natural ways, with which children learn about themselves and their relationship with the world around them. This approach helps the child to develop respect for themselves and others, bodyawareness, self-esteem, as well as a wider recognition and enforcement of their own abilities.

  2. MODERN PRINCIPLES OF VITAMIN-BASED PREVENTION AND VITAMIN THERAPY ADMINISTRATION IN CHILDREN AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Lapshin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes of the studies of Picovit (KRKA, Slovenia vitamin and mineral preparation series' efficiency in the prevention of hypo and avitaminoses in apparently healthy children and in children administered therapy and rehabilitation measures for reasons of chronic somatic pathology are described. Picovit polyvitamin and vitamin & mineral complexes have been specifically designed for children of various ages and contain all necessary vitamins and minerals in safe RDA approved quantities; they are manufactured under a special micro capsulation technology. It has been proved that Picovit series medications are highly efficient, safe, convenient for administration and use, and have high organoleptic characteristics which allows recommending them for an ample use in paediatrics.Key words: vitamin prevention, vitamin therapy, polyvitamin complexes, Picovit series vitamin & mineral preparations.

  3. Arm, neck and shoulder complaints in physical therapy practice: course and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H. Karels (Celinde)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes studies about the course and treatment of arm, neck and shoulder complaints in physical therapy practice. A prospective cohort study of 624 new patients with arm, neck and shoulder complaints in physical therapy practice evaluated the short and the long term

  4. An overview of 5 years of patient self-referral for physical therapy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, Ilse C. S.; Kooijman, Margit K.; Spreeuwenberg, Peter M.; Bossen, D.; Leemrijse, Chantal J.; van Dijk, Christel E.; Verheij, Robert; de Bakker, Dinny H.; Veenhof, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-referral for physical therapy was introduced in 2006 in the Netherlands. Internationally, debate on self-referral is still ongoing. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of self-referral for physical therapy in the Netherlands, focusing on volume of general

  5. Development of a Quantitative Tool to Assess the Content of Physical Therapy for Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blauw-Hospers, Cornill H.; Dirks, Tineke; Hulshof, Lily J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The study aim was to describe and quantify physical therapy interventions for infants at high risk for developmental disorders. Methods: An observation protocol was developed based on knowledge about infant physical therapy and analysis of directly observable physiotherapeutic (PT) actions.

  6. Physical Therapy Observation and Assessment in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Eilish; Campbell, Suzann K.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the elements of the Observation and Assessment section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy assessments presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these assessments is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert…

  7. Analysis of Physical Therapy Goals in a School-Based Setting: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConlogue, Agnes; Quinn, Lori

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to analyze physical therapy goals for students receiving services in the school setting and to determine if these goals are measurable and context specific. The Individualized Education Program (IEP) of 32 students receiving physical therapy services was analyzed to determine the type of task and context that…

  8. Effect of a new physical therapy concept on dynamic balance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hatem Abdel Mohsen Abdel Hamid Emara

    2014-09-30

    Sep 30, 2014 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Effect of a new physical therapy concept on dynamic balance in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. Hatem Abdel Mohsen Abdel Hamid Emara *. Department of Physical Therapy for Growth and Developmental Disorders in Children and its Surgery, Cairo University, Egypt.

  9. Clinical outcomes following manual physical therapy and exercise for hip osteoarthritis: a case series.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDonald, C.W.; Whitman, J.M.; Cleland, J.A.; Smith, M.; Hoeksma, H.L.

    2006-01-01

    Study Design: Case series describing the outcomes of individual patients with hip osteoarthritis treated with manual physical therapy and exercise. Case Description: Seven patients referred to physical therapy with hip osteoarthritis and/or hip pain were included in this case series. All patients

  10. A checklist to assess patient education in physical therapy practice: development and reliability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    Patient education in physical therapy is gaining attention because it can contribute to patient compliance and prevention. This article describes the development of an assessment tool for investigating patient education in physical therapy. A checklist of 65 educational activity items was

  11. Integrating Therapy Dog Teams in a Physical Activity Program for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrusnikova, Iva; Bibik, Janice M.; Cavalier, Albert R.; Manley, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    The use of therapy-dog teams in programs for children with disabilities is becoming increasingly popular in school and therapeutic settings and has been shown to provide physical, social, and emotional benefits for the children. This article describes the basic steps for implementing therapy dog-assisted activities in physical activity programs…

  12. Boron neutron capture therapy for oral precancer: proof of principle in an experimental animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Monti Hughes; ECC Pozzi; S. Thorp; M. A. Garabalino; R. O. Farias; S. J. Gonzalez; E. M. Heber; M. E. Itoiz; R. F. Aromando; A. J. Molinari; M. Miller; D. W. Nigg; P. Curotto; V. A. Trivillin; A. E. Schwint

    2013-11-01

    Field-cancerized tissue can give rise to second primary tumours, causing therapeutic failure. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on biological targeting and would serve to treat undetectable foci of malignant transformation. The aim of this study was to optimize BNCT for the integral treatment for oral cancer, with particular emphasis on the inhibitory effect on tumour development originating in precancerous conditions, and radiotoxicity of different BNCT protocols in a hamster cheek pouch oral precancer model.

  13. [Blocking of carbohydrate adhesion. A new principle for therapy of many conditions?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryne, M; Asheim, H C; Giercksky, K E

    1995-06-20

    Cell adhesion is of fundamental biological importance. In this article we describe the therapeutic potential of blocking carbohydrate dependent adhesion. The animal studies are promising, and there is a realistic hope that "anti-adhesion" therapy for acute conditions like reperfusion injury and severe infections will be of clinical value. Treatment of more chronic diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and cancer by blocking carbohydrate mediated cell adhesion is theoretically possible, but probably more difficult.

  14. Academic Dishonesty among Physical Therapy Students: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuno, Eli; Davidson, Alex; Iwasaki, Karen; Jones, Susan; Martin, Jay; Brooks, Dina; Gibson, Barbara E; Mori, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    To examine academically dishonest behaviours based on physical therapy (PT) students' current practices and educators' prior behaviours as PT students. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to 174 students and 250 educators from the PT programme at the University of Toronto. The questionnaire gathered data on demographics as well as on the prevalence of, seriousness of, and contributing factors to academic dishonesty (AD). In all, 52.4% of educators and 44.3% of students responded to the questionnaire over a 6-week data-collection period. Scenarios rated the most serious were the least frequently performed by educators and students. The impact of generation on attitudes and prevalence of AD was not significant. The factors most commonly reported as contributing to AD were school-related pressure, disagreement with evaluation methods, and the perception that "everyone else does it." This study parallels the findings of similar research conducted in other health care programmes: AD does occur within the PT curriculum. AD was more prevalent in situations associated with helping peers than in those associated with personal gain. The consistency in behaviours reported across generations suggests that some forms of cheating are accepted as the social norm and may be a function of the environment.

  15. Therapeutic perspectives of physical therapy in relation to pain lumbar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Eudison da Silva Maia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing incidence of low back pain is a problem of public health, causing physical, economical and psychosocial damages. Such pain is correlated with types of work and its execution, such as remaining in determinate postures for long periods and repetition of mechanically stressful movements, and its consequent metabolic damage on the composing structures of the lumbar spine. Thus, this study approaches the aetiology of the mechanical and biological factors related to low back pain, contributing to the enrichment of the discussion of proposed interventionist therapies that lead to the reduction or remission of lumbar pain. For such, a literature review was performed through researching publications in the period from 2000 to 2012 in orthopedics, osteopathy, and rheumatology textbooks, as well as newspapers and databases such as Lilacs, Bireme, and Scielo, using the keywords: low back pain, physiotherapy, and health. It was observed that knowing the aetiology of low back pain is important for the formulation of a therapeutic strategy. The base for the therapeutic strategy should be composed of: the evaluation of the individual, the individual's work and the movements necessary for it, and the environment where such work is performed. The physiotherapist has a wide and effective therapeutic arsenal for the performance of his/her interventions. Treatment success depends on the selection and/or combination of the techniques that best attend the patients' needs. Thus, physiotherapy comes as an indispensable tool in the promotion of health and improvement of life quality.

  16. Academic Dishonesty among Physical Therapy Students: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuno, Eli; Davidson, Alex; Iwasaki, Karen; Jones, Susan; Martin, Jay; Brooks, Dina; Gibson, Barbara E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To examine academically dishonest behaviours based on physical therapy (PT) students' current practices and educators' prior behaviours as PT students. Method: A Web-based questionnaire was sent to 174 students and 250 educators from the PT programme at the University of Toronto. The questionnaire gathered data on demographics as well as on the prevalence of, seriousness of, and contributing factors to academic dishonesty (AD). Results: In all, 52.4% of educators and 44.3% of students responded to the questionnaire over a 6-week data-collection period. Scenarios rated the most serious were the least frequently performed by educators and students. The impact of generation on attitudes and prevalence of AD was not significant. The factors most commonly reported as contributing to AD were school-related pressure, disagreement with evaluation methods, and the perception that “everyone else does it.” Conclusion: This study parallels the findings of similar research conducted in other health care programmes: AD does occur within the PT curriculum. AD was more prevalent in situations associated with helping peers than in those associated with personal gain. The consistency in behaviours reported across generations suggests that some forms of cheating are accepted as the social norm and may be a function of the environment. PMID:23729959

  17. [Comprehensive physical antiedematous therapy in treatment of patients with lymphedema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiskhanov, A K; Maksimov, A V

    Presented in the article is retrospective analysis of the results of treatment of patients with lymphedema. We treated a total of 33 patients with primary (n=6) and secondary (n=27) lymphedema. Stage II lymphedema was diagnosed in 18 (54.5%) patients, stage III lymphedema in 15 (45.5%) patients. The 33 patients had a total of 44 affected limbs (9 hands and 35 legs). All patients were subjected to comprehensive physical antiedematous therapy including: manual lymph drainage massage, formation of compression bandage, selection of individual class 3 plain stitch compression knitwear, special complex of therapeutic exercises, care of the skin of the affected limb. A positive effect was achieved in all cases. In patients with upper limb lesions the volume of the extremity decreased averagely by 1'235.0±283.7 cm3 (22.6% of the baseline volume, ptreatment of patients with limb lymphedema, making it possible to attain regression of trophic disorders and to improve patients' quality of life.

  18. Improving cultural diversity awareness of physical therapy educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaro, Rolando T; Umphred, Darcy A

    2007-01-01

    In a climate of increasing diversity in the population of patients requiring physical therapy (PT) services, PT educators must prepare students and future clinicians to work competently in culturally diverse environments. To be able to achieve this goal, PT educators must be culturally competent as well. The purposes of the study were to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess cultural diversity awareness and to develop an educational workshop to improve cultural diversity awareness of PT academic and clinical educators. Phase 1 of the study involved the development of an instrument to assess cultural diversity awareness. The Cultural Diversity Awareness Questionnaire (CDAQ) was developed, validated for content, analyzed for reliability, and field and pilot tested. Results indicated that the CDAQ has favorable psychometric properties. Phase 2 of the study involved the development and implementation of the Cultural Diversity Workshop (CDW). The seminar contents and class materials were developed, validated, and implemented as a one-day cultural diversity awareness seminar. A one-group, pretest-posttest experimental design was used, with participants who completed the CDAQ before and after the workshop. Results indicated that the workshop was effective in improving cultural diversity awareness of the participants. Results of the workshop evaluation affirmed the achievement of objectives and effectiveness of the facilitator. This study provided a solid initial foundation upon which a comprehensive cultural competence program can be developed.

  19. Citations of Brazilian physical therapy journals in national publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan K C; Yamaki, Vitor N; Botelho, Nara M; Teixeira, Renato C

    2014-01-01

    Quotations in Brazilian journals are mainly obtained from national articles (articles from Brazilian journals); thus, it is essential to determine how frequently these articles reference Brazilian journals. This study sought to verify how frequently national papers are cited in the references of three Brazilian physical therapy journals. All references for articles published in Fisioterapia em Movimento, Fisioterapia e Pesquisa and Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia between 2010 and 2012 were evaluated. In particular, the numbers of national articles and international articles (articles from international journals) cited in these references were determined. A total of 13,009 references cited by 456 articles were analyzed, and 2,924 (22.47%) of the cited works were national articles. There were no significant differences among the three examined years. A total of 36 (7.89%) articles did not cite national articles, whereas 65 (13.25%) articles cited more national articles than international articles. On average, 22.47% of the works cited by the evaluated articles were national articles. No significant differences were detected among the three analyzed years.

  20. Citations of Brazilian physical therapy journals in national publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan K. C.; Yamaki, Vitor N.; Botelho, Nara M.; Teixeira, Renato C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Quotations in Brazilian journals are mainly obtained from national articles (articles from Brazilian journals); thus, it is essential to determine how frequently these articles reference Brazilian journals. Objective This study sought to verify how frequently national papers are cited in the references of three Brazilian physical therapy journals. Method All references for articles published in Fisioterapia em Movimento, Fisioterapia e Pesquisa and Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia between 2010 and 2012 were evaluated. In particular, the numbers of national articles and international articles (articles from international journals) cited in these references were determined. Results A total of 13,009 references cited by 456 articles were analyzed, and 2,924 (22.47%) of the cited works were national articles. There were no significant differences among the three examined years. A total of 36 (7.89%) articles did not cite national articles, whereas 65 (13.25%) articles cited more national articles than international articles. Conclusion On average, 22.47% of the works cited by the evaluated articles were national articles. No significant differences were detected among the three analyzed years. PMID:24675917

  1. Computational anatomy based on whole body imaging basic principles of computer-assisted diagnosis and therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Masutani, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with computational anatomy, an emerging discipline recognized in medical science as a derivative of conventional anatomy. It is also a completely new research area on the boundaries of several sciences and technologies, such as medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics. Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging highlights the underlying principles, basic theories, and fundamental techniques in computational anatomy, which are derived from conventional anatomy, medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics, in addition to various examples of applications in clinical data. The book will cover topics on the basics and applications of the new discipline. Drawing from areas in multidisciplinary fields, it provides comprehensive, integrated coverage of innovative approaches to computational anatomy. As well,Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging serves as a valuable resource for researchers including graduate students in the field and a connection with ...

  2. An Economic Research Inspired by the Fundamental Principles of the Quantum Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Iurie BADAR

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the XX-th century, after a glorious history of about two centuries, the Newton’s classical physics enters into a great conceptual crisis, marked by the famous findings, which have subsequently represented the fundamentals of the quantum theory. They have thrown out the visions of the classical physics on the main laws of Universe development, the role of the human being and of knowledge in its functioning. Therefore, the quantum theory, confusing the traditional picture of...

  3. Segmentation and Simulation of Objects Represented in Images using Physical Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia C. T. Gonçalves; Tavares, João Manuel R. S.; Natal Jorge, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    The main goals of the present work are to automatically extract the Contour of an object and to simulate its deformation using a physical approach. In this work, to segment an object represented in an image, an initial contour is manually defined for it that will then automatically evolve until it reaches the border of the desired object. In this approach, the contour is modelled by a physical formulation using the finite element method. and its temporal evolution to the desired final Contour...

  4. On the use, by Einstein, of the principle of dimensional homogeneity, in three problems of the physics of solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO L. LOBO B. CARNEIRO

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Einstein, in 1911, published an article on the application of the principle of dimensional homogeneity to three problems of the physics of solids: the characteristic frequency of the atomic nets of crystalline solids as a function of their moduli of compressibility or of their melting points, and the thermal conductivity of crystalline insulators. Recognizing that the physical dimensions of temperature are not the same as those of energy and heat, Einstein had recourse to the artifice of replace that physical parameter by its product by the Boltzmann constant, so obtaining correct results. But nowadays, with the new basic quantities "Thermodynamic Temperature theta (unit- Kelvin'', "Electric Current I (unit Ampère'' and "Amount of Substance MOL (unit-mole'', incorporated to the SI International System of Units, in 1960 and 1971, the same results are obtained in a more direct and coherent way. At the time of Einstein's article only three basic physical quantities were considered - length L, mass M, and time T. He ignored the pi theorem of dimensional analysis diffused by Buckingham three years later, and obtained the "pi numbers'' by trial and error. In the present paper is presented a revisitation of the article of Einstein, conducted by the modern methodology of dimensional analysis and theory of physical similitude.

  5. How much physical therapy for patients with stroke?

    OpenAIRE

    Brocklehurst, J C; Andrews, K; Richards, B; Laycock, P J

    1978-01-01

    The use of physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy for patients with stroke was investigated, and the three treatments were compared. Out of 135 patients with stroke surviving at two weeks, 107 received physiotherapy, but only 35 received occupational therapy and 19 speech therapy. Those who received most physiotherapy were the most severely disabled and had the worst prognosis, and, although almost no recovery occurred after six months, 30 patients continued with treatment be...

  6. Clinical trial registration in physical therapy journals: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Abraham Samuel; Veluswamy, Sundar Kumar; Rao, Pratiksha Tilak; Maiya, Arun G

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trial registration has become an important part of editorial policies of various biomedical journals, including a few physical therapy journals. However, the extent to which editorial boards enforce the need for trial registration varies across journals. The purpose of this study was to identify editorial policies and reporting of trial registration details in MEDLINE-indexed English-language physical therapy journals. This study was carried out using a cross-sectional design. Editorial policies on trial registration of MEDLINE-indexed member journals of the International Society of Physiotherapy Journal Editors (ISPJE) (Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, Journal of Hand Therapy, Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy, Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, Journal of Physiotherapy [formerly Australian Journal of Physiotherapy], Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Manual Therapy, Physical Therapy, Physical Therapy in Sport, Physiotherapy, Physiotherapy Research International, Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, and Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia) were reviewed in April 2013. Full texts of reports of clinical trials published in these journals between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2012, were independently assessed for information on trial registration. Among the 13 journals, 8 recommended trial registration, and 6 emphasized prospective trial registration. As of April 2013, 4,618 articles were published between January 2008 and December 2012, of which 9% (417) were clinical trials and 29% (121/417) of these reported trial registration details. A positive trend in reporting of trial registration was observed from 2008 to 2012. The study was limited to MEDLINE-indexed ISPJE member journals. Editorial policies on trial registration of physical therapy journals and a rising trend toward reporting of trial registration details indicate a positive momentum toward trial registration. Physical therapy journal editors need to show

  7. Foundations & principles of distributed manufacturing elements of manufacturing networks, cyber-physical production systems and smart automation

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnle, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    The book presents a coherent description of distributed manufacturing, providing a solid base for further research on the subject as well as smart implementations in companies. It provides a guide for those researching and working in a range of fields, such as smart manufacturing, cloud computing, RFID tracking, distributed automation, cyber physical production and global design anywhere, manufacture anywhere solutions. Foundations & Principles of Distributed Manufacturing anticipates future advances in the fields of embedded systems, the Internet of Things and cyber physical systems, outlining how adopting these innovations could rapidly bring about improvements in key performance indicators, which could in turn generate competition pressure by rendering successful business models obsolete. In laying the groundwork for powerful theoretical models, high standards for the homogeneity and soundness of the suggested setups are applied. The book especially elaborates on the upcoming competition in online manu...

  8. Use of physical therapy services among middle-aged and older adults with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Marcia; Plow, Matthew; Cho, Chi

    2010-11-01

    There is limited understanding of the utilization of and perceived need for physical therapy services among middle-aged and older adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). The resulting knowledge gap compromises efforts for physical therapy service planning for this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of and need for physical therapy services in a sample of adults with MS living in the Midwestern United States. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Data from telephone interviews with 1,065 people with MS, aged 45 to 90 years, were used for the study. A multinomial regression model was used to determine factors associated with use of physical therapy services (never, within the past year, more than a year ago). Logistic regression analysis examined factors associated with unmet needs for these services. Thirty-six percent of the sample reported never using physical therapy services, 33% reported using physical therapy services within the past year, and 31% reported using physical therapy services more than a year prior to the interview. Factors associated with recent use of physical therapy services included living in an urban or suburban community, deteriorating MS status, experiencing problems with spasticity (ie, hypertonicity), having difficulty moving inside the house, being hospitalized in the past 6 months, and seeing a family physician. These same factors were associated with unmet needs. Limitations Physical therapy service use was self-reported. Data were collected in 5 Midwestern states from people 45 years of age or older, which may limit generalizability. Factors associated with use of and need for physical therapy services reflect issues of access (geographical, referrals), MS status, and mobility difficulties.

  9. The Relationship between Physical Therapist Assistant Faculty Characteristics and Program Outcomes on the National Physical Therapy Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Malorie Kosht

    2009-01-01

    Background. There is a paucity of published literature regarding the correlation between faculty characteristics and outcomes on the National Physical Therapy Examination for Physical Therapist Assistants (NPTE-PTA). Purpose. To determine if there was a relationship between faculty characteristics in PTA educational programs and program outcomes…

  10. Physical activity and exercise adherence in physical therapy exercise treatment in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, M.F.; Veenhof, C.; Bakker, D. de; Schellevis, F.G.; Dekker, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: a lack of regular physical activity in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and/or knee is an important risk factor for functional decline. The ultimate goal of exercise therapy is to improve the overall physical function and to help individuals meet the demands of daily living.

  11. Do occupational therapy and physical therapy curricula teach critical thinking skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Kimberly A; Geelhoed, Michael; Grice, Kimatha O; Murphy, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether critical thinking ability can be improved through participation in occupational therapy (OT) and physical therapy (PT) curricula. The researchers compared levels of the critical thinking skills of OT and PT students at the beginning and end of their programs to determine whether changes occurred and to examine facets of the curricula that may have caused the differences. The curricula include teaching strategies of problem-based learning modules, small group discussion and problem-solving, case studies, clinical observation, and evidence-based practice assignments, as well as teaching about critical thinking as a process in itself. Fifty OT and PT students completed the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal at the beginning and end of 20 mos of the academic phase of their master's degree programs. Researchers analyzed the data using a one-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Results showed no differences between OT and PT students on the pretest or post-test and no differences for PT students between the pretest and post-test. OT students' scores increased significantly from pretest to post-test. The influence of the timing of teaching critical thinking skills in the resulting differences between the two curricula, as well as the validity of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal is a valid measure of critical thinking changes in allied health students are discussed.

  12. The Evidence-Based Principles of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Trauma & Orthopedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Novak; Khan, Wasim S; J, Palmer

    2014-01-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy is a popular treatment for the management of both acute and chronic wounds. Its use in trauma and orthopedics is diverse and includes the acute traumatic setting as well as chronic troublesome wounds associated with pressure sores and diabetic foot surgery. Efforts have been made to provide an evidence base to guide its use however this has been limited by a lack of good quality evidence. The following review article explores the available evidence and describes future developments for its use in trauma and orthopaedic practice. PMID:25067971

  13. Predictors of the use of physical therapy services among patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Maura D; Chhabriya, Ritu K; Shadick, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Although physical therapy is a proven and recommended intervention for managing rheumatoid arthritis (RA), few studies have explored correlates of physical therapy service use among people with RA. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe physical therapy use among people with RA and (2) to identify biopsychosocial factors associated with physical therapy use. It was expected that use of physical therapy services would be lower than previously reported, considering recent medical advancements, and that including contextual factors may lead to identification of new factors associated with physical therapy use. This was a cohort study. Of 1,032 patients prospectively recruited from a large hospital registry, 772 completed baseline and laboratory assessments, received a physical examination, and completed a 1-year follow-up survey regarding physical therapy service use. Measures included: demographics (ie, age, sex, marital status, race, employment, disability status, insurance, income, comorbidities, and education), disease duration, RA medications, self-efficacy (assessed with the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale), social support (assessed with the Berkman-Syme Social Network Index), function (assessed with the Multi-Dimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire), and disease activity (assessed with the Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Index). Self-reported use of physical therapy (yes/no) was assessed at the 1-year follow-up. A staged regression approach, based on a theoretical model, was used to select and enter variables into the regression to develop a parsimonious set of predictors. The patients were well educated and had modestly high incomes, and most had health insurance. Approximately 15.3% of the patients used physical therapy services during the designated follow-up period. Using multivariable modeling, the most significant predictors of physical therapy service use were moderate to high disease activity (odds ratio [OR]=1.4, 95% confidence

  14. Development of a Positive Youth Development Program: Promoting the Mental Health of Stressful Adolescents Using Principles of Problem Solving Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T.L. Shek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the proposal for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a positive youth development program that attempts to promote the mental health of stressful Chinese adolescents using principles of Problem Solving Therapy (PST. There are two general aims of PST: to help clients identify life difficulties and resolve them, as well as to teach them skills on how to deal with future problems. The proposed project will utilize the principles of PST as the guiding framework to run two mental health promotion courses for adolescents who are experiencing disturbing stressful responses and students who want to improve their stress management style. Both objective and subjective outcome evaluation strategies will be carried out to assess the effectiveness of the intervention to promote the psychological well-being in adolescents who are experiencing stress. A related sample proposal is described that can give social workers some insight on how to prepare a proposal for developing the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs.

  15. Security and privacy in cyber-physical systems foundations, principles, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Houbing; Jeschke, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    Written by a team of experts at the forefront of the cyber-physical systems (CPS) revolution, this book provides an in-depth look at security and privacy, two of the most critical challenges facing both the CPS research and development community and ICT professionals. It explores, in depth, the key technical, social, and legal issues at stake, and it provides readers with the information they need to advance research and development in this exciting area. Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are engineered systems that are built from, and depend upon the seamless integration of computational algorithms and physical components. Advances in CPS will enable capability, adaptability, scalability, resiliency, safety, security, and usability far in excess of what today's simple embedded systems can provide. Just as the Internet revolutionized the way we interact with information, CPS technology has already begun to transform the way people interact with engineered systems. In the years ahead, smart CPS will drive innovat...

  16. The physics of degradation in engineered materials and devices fundamentals and principles

    CERN Document Server

    Swingler, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Degradation is apparent in all things and is fundamental to both manufactured and natural objects. It is often described by the second law of thermodynamics, where entropy, a measure of disorder, tends to increase with time in a closed system. Things age! This concise reference work brings together experts and key players engaged in the physics of degradation to present the background science, current thinking and developments in understanding, and gives a detailed account of emerging issues across a selection of engineering applications. The work has been put together to equip the upper level undergraduate student, postgraduate student, as well as the professional engineer and scientist, in the importance of physics of degradation. The aim of The Physics of Degradation in Engineered Materials and Devices is to bridge the gap between published textbooks on the fundamental science of degradation phenomena and published research on the engineering science of actual fabricated materials and devices. A history o...

  17. Solid-State Physics An Introduction to Principles of Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    Ibach, Harald

    2009-01-01

    This new edition of the popular introduction to solid-state physics provides a comprehensive overview on basic theoretical and experimental concepts of material science. Additional sections emphasize current topics in solid-state physics. Notably, sections on important devices, aspects of non-periodic structures of matter, phase transitions, defects, superconductors and nanostructures have been added, the chapters presenting semi- and superconductivity had been completly updated. Students will benefit significantly from solving the exercises given at the end of each chapter. This book is intended for university students in physics, engineering and electrical engineering. This edition has been carefully revised, updated, and enlarged. Among the key recent developments incorporated throughout GMR (giant magneto resistance), thin-film magnetic properties, magnetic hysteresis and domain walls, quantum transport, metamaterials, and preparation techniques for nanostructures. From a review of the original edition �...

  18. [Pharmacokinetic principles and drug-dosing adjustments during continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, S; Guzzo, I; Vitaliano, E; Muzi, L; Solazzo, A; Pistolesi, V; Pierucci, A

    2006-01-01

    In the critically ill, acute renal failure (ARF) and "Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome" (MODS) can be associated with significant modifications of many pharmacokinetic parameters, such as protein binding, volume of distribution and total body clearance. The start of renal replacement therapy (RRT) represents an additional variable to take in consideration for drug-dosing adjustments. Drugs significantly eliminated by the kidney are likely to be removed during RRT and a supplemental dose or further dosing adjustments are required if extracorporeal clearance is more than 25-30% of total body clearance. The impact of RRT on plasma drug concentrations can be substantially different in relation to the type of treatment (diffusive, convective or both), membrane characteristics (low-flux or high-flux), filter surface area and prescribed dialysis dose. The molecular weight cut-offs of high-flux membrane are much higher than the molecular weight of most drugs. Therefore, molecular size will not be a limitation for the removal of the unbound fraction of the drugs most commonly used in the critically ill undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). However, diffusive clearance could be significantly lower than convective clearance for drugs in the middle molecular weight range. In any case, the extracorporeal clearances report-ed with the use of high-volume CRRT (>50-60 L/2 h) are often surprisingly elevated and can lead to drug underdosing in clinical conditions where adequate antibiotic treatment is essential.

  19. Concepts and principles of photodynamic therapy as an alternative antifungal discovery platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eTegos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic fungal pathogens may cause superficial or serious invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised and debilitated patients. Invasive mycoses represent an exponentially growing threat for human health due to a combination of slow diagnosis and the existence of relatively few classes of available and effective antifungal drugs. Therefore systemic fungal infections result in high attributable mortality. There is an urgent need to pursue and deploy novel and effective alternative anti-fungal countermeasures. Photodynamic therapy was established as a successful modality for malignancies and age-related macular degeneration but photodynamic inactivation has only recently been intensively investigated as an alternative antimicrobial discovery and development platform. The concept of photodynamic inactivation requires microbial exposure to either exogenous or endogenous photosensitizer molecules, followed by visible light energy, typically wavelengths in the red/near infrared region that cause the excitation of the photosensitizers resulting in the production of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species that react with intracellular components, and consequently produce cell inactivation and death. Anti-fungal photodynamic therapy is an area of increasing interest, as research is advancing i to identify the photochemical and photophysical mechanisms involved in photoinactivation; ii to develop potent and clinically compatible photosensitizers; iii to understand how photoinactivation is affected by key microbial phenotypic elements multidrug resistance and efflux, virulence and pathogenesis determinants, and formation of biofilms; iv to explore novel photosensitizer delivery platforms and v to identify photoinactivation applications beyond the clinical setting such as environmental disinfectants.

  20. [Comparing the effects of drug therapy, physical therapy, and exercise on pain, disability, and depression in patients with chronic low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ja Kyung

    2007-08-01

    This research was conducted to compare the effects of drug therapy, physical therapy, and exercise on pain, disability, and depression in patients with chronic low back pain. The research design of this study was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The subjects of this study were 28 patients for the drug therapy & physical therapy, 24 patients for the drug therapy & exercise, and 22 patients for the physical therapy & exercise. Data was collected by MVAS, Oswestry disability questionnaires, and questionnaires of depression. It was analyzed by paired t-test for effectiveness, ANOVA, and Scheffe for comparison of the effects of the 3 experimental treatments, using SPSS/WIN 12.0. There were no effects of drug therapy & physical therapy on pain, disability, and depression. However, there were effects of drug therapy & exercise and the physical therapy & exercise on pain, disability, and depression. The effects of physical therapy & exercise on pain, disability, and depression were the greatest, but there was no statistically significant differences between the drug therapy & exercise and the physical therapy & exercise. Exercise is regarded as a more effective and easily accessible nursing intervention to apply alone than drug therapy or physical therapy simultaneously in reducing pain, disability and depression.

  1. Laser principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan Allemann, Inja; Kaufman, Joely

    2011-01-01

    Since the construction of the first laser in the 1960s, the role that lasers play in various medical specialities, including dermatology, has steadily increased. However, within the last 2 decades, the technological advances and the use of lasers in the field of dermatology have virtually exploded. Many treatments have only become possible with the use of lasers. Especially in aesthetic medicine, lasers are an essential tool in the treatment armamentarium. Due to better research and understanding of the physics of light and skin, there is now a wide and increasing array of different lasers and devices to choose from. The proper laser selection for each indication and treatment requires a profound understanding of laser physics and the basic laser principles. Understanding these principles will allow the laser operator to obtain better results and help avoid complications. This chapter will give an in-depth overview of the physical principles relevant in cutaneous laser surgery. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Overview of physical therapy graduation courses in Brazil: current scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Baroni de Góes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: After the regulation of Physical Therapy (PT in 1969, there were only six undergraduate courses in Brazil. In the 90s, higher education underwent major expansion in all professions and the same occurred to PT, with consequent increase in the number of professionals in the labor market and privatization of education. Objective: To describe the current situation of PT courses in Brazil offered by Higher Education Institutions (IES. Methods: The data for the region, academic organization, situation, period, school system, administrative category, vacancies, course hours and duration were obtained from the website of the Ministry of Education (MEC and refer to the year of 2013. The descriptive analyzes of central tendency, dispersion and percentage were performed in Stata 9®. Results: From the total of 550 IES registered in the MEC, 281 (51% were in the Southeast. Regarding the academic organization, 341 (62% corresponded to universities and 483 (87.9% of the IES were private. Of the courses, 521 (94.7% are active, the predominant school system was the semiannual (91.5% and 438 were part-time. The average vacancies authorized by the IES were 129 ± 102, with at least 44,900 vacancies available in the country. Of the courses, 75% had 4,000 hours of duration with the minimum of seven semesters and a maximum of fourteen. Conclusion: The data show a higher offer of PT courses in the private sector compared to the public. There was a progressive concentration of courses and vacancies in the Southeast, especially in São Paulo.

  3. Physical Therapy clinical performance indicators in the early hospital management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Janeth Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The known early intervention opportunities in cerebrovascular events (CVE, not only from the medical point of view but from rehabilitation, create the necessity of moving forward in the formulation of clinical performance indicators in the hospitalary physiotherapeutic management of a person with a CVE. Objective: to identify the physiotherapeutic clinical performance indicators in the early hospitalary management of people surviving CVE. Materials and methods: this is about a descriptive exploratory study investigating about the existing physiotherapeutic tests and practices, the scientific evidence about clinical indicators in CVE, the standard indicators and the possible clinical indicators in this setting. We conducted systematic review of descriptive studies, clinical practice guidelines, systematic reviews, clinical case study in evidence-based databases such as Pubmed, Proquest, Peter and electronic journals, plus analysis of data epidemiological prevalence of stroke in Colombia and Chile, on websites of the World Health Organization, Ministry of Health and National Bureau of each country respectively. Results: the evidence points out that early rehabilitation of CVE should be initiated during hospitalization, as soon as the diagnosis is made and the life threatening issues are controlled. Priorities in the CVE therapeutic interventions are to prevent: complications (venous thrombosis, infections and pain and to facilitate the early mobilization. The latest updates to these directives include early rehabilitation, particularly mobilization within 24 hours after the CVE occurrence. Proves supporting performance indicators in rehabilitation for the assistance in the sub-acute stage of CVE are limited. Conclusions: it is evident the importance of early intervention physical therapy in the acute process of patients with stroke as the evidence stands a better prognosis for patients who are operated on by the area within the first 24 hours

  4. Laser-assisted cell printing: principle, physical parameters versus cell fate and perspectives in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, Fabien; Souquet, Agnès; Catros, Sylvain; Guillotin, Bertrand

    2010-04-01

    We describe the physical parameters involved in laser-assisted cell printing and present evidence that this technology is coming of age. Finally we discuss how this high-throughput, high-resolution technique may help in reproducing local cell microenvironments, and thereby create functional tissue-engineered 3D constructs.

  5. Principles of astrophysics using gravity and stellar physics to explore the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Keeton, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a survey of astrophysics at the advanced undergraduate level.  It originates from a two-semester course sequence at Rutgers University that is meant to appeal not only to astrophysics students but also more broadly to physics and engineering students.  The organization is driven more by physics than by astronomy; in other words, topics are first developed in physics and then applied to astronomical systems that can be investigated, rather than the other way around. The first half of the book focuses on gravity.  Gravity is the dominant force in many astronomical systems, so a tremendous amount can be learned by studying gravity, motion and mass.  The theme in this part of the book, as well as throughout astrophysics, is using motion to investigate mass.  The goal of Chapters 2-11 is to develop a progressively richer understanding of gravity as it applies to objects ranging from planets and moons to galaxies and the universe as a whole. The second half uses other aspects of physics to addr...

  6. Physical therapy in the emergency department: development of a novel practice venue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-McDonnell, Debra; Czuppon, Sylvia; Deusinger, Susan S; Deusinger, Robert H

    2010-03-01

    The American Physical Therapy Association's Vision 2020 advocates that physical therapists be integral members of health care teams responsible for diagnosing and managing movement and functional disorders. This report details the design and early implementation of a physical therapist service in the emergency department (ED) of a large, urban hospital and presents recommendations for assessing the effectiveness of physical therapists in this setting. Emergency departments serve multiple purposes in the American health care system, including care of patients with non-life-threatening illnesses. Physical therapists have expertise in screening for problems that are not amenable to physical therapy and in addressing a wide range of acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain problems. This expertise invites inclusion into the culture of ED practice. This administrative case report describes planning and early implementation of a physical therapist practice in an ED, shares preliminary outcomes, and provides suggestions for expansion and effectiveness testing of practice in this novel venue. Referrals have increased and length of stay has decreased for patients receiving physical therapy. Preliminary surveys suggest high patient and practitioner satisfaction with physical therapy services. Outpatient physical therapy follow-up options were developed. Educating ED personnel to triage patients who show deficits in pain and functional mobility to physical therapy has challenged the usual culture of ED processes. Practice in the hospital ED enables physical therapists to fully use their knowledge, diagnostic skills, and ability to manage acute pain and musculoskeletal injury. Recommendations for future action are made to encourage more institutions across the country to incorporate physical therapy in EDs to enhance the process and outcome of nonemergent care.

  7. Efficacy of Manual Therapy versus Conventional Physical Therapy in Chronic Low Back Pain Due to Lumbar Spondylosis. A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Sharma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this work was to compare the efficacy of Maitland mobilization and conventional physical therapy on pain response, range of motion (ROM and functional ability in patients with chronic low back pain due to lumbar spondylosis. Methods: A total sample of 30 subjects (40–70 years of age with complaints of slow insidious onset of low back pain (LBP, with or without radiation not less than three months duration and decrease ROM were randomly assigned to: group-I, Maitland mobilization and lumbar stabilization exercises; group-II conventional physical therapy (traction, strengthening, stretching exercises. and outcomes were assessed for dependent variables. Results: There is statically a significant difference between pre and post measurement readings with time (p = 0.00 and between groups (p < 0.05 with respect to pain and function, but, with respect to ROM readings, showed statistical significance with time (p = 0.00 and no significance between groups (p > 0.05, indicating manual therapy group-I is improving faster and better than conventional physical therapy group-II. Conclusion: Our results showed that manual therapy interventions are more effective in managing low back pain, and function and range of motion of the lumbar spine than conventional physical therapy treatment.

  8. Efficacy of Manual Therapy versus Conventional Physical Therapy in Chronic Low Back Pain Due to Lumbar Spondylosis. A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arti; Alahmari, Khalid; Ahmed, Irshad

    2015-06-26

    The objective of this work was to compare the efficacy of Maitland mobilization and conventional physical therapy on pain response, range of motion (ROM) and functional ability in patients with chronic low back pain due to lumbar spondylosis. A total sample of 30 subjects (40-70 years of age) with complaints of slow insidious onset of low back pain (LBP), with or without radiation not less than three months duration and decrease ROM were randomly assigned to: group-I, Maitland mobilization and lumbar stabilization exercises; group-II conventional physical therapy (traction, strengthening, stretching exercises.) and outcomes were assessed for dependent variables. There is statically a significant difference between pre and post measurement readings with time (p = 0.00) and between groups (p 0.05), indicating manual therapy group-I is improving faster and better than conventional physical therapy group-II. Our results showed that manual therapy interventions are more effective in managing low back pain, and function and range of motion of the lumbar spine than conventional physical therapy treatment.

  9. Education Affects Attitudes of Physical Therapy Providers toward People with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, William H.; Killian, Clyde B.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was sent to every skilled nursing home (N = 495) in Indiana regarding the demographics, education, and whether the severity of dementia impacts the attitudes of people in physical therapy practice. Physical therapists (PTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs) practicing in nursing homes spend considerable time (44.0%) working with…

  10. Does Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Reduce Future Physical Abuse? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephanie C.; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Brown, Samantha M.; Gowdy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use meta-analytic techniques to evaluating the effectiveness of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) at reducing future physical abuse among physically abusive families. Methods: A systematic search identified six eligible studies. Outcomes of interest were physical abuse recurrence, child abuse potential, and parenting stress.…

  11. Acmeological principles of formation dynamic of physical education specialists’ acmeological competence activities’ component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Hr. Dereka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine characteristics of archeological competence’s activities component formation in physical education specialists and find correlation of its components. Material: in the research students of specialty “Physical education” (n=194 participated. Activities’ component of acmeological competence was determined by results of fulfillment of individual scientific research task. The content of such tasks was enriched with acmeological component. Results: we analyzed correlation and intra-influence of parts of acmeological competence’s activities component ion respect to its formation level. By results of factorial analysis we grouped, classified acmeological competence components and made them compactly visual. The most significant factors of acmeological competence components are marked out. Conclusions: we formed activities’ component of acmeological competence in process of students’ independent and scientific research work.

  12. PHYSICAL THERAPY INTERVENTION STRATEGIES FOR PATIENTS WITH PROLONGED MILD TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY SYMPTOMS: A CASE SERIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugentobler, Jason A; Vegh, Meredith; Janiszewski, Barbara; Quatman-Yates, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    Although most patients recover from a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) within 7-14 days, 10-30% of people will experience prolonged mTBI symptoms. Currently, there are no standardized treatment protocols to guide physical therapy interventions for this population. The purpose of this case series was to describe the unique, multimodal evaluation and treatment approaches for each of the patients with post-concussion syndrome (PCS). Six pediatric athletes with PCS who had participated in physical therapy and fit the inclusion criteria for review were retrospectively chosen for analysis. Patients received a cervical evaluation, an aerobic activity assessment, an oculomotor screen, and postural control assessment. Each patient participated in an individualized physical therapy treatment plan-of-care based on their presentation during the evaluation. Patients were treated for a mean of 6.8 treatment sessions over 9.8 weeks. Four of six patients returned to their pre-injury level of activity while two returned to modified activity upon completion of physical therapy. Improvements were observed in symptom scores, gaze stability, balance and postural control measures, and patient self-management of symptoms. All patients demonstrated adequate self-management of symptoms upon discharge from physical therapy. Physical therapy interventions for pediatric athletes with PCS may facilitate recovery and improve function. Further research is needed to validate effective tools for assessment of patients who experience prolonged concussion symptoms as well as to establish support for specific post-mTBI physical therapy interventions. Level 4.

  13. The relevance of Newton's laws and selected principles of physics to dance techniques: Theory and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Li

    1999-07-01

    In this study the researcher develops and presents a new model, founded on the laws of physics, for analyzing dance technique. Based on a pilot study of four advanced dance techniques, she creates a new model for diagnosing, analyzing and describing basic, intermediate and advanced dance techniques. The name for this model is ``PED,'' which stands for Physics of Expressive Dance. The research design consists of five phases: (1) Conduct a pilot study to analyze several advanced dance techniques chosen from Chinese dance, modem dance, and ballet; (2) Based on learning obtained from the pilot study, create the PED Model for analyzing dance technique; (3) Apply this model to eight categories of dance technique; (4) Select two advanced dance techniques from each category and analyze these sample techniques to demonstrate how the model works; (5) Develop an evaluation framework and use it to evaluate the effectiveness of the model, taking into account both scientific and artistic aspects of dance training. In this study the researcher presents new solutions to three problems highly relevant to dance education: (1) Dancers attempting to learn difficult movements often fail because they are unaware of physics laws; (2) Even those who do master difficult movements can suffer injury due to incorrect training methods; (3) Even the best dancers can waste time learning by trial and error, without scientific instruction. In addition, the researcher discusses how the application of the PED model can benefit dancers, allowing them to avoid inefficient and ineffective movements and freeing them to focus on the artistic expression of dance performance. This study is unique, presenting the first comprehensive system for analyzing dance techniques in terms of physics laws. The results of this study are useful, allowing a new level of awareness about dance techniques that dance professionals can utilize for more effective and efficient teaching and learning. The approach utilized in

  14. Neonatal physical therapy. Part II: Practice frameworks and evidence-based practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Jane K; Heriza, Carolyn B; Blanchard, Yvette; Dusing, Stacey C

    2010-01-01

    (1) To outline frameworks for neonatal physical therapy based on 3 theoretical models, (2) to describe emerging literature supporting neonatal physical therapy practice, and (3) to identify evidence-based practice recommendations. Three models are presented as a framework for neonatal practice: (1) dynamic systems theory including synactive theory and the theory of neuronal group selection, (2) the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and (3) family-centered care. Literature is summarized to support neonatal physical therapists in the areas of examination, developmental care, intervention, and parent education. Practice recommendations are offered with levels of evidence identified. Neonatal physical therapy practice has a theoretical and evidence-based structure, and evidence is emerging for selected clinical procedures. Continued research to expand the science of neonatal physical therapy is critical to elevate the evidence and support practice recommendations.

  15. Promoting Clinical Reasoning in Undergraduate Physical Therapy Education: A Review of Strategies and Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    2015-01-01

    Title: Promoting Clinical Reasoning in Undergraduate Physical Therapy Education: A Review of Strategies and Approaches Juneja H1, Brekke A F2 1,2 Physical Therapy Education, University College Zealand, Denmark Background: Clinical reasoning (CR) also referred to as “critical thinking” or “decision...... making” is being recognized as a core competency of the physical therapy professional at various levels of practice. However, it is difficult to teach in view of its invisible and tacit nature. Phenomenal changes in the profession, including the role as a diagnostician have witnessed aggressive thinking....... It is imperative that physical therapy educators utilize innovative pedagogical methods to facilitate learning of reasoning skills in students. Purpose: The review is an attempt to highlight and discuss selected pedagogical strategies and approaches to enhance clinical reasoning skills in undergraduate physical...

  16. Physical properties of the tetragonal CuMnAs: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máca, F.; Kudrnovský, J.; Drchal, V.; Carva, K.; Baláž, P.; Turek, I.

    2017-09-01

    Electronic, magnetic, and transport properties of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) CuMnAs alloy with tetragonal structure, promising for the AFM spintronics, are studied from first principles using the Vienna ab initio simulation package. We investigate the site occupation of sublattices and the lattice parameters of three competing phases. We analyze the factors that determine which of the three conceivable structures will prevail. We then estimate formation energies of possible defects for the experimentally prepared lattice structure. MnCu and CuMn antisites as well as Mn ↔Cu swaps and vacancies on Mn or Cu sublattices were identified as possible candidates for defects in CuMnAs. We find that the interactions of the growing thin film with the substrate and with vacuum as well as the electron correlations are important for the phase stability while the effect of defects is weak. In the next step, using the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital method for the experimental structure, we estimate transport properties for systems containing defects with low formation energies. Finally, we determine the exchange interactions and estimate the Néel temperature of the AFM-CuMnAs alloy using the Monte Carlo approach. A good agreement of the calculated resistivity and Néel temperature with experimental data makes it possible to draw conclusions concerning the competing phases.

  17. Prediction of Stable Ruthenium Silicides from First-Principles Calculations: Stoichiometries, Crystal Structures, and Physical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanzhao; Kuang, Xiaoyu; Jin, Yuanyuan; Lu, Cheng; Zhou, Dawei; Li, Peifang; Bao, Gang; Hermann, Andreas

    2015-12-09

    We present results of an unbiased structure search for stable ruthenium silicide compounds with various stoichiometries, using a recently developed technique that combines particle swarm optimization algorithms with first-principles calculations. Two experimentally observed structures of ruthenium silicides, RuSi (space group P2(1)3) and Ru2Si3 (space group Pbcn), are successfully reproduced under ambient pressure conditions. In addition, a stable RuSi2 compound with β-FeSi2 structure type (space group Cmca) was found. The calculations of the formation enthalpy, elastic constants, and phonon dispersions demonstrate the Cmca-RuSi2 compound is energetically, mechanically, and dynamically stable. The analysis of electronic band structures and densities of state reveals that the Cmca-RuSi2 phase is a semiconductor with a direct band gap of 0.480 eV and is stabilized by strong covalent bonding between Ru and neighboring Si atoms. On the basis of the Mulliken overlap population analysis, the Vickers hardness of the Cmca structure RuSi2 is estimated to be 28.0 GPa, indicating its ultra-incompressible nature.

  18. Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Physical Therapy Modalities in Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Mélanie; Carroll, Marie-Soleil; Bergeron, Sophie

    2017-07-01

    Pelvic floor muscle physical therapy is recommended in clinical guidelines for women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). Including isolated or combined treatment modalities, physical therapy is viewed as an effective first-line intervention, yet no systematic review concerning the effectiveness of physical therapy has been conducted. To systematically appraise the current literature on the effectiveness of physical therapy modalities for decreasing pain during intercourse and improving sexual function in women with PVD. A systematic literature search using PubMed, Scopus, CINHAL, and PEDro was conducted until October 2016. Moreover, a manual search from reference lists of included articles was performed. Ongoing trials also were reviewed using clinicaltrial.gov and ISRCTNregistry. Randomized controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohorts, and case reports evaluating the effect of isolated or combined physical therapy modalities in women with PVD were included in the review. Main outcome measures were pain during intercourse, sexual function, and patient's perceived improvement. The literature search resulted in 43 eligible studies including 7 randomized controlled trials, 20 prospective studies, 5 retrospective studies, 6 case reports, and 6 study protocols. Most studies had a high risk of bias mainly associated with the lack of a comparison group. Another common bias was related to insufficient sample size, non-validated outcomes, non-standardized intervention, and use of other ongoing treatment. The vast majority of studies showed that physical therapy modalities such as biofeedback, dilators, electrical stimulation, education, multimodal physical therapy, and multidisciplinary approaches were effective for decreasing pain during intercourse and improving sexual function. The positive findings for the effectiveness of physical therapy modalities in women with PVD should be investigated further in robust and well-designed randomized controlled trials

  19. Osteoarthritis: Current treatment principles and prerequisites for the development of personified therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Olyunin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is not a single nosological entity, but it is a group of diseases with different origins. Nevertheless, the similarity of morphological and clinical manifestations of these diseases determines a common approach to their diagnosis and treatment. The ambiguous results obtained in a number of studies dealing with the treatment of OA can be largely associated with the heterogeneity of included patient groups. The development of OA is the result of combined influence of many factors; it is not inconceivable that some of these factors in some patients may assume a dominant importance, determining the development of special OA types. It is likely that a few of these types: metabolic, inflammatory, traumatic, and subchondral bone change-induced ones, can be identified. The therapy chosen in terms of the pathogenetic type of the disease could provide better results than that performed in accordance with standard recommendations. However, today there are no clear criteria that could form appropriate patient groups.

  20. Role of Physical Therapy Intervention in Patients With Life-Threatening Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putt, Kaitlyn; Faville, Kelli Anne; Lewis, David; McAllister, Kevin; Pietro, Maria; Radwan, Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    Physical therapy encompasses the skilled treatment and care for patients across the life span through a multitude of different practice settings. This includes caring for individuals within end-of-life or palliative care settings. The goal of treatment in this stage of care is to relieve physical, social, psychological, and spiritual suffering in order to improve overall quality of life in patients with terminal illnesses. There has been limited research conducted to investigate the utilization of physical therapy interventions in palliative care settings. The purpose of this study was to contribute to the current research involving physical therapy and end-of-life care in terms of its efficacy, value, and how this value is perceived by patients and their caregivers. This was completed by independently screening and reviewing the studies that were published between the years 1994 and 2014 and related to this topic. The databases and journals searched included CINAHL, PUBMED, MEDLINE, Cochrane, PEDro, the Journal of Palliative Care, the American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, and Google Scholar. Thirteen qualitative articles were selected which met all inclusion criteria and discussed the role of physical therapy intervention in the palliative care setting. Methodological quality of articles were assessed using the QASP, scale and their findings were summarized and presented in table format. These articles support the utilization of physical therapy in palliative care settings and emphasizes the impact of physical therapy on improving patients' physical, social, and emotional well-being.

  1. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Physical Therapy for Provoked Vestibulodynia: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinger, Corrie; Pukall, Caroline F; Thibault-Gagnon, Stephanie; McLean, Linda; Chamberlain, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Non-medical and non-surgical treatments for provoked vestibulodynia target psychological, sexual, and pelvic floor muscle factors that maintain the condition. The goal of the study was to compare the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and physical therapy (PT) on pain and psychosexual outcomes in women with provoked vestibulodynia. In a clinical trial, 20 women with provoked vestibulodynia were randomly assigned to receive CBT or comprehensive PT. Participants were assessed before treatment, after treatment, and at 6-month follow-up by gynecologic examination, structured interviews, and standardized questionnaires measuring pain, psychological, and sexual variables. Outcome measurements were based on an adaptation of the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials recommendations. The primary outcome was change in intercourse pain intensity. Secondary outcomes included pain during the cotton swab test, pain with various sexual and non-sexual activities, and sexual functioning and negative pain cognitions. The two treatment groups demonstrated significant decreases in vulvar pain during sexual intercourse, with 70% and 80% of participants in the CBT and PT groups demonstrating a moderate clinically important decrease in pain (≥30%) after treatment. Participants in the two groups also had significant improvements in pain during the gynecologic examination, the percentage of painful intercourse attempts, the percentage of activities resulting in pain, and the ability to continue intercourse without stopping because of pain. Psychological outcomes, including pain catastrophizing and perceived control over pain, also showed improvement in the two groups. Significant improvements in sexual functioning were observed only in participants who completed CBT. Few between-group differences were identified other than the PT group showing earlier improvements in some outcomes. Nearly all improvements were maintained at the 6-month

  2. Physical Therapy--Hands-on Education, Hands-on Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Physical therapists and physical therapist assistants are working to improve the quality of life for those with health problems--and career and technical education is working to improve the quality of their training. Training to become a physical therapist requires both an academic and a clinical education with courses in psychology, biology,…

  3. Cerenkov luminescence imaging: physics principles and potential applications in biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarrocchi, Esther; Belcari, Nicola

    2017-12-01

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is a novel imaging modality to study charged particles with optical methods by detecting the Cerenkov luminescence produced in tissue. This paper first describes the physical processes that govern the production and transport in tissue of Cerenkov luminescence. The detectors used for CLI and their most relevant specifications to optimize the acquisition of the Cerenkov signal are then presented, and CLI is compared with the other optical imaging modalities sharing the same data acquisition and processing methods. Finally, the scientific work related to CLI and the applications for which CLI has been proposed are reviewed. The paper ends with some considerations about further perspectives for this novel imaging modality.

  4. Focused library instruction for occupational therapy, physical therapy, and respiratory care students and faculty: library instruction in allied health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Christine S; Prentice, Katherine A

    2014-01-01

    The integration of librarians into allied health programs presents many exciting opportunities for collaboration. This column will describe how a library instruction program is integrated into the occupational therapy, respiratory care, and physical therapy curricula at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. The allied health faculty have welcomed and recognized the librarians' expertise in teaching evidence-based practice and library research skills.

  5. Wavelets-Computational Aspects of Sterian Realistic Approach to Uncertainty Principle in High Energy Physics: A Transient Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Toma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents wavelets-computational aspects of Sterian-realistic approach to uncertainty principle in high energy physics. According to this approach, one cannot make a device for the simultaneous measuring of the canonical conjugate variables in reciprocal Fourier spaces. However, such aspects regarding the use of conjugate Fourier spaces can be also noticed in quantum field theory, where the position representation of a quantum wave is replaced by momentum representation before computing the interaction in a certain point of space, at a certain moment of time. For this reason, certain properties regarding the switch from one representation to another in these conjugate Fourier spaces should be established. It is shown that the best results can be obtained using wavelets aspects and support macroscopic functions for computing (i wave-train nonlinear relativistic transformation, (ii reflection/refraction with a constant shift, (iii diffraction considered as interaction with a null phase shift without annihilation of associated wave, (iv deflection by external electromagnetic fields without phase loss, and (v annihilation of associated wave-train through fast and spatially extended phenomena according to uncertainty principle.

  6. Outcome of Physical Therapy Intervention on Ventilator Weaning and Functional Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hsuan Yang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to understand the characteristics of ventilator dependence in patients at a respiratory care center and the potential effects of physical therapy on ventilator weaning and patients' functional status. Prospective data collection consisted of the following: (1 demographic data, including name, gender, age, diagnosis, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation as a severity of the disease, modified Glasgow Coma Scale, mobility at the time of admission, and days of hospitalization; (2 Rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI as a predictive indicator of ventilator weaning, including indicators of ventilator weaning were collected from the respiratory flow sheet; and (3 Barthel index. Between July 1 and December 31, 2007, 126 patients were admitted to the respiratory care center, and those who required mechanical ventilation for more than 14 days were enrolled. Fifty-five subjects received physical therapy. The RSBI in patients who received physical therapy was 75.7 ± 37.9 before therapy and 80.0 ± 48.5 afterwards, while the Barthel index increased from 0.8 ± 1.4 to 1.9 ± 2.5 (p < 0.05. The RSBI decreased as time of physical therapy lengthened, but not significantly (r = 0.12, p = 0.44. The success rate of ventilator weaning in patients receiving physical therapy intervention versus non-physical therapy intervention was 58.2% and 40.9%, respectively. The results indicated that lengthening the physical therapy intervention time enhanced the ventilator weaning success rate while mobility was not affected (r = −0.11, p = 0.41. Physical therapy may be offered to ventilator-dependent patients in line with their individual needs to improve or maintain basic mobility.

  7. 42 CFR 485.719 - Condition of participation: Arrangements for physical therapy and speech pathology services to be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... physical therapy and speech pathology services to be performed by other than salaried organization... Agencies as Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.719 Condition of participation: Arrangements for physical therapy and speech pathology services to be performed...

  8. Development of education program for physical therapy assistant in Quang Tri province of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jin Won; Cho, Sang Hyun; Kim, Min Hee; Kim, Eun Joo

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to develop an education program for physical therapy assistants in order to provide high quality physical therapy for the province of Quang Tri in Vietnam. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects consisted of 9 professors in Quang Tri medical college and 1 physical therapist in Quang Tri General hospital. The survey research to lecturer for education of physical therapy assistant in Quang Tri medical college was conducted as pre-analysis of demand for the physical therapy assistant curriculum development. The priority rank of expectation and consciousness were measured in curriculum subjects. [Results] Results of educational expectation of the curriculum total educational expectation were presented as minimum 4 to maximum 5. In the result of educational expectation according to background variable, the differences of educational expectation on scores according to the educational experience were significant. Among the consciousness priority of each curriculum subject, the priority rank of basic kinesiology and physical therapy for international medicine & surgery were 9, the highest first rank frequency. [Conclusion] The curriculum for physical therapy assistant was developed to 5 main subjects including a total of 420 hours (120 hours of theory and 300 hours of practice).

  9. Physics principles to achieve comparable fission power from fertile and fissile rods of the conceptual ATBR/FTBR reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Usha [Light Water Reactors Physics Section, Reactor Physics Design Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400 085 (India)], E-mail: ushapal@barc.gov.in; Jagannathan, V. [Light Water Reactors Physics Section, Reactor Physics Design Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400 085 (India)], E-mail: vjagan@barc.gov.in

    2008-09-15

    Loading of seedless fertile rods has been used as the central principle to maximize fertile to fissile conversion in the two thorium breeder reactor concepts, viz. ATBR and FTBR [Jagannathan, V., Pal, Usha, Karthikeyan, R., Ganesan, S., Jain, R.P., Kamat, S.U., 2001. ATBR - a thorium breeder reactor concept for an early induction of thorium in an enriched uranium reactor. Nuclear Technology 133, 1-32; Jagannathan, V., Pal, Usha, Karthikeyan, R., Raj Devesh, Srivastava, Argala, Ahmad Khan, Suhail, 2007. Reactor physics ideas to design novel reactors with faster fissile growth. In: Paper accepted for oral presentation in 'ICENES 2007 - 13th International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems, 3--8 June 2007, Istanbul, Turkey]. At fresh state the seedless thoria rods will produce practically no fission power, or nearly thousand times less fission rate compared to the seed fuel rods. Hence it is conceived that the fuel assembly would be constituted by assembling the fresh seed rods with one fuel cycle irradiated fertile thoria rods. Even in this state there is a wide disparity between the fissile content of these rods. By judicious choice of the rod dimensions and their relative locations, a degree of balance in the fission rate is achieved in the fresh state of seeded rods. Remarkably as the burnup proceeds the initially seedless fertile rods have a continuous growth of fissile content up to an asymptotic value for a given spectrum and the fissile content in seeded rods monotonically decreases. If the discharge burnup is sufficiently large by design, it is seen that the power share of the initially seedless fertile rods can even exceed that of the seed fuel rods. The physics principles of achieving this characteristic are presented in this paper.

  10. The Development of Enterprise Systems based on Cyber- Physical Systems Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Ştefan Sacală

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research in the area of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS and Internet of Things (IoT become, in the last 3 years a priority for both research entities and companies. Implementing Enterprise Systems based on the two paradigms is focused on merging real and virtual objects and thus deals with an increased degree of complexity. The aim of the present paper is to discuss an Enterprise Architecture and a Framework based on the integration of CPS and IoT technologies within Enterprise Systems. An important aspect is related to process mining implemented in two focus areas: the ability to generate business processes from data acquired from sensors and the ability to integrate sensor acquired data with existing business processes.

  11. The complex itinerary of Leibniz’s planetary theory physical convictions, metaphysical principles and Keplerian inspiration

    CERN Document Server

    Bussotti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This book presents new insights into Leibniz’s research on planetary theory and his system of pre-established harmony. Although some aspects of this theory have been explored in the literature, others are less well known. In particular, the book offers new contributions on the connection between the planetary theory and the theory of gravitation. It also provides an in-depth discussion of Kepler’s influence on Leibniz’s planetary theory and, more generally, on Leibniz’s concept of pre-established harmony. Three initial chapters presenting the mathematical and physical details of Leibniz’s works provide a frame of reference. The book then goes on to discuss research on Leibniz’s conception of gravity and the connection between Leibniz and Kepler. .

  12. Response to pediatric physical therapy in infants with positional preference and skull deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Renske M; Pelsma, Maaike; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G M; IJzerman, Maarten J; van Vlimmeren, Leo A; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M

    2014-09-01

    Pediatric physical therapy seems to reduce skull deformation in infants with positional preference. However, not all infants show improvement. The study objective was to determine which infant and parent characteristics were related to responses to pediatric physical therapy in infants who were 2 to 4 months old and had positional preference, skull deformation, or both. This was a prospective cohort study. Infants who were 2 to 4 months old and had positional preference, skull deformation, or both were recruited by pediatric physical therapists at the start of pediatric physical therapy. The primary outcome was a good response or a poor response (moderate or severe skull deformation) at 4.5 to 6.5 months of age. Potential predictors for responses to pediatric physical therapy were assessed at baseline with questionnaires, plagiocephalometry, and the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses with a stepwise backward elimination method were performed. A total of 657 infants participated in the study. At follow-up, 364 infants (55.4%) showed a good response to therapy, and 293 infants (44.6%) showed a poor response. Multiple logistic regression analysis resulted in the identification of several significant predictors for a poor response to pediatric physical therapy at baseline: starting therapy after 3 months of age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.50, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=1.04-2.17), skull deformation (plagiocephaly [aOR=2.64, 95% CI=1.67-4.17] or brachycephaly [aOR=3.07, 95% CI=2.09-4.52]), and a low parental satisfaction score (aOR=2.64, 95% CI=1.67-4.17). A low parental satisfaction score indicates low parental satisfaction with the infant's head shape. Information about pediatric physical therapy was collected retrospectively and included general therapy characteristics. Because data were collected retrospectively, no adjustment in therapy for individual participants could be made. Several predictors for responses

  13. A Randomized Trial of an Intensive Physical Therapy Program for Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Marc; Nordon-Craft, Amy; Malone, Dan; Van Pelt, David; Frankel, Stephen K.; Warner, Mary Laird; Kriekels, Wendy; McNulty, Monica; Fairclough, Diane L.; Schenkman, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Early physical therapy (PT) interventions may benefit patients with acute respiratory failure by preventing or attenuating neuromuscular weakness. However, the optimal dosage of these interventions is currently unknown.

  14. Treating Small Bowel Obstruction with a Manual Physical Therapy: A Prospective Efficacy Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rice, Amanda D; Patterson, Kimberley; Reed, Evette D; Wurn, Belinda F; Klingenberg, Bernhard; King, 3rd, C Richard; Wurn, Lawrence J

    2016-01-01

    .... This study examines the efficacy of a manual physical therapy treatment regimen on the pain and quality of life of subjects with a history of bowel obstructions due to adhesions in a prospective...

  15. Creative Problem Solving and Social Cooperation of Effective Physical Therapy Practice: A Pioneer Study and Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Carmeli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Action research (AR has an important role to play in educating physical therapists. Increasing efforts should be encouraged to instigate AR programs in physical therapy practice and clinical education. Such programs commonly require considerable effort and understanding by clinical instructors, and require adoption of new educational methods. AR programs can lead physical therapists and clinicians to be more questioning and reflective in evaluating practical questions regarding patient therapy and education. The purpose of this article is to educate the readers on the importance of AR and to provide a few relevant references on that topic. A specific study is described in this paper in which physical therapy clinical instructors participated in a structured workshop designed to demonstrate the values of AR and how such values can be incorporated in teaching their students. AR can lead to improved therapist-patient interaction and help solve specific practical problems arising during therapy sessions.

  16. Tailored cognitive-behavioural therapy and exercise training improves the physical fitness of patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spillekom-van Koulil, S.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Helmond, T. van; Vedder, A.; Hoorn, H. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Wirken, L.; Cats, H.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Patients with fibromyalgia have diminished levels of physical fitness, which may lead to functional disability and exacerbating complaints. Multidisciplinary treatment comprising cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and exercise training has been shown to be effective in improving

  17. Physical therapy with newborns and infants: applying concepts of phenomenology and synactive theory to guide interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Yvette; Øberg, Gunn Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Physical therapy involving newborns and young infants is a specialized area of practice reserved for therapists who have advanced training and the competence to help newborns, young infants and their families meet their goals. Beginning at birth, infants apply a significant amount of effort to actively participate in and shape their world. Infants make their intentions and requests for support known through their behaviors during social and physical therapy encounters. The therapeutic encounter viewed from the infant's perspective has received limited attention in the physical therapy literature. The purpose of this article is to discuss concepts related to phenomenology and synactive theory that are relevant to physical therapy with newborns and young infants during the first few months of life after birth.

  18. Professional tools and a personal touch - experiences of physical therapy of persons with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutberg, Stina; Kostenius, Catrine; Öhrling, Kerstin

    2013-09-01

    The aim was to explore the lived experience of physical therapy of persons with migraine. Data were collected by conducting narrative interviews with 11 persons with migraine. Inspired by van Manen, a hermeneutic phenomenological method was used to analyse the experiences of physical therapy which these persons had. Physical therapy for persons with migraine meant making an effort in terms of time and energy to improve their health by meeting a person who was utilising his or her knowledge and skill to help. Being respected and treated as an individual and having confidence in the physical therapist were highlighted aspects. The analysis revealed a main theme, "meeting a physical therapist with professional tools and a personal touch". The main theme included four sub-themes, "investing time and energy to feel better", "relying on the competence of the physical therapist", "wanting to be treated and to become involved as an individual" and "being respected in a trustful relationship". The therapeutic relationship with the physical therapist is important and the findings of this study can increase awareness about relational aspects of physical therapy and encourage thoughtfulness among physical therapists and other healthcare professionals interacting with persons with migraine. Physical therapists use both professional tools and a personal touch in their interaction with persons with migraine and this article can increase physical therapists' awareness and encourage thoughtfulness in their professional practice. Being respected and treated as an individual and having confidence in the physical therapist are important aspects of the therapeutic relationship and indicate a need for patient-centred care. By making the effort of spending the time and energy required, physical therapy could be a complement or an alternative to medication to ease the consequences of migraine.

  19. Standardization of adverse event terminology and reporting in orthopaedic physical therapy: application to the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesso, Lisa C; Macdermid, Joy C; Santaguida, Lina P

    2010-08-01

    Orthopaedic physical therapy is considered safe, based on a lack of reported harms. Most of the research until now has focused on benefits. Consideration of benefits and harm involves informed consent, clinical decision making, and cost-benefit analyses. Benefits and harms are treatment and dosage specific. There is currently an insufficient number of dosage trials in orthopaedic physical therapy to identify optimal dosage for common interventions, including exercise and manual therapy. Published cases of severe adverse events following chiropractic manipulation illustrate the need for physical therapy to have high-quality data documenting the safety of orthopaedic physical therapy, including cervical manipulation. A recent systematic review identified poor reporting standards of harms within clinical research in this area. Lack of standardization of terminology has contributed to this problem. Pharmacovigilence provides a framework for terms that orthopaedic physical therapy can adapt and thereafter adopt into clinical practice and research. Adverse events are unexpected events that occur following an intervention without evidence of causality. Where temporality of an event is highly suggestive of causality, the term "adverse reaction" may be more appropriate. Future studies in orthopaedic physical therapy should adopt the CONSORT statement extension on the reporting of harms, published in 2004, to ensure better reporting. Consistent reporting of harms in both research and clinical practice requires professional consensus on terminology pertaining to harms, as well as defining what constitutes an adverse event or an adverse reaction. Widespread consultation and consensus should support optimal definitions and processes and facilitate their implementation into practice. This paper is focused on theoretical considerations and evidence in terms of harm reporting within physical therapy using cervical manual therapy as an example.

  20. [Evaluation of the quality of screen-film radiographic systems: physical principles and methods of measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borasi, G; Berardi, P; Ferretti, P P; Piccagli, V

    1990-09-01

    Comparative evaluation of radiographic film-screen systems presents several problems from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. From the theoretical point of view the main difficulties are related to the choice of the parameters best suited to express the "overall quality" of a system. From the practical point of view the main problem is that to measure some basic quantities (resolution and noise) sophisticated and expensive instruments are required. This paper deals with both these problems. To express image quality we have assumed the signal-to-noise power ratio: this index depends in a explicit way on contrast, resolution and noise of the system. The dependence on sensitivity is implicit and was derived using literature data. From a knowledge of the dependence of image quality on sensitivity it is possible to develop an "overall quality" index which is considered to express the "technological level" of the system. This index can be used in the comparative evaluation of the different systems. In this work some basic physical quantities (characteristic curve, sensitivity) were evaluated using standard instruments. To measure spatial resolution and noise an inexpensive, PC-based, TV-digitizer system was developed. As an example, both image and overall quality indices were evaluated on three mammographic systems which are typical of the three different "phases" of the development of this technique.

  1. The Contribution of Conceptual Frameworks to Knowledge Translation Interventions in Physical Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hudon, Anne; Gervais, Mathieu-Joël; Hunt, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the importance of knowledge translation activities in physical therapy to ensure that research findings are integrated into clinical practice, and increasing numbers of knowledge translation interventions are being conducted. Although various frameworks have been developed to guide and facilitate the process of translating knowledge into practice, these tools have been infrequently used in physical therapy knowledge translation studies to date. Knowledge transl...

  2. Physical therapy interventions for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Luciana Gazzi; Hum, Abraham; Kuleba, Laura; Mo, Joey; Truong, Linda; Yeung, Mankeen; Battié, Michele C

    2013-12-01

    Physical therapy is commonly prescribed for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS); however, little is known about its effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to systematically review randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled trials, and cohort studies evaluating the effectiveness of physical therapy for LSS. Studies were searched on electronic databases to January 2012. Inclusion criteria were: clinical diagnosis of LSS with confirmatory imaging, evaluation of physical therapy treatment, presence of a comparison group, and outcomes of pain, disability, function, or quality of life. Outcomes were extracted and, when possible, pooled using RevMan 5, a freely available review program from the Cochrane Library. Ten studies were included: 5 RCTs, 2 controlled trials, 2 mixed-design studies, and 1 longitudinal cohort study. Pooled effects of 2 studies revealed that the addition of a physical therapy modality to exercise had no statistically significant effect on outcome. Pooled effects results of RCTs evaluating surgery versus physical therapy demonstrated that surgery was better than physical therapy for pain and disability at long term (2 years) only. Other results suggested that exercise is significantly better than no exercise, that cycling and body-weight-supported treadmill walking have similar effects, and that corsets are better than no corsets. The limitations of this review include the low quality and small number of studies, as well as the heterogeneity in outcomes and treatments. No conclusions could be drawn from the review regarding which physical therapy treatment is superior for LSS. There was low-quality evidence suggesting that modalities have no additional effect to exercise and that surgery leads to better long-term (2 years) outcomes for pain and disability, but not walking distance, than physical therapy in patients with LSS.

  3. The physical therapy profile questionnaire (PTPQ): development, validation and pilot testing

    OpenAIRE

    Grimmer-Somers Karen; Dizon Janine Margarita R; Kumar Saravana

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Country by country similarities and differences in physical therapy practice exists. Therefore, before updates in practice can be provided, such as trainings in evidence-based practice, it is necessary to identify the profile and nature of practice in a given country or setting. Following a search of the international literature, no appropriate tool was identified to collect and establish data to create the profile of physical therapy practice in the Philippines. We theref...

  4. Seasonal Admission Rates of Geriatric Patients with Musculoskeletal Problems to Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Zubeyir; Yurdalan, Saadet Ufuk; Polat, Mine Gulden; Ozgul, Bahar; Kanberoglu, Ayfer; Onel, Selma

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal variations in the admission rates of geriatric patients with musculoskeletal problems to physical therapy and rehabilitation clinics were examined in this study. Totally 2257 patients (1802, 79.84% female; 455, 20.16% male) over the age of 65 years (mean age 72.32±5.67years) who were admitted to Duygu Private Hospital and Burcu Private Physical Therapy Branch Center in Istanbul were included. Monthly admissions and seasonal distribution were retrospectively calculated for 2 years. Ad...

  5. EFFECT OF MUSIC THERAPY ON INTRINSIC MOTIVATION, PHYSICAL SELF EFFICACY AND PERFORMANCE OF FEMALE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mamta Sharma; Gagandeep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Music therapy is increasingly used in sports for enhancing sport performance. It provides a mean of improving mental strength among sportspersons. The purpose of this study is to enhance intrinsic motivation, physical self-efficacy and performance of female football players through music therapy. For this purpose, twenty two female football players, in the age group of 21-26 were screened on the basis of their scores on Sport Motivation Scale and Physical Self-Efficacy Scale. Then, they were ...

  6. Comparative effectiveness of Tai Chi versus physical therapy for knee osteoarthritis: a randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Few remedies effectively treat long-term pain and disability from knee osteoarthritis. Studies suggest that Tai Chi alleviates symptoms, but no trials have directly compared Tai Chi with standard therapies for osteoarthritis. Objective: To compare Tai Chi with standard physical therapy f...

  7. Failure, Remediation, and Success in Physical Therapy Clinical Education: Is Mindfulness Present?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willgens, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness, a purposeful and nonjudgmental awareness of internal affective states, is emerging rapidly in the field of occupational therapy and medicine, but has not yet gained credibility in the education of the physical therapy profession. Some students lack the self-awareness needed to act on professional values, which prevents them from…

  8. Perceptions among Occupational and Physical Therapy Students of a Nontraditional Methodology for Teaching Laboratory Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K. Jackson; Denham, Bryan E.; Dinolfo, John D.

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study was designed to assess the perceptions of physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) students regarding the use of computer-assisted pedagogy and prosection-oriented communications in the laboratory component of a human anatomy course at a comprehensive health sciences university in the southeastern United States. The…

  9. Theory of heavy ion collision physics in hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.

  10. Raising the Priority of Lifestyle-Related Noncommunicable Diseases in Physical Therapy Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Elizabeth; Greig, Alison; Murphy, Sue; Roots, Robin; Nembhard, Nadine; Rankin, Anne; Bainbridge, Lesley; Anthony, Joseph; Hoens, Alison M; Garland, S Jayne

    2016-07-01

    Given their enormous socioeconomic burdens, lifestyle-related noncommunicable diseases (heart disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, hypertension, stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity) have become priorities for the World Health Organization and health service delivery systems. Health care systems have been criticized for relative inattention to the gap between knowledge and practice, as it relates to preventing and managing noncommunicable diseases. Physical therapy is a profession that can contribute effectively to patients'/clients' lifestyle behavior changes at the upstream end of prevention and management. Efforts by entry-to-practice physical therapist education programs to align curricula with epidemiological trends toward best health care practices are varied. One explanation may be the lack of a frame of reference for reducing the knowledge translation gap. The purpose of this article is to provide a current perspective on epidemiological indicators and societal priorities to inform physical therapy curriculum content. Such content needs to include health examination/evaluation tools and health behavior change interventions that are consistent with contemporary values, directions, and practices of physical therapy. These considerations provide a frame of reference for curriculum change. Based on 5 years of experience and dialogue among curriculum stakeholders, an example of how epidemiologically informed and evidence-based best health care practices may be systematically integrated into physical therapy curricula to maximize patient/client health and conventional physical therapy outcomes is provided. This novel approach can serve as an example to other entry-to-practice physical therapist education programs of how to align their curricula with societal health priorities, specifically, noncommunicable diseases. The intentions are to stimulate dialogue about effectively integrating health-based competencies into entry-level education and advancing

  11. Low Back Pain: Investigation of Biases in Outpatient Canadian Physical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, Maude; Mazer, Barbara; Orozco, Tatiana; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Williams-Jones, Bryn; Hunt, Matthew; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann

    2017-10-01

    Previous research suggested that physical therapy services can be influenced by patient characteristics (age, sex, socioeconomic status) or insurance status rather than their clinical need. The aim of this study was to determine whether patient-related factors (age, sex, SES) and the source of reimbursement for physical therapy services (insurance status) influence wait time for, frequency of, and duration of physical therapy for low back pain. This study was an empirical cross-sectional online survey of Canadian physical therapy professionals (defined as including physical therapists and physical rehabilitation specialists). A total of 846 physical therapy professionals received 1 of 24 different (and randomly selected) clinical vignettes (ie, patient case scenarios) and completed a 40-item questionnaire about how they would treat the fictional patient in the vignette as well as their professional clinical practice. Each vignette described a patient with low back pain but with variations in patient characteristics (age, sex, socioeconomic status) and insurance status (no insurance, private insurance, Workers' Compensation Board insurance). The age, sex, and socioeconomic status of the fictional vignette patients did not affect how participants would provide service. However, vignette patients with Workers' Compensation Board insurance would be seen more frequently than those with private insurance or no insurance. When asked explicitly, study participants stated that insurance status, age, and chronicity of the condition were not factors associated with wait time for, frequency of, or duration of treatment. This study used a standardized vignette patient and may not accurately represent physical therapy professionals' actual clinical practice. There appears to be an implicit professional bias in relation to patients' insurance status; the resulting inequity in service provision highlights the need for further research as a basis for national guidelines to promote

  12. Counseling and physical therapy as treatment for myofascial pain of the masticatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laat, Antoon; Stappaerts, Karel; Papy, Sven

    2003-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment regimen comprising counseling and physical therapy in patients with myofascial pain of the masticatory system, and to explore whether the duration of the physical therapy offered (4 vs 6 weeks) would influence the treatment result. Twenty-six patients were randomly distributed over 2 groups. All patients received reassuring information, advice regarding relaxation of the jaws, avoiding parafunctions, and limited use of the jaws. In addition, a physical therapy program (heat application, massage, ultrasound and muscle stretching) was initiated 2 weeks after the start of the study (group I, receiving 4 weeks of physical therapy) or immediately from the start of the study (group II, receiving 6 weeks of physical therapy). The following parameters were taken at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 weeks: visual analog scale (VAS) scores of present pain; lowest and highest pain over the past period; percentage of pain relief; jaw function assessment by the Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ); and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) of the masseter, temporalis, and thumb muscles. Statistical analysis used a linear mixed model and corrected for multiple testing (Tukey test). Pain and MFIQ scores decreased while PPTs increased in both groups. Only after 4 and 6 weeks, significant differences were present for the PPT of the masseter in group I (P myofascial pain. A controlled study will be necessary to elucidate the specific effectiveness of physical therapy over counseling or no treatment.

  13. The physics of Cerenkov light production during proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helo, Y; Kacperek, A; Rosenberg, I; Royle, G; Gibson, A P

    2014-12-07

    There is increasing interest in using Cerenkov emissions for quality assurance and in vivo dosimetry in photon and electron therapy. Here, we investigate the production of Cerenkov light during proton therapy and its potential applications in proton therapy. A primary proton beam does not have sufficient energy to generate Cerenkov emissions directly, but we have demonstrated two mechanisms by which such emissions may occur indirectly: (1) a fast component from fast electrons liberated by prompt gamma (99.13%) and neutron (0.87%) emission; and (2) a slow component from the decay of radioactive positron emitters. The fast component is linear with dose and doserate but carries little spatial information; the slow component is non-linear but may be localised. The properties of the two types of emission are explored using Monte Carlo modelling in GEANT4 with some experimental verification. We propose that Cerenkov emissions could contribute to the visual sensation reported by some patients undergoing proton therapy of the eye and we discuss the feasibility of some potential applications of Cerenkov imaging in proton therapy.

  14. The physics of Cerenkov light production during proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helo, Y.; Kacperek, A.; Rosenberg, I.; Royle, G.; Gibson, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing interest in using Cerenkov emissions for quality assurance and in vivo dosimetry in photon and electron therapy. Here, we investigate the production of Cerenkov light during proton therapy and its potential applications in proton therapy. A primary proton beam does not have sufficient energy to generate Cerenkov emissions directly, but we have demonstrated two mechanisms by which such emissions may occur indirectly: (1) a fast component from fast electrons liberated by prompt gamma (99.13%) and neutron (0.87%) emission; and (2) a slow component from the decay of radioactive positron emitters. The fast component is linear with dose and doserate but carries little spatial information; the slow component is non-linear but may be localised. The properties of the two types of emission are explored using Monte Carlo modelling in GEANT4 with some experimental verification. We propose that Cerenkov emissions could contribute to the visual sensation reported by some patients undergoing proton therapy of the eye and we discuss the feasibility of some potential applications of Cerenkov imaging in proton therapy.

  15. Professional tools and a personal touch – experiences of physical therapy of persons with migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenius, Catrine; Öhrling, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim was to explore the lived experience of physical therapy of persons with migraine. Method: Data were collected by conducting narrative interviews with 11 persons with migraine. Inspired by van Manen, a hermeneutic phenomenological method was used to analyse the experiences of physical therapy which these persons had. Results: Physical therapy for persons with migraine meant making an effort in terms of time and energy to improve their health by meeting a person who was utilising his or her knowledge and skill to help. Being respected and treated as an individual and having confidence in the physical therapist were highlighted aspects. The analysis revealed a main theme, “meeting a physical therapist with professional tools and a personal touch”. The main theme included four sub-themes, “investing time and energy to feel better”, “relying on the competence of the physical therapist”, “wanting to be treated and to become involved as an individual” and “being respected in a trustful relationship”. Conclusions: The therapeutic relationship with the physical therapist is important and the findings of this study can increase awareness about relational aspects of physical therapy and encourage thoughtfulness among physical therapists and other healthcare professionals interacting with persons with migraine. PMID:23311671

  16. Introduction of Vertical Integration and Case-Based Learning in Anatomy for Undergraduate Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Suresh K.; Rathinam, Bertha A. D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present pilot study was to evaluate the benefits of innovative teaching methodologies introduced to final year occupational and physical therapy students in Christian Medical College in India. Students' satisfactions along the long-term retention of knowledge and clinical application of the respiratory anatomy have been…

  17. Effects of physical exercise therapy on mobility, physical functioning, physical activity and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults with impaired mobility, physical disability and/or multi-morbidity: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, N.M. de; Ravensberg, C.D. van; Hobbelen, J.S.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.; Staal, J.B.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first meta-analysis focusing on elderly patients with mobility problems, physical disability and/or multi-morbidity. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of physical exercise therapy on mobility, physical functioning, physical activity and quality of life. A broad systematic

  18. The Relationship between the Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument Scores and Doctor of Physical Therapy Student Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. The learning style of a student is an important factor in their ability to gain knowledge. This is especially important in challenging curriculums such as the Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) program. A common tool to assess one's learning style is The Kolb Learning Styles Inventory (LSI). A common tool used to measure the…

  19. Simulated Patients in Physical Therapy Education: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Shane A; Blackstock, Felicity C; Nestel, Debra; Keating, Jenny L

    2016-09-01

    Traditional models of physical therapy clinical education are experiencing unprecedented pressures. Simulation-based education with simulated (standardized) patients (SPs) is one alternative that has significant potential value, and implementation is increasing globally. However, no review evaluating the effects of SPs on professional (entry-level) physical therapy education is available. The purpose of this study was to synthesize and critically appraise the findings of empirical studies evaluating the contribution of SPs to entry-level physical therapy education, compared with no SP interaction or an alternative education strategy, on any outcome relevant to learning. A systematic search was conducted of Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, AMED, ERIC, and CINAHL Plus databases and reference lists of included articles, relevant reviews, and gray literature up to May 2015. Articles reporting quantitative or qualitative data evaluating the contribution of SPs to entry-level physical therapy education were included. Two reviewers independently extracted study characteristics, intervention details, and quantitative and qualitative evaluation data from the 14 articles that met the eligibility criteria. Pooled random-effects meta-analysis indicated that replacing up to 25% of authentic patient-based physical therapist practice with SP-based education results in comparable competency (mean difference=1.55/100; 95% confidence interval=-1.08, 4.18; P=.25). Thematic analysis of qualitative data indicated that students value learning with SPs. Assumptions were made to enable pooling of data, and the search strategy was limited to English. Simulated patients appear to have an effect comparable to that of alternative educational strategies on development of physical therapy clinical practice competencies and serve a valuable role in entry-level physical therapy education. However, available research lacks the rigor required for confidence in findings. Given the potential advantages for

  20. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  1. Clinical Guide to Music Therapy in Physical Rehabilitation Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Elizabeth Wong, MT-BC presents tools and information designed to arm the entry-level music therapist (or an experienced MT-BC new to rehabilitation settings) with basic knowledge and materials to develop or work in a music therapy program treating people with stroke, brain injury, and those who are ventilator dependent. Ms. Wong offers goals and…

  2. [Convalescence and decline in physical function level following intensive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, J.B.; Moller, K.; Perner, A.

    2009-01-01

    More patients survive critical illness, which emphasises the need to assess outcome measures other than mortality. A prolonged decline in physical function is frequently observed after discharge in the critically ill. Neuromuscular dysfunction and muscle atrophy incurred during intensive care may...... prolong convalescence after discharge. Thus, strategies to counteract neuromuscular dysfunction and to improve physical outcome may reduce the overall burden of critical illness. This review describes the most common predisposing factors and discusses preventative measures and interventions Udgivelsesdato...

  3. Theoretical and practical outline of the Copenhagen PACT narrative-based exercise counselling manual to promote physical activity in post-therapy cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtgaard, Julie

    2013-02-01

    Sedentary behaviour and reduced exercise capacity are potential persisting effects of anti-cancer therapy that may predispose to serious health conditions. It is well-established that physical exercise may prevent some of these problems. However, the extent to which cancer survivors are able to adopt long-term physical activity habits depends largely on their motivation. This theoretical paper aims to outline how researchers and practitioners can draw from Antonovsky's salutogenetic theory and White & Epston's Narrative Therapy to develop and implement intervention efforts centered on promotion of long-term physical activity behaviour, while at the same time increasing the individual cancer survivor's sense of meaning and personal health resources. The Copenhagen PACT (Physical Activity after Cancer Treatment) Study targeting adoption and maintenance of regular physical activity in post-therapy cancer survivors is briefly presented including a brief review of the theoretical rationale behind the psychological component of the intervention, i.e. a narrative-based exercise counselling programme. Subsequently, particular attention is given to the core principles, different components and structure of the counselling manual including sample questions and examples of written documents that have emanated from the individual counselling sessions. The discussion includes consideration of some methodological challenges that arise when attempting to evaluate narrative-based interventions in the context of physical activity promotion in cancer rehabilitation and survivorship care.

  4. Curricular Integration and Measurement of Cultural Competence Development in a Group of Physical Therapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombaro, Kerstin M.; Dole, Robin L.; Black, Jill D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Background: The link between cultural competence and effective physical therapy encounters is established. Physical therapist educational programs face the challenge of fostering the cultural competence of students in effective and meaningful ways within the curriculum. They also face the challenge of measuring the development of…

  5. Clinical Practice Guideline for Physical Therapy Assessment and Treatment in Patients With Nonspecific Neck Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, Jasper D; Scholten-Peeters, Wendy G M; Staal, J Bart; Pool, Jan; van Tulder, Maurits W; Beekman, Emmylou; Knoop, Jesper; Meerhoff, Guus; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2017-01-01

    The Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF) issued a clinical practice guideline for physical therapists that addresses the assessment and treatment of patients with nonspecific neck pain, including cervical radiculopathy, in Dutch primary care. Recommendations were based on a review of

  6. The physical therapy profile questionnaire (PTPQ: development, validation and pilot testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimmer-Somers Karen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Country by country similarities and differences in physical therapy practice exists. Therefore, before updates in practice can be provided, such as trainings in evidence-based practice, it is necessary to identify the profile and nature of practice in a given country or setting. Following a search of the international literature, no appropriate tool was identified to collect and establish data to create the profile of physical therapy practice in the Philippines. We therefore developed, validated and pilot tested a survey instrument which would comprehensively describe the practice of physical therapy in the Philippines Findings We used a mixed methods design to answer our study aims. A focus group interview was conducted among a group of physical therapists to establish the content and contexts of items to be included in the survey instrument. Findings were amalgamated with the information from the literature on developing survey instruments/questionnaires. A survey instrument was drafted and named as the Physical Therapy Profile Questionnaire (PTPQ. The PTPQ was then validated and pilot tested to a different group of physical therapists. The final version consisted of five separate parts namely (A General information and demographics, (B Practice Profile, (C Treatment Preferences, (D Bases for clinical work and (E Bases for educational/research work. At present the PTPQ is relevant to the Philippines and could be used by any country which has a similar nature of practice with the Philippines. Conclusion The Physical Therapy Practice Questionnaire (PTPQ was shown to have good face and content validity among the Filipino physical therapists and their context of practice. It has also been found to be useful, easy to administer tool and in a format appealing to respondents. The PTPQ is expected to assist comprehensive data collection to create a profile of physical therapy practice in the Philippines.

  7. The physical therapy profile questionnaire (PTPQ): development, validation and pilot testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizon, Janine Margarita R; Grimmer-Somers, Karen; Kumar, Saravana

    2011-09-19

    Country by country similarities and differences in physical therapy practice exists. Therefore, before updates in practice can be provided, such as trainings in evidence-based practice, it is necessary to identify the profile and nature of practice in a given country or setting. Following a search of the international literature, no appropriate tool was identified to collect and establish data to create the profile of physical therapy practice in the Philippines. We therefore developed, validated and pilot tested a survey instrument which would comprehensively describe the practice of physical therapy in the Philippines We used a mixed methods design to answer our study aims. A focus group interview was conducted among a group of physical therapists to establish the content and contexts of items to be included in the survey instrument. Findings were amalgamated with the information from the literature on developing survey instruments/questionnaires. A survey instrument was drafted and named as the Physical Therapy Profile Questionnaire (PTPQ). The PTPQ was then validated and pilot tested to a different group of physical therapists.The final version consisted of five separate parts namely (A) General information and demographics, (B) Practice Profile, (C) Treatment Preferences, (D) Bases for clinical work and (E) Bases for educational/research work. At present the PTPQ is relevant to the Philippines and could be used by any country which has a similar nature of practice with the Philippines. The Physical Therapy Practice Questionnaire (PTPQ) was shown to have good face and content validity among the Filipino physical therapists and their context of practice. It has also been found to be useful, easy to administer tool and in a format appealing to respondents. The PTPQ is expected to assist comprehensive data collection to create a profile of physical therapy practice in the Philippines.

  8. Physiological effects of physical therapy interventions on lumbar intervertebral discs: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ulrike H; Helgeson, Kevin; Mintken, Paul

    2017-09-01

    The use of physical therapy has been recommended in the treatment of low back pain based on primarily mechanical and neurophysiological effects. Recent studies have measured the physiological effects of physical therapy interventions, including manual therapy and traction, on the intervertebral discs (IVD), and these findings may have implications for the long-term management or even prevention of low back pain. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the literature regarding possible physiological effects of physical therapy interventions on the intervertebral disc (IVD). Systematic Review. A literature search of published articles through December 2014 resulted in the retrieval of 8 clinical studies assessing the influence of physical therapy interventions on the physiology of the IVD. Three studies, including two using animal models, investigated the effects of 30-minute intermittent traction on disc height. One in vivo animal study and two studies using human subjects assessed changes of disc height associated with static traction. Three studies investigated the effects of lumbar spine manipulation and mobilization on changes in water diffusion within the IVD. All studies confirmed, either directly or indirectly, that their respective intervention influenced disc physiology primarily through water flow. Physical therapy interventions may have an effect on the physiology of the IVD, primarily through water diffusion and molecular transport, which are important for the health of the IVD.

  9. A systematic review on physical therapy interventions for patients with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Vanderlinden, Johan; De Hert, Marc; Adámkova, Milena; Skjaerven, Liv Helvik; Catalán-Matamoros, Daniel; Lundvik-Gyllensten, Amanda; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia; Ijntema, Rutger; Probst, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Since a distorted body experience and a sedentary lifestyle are central in the course of binge eating disorder (BED), physical therapy might be an interesting add-on treatment. The aim of this study was to systematically review randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating physical therapy on binge eating and physical and mental health in BED patients. EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Physiotherapy Evidence Database and Cochrane Library were searched from their inception until 15 August 2012 for relevant RCTs comparing physical therapy with a placebo condition, control intervention or standard care. Three RCTs involving 211 female community patients (age range: 25-63 years) met all selection criteria. Review data demonstrate that aerobic and yoga exercises reduce the number of binges and the body mass index (BMI) of BED patients. Aerobic exercise also reduces depressive symptoms. Only combining cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with aerobic exercise and not CBT alone reduces BMI. Combining aerobic exercise with CBT is more effective in reducing depressive symptoms than CBT alone. The limited number of available studies and the heterogeneity of the interventions limit overall conclusions and highlight the need for further research. Because of severe co-morbid psychiatric and physical conditions, binge eating disorder is one of the most difficult psychiatric conditions to treat. Both yoga and aerobic exercise have shown promise in reducing binge eating pathology and weight. Combining aerobic exercise with cognitive behavioural therapy seems more effective in reducing depressive symptoms than cognitive behavioural therapy alone.

  10. Physical therapy as an adjunctive treatment for severe osteoarthritis in a Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Tammy Culpepper; Stringer, Elizabeth; Krauss, Sue; Trout, Tim

    2015-03-01

    This case report describes a new physical therapy technique, specifically the Wolfe Kinetic Technique, as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of severe osteoarthritis in a 20-yr-old Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis). This animal was managed with oral analgesics for 3 yr with fair to minimal response over time. Due to worsening of lameness and mobility, physical therapy was initiated. Ten treatment sessions were administered at 1-wk intervals. Within 1 mo the Komodo dragon exhibited marked improvement in gait and function, increased responsiveness to his environment, and increased mobility which continued to improve over the subsequent sessions. Although outcomes could not be measured by standardized objective measures, this study provides a reference for treatment of future cases and a foundation for future research substantiating treatment practices in animal physical therapy.

  11. Prevalence of myofascial chronic pelvic pain and the effectiveness of pelvic floor physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaiwy, Mohamed A; Patterson, Betsy; Mahajan, Sangeeta

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of myofascial pain and the outcome of transvaginal pelvic floor physical therapy for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain caused by myofascial pelvic pain in a tertiary care facility. A retrospective chart review was performed on all women who presented to our facility between January 2005 and December 2007. Those diagnosed with myofascial pelvic pain and referred for transvaginal pelvic floor physical therapy over this 3-year period were evaluated. Participants with an initial pain score of > or = 4, myofascial pelvic pain on examination, and who attended 2 or more physician visits were included in the analysis. Patient physical examination findings, symptoms, and verbal pain ratings were reviewed. In all, 146 (13.2%) of 1,106 initially screened patients were diagnosed with myofascial pain. Seventy-five (51%) of the 146 patients who were referred for physical therapy were included, and 75% had an initial pain score of > or = 7. Pain scores significantly improved proportional to the number of physical therapy visits completed, with 63% of patients reporting significant pain improvement. Transvaginal physical therapy is an effective treatment for chronic pelvic pain resulting from myofascial pelvic pain.

  12. Exercise therapy in the complex of physical rehabilitation of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nogas A.O.

    2012-01-01

    The programs of physical rehabilitation, which are directed on proceeding in the broken function of the external breathing, are appraised. In research 68 patients took part with a diagnosis the first diagnosed white plague (40 - men and 28 - women, middle ages - 29 years). The complex program of physical rehabilitation included: morning hygienical gymnastics, medical gymnastics, massotherapy, physical therapy procedures, hydropathy, manipulation interferences and educational programs. A tende...

  13. Designing Slow Fun! Physical Therapy Games to Remedy the Negative Consequences of Spasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Abeele, Vero; Geurts, Luc; Husson, Jelle; Windey, Frederik; Annema, Jan Henk; Verstraete, Mathijs; Desmet, Stef

    2010-01-01

    Spasticity is a motor disorder defined by involuntary muscle contractions, resulting in uncoordinated gait, stiff body posture and shortening of range of limb movement. The first line treatment of spasticity is physical and occupational therapy, involving physical exercises that focus on stretching and strengthening of muscles. In this paper, we report on the difficulty of designing fun games that build upon these physical exercises and remedy the negative consequences of...

  14. Implications of early and guideline adherent physical therapy for low back pain on utilization and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, John D; Fritz, Julie M; Wu, Samuel S; Flynn, Timothy W; Wainner, Robert S; Robertson, Eric K; Kim, Forest S; George, Steven Z

    2015-04-09

    Initial management decisions following a new episode of low back pain (LBP) are thought to have profound implications for health care utilization and costs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of early and guideline adherent physical therapy for low back pain on utilization and costs within the Military Health System (MHS). Patients presenting to a primary care setting with a new complaint of LBP from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 were identified from the MHS Management Analysis and Reporting Tool. Descriptive statistics, utilization, and costs were examined on the basis of timing of referral to physical therapy and adherence to practice guidelines over a 2-year period. Utilization outcomes (advanced imaging, lumbar injections or surgery, and opioid use) were compared using adjusted odds ratios with 99% confidence intervals. Total LBP-related health care costs over the 2-year follow-up were compared using linear regression models. 753,450 eligible patients with a primary care visit for LBP between 18-60 years of age were considered. Physical therapy was utilized by 16.3% (n = 122,723) of patients, with 24.0% (n = 17,175) of those receiving early physical therapy that was adherent to recommendations for active treatment. Early referral to guideline adherent physical therapy was associated with significantly lower utilization for all outcomes and 60% lower total LBP-related costs. The potential for cost savings in the MHS from early guideline adherent physical therapy may be substantial. These results also extend the findings from similar studies in civilian settings by demonstrating an association between early guideline adherent care and utilization and costs in a single payer health system. Future research is necessary to examine which patients with LBP benefit early physical therapy and determine strategies for providing early guideline adherent care.

  15. Management of falls in community-dwelling older adults: clinical guidance statement from the Academy of Geriatric Physical Therapy of the American Physical Therapy Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avin, Keith G; Hanke, Timothy A; Kirk-Sanchez, Neva; McDonough, Christine M; Shubert, Tiffany E; Hardage, Jason; Hartley, Greg

    2015-06-01

    Falls in older adults are a major public health concern due to high prevalence, impact on health outcomes and quality of life, and treatment costs. Physical therapists can play a major role in reducing fall risk for older adults; however, existing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) related to fall prevention and management are not targeted to physical therapists. The purpose of this clinical guidance statement (CGS) is to provide recommendations to physical therapists to help improve outcomes in the identification and management of fall risk in community-dwelling older adults. The Subcommittee on Evidence-Based Documents of the Practice Committee of the Academy of Geriatric Physical Therapy developed this CGS. Existing CPGs were identified by systematic search and critically appraised using the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research, and Evaluation in Europe II (AGREE II) tool. Through this process, 3 CPGs were recommended for inclusion in the CGS and were synthesized and summarized. Screening recommendations include asking all older adults in contact with a health care provider whether they have fallen in the previous year or have concerns about balance or walking. Follow-up should include screening for balance and mobility impairments. Older adults who screen positive should have a targeted multifactorial assessment and targeted intervention. The components of this assessment and intervention are reviewed in this CGS, and barriers and issues related to implementation are discussed. A gap analysis supports the need for the development of a physical therapy-specific CPG to provide more precise recommendations for screening and assessment measures, exercise parameters, and delivery models. This CGS provides recommendations to assist physical therapists in the identification and management of fall risk in older community-dwelling adults. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  16. Modifiable variables in physical therapy education programs associated with first-time and three-year National Physical Therapy Examination pass rates in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Cook

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to examine the modifiable programmatic characteristics reflected in the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE Annual Accreditation Report for all accredited programs that reported pass rates on the National Physical Therapist Examination, and to build a predictive model for first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates. Methods: This observational study analyzed programmatic information from the 185 CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs in the United States and Puerto Rico out of a total of 193 programs that provided the first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates in 2011. Fourteen predictive variables representing student selection and composition, clinical education length and design, and general program length and design were analyzed against first-time pass rates and ultimate pass rates on the NPTE. Univariate and multivariate multinomial regression analysis for first-time pass rates and logistic regression analysis for three-year ultimate pass rates were performed. Results: The variables associated with the first-time pass rate in the multivariate analysis were the mean undergraduate grade point average (GPA and the average age of the cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that mean undergraduate GPA was associated with the three-year ultimate pass rate. Conclusions: Mean undergraduate GPA was found to be the only modifiable predictor for both first-time and three-year pass rates among CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs.

  17. The contribution of conceptual frameworks to knowledge translation interventions in physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Anne; Gervais, Mathieu-Joël; Hunt, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    There is growing recognition of the importance of knowledge translation activities in physical therapy to ensure that research findings are integrated into clinical practice, and increasing numbers of knowledge translation interventions are being conducted. Although various frameworks have been developed to guide and facilitate the process of translating knowledge into practice, these tools have been infrequently used in physical therapy knowledge translation studies to date. Knowledge translation in physical therapy implicates multiple stakeholders and environments and involves numerous steps. In light of this complexity, the use of explicit conceptual frameworks by clinicians and researchers conducting knowledge translation interventions is associated with a range of potential benefits. This perspective article argues that such frameworks are important resources to promote the uptake of new evidence in physical therapist practice settings. Four key benefits associated with the use of conceptual frameworks in designing and implementing knowledge translation interventions are identified, and limits related to their use are considered. A sample of 5 conceptual frameworks is evaluated, and how they address common barriers to knowledge translation in physical therapy is assessed. The goal of this analysis is to provide guidance to physical therapists seeking to identify a framework to support the design and implementation of a knowledge translation intervention. Finally, the use of a conceptual framework is illustrated through a case example. Increased use of conceptual frameworks can have a positive impact on the field of knowledge translation in physical therapy and support the development and implementation of robust and effective knowledge translation interventions that help span the research-practice gap. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  18. Could the Addition of Alexander Technique Improve the Effectiveness of Physical Therapy in Reducing Violinists' Neck Pain in Comparison to Physical Therapy Alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Arman; Lajevardi, Mahbod; Shabani, Sanaz; Emami, Sara; Sharifi, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    One hypothesis for the mechanism of neck pain in musicians, particularly string players, is changed behavior of the superficial neck flexor muscles and impairment of the cervical stabilization system. To restore the supporting capacity of neck muscles and reduce neck pain, various types of physical therapies and pain educational modalities have been recommended. However, considering the physio-psychological nature of violinists' neck pain, its treatment may benefit from addition of therapies that address postural and movement habits. In this regard, we suggest that management of violinists' neck pain might benefit from additional approaches that may help to decrease muscle overactivity during performance movements.

  19. Issues affecting the delivery of physical therapy services for individuals with critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Amy J; Kress, John P

    2013-02-01

    Research supports the provision of physical therapy intervention and early mobilization in the management of patients with critical illness. However, the translation of care from that of well-controlled research protocols to routine practice can be challenging and warrants further study. Discussions in the critical care and physical therapy communities, as well as in the published literature, are investigating factors related to early mobilization such as transforming culture in the intensive care unit (ICU), encouraging interprofessional collaboration, coordinating sedation interruption with mobility sessions, and determining the rehabilitation modalities that will most significantly improve patient outcomes. Some variables, however, need to be investigated and addressed specifically by the physical therapy profession. They include assessing and increasing physical therapist competence managing patients with critical illness in both professional (entry-level) education programs and clinical settings, determining and providing an adequate number of physical therapists for a given ICU, evaluating methods of prioritization of patients in the acute care setting, and adding to the body of research to support specific functional outcome measures to be used with patients in the ICU. Additionally, because persistent weakness and functional limitations can exist long after the critical illness itself has resolved, there is a need for increased awareness and involvement of physical therapists in all settings of practice, including outpatient clinics. The purpose of this article is to explore the issues that the physical therapy profession needs to address as the rehabilitation management of the patient with critical illness evolves.

  20. Abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Proof of principle in an experimental model of colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Schwint, Amanda E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, B1650KNA San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Curotto, Paula [Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Research and Production Reactors, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Colombo, Lucas L. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thorp, Silvia I.; Farias, Ruben O. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Instrumentation and Control, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Garabalino, Marcela A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, B1650KNA San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, Sara J. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Instrumentation and Control, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carando, Daniel G. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, the abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Twenty-six BDIX rats were inoculated subcutaneously with 1 x 10{sup 6} DHD/K12/TRb syngeneic colon cancer cells in the right hind flank. Three weeks post-inoculation, the right leg of 12 rats bearing the tumor nodule was treated with BPA-BNCT (BPA-Boronophenylalanine) at the RA-3 nuclear reactor located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at an absorbed dose of 7.5 Gy to skin as the dose-limiting tissue. The remaining group of 14 tumor-bearing rats were left untreated and used as control. Two weeks post-BNCT, 1 x 10{sup 6} DHD/K12/TRb cells were injected subcutaneously in the contralateral left hind flank of each of the 26 BDIX rats. Tumor volume in both legs was measured weekly for 7 weeks to determine response to BNCT in the right leg and to assess a potential influence of BNCT in the right leg on tumor development in the left leg. Within the BNCT group, a statistically significant reduction was observed in contralateral left tumor volume in animals whose right leg tumor responded to BNCT (post-treatment/pre-treatment tumor volume <1) versus animals who failed to respond (post/pre ≥1), i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 271 ± 128 mm{sup 3}. In addition, a statistically significant reduction in contralateral left leg tumor volume was observed in BNCT-responsive animals (post/pre <1) vs untreated animals, i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 254 ± 251 mm{sup 3}. The present study performed in a simple animal model provides proof of principle that the positive response of a tumor to BNCT is capable of inducing an abscopal effect. (orig.)

  1. Engaging Stakeholders From Volunteer-Led Out-of-School Time Programs in the Dissemination of Guiding Principles for Healthy Snacking and Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Folta, Sara C.; Koomas, Alyssa; Metayer, Nesly; Fullerton, Karen J.; Hubbard, Kristie L.; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Hofer, Teresa; Nelson, Miriam; Newman, Molly; Sacheck, Jennifer; Economos, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background Little effort has focused on the role of volunteer-led out-of-school time (OST) programs (ie, enrichment and sports programs) as key environments for the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity habits among school-aged children. The Healthy Kids Out of School (HKOS) initiative developed evidence-based, practical guiding principles for healthy snacks, beverages, and physical activity. The goal of this case study was to describe the methods used to engage regional partners ...

  2. X-ray imaging physics for nuclear medicine technologists. Part 1: Basic principles of x-ray production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, J Anthony

    2004-09-01

    The purpose is to review in a 4-part series: (i) the basic principles of x-ray production, (ii) x-ray interactions and data capture/conversion, (iii) acquisition/creation of the CT image, and (iv) operational details of a modern multislice CT scanner integrated with a PET scanner. Advances in PET technology have lead to widespread applications in diagnostic imaging and oncologic staging of disease. Combined PET/CT scanners provide the high-resolution anatomic imaging capability of CT with the metabolic and physiologic information by PET, to offer a significant increase in information content useful for the diagnostician and radiation oncologist, neurosurgeon, or other physician needing both anatomic detail and knowledge of disease extent. Nuclear medicine technologists at the forefront of PET should therefore have a good understanding of x-ray imaging physics and basic CT scanner operation, as covered by this 4-part series. After reading the first article on x-ray production, the nuclear medicine technologist will be familiar with (a) the physical characteristics of x-rays relative to other electromagnetic radiations, including gamma-rays in terms of energy, wavelength, and frequency; (b) methods of x-ray production and the characteristics of the output x-ray spectrum; (c) components necessary to produce x-rays, including the x-ray tube/x-ray generator and the parameters that control x-ray quality (energy) and quantity; (d) x-ray production limitations caused by heating and the impact on image acquisition and clinical throughput; and (e) a glossary of terms to assist in the understanding of this information.

  3. Manual Physical Therapy Versus Surgery for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Parallel-Group Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las Peñas, César; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana I; Martínez-Perez, Almudena; Fahandezh-Saddi Díaz, Homid; Martínez-Martín, Javier; Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado-Pérez, Maria L

    2015-11-01

    This randomized clinical trial investigated the effectiveness of surgery compared with physical therapy consisting of manual therapies including desensitization maneuvers in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The setting was a public hospital and 2 physical therapy practices in Madrid, Spain. One hundred twenty women with CTS were enrolled between February 2013 and January 2014, with 1-year follow-up completed in January 2015. Interventions consisted of 3 sessions of manual therapies including desensitization maneuvers of the central nervous system (physical therapy group, n = 60) or decompression/release of the carpal tunnel (surgical group, n = 60). The primary outcome was pain intensity (mean pain and the worst pain), and secondary outcomes included functional status and symptoms severity subscales of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and the self-perceived improvement. They were assessed at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months by a blinded assessor. Analysis was by intention to treat. At 12 months, 111 (92%) women completed the follow-up (55/60 physical therapy, 56/60 surgery). Adjusted analyses showed an advantage (all, P physical therapy at 1 and 3 months in mean pain (Δ -2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) -2.8 to -1.2]/-1.3 [95% CI -2.1 to -.6]), the worst pain (Δ -2.9 [-4.0 to -2.0]/-2.0 [-3.0 to -.9]), and function (Δ -.8 [-1.0 to -.6]/-.3 [-.5 to -.1]), respectively. Changes in pain and function were similar between the groups at 6 and 12 months. The 2 groups had similar improvements in the symptoms severity subscale of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire at all follow-ups. In women with CTS, physical therapy may result in similar outcomes on pain and function to surgery. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01789645. This study found that surgery and physical manual therapies including desensitization maneuvers of the central nervous system were similarly effective at medium-term and long-term follow-ups for improving pain and

  4. Princípios físicos do Doppler em ultra-sonografia Physical principles of Doppler ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Figueira Carvalho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A ultra-sonografia Doppler é um método relativamente recente dentro da rotina veterinária que fornece informações em tempo real da arquitetura vascular e dos aspectos hemodinâmicos dos vasos sanguíneos examinados em diversos órgãos vitais. Pode determinar a presença, a direção e o tipo de fluxo sanguíneo. Esta revisão de literatura compila as informações sobre os princípios físicos da ultra-sonografia Doppler. A ampliação do conhecimento desta tecnologia possibilita a melhor compreensão das aplicações e limitações deste método diagnóstico, que tem se tornado rotina na medicina veterinária de pequenos animais.Doppler ultrasonography is a relatively new diagnostic tool in veterinary medicine that provides real time details about vascular architecture and hemodynamic aspects of examinated blood vessels in several internal organs. Doppler can identify the presence, direction and type of blood flow. This literature review provides information about the physical principles of Doppler ultrasonography. The enlargement of expertise about this technology lead to a better comprehension of its use and limitations as a diagnostic technique, which already becomes usual in veterinary medicine of small animals.

  5. Clinical profile of newborns undergoing physical therapy in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Ferreira Biazus

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: In neonatal therapy units, physical therapy is directed toward integral baby care. Objective: To describe the profile of newborns (NBs hospitalized in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU. Methods: Retrospective documentary study with data collection from medical records from July 2011 to July 2013. The sample consisted of NBs who performed motor and respiratory therapy. Data were grouped into five categories according to birth weight (≤ 1000g, 1001-1500g, 1501-2000g, 2001-2500g, ≥ 2501g. Results: total of 1,884 newborns were admitted to the NICU within the stipulated period, 168 (13.9% underwent physical therapy. Of the 168 NBs who underwent physical therapy, 137 were born in the hospital (81.5% and 31 were transferred there (18.5%; 17 of these babies died during the neonatal hospital stay (10.1%. All newborns of the extremely low birth weight group (≤ 1000g required mechanical ventilation, 72.7% non-invasive ventilation and 16.6% high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. The occurrence of pneumothorax in the extremely low birth weight group was 13.8% and 16% in the group with birth weight 1001-1500g. Conclusion: Infants with low birth weight (<2500g constituted the profile of NBs who underwent physical therapy, which was directly related to higher incidence of death and pneumothorax, as well as increased use of mechanical and non-invasive ventilation.

  6. Physical design of scanning gantry for proton therapy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yi; Guan, Xia-Ling; Satogata, Todd; Fang, Shou-Xian; Wei, Jie; Tang, Jing-Yu; Chen, Yuan; Qiu, Jing; Shu, Hang

    2010-03-01

    A proton therapy facility based on a linac injector and a slow cycling synchrotron is proposed. To achieve effective treatment of cancer, a scanning gantry is required. The flexible transmission of beam and high beam position accuracy are the most basic requirements for a gantry. The designed gantry optics and scanning system are presented. Great efforts are put into studying the sensitivity of the beam position in the isocenter to the element misalignments. It shows that quadrupole shift makes the largest contribution and special attention should be paid to it.

  7. Sixty-five years of Physical Therapy: bibliometric analysis of research publications from 1945 through 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Louise; Matricciani, Lisa; Williams, Marie; Olds, Timothy

    2012-04-01

    The generation of research can be likened to the production of consumer goods, with a producer (the study authors and funders), a product (the study and publications arising from it), and consumers (those who read and cite the published study). The aim of this study was to use bibliometric indexes to track changes in the producers, products, and consumers of the journal Physical Therapy from 1945 through 2010. An analysis of published manuscripts (excluding letters, editorials, corrections, commentaries, and book reviews) in Physical Therapy was performed using a reliable bibliometric audit tool. Articles were sampled every 3 months and at 5-year intervals over a 65-year period. Information relating to authorship, the research methods used, and citation patterns was collected. Data were analyzed descriptively. There have been substantial shifts in the nature of research published over the last 65 years in Physical Therapy. In 1945, the typical paper was anecdotal and authored by 1.4 American authors (working in hospitals), and consisted of 4 pages and 4 references. In 2010, the typical paper used a cross-sectional survey or randomized controlled trial design, with 4.6 multinational authors (working in universities), and consisted of 12 pages and 49 references. Findings are specific to the articles published in Physical Therapy that were sampled in this bibliometric analysis. The changes seen in the research published in Physical Therapy mirror the shifts that have occurred in other industries: increasing quantification, standardization, collaboration, and internationalization. These trends are likely to continue in the future.

  8. Effects of Intensive versus Non-Intensive Physical Therapy on Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M A; Zaman, M M; Rahman, M M; Moniruzzaman, M; Ahmed, B; Chhobi, F K; Rahman, N; Akter, M R

    2016-07-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) is one of the most common causes of all childhood disorders. There are tone, posture and movements difficulty due to non-progressive damage to the immature brain in CP. The hallmark of CP is a disability in the development of gross motor function (GMF). The influence of gross motor development on fine motor development is more important in early developmental period, specially under three years old and in children with CP. Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of GMF development. Among them physical therapy is the most common intervention in CP and is usually a component of mandated programs. Physical therapy means physical stimulations in the form of various therapeutic exercises, touch, massage, limbs and trunk movement, balancing and coordination training, gait and ambulation training, cognitive stimulation as well as speech, language and occupational therapy. Our study focused to see the effect by short term intensive versus non-intensive physical therapy on children GMF development by using gross motor function measure (GMFM) Score sheet, GMFM-88, version 1.0. Study provides the information that physical therapy intervention is effective in GMF development and intensive interventions are more effective in children with spastic CP than non-intensive one. Study also inform that the more early treatment the more effective result.

  9. The role and effectiveness of computer-assisted learning in physical therapy education: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneri, Diana

    2011-05-01

    Physical therapy educators seek teaching methodologies to efficiently educate students. The purpose of this article was to perform a systematic review of the literature pertaining to the use and effectiveness of computer-assisted learning (CAL) in physical therapy education. Criteria were established for article selection. Articles related to use included those reporting at least a 30% survey response return and a sample of at least 50. Articles regarding effectiveness included only randomized control studies related to use in physical therapy and physical therapy assistant education. Six articles related to the use and 17 articles related to the effectiveness were identified. Early published investigations were focused in the area of anatomy. The survey studies related to use indicated that educators highly valued CAL, but they reported initial use to be low due to cost. Expanding software development has resulted in higher contemporary use. CAL can effectively convey content material compared to traditional methods of instruction. CAL is largely underresearched in the field of physical therapy compared to other health professions. Recommendations for future research include larger studies, broader representation of the practice field, and development of interactive programming.

  10. Pelvic floor physical therapy for lifelong vaginismus: a retrospective chart review and interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissing, Elke D; Armstrong, Heather L; Allen, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Pelvic floor physical therapy is used in the treatment of sexual pain disorders; however, women with lifelong vaginismus have not yet been included in treatment studies or have not been differentiated from women with acquired vaginismus and/or dyspareunia. This retrospective chart review and interview study was intended to obtain initial information on physical therapy interventions, course, and outcome in women who have never been able to experience vaginal intercourse. The files of 53 women, consecutively treated at one physical therapy clinic, were included in the chart review; 13 of these women volunteered to be interviewed. The chart review revealed significant pelvic floor pathology and an average treatment course of 29 sessions. Internal manual techniques were found to be most effective, followed by patient education, dilatation exercises, and home exercises. Although participants were very satisfied with the physical therapy, some symptoms, such as pain, anxiety/fear, and pelvic floor tension remained and scores on the Female Sexual Distress Scale and Female Sexual Function Index indicated clinical levels of sexual distress and impaired sexual function after treatment. Although there appears to be no linear relation between symptom reduction and healthy sexual function, this initial information suggests that physical therapy may be a promising treatment option for some women with lifelong vaginismus and merits further evaluation.

  11. Influence of the physical environment on treatment effect in exercise therapy for knee or hip pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Louise Fleng

    ) exploring experiences and perceptions of the physical environments. The waiting-list group reported no significant improvement (-0.05 GPE, CI 95% -0.5 to 0.4). Contrary to the study hypothesis, participants exercising in the standard environment reported greater improvement in GPE (0.98, CI 95% 0.5 to 1......-care settings. The physical environment is easier to standardize and may act as a context factor and influence treatment outcomes. Studies from hospital environments have shown that the physical environment influences health outcomes, patients, and clinicians. It is unknown if the physical environment affects...... treatment outcomes in other health-care settings, such as rehabilitation and exercise therapy settings. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of the physical environment as a contributor to context effects in the treatment response from exercise therapy as treatment for muskuloskeletal pain...

  12. Exercise therapy in the complex of physical rehabilitation of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogas A.O.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The programs of physical rehabilitation, which are directed on proceeding in the broken function of the external breathing, are appraised. In research 68 patients took part with a diagnosis the first diagnosed white plague (40 - men and 28 - women, middle ages - 29 years. The complex program of physical rehabilitation included: morning hygienical gymnastics, medical gymnastics, massotherapy, physical therapy procedures, hydropathy, manipulation interferences and educational programs. A tendency is set to more hasty growth of indexes which characterize the level of violation of bronchial ability to travel the cross-country; frequencies of breathing, respiratory volume, minute volume of breathing. It is well-proven that over application of medical physical culture brings to rapid renewal of the broken function of the external breathing, improvement of the functional state of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, strengthening of respiratory musculature, increase of efficiency of medicinal therapy, general physical health and diminishing of development of complications level.

  13. Therapeutic perspectives of physical therapy in relation to pain lumbar

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Eudison da Silva Maia; Fabio Firmino de Albuquerque Gurgel; João Carlos Lopes Bezerra; Cleber Mahlmann Viana Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    The growing incidence of low back pain is a problem of public health, causing physical, economical and psychosocial damages. Such pain is correlated with types of work and its execution, such as remaining in determinate postures for long periods and repetition of mechanically stressful movements, and its consequent metabolic damage on the composing structures of the lumbar spine. Thus, this study approaches the aetiology of the mechanical and biological factors related to low back pain, contr...

  14. Description of interventions is under-reported in physical therapy clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariohm, K; Jeyanthi, S; Kumar, J Saravan; Prakash, V

    Amongst several barriers to the application of quality clinical evidence and clinical guidelines into routine daily practice, poor description of interventions reported in clinical trials has received less attention. Although some studies have investigated the completeness of descriptions of non-pharmacological interventions in randomized trials, studies that exclusively analyzed physical therapy interventions reported in published trials are scarce. To evaluate the quality of descriptions of interventions in both experimental and control groups in randomized controlled trials published in four core physical therapy journals. We included all randomized controlled trials published from the Physical Therapy Journal, Journal of Physiotherapy, Clinical Rehabilitation, and Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation between June 2012 and December 2013. Each randomized controlled trial (RCT) was analyzed and coded for description of interventions using the checklist developed by Schroter et al. Out of 100 RCTs selected, only 35 RCTs (35%) fully described the interventions in both the intervention and control groups. Control group interventions were poorly described in the remaining RCTs (65%). Interventions, especially in the control group, are poorly described in the clinical trials published in leading physical therapy journals. A complete description of the intervention in a published report is crucial for physical therapists to be able to use the intervention in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Employment Selections of Resident and Non-Resident Graduates of Physical Therapy Programs in Underserved Western States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Kathryn D.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Physical therapy (PT) is an essential component of the healthcare system in providing a comprehensive treatment plan for patients with functional limitations. The demand for physical therapy services is projected to expand in the next eight years, leading to an increased need for practicing physical therapists. The Mountain…

  16. Physical activity outside of structured therapy during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbogar, Dominik; Eng, Janice J; Miller, William C; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Verrier, Mary C

    2016-11-15

    Little information exists on the content of inpatient rehabilitation stay when individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are not engaged in structured rehabilitation therapy sessions. Investigation of inpatient therapy content is incomplete without the context of activities outside of this time. We sought to quantify physical activity occurring outside of physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) sessions during inpatient SCI rehabilitation and examine how this activity changes over time from admission to discharge. In this longitudinal observational study at two inpatient SCI rehabilitation centres, 95 participants were recruited through consecutive admissions. Physical activity at admission and discharge was recorded by 1) self-report (PARA-SCI questionnaire) and 2) real-time accelerometers worn on the dominant wrist, and hip if ambulatory. For analyses, we separated participants into those with paraplegia or tetraplegia, and a subgroup of those ambulatory at discharge. Wilcoxon signed rank tests (admission vs. discharge) were used for PARA-SCI minutes and accelerometry activity kilocounts. There was no change in self-report physical activity, where the majority of time was spent in leisure time sedentary activity (~4 h) and leisure time physical activity at a higher intensity had a median value of 0 min. In contrast, significant increases in physical activity outside PT and OT sessions from admission to discharge were found for wrist accelerometers for individuals with tetraplegia (i.e., upper limb activity) and hip accelerometers for ambulatory individuals (i.e., walking activity). Physical activity is low in the inpatient SCI rehabilitation setting outside of structured therapy with a substantial amount of time spent in leisure time sedentary activity. Individuals appear to have the capacity to increase their levels of physical activity over the inpatient stay.

  17. Impact of Post-Professional Doctor of Physical Therapy Education on the Role of a School Based Physical Therapist: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Susan; Brown, Suzanne Robben

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes the impact of the post-professional doctor of physical therapy curriculum on the role of one physical therapist employed as a special education related service provider. Physical therapists working in the public school setting play an important role in promoting success for students with physical disabilities as…

  18. Exercise and physical therapy in early management of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Frech, Fernando; Sanahuja, Juan Juni; Rodriguez, Amelia Mendoza

    2011-11-01

    Experimental research has produced evidence in recent years underlying the beneficial effects that exercise can have in preventing and deceleration of the development of Parkinson disease. These beneficial effects are exerted through various mechanisms such as neuroprotection, neurotransmission, plasticity, neurogenesis, homeostasis, and neurotrophic factors. Studies on clinical application at an early stage are still scarce, although some results are encouraging. There are still many questions to determine the most suitable type of exercise (forced/voluntary), the time of its implementation, the duration, and the combination of strategies. Nonconventional therapies can play an important role in addition to exercise, and are so numerous that they could be adapted to the circumstances of patients, although there is no evidence to date that they could have a neuroprotective effect.

  19. Physics at the biomolecular interface fundamentals for molecular targeted therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses primarily on the role of interfacial forces in understanding biological phenomena at the molecular scale. By providing a suitable statistical mechanical apparatus to handle the biomolecular interface, the book becomes uniquely positioned to address core problems in molecular biophysics. It highlights the importance of interfacial tension in delineating a solution to the protein folding problem, in unravelling the physico-chemical basis of enzyme catalysis and protein associations, and in rationally designing molecular targeted therapies. Thus grounded in fundamental science, the book develops a powerful technological platform for drug discovery, while it is set to inspire scientists at any level in their careers determined to address the major challenges in molecular biophysics. The acknowledgment of how exquisitely the structure and dynamics of proteins and their aqueous environment are related attests to the overdue recognition that biomolecular phenomena cannot be effectively understood w...

  20. Individual and Regional Determinants for Physical Therapy Utilization in Germany: Multilevel Analysis of National Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Alexander; Kroll, Lars Eric

    2017-05-01

    Physical therapy is included in many clinical guidelines and is a commonly used health service. However, access to its benefits should not strongly depend on social or demographic factors. The present study used the Andersen model to explain to what extent physical therapy utilization in Germany depends on factors beyond medical need. The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS, 2008-2011; target population, 18-79 years) is part of the German health-monitoring system. Two-stage stratified cluster sampling resulted in a sample of 8152 participants. Data were matched with district-related information on social structures and service supply. Following Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use, this study identified predisposing, enabling, and need factors for physical therapy utilization using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Physical therapy was used by 23.4% (95% CI: 22.0-24.8) of the German population within one year, with a higher proportion of females (26.8%; 95% CI: 25.1-28.6) than males (19.9%; 95% CI: 18.1-21.8) and an increase with age. Beyond medical need, physical therapy utilization depended on higher education, migrant background, nonsmoking (predisposing), social support, higher income, private health insurance, and gatekeeping service contact (enabling). Variation among districts partly reflected regional supply. Because the present study was cross-sectional, its findings provide representative information on physical therapy use but do not establish final causal links or identify whether utilization or supply in certain districts or population groups is adequate. Whether certain regions are under- or overserved and whether further regulations are needed is of political interest. Physicians and therapists should develop strategies to improve both adherence of hard-to-reach groups and supply in low-supply regions.

  1. Physical activity, hormone replacement therapy, and the presence of coronary calcium in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Nicole; Young, Amelia; Hunter, Carol J; Agrawal, Nisha; Mao, Songshou; Budoff, Matthew J

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerotic calcification is a risk factor for cardiovascular events, independent of other traditional risk factors. Studies of the relation of menopausal hormone therapy to cardiovascular events have had inconsistent results, and often have been confounded by lifestyle behaviors and the "healthy user" effect. The authors evaluated the cross-sectional association of hormone therapy use with the presence and severity of atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women, independent of lifestyle factors, including diet and physical activity levels. The authors consecutively enrolled postmenopausal asymptomatic women who were referred for coronary artery calcium scanning to measure cardiovascular risk. After consent was obtained, women were interviewed prior to their cardiac scan about cardiac risk factors, hormone therapy use, menopausal status, diet, and physical activity. Coronary artery calcium prevalence was defined as any calcification present (score >0). Of the 544 enrolled women aged 50-80 years, 252 (46.3%) were hormone therapy users. Hormone therapy users had a significantly lower prevalence of any coronary artery calcium (defined as coronary artery calcium score >0; 37%), than non-users (50%, p = 0.04), as well as significantly lower mean calcium scores (p = 0.02). Multiple logistic regression models demonstrated a significantly reduced odds of coronary artery calcium in hormone therapy users compared to non-users with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.58 (p = 0.04), adjusting for traditional cardiac risk factors and body mass index. Women who reported consuming a vegetarian or a high-protein diet had almost two-fold odds of coronary artery calcium compared with women who reported regular, mixed, or low-fat, low-salt diets (OR = 1.78, p = 0.02). Severity of coronary artery calcium was less with increasing levels of physical activity, and a significant association was observed between physical activity and hormone therapy use (adjusted OR = 4.05, p = 0.03), independent

  2. Tutorial for writing systematic reviews for the Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy (BJPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Marisa C; Cardoso, Jefferson R; Sampaio, Rosana F; Costa, Lucíola C M; Cabral, Cristina M N; Costa, Leonardo O P

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews aim to summarize all evidence using very rigorous methods in order to address a specific research question with less bias as possible. Systematic reviews are widely used in the field of physical therapy, however not all reviews have good quality. This tutorial aims to guide authors of the Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy on how systematic reviews should be conducted and reported in order to be accepted for publication. It is expected that this tutorial will help authors of systematic reviews as well as journal editors and reviewers on how to conduct, report, critically appraise and interpret this type of study design.

  3. Transformative learning experience for physical therapy students through a community health promotion project for mothers of hearing-challenged children

    OpenAIRE

    Yokogawa, Masami; Notoya, Masako; Madokoro, Sachiko

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this project was to expose physical therapy students to transformative learning through a community health promotion project for mothers of hearing-challenged children. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were three mothers with their respective hearing-challenged child and twenty physical therapy students. The project consisted of seven sessions supervised throughout by a physical therapy instructor. The students participated in seven sessions, while the mothers ...

  4. An overview of 5 years of patient self-referral for physical therapy in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinkels, Ilse C S; Kooijman, Margit K; Spreeuwenberg, Peter M; Bossen, Daniël; Leemrijse, Chantal J; van Dijk, Christel E; Verheij, Robert; de Bakker, Dinny H; Veenhof, Cindy

    2014-12-01

    Self-referral for physical therapy was introduced in 2006 in the Netherlands. Internationally, debate on self-referral is still ongoing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of self-referral for physical therapy in the Netherlands, focusing on volume of general practice and physical therapy care (incidence rates and utilization of services). The study was based on monitoring data from existing data sources. Longitudinal electronic medical record data from general practitioners (GPs) and physical therapists participating in the NIVEL Primary Care Database were used, as well as public data from Statistics Netherlands. Descriptive statistics and Poisson multilevel regression analyses were used for analyzing the data. Incidence rates of back (including low back), shoulder, and neck pain in general practice declined slightly from 2004 to 2009. No linear trends were found for number of contacts in GP care for back (including low back) and neck pain. The number of patients visiting physical therapists and the proportion of self-referrers are growing. Self-referrers receive treatment less often after initial intake than referred patients, and the mean number of visits is lower. This study was based on data of various patient populations from existing data sources. The current study indicates that self-referral in the Netherlands has fulfilled most expectations held prior to its introduction, although no changes to the workload of GP care have been found. Use of physical therapy grew, but due to population aging and increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, it remains unclear whether self-referral affects health care utilization. Therefore, cost-benefit analyses are recommended. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

  5. The Contribution of Conceptual Frameworks to Knowledge Translation Interventions in Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Mathieu-Joël; Hunt, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the importance of knowledge translation activities in physical therapy to ensure that research findings are integrated into clinical practice, and increasing numbers of knowledge translation interventions are being conducted. Although various frameworks have been developed to guide and facilitate the process of translating knowledge into practice, these tools have been infrequently used in physical therapy knowledge translation studies to date. Knowledge translation in physical therapy implicates multiple stakeholders and environments and involves numerous steps. In light of this complexity, the use of explicit conceptual frameworks by clinicians and researchers conducting knowledge translation interventions is associated with a range of potential benefits. This perspective article argues that such frameworks are important resources to promote the uptake of new evidence in physical therapist practice settings. Four key benefits associated with the use of conceptual frameworks in designing and implementing knowledge translation interventions are identified, and limits related to their use are considered. A sample of 5 conceptual frameworks is evaluated, and how they address common barriers to knowledge translation in physical therapy is assessed. The goal of this analysis is to provide guidance to physical therapists seeking to identify a framework to support the design and implementation of a knowledge translation intervention. Finally, the use of a conceptual framework is illustrated through a case example. Increased use of conceptual frameworks can have a positive impact on the field of knowledge translation in physical therapy and support the development and implementation of robust and effective knowledge translation interventions that help span the research-practice gap. PMID:25060959

  6. Exercise therapy improves both mental and physical health in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Jan; Vancampfort, Davy; Moriën, Yves; Marchal, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    to present clinical guidelines for exercise therapy in depressed patients derived from recent meta-analyses. four meta-analyses on effects of physical exercise on mental and physical in depression were analysed. For mild to moderate depression the effect of exercise may be comparable to antidepressant medication and psychotherapy; for severe depression exercise seems to be a valuable complementary therapy to the traditional treatments. Depression is associated with a high incidence of co-morbid somatic illnesses, especially cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Exercise is extremely powerful in preventing and treating these diseases. Physical exercise is an outstanding opportunity for the treatment of patients who have a mix of mental and physical health problems. Exercise therapy also improves body image, patient s coping strategies with stress, quality of life and independence in activities of daily living in older adults. Physical therapists should be aware, that several characteristics of major depression (e.g. loss of interest, motivation and energy, generalised fatigue, a low self-worth and self-confidence, fear to move, and psychosomatic complaints) and physical health problems interfere with participation in exercise. Therefore, motivational strategies should be incorporated in exercise interventions to enhance the patients' motivation and adherence in exercise programs. Implications for Rehabilitation For mild to moderate depression, the effect of exercise may be comparable with antidepressant medication and psychotherapy; for severe depression, exercise seems to be a valuable complementary therapy to the traditional treatments. Exercise therapy also improves physical health, body image, patient's coping strategies with stress, quality of life, and independence in activities of daily living in older adults. Motivational strategies should be incorporated in exercise interventions to enhance the patients' motivation.

  7. Utilization of Physical Therapy Intervention Among Patients With Plantar Fasciitis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, John J; Glaviano, Neal R; Hertel, Jay

    2017-02-01

    Study Design Retrospective observational study. Background Plantar fasciitis is responsible for 1 million ambulatory patient care visits annually in the United States. Few studies have investigated practice patterns in the treatment of patients with plantar fasciitis. Objective To assess physical therapist utilization and employment of manual therapy and supervised rehabilitation in the treatment of patients with plantar fasciitis. Methods A retrospective review of the PearlDiver patient record database was used to evaluate physical therapist utilization and use of manual therapy and supervised rehabilitation in patients with plantar fasciitis between 2007 and 2011. An International Classification of Diseases code (728.71) was used to identify plantar fasciitis, and Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to identify evaluations (97001), manual therapy (97140), and rehabilitation services (97110, 97530, 97112). Results A total of 819 963 unique patients diagnosed with plantar fasciitis accounted for 5 739 737 visits from 2007 to 2011, comprising 2.7% of all patients in the database. Only 7.1% (95% confidence interval: 7.0%, 7.1%) of patients received a physical therapist evaluation. Of the 57 800 patients evaluated by a physical therapist (59.8% female), 50 382 (87.2% ± 0.4%) received manual therapy, with significant increases in utilization per annum. A large proportion (89.5% ± 0.4%) received rehabilitation following physical therapist evaluation. Conclusion Despite plantar fasciitis being a frequently occurring musculoskeletal condition, a small proportion of patients with plantar fasciitis were seen by physical therapists. Most patients who were evaluated by a physical therapist received manual therapy and a course of supervised rehabilitation as part of their plan of care. Level of Evidence Treatment, level 2a. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(2):49-55. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.6999.

  8. [Physiotherapy, occupational therapy and physical therapy in fibromyalgia syndrome : Updated guidelines 2017 and overview of systematic review articles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, A; Bork, H; Brückle, W; Dexl, C; Heldmann, P; Henningsen, P; Krumbein, L; Pullwitt, V; Schiltenwolf, M; Häuser, W

    2017-06-01

    The regular update of the guidelines on fibromyalgia syndrome, AWMF number 145/004, was scheduled for April 2017. The guidelines were developed by 13 scientific societies and 2 patient self-help organizations coordinated by the German Pain Society. Working groups (n =8) with a total of 42 members were formed balanced with respect to gender, medical expertise, position in the medical or scientific hierarchy and potential conflicts of interest. A literature search for systematic reviews of randomized, controlled trials on physiotherapy, occupational therapy and physical therapy from December 2010 to May 2016 was performed in the Cochrane library, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Scopus databases. Levels of evidence were assigned according to the classification system of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine version 2009. The strength of recommendations was achieved by multiple step formalized procedures to reach a consensus. Efficacy, risks, patient preferences and applicability of available therapies were weighed up against each other. The guidelines were reviewed and approved by the board of directors of the societies engaged in the development of the guidelines. Low to moderate intensity endurance and strength training are strongly recommended. Chiropractic, laser therapy, magnetic field therapy, massage and transcranial magnetic stimulation are not recommended.

  9. Thrust joint manipulation curricula in first-professional physical therapy education: 2012 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noteboom, J Timothy; Little, Christian; Boissonnault, William

    2015-06-01

    Descriptive online observational survey. To identify the extent of thrust joint manipulation (TJM) integration into first-professional physical therapy program curricula. The most recent survey of TJM curricula was published in 2004, with a wide variation in faculty responses noted. Since that time, faculty resources have been developed and TJM language in "A Normative Model of Physical Therapist Professional Education" from the American Physical Therapy Association has been updated, leaving the current status of TJM education in curricula unknown. Faculty from 205 accredited physical therapy programs were invited to participate in an anonymous 35-item electronic survey during the summer of 2012. Seventy-two percent of programs responded to the survey, with 99% of programs teaching TJM and 97% of faculty believing TJM to be an entry-level skill. Cervical spine TJM is still being taught at a lower rate than techniques for other body regions. Faculty deemed 91% and 77% of students, respectively, at or above entry-level competency for implementing TJM in their clinical practice upon graduation. Most respondents indicated that increased utilization of TJM during clinical affiliations (78%) and lab hours (78%) would be beneficial to the student's knowledge/application of TJM. The utilization of TJM and faculty perceptions in first-professional physical therapy programs in the United States have evolved over the past decade. With TJM content more fully integrated into educational curricula, programs can now look to refine teaching strategies that enhance learning outcomes.

  10. Nuclear physics applications in diagnostics and cancer therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2005-01-01

    Only 1% of the 18,000 world accelerators are devoted to the production of radioisotopes for medical diagnostics. In fact at present about 85% of all the medical examinations use /sup 99m/Tc produced in nuclear reactors. But the development of Positron Emission Tomography and of its combination with Computer Tomography will boost the hospital use of cyclotrons. Much more general is the use of electron linacs in cancer therapy about 40% of the world accelerators are used for this so called "conventional" radiotherapy. In the developed countries every 10 million inhabitants about 20,000 oncological patients are irradiated every year with high-energy photons (called X-rays by radiotherapists) produced by electron linacs. Much less used is "hadrontherapy", the radiotherapy technique that employs protons, neutrons or carbon ions. Protons and ions are 'heavy' charged particles: they assure a more 'conformal' treatment than X-rays and thus spare better the surrounding healthy tissues allowing a larger dose and thus a...

  11. Non-exercise physical therapies for musculoskeletal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Michael V; Bearne, Lindsay M

    2008-06-01

    Management of musculoskeletal conditions by physiotherapy delivers a package of health care designed to reduce pain and improve function. Health-care interventions should be safe, effective, acceptable to patients, deliverable by clinicians, and affordable by health-care providers. Physiotherapy is very safe and popular with patients. While there is good evidence that exercise relieves pain, improves function, and is cost-effective, evidence supporting the use of non-exercise physiotherapeutic interventions is much weaker. There is some support for the efficacy of thermotherapy, transcutaneous electrical neuromuscular stimulation, and massage, all of which are relatively inexpensive and easy to self-administer. There is little evidence to support the efficacy of electrotherapy, acupuncture or manual therapy, which need to be delivered by a therapist, making them expensive and encouraging long-term reliance on others. Despite lack of efficacy, the popularity and powerful placebo effects of physiotherapeutic modalities may have some utility in making more burdensome physiotherapeutic interventions (exercise and self-management advice) more acceptable.

  12. What makes a reach movement effortful? Physical effort discounting supports common minimization principles in decision making and motor control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Morel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When deciding between alternative options, a rational agent chooses on the basis of the desirability of each outcome, including associated costs. As different options typically result in different actions, the effort associated with each action is an essential cost parameter. How do humans discount physical effort when deciding between movements? We used an action-selection task to characterize how subjective effort depends on the parameters of arm transport movements and controlled for potential confounding factors such as delay discounting and performance. First, by repeatedly asking subjects to choose between 2 arm movements of different amplitudes or durations, performed against different levels of force, we identified parameter combinations that subjects experienced as identical in effort (isoeffort curves. Movements with a long duration were judged more effortful than short-duration movements against the same force, while movement amplitudes did not influence effort. Biomechanics of the movements also affected effort, as movements towards the body midline were preferred to movements away from it. Second, by introducing movement repetitions, we further determined that the cost function for choosing between effortful movements had a quadratic relationship with force, while choices were made on the basis of the logarithm of these costs. Our results show that effort-based action selection during reaching cannot easily be explained by metabolic costs. Instead, force-loaded reaches, a widely occurring natural behavior, imposed an effort cost for decision making similar to cost functions in motor control. Our results thereby support the idea that motor control and economic choice are governed by partly overlapping optimization principles.

  13. Physics of epi-thermal boron neutron capture therapy (epi-thermal BNCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Ryoichi; Wakisaka, Yushi; Morimoto, Nami; Takashina, Masaaki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Toki, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro

    2017-12-01

    The physics of epi-thermal neutrons in the human body is discussed in the effort to clarify the nature of the unique radiologic properties of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). This discussion leads to the computational method of Monte Carlo simulation in BNCT. The method is discussed through two examples based on model phantoms. The physics is kept at an introductory level in the discussion in this tutorial review.

  14. Adaptive plasma for cancer therapy: physics, mechanism and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Michael

    2017-10-01

    One of the most promising applications of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is the cancer therapy. The uniqueness of plasma is in its ability to change composition in situ. Plasma self-organization could lead to formation of coherent plasma structures. These coherent structures tend to modulate plasma chemistry and composition, including reactive species, the electric field and charged particles. Formation of coherent plasma structures allows the plasma to adapt to external boundary conditions, such as different cells types and their contextual tissues. In this talk we will explore possibilities and opportunities that the adaptive plasma therapeutic system might offer. We shall define such an adaptive system as a plasma device that is able to adjust the plasma composition to obtain optimal desirable outcomes through its interaction with cells and tissues. The efficacy of cold plasma in a pre-clinical model of various cancer types such as lung, bladder, breast, head, neck, brain and skin has been demonstrated. Both in-vitro and in-vivo studies revealed that cold plasmas selectively kill cancer cells. Recently mechanism of plasma selectivity based on aquaporin hypothesis has been proposed. Aquaporins (AQPs) are the confirmed membrane channels of H2O2 and other large molecules. We have demonstrated that the anti-cancer capacity of plasma could be inhibited by silencing the expression of AQPs. Additional possible cell feedback mechanism was recently discovered. It is associated with production of reactive species during direct CAP treatment by cancer cells. Selective production of hydrogen peroxide by different cells can lead to adaptation of chemistry at the plasma-cell interface based on the cellular input. In particular we have found that the discharge voltage is an important factor affecting the ratio of reactive oxygen species to reactive nitrogen species in the gas phase and this correlates well with effect of hydrogen peroxide production by cells. This work was

  15. A content analysis of stroke physical therapy intervention using stroke physiotherapy intervention recording tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyuk-Shin; Cha, Hyun-Gyu

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Physical therapy for recovery of function in people with stroke is known to be effective, but which type of physical therapy intervention is most effective is uncertain because a concrete and detailed record of interventions is done. This study aimed to record, analyze, and describe the content of physical therapy interventions for recovery of function after stroke using stroke physiotherapy intervention recording tool (SPIRIT). [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 23 physical therapists from a rehabilitation hospital in Chung-nam recorded the interventions for 73 patients with stroke who were treated for 30 minutes in 670 treatment sessions. Treatment session contents were recorded using SPIRIT. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the interventions accurately and to investigate the differences according to time since stroke. [Results] Facilitation techniques were the most frequently used interventions (n=1,342, 35.1%), followed by practice (n=1,056, 27.6%), and exercise (n=748, 19.6%) in the physical therapists' clinical practice. [Conclusion] This pattern shows that physical therapists were focused on functional activity. Organizing or teaching patient activities for independent practice interventions (n=286, 7.5%) were used to encourage patient activity and independence outside the treatment sessions. Interventions according to time since stroke were not significantly different.

  16. Structural and Physical Basis for Anti-IgE Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jon D.; Chu, Hsing-Mao; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Ma, Che; Wen Chang, Tse; Lim, Carmay

    2015-06-01

    Omalizumab, an anti-IgE antibody, used to treat severe allergic asthma and chronic idiopathic urticaria, binds to IgE in blood or membrane-bound on B lymphocytes but not to IgE bound to its high (FcɛRI) or low (CD23) affinity receptor. Mutagenesis studies indicate overlapping FcɛRI and omalizumab-binding sites in the Cɛ3 domain, but crystallographic studies show FcɛRI and CD23-binding sites that are far apart, so how can omalizumab block IgE from binding both receptors? We report a 2.42-Å omalizumab-Fab structure, a docked IgE-Fc/omalizumab-Fab structure consistent with available experimental data, and the free energy contributions of IgE residues to binding omalizumab, CD23, and FcɛRI. These results provide a structural and physical basis as to why omalizumab cannot bind receptor-bound IgE and why omalizumab-bound IgE cannot bind to CD23/FcɛRI. They reveal the key IgE residues and their roles in binding omalizumab, CD23, and FcɛRI.

  17. Particle accelerators from Big Bang physics to hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical physicist Victor “Viki” Weisskopf, Director-General of CERN from 1961 to 1965, once “There are three kinds of physicists, namely the machine builders, the experimental physicists, and the theoretical physicists. […] The machine builders are the most important ones, because if they were not there, we would not get into this small-scale region of space. If we compare this with the discovery of America, the machine builders correspond to captains and ship builders who really developed the techniques at that time. The experimentalists were those fellows on the ships who sailed to the other side of the world and then landed on the new islands and wrote down what they saw. The theoretical physicists are those who stayed behind in Madrid and told Columbus that he was going to land in India.” Rather than focusing on the theoretical physicists, as most popular science books on particle physics do, this beautifully written and also entertaining book is different in that, firstly, the main foc...

  18. Reported characteristics of participants in physical therapy-related clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevan, Julia; Haskvitz, Esther M

    2015-06-01

    The inclusion of sociodemographic and anthropometric variables in published clinical trials enables physical therapists to determine the applicability of trial results to patients in their clinics. The aim of this study was to examine the reporting of participant sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics in published physical therapy-related clinical trials. This was a retrospective review of clinical trials from 2 samples drawn from literature applicable to physical therapy. Two reviewers independently extracted data from a random sample of 152 clinical trials from the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and a purposive sample of 85 clinical trials published in the journal Physical Therapy (PTJ). A database containing the occurrence of sociodemographic (age, sex, race/ethnicity, level of education, marital status) and anthropometric variables (height, weight, body mass index) in each article was created to generate descriptive statistics about both samples. Among the sociodemographic variables, at least 90% of articles reported the sex and age of trial participants. Additional sociodemographic characteristics that were reported in 20% to 26% of articles were participant level of education and participant race/ethnicity. The reporting of anthropometric data differed between the 2 samples, with body mass index being most commonly reported in the PEDro sample (48.0%) and weight being most commonly reported in the PTJ sample (38.8%). Articles reviewed were limited by year of publication (from 2008 to 2012 for PTJ articles and 2010 for clinical trials from PEDro) and to English-language-only literature. The physical therapy literature would benefit from enhanced reporting requirements for both sociodemographic and anthropometric data about participants. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  19. Comparative Effectiveness of Tai Chi Versus Physical Therapy for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenchen; Schmid, Christopher H; Iversen, Maura D; Harvey, William F; Fielding, Roger A; Driban, Jeffrey B; Price, Lori Lyn; Wong, John B; Reid, Kieran F; Rones, Ramel; McAlindon, Timothy

    2016-07-19

    Few remedies effectively treat long-term pain and disability from knee osteoarthritis. Studies suggest that Tai Chi alleviates symptoms, but no trials have directly compared Tai Chi with standard therapies for osteoarthritis. To compare Tai Chi with standard physical therapy for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Randomized, 52-week, single-blind comparative effectiveness trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01258985). An urban tertiary care academic hospital. 204 participants with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (mean age, 60 years; 70% women; 53% white). Tai Chi (2 times per week for 12 weeks) or standard physical therapy (2 times per week for 6 weeks, followed by 6 weeks of monitored home exercise). The primary outcome was Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included physical function, depression, medication use, and quality of life. At 12 weeks, the WOMAC score was substantially reduced in both groups (Tai Chi, 167 points [95% CI, 145 to 190 points]; physical therapy, 143 points [CI, 119 to 167 points]). The between-group difference was not significant (24 points [CI, -10 to 58 points]). Both groups also showed similar clinically significant improvement in most secondary outcomes, and the benefits were maintained up to 52 weeks. Of note, the Tai Chi group had significantly greater improvements in depression and the physical component of quality of life. The benefit of Tai Chi was consistent across instructors. No serious adverse events occurred. Patients were aware of their treatment group assignment, and the generalizability of the findings to other settings remains undetermined. Tai Chi produced beneficial effects similar to those of a standard course of physical therapy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health of the National Institutes of Health.

  20. [Opportunities for physical therapy contributions to primary health care in the South of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cristina Dutra; Soares, Maria Cristina Flores

    2014-08-01

    To identify opportunities for physical therapy contributions in an area covered by the Family Health Strategy in the South of Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, 629 households were visited and information on 2 316 people was collected using a semi-structured instrument investigating the occurrence of health problems that could benefit from physical therapy (diabetes, hypertension, musculoskeletal diseases, neurological disorders, respiratory diseases in adults and children). When health problems were identified, we investigated whether the families or patients had received guidance to improve quality of life, and which professionals had provided advice. Finally, we investigated whether respondents were familiar with physical therapy and if they had required this type of care in their lifetime or in the past 12 months. The following health problems were reported by 629 participating families: diabetes (11.9%), hypertension (46.9%), musculoskeletal disorders (36.7%), neurological diseases (3.4%), respiratory diseases in adults (18.9%) and children (15.7%) and developmental delay (3.8%). Specific guidance was provided to 57.3% of people with diabetes, 64.1% of people with hypertension, 39.8% of people with musculoskeletal disorders, 45.5% of neurological patients, 26.9% of adults and 60.6% of children with respiratory diseases and 62.5% of children with developmental delay. Regarding knowledge about the profession, 92.4% of respondents were familiar with physical therapy. Of these, 41% reported having had the need for physical therapy, mostly (54.4%) for trauma/orthopedic disorders. The present results warrant the inclusion of physical therapists as part of the Family Health Strategy team in Brazil.