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Sample records for therapy modulates eta

  1. Hormone therapy modulates ET(A) mRNA expression in the aorta of ovariectomised New Zealand White rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susan Helene; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Pedersen, Nina Gros

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) or conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) alone and in combination with norethisterone acetate (NETA) or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on the endothelin-1 (ET-1) system. METHODS: New Zealand White rabbits were treated with E(2), CEE, E(2) +......(A) receptor. The effect was maintained with the co-administration of NETA, but not MPA. The differential effects of specific hormone components may explain the variable effects of hormone therapy on the arterial wall....

  2. ETA-receptor antagonists or allosteric modulators?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Mey, Jo G R; Compeer, Matthijs G; Lemkens, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    The paracrine signaling peptide endothelin-1 (ET1) is involved in cardiovascular diseases, cancer and chronic pain. It acts on class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) but displays atypical pharmacology. It binds tightly to ET receptor type A (ET(A)) and causes long-lasting effects. In resista......The paracrine signaling peptide endothelin-1 (ET1) is involved in cardiovascular diseases, cancer and chronic pain. It acts on class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) but displays atypical pharmacology. It binds tightly to ET receptor type A (ET(A)) and causes long-lasting effects......(A) and that ERAs and the physiological antagonist allosterically reduce ET(A) functions. Combining the two-state model and the two-domain model of GPCR function and considering receptor activation beyond agonist binding might lead to better anti-endothelinergic drugs. Future studies could lead to compounds...

  3. Eta Aquarids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A meteor shower that takes place in late April and May. The radiant lies in the constellation Aquarius. The Eta Aquarids occur when the Earth intersects the descending node of the meteor stream from Halley's Comet; the Orionids in October are produced by the Earth's passage through the ascending node. Because Halley's orbit is retrograde, Eta Aquarid meteoroids impact the Earth at a high relative...

  4. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) uses linear accelerators ... and after this procedure? What is Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy and how is it used? Intensity-modulated radiation ...

  5. Searches for B0 decays to eta K0, eta eta, eta' eta', eta phi, and eta' phi

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Y G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Hart, A J; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Y I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Y; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martínez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, S; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihályi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-01-01

    We search for B0 meson decays into two-body combinations of K0, eta, eta', and phi mesons in 324 million B Bbar pairs collected with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e+e- collider at SLAC. We measure the following branching fractions (upper limits at 90% confidence level) in units of 10^{-6}: Br(B0->eta K0) =1.8+0.7-0.6 +-0.1(2.9), Br(B0->eta eta)=1.1+0.5-0.4 +-0.1(1.8), Br(B0->eta phi)=0.1+-0.2 +-0.1(0.6), Br(B0->eta' phi)=0.2+0.4-0.3 +-0.1(1.0), Br(B0->eta' eta')=1.0+0.8-0.6 +-0.1(2.4), where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.

  6. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy and xerostomia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chambers, Mark S; Weber, Randal S; Garden, Adam S

    2006-01-01

    Conformal radiation with intensity-modulated radiation therapy, IMRT, is a radiation technique that potentially can minimize the dose to salivary glands and thereby decrease the incidence of xerostomia...

  7. Fan beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick M.

    A fan beam proton therapy is developed which delivers intensity modulated proton therapy using distal edge tracking. The system may be retrofit onto existing proton therapy gantries without alterations to infrastructure in order to improve treatments through intensity modulation. A novel range and intensity modulation system is designed using acrylic leaves that are inserted or retracted from subsections of the fan beam. Leaf thicknesses are chosen in a base-2 system and motivated in a binary manner. Dose spots from individual beam channels range between 1 and 5 cm. Integrated collimators attempting to limit crosstalk among beam channels are investigated, but found to be inferior to uncollimated beam channel modulators. A treatment planning system performing data manipulation in MATLAB and dose calculation in MCNPX is developed. Beamlet dose is calculated on patient CT data and a fan beam source is manually defined to produce accurate results. An energy deposition tally follows the CT grid, allowing straightforward registration of dose and image data. Simulations of beam channels assume that a beam channel either delivers dose to a distal edge spot or is intensity modulated. A final calculation is performed separately to determine the deliverable dose accounting for all sources of scatter. Treatment plans investigate the effects that varying system parameters have on dose distributions. Beam channel apertures may be as large as 20 mm because the sharp distal falloff characteristic of proton dose provides sufficient intensity modulation to meet dose objectives, even in the presence of coarse lateral resolution. Dose conformity suffers only when treatments are delivered from less than 10 angles. Jaw widths of 1--2 cm produce comparable dose distributions, but a jaw width of 4 cm produces unacceptable target coverage when maintaining critical structure avoidance. Treatment time for a prostate delivery is estimated to be on the order of 10 minutes. Neutron production

  8. A dosimetric evaluation of volumetric modulated arc therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy, and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for the lower extremity soft tissue sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sol Min; Song, Seong Chan; Hyun, Sung Eun; Park, Heung Deuk; Lee, Jaegi; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Gwi Eon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A dosimetric evaluation of volumetric modulated arc therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy, and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for the lower extremity soft tissue sarcoma For the lower extremity soft tissue sarcoma, volumetric modulated arc therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy, and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy were evaluated to compare these three treatment planning technique. The mean doses to the planning target volume and the femur were calculated to evaluate target coverage and the risk of bone fracture during radiation therapy. Volumetric modulated arc therapy can reduce the dose to the femur without compromising target coverage and reduce the treatment time compared with intensity modulated radiation therapy.

  9. Searches for B0 Decays to eta K0, eta eta,eta' eta', eta phi, and eta'phi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2006-07-31

    The authors search for B{sup 0} meson decays into two-body combinations of K{sup 0}, {eta}, {eta}', and {phi} mesons in 324 million B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. They measure the following branching fractions (upper limits at 90% confidence level) in units of 10{sup -6}: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}K{sup 0}) = 1.8{sub -0.6}{sup +0.7} {+-} 0.1 (< 2.9), {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}{eta}) = 1.1{sub -0.4}{sup +0.5} {+-} 0.1(< 1.8), {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}{phi}) = 0.1 {+-} 0.2 {+-} 0.1(< 0.6), {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}'{phi}) = 0.2{sub -0.3}{sup +0.4} {+-} 0.1(< 1.0), and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}'{eta}') = 1.0{sub -0.6}{sup +0.8} {+-} 0.1 (< 2.4), where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.

  10. Spain’s ETA,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-09

    during the 1960s and 1970s, the regime confronted a revival of strong regional-based opposition from *1 Catalonia and the Basque provinces. Efforts to...nationalized industries. When this package was put to the Basque people in a referendum , ETA PM was in favor, and ETA M was opposed, with a 59

  11. Search for $\\eta$ and $\\eta'$ Invisible Decays in $J/\\psi\\to\\phi\\eta$ and $\\phi\\eta'$

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Albayrak, O; Ambrose, D J; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Ban, Y; Becker, J; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bian, J M; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Bytev, V; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; CetinB, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, Y P; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; Ding, W M; Ding, Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fava, L; Feldbauer, F; Feng, C Q; Ferroli, R B; Fu, C D; Fu, J L; Gao, Y; Geng, C; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y P; Han, Y L; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, H M; Hu, T; Huang, G M; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y P; Hussain, T; Ji, C S; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L L; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jing, F F; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kavatsyuk, M; Kuehn, W; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, Q J; Li, S L; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, X R; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Liao, X T; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, C Y; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, H W; Liu, J P; Liu, K Y; Liu, Kai; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Q W; Lu, X R; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Ma, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Morales, C Morales; Motzko, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nicholson, C; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Park, J W; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prencipe, E; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Schaefer, B D; Schulze, J; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, X Y; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, D H; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Toth, D; Ullrich, M; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B Q; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, X L; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z Y; Wei, D H; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, Q G; Wen, S P; Werner, M; Wiedner, U; Wu, L H; Wu, N; Wu, S X; Wu, W; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, G M; Xu, H; Xu, Q J; Xu, X P; Xu, Z R; Xue, F; Xue, Z; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yu, S P; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, Y; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, S H; Zhang, X J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, H S; Zhao, J W; Zhao, K X; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q Z; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, X H; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhong, J; Zhong, Z; Zhou, L; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhu, C; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y M; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of $(225.3\\pm 2.8)\\times 10^{6}$ $J/\\psi$ decays collected with the BESIII detector at BEPCII, searches for invisible decays of $\\eta$ and $\\eta^\\prime$ in $J/\\psi\\to\\phi\\eta$ and $\\phi\\eta^\\prime$ are performed. Decays of $\\phi \\to K^{+}K^{-}$ are used to tag the $\\eta$ and $\\eta^\\prime$ decays. No signals above background are found for the invisible decays, and upper limits at the 90% confidence level are determined to be $2.58\\times10^{-4}$ for the ratio $\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\eta\\to\\rm{invisible})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\eta\\to\\gamma\\gamma)}$ and $2.39\\times10^{-2}$ for $\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\eta^\\prime\\to\\rm{invisible})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\eta^\\prime \\to\\gamma\\gamma)}$.

  12. $\\eta$-metric structures

    OpenAIRE

    Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss recent results about generalized metric spaces and fixed point theory. We introduce the notion of $\\eta$-cone metric spaces, give some topological properties and prove some fixed point theorems for contractive type maps on these spaces. In particular we show that theses $\\eta$-cone metric spaces are natural generalizations of both cone metric spaces and metric type spaces.

  13. Evidence for the decay $B^{0}\\to \\eta \\eta$

    CERN Document Server

    Abdesselam, A; Adamczyk, K; Aihara, H; Said, S Al; Arinstein, K; Arita, Y; Asner, D M; Aso, T; Atmacan, H; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Ayad, R; Aziz, T; Babu, V; Badhrees, I; Bahinipati, S; Bakich, A M; Bala, A; Ban, Y; Bansal, V; Barberio, E; Barrett, M; Bartel, W; Bay, A; Bedny, I; Behera, P; Belhorn, M; Belous, K; Berger, M; Besson, D; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Biswal, J; Bloomfield, T; Blyth, S; Bobrov, A; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bookwalter, C; Boulahouache, C; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Breibeck, F; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Waheed, E; Červenkov, D; Chang, M -C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Chen, K -F; Chen, P; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, S -K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Crnkovic, J; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Dash, N; Di Carlo, S; Dingfelder, J; Doležal, Z; Dossett, D; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dubey, S; Dutta, D; Dutta, K; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Esen, S; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Feindt, M; Ferber, T; Frey, A; Frost, O; Fulsom, B G; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Ganguly, S; Garmash, A; Getzkow, D; Gillard, R; Giordano, F; Glattauer, R; Goh, Y M; Goldenzweig, P; Golob, B; Greenwald, D; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Grygier, J; Grzymkowska, O; Guo, H; Haba, J; Hamer, P; Han, Y L; Hara, K; Hara, T; Hasegawa, Y; Hasenbusch, J; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; He, X H; Heck, M; Hedges, M T; Heffernan, D; Heider, M; Heller, A; Higuchi, T; Himori, S; Hirose, S; Horiguchi, T; Hoshi, Y; Hoshina, K; Hou, W -S; Hsiung, Y B; Hsu, C -L; Huschle, M; Hyun, H J; Igarashi, Y; Iijima, T; Imamura, M; Inami, K; Inguglia, G; Ishikawa, A; Itagaki, K; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Iwata, S; Jacobs, W W; Jaegle, I; Jeon, H B; Jin, Y; Joffe, D; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Julius, T; Kakuno, H; Kaliyar, A B; Kang, J H; Kang, K H; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Kato, E; Kato, Y; Katrenko, P; Kawai, H; Kawasaki, T; Keck, T; Kichimi, H; Kiesling, C; Kim, B H; Kim, D Y; Kim, H J; Kim, H -J; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S K; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Kleinwort, C; Klucar, J; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, N; Koblitz, S; Kodyš, P; Koga, Y; Korpar, S; Kotchetkov, D; Kouzes, R T; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kronenbitter, B; Kuhr, T; Kulasiri, R; Kumar, R; Kumita, T; Kurihara, E; Kuroki, Y; Kuzmin, A; Kvasnička, P; Kwon, Y -J; Lai, Y -T; Lange, J S; Lee, D H; Lee, I S; Lee, S -H; Leitgab, M; Leitner, R; Levit, D; Lewis, P; Li, C H; Li, H; Li, J; Li, L; Li, X; Li, Y; Gioi, L Li; Libby, J; Limosani, A; Liu, C; Liu, Y; Liu, Z Q; Liventsev, D; Loos, A; Louvot, R; Lubej, M; Lukin, P; Luo, T; MacNaughton, J; Masuda, M; Matsuda, T; Matvienko, D; Matyja, A; McOnie, S; Mikami, Y; Miyabayashi, K; Miyachi, Y; Miyake, H; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Mohanty, S; Mohapatra, D; Moll, A; Moon, H K; Mori, T; Morii, T; Moser, H -G; Müller, T; Muramatsu, N; Mussa, R; Nagamine, T; Nagasaka, Y; Nakahama, Y; Nakamura, I; Nakamura, K R; Nakano, E; Nakano, H; Nakano, T; Nakao, M; Nakayama, H; Nakazawa, H; Nanut, T; Nath, K J; Natkaniec, Z; Nayak, M; Nedelkovska, E; Negishi, K; Neichi, K; Ng, C; Niebuhr, C; Niiyama, M; Nisar, N K; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Nitoh, O; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, A; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Ono, Y; Onuki, Y; Ostrowicz, W; Oswald, C; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Pal, B; Palka, H; Panzenböck, E; Park, C -S; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, K S; Paul, S; Peak, L S; Pedlar, T K; Peng, T; Pesántez, L; Pestotnik, R; Peters, M; Petrič, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Prasanth, K; Prim, M; Prothmann, K; Pulvermacher, C; Purohit, M V; Rauch, J; Reisert, B; Ribežl, E; Ritter, M; Rorie, J; Rostomyan, A; Rozanska, M; Rummel, S; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Saito, T; Sakai, K; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santel, D; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Sasaki, J; Sasao, N; Sato, Y; Savinov, V; Schlüter, T; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schönmeier, P; Schram, M; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Schwenker, B; Seidl, R; Seino, Y; Semmler, D; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Seong, I S; Sevior, M E; Shang, L; Shapkin, M; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shibuya, H; Shimizu, N; Shinomiya, S; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Singh, J B; Sinha, R; Smerkol, P; Sohn, Y -S; Sokolov, A; Soloviev, Y; Solovieva, E; Stanič, S; Starič, M; Steder, M; Strube, J F; Stypula, J; Sugihara, S; Sugiyama, A; Sumihama, M; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Z; Takeichi, H; Takizawa, M; Tamponi, U; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, S; Tanida, K; Taniguchi, N; Taylor, G N; Tenchini, F; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Trusov, V; Tse, Y F; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, M; Uchida, T; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Uozumi, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Y; Vahsen, S E; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vervink, K; Vinokurova, A; Vorobyev, V; Vossen, A; Wagner, M N; Waheed, E; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Wedd, R; Wehle, S; White, E; Widmann, E; Wiechczynski, J; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamada, S; Yamamoto, H; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yashchenko, S; Ye, H; Yelton, J; Yook, Y; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, L; Zhilich, V; Zhukova, V; Zhulanov, V; Ziegler, M; Zivko, T; Zupanc, A; Zwahlen, N; Zyukova, O

    2016-01-01

    We report a search for $B^{0}\\to \\eta \\eta $ with a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $698 \\,{\\rm fb}^{-1}$ containing $753 \\times 10^{6}$ $B\\bar{B}$ pairs collected at the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy $e^{+}e^{-}$ collider. The branching fraction is measured to be $\\mathcal{B}(B^{0} \\to \\eta \\eta ) = (7.6^{+2.7 +1.4}_{-2.3 -1.6}) \\times 10^{-7}$ at the level of 3.3 standard deviations above zero, which provides the first evidence for the decay $B^{0} \\to \\eta \\eta$.

  14. MOLECULES IN {eta} CARINAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loinard, Laurent; Menten, Karl M.; Guesten, Rolf [Max-Planck Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Zapata, Luis A.; Rodriguez, Luis F. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2012-04-10

    We report the detection toward {eta} Carinae of six new molecules, CO, CN, HCO{sup +}, HCN, HNC, and N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and of two of their less abundant isotopic counterparts, {sup 13}CO and H{sup 13}CN. The line profiles are moderately broad ({approx}100 km s{sup -1}), indicating that the emission originates in the dense, possibly clumpy, central arcsecond of the Homunculus Nebula. Contrary to previous claims, CO and HCO{sup +} do not appear to be underabundant in {eta} Carinae. On the other hand, molecules containing nitrogen or the {sup 13}C isotope of carbon are overabundant by about one order of magnitude. This demonstrates that, together with the dust responsible for the dimming of {eta} Carinae following the Great Eruption, the molecules detected here must have formed in situ out of CNO-processed stellar material.

  15. Impact of machines on plan quality: volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, S; Cozzolino, M; Oliviero, C; Fiorentino, A; Chiumento, C; Fusco, V

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of different machines on plan quality using both intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques. Eight patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx were selected at random. Plans were computed for IMRT and VMAT Smart Arc, using Pinnacle TPS for an Elekta (IMRT-E, VMAT-E) and Varian linac (IMRT-V, VMAT-V). A three-dose level prescription was used to deliver 70, 63 and 58.1 Gy to regions of macroscopic, microscopic high- and low-risk disease, respectively. All doses were given in 35 fractions. Comparisons were performed on dose-volume histogram data, monitor units (MU), and delivery time. VMAT-E plans resulted slightly MU efficient (-24 % p < 0.05) compared to VMAT-V while IMRT-V shortened delivery time (-19 % p < 0.05) compared to IMRT-E. All the delivery techniques resulted in equivalent target coverage in terms of D(98) % and D(2) %. For VMAT technique, a significant improvement of 7 % in homogeneity index (HI) for PTV58.1 was observed for Varian machine. A slight improvement in OARs sparing was observed with Elekta machine both for IMRT and VMAT techniques. Similar plan quality was observed for Elekta and Varian linacs, significant differences were observed in delivery efficiency, as MU number and delivery times, in favor of Elekta and Varian, respectively.

  16. Study of omega-, eta-, eta'- and D sup - mesic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Tsushima, K

    2000-01-01

    Using the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model, we investigate whether omega, eta, eta' and D sup - mesons form meson-nucleus bound states. Our results suggest that one should expect to find eta- and omega-nucleus bound states in all the nuclei considered. Furthermore, it is shown that the D sup - meson will form quite narrow bound states with sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb.

  17. Intermittent pacing therapy favorably modulates infarct remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitterdijk, André; Springeling, Tirza; Hermans, Kevin C M; Merkus, Daphne; de Beer, Vincent J; Gorsse-Bakker, Charlotte; Mokelke, Eric; Daskalopoulos, Evangelos P; Wielopolski, Piotr A; Cleutjens, Jack P M; Blankesteijn, W Matthijs; Prinzen, Frits W; van der Giessen, Willem J; van Geuns, Robert-Jan M; Duncker, Dirk J

    2017-05-01

    Despite early revascularization, remodeling and dysfunction of the left ventricle (LV) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remain important therapeutic targets. Intermittent pacing therapy (IPT) of the LV can limit infarct size, when applied during early reperfusion. However, the effects of IPT on post-AMI LV remodeling and infarct healing are unknown. We therefore investigated the effects of IPT on global LV remodeling and infarct geometry in swine with a 3-day old AMI. For this purpose, fifteen pigs underwent 2 h ligation of the left circumflex coronary artery followed by reperfusion. An epicardial pacing lead was implanted in the peri-infarct zone. After three days, global LV remodeling and infarct geometry were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Animals were stratified into MI control and IPT groups. Thirty-five days post-AMI, follow-up MRI was obtained and myofibroblast content, markers of extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover and Wnt/frizzled signaling in infarct and non-infarct control tissue were studied. Results showed that IPT had no significant effect on global LV remodeling, function or infarct mass, but modulated infarct healing. In MI control pigs, infarct mass reduction was principally due to a 26.2 ± 4.4% reduction in infarct thickness (P ≤ 0.05), whereas in IPT pigs it was mainly due to a 35.7 ± 4.5% decrease in the number of infarct segments (P ≤ 0.05), with no significant change in infarct thickness. Myofibroblast content of the infarct zone was higher in IPT (10.9 ± 2.1%) compared to MI control (5.4 ± 1.6%; P ≤ 0.05). Higher myofibroblast presence did not coincide with alterations in expression of genes involved in ECM turnover or Wnt/frizzled signaling at 5 weeks follow-up. Taken together, IPT limited infarct expansion and altered infarct composition, showing that IPT influences remodeling of the infarct zone, likely by increasing regional myofibroblast content.

  18. Whole-brain hippocampal sparing radiation therapy: Volume-modulated arc therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Katrina, E-mail: Trinabena23@gmail.com; Lenards, Nishele; Holson, Janice

    2016-04-01

    The hippocampus is responsible for memory and cognitive function. An ongoing phase II clinical trial suggests that sparing dose to the hippocampus during whole-brain radiation therapy can help preserve a patient's neurocognitive function. Progressive research and advancements in treatment techniques have made treatment planning more sophisticated but beneficial for patients undergoing treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare hippocampal sparing whole-brain (HS-WB) radiation therapy treatment planning techniques using volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We randomly selected 3 patients to compare different treatment techniques that could be used for reducing dose to the hippocampal region. We created 2 treatment plans, a VMAT and an IMRT, from each patient's data set and planned on the Eclipse 11.0 treatment planning system (TPS). A total of 6 plans (3 IMRT and 3 VMAT) were created and evaluated for this case study. The physician contoured the hippocampus as per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0933 protocol atlas. The organs at risk (OR) were contoured and evaluated for the plan comparison, which included the spinal cord, optic chiasm, the right and left eyes, lenses, and optic nerves. Both treatment plans produced adequate coverage on the planning target volume (PTV) while significantly reducing dose to the hippocampal region. The VMAT treatment plans produced a more homogenous dose distribution throughout the PTV while decreasing the maximum point dose to the target. However, both treatment techniques demonstrated hippocampal sparing when irradiating the whole brain.

  19. Two-body B Meson Decays to $\\eta$ and $\\eta$' Observation of $B \\to \\eta K$

    CERN Document Server

    Cornell Univ. Ithaca

    2000-01-01

    In a sample of 19 million produced B mesons, we have observed the decays B -> eta K* and improved our previous measurements of B -> eta'K. The branching fractions we measure for these decay modes are BR(B+ -> eta K*+) = (26.4 +9.6-8.2 +- 3.3) x $10^{-6}$, BR(B0 -> eta K*0) = (13.8 +5.5-4.6 +- 1.6) x $10^{-6}$, BR(B+ -> eta' K+) = (80 +10-9 +- 7) x $10^{-6}$ and BR(B0 -> eta' K0) = (89 +18-16 +- 9) x $10^{-6}$. We have searched with comparable sensitivity for related decays and report upper limits for these branching fractions.

  20. The seismology of eta Bootes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarque, Pierre; Guenther, D. B.

    1995-01-01

    Some p-mode frequencies and other observations were used to determine the mass, the age and the helium abundance of eta Bootes. It is shown how, by direct application, the p-mode frequencies and stellar seismological tools help in constraining the physical parameters of eta Boo. The existence of mode bumping is confirmed and it is discussed how it may be used to refine the estimate of the eta Boo's age. The effect of the OPAL equation of state on the p-mode frequencies is described.

  1. Summary of the [eta]-meson sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    This summary describes the contents of the nineteen talks related to research on the [eta] meson and presented at the Workshop of Future Directions. The subjects of this area include threshold [eta] production, [eta]-nuclear spectroscopy, baryon spectroscopy, [eta] decays, facilities, and instrumentation.

  2. Summary of the {eta}-meson sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1993-06-01

    This summary describes the contents of the nineteen talks related to research on the {eta} meson and presented at the Workshop of Future Directions. The subjects of this area include threshold {eta} production, {eta}-nuclear spectroscopy, baryon spectroscopy, {eta} decays, facilities, and instrumentation.

  3. Chaperonin containing T-complex polypeptide subunit eta (CCT-eta is a specific regulator of fibroblast motility and contractility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha Satish

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Integumentary wounds in mammalian fetuses heal without scar; this scarless wound healing is intrinsic to fetal tissues and is notable for absence of the contraction seen in postnatal (adult wounds. The precise molecular signals determining the scarless phenotype remain unclear. We have previously reported that the eta subunit of the chaperonin containing T-complex polypeptide (CCT-eta is specifically reduced in healing fetal wounds in a rabbit model. In this study, we examine the role of CCT-eta in fibroblast motility and contractility, properties essential to wound healing and scar formation. We demonstrate that CCT-eta (but not CCT-beta is underexpressed in fetal fibroblasts compared to adult fibroblasts. An in vitro wound healing assay demonstrated that adult fibroblasts showed increased cell migration in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF stimulation, whereas fetal fibroblasts were unresponsive. Downregulation of CCT-eta in adult fibroblasts with short inhibitory RNA (siRNA reduced cellular motility, both basal and growth factor-induced; in contrast, siRNA against CCT-beta had no such effect. Adult fibroblasts were more inherently contractile than fetal fibroblasts by cellular traction force microscopy; this contractility was increased by treatment with EGF and PDGF. CCT-eta siRNA inhibited the PDGF-induction of adult fibroblast contractility, whereas CCT-beta siRNA had no such effect. In each of these instances, the effect of downregulating CCT-eta was to modulate the behavior of adult fibroblasts so as to more closely approximate the characteristics of fetal fibroblasts. We next examined the effect of CCT-eta modulation on alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA expression, a gene product well known to play a critical role in adult wound healing. Fetal fibroblasts were found to constitutively express less alpha-SMA than adult cells. Reduction of CCT-eta with siRNA had minimal effect on cellular

  4. Dokumentazioa eta ondare bibliografikoaren komunikazioa

    OpenAIRE

    Agirreazaldegi Berriozabal, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    I. Biblioteka Nazionalaren ametsa (El sueño de la Biblioteca Nacional) (Joan Mari Torrealdai). II. La Biblioteca de Catalunya, una biblioteca abierta, fiable y útil a la sociedad (Kataluniako Liburutegia, liburutegi irekia, fidagarria eta gizartearentzat onuragarria) (Dolors Lamarca). III. Armiarma.com: literaturaren sarea (Armiarma.com: portal de Literatura vasca) (Mikel Elorza). IV. GureGipuzkoa.net: atzoko eta gaurko Gipuzkoa iruditan (GureGipuzkoa.net: Gipuzkoa de ayer y hoy en i...

  5. Vitamin D Signaling Modulators in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L

    2016-01-01

    The antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3, 1,25D3, calcitriol) have been demonstrated in various tumor model systems in vitro and in vivo. However, limited antitumor effects of 1,25D3 have been observed in clinical trials. This may be attributed to a variety of factors including overexpression of the primary 1,25D3 degrading enzyme, CYP24A1, in tumors, which would lead to rapid local inactivation of 1,25D3. An alternative strategy for improving the antitumor activity of 1,25D3 involves the combination with a selective CYP24A1 inhibitor. The validity of this approach is supported by numerous preclinical investigations, which demonstrate that CYP24A1 inhibitors suppress 1,25D3 catabolism in tumor cells and increase the effects of 1,25D3 on gene expression and cell growth. Studies are now required to determine whether selective CYP24A1 inhibitors+1,25D3 can be used safely and effectively in patients. CYP24A1 inhibitors plus 1,25D3 can cause dose-limiting toxicity of vitamin D (hypercalcemia) in some patients. Dexamethasone significantly reduces 1,25D3-mediated hypercalcemia and enhances the antitumor activity of 1,25D3, increases VDR-ligand binding, and increases VDR protein expression. Efforts to dissect the mechanisms responsible for CYP24A1 overexpression and combinational effect of 1,25D3/dexamethasone in tumors are underway. Understanding the cross talk between vitamin D receptor (VDR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling axes is of crucial importance to the design of new therapies that include 1,25D3 and dexamethasone. Insights gained from these studies are expected to yield novel strategies to improve the efficacy of 1,25D3 treatment. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Splicing modulation therapy in the treatment of genetic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arechavala-Gomeza V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Virginia Arechavala-Gomeza,1 Bernard Khoo,2 Annemieke Aartsma-Rus3 1Neuromuscular Disorders Group, BioCruces Health Research Institute, Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain; 2Endocrinology, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, UK; 3Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands All authors contributed equally to this manuscript Abstract: Antisense-mediated splicing modulation is a tool that can be exploited in several ways to provide a potential therapy for rare genetic diseases. This approach is currently being tested in clinical trials for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy. The present review outlines the versatility of the approach to correct cryptic splicing, modulate alternative splicing, restore the open reading frame, and induce protein knockdown, providing examples of each. Finally, we outline a possible path forward toward the clinical application of this approach for a wide variety of inherited rare diseases. Keywords: splicing, therapy, antisense oligonucleotides, cryptic splicing, alternative splicing

  7. Immune-modulating therapy in acute pancreatitis: fact or fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinosoglou, Karolina; Gogos, Charalambos

    2014-11-07

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, bearing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current treatment of AP remains unspecific and supportive and is mainly targeted to aggressively prevent systemic complications and organ failure by intensive care. As acute pancreatitis shares an indistinguishable profile of inflammation with sepsis, therapeutic approaches have turned towards modulating the systemic inflammatory response. Targets, among others, have included pro- and anti-inflammatory modulators, cytokines, chemokines, immune cells, adhesive molecules and platelets. Even though, initial results in experimental models have been encouraging, clinical implementation of immune-regulating therapies in acute pancreatitis has had a slow progress. Main reasons include difficulty in clinical translation of experimental data, poor understanding of inflammatory response time-course, flaws in experimental designs, need for multimodal approaches and commercial drawbacks. Whether immune-modulation in acute pancreatitis remains a fact or just fiction remains to be seen in the future.

  8. Immune-modulating therapy in acute pancreatitis: Fact or fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinosoglou, Karolina; Gogos, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, bearing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current treatment of AP remains unspecific and supportive and is mainly targeted to aggressively prevent systemic complications and organ failure by intensive care. As acute pancreatitis shares an indistinguishable profile of inflammation with sepsis, therapeutic approaches have turned towards modulating the systemic inflammatory response. Targets, among others, have included pro- and anti-inflammatory modulators, cytokines, chemokines, immune cells, adhesive molecules and platelets. Even though, initial results in experimental models have been encouraging, clinical implementation of immune-regulating therapies in acute pancreatitis has had a slow progress. Main reasons include difficulty in clinical translation of experimental data, poor understanding of inflammatory response time-course, flaws in experimental designs, need for multimodal approaches and commercial drawbacks. Whether immune-modulation in acute pancreatitis remains a fact or just fiction remains to be seen in the future. PMID:25386069

  9. Arc binary intensity modulated radiation therapy (AB IMRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun

    The state of the art Intensity Modulate Radiation Therapy (IMRT) has been one of the most significant breakthroughs in the cancer treatment in the past 30 years. There are two types of IMRT systems. The first system is the binary-based tomotherapy, represented by the Peacock (Nomos Corp) and Tomo unit (TomoTherapy Inc.), adopting specific binary collimator leafs to deliver intensity modulated radiation fields in a serial or helical fashion. The other uses the conventional dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) to deliver intensity modulated fields through a number of gantry positions. The proposed Arc Binary IMRT attempts to deliver Tomo-like IMRT with conventional dynamic MLC and combines the advantages of the two types of IMRT techniques: (1) maximizing the number of pencil beams for better dose optimization, (2) enabling conventional linear accelerator with dynamic MLC to deliver Tomo-like IMRT. In order to deliver IMRT with conventional dynamic MLC in a binary fashion, the slice-by-slice treatment with limited slice thickness has been proposed in the thesis to accommodate the limited MLC traveling speed. Instead of moving the patient to subsequent treatment slices, the proposed method offsets MLC to carry out the whole treatment, slice by slice sequentially, thus avoid patient position error. By denoting one arc pencil beam set as a gene, genetic algorithm (GA) is used as the searching engine for the dose optimization process. The selection of GA parameters is a crucial step and has been studied in depth so that the optimization process will converge with reasonable speed. Several hypothetical and clinical cases have been tested with the proposed IMRT method. The comparison of the dose distribution with other commercially available IMRT systems demonstrates the clear advantage of the new method. The proposed Arc Binary Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy is not only theoretically sound but practically feasible. The implementation of this method would expand the

  10. The analysis of B-d ->(eta, eta ')l(+)l(-) decays in the standard model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkol, G; Turan, G

    We study the differential branching ratio, the branching ratio and the CP-violating asymmetry for the exclusive B-d --> (eta,eta')l(+)l(-) decays in the standard model. We deduce the B-d --> (eta,eta') form factors from the form factors of B --> pi available in the literature, by using the SU(3)(F)

  11. Genero eta nazio identitateak Katalina Eleizegiren antzezlanetan

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Uría, Amaia

    2012-01-01

    383 p. ; P.315-383: "Erauso Kateriñe" antzezlanaren edizioa dago. Doktorego tesi honen helburua Katalina Eleizegiren antzezlanetako euskal emakumearen irudiak aztertzea da eta XX. mendeko, bere garaiko, irudikapen femenino hegemonikoekin konparatzea. Bere pertsonaia femeninoen bidez genero eta nazio identitateen mugak nola gainditzen dituen ikusiko dugu eta hori desberdindu ditugun bi garaitan aztertuko dugu: Nazioaren ohorez eta Autoexilioa. Lehen garaian Donostian bizi izan ze...

  12. Search for eta and eta ' -> pi(+)e(-)(v)over-bar(e) + c.c. decays in J/psi -> phi eta and phi eta '

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Albayrak, O.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J.C.; Chen, M.L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J.P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feng, C. Q.; Friedel, P.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guler, N. G.; Guo, A.Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J.S.; Huang, L.; Huang, X.T.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Y.P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L.L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J.S.; Leyhe, M.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H.B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, Q. J.; Li, S.L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y.T.; Liao, G.R.; Liao, X. T.; Lin, D.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, Cheng; Liu, C.X.; Liu, F.H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K.; Liu, K.Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J.G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X.L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C.L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F.E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Moeini, H.; Morales, C.; Morales, K. Moriya; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J.W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Sazak, H. S.; Schaefer, B. D.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, W.M.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J.F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y.J.; Sun, Y.Z.; Sun, Z.J.; Sun, Z.T.; Tang, C.J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I. U.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.Q.; Wang, D.; Wang, D.Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z.Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J.B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L.H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S.X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y. X.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, Q.J.; Xu, Q.N.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zang, S. L.; Zeng, Y.; Zengin, B. Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, R.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Zhenghao; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J.W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S.J.; Zhao, T.C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X.R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.H.; Zhu, Stuart; Zhu, Y.C.; Zhu, Y.M.; Zhu, Y.S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Werner, M.J.; Zheng, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 225.3 million J/psi events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e(+)e(-) collider in 2009, searches for the decays of eta and eta' -> pi(+)e(-)(v) over bar (e) + c.c. in J/psi -> phi eta and phi eta' are performed. The phi signals, which are reconstructed in K+K- final

  13. Observation of f0(1770) -> eta-eta in pbar-p -> eta-eta-pizero reactions from 600 to 1200 MeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Anisovich, A.V.; Sarantsev, A.V.; Sarantsev, V.V.; Baker, C.A.; Batty, C.J.; Bugg, D.V.; Hodd, C.; Scott, I.; Zou, B.S.; Haddock, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    We present data on pbar-p -> eta-eta-pizero at beam momenta of 600, 900, 1050, and 1200 MeV/c. At the higher three momenta, a signal is clearly visible due to pbar-p -> f_0(1770)-pizero, f_0(1770) -> eta-eta. It has mass 1770+-12 MeV and width 220+-40 MeV, where errors cover systematic uncertainties as well as statistics.

  14. Genero rolak eta estereotipoak Lehen Hezkuntzan

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Ulacia, Julen

    2015-01-01

    Lan honekin bilatu nahi izan dugun helburu nagusia Lehen Hezkuntzako umeek gizarteak transmititzen dituen genero rol eta estereotipoak zenbateraino barneratuta dituzten aztertzea izan da. Horretarako, hainbat adituren hitzak kontuan hartuz, gizartean genero rol eta estereotipoak transmititzen dituzten esparru ezberdinak behatu eta errealitatearen diagnostiko txiki bat egin dugu Lehen Hezkuntzako ikasgela batean ikerketa parte-hartzailea metodotzat hartuta. Ikasgelako esku-hartzean lorturako e...

  15. Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultateko IV. Ikerkuntza Jardunaldiak

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez, Esther

    2015-01-01

    [EU]I. Abstracts. Ahozko komunikazioak 1. Biozientziak: Alderdi Molekularrak 2. Biozientziak: Ingurune Alderdiak. 3. Fisika eta Ingenieritza Elektronika 4. Geología 5. Matematika 6. Kimika 7. Ingenieritza Kimikoa eta Kimika II. Abstracts. Idatzizko Komunikazioak (Posterrak) 1. Biozientziak 2. Fisika eta Ingenieritza Elektronika 3. Geologia 4. Matematika 5. Kimika 6. Ingenieritza Kimikoa [ES]I.Comunicaciones orales: 1.Biociencias: As...

  16. Multi-institutional comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy vs. intensity-modulated radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer : a planning study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holt, Andrea; Van Gestel, Dirk; Arends, Mark P.; Korevaar, Erik W.; Schuring, Danny; Kunze-Busch, Martina C.; Louwe, Rob J. W.; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Compared to static beam Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), the main advantage of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) is a shortened delivery time, which leads to improved patient comfort and possibly smaller intra-fraction movements. This study aims at a treatment

  17. B meson decays to charmless meson pairs containing eta or eta'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, : B.

    2009-12-14

    The authors present updated measurements of the branching fractions for B{sup 0} meson decays to {eta}K{sup 0}, {eta}{eta}, {eta}{phi}, {eta}{omega}, {eta}{prime}K{sup 0}, {eta}{prime}{eta}{prime}, {eta}{prime}, {phi}, and {eta}{prime}{omega} and branching fractions and CP-violating charge asymmetries for B{sup +} decays to {eta}{pi}{sup +}, {eta}K{sup +}, {eta}{prime}{pi}{sup +}, and {eta}{prime} K{sup +}. The data represent the full dataset of 467 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Besides large signals for the four charged B decays modes and for B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}{prime}K{sup 0}, they find evidence for three B{sup 0} decays modes at greater than 3.0{sigma} significance. They find {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}K{sup 0}) = (1.15{sub -0.38}{sup +0.43} {+-} 0.09) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}{omega}) = (0.94{sub -0.30}{sup +0.35} {+-} 0.09) x 10{sup -6}, and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}{prime}{omega}) = (1.01{sub -0.38}{sup +0.46} {+-} 0.09) x 10{sup -6}, where the first (second) uncertainty is statistical (systematic). For the B{sup +} {yields} {eta}K{sup +} decay mode, they measure the charge asymmetry {Alpha}{sub ch} (B{sup +} {yields} {eta}K{sup +}) = -0.36 {+-} 0.11 {+-} 0.03.

  18. Optimization approaches to volumetric modulated arc therapy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkelbach, Jan, E-mail: junkelbach@mgh.harvard.edu; Bortfeld, Thomas; Craft, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Alber, Markus [Department of Medical Physics and Department of Radiation Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C DK-8000 (Denmark); Bangert, Mark [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg D-69120 (Germany); Bokrantz, Rasmus [RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm SE-111 34 (Sweden); Chen, Danny [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Li, Ruijiang; Xing, Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Men, Chunhua [Department of Research, Elekta, Maryland Heights, Missouri 63043 (United States); Nill, Simeon [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Papp, Dávid [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Romeijn, Edwin [H. Milton Stewart School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Salari, Ehsan [Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas 67260 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has found widespread clinical application in recent years. A large number of treatment planning studies have evaluated the potential for VMAT for different disease sites based on the currently available commercial implementations of VMAT planning. In contrast, literature on the underlying mathematical optimization methods used in treatment planning is scarce. VMAT planning represents a challenging large scale optimization problem. In contrast to fluence map optimization in intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning for static beams, VMAT planning represents a nonconvex optimization problem. In this paper, the authors review the state-of-the-art in VMAT planning from an algorithmic perspective. Different approaches to VMAT optimization, including arc sequencing methods, extensions of direct aperture optimization, and direct optimization of leaf trajectories are reviewed. Their advantages and limitations are outlined and recommendations for improvements are discussed.

  19. Measurements of $\\psi(2S)$ decays into $\\phi \\pi^0$, $\\phi \\eta$, $\\phi \\eta^{'}$, $\\omega \\eta$, and $\\omega \\eta^{'}$

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ban, Y; Bian, J G; Cai, X; Chang, J F; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, H X; Chen, J; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, Y B; Chi, S P; Chu, Y P; Cui, X Z; Dai, H L; Dai, Y S; Deng, Z Y; Dong, L Y; Du, S X; Du, Z Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fu, C D; Fu, H Y; Fu, L P; Gao, C S; Gao, M L; Gao, Y N; Gong, M Y; Gong, W X; Gu, S D; Guo, Y N; Guo, Y Q; Guo, Z J; Han, S W; Harris, F A; He, J; He, K L; He, M; He, X; Heng, Y K; Hu, H M; Hu, T; Huang, G S; Huang, L; Huang, X P; Ji, X B; Jia, Q Y; Jiang, C H; Jiang, X S; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jin, Y; Lai, Y F; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H H; Li, J; Li, J C; Li, Q J; Li, R B; Li, R Y; Li, S M; Li, W; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X Q; Li, X S; Liang, Y F; Liao, H B; Liu, C X; Liu, F; Liu, H M; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, R G; Liu, Y; Liu, Z A; Liu, Z X; Lu, G R; Lu, F; Lu, J G; Luo, C L; Luo, X L; Ma, F C; Ma, J M; Ma, L L; Ma, X Y; Mao, Z P; Meng, X C; Mo, X H; Nie, J; Nie, Z D; Olsen, S L; Peng, H P; Qi, N D; Qian, C D; Qin, H; Qiu, J F; Ren, Z Y; Rong, G; Shan, L Y; Shang, L; Shen, D L; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, F; Shi, X; Song, L W; Sun, H S; Sun, S S; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Tang, X; Tao, N; Tian, Y R; Tong, G L; Varner, G S; Wang, D Y; Wang, J Z; Wang, L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S Z; Wang, W F; Wang, Y F; Zhe Wang; Wang, Z; Wang, Z Y; Wei, C L; Wu, N; Wu, Y M; Xia, X M; Xie, X X; Xin, B; Xu, G F; Xu, H; Xu, Y; Xue, S T; Yan, M L; Yan, W B; Yang, F; Yang, H X; Yang, J; Yang, S D; Yang, Y X; Yi, L H; Yi, Z Y; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Ye, Y X; Yu, C S; Yu, G W; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, J M; Yuan, Y; Yue, Q; Zang, S L; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang Bing Yun; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J M; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J W; Zhang, L S; Zhang, Q J; Zhang, S Q; Zhang Xiao Min; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y J; Zhang, Y Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Q; Zhao, D X; Zhao, J B; Zhao, J W; Zhao, P P; Zhao, W R; Zhao, X J; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zheng, H Q; Zheng, J P; Zheng, L S; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, X C; Zhou, B Q; Zhou, G M; Zhou, L; Zhou, N F; Zhu, K J; Zhu, Q M; Zhu, Y; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, B A; Zou, B S

    2004-01-01

    Decays of the $\\psi(2S)$ into Vector plus Pseudoscalar meson final states have been studied with 14 million $\\psi(2S)$ events collected with the BESII detector. Branching fractions of $\\psi(2S) \\rar\\phi\\eta$, $\\phi\\etap$, and $\\omega\\etap$, and upper limits of $\\psi(2S) \\rar \\phi\\piz$ and $\\omega\\eta$ are obtained: $B(\\psi(2S) \\rar\\phi\\eta) = 3.5 \\pm 1.0 \\pm 0.6) \\times 10^{-5}$, $B(\\psi(2S) \\rar\\phi\\etap) = (3.3 \\pm 1.3 \\pm 0.7)\\times 10^{-5}$, and $B(\\psi(2S) \\rar\\omega\\etap) = (3.1 \\pm 2.4 \\pm 0.7) \\times 10^{-5}$; and $B(\\psi(2S) \\rar\\phi\\piz) < 0.3 \\times 10^{-5}$, and $B(\\psi(2S) \\rar\\omega\\eta) < 1.1 \\times 10^{-5}$ at the 90 % C.L.. These results are used to test the pQCD ``12% rule''.

  20. Linear algebraic methods applied to intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, S M; Xing, L

    2001-10-01

    Methods of linear algebra are applied to the choice of beam weights for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). It is shown that the physical interpretation of the beam weights, target homogeneity and ratios of deposited energy can be given in terms of matrix equations and quadratic forms. The methodology of fitting using linear algebra as applied to IMRT is examined. Results are compared with IMRT plans that had been prepared using a commercially available IMRT treatment planning system and previously delivered to cancer patients.

  1. Modulation of EEG Theta Band Signal Complexity by Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Joydeep; Lee, Eun-Jeong

    The primary goal of this study was to investigate the impact of monochord (MC) sounds, a type of archaic sounds used in music therapy, on the neural complexity of EEG signals obtained from patients undergoing chemotherapy. The secondary goal was to compare the EEG signal complexity values for monochords with those for progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), an alternative therapy for relaxation. Forty cancer patients were randomly allocated to one of the two relaxation groups, MC and PMR, over a period of six months; continuous EEG signals were recorded during the first and last sessions. EEG signals were analyzed by applying signal mode complexity, a measure of complexity of neuronal oscillations. Across sessions, both groups showed a modulation of complexity of beta-2 band (20-29Hz) at midfrontal regions, but only MC group showed a modulation of complexity of theta band (3.5-7.5Hz) at posterior regions. Therefore, the neuronal complexity patterns showed different changes in EEG frequency band specific complexity resulting in two different types of interventions. Moreover, the different neural responses to listening to monochords and PMR were observed after regular relaxation interventions over a short time span.

  2. Prone Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Roses, Daniel [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Speyer, James [Department of Medical Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Fenton Kerimian, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Goldberg, Judith D. [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: Silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a technique of prone breast radiation therapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed. Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 404 patients with stage I-II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into 2 consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03-30 and 05-181, that used the same regimen of 40.5 Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy (total dose 48 Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy and had negative margins and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine setup attempted and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results: Ninety-two percent of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. Seventy-two percent had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 to 228.27 cm{sup 3}, mean 19.65 cm{sup 3}. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0 to 21.24 cm{sup 3}, mean 1.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65%-1.04%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI 0.41%-0.69%), and the 5-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI 0.48%-3.38%). Eighty-two percent (95% CI 77%-85%) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions: Prone accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control and optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1005, a phase 3, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and

  3. Search for B Meson Decays to eta' eta' K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2006-05-05

    The authors describe searches for decays of B mesons to the charmless final states {eta}'{eta}'K. The data consist of 228 million B{bar B} pairs produced in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation, collected with the BABAR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The 90% confidence level upper limits for the branching fractions are {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}'{eta}'K{sup 0}) < 31 x 10{sup -6} and {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {eta}'{eta}'K{sup +}) < 25 x 10{sup -6}.

  4. Clinical Implementation of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Thoracic Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Li, Heng; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing; Zhao, Lina [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liu, Amy [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Li, Yupeng [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Applied Research, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, California (United States); Sahoo, Narayan; Poenisch, Falk [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wu, Richard; Gillin, Michael [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xizhang@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) can improve dose conformality and better spare normal tissue over passive scattering techniques, but range uncertainties complicate its use, particularly for moving targets. We report our early experience with IMPT for thoracic malignancies in terms of motion analysis and management, plan optimization and robustness, and quality assurance. Methods and Materials: Thirty-four consecutive patients with lung/mediastinal cancers received IMPT to a median 66 Gy(relative biological equivalence [RBE]). All patients were able to undergo definitive radiation therapy. IMPT was used when the treating physician judged that IMPT conferred a dosimetric advantage; all patients had minimal tumor motion (<5 mm) and underwent individualized tumor-motion dose-uncertainty analysis and 4-dimensional (4D) computed tomographic (CT)-based treatment simulation and motion analysis. Plan robustness was optimized by using a worst-case scenario method. All patients had 4D CT repeated simulation during treatment. Results: IMPT produced lower mean lung dose (MLD), lung V{sub 5} and V{sub 20}, heart V{sub 40}, and esophageal V{sub 60} than did IMRT (P<.05) and lower MLD, lung V{sub 20}, and esophageal V{sub 60} than did passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT) (P<.05). D{sub 5} to the gross tumor volume and clinical target volume was higher with IMPT than with intensity modulated radiation therapy or PSPT (P<.05). All cases were analyzed for beam-angle-specific motion, water-equivalent thickness, and robustness. Beam angles were chosen to minimize the effect of respiratory motion and avoid previously treated regions, and the maximum deviation from the nominal dose-volume histogram values was kept at <5% for the target dose and met the normal tissue constraints under a worst-case scenario. Patient-specific quality assurance measurements showed that a median 99% (range, 95% to 100%) of the pixels met the 3% dose/3 mm distance criteria for the

  5. Dynamic optical modulation of an electron beam on a photocathode RF gun: Toward intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondoh, Takafumi [Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)], E-mail: t-kondo@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kashima, Hiroaki; Yang, Jinfeng; Yoshida, Yoichi; Tagawa, Seiichi [Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    In intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the aim is to deliver reduced doses of radiation to normal tissue. As a step toward IMRT, we examined dynamic optical modulation of an electron beam produced by a photocathode RF gun. Images on photomasks were transferred onto a photocathode by relay imaging. The resulting beam was controlled by a remote mirror. The modulated electron beam maintained its shape on acceleration, had a fine spatial resolution, and could be moved dynamically by optical methods.

  6. eta Physics and phi Radiative Decays at Kloe

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Antonelli, M; Bacci, C; Beltrame, P; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, S; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocchetta, S; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Capon, G; Capussela, T; Ceradini, F; Chi, S; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; De Lucia, E; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Falco, S; Di Micco, B; Doria, A; Dreucci, M; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Fiore, S; Forti, C; Franzini, P; Gati, C; Gauzzi, P; Giocannella, S; Gorini, E; Graziani, E; Incagli, M; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Leone, D; Martini, M; Massartti, P; Mei, W; Meola, S; Miscetti, S; Moulson, M; Müller, S; Murtas, F; Napolitano, M; Nguyen, F; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Perfetto, F; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Saracino, G; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Spadaro, T; Testa, M; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Versaci, R; Xu, G

    2007-01-01

    Here we present KLOE results on the phi meson decays in pi0 pi0 gamma, pi+ pi- gamma and eta pi0 gamma, the measurement of the ratio Br(phi to eta' gamma)/Br(phi to eta gamma) with the estimate of the eta' gluonium content and the measurement of the eta mass.

  7. Lanaren beso robotiko mugikor baten diseinu: programazioa eta muntaia

    OpenAIRE

    Aldekoa Madariaga, Itziar

    2015-01-01

    Proiektu honen helburua, beso robotiko mugikorra diseinatu, programatu eta muntatzea da. Beso robotiko mugikorra oso gailu interesgarria da, beso robotiko eta robot mugikorren gaitasunak robot bakar batean batzen dituelako. Alde batetik, beso robotikoek egiten duten bezala objektuak hartu eta maneiatzeko aukera izango du. Eta bestetik, robot mugikorren moduan sentsore eta eragingailuak erabiliz inguru desberdinetara moldatzeko gaitasuna izango du. Beraz, bi ezaugarri horiek dispositibo bakar ...

  8. Search for psi-> gamma eta(c)(eta) -> gamma pi(+)pi(-)pi(0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddadi, Z.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Tiemens, M.

    2017-01-01

    Using a sample of 448.1 x 10(6) psi(3686) events collected with the BESIII detector, a search for the isospin violating decay eta(c) -> pi(+) pi(-) pi(0) via psi(3686) -> gamma eta(c) is presented. No signal is observed, and the upper limit on B(psi(3686) -> gamma eta(c)) x B(eta(c) -> pi(+) pi(-)

  9. Measurement of eta ' -> pi(+)pi(-)e(+)e(-) and eta ' -> pi(+)pi(-)mu(+)mu(-)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Albayrak, O.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J.C.; Chen, M.L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J.P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feng, C. Q.; Friedel, P.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Fuks, O.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A.Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J.S.; Huang, L.; Huang, X.T.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Y.P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L.L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J.S.; Larin, P.; Leyhe, M.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H.B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, Q. J.; Li, S.L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y.T.; Liao, G.R.; Liao, X. T.; Lin, D.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C.X.; Liu, F.H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K.; Liu, K.Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J.G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X.L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C.L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F.E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Moeini, H.; Morales, C. Morales; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J.W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schaefer, B. D.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, W.M.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J.F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y.J.; Sun, Y.Z.; Sun, Z.J.; Sun, Z.T.; Tang, C.J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.Q.; Wang, D.; Wang, D.Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z.Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J.B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L.H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S.X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y. X.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, Q.J.; Xu, Q.N.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zang, S. L.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, LiLi; Zhang, R.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Zhenghao; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J.W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S.J.; Zhao, T.C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X.R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.H.; Zhu, Stuart; Zhu, Y.C.; Zhu, Y.M.; Zhu, Y.S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Werner, M.J.; Zheng, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Based on a sample of 225.3 million J/psi events accumulated with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII, the decays of eta' -> pi(+)pi(-) l(+)l(-) are studied via J/psi -> gamma eta'. A clear eta' signal is observed in the pi(+)pi(-) e(+)e(-) mass spectrum, and the branching fraction is measured to be

  10. Tortura prebenitzeko eta ikertzeko metodoen analisia kriminologiaren ikuspuntutik. Torturaren errealitatea eta kriminologoaren funtzioa

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Méndez, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    [EU]Lan honen helburua, gizartean torturari aurre egiteko dauden mekanismoak eta delitu honen errealitatea ikuspegi kriminologikotik aztertzea da. Hiru zatitan banatu da: alde batetik, torturaren oinarrizko ingurumariak. Bertan torturaren historia, kontzeptua eta lege-teistuingurua aztertzen dira delitu honi buruzko ideia orokorra sortzeko. Beste alde batetik, kriminologiaren teorien bidez torturaren delitua azaltzen da, honen zergatia eta prebentzio metodoak ezartzeko helburuarekin. Azken...

  11. Recent results on eta and eta-prime photoproduction on the proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry Ritchie

    2004-06-01

    The experimental situation on eta and eta' photoproduction on the proton is reviewed, emphasizing progress made since 2001. New preliminary results for eta' photoproduction on the proton from Jefferson Lab are presented. Experimental results are compared with several theoretical approaches, with an emphasis on consequences for understanding baryon spectroscopy.

  12. Observation of eta' -> pi(+) pi(-) pi(+) pi(-) and eta' -> pi(+) pi(-) pi(0) pi(0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Braun, S.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feng, C. Q.; Fu, C. D.; Fuks, O.; Gao, Q.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, H. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, L.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kloss, B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leyhe, M.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D.; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. J.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, H. L.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Moeini, H.; Morales, C. Morales; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zang, S. L.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. B.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 1.3 x 10(9) J/psi events collected with the BESIII detector, we report the first observation of eta' -> pi(+) pi(-) pi(+) pi(-) and eta' -> pi(+) pi(-) pi(0) pi(0). The measured branching fractions are B(eta' -> pi(+) pi(-) pi(+) pi(-)) = [8.53 +/- 0.69(stat.) +/- 0.64(syst.)] x

  13. Cardiac Exposure in the Dynamic Conformal Arc Therapy, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy of Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ming

    Full Text Available To retrospectively evaluate the cardiac exposure in three cohorts of lung cancer patients treated with dynamic conformal arc therapy (DCAT, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT, or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT at our institution in the past seven years.A total of 140 lung cancer patients were included in this institutional review board approved study: 25 treated with DCAT, 70 with IMRT and 45 with VMAT. All plans were generated in a same commercial treatment planning system and have been clinically accepted and delivered. The dose distribution to the heart and the effects of tumor laterality, the irradiated heart volume and the beam-to-heart distance on the cardiac exposure were investigated.The mean dose to the heart among all 140 plans was 4.5 Gy. Specifically, the heart received on average 2.3, 5.2 and 4.6 Gy in the DCAT, IMRT and VMAT plans, respectively. The mean heart doses for the left and right lung tumors were 4.1 and 4.8 Gy, respectively. No patients died with evidence of cardiac disease. Three patients (2% with preexisting cardiac condition developed cardiac disease after treatment. Furthermore, the cardiac exposure was found to increase linearly with the irradiated heart volume while decreasing exponentially with the beam-to-heart distance.Compared to old technologies for lung cancer treatment, modern radiotherapy treatment modalities demonstrated better heart sparing. But the heart dose in lung cancer radiotherapy is still higher than that in the radiotherapy of breast cancer and Hodgkin's disease where cardiac complications have been extensively studied. With strong correlations of mean heart dose with beam-to-heart distance and irradiated heart volume, cautions should be exercised to avoid long-term cardiac toxicity in the lung cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

  14. Development of an Intravenous Therapy Module for Second Year Registered Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Marilyn

    A study aimed at developing an intravenous therapy module for second-year registered nursing students is described in this practicum report. The report's five chapters define the underlying problem and purpose of the study; discuss the history of intravenous therapy and the significance of the module to the host institution; review the relevant…

  15. Pancreatic cancer planning: Complex conformal vs modulated therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Katherine L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Witek, Matthew E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Chen, Hongyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Showalter, Timothy N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Bar-Ad, Voichita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Harrison, Amy S., E-mail: amy.harrison@jefferson.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-07-01

    To compare the roles of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric- modulated arc therapy (VMAT) therapy as compared to simple and complex 3-dimensional chemoradiotherpy (3DCRT) planning for resectable and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. In all, 12 patients who received postoperative radiotherapy (8) or neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (4) were evaluated retrospectively. Radiotherapy planning was performed for 4 treatment techniques: simple 4-field box, complex 5-field 3DCRT, 5 to 6-field IMRT, and single-arc VMAT. All volumes were approved by a single observer in accordance with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Pancreas Contouring Atlas. Plans included tumor/tumor bed and regional lymph nodes to 45 Gy; with tumor/tumor bed boosted to 50.4 Gy, at least 95% of planning target volume (PTV) received the prescription dose. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) for multiple end points, treatment planning, and delivery time were assessed. Complex 3DCRT, IMRT, and VMAT plans significantly (p < 0.05) decreased mean kidney dose, mean liver dose, liver (V{sub 30}, V{sub 35}), stomach (D{sub 10}%), stomach (V{sub 45}), mean right kidney dose, and right kidney (V{sub 15}) as compared with the simple 4-field plans that are most commonly reported in the literature. IMRT plans resulted in decreased mean liver dose, liver (V{sub 35}), and left kidney (V{sub 15}, V{sub 18}, V{sub 20}). VMAT plans decreased small bowel (D{sub 10}%, D{sub 15}%), small bowel (V{sub 35}, V{sub 45}), stomach (D{sub 10}%, D{sub 15}%), stomach (V{sub 35}, V{sub 45}), mean liver dose, liver (V{sub 35}), left kidney (V{sub 15}, V{sub 18}, V{sub 20}), and right kidney (V{sub 18}, V{sub 20}). VMAT plans significantly decreased small bowel (D{sub 10}%, D{sub 15}%), left kidney (V{sub 20}), and stomach (V{sub 45}) as compared with IMRT plans. Treatment planning and delivery times were most efficient for simple 4-field box and VMAT. Excluding patient setup and imaging, average

  16. Searches for Charmless Decays B0 --> eta omega, B0 --> eta K0, B+ --> eta rho+, and B+ --> eta' pi+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B

    2004-08-13

    The authors report results for measurements of the decay branching fractions of B{sup 0} to the charmless final states {eta}{omega} and {eta}K{sup 0}, and of B{sup +} to {eta}{rho}{sup +} and {eta}'{pi}{sup +}. None of these decays have been observed definitively. Measurements of the related decays B{sup +} --> {eta}K{sup +}, B{sup +} --> {eta}{pi}{sup +}, and B --> {eta}'K were published recently. Charmless decays with kaons are usually expected to be dominated by b --> s loop (''penguin'') transitions, while b --> u tree transitions are typically larger for the decays with pions and {rho} mesons. However the B --> {eta}K decays are especially interesting since they are suppressed relative to the abundant B --> {eta}'K decays due to destructive interference between two penguin amplitudes. The CKM-suppressed b --> u amplitudes may interfere significantly with penguin amplitudes, possibly leading to large direct CP violation in B{sup +} --> {eta}{rho}{sup +} and B{sup +} --> {eta}'{pi}{sup +}; numerical estimates are available in a few cases. The authors search for such direct CP violation by measuring the charge asymmetry A{sub ch} {equivalent_to} ({Gamma}{sup -} - {Gamma}{sup +})/({Gamma}{sup -} + {Gamma}{sup +}) in the rates {Gamma}{sup {+-}} = {Gamma}(B{sup {+-}} --> f{sup {+-}}), for each observed charged final state f{sup {+-}}. Charmless B decays are becoming useful to test the accuracy of theoretical predictions. Phenomenological fits to the branching fractions and charge asymmetries can be used to understand the importance of tree and penguin contributions and may provide sensitivity to the CKM angle {gamma}.

  17. Dosimetrically Triggered Adaptive Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Stewart, James [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kelly, Valerie [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Xie, Jason [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Brock, Kristy K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Moseley, Joanne [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cho, Young-Bin; Fyles, Anthony [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lundin, Anna; Rehbinder, Henrik; Löf, Johan [RaySearch Laboratories AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Milosevic, Michael, E-mail: mike.milosevic@rmp.uhn.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: The widespread use of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer has been limited by internal target and normal tissue motion. Such motion increases the risk of underdosing the target, especially as planning margins are reduced in an effort to reduce toxicity. This study explored 2 adaptive strategies to mitigate this risk and proposes a new, automated method that minimizes replanning workload. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with cervical cancer participated in a prospective clinical study and underwent pretreatment and weekly magnetic resonance (MR) scans over a 5-week course of daily external beam radiation therapy. Target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) were contoured on each of the scans. Deformable image registration was used to model the accumulated dose (the real dose delivered to the target and OARs) for 2 adaptive replanning scenarios that assumed a very small PTV margin of only 3 mm to account for setup and internal interfractional motion: (1) a preprogrammed, anatomy-driven midtreatment replan (A-IMRT); and (2) a dosimetry-triggered replan driven by target dose accumulation over time (D-IMRT). Results: Across all 30 patients, clinically relevant target dose thresholds failed for 8 patients (27%) if 3-mm margins were used without replanning. A-IMRT failed in only 3 patients and also yielded an additional small reduction in OAR doses at the cost of 30 replans. D-IMRT assured adequate target coverage in all patients, with only 23 replans in 16 patients. Conclusions: A novel, dosimetry-triggered adaptive IMRT strategy for patients with cervical cancer can minimize the risk of target underdosing in the setting of very small margins and substantial interfractional motion while minimizing programmatic workload and cost.

  18. Measurement of the eta mass at KLOE

    CERN Document Server

    Antonelli, A; Archilli, F; Bacci, C; Beltrame, P; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, S; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocchetta, S; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Capon, G; Capussela, T; Ceradini, F; Chi, S; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; De Lucia, E; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Falco, S; Di Micco, B; Doria, A; Dreucci, M; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Fiore, S; Forti, C; Franzini, P; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Gorini, E; Graziani, E; Incagli, M; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Leone, D; Martini, M; Massarotti, P; Mei, W; Meola, S; Miscetti, S; Moulson, M; Müller, S; Murtas, F; Napolitano, M; Nguyen, F; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Perfetto, F; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Saracino, G; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Spadaro, T; Testa, M; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Versaci, R; Xu, G

    2007-01-01

    An integrated luminosity of 410 pb^(-1), corresponding to ~ 17 million of eta events, has been analyzed to measure the eta mass using the decay eta to gamma gamma. The measurement is insensitive to the calorimeter energy calibration and the systematic error on the measurement is dominated by the uniformity of the detector response. As a cross check of the method the pi0 mass from the decay phi to pi0 gamma, pi0 to gamma gamma has been measured and it is in agreement with the most accurate previous determinations. The result obtained is m(eta) = 547.873 +/- 0.007 (stat.) +/- 0.031 (syst.) MeV, that is today best measurement of the eta mass.

  19. A comprehensive dosimetric study of pancreatic cancer treatment using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric-modulated radiation therapy (VMAT), and passive-scattering and modulated-scanning proton therapy (PT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Xuanfeng; Dionisi, Francesco; Tang, Shikui; Ingram, Mark; Hung, Chun-Yu; Prionas, Evangelos; Lichtenwalner, Phil; Butterwick, Ian; Zhai, Huifang; Yin, Lingshu; Lin, Haibo; Kassaee, Alireza; Avery, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.avery@uphs.upenn.edu

    2014-07-01

    With traditional photon therapy to treat large postoperative pancreatic target volume, it often leads to poor tolerance of the therapy delivered and may contribute to interrupted treatment course. This study was performed to evaluate the potential advantage of using passive-scattering (PS) and modulated-scanning (MS) proton therapy (PT) to reduce normal tissue exposure in postoperative pancreatic cancer treatment. A total of 11 patients with postoperative pancreatic cancer who had been previously treated with PS PT in University of Pennsylvania Roberts Proton Therapy Center from 2010 to 2013 were identified. The clinical target volume (CTV) includes the pancreatic tumor bed as well as the adjacent high-risk nodal areas. Internal (iCTV) was generated from 4-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT), taking into account target motion from breathing cycle. Three-field and 4-field 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT), 5-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy, 2-arc volumetric-modulated radiation therapy, and 2-field PS and MS PT were created on the patients’ average CT. All the plans delivered 50.4 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV). Overall, 98% of PTV was covered by 95% of the prescription dose and 99% of iCTV received 98% prescription dose. The results show that all the proton plans offer significant lower doses to the left kidney (mean and V{sub 18} {sub Gy}), stomach (mean and V{sub 20} {sub Gy}), and cord (maximum dose) compared with all the photon plans, except 3-field 3DCRT in cord maximum dose. In addition, MS PT also provides lower doses to the right kidney (mean and V{sub 18} {sub Gy}), liver (mean dose), total bowel (V{sub 20} {sub Gy} and mean dose), and small bowel (V{sub 15} {sub Gy} absolute volume ratio) compared with all the photon plans and PS PT. The dosimetric advantage of PT points to the possibility of treating tumor bed and comprehensive nodal areas while providing a more tolerable treatment course that could be used for dose

  20. The evolution of selective estrogen receptor modulators in osteoporosis therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), which exhibit estrogen receptor agonist or antagonist activity based on the target tissue, have evolved through multiple generations for the prevention and/or treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. An ideal SERM would protect bone without stimulating the breast or endometrium. Raloxifene, lasofoxifene, and bazedoxifene have demonstrated unique preclinical profiles. Raloxifene, lasofoxifene, and bazedoxifene have shown significant reduction in the risk of vertebral fracture and improvement in bone mineral density versus placebo in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Raloxifene has been shown to reduce the risk of non-vertebral fractures in women with severe prevalent fractures at baseline. Lasofoxifene 0.5 mg, but not lasofoxifene 0.25 mg, has shown reduction in the incidence of non-vertebral fractures. Bazedoxifene 20 mg has been associated with a significant reduction in the risk of non-vertebral fracture versus placebo and raloxifene 60 mg in women at higher baseline fracture risk. Neither raloxifene, lasofoxifene, nor bazedoxifene has shown an increase in the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma. All SERMs have been associated with increased venous thromboembolic events and hot flushes. SERMs are effective alternatives for women who cannot tolerate or are unwilling to take bisphosphonates and may be appropriate for women at higher risk of fracture, particularly younger women who expect to remain on therapy for many years and are concerned about the long-term safety of bisphosphonates. PMID:22853318

  1. Quality of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans Using a (60)Co Magnetic Resonance Image Guidance Radiation Therapy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This work describes a commercial treatment planning system, its technical features, and its capabilities for creating (60)Co intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans for a magnetic resonance image guidance radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system. METHODS AND MATERIALS...

  2. Study of $\\eta-\\eta'$ mixing from measurement of $B^0_{(s)}\\to J/\\psi\\eta^{(')}$ decay rates

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casanova Mohr, Raimon; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew Christopher; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Polikarpov, Sergey; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    A study of $B^0$and $B^0_s$ meson decays into $J/\\psi\\eta$ and $J/\\psi\\eta^{\\prime}$ final states is performed using a data set of proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8TeV, collected by the LHCb experiment and corresponding to 3.0fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity. The decay $B^0 \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\eta^{\\prime}$ is observed for the first time. The following ratios of branching fractions are measured: $ \\frac{\\mathcal{B}(B^0 \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\eta^{\\prime})}{\\mathcal{B}(B^0_s \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\eta^{\\prime})} = (2.28\\pm0.65\\,(stat)\\,\\pm0.10\\,(syst)\\,\\pm0.13\\,(f_{s}/f_{d}))\\times10^{-2},$ $ \\frac{\\mathcal{B}(B^0 \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\eta)}{\\mathcal{B}(B^0_s \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\eta)} = (1.85\\pm0.61\\,(stat)\\,\\pm0.09\\,(syst)\\,\\pm0.11\\,(f_{s}/f_{d}))\\times10^{-2},$ where the third uncertainty is related to the present knowledge of $f_{s}/f_{d}$, the ratio between the probabilities for a $b$ quark to form a $B^0_s$ or $B^0$ meson. The branching fraction ratios are used to determine the para...

  3. Preferential cis-syn thymine dimer bypass by DNA polymerase eta occurs with biased fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Scott D; Kokoska, Robert J; Masutani, Chikahide; Iwai, Shigenori; Hanaoka, Fumio; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2004-03-04

    Human DNA polymerase eta (Pol eta) modulates susceptibility to skin cancer by promoting DNA synthesis past sunlight-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers that escape nucleotide excision repair (NER). Here we have determined the efficiency and fidelity of dimer bypass. We show that Pol eta copies thymine dimers and the flanking bases with higher processivity than it copies undamaged DNA, and then switches to less processive synthesis. This ability of Pol eta to sense the dimer location as synthesis proceeds may facilitate polymerase switching before and after lesion bypass. Pol eta bypasses a dimer with low fidelity and with higher error rates at the 3' thymine than at the 5' thymine. A similar bias is seen with Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase 4, which forms a Watson-Crick base pair at the 3' thymine of a dimer but a Hoogsteen base pair at the 5' thymine (ref. 3). Ultraviolet-induced mutagenesis is also higher at the 3' base of dipyrimidine sequences. Thus, in normal people and particularly in individuals with NER-defective xeroderma pigmentosum who accumulate dimers, errors made by Pol eta during dimer bypass could contribute to mutagenesis and skin cancer.

  4. Extrapleural pneumonectomy, photodynamic therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Kevin L; Both, Stefan; Friedberg, Joseph S; Rengan, Ramesh; Hahn, Stephen M; Cengel, Keith A

    2010-09-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has recently been proposed for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Here, we describe our experience with a multimodality approach for the treatment of mesothelioma, incorporating extrapleural pneumonectomy, intraoperative photodynamic therapy and postoperative hemithoracic IMRT. From 2004-2007, we treated 11 MPM patients with hemithoracic IMRT, 7 of whom had undergone porfimer sodium-mediated PDT as an intraoperative adjuvant to surgical debulking. The median radiation dose to the planning treatment volume (PTV) ranged from 45.4-54.5 Gy. For the contralateral lung, V20 ranged from 1.4-28.5%, V5 from 42-100% and MLD from 6.8-16.5 Gy. In our series, 1 patient experienced respiratory failure secondary to radiation pneumonitis that did not require mechanical ventilation. Multimodality therapy combining surgery with increased doses of radiation using IMRT, and newer treatment modalities such as PDT , appears safe. Future prospective analysis will be needed to demonstrate efficacy of this approach in the treatment of malignant mesothelioma. Efforts to reduce lung toxicity and improve dose delivery are needed and provide the promise of improved local control and quality of life in a carefully chosen multidisciplinary approach.

  5. Observation of B --> eta' K* and Evidence for B --> eta' rho+

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Bóna, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo,; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; Briand, H; David, P; Del Buono, L; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De, N; Groot; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Martínez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihályi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2007-01-01

    We present an observation of $B\\to\\eta^\\prime K^*$. The data sample corresponds to 232 million $B\\bar{B}$ pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy $B$ Factory at SLAC. We measure the branching fractions (in units of $10^{-6}$) $\\mathcal{B}(B^0\\to\\eta^\\prime K^{*0}) = 3.8\\pm1.1\\pm0.5$ and $\\mathcal{B}(B^+\\to\\eta^\\prime K^{*+}) = 4.9^{+1.9}_{-1.7}\\pm0.8$, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. A simultaneous fit results in the observation of $B\\to\\eta^\\prime K^*$ with $\\mathcal{B}(B\\to\\eta^\\prime K^*) = 4.1_{-0.9}^{+1.0} \\pm 0.5$. We also search for $B\\to\\eta^\\prime \\rho$ and $B\\to\\eta^\\prime f_0(980)(f_0 \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-)$ with results and 90% confidence level upper limits $\\mathcal{B}(B^+\\to\\eta^\\prime \\rho^+) = 8.7^{+3.1}_{-2.8}{} ^{+2.3}_{-1.3}$ ($<14$), $\\mathcal{B}(B^0\\to\\eta^\\prime \\rho^0) < 3.7$ and $\\mathcal{B}(B^0\\to\\eta^\\prime f_0(980)(f_0\\to\\pi^+\\pi^-)) < 1.5$. Charge asymmetries in the channels with significant yields are consistent wit...

  6. Linear energy transfer incorporated intensity modulated proton therapy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenhua; Khabazian, Azin; Yepes, Pablo P.; Lim, Gino; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David R.; Mohan, Radhe

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating linear energy transfer (LET) into the optimization of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans. Because increased LET correlates with increased biological effectiveness of protons, high LETs in target volumes and low LETs in critical structures and normal tissues are preferred in an IMPT plan. However, if not explicitly incorporated into the optimization criteria, different IMPT plans may yield similar physical dose distributions but greatly different LET, specifically dose-averaged LET, distributions. Conventionally, the IMPT optimization criteria (or cost function) only includes dose-based objectives in which the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is assumed to have a constant value of 1.1. In this study, we added LET-based objectives for maximizing LET in target volumes and minimizing LET in critical structures and normal tissues. Due to the fractional programming nature of the resulting model, we used a variable reformulation approach so that the optimization process is computationally equivalent to conventional IMPT optimization. In this study, five brain tumor patients who had been treated with proton therapy at our institution were selected. Two plans were created for each patient based on the proposed LET-incorporated optimization (LETOpt) and the conventional dose-based optimization (DoseOpt). The optimized plans were compared in terms of both dose (assuming a constant RBE of 1.1 as adopted in clinical practice) and LET. Both optimization approaches were able to generate comparable dose distributions. The LET-incorporated optimization achieved not only pronounced reduction of LET values in critical organs, such as brainstem and optic chiasm, but also increased LET in target volumes, compared to the conventional dose-based optimization. However, on occasion, there was a need to tradeoff the acceptability of dose and LET distributions. Our conclusion is that the

  7. Linear energy transfer incorporated intensity modulated proton therapy optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenhua; Khabazian, Azin; Yepes, Pablo P; Lim, Gino J; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David R; Mohan, Radhe

    2017-11-13

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating linear energy transfer (LET) into the optimization of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans. Because increased LET correlates with increased biological effectiveness of protons, high LETs in target volumes and low LETs in critical structures and normal tissues are preferred in an IMPT plan. However, if not explicitly incorporated into the optimization criteria, different IMPT plans may yield similar physical dose distributions but greatly different LET, specifically dose-averaged LET, distributions. Conventionally, the IMPT optimization criteria (or cost function) only includes dose-based objectives in which the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is assumed to have a constant value of 1.1. In this study, we added LET-based objectives for maximizing LET in target volumes and minimizing LET in critical structures and normal tissues. Due to the fractional programming nature of the resulting model, we used a variable reformulation approach so that the optimization process is computationally equivalent to conventional IMPT optimization. In this study, five brain tumor patients who had been treated with proton therapy at our institution were selected. Two plans were created for each patient based on the proposed LET-incorporated optimization (LETOpt) and the conventional dose-based optimization (DoseOpt). The optimized plans were compared in terms of both dose (assuming a constant RBE of 1.1 as adopted in clinical practice) and LET. Both optimization approaches were able to generate comparable dose distributions. The LET-incorporated optimization achieved not only pronounced reduction of LET values in critical organs, such as brainstem and optic chiasm, but also increased LET in the target volumes, compared to the conventional dose-based optimization. However, on occasion, there was a need to tradeoff the acceptability of dose and LET distributions. Our conclusion is that the

  8. Tangential intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to the intact breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jenna; Hansen, Carmen J; Westhuyzen, Justin; Waller, Brett; Turnbull, Kirsty; Wood, Maree; Last, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Inverse-planned intensity modulated radiation therapy (IP-IMRT) has potential benefits over other techniques for tangential intact breast radiotherapy. Possible benefits include increased homogeneity, faster planning time, less inter-planner variability and lower doses to organs at risk (OAR). We therefore conducted a pilot study of previously treated intact breast patients to compare the current forward-planned 'field-in-field' technique (FP-IMRT) with an IP-IMRT alternative. The IP-IMRT plans of 20 patients were generated from a template created for the planning system. All patients were prescribed adjuvant whole breast radiotherapy using a hypofractionated regimen of 40.05 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks. Plans were assessed based on visual inspection of coverage as well as statistical analysis and compared to the clinically acceptable FP-IMRT plans. Patients were planned retrospectively in Monaco 3.2(®) using a laterality-specific, tangential planning template. Minor adjustments were made as necessary to meet the planning criteria in the protocol. Dose coverage, maximums, homogeneity indices and doses to OAR were recorded. The IP-IMRT plans provided more consistent coverage (38.18 Gy vs. 36.08 Gy of D95; P = 0.005), a comparable though higher average maximum (D2 = 42.52 Gy vs. 42.08 Gy; P = 0.0001), more homogeneous plans (homogeneity index = 0.908 vs. 0.861; P = 0.01) and somewhat lower V20 heart and lung doses (0.11% vs. 0.89% for heart; 5.4% vs. 7.52% for lung) than FP-IMRT (P > 0.05). Clinically acceptable plans have been generated using the IP-IMRT templates in Monaco. Improvements in consistency and quality were seen when compared to the FP-IMRT plans. The template-based process is an efficient method to inversely plan IMRT for breast patients. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of

  9. Prioritized efficiency optimization for intensity modulated proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Birgit S; Wilkens, Jan J

    2016-12-07

    A high dosimetric quality and short treatment time are major goals in radiotherapy planning. Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans obtain dose distributions of great conformity but often result in long delivery times which are typically not incorporated into the optimization process. We present an algorithm to optimize delivery efficiency of IMPT plans while maintaining plan quality, and study the potential trade-offs of these interdependent objectives. The algorithm is based on prioritized optimization, a stepwise approach to implemented objectives. First the quality of the plan is optimized. The second step of the prioritized efficiency optimization (PrEfOpt) routine offers four alternatives for reducing delivery time: minimization of the total spot weight sum (A), maximization of the lowest spot intensity of each energy layer (B), elimination of low-weighted spots (C) or energy layers (D). The trade-off between dosimetric quality (step I) and treatment time (step II) is controlled during the optimization by option-dependent parameters. PrEfOpt was applied to a clinical patient case, and plans for different trade-offs were calculated. Delivery times were simulated for two virtual facilities with constant and variable proton current, i.e. independent and dependent on the optimized spot weight distributions. Delivery times decreased without major degradation of plan quality; absolute time reductions varied with the applied method and facility type. Minimizing the total spot weight sum (A) reduced times by 28% for a similar plan quality at a constant current (changes of minimum dose in the target  optimization step into the optimization process can yield reduced delivery times with similar plan qualities. A potential clinical application of PrEfOpt is the generation of multiple plans with different trade-offs for a multicriteria optimization setting. Then, the planner can select the preferred compromise between treatment time and quality for each

  10. Amplitude Analysis of the Decays eta ' -> pi(+)pi(-)pi(0) and eta' -> pi(0)pi(0)pi(0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddadi, Z.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Löhner, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Tiemens, M.

    2017-01-01

    Based on a sample of 1.31 x 10(9) J/Psi events collected with the BESIII detector, an amplitude analysis of the isospin-violating decays eta' -> pi(+)pi(-)pi(0) and eta' -> pi(0)pi(0)pi(0) is performed. A significant P-wave contribution from eta' -> rho(+/-)eta(-/+) is observed for the first time in

  11. Noam Chomsky: Hizkuntza Teoria eta Hizkuntzaren Filosofia

    OpenAIRE

    Etxepare, Ricardo; Irurtzun, Aritz

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a panoramic view of Chomsky's theory of language and philosophy of language, in some of their most important aspects.; Chomskyren hizkuntza teoriaren eta hizkuntzaren filosofiaren lerro nagusiak aurkezten dituen ikusmira artikulua da.

  12. The Advantages of Collimator Optimization for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doozan, Brian

    The goal of this study was to improve dosimetry for pelvic, lung, head and neck, and other cancers sites with aspherical planning target volumes (PTV) using a new algorithm for collimator optimization for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that minimizes the x-jaw gap (CAX) and the area of the jaws (CAA) for each treatment field. A retroactive study on the effects of collimator optimization of 20 patients was performed by comparing metric results for new collimator optimization techniques in Eclipse version 11.0. Keeping all other parameters equal, multiple plans are created using four collimator techniques: CA 0, all fields have collimators set to 0°, CAE, using the Eclipse collimator optimization, CAA, minimizing the area of the jaws around the PTV, and CAX, minimizing the x-jaw gap. The minimum area and the minimum x-jaw angles are found by evaluating each field beam's eye view of the PTV with ImageJ and finding the desired parameters with a custom script. The evaluation of the plans included the monitor units (MU), the maximum dose of the plan, the maximum dose to organs at risk (OAR), the conformity index (CI) and the number of fields that are calculated to split. Compared to the CA0 plans, the monitor units decreased on average by 6% for the CAX method with a p-value of 0.01 from an ANOVA test. The average maximum dose remained within 1.1% difference between all four methods with the lowest given by CAX. The maximum dose to the most at risk organ was best spared by the CAA method, which decreased by 0.62% compared to the CA0. Minimizing the x-jaws significantly reduced the number of split fields from 61 to 37. In every metric tested the CAX optimization produced comparable or superior results compared to the other three techniques. For aspherical PTVs, CAX on average reduced the number of split fields, lowered the maximum dose, minimized the dose to the surrounding OAR, and decreased the monitor units. This is achieved while maintaining the same

  13. Prioritized efficiency optimization for intensity modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Birgit S.; Wilkens, Jan J.

    2016-12-01

    A high dosimetric quality and short treatment time are major goals in radiotherapy planning. Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans obtain dose distributions of great conformity but often result in long delivery times which are typically not incorporated into the optimization process. We present an algorithm to optimize delivery efficiency of IMPT plans while maintaining plan quality, and study the potential trade-offs of these interdependent objectives. The algorithm is based on prioritized optimization, a stepwise approach to implemented objectives. First the quality of the plan is optimized. The second step of the prioritized efficiency optimization (PrEfOpt) routine offers four alternatives for reducing delivery time: minimization of the total spot weight sum (A), maximization of the lowest spot intensity of each energy layer (B), elimination of low-weighted spots (C) or energy layers (D). The trade-off between dosimetric quality (step I) and treatment time (step II) is controlled during the optimization by option-dependent parameters. PrEfOpt was applied to a clinical patient case, and plans for different trade-offs were calculated. Delivery times were simulated for two virtual facilities with constant and variable proton current, i.e. independent and dependent on the optimized spot weight distributions. Delivery times decreased without major degradation of plan quality; absolute time reductions varied with the applied method and facility type. Minimizing the total spot weight sum (A) reduced times by 28% for a similar plan quality at a constant current (changes of minimum dose in the target  <1%). For a variable proton current, eliminating low-weighted spots (C) led to remarkably faster delivery (16%). The implementation of an efficiency-optimization step into the optimization process can yield reduced delivery times with similar plan qualities. A potential clinical application of PrEfOpt is the generation of multiple plans with different trade

  14. Dose verification for respiratory-gated volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jianguo; Xing, Lei; Liu, Wu; Luxton, Gary

    2011-08-01

    A novel commercial medical linac system (TrueBeam™, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) allows respiratory-gated volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), a new modality for treating moving tumors with high precision and improved accuracy by allowing for regular motion associated with a patient's breathing during VMAT delivery. The purpose of this work is to adapt a previously-developed dose reconstruction technique to evaluate the fidelity of VMAT treatment during gated delivery under clinic-relevant periodic motion related to patient breathing. A Varian TrueBeam system was used in this study. VMAT plans were created for three patients with lung or pancreas tumors. Conventional 6 and 15 MV beams with flattening filter and high-dose-rate 10 MV beams with no flattening filter were used in these plans. Each patient plan was delivered to a phantom first without gating and then with gating for three simulated respiratory periods (3, 4.5 and 6 s). Using the adapted log-file-based dose reconstruction procedure supplemented with ion chamber array (Seven29™, PTW, Freiburg, Germany) measurements, the delivered dose was used to evaluate the fidelity of gated VMAT delivery. Comparison of Seven29 measurements with and without gating showed good agreement with gamma-index passing rates above 99% for 1%/1 mm dose accuracy/distance-to-agreement criteria. With original plans as reference, gamma-index passing rates were 100% for the reconstituted plans (1%/1 mm criteria) and 93.5-100% for gated Seven29 measurements (3%/3 mm criteria). In the presence of leaf error deliberately introduced into the gated delivery of a pancreas patient plan, both dose reconstruction and Seven29 measurement consistently indicated substantial dosimetric differences from the original plan. In summary, a dose reconstruction procedure was demonstrated for evaluating the accuracy of respiratory-gated VMAT delivery. This technique showed that under clinical operation, the TrueBeam system faithfully

  15. Optimization in Radiation Therapy: Applications in Brachytherapy and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeachy, Philip David

    Over 50% of cancer patients require radiation therapy (RT). RT is an optimization problem requiring maximization of the radiation damage to the tumor while minimizing the harm to the healthy tissues. This dissertation focuses on two main RT optimization problems: 1) brachytherapy and 2) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The brachytherapy research involved solving a non-convex optimization problem by creating an open-source genetic algorithm optimizer to determine the optimal radioactive seed distribution for a given set of patient volumes and constraints, both dosimetric- and implant-based. The optimizer was tested for a set of 45 prostate brachytherapy patients. While all solutions met the clinical standards, they also benchmarked favorably with those generated by a standard commercial solver. Compared to its compatriot, the salient features of the generated solutions were: slightly reduced prostate coverage, lower dose to the urethra and rectum, and a smaller number of needles required for an implant. Historically, IMRT requires modulation of fluence while keeping the photon beam energy fixed. The IMRT-related investigation in this thesis aimed at broadening the solution space by varying photon energy. The problem therefore involved simultaneous optimization of photon beamlet energy and fluence, denoted by XMRT. Formulating the problem as convex, linear programming was applied to obtain solutions for optimal energy-dependent fluences, while achieving all clinical objectives and constraints imposed. Dosimetric advantages of XMRT over single-energy IMRT in the improved sparing of organs at risk (OARs) was demonstrated in simplified phantom studies. The XMRT algorithm was improved to include clinical dose-volume constraints and clinical studies for prostate and head and neck cancer patients were investigated. Compared to IMRT, XMRT provided improved dosimetric benefit in the prostate case, particularly within intermediate- to low-dose regions (≤ 40 Gy

  16. Measurement of CP asymmetries in D-+/- -> eta 'pi(+/-) and D-S(+/-) -> eta 'pi(+/-) decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufour, L.; Mulder, M; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.; van Veghel, M.

    2017-01-01

    A search for CP violation in D-+/- -> eta 'pi(+/-) and D-S(+/-) -> eta 'pi(+/-) decays is performed using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb(-1), recorded by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The measured CP-violating charge

  17. Stereotactic body radiation therapy planning with duodenal sparing using volumetric-modulated arc therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy in locally advanced pancreatic cancer: A dosimetric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rachit; Wild, Aaron T.; Ziegler, Mark A.; Hooker, Ted K.; Dah, Samson D.; Tran, Phuoc T.; Kang, Jun; Smith, Koren; Zeng, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 401N. Broadway, Weinberg Suite 1440, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Pawlik, Timothy M. [Department of Surgery, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tryggestad, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 401N. Broadway, Weinberg Suite 1440, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Ford, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Herman, Joseph M., E-mail: jherma15@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 401N. Broadway, Weinberg Suite 1440, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) achieves excellent local control for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC), but may increase late duodenal toxicity. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivers intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a rotating gantry rather than multiple fixed beams. This study dosimetrically evaluates the feasibility of implementing duodenal constraints for SBRT using VMAT vs IMRT. Non–duodenal sparing (NS) and duodenal-sparing (DS) VMAT and IMRT plans delivering 25 Gy in 1 fraction were generated for 15 patients with LAPC. DS plans were constrained to duodenal D{sub max} of<30 Gy at any point. VMAT used 1 360° coplanar arc with 4° spacing between control points, whereas IMRT used 9 coplanar beams with fixed gantry positions at 40° angles. Dosimetric parameters for target volumes and organs at risk were compared for DS planning vs NS planning and VMAT vs IMRT using paired-sample Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Both DS VMAT and DS IMRT achieved significantly reduced duodenal D{sub mean}, D{sub max}, D{sub 1cc}, D{sub 4%}, and V{sub 20} {sub Gy} compared with NS plans (all p≤0.002). DS constraints compromised target coverage for IMRT as demonstrated by reduced V{sub 95%} (p = 0.01) and D{sub mean} (p = 0.02), but not for VMAT. DS constraints resulted in increased dose to right kidney, spinal cord, stomach, and liver for VMAT. Direct comparison of DS VMAT and DS IMRT revealed that VMAT was superior in sparing the left kidney (p<0.001) and the spinal cord (p<0.001), whereas IMRT was superior in sparing the stomach (p = 0.05) and the liver (p = 0.003). DS VMAT required 21% fewer monitor units (p<0.001) and delivered treatment 2.4 minutes faster (p<0.001) than DS IMRT. Implementing DS constraints during SBRT planning for LAPC can significantly reduce duodenal point or volumetric dose parameters for both VMAT and IMRT. The primary consequence of implementing DS constraints for VMAT is increased dose to other organs at

  18. The Role of Descending Modulation in Manual Therapy and Its Analgesic Implications: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigotsky, Andrew D; Bruhns, Ryan P

    2015-01-01

    Manual therapy has long been a component of physical rehabilitation programs, especially to treat those in pain. The mechanisms of manual therapy, however, are not fully understood, and it has been suggested that its pain modulatory effects are of neurophysiological origin and may be mediated by the descending modulatory circuit. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the neurophysiological response to different types of manual therapy, in order to better understand the neurophysiological mechanisms behind each therapy's analgesic effects. It is concluded that different forms of manual therapy elicit analgesic effects via different mechanisms, and nearly all therapies appear to be at least partially mediated by descending modulation. Additionally, future avenues of mechanistic research pertaining to manual therapy are discussed.

  19. Hispaania kardab ETA uue terrorilaine puhkemist / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Hispaania julgeolekuametnikud kahtlustavad, et Bilbao pommiplahvatuse korraldas baskide terrorirühmitus ETA, kes on kuulutanud 15 kuud kestnud vaherahu lõppenuks. Kaart: Autopomm Bilbaos. Lisa: Euskadi Ta Askatasuna ehk ETA

  20. Eta-Expansion Does The Trick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Malmkjær, Karoline; Palsberg, Jens

    1995-01-01

    Partial-evaluation folklore has it that massaging one's source programs can make them specialize better. In Jones, Gomard, and Sestoft's recent textbook, a whole chapter is dedicated to listing such “binding-time improvements”: nonstandard use of continuation-passing style, eta-expansion, and a p......Partial-evaluation folklore has it that massaging one's source programs can make them specialize better. In Jones, Gomard, and Sestoft's recent textbook, a whole chapter is dedicated to listing such “binding-time improvements”: nonstandard use of continuation-passing style, eta...

  1. Eta-Expansion Does The Trick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Malmkjær, Karoline; Palsberg, Jens

    1996-01-01

    Partial-evaluation folklore has it that massaging one's source programs can make them specialize better. In Jones, Gomard, and Sestoft's recent textbook, a whole chapter is dedicated to listing such “binding-time improvements”: nonstandard use of continuation-passing style, eta-expansion, and a p......Partial-evaluation folklore has it that massaging one's source programs can make them specialize better. In Jones, Gomard, and Sestoft's recent textbook, a whole chapter is dedicated to listing such “binding-time improvements”: nonstandard use of continuation-passing style, eta...

  2. Eta-expansion does The Trick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Malmkjær, Karoline; Palsberg, Jens

    1996-01-01

    Partial-evaluation folklore has it that massaging one's source programs can make them specialize better. In Jones, Gomard, and Sestoft's recent textbook, a whole chapter is dedicated to listing such “binding-time improvements”: nonstandard use of continuation-passing style, eta-expansion, and a p......Partial-evaluation folklore has it that massaging one's source programs can make them specialize better. In Jones, Gomard, and Sestoft's recent textbook, a whole chapter is dedicated to listing such “binding-time improvements”: nonstandard use of continuation-passing style, eta...

  3. A study of the $\\eta \\eta{'}$ and $\\eta{'}\\eta{'}$ channels produced in central p p interactions at 450 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, D.; Close, F.E.; Danielsen, K.M.; Donskov, S.V.; Earl, B.C.; Evans, D.; French, B.R.; Hino, T.; Inaba, S.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jacobsen, T.; Khaustov, G.V.; Kinson, J.B.; Kirk, A.; Kondashov, A.A.; Lednev, A.A.; Lenti, V.; Minashvili, I.; Peigneux, J.P.; Romanovsky, V.; Russakovich, N.; Semenov, A.; Shagin, P.M.; Shimizu, H.; Singovsky, A.V.; Sobol, A.; Stassinaki, M.; Stroot, J.P.; Takamatsu, K.; Tsuru, T.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Votruba, M.F.; Yasu, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The reactions pp -> pf (X0) ps, where X0 is observed decaying to eta etaprime and etaprime etaprime, have been studied at 450 GeV/c. This is the first time that these channels have been observed in central production and only the second time that the etaprime etaprime channel has been observed in any production mechanism. In the eta etaprime channel there is evidence for the f0(1500) and a peak at 1.95 GeV. The etaprime etaprime channel shows a peak at threshold which is compatible with having JPC = 2++ and spin projection JZ = 0.

  4. Study of high momentum eta' production in B --> eta'Xs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Layter, J; Shen, B C; Wang, K; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Erwin, R J; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Cote-Ahern, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Allmendinger, T; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Elsen, E E; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-08-06

    We measure the branching fraction for the charmless semi-inclusive process B --> eta'Xs, where the eta' meson has a momentum in the range 2.0 to 2.7 GeV/c in the upsilon4S center-of-mass frame and Xs represents a system comprising a kaon and zero to four pions. We find B(B --> eta'Xs) = [3.9 +/- 0.8(stat) +/- 0.5(syst) +/- 0.8(model)] x 10(-4). We also obtain the Xs mass spectrum and find that it fits models predicting high masses.

  5. Texture analysis on the fluence map to evaluate the degree of modulation for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So-Yeon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il Han [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung-Joon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744, (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon 433-270 (Korea, Republic of); Carlson, Joel [Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon 433-270 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Texture analysis on fluence maps was performed to evaluate the degree of modulation for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans. Methods: A total of six textural features including angular second moment, inverse difference moment, contrast, variance, correlation, and entropy were calculated for fluence maps generated from 20 prostate and 20 head and neck VMAT plans. For each of the textural features, particular displacement distances (d) of 1, 5, and 10 were adopted. To investigate the deliverability of each VMAT plan, gamma passing rates of pretreatment quality assurance, and differences in modulating parameters such as multileaf collimator (MLC) positions, gantry angles, and monitor units at each control point between VMAT plans and dynamic log files registered by the Linac control system during delivery were acquired. Furthermore, differences between the original VMAT plan and the plan reconstructed from the dynamic log files were also investigated. To test the performance of the textural features as indicators for the modulation degree of VMAT plans, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients (r{sub s}) with the plan deliverability were calculated. For comparison purposes, conventional modulation indices for VMAT including the modulation complexity score for VMAT, leaf travel modulation complexity score, and modulation index supporting station parameter optimized radiation therapy (MI{sub SPORT}) were calculated, and their correlations were analyzed in the same way. Results: There was no particular textural feature which always showed superior correlations with every type of plan deliverability. Considering the results comprehensively, contrast (d = 1) and variance (d = 1) generally showed considerable correlations with every type of plan deliverability. These textural features always showed higher correlations to the plan deliverability than did the conventional modulation indices, except in the case of modulating parameter differences. The r

  6. The Role of Descending Modulation in Manual Therapy and Its Analgesic Implications: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Vigotsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual therapy has long been a component of physical rehabilitation programs, especially to treat those in pain. The mechanisms of manual therapy, however, are not fully understood, and it has been suggested that its pain modulatory effects are of neurophysiological origin and may be mediated by the descending modulatory circuit. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the neurophysiological response to different types of manual therapy, in order to better understand the neurophysiological mechanisms behind each therapy’s analgesic effects. It is concluded that different forms of manual therapy elicit analgesic effects via different mechanisms, and nearly all therapies appear to be at least partially mediated by descending modulation. Additionally, future avenues of mechanistic research pertaining to manual therapy are discussed.

  7. Familia eta eskola testuinguruen eragina haurren errendimendu akademikoan

    OpenAIRE

    Garai Mota, Eztizen

    2016-01-01

    [eus] Egun, adin txikikoenekin batera eskolako testuinguruan barneratzean, irakasleek familiak haurren garapen psikologikoan eta pertsonalean zuzenean eragiten duela hautematen dute. Izan ere, seme alaben hezkuntzan familiak duen hezteko estiloak eta inplikazio mailak, seme alabek bizitzak eta hezkuntza akademikoak planteatzen dizkieten erronkei aurre egiteko dituzten jarreretan eragingo du, euren errendimendu akademikoa baldintzatuz. Horren ondorioz, lan honetan, bilaketa bibliografiko baten...

  8. 3D range-modulator for scanned particle therapy: development, Monte Carlo simulations and experimental evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Yuri; Weber, Uli; Penchev, Petar; Printz Ringbæk, Toke; Schuy, Christoph; Brons, Stephan; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Bliedtner, Jens; Zink, Klemens

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to design and manufacture a 3D range-modulator for scanned particle therapy. The modulator is intended to create a highly conformal dose distribution with only one fixed energy, simultaneously reducing considerably the treatment time. As a proof of concept, a 3D range-modulator was developed for a spherical target volume with a diameter of 5 cm, placed at a depth of 25 cm in a water phantom. It consists of a large number of thin pins with a well-defined shape and different lengths to modulate the necessary shift of the Bragg peak. The 3D range-modulator was manufactured with a rapid prototyping technique. The FLUKA Monte Carlo package was used to simulate the modulating effect of the 3D range-modulator and the resulting dose distribution. For that purpose, a special user routine was implemented to handle its complex geometrical contour. Additionally, FLUKA was extended with the capability of intensity modulated scanning. To validate the simulation results, dose measurements were carried out at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center with a 400.41 MeV/u 12C beam. The high resolution dosimetric measurements show a good agreement between simulated and measured dose distributions. Irradiation of the monoenergetic raster plan took 3 s, which is approximately 20 times shorter than a comparable plan with 16 different energies. The combination of only one energy and a 3D range-modulator leads to a tremendous decrease in irradiation time. ‘Interplay effects’, typical for moving targets and pencil beam scanning, can be immensely reduced or disappear completely, making the delivery of a homogeneous dose to moving targets more reliable. Combining high dose conformity, very good homogeneity and extremely short irradiation times, the 3D range-modulator is considered to become a clinically applicable method for very fast treatment of lung tumours.

  9. Ikerketaz gizarte langintzan: sorburuak, kopuruak eta aburuak

    OpenAIRE

    Kontxesi Berrio-Otxoa Otxoa de Angiozar

    2011-01-01

    Artikulu honek jasotzen ditu gizarte langintzaren arloan ikerlanaren beharraz arduratu diren egile esanguratsuek gizarte langintzako ikerketari emandako definizioak. Bidenabar, gizarte langintzaren hastapenetan beste jakintza arloekin uztartuta egindako ikerketek izandako garrantzia ere azaltzen zaigu. Ikerketari buruzko aipuekin batera, ohartarazten zaigu ikerketa modu ezberdinetan ulertu izan dela gizarte langintzaren eremuan; eta horren harira, gizarte langileen jardunean ikerketak duen ...

  10. Hispaania ei usu ETA rahupakkumisse / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Baski terrorirühmitus kutsus uut peaministrit Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapaterot dialoogile, hiljuti valimised võitnud Sotsialistlik Töölispartei teatas vastuseks, et ETA on terroristlik rühmitus ja selle avaldustele tähelepanu ei osutata. Vt. samas: Vaherahule järgnes terrorilaine

  11. Head and neck intensity modulated radiation therapy leads to an increase of opportunistic oral pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurhuis, Jennifer M.; Stokman, Monique A.; Witjes, Max J. H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.; Vissink, Arjan; Spijkervet, Frederik K. L.

    Objectives: The introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has led to new possibilities in the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC). Limited information is available on how this more advanced radiation technique affects the oral microflora. In a prospective study we assessed the

  12. Evaluation of dosimetric effect caused by slowing with multi-leaf collimator (MLC leaves for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhengzheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is to report 1 the sensitivity of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT QA method for clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT plans with multi-leaf collimator (MLC leaf errors that will not trigger MLC interlock during beam delivery; 2 the effect of non-beam-hold MLC leaf errors on the quality of VMAT plan dose delivery.

  13. Measurement of the CP Violation Parameter $\\eta+ - \\gamma$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, John N. [Rutgers U., Piscataway

    1996-01-01

    This dissertation describes the measurement of the CP violation parameter $\\eta + - \\gamma$ in a neutral kaon experiment, E773, at Fermilab. The parameter $\\eta + - \\gamma$ characterizes CP violation in ·the decay $K_L \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^- \\gamma$. Kaon decays into $\\pi^+\\pi^-$- collected simultaneously were used for normalization. The result is $\\mid\\eta+-\\gamma\\mid$ = (2.359 ± 0.062 .. stat ± 0.040.sys) X $10^{-3}$ with a phase $\\phi + - \\gamma$ = ( 43.8 ± 3.5,stat ± 1.9 sys )$^{\\circ}$. The prediction that $\\eta + - \\gamma$ should be very close to $\\eta + -$ is supported by this result.

  14. Modulation of the tumor vasculature and oxygenation to improve therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemann, Dietmar W; Horsman, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is increasingly recognized as a major factor influencing the success of therapeutic treatments and has become a key focus for cancer research. The progressive growth of a tumor results in an inability of normal tissue blood vessels to oxygenate and provide sufficient......, and extracellular molecules which together are essential for the initiation, progression and spread of tumor cells. The physical conditions that arise are imposing and manifold, and include elevated interstitial pressure, localized extracellular acidity, and regions of oxygen and nutrient deprivation. No less...... that create a significant hindrance to the control of cancers by conventional anticancer therapies. However, the aberrant nature of the tumor microenvironments also offers unique therapeutic opportunities. Particularly interventions that seek to improve tumor physiology and alleviate tumor hypoxia...

  15. Visceral Blood Flow Modulation: Potential Therapy for Morbid Obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Tyler J., E-mail: tjharris@gmail.com [University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Murphy, Timothy P.; Jay, Bryan S. [Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Vascular Disease Research Center (United States); Hampson, Christopher O.; Zafar, Abdul M. [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-06-15

    We present this preliminary investigation into the safety and feasibility of endovascular therapy for morbid obesity in a swine model. A flow-limiting, balloon-expandable covered stent was placed in the superior mesenteric artery of three Yorkshire swine after femoral arterial cutdown. The pigs were monitored for between 15 and 51 days after the procedure and then killed, with weights obtained at 2-week increments. In the two pigs in which the stent was flow limiting, a reduced rate of weight gain (0.42 and 0.53 kg/day) was observed relative to the third pig (0.69 kg/day), associated with temporary food aversion and signs of mesenteric ischemia in one pig.

  16. Cell-stimulation therapy of lateral epicondylitis with frequency-modulated low-intensity electric current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyev, R M; Geiger, G

    2012-03-01

    In addition to the routine therapy, the patients with lateral epicondylitis included into experimental group were subjected to a 12-week cell-stimulation therapy with low-intensity frequency-modulated electric current. The control group received the same routine therapy and sham stimulation (the therapeutic apparatus was not energized). The efficiency of this microcurrent therapy was estimated by comparing medical indices before therapy and at the end of a 12-week therapeutic course using a 10-point pain severity numeric rating scale (NRS) and Roles-Maudsley pain score. The study revealed high therapeutic efficiency of cell-stimulation with low-intensity electric current resulting probably from up-regulation of intracellular transmitters, interleukins, and prostaglandins playing the key role in the regulation of inflammation.

  17. Cardiovascular disease: primary prevention, disease modulation and regenerative therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs are the contemporary frontiers in functional metabolic vascular medicine. This novel science perspective harnesses our inherent ability to modulate the interface between specialized gene receptors and bioavailable nutrients in what is labeled as the nutrient-gene interaction. By mimicking a natural process through the conveyance of highly absorbable receptor specific nutrients, it is feasible to accelerate cell repair and optimize mitochondrial function, thereby achieving cardiovascular cure. We performed a comprehensive review of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Review databases for articles relating to cardiovascular regenerative medicine, nutrigenomics and primary prevention, with the aim of harmonizing their roles within contemporary clinical practice. We searched in particular for large-scale randomized controlled trials on contemporary cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and their specific adverse effects on metabolic pathways which feature prominently in cardiovascular regenerative programs, such as nitric oxide and glucose metabolism. Scientific research on \\'cardiovascular-free\\' centenarians delineated that low sugar and low insulin are consistent findings. As we age, our insulin level increases. Those who can decelerate the rapidity of this process are prompting their cardiovascular rejuvenation. It is beginning to dawn on some clinicians that contemporary treatments are not only failing to impact on our most prevalent diseases, but they may be causing more damage than good. Primary prevention programs are crucial elements for a better outcome. Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs have enhanced clinical efficacy and quality of life and complement our conventional endovascular practice.

  18. Measurement of the matrix elements for the decays eta -> pi(+)pi(-)pi(0) and eta/eta ' -> pi(0)pi(0)pi(0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X.C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; Haddadi, Z.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, J.G.; Tiemens, M.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sample of 1.31 x 10(9) J/psi events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, Dalitz plot analyses of selected 79,625 eta -> pi(+)pi(-)pi(0) events, 33,908 eta -> pi(0)pi(0)pi(0) events, and 1,888 eta' -> pi(0)pi(0)pi(0) events are performed. The measured matrix elements

  19. Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Versus Intensity Modulated Photon Radiation Therapy for Oropharyngeal Cancer: First Comparative Results of Patient-Reported Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sio, Terence T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Lin, Huei-Kai; Shi, Qiuling [Department of Symptom Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gunn, G. Brandon [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Cleeland, Charles S. [Department of Symptom Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, J. Jack; Hernandez, Mike [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Blanchard, Pierre; Thaker, Nikhil G.; Phan, Jack; Rosenthal, David I.; Garden, Adam S.; Morrison, William H.; Fuller, C. David [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mendoza, Tito R. [Department of Symptom Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Xin Shelley [Department of Symptom Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Frank, Steven J., E-mail: sjfrank@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: We hypothesized that patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated with intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) would have lower symptom burdens, as measured by patient-reported outcome (PRO) surveys, than patients treated with intensity modulated photon therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Patients were treated for oropharyngeal cancer from 2006 to 2015 through prospective registries with concurrent chemotherapy and IMPT or chemotherapy and IMRT and completed the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory for Head and Neck Cancer (MDASI-HN) module at various times before treatment (baseline), during treatment (acute phase), within the first 3 months after treatment (subacute phase), and afterward (chronic phase). Individual symptoms and the top 5 and top 11 most severe symptoms were summarized and compared between the radiation therapy modalities. Results: PRO data were collected and analyzed from 35 patients treated with chemotherapy and IMPT and from 46 treated with chemotherapy and IMRT. The baseline symptom burdens were similar between both groups. The overall top 5 symptoms were food taste problems (mean score 4.91 on a 0-10 scale), dry mouth (4.49), swallowing/chewing difficulties (4.26), lack of appetite (4.08), and fatigue (4.00). Among the top 11 symptoms, changes in taste and appetite during the subacute and chronic phases favored IMPT (all P<.048). No differences in symptom burden were detected between modalities during the acute and chronic phases by top-11 symptom scoring. During the subacute phase, the mean (±standard deviation) top 5 MDASI scores were 5.15 ± 2.66 for IMPT versus 6.58 ± 1.98 for IMRT (P=.013). Conclusions: According to the MDASI-HN, symptom burden was lower among the IMPT patients than among the IMRT patients during the subacute recovery phase after treatment. A prospective randomized clinical trial is underway to define the value of IMPT for the management of head and neck tumors.

  20. Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Versus Intensity Modulated Photon Radiation Therapy for Oropharyngeal Cancer: First Comparative Results of Patient-Reported Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sio, Terence T; Lin, Huei-Kai; Shi, Qiuling; Gunn, G Brandon; Cleeland, Charles S; Lee, J Jack; Hernandez, Mike; Blanchard, Pierre; Thaker, Nikhil G; Phan, Jack; Rosenthal, David I; Garden, Adam S; Morrison, William H; Fuller, C David; Mendoza, Tito R; Mohan, Radhe; Wang, Xin Shelley; Frank, Steven J

    2016-07-15

    We hypothesized that patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated with intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) would have lower symptom burdens, as measured by patient-reported outcome (PRO) surveys, than patients treated with intensity modulated photon therapy (IMRT). Patients were treated for oropharyngeal cancer from 2006 to 2015 through prospective registries with concurrent chemotherapy and IMPT or chemotherapy and IMRT and completed the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory for Head and Neck Cancer (MDASI-HN) module at various times before treatment (baseline), during treatment (acute phase), within the first 3 months after treatment (subacute phase), and afterward (chronic phase). Individual symptoms and the top 5 and top 11 most severe symptoms were summarized and compared between the radiation therapy modalities. PRO data were collected and analyzed from 35 patients treated with chemotherapy and IMPT and from 46 treated with chemotherapy and IMRT. The baseline symptom burdens were similar between both groups. The overall top 5 symptoms were food taste problems (mean score 4.91 on a 0-10 scale), dry mouth (4.49), swallowing/chewing difficulties (4.26), lack of appetite (4.08), and fatigue (4.00). Among the top 11 symptoms, changes in taste and appetite during the subacute and chronic phases favored IMPT (all P<.048). No differences in symptom burden were detected between modalities during the acute and chronic phases by top-11 symptom scoring. During the subacute phase, the mean (±standard deviation) top 5 MDASI scores were 5.15 ± 2.66 for IMPT versus 6.58 ± 1.98 for IMRT (P=.013). According to the MDASI-HN, symptom burden was lower among the IMPT patients than among the IMRT patients during the subacute recovery phase after treatment. A prospective randomized clinical trial is underway to define the value of IMPT for the management of head and neck tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Branching fraction and CP-violation charge asymmetry measurements for B-meson decays to eta K+-, etapi+-, eta'K, eta'pi+-, omega K, and omegapi+-

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Graugès-Pous, E; López, L; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Clifton, Z C; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Bequilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F R; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Pérez, A; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Röthel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martínez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of the branching fractions for B0 meson decays to eta'K0 and omegaK0, and of the branching fractions and CP-violation charge asymmetries for B+ meson decays to etapi+, etaK+, eta'pi+, eta'K+, omegapi+, and omegaK+. The data, collected with the BABAR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, represent 383 million BBbar pairs produced in e+e- annihilation. The measurements agree with previous results; we find no evidence for direct CP violation.

  2. Branching Fraction Measurements of B --> eta c K Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2004-03-02

    We study the decays B{sup +} {yields} {eta}{sub c}K{sup +} and B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}{sub c}K{sup 0}, where the {eta}{sub c} is reconstructed in the K{sub S}{sup 0} K{sup {+-}} {pi}{sup {-+}} and K{sup +}K{sup -} {pi}{sup 0} decay modes. Results are based on a sample of 86 million B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC e{sup +}e{sup -} B Factory. We measure the branching fractions {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {eta}{sub c}K{sup +}) = (1.34 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.13 {+-} 0.41) x 10{sup -3} and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}{sub c}K{sup 0}) = (1.18 {+-} 0.16 {+-} 0.13 {+-} 0.37) x 10{sup -3}, where the first error is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third reflects the {eta}{sub c} branching fraction uncertainty. In addition, we search for B {yields} {eta}{sub c}K events with {eta}{sub c} {yields} 2(K{sup +}K{sup -}) and {eta}{sub c} {yields} {phi}{phi} and determine the {eta}{sub c} decay branching fraction ratios {Beta}({eta}{sub c} {yields} 2(K{sup +}K{sup -}))/{Beta}({eta}{sub c} {yields} K{bar K}{pi}) = (2.3 {+-} 0.7 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup -2} and {Beta}({eta}{sub c} {yields} {phi}{phi})/{Beta}({eta}{sub c} {yields} K{bar K}{pi}) = (5.5 {+-} 1.4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup -2}.

  3. Modulation of lateral positions of Bragg peaks via magnetic fields inside cancer patients: Toward magnetic field modulated proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wencheng; Tang, Xiaobin; Bai, Yanling; Geng, Changran; Shu, Diyun; Gong, Chunhui; Chen, Da

    2017-10-01

    This work investigated whether the Bragg peak (BP) positions of proton beams can be modulated to produce uniform doses and cover a tumor under the magnetic fields inside cancer patients, and whether magnetic field modulated proton therapy (MMPT) is effective in vital organ protection. The authors initially constructed an ideal water phantom comprising a central tumor surrounded by cuboid organ regions using GEANT4. Second, we designed the proton beams passing through the gap between two adjacent organ regions during beam configuration. Third, we simulated the beam transports under magnetic fields inside the phantom through GEANT4. Then, the beams were discarded, which did not stop in the tumor. Fourth, the authors modulated the intensities of the remaining beams to produce uniform tumor doses. Subsequently, the calculated MMPT doses were compared with those of traditional methods, such as single, opposing, orthogonal, and box fields. Moreover, the authors repeated the above research procedures for abdominal anatomies comprising tumors at the pancreatic tail and liver to evaluate whether MMPT is effective for the human anatomy. For the water phantom, the vital organ doses were approximately 50%, 30%, 30%, and 15% for the single, opposing, orthogonal, and box fields, respectively. As the vital organ doses decreased, the organ volume receiving proton irradiations for the opposing, orthogonal, and box fields increased by two, two, and four times compared with that for the single field. The vital organ volume receiving proton irradiations were controlled to a fairly low level through MMPT, whereas the BP positions of the proton beams were properly modulated through the magnetic fields inside the phantom. The tumor was sufficiently covered by a 95% dose line, and the maximum tumor doses were smaller than 110%. For the pancreatic tumor case, the proton beams were curved and bypassed the kidney to generate uniform doses inside the tumor through MMPT. In the liver tumor

  4. Endometrial Effects of Prolonged Therapy with the Selective Progesterone Receptor Modulator Ulipristal Acetate: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Gary; Elkas, John; Armstrong, Alicia Y; Nieman, Lynnette K

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to a selective progesterone receptor modulator (ulipristal acetate) in a patient with benign metastasizing leiomyoma did not result in endometrial hyperplasia or neoplasia. A woman with history of benign metastasizing leiomyoma underwent medical treatment for 5 years with ulipristal acetate. Endometrial biopsies were performed at established intervals to monitor for intraepithelial neoplasia or progesterone receptor modulator-associated endometrial changes (PAECs). The patient tolerated UPA therapy well; there was no evidence of hyperplasia or proliferative changes associated with progesterone-associated endometrial changes. In this case prolonged exposure to ulipristal acetate did not result in premalignant or malignant endometrial pathology.

  5. Comparison of testicular dose delivered by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in patients with prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Jeffrey M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Handorf, Elizabeth A. [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Price, Robert A.; Cherian, George [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Chen, David Y.; Kutikov, Alexander [Department of Urologic Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Johnson, Matthew E.; Ma, Chung-Ming Charlie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Horwitz, Eric M., E-mail: eric.horwitz@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A small decrease in testosterone level has been documented after prostate irradiation, possibly owing to the incidental dose to the testes. Testicular doses from prostate external beam radiation plans with either intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were calculated to investigate any difference. Testicles were contoured for 16 patients being treated for localized prostate cancer. For each patient, 2 plans were created: 1 with IMRT and 1 with VMAT. No specific attempt was made to reduce testicular dose. Minimum, maximum, and mean doses to the testicles were recorded for each plan. Of the 16 patients, 4 received a total dose of 7800 cGy to the prostate alone, 7 received 8000 cGy to the prostate alone, and 5 received 8000 cGy to the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. The mean (range) of testicular dose with an IMRT plan was 54.7 cGy (21.1 to 91.9) and 59.0 cGy (25.1 to 93.4) with a VMAT plan. In 12 cases, the mean VMAT dose was higher than the mean IMRT dose, with a mean difference of 4.3 cGy (p = 0.019). There was a small but statistically significant increase in mean testicular dose delivered by VMAT compared with IMRT. Despite this, it unlikely that there is a clinically meaningful difference in testicular doses from either modality.

  6. Aluminum compounds containing eta1- and/or eta5-bidentate dianionic pyrrolyl-methylamide ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Chi; Lin, Che-Yu; Li, Chun-Yin; Huang, Jui-Hsien; Chang, Ling-Chueh; Lee, Ting-Yu

    2008-01-01

    A series of dialuminum compounds have been synthesized and their reactivity and application for lactide polymerization have been studied. The reaction of AlH3 x NMe3 with [C4H3NH(2-CH2NHtBu)] in diethyl ether generated a dimeric aluminum hydride compound, [[[C4H3N(2-CH2NtBu)]AlH]2] (1). The structure of 1 was confirmed by spectroscopy of a deuterated analogue of 1 with an Al--D function. Direct treatment of [C4H3NH(2-CH2NHtBu)] with LiAlH4 in diethyl ether resulted in colorless crystals of [[Li[micro-eta1:eta5-C4H3N(2-CH2NtBu)]2Al]2] (2) in 80 % yield after recrystallization from a toluene solution. The micro-eta1:eta5-pyrrolyl protons exhibit high-field shifts at delta=5.73, 6.15, and 6.72 comparable to a similar eta5-bonding mode in the literature. Treatment of 1 with 1 equiv acetone oxime or acetone in dichloromethane gave [[[C4H3N(2-CH2NtBu)]Al[varkappaO,varkappaN-(ON==CMe2)

  7. Empowering Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Through Physics and Technology: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Radhe; Das, Indra J; Ling, Clifton C

    2017-10-01

    Considering the clinical potential of protons attributable to their physical characteristics, interest in proton therapy has increased greatly in this century, as has the number of proton therapy installations. Until recently, passively scattered proton therapy was used almost entirely. Notably, the overall clinical results to date have not shown a convincing benefit of protons over photons. A rapid transition is now occurring with the implementation of the most advanced form of proton therapy, intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). IMPT is superior to passively scattered proton therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetrically. However, numerous limitations exist in the present IMPT methods. In particular, compared with IMRT, IMPT is highly vulnerable to various uncertainties. In this overview we identify three major areas of current limitations of IMPT: treatment planning, treatment delivery, and motion management, and discuss current and future efforts for improvement. For treatment planning, we need to reduce uncertainties in proton range and in computed dose distributions, improve robust planning and optimization, enhance adaptive treatment planning and delivery, and consider how to exploit the variability in the relative biological effectiveness of protons for clinical benefit. The quality of proton therapy also depends on the characteristics of the IMPT delivery systems and image guidance. Efforts are needed to optimize the beamlet spot size for both improved dose conformality and faster delivery. For the latter, faster energy switching time and increased dose rate are also needed. Real-time in-room volumetric imaging for guiding IMPT is in its early stages with cone beam computed tomography (CT) and CT-on-rails, and continued improvements are anticipated. In addition, imaging of the proton beams themselves, using, for instance, prompt γ emissions, is being developed to determine the proton range and to reduce range uncertainty

  8. Eta Carinae and the Supernova Impostors

    CERN Document Server

    Humphreys, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    In 1965 Fritz Zwicky proposed a class of supernovae that he called "Type V", described as "excessively faint at maximum." There were only two members, SN1961v and eta Carinae. We now know that eta Carinae was not a true supernova, but if it were observed today in a distant galaxy we would call it a "supernova impostor." 170 years ago it experienced a "great eruption" lasting 20 years, expelling 10 solar masses or more, and survived. Eta Carinae is now acknowledged as the most massive, most luminous star in our region of the Galaxy, and it may be our only accessible example of a very massive star in a pre-supernova state. In this book the editors and contributing authors review its remarkable history, physical state of the star and its ejecta, and its continuing instability. Chapters also include its relation to other massive, unstable stars, the massive star progenitors of supernovae, and the "first" stars in the Universe.

  9. Targeted Therapy Combined with Immune Modulation Using Gold Nanoparticles for Treating Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    stimulate the body’s immune system to target and attack cancer cells. Another part of our research includes coating these gold nanoparticles with...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0427 TITLE: Targeted Therapy Combined with Immune Modulation Using Gold Nanoparticles for Treating Metastatic Colorectal... Nanoparticles for Treating Metastatic Colorectal Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0427 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Branden Moriarity, Tim

  10. Measurement of the gamma gamma* --> eta and gamma gamma* --> eta' transition form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Amo Sanchez et al, P.

    2011-02-07

    We study the reactions e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} {eta}{sup (/)} in the single-tag mode and measure the {gamma}{gamma}* {yields} {eta}{sup (/)} transition form factors in the momentum transfer range from 4 to 40 GeV{sup 2}. The analysis is based on 469 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected at PEP-II with the BABAR detector at e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV.

  11. Partial wave analysis of $J/\\psi \\to \\gamma \\eta \\eta$

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Albayrak, O; Ambrose, D J; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R Baldini; Ban, Y; Becker, J; Bennett, J V; Berger, N; Bertani, M; Bian, J M; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Bytev, V; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, Y P; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; Ding, W M; Ding, Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fava, L; Feng, C Q; Friedel, P; Fu, C D; Fu, J L; Gao, Y; Geng, C; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, T; Guo, Y P; Han, Y L; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Huang, G M; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, L; Huang, X T; Huang, Y; Huang, Y P; Hussain, T; Ji, C S; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L L; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jing, F F; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kavatsyuk, M; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kuehn, W; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Leyhe, M; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, Q J; Li, S L; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, X R; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Liao, X T; Lin, D; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, H W; Liu, J P; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, Kai; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Q W; Lu, X R; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Ma, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Morales, C Morales; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nicholson, C; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Park, J W; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prencipe, E; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Schaefer, B D; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, X Y; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, D H; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Toth, D; Ullrich, M; Uman, I U; Varner, G S; Wang, B Q; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, X F; Wang, X L; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z Y; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, Q G; Wen, S P; Werner, M; Wiedner, U; Wu, L H; Wu, N; Wu, S X; Wu, W; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xia, Y X; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, G M; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Xu, Z R; Xue, F; Xue, Z; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, H W; Yu, J S; Yu, S P; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, Y; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, Li Li; Zhang, R; Zhang, S H; Zhang, X J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Zhenghao; Zhao, G; Zhao, H S; Zhao, J W; Zhao, K X; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q Z; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, X H; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhong, Z; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhu, C; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y M; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2013-01-01

    Based on a sample of $2.25\\times 10^{8}$ $J/\\psi$ events collected with the BESIII detector at BEPCII, a full partial wave analysis on $J/\\psi\\to\\gamma\\eta\\eta$ was performed using the relativistic covariant tensor amplitude method. The results show that the dominant $0^{++}$ and $2^{++}$ components are from the $f_0(1710)$, $f_0(2100)$, $f_0(1500)$, $f_2'(1525)$, $f_2(1810)$ and $f_2(2340)$. The resonance parameters and branching fractions are also presented.

  12. Proton therapy versus intensity modulated x-ray therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer: Estimating secondary cancer risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Jonas David

    External beam radiation therapy is used to treat nearly half of the more than 200,000 new cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in the United States each year. During a radiation therapy treatment, healthy tissues in the path of the therapeutic beam are exposed to high doses. In addition, the whole body is exposed to a low-dose bath of unwanted scatter radiation from the pelvis and leakage radiation from the treatment unit. As a result, survivors of radiation therapy for prostate cancer face an elevated risk of developing a radiogenic second cancer. Recently, proton therapy has been shown to reduce the dose delivered by the therapeutic beam to normal tissues during treatment compared to intensity modulated x-ray therapy (IMXT, the current standard of care). However, the magnitude of stray radiation doses from proton therapy, and their impact on this incidence of radiogenic second cancers, was not known. The risk of a radiogenic second cancer following proton therapy for prostate cancer relative to IMXT was determined for 3 patients of large, median, and small anatomical stature. Doses delivered to healthy tissues from the therapeutic beam were obtained from treatment planning system calculations. Stray doses from IMXT were taken from the literature, while stray doses from proton therapy were simulated using a Monte Carlo model of a passive scattering treatment unit and an anthropomorphic phantom. Baseline risk models were taken from the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII report. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to characterize the uncertainty of risk calculations to uncertainties in the risk model, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons for carcinogenesis, and inter-patient anatomical variations. The risk projections revealed that proton therapy carries a lower risk for radiogenic second cancer incidence following prostate irradiation compared to IMXT. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the results of the risk analysis depended only

  13. Search for the CP forbidden decay eta-->4pi(0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakhov; Tippens; Allgower; Bekrenev; Berger; Briscoe; Clajus; Comfort; Craig; Grosnick; Huber; Isenhower; Knecht; Koetke; Koulbardis; Kozlenko; Kruglov; Kycia; Lolos; Lopatin; Manley; Marusic; Manweiler; McDonald; Nefkens; Olmsted

    2000-05-22

    We report the first determination of the upper limit for the branching ratio of the CP forbidden decay eta-->4pi(0). No events were observed in a sample of 3.0x10(7) eta decays. The experiment was performed with the Crystal Ball multiphoton spectrometer installed in a separated pi(-) beam at the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron). At the 90% confidence limit, B(eta-->4pi(0))

  14. Incoherent photoproduction of {eta} mesons from the deuteron near threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibirtsev, A.; Elster, Ch.; Haidenbauer, J.; Speth, J.

    2001-08-01

    Incoherent photoproduction of the {eta} meson on the deuteron is studied for photon energies from threshold to 800 MeV. The dominant contribution, the {gamma}N-{eta}N amplitude, is described within an isobar model. The final state interaction derived from the CD-Bonn potential is included and found to be important for the description of the production cross section close to threshold. Possible effects from the {eta}N final state interaction are discussed.

  15. Production of {eta} mesons in nucleon-nucleon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baru, V.; Gasparyan, A.M.; Haidenbauer, J.; Hanhart, C.; Kudryavtsev, A.E.; Speth, J

    2003-06-30

    A model calculation for the reaction NN {yields} NN{eta} near-threshold is presented. The {eta} meson production is described by elementary rescattering processes via MN {yields} {nu}N, with M = {pi}, {rho}, {eta} and {delta}. Corresponding amplitudes are taken from a multi-channel meson-exchange model of the {pi}N system developed by the Juelich group. Effects of the NN interaction in the final as well as in the initial state are taken into account microscopically.

  16. The radiobiological effect of intra-fraction dose-rate modulation in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewes, J. M.; Suchowerska, N.; Jackson, M.; Zhang, M.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2008-07-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) achieves optimal dose conformity to the tumor through the use of spatially and temporally modulated radiation fields. In particular, average dose rate and instantaneous dose rate (pulse amplitude) are highly variable within a single IMRT fraction. In this study we isolate these variables and determine their impact on cell survival. Survival was assessed using a clonogenic assay. Two cell lines of differing radiosensitivity were examined: melanoma (MM576) and non-small cell lung cancer (NCI-H460). The survival fraction was observed to be independent of instantaneous dose rate. A statistically significant trend to increased survival was observed as the average dose rate was decreased, for a constant total dose. The results are relevant to IMRT practice, where average treatment times can be significantly extended to allow for movement of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC). Our in vitro study adds to the pool of theoretical evidence for the consequences of protracted treatments. We find that extended delivery times can substantially increase the cell survival. This also suggests that regional variation in the dose-rate history across a tumor, which is inherent to IMRT, will affect radiation dose efficacy.

  17. The radiobiological effect of intra-fraction dose-rate modulation in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bewes, J M; Suchowerska, N; McKenzie, D R [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Jackson, M; Zhang, M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Camperdown 2050, NSW (Australia)], E-mail: jbewes@physics.usyd.edu.au

    2008-07-07

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) achieves optimal dose conformity to the tumor through the use of spatially and temporally modulated radiation fields. In particular, average dose rate and instantaneous dose rate (pulse amplitude) are highly variable within a single IMRT fraction. In this study we isolate these variables and determine their impact on cell survival. Survival was assessed using a clonogenic assay. Two cell lines of differing radiosensitivity were examined: melanoma (MM576) and non-small cell lung cancer (NCI-H460). The survival fraction was observed to be independent of instantaneous dose rate. A statistically significant trend to increased survival was observed as the average dose rate was decreased, for a constant total dose. The results are relevant to IMRT practice, where average treatment times can be significantly extended to allow for movement of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC). Our in vitro study adds to the pool of theoretical evidence for the consequences of protracted treatments. We find that extended delivery times can substantially increase the cell survival. This also suggests that regional variation in the dose-rate history across a tumor, which is inherent to IMRT, will affect radiation dose efficacy.

  18. Flattening Filter-Free Beams in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Sinonasal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jia-Yang; Zheng, Jing; Zhang, Wu-Zhe; Huang, Bao-Tian

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the dosimetric impacts of flattening filter-free (FFF) beams in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for sinonasal cancer. For fourteen cases, IMRT and VMAT planning was performed using 6-MV photon beams with both conventional flattened and FFF modes. The four types of plans were compared in terms of target dose homogeneity and conformity, organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing, number of monitor units (MUs) per fraction, treatment time and pure beam-on time. FFF beams led to comparable target dose homogeneity, conformity, increased number of MUs and lower doses to the spinal cord, brainstem and normal tissue, compared with flattened beams in both IMRT and VMAT. FFF beams in IMRT resulted in improvements by up to 5.4% for sparing of the contralateral optic structures, with shortened treatment time by 9.5%. However, FFF beams provided comparable overall OAR sparing and treatment time in VMAT. With FFF mode, VMAT yielded inferior homogeneity and superior conformity compared with IMRT, with comparable overall OAR sparing and significantly shorter treatment time. Using FFF beams in IMRT and VMAT is feasible for the treatment of sinonasal cancer. Our results suggest that the delivery mode of FFF beams may play an encouraging role with better sparing of contralateral optic OARs and treatment efficiency in IMRT, but yield comparable results in VMAT.

  19. Partial wave analysiss of pbar-p -> piminus-piplus, pizero-pizero, eta-eta and eta-etaprime

    CERN Document Server

    Anisovich, A.V.; Batty, C.J.; Bugg, D.V.; Hasan, A.; Hodd, C.; Zou, B.S.; Kisiel, J.; Nikonov, V.A.; Sarantsev, A.V.; Sarantsev, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    A partial wave analysis is presented of Crystal Barrel data on pbar-p -> pizero-pizero, eta-eta and eta-etaprime from 600 to 1940 MeV/c, combined with earlier data on d\\sigma /d\\Omega and P for pbar-p->piminus-piplus. The following s-channel I=0 resonances are identified: (i) J^{PC} = 5^{--} with mass and width (M,\\Gamma) at (2295+-30,235^{+65}_{-40}) MeV, (ii) J^{PC} = 4^{++} at (2020+-12, 170+-15) MeV and (2300+-25, 270+-50) MeV, (iii) 3D3 JPC = 3^{--} at (1960+-15, 150+-25) MeV and (2210+-4$, 360+-55) MeV, and a 3G3 state at (2300 ^{+50}_{-80}, 340+-150) MeV, (iv) JPC = 2^{++} at (1910+-30, 260+-40) MeV, (2020+-30, 275+-35) MeV, (2230+-30, 245+-45) MeV, and (2300+-35, 290+-50) MeV, (v) JPC = 1^{--} at (2005+-40, 275+-75) MeV, and (2165+-40, 160 ^{+140}_{-70}) MeV, and (vi) JPC = 0^{++} at (2005+-30, 305+-50) MeV, (2105+-15, 200+-25) MeV, and (2320+-30, 175+-45) MeV. In addition, there is a less well defined 6^{++} resonance at 2485+-40 MeV, with Gamma = 410+-90 MeV. For every JP, almost all these resonance...

  20. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Improves the Target Coverage Over 3-D Planning While Meeting Lung Tolerance Doses for All Patients With Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulger, Sukran; Cetin, Eren; Catli, Serap; Sarac, Hilal; Kilic, Diclehan; Bora, Huseyin

    2017-06-01

    To investigate high conformality on target coverage and the ability on creating strict lung dose limitation of intensity-modulated radiation therapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Twenty-four radiation therapy plannings were evaluated and compared with dosimetric outcomes of conformal radiation therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Hemithoracal radiation therapy was performed on 12 patients with a fraction of 1.8 Gy to a total dose of 50.4 Gy. All organs at risk were contoured. Radiotherapy plannings were differed according to the technique; conformal radiation therapy was planned with conventionally combined photon-electron fields, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy was planned with 7 to 9 radiation beam angles optimized in inverse planning. Strict dose-volume constraints were applied. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was statistically superior in target coverage and dose homogeneity (intensity-modulated radiation therapy-planning target volume 95 mean 100%; 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy-planning target volume 95 mean 71.29%, P = .0001; intensity-modulated radiation therapy-planning target volume 105 mean 11.14%; 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy-planning target volume 105 mean 35.69%, P = .001). The dosimetric results of the remaining lung was below the limitations on intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning data (intensity-modulated radiation therapy-lung mean dose mean 7.5 [range: 5.6%-8.5%]; intensity-modulated radiation therapy-lung V5 mean 55.55% [range: 47%-59.9%]; intensity-modulated radiation therapy-lung V20 mean 4.5% [range: 0.5%-9.5%]; intensity-modulated radiation therapy-lung V13 mean 13.43% [range: 4.2%-22.9%]). With a complex and large target volume of malignant pleural mesothelioma, intensity-modulated radiation therapy has the ability to deliver efficient tumoricidal radiation dose within the safe dose limits of the remaining lung tissue.

  1. {eta}N final-state interaction in incoherent photoproduction of {eta}-mesons from the deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; Sibirtsev, A.; Haidenbauer, J.; Krewald, S.; Speth, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425, Juelich (Germany); Elster, C. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Ohio University, OH 45701, Athens (United States)

    2003-11-01

    An analysis of incoherent photoproduction of {eta}-mesons from the deuteron is presented. We concentrate here on the threshold region. The dominant contribution, the {gamma}N-{eta}N amplitude is described within an isobar model. Effects of the final-state interaction in the NN as well as the {eta}N systems are included by employing models derived within a meson-exchange approach. (orig.)

  2. Verification of dosimetric commissioning accuracy of intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy delivery using task Group-119 guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunakaran Kaviarasu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to verify the accuracy of the commissioning of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT based on the recommendation of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 119 (TG-119. Materials and Methods: TG-119 proposes a set of clinical test cases to verify the accuracy of IMRT planning and delivery system. For these test cases, we generated two sets of treatment plans, the first plan using 7–9 IMRT fields and a second plan utilizing two-arc VMAT technique for both 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams. The template plans of TG-119 were optimized and calculated by Varian Eclipse Treatment Planning System (version 13.5. Dose prescription and planning objectives were set according to the TG-119 goals. The point dose (mean dose to the contoured chamber volume at the specified positions/locations was measured using compact (CC-13 ion chamber. The composite planar dose was measured with IMatriXX Evaluation 2D array with OmniPro IMRT Software (version 1.7b. The per-field relative gamma was measured using electronic portal imaging device in a way similar to the routine pretreatment patient-specific quality assurance. Results: Our planning results are compared with the TG-119 data. Point dose and fluence comparison data where within the acceptable confident limit. Conclusion: From the obtained data in this study, we conclude that the commissioning of IMRT and VMAT delivery were found within the limits of TG-119.

  3. Measurement of {\\eta} meson production in {\\gamma}{\\gamma} interactions and {\\Gamma}({\\eta}-->{\\gamma}{\\gamma}) with the KLOE detector

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Badoni, D; Balwierz-Pytko, I; Bencivenni, G; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Balkestaahl, L Caldeira; Capon, G; Ceradini, F; Ciambrone, P; Czerwinski, E; Dane, E; De Lucia, E; De Robertis, G; De Santis, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Salvo, R; Domenici, D; Erriquez, O; Fanizzi, G; Fantini, A; Felici, G; Fiore, S; Franzini, P; Gauzzi, P; Giardina, G; Giovannella, S; Gonnella, F; Graziani, E; Happacher, F; Heijkenskj, L; Hoistad, B; Iafolla, L; Jacewicz, M; Johansson, T; Kupsc, A; Lee-Franzini, J; Leverington, B; Loddo, F; Loffredo, S; Mandaglio, G; Martemianov, M; Martini, M; Mascolo, M; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Morello, G; Moricciani, D; Moskal, P; Nguyen, F; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Longhi, I Prado; Ranieri, A; Redmer, C F; Santangelo, P; Sarra, I; Schioppa, M; Sciascia, B; Silarski, M; Taccini, C; Tortora, L; Venanzoni, G; Wislicki, W; Wolke, M; Zdebik, J

    2012-01-01

    We present a measurement of {\\eta} meson production in photon-photon interactions produced by electron-positron beams colliding with \\sqrt{s}=1 GeV. The measurement is done with the KLOE detector at the \\phi-factory DA{\\Phi}NE with an integrated luminosity of 0.24 fb^{-1}. The e^+e^- --> e^+e^-{\\eta} cross section is measured without detecting the outgoing electron and positron, selecting the decays {\\eta}-->{\\pi}^+{\\pi}^-{\\pi}^0 and {\\eta}-->{\\pi}^0{\\pi}^0{\\pi}^0. The most relevant background is due to e^+e^- --> {\\eta}{\\gamma} when the monochromatic photon escapes detection. The cross section for this process is measured as {\\sigma}(e^+e^- -->{\\eta}{\\gamma}) = (856 \\pm 8_{stat} \\pm 16_{syst}) pb. The combined result for the e^+e^- -->e^+e^-{\\eta} cross section is {\\sigma}(e^+e^- -->e^+e^-{\\eta}) = (32.72 \\pm 1.27_{stat} \\pm 0.70_{syst}) pb. From this we derive the partial width {\\Gamma}({\\eta}-->{\\gamma}{\\gamma}) = (520 \\pm 20_{stat} \\pm 13_{syst}) eV. This is in agreement with the world average and is the ...

  4. The analysis of B sub d->(eta,eta')l sup + l sup - decays in the standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Erkol, G

    2003-01-01

    We study the differential branching ratio, the branching ratio and the CP-violating asymmetry for the exclusive B sub d->(eta,eta')l sup + l sup - decays in the standard model. We deduce the B sub d->(eta,eta') form factors from the form factors of B-> pi available in the literature, by using the SU(3) sub F symmetry. We observe that these decay modes, which are within the reach of forthcoming B-factories, are very promising for observing CP-violation. (orig.)

  5. Observation of the $B^0_s\\to\\eta'\\eta'$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2075808; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casanova Mohr, Raimon; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Sterpka, Christopher Francis; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The first observation of the $B^0_s\\to\\eta'\\eta'$ decay is reported. The study is based on a sample of proton-proton collisions corresponding to $3.0$ ${\\rm fb^{-1}}$ of integrated luminosity collected with the LHCb detector. The significance of the signal is $6.4$ standard deviations. The branching fraction is measured to be $[3.31 \\pm 0.64\\,{\\rm (stat)} \\pm 0.28\\,{\\rm (syst)} \\pm 0.12\\,{\\rm (norm)}]\\times10^{-5}$, where the third uncertainty comes from the $B^{\\pm}\\to\\eta' K^{\\pm}$ branching fraction that is used as a normalisation. In addition, the charge asymmetries of $B^{\\pm}\\to\\eta' K^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm}\\to\\phi K^{\\pm}$, which are control channels, are measured to be $(-0.2 \\pm1.3)\\%$ and $(+1.7\\pm1.3)\\%$, respectively. All results are consistent with theoretical expectations.

  6. Branching Fraction Measurements of the Decays B->EtaC K, where EtaC->K anti-K K Pi and EtaC->4K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, Georges W

    2002-03-29

    In this report, we present the observation of the exclusive decays B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}{sub c}K{sup 0} and B{sup +} {yields} {eta}{sub c}K{sup +}, and the measurement of the related branching fractions. Using a sample of 22.7 x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric B Factory during 1999-2000, we have observed statistically significant signals in the {eta}{sub c} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0} K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} and K{sup +}K{sup -} {pi}{sup 0} channels and set upper limits in the {eta}{sub c} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup -} channels. All the results presented are preliminary. We have measured {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {eta}{sub c}K{sup +}) = (1.50 {+-} 0.19 {+-} 0.15 {+-} 0.46) x 10{sup -3}; and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}{sub c}K{sup 0}) = (1.06 {+-} 0.28 {+-} 0.11 {+-} 0.33) x 10{sup -3} where the first error is statistical, the second systematic and the last due to the uncertainty on the world average {eta}{sub c} {yields} K{bar K}{pi} branching fraction.

  7. Eta Car through the eyes of interferometers

    OpenAIRE

    Chesneau, Olivier; Van Boekel, R.; Herbst, T.; Kervella, P; Min, M.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Leinert, Ch.; Petrov, R.; Weigelt, G.

    2005-01-01

    12 pages, published in proceedings of the ESO-EII Workshop "The power of optical / IR interferometry"; The core of the nebula surrounding Eta Carinae has recently been observed with VLT/NACO, VLTI/VINCI, VLTI/MIDI and VLTI/AMBER in order to spatially and spectrally constrain the warm dusty environment and the central object. Narrow-band images at 3.74 and 4.05 micron reveal the structured butterfly-shaped dusty environment close to the central star with an unprecedented spatial resolution of ...

  8. Cine documental sobre ETA y "conflicto vasco"

    OpenAIRE

    Burguera Durá, Lucía

    2016-01-01

    El terrorismo vasco ha marcado la actualidad de este país tanto en el plano nacional como internacional durante más de 40 años, ha ido construyendo la agenda mediática española que y creando un lenguaje propio y una visión del denominado “conflicto vasco” así como una forma de entender el mismo. La sociedad conoce la historia de ETA más que por los libros por los informativos, por la prensa, por la radio, por la red... Todo ello ha ido conformando nuestro imaginario colectivo en torno a esta ...

  9. Tissue response to micropulse modulation in retinal laser therapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jenny; Quan, Yi; Dalal, Roopa; Palanker, Daniel V.

    2017-02-01

    Micropulse modulation in retinal laser therapy was intended to confine tissue heating around the light-absorbing layers, such as RPE and choroid, while the transparent retina is heated less as a result of slow heat diffusion. Current implementations use micropulses of 100-300μs at 500Hz, with overall pulse envelope of 100-300ms. The effect of such modulation compared to continuous-wave (CW) is not well characterized and misleading comparisons are made in the literature between exposures of different average power or overall duration. In this study, we modeled and measured the retinal tissue response to pulse trains with duty cycles from 4% (80μs pulse at 500Hz) to CW at overall envelope of 200ms and 20ms. Three thresholds of tissue response were measured in Dutch-belted rabbits: immediate (power and duration. Heat confinement is improved with lower duty cycle (2%) and shorter pulse envelope (20ms), however further decrease in exposure duration raises the temperature dangerously close to vaporization. Pulse modulation cannot improve the therapeutic range of non-damaging thermal therapy since it is defined by the Arrhenius integral, regardless of the time course of hyperthermia. However, it does allow greater thermal stress to the RPE and underlying choroid while avoiding damage to neural retina.

  10. Modulating autophagy in cancer therapy: advancements and challenges for cancer cell death sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Punya; Kriel, Jurgen; Shubha Priya, Babu; Salundi, Basappa; Shivananju, Nanjunda Swamy; Loos, Ben

    2017-12-01

    Autophagy is a major protein degradation pathway capable of upholding cellular metabolism under nutrient limiting conditions, making it a valuable resource to highly proliferating tumour cells. Although the regulatory machinery of the autophagic pathway has been well characterized, accurate modulation of this pathway remains complex in the context of clinical translatability for improved cancer therapies. In particular, the dynamic relationship between the rate of protein degradation through autophagy, i.e. autophagic flux, and the susceptibility of tumours to undergo apoptosis remains largely unclear. Adding to inefficient clinical translation is the lack of measurement techniques that accurately depict autophagic flux. Paradoxically, both increased autophagic flux as well as autophagy inhibition have been shown to sensitize cancer cells to undergo cell death, indicating the highly context dependent nature of this pathway. In this article, we aim to disentangle the role of autophagy modulation in tumour suppression by assessing existing literature in the context of autophagic flux and cellular metabolism at the interface of mitochondrial function. We highlight the urgency to not only assess autophagic flux more accurately, but also to center autophagy manipulation within the unique and inherent metabolic properties of cancer cells. Lastly, we discuss the challenges faced when targeting autophagy in the clinical setting. In doing so, it is hoped that a better understanding of autophagy in cancer therapy is revealed in order to overcome tumour chemoresistance through more controlled autophagy modulation in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy for Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy of Lung Tumors: A Comparison With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Andrea; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Mans, Anton; Belderbos, Jose S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Damen, Eugene M.F., E-mail: e.damen@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the potential of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) compared with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques with a limited number of segments for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early-stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: For a random selection of 27 patients eligible for SBRT, coplanar and noncoplanar IMRT and coplanar VMAT (using SmartArc) treatment plans were generated in Pinnacle{sup 3} and compared. In addition, film measurements were performed using an anthropomorphic phantom to evaluate the skin dose for the different treatment techniques. Results: Using VMAT, the delivery times could be reduced to an average of 6.6 min compared with 23.7 min with noncoplanar IMRT. The mean dose to the healthy lung was 4.1 Gy for VMAT and noncoplanar IMRT and 4.2 Gy for coplanar IMRT. The volume of healthy lung receiving >5 Gy and >20 Gy was 18.0% and 5.4% for VMAT, 18.5% and 5.0% for noncoplanar IMRT, and 19.4% and 5.7% for coplanar IMRT, respectively. The dose conformity at 100% and 50% of the prescribed dose of 54 Gy was 1.13 and 5.17 for VMAT, 1.11 and 4.80 for noncoplanar IMRT and 1.12 and 5.31 for coplanar IMRT, respectively. The measured skin doses were comparable for VMAT and noncoplanar IMRT and slightly greater for coplanar IMRT. Conclusions: Coplanar VMAT for SBRT for early-stage lung cancer achieved plan quality and skin dose levels comparable to those using noncoplanar IMRT and slightly better than those with coplanar IMRT. In addition, the delivery time could be reduced by {<=}70% with VMAT.

  12. SU-E-T-449: Hippocampal Sparing Radiotherapy Using Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Gangdong-gu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D; Chung, W [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Gangdong-gu (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, M [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The hippocampus sparing during the cranial irradiation has become interesting because it may mitigate radiation-induced neurocognitive toxicity. Herein we report our preliminary study for sparing the hippocampus with and without tilling condition for patient with brain metastases. Methods: Ten patients previously treated with whole brain were reviewed. Five patients tilted the head to around 30 degrees and others were treated without tilting. Treatment plans of linear accelerator (Linac)-based volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were generated for prescription dose of 30 Gy in 15 fractions. Hippocampal avoidance regions were created with 5-mm volumetric expansion around the hippocampus. Whole brain, hippocampus and hippocampal avoidance volume were 1372cm3, 6cm3 and 30cm3 and hippocampal avoidance volume was 2.2% of the whole brain planned target volume in average. Organs at risk (OARs) are hippocampus, eyes, lens, and cochleae. Coverage index (CVI), conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI) and mean dose to OARs were used to compare dose characteristic of tilted and non-tilted cases. Results: In IMRT, when CI, CVI and HI of whole brain were 0.88, 0.09 and 0.98 in both tilted and non-tilted cases, absorbed dose of hippocampal avoidance volume in tilted cases were 10% lower than non-tilted cases. Doses in other OARs such as eyes, lens, and cochleae were also decreased about 20% when tilting the head. When CI, HI and CVI in VMAT were 0.9, 0.08 and 0.99, the dose-decreased ratio of OARs in both with and without tilting cases were almost the same with IMRT. But absolute dose of hippocampal avoidance volume in VMAT was 30% lower than IMRT. Conclusion: This study confirms that dose to hippocampus decreases if patients tilt the head. When treating the whole brain with head tilted, patients can acquire the same successful treatment Result and also preserve their valuable memory.

  13. Errenta desberdintasunak genero ikuspuntutik krisi garaian: Espainia eta EAE

    OpenAIRE

    Errazkin Ibarguren, Olatz

    2016-01-01

    Gradu amaierako lana errenta eta soldata desberdintasunak genero ikuspuntutik krisi garaian Espainian eta EAEn aztertzeari buruz da. El trabajo se trata sobre las desigualdades de renta y salario que hay entre mujeres y hombres en el mercado laboral durante la crisis y me he centrado especialmente en España y la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca

  14. A treatment planning study of the potential of geometrical tracking for intensity modulated proton therapy of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck af Rosenschöld, Per; Aznar, Marianne; Nygaard, Ditte Eklund

    2010-01-01

    Proton therapy of lung cancer holds the potential for a reduction of the volume of irradiated normal lung tissue. In this work we investigate the robustness of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans to motion, and evaluate a geometrical tumour tracking method to compensate for tumour...

  15. A treatment planning study of the potential of geometrical tracking for intensity modulated proton therapy of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    af Rosenschöld, Per Munck; Aznar, Marianne C; Nygaard, Ditte E

    2010-01-01

    Proton therapy of lung cancer holds the potential for a reduction of the volume of irradiated normal lung tissue. In this work we investigate the robustness of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans to motion, and evaluate a geometrical tumour tracking method to compensate for tumour mot...

  16. Ikerketaz gizarte langintzan: Sorburuak, kopuruak eta aburuak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontxesi Berrio-Otxoa Otxoa de Angiozar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE Artikulu honek jasotzen ditu gizarte langintzaren arloan ikerlanaren beharraz arduratu diren egile esanguratsuek gizarte langintzako ikerketari emandako definizioak. Bidenabar, gizarte langintzaren hastapenetan beste jakintza arloekin uztartuta egindako ikerketek izandako garrantzia ere azaltzen zaigu. Ikerketari buruzko aipuekin batera, ohartarazten zaigu ikerketa modu ezberdinetan ulertu izan dela gizarte langintzaren eremuan; eta horren harira, gizarte langileen jardunean ikerketak duen presentzia aztertu ondoren, egun ere, era ezberdinetan ulertu eta kategorizatzearen inguruko hausnarketa egiten du egileak. This article covers the different definitions of research in social work built up by the more significant authors who have worried about the need for doing research work on social work. At the same time, it show us the importance of combined research with other areas of knowledge that took place at the begginings of Social Work discipline. Moreover, the article worns us about the diferent ways that research has been understood in relation with social work and it points out the presence and importance of research in social worker´s daily work. Finally, the author offers us her reflexions on the different ways that research is understood and categorized nowadays.

  17. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy modules: Differential impact on treatment processes and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatte, Jennifer L; Vilardaga, Roger; Villatte, Matthieu; Plumb Vilardaga, Jennifer C; Atkins, David C; Hayes, Steven C

    2016-02-01

    A modular, transdiagnostic approach to treatment design and implementation may increase the public health impact of evidence-based psychosocial interventions. Such an approach relies on algorithms for selecting and implementing treatment components intended to have a specific therapeutic effect, yet there is little evidence for how components function independent of their treatment packages when employed in clinical service settings. This study aimed to demonstrate the specificity of treatment effects for two components of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), a promising candidate for modularization. A randomized, nonconcurrent, multiple-baseline across participants design was used to examine component effects on treatment processes and outcomes in 15 adults seeking mental health treatment. The ACT OPEN module targeted acceptance and cognitive defusion; the ACT ENGAGED module targeted values-based activation and persistence. According to Tau-U analyses, both modules produced significant improvements in psychiatric symptoms, quality of life, and targeted therapeutic processes. ACT ENGAGED demonstrated greater improvements in quality of life and values-based activation. ACT OPEN showed greater improvements in symptom severity, acceptance, and defusion. Both modules improved awareness and non-reactivity, which were mutually targeted, though using distinct intervention procedures. Both interventions demonstrated high treatment acceptability, completion, and patient satisfaction. Treatment effects were maintained at 3-month follow up. ACT components should be considered for inclusion in a modular approach to implementing evidence-based psychosocial interventions for adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct leaf trajectory optimization for volumetric modulated arc therapy planning with sliding window delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Papp, Dávid

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel optimization model for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning that directly optimizes deliverable leaf trajectories in the treatment plan optimization problem, and eliminates the need for a separate arc-sequencing step. In this model, a 360-degree arc is divided into a given number of arc segments in which the leaves move unidirectionally. This facilitates an algorithm that determines the optimal piecewise linear leaf trajectories for each arc segment, which are deliverable in a given treatment time. Multi-leaf collimator (MLC) constraints, including maximum leaf speed and interdigitation, are accounted for explicitly. The algorithm is customized to allow for VMAT delivery using constant gantry speed and dose rate, however, the algorithm generalizes to variable gantry speed if beneficial. We demonstrate the method for three different tumor sites: a head-and-neck case, a prostate case, and a paraspinal case. For that purpose, we first obtain a reference plan for intensity modulated...

  19. DMLC motion tracking of moving targets for intensity modulated arc therapy treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmerman, Jens; Korreman, Stine; Persson, Gitte

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intensity modulated arc therapy offers great advantages with the capability of delivering a fast and highly conformal treatment. However, moving targets represent a major challenge. By monitoring a moving target it is possible to make the beam follow the motion, shaped by a Dynamic MLC...... at state (0) "static, no tracking". Comparing measurements were made at state (1) "motion, no tracking" and state (2) "motion, tracking". RESULTS: Gamma analysis showed a significant improvement from measurements of state (1) to measurements of state (2) compared to the state (0) measurements: Lung plan...

  20. Plan comparison of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc and conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT in anal canal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aillères Norbert

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc plans with conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT plans in anal canal cancers. Methods Ten patients with anal canal carcinoma previously treated with IMRT in our institution were selected for this study. For each patient, three plans were generated with the planning CT scan: one using a fixed beam IMRT, and two plans using the RapidArc technique: a single (RA1 and a double (RA2 modulated arc therapy. The treatment plan was designed to deliver in one process with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB a dose of 59.4 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV2 based on the gross disease in a 1.8 Gy-daily fraction, 5 days a week. At the same time, the subclinical disease (PTV1 was planned to receive 49.5 Gy in a 1.5 Gy-daily fraction. Plans were normalized to 99% of the PTV2 that received 95% of the prescribed dose. Planning objectives were 95% of the PTV1 will receive 95% of the prescribed dose and no more than 2% of the PTV will receive more than 107%. Dose-volume histograms (DVH for the target volume and the organs at risk (bowel tract, bladder, iliac crests, femoral heads, genitalia/perineum, and healthy tissue were compared for these different techniques. Monitor units (MU and delivery treatment time were also reported. Results All plans achieved fulfilled objectives. Both IMRT and RA2 resulted in superior coverage of PTV than RA1 that was slightly inferior for conformity and homogeneity (p Conformity index (CI95% for the PTV2 was 1.15 ± 0.15 (RA2, 1.28 ± 0.22 (IMRT, and 1.79 ± 0.5 (RA1. Homogeneity (D5% - D95% for PTV2 was 3.21 ± 1.16 Gy (RA2, 2.98 ± 0.7 Gy (IMRT, and 4.3 ± 1.3 Gy (RA1. RapidArc showed to be superior to IMRT in terms of organ at risk sparing. For bowel tract, the mean dose was reduced of 4 Gy by RA2 compared to IMRT. Similar trends were observed for bladder, femoral heads, and genitalia. The DVH of iliac crests and healthy tissue resulted

  1. eta and eta' meson production in the quasi-free proton-neutron collisions at the COS-11 facility

    CERN Document Server

    Czyzykiewicz, R

    2002-01-01

    Both, the structure of the eta' meson as well as its production mechanism are still under strong discussion and debate. The most possible hypothesis concerning the explanation of the almost three times larger mass for this meson observed experimentally relative to the theoretically calculated mass is a gluonium admixture to the eta' wave function. This gluonium admixture should reflect itself in the production yield of the eta' meson in proton-neutron collisions. Since the production of eta' meson through the gluonium exchange is isospin independent, the ratio R subeta = sigma(pn->pn eta)/sigma(pp->pp eta) close to threshold is expected to be R subeta = 1, after corrections for initial and final state interactions. The close to threshold eta' production in proton-proton collisions has already been investigated at the COSY-11 facility. Cross section values in the threshold region have been measured. However, until now no data have been taken for the eta' meson production in the proton-neutron collision. In ord...

  2. SU-E-T-503: Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) Versus Intensity Modulated X-Ray Therapy (IMRT) for Patient with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Dosimetric Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, H; Zhao, L; Prabhu, K; Rana, S; Zheng, Y [Procure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose This study compares the dosimetric parameters in treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma between intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) and intensity modulated x-ray radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: We studied four patients treated at our institution. All patients were simulated supine with 4D-CT using a GE light speed simulator with a maximum slice thickness of 3mm. The average CT and an internal target volume to account for respiration motion were used for planning. Both IMRT and IMPT plans were created using Elekta’s CMSXiO treatment planning system (TPS). The prescription dose was 58.05 CGE in 15 fractions. The IMRT plans had five beams with combination of co-planar and non-co-planar. The IMPT plans had 2 to 3 beams. Dose comparison was performed based on the averaged results of the four patients. Results The mean dose and V95% to PTV were 58.24CGE, 98.57% for IMPT, versus 57.34CGE and 96.68% for IMRT, respectively. The V10, V20, V30 and mean dose of the normal liver for IMPT were 23.10%, 18.61%, 13.75% and 9.78 CGE; and 47.19%, 37.55%, 22.73% and 17.12CGE for IMRT. The spinal cord didn’t receive any dose in IMPT technique, but received a maximum of 18.77CGE for IMRT. The IMPT gave lower maximum dose to the stomach as compared to IMRT (19.26 vs 26.35CGE). V14 for left and right kidney was 0% and 2.32% for IMPT and 3.89% and 29.54% for IMRT. The mean dose, V35, V40 and V45 for small bowl were similar in both techniques, 0.74CGE, 6.27cc, 4.85cc and 3.53 cc for IMPT, 3.47CGE, 9.73cc, 7.61cc 5.35cc for IMRT. Conclusion Based on this study, IMPT plans gave less dose to the critical structures such as normal liver, kidney, stomach and spinal cord as compared to IMRT plans, potentially leading to less toxicity and providing better quality of life for patients.

  3. Automated Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Treatment Planning for Stage III Lung Cancer: How Does It Compare With Intensity-Modulated Radio Therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, Enzhuo M. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Joe Y.; Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Xia Tingyi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beijing 301 Hospital, Beijing (China); Yuan Zhiyong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Tianjin (China); Liu Hui [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan University Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Li, Xiaoqiang; Wages, Cody A.; Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhang Xiaodong, E-mail: xizhang@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To compare the quality of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans generated by an automated inverse planning system with that of dosimetrist-generated IMRT treatment plans for patients with stage III lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Two groups of 8 patients with stage III lung cancer were randomly selected. For group 1, the dosimetrists spent their best effort in designing IMRT plans to compete with the automated inverse planning system (mdaccAutoPlan); for group 2, the dosimetrists were not in competition and spent their regular effort. Five experienced radiation oncologists independently blind-reviewed and ranked the three plans for each patient: a rank of 1 was the best and 3 was the worst. Dosimetric measures were also performed to quantitatively evaluate the three types of plans. Results: Blind rankings from different oncologists were generally consistent. For group 1, the auto-VMAT, auto-IMRT, and manual IMRT plans received average ranks of 1.6, 2.13, and 2.18, respectively. The auto-VMAT plans in group 1 had 10% higher planning tumor volume (PTV) conformality and 24% lower esophagus V70 (the volume receiving 70 Gy or more) than the manual IMRT plans; they also resulted in more than 20% higher complication-free tumor control probability (P+) than either type of IMRT plans. The auto- and manual IMRT plans in this group yielded generally comparable dosimetric measures. For group 2, the auto-VMAT, auto-IMRT, and manual IMRT plans received average ranks of 1.55, 1.75, and 2.75, respectively. Compared to the manual IMRT plans in this group, the auto-VMAT plans and auto-IMRT plans showed, respectively, 17% and 14% higher PTV dose conformality, 8% and 17% lower mean lung dose, 17% and 26% lower mean heart dose, and 36% and 23% higher P+. Conclusions: mdaccAutoPlan is capable of generating high-quality VMAT and IMRT treatment plans for stage III lung cancer. Manual IMRT plans could achieve quality

  4. Intensity-modulated proton therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and 3D conformal radiotherapy in anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma. A dosimetric comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeberg, S.; Debus, J. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Clinical Cooperation Unit Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Harrabi, S.B.; Bougatf, N.; Rieber, J.; Koerber, S.A.; Herfarth, K.; Rieken, S. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Bernhardt, D.; Syed, M.; Sprave, T.; Mohr, A. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Abdollahi, A. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Haberer, T. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Combs, S.E. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Muenchen (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institut fuer Innovative Radiotherapie (iRT), Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Neuherberg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    The prognosis for high-grade glioma (HGG) patients is poor; thus, treatment-related side effects need to be minimized to conserve quality of life and functionality. Advanced techniques such as proton radiation therapy (PRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) may potentially further reduce the frequency and severity of radiogenic impairment. We retrospectively assessed 12 HGG patients who had undergone postoperative intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). VMAT and 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) plans were generated and optimized for comparison after contouring crucial neuronal structures important for neurogenesis and neurocognitive function. Integral dose (ID), homogeneity index (HI), and inhomogeneity coefficient (IC) were calculated from dose statistics. Toxicity data were evaluated. Target volume coverage was comparable for all three modalities. Compared to 3D-CRT and VMAT, PRT showed statistically significant reductions (p < 0.05) in mean dose to whole brain (-20.2 %, -22.7 %); supratentorial (-14.2 %, -20,8 %) and infratentorial (-91.0 %, -77.0 %) regions; brainstem (-67.6 %, -28.1 %); pituitary gland (-52.9 %, -52.5 %); contralateral hippocampus (-98.9 %, -98.7 %); and contralateral subventricular zone (-62.7 %, -66.7 %, respectively). Fatigue (91.7 %), radiation dermatitis (75.0 %), focal alopecia (100.0 %), nausea (41.7 %), cephalgia (58.3 %), and transient cerebral edema (16.7 %) were the most common acute toxicities. Essential dose reduction while maintaining equal target volume coverage was observed using PRT, particularly in contralaterally located critical neuronal structures, areas of neurogenesis, and structures of neurocognitive functions. These findings were supported by preliminary clinical results confirming the safety and feasibility of PRT in HGG. (orig.) [German] Die Prognose bei ''High-grade''-Gliomen (HGG) ist infaust. Gerade bei diesen Patienten sollten therapieassoziierte Nebenwirkungen minimiert werden

  5. Modulating Cytotoxic Effector Functions by Fc Engineering to Improve Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Christian; Otte, Anna; Cappuzzello, Elisa; Klausz, Katja; Peipp, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    In the last two decades, monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the therapy of cancer patients. Although antibody therapy has continuously been improved, still a significant number of patients do not benefit from antibody therapy. Therefore, rational optimization of the antibody molecule by Fc engineering represents a major area of translational research to further improve this potent therapeutic option. Monoclonal antibodies are able to trigger a variety of effector mechanisms. Especially Fc-mediated effector functions such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and complement- dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) are considered important in antibody therapy of cancer. Novel mechanistic insights into the action of monoclonal antibodies allowed the development of various Fc engineering approaches to modulate antibodies' effector functions. Strategies in modifying the Fc glycosylation profile (Fc glyco-engineering) or approaches in engineering the protein backbone (Fc protein engineering) have been intensively evaluated. In the current review, Fc engineering strategies resulting in improved ADCC, ADCP and CDC activity are summarized and discussed.

  6. Carcinoma of the anal canal: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Charlotte; Moloney, Phillip; Mathlum, Maitham [Andrew Love Cancer Centre, Geelong Hospital, Geelong, Victoria (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    Patients with anal canal carcinoma treated with standard conformal radiotherapy frequently experience severe acute and late toxicity reactions to the treatment area. Roohipour et al. (Dis Colon Rectum 2008; 51: 147–53) stated a patient's tolerance of chemoradiation to be an important prediction of treatment success. A new intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique for anal carcinoma cases has been developed at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre aimed at reducing radiation to surrounding healthy tissue. A same-subject repeated measures design was used for this study, where five anal carcinoma cases at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre were selected. Conformal and IMRT plans were generated and dosimetric evaluations were performed. Each plan was prescribed a total of 54 Gray (Gy) over a course of 30 fractions to the primary site. The IMRT plans resulted in improved dosimetry to the planning target volume (PTV) and reduction in radiation to the critical structures (bladder, external genitalia and femoral heads). Statistically there was no difference between the IMRT and conformal plans in the dose to the small and large bowel; however, the bowel IMRT dose–volume histogram (DVH) doses were consistently lower. The IMRT plans were superior to the conformal plans with improved dose conformity and reduced radiation to the surrounding healthy tissue. Anecdotally it was found that patients tolerated the IMRT treatment better than the three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy. This study describes and compares the planning techniques.

  7. A study of B-meson decays to eta_c K* and eta_c gamma K(*)

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Graugès-Pous, E; López, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Osipenkov, I L; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Tanabé, T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Pelizaeus, M; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Watson, J E; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Bequilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; LoSecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Pérez, A; Prendki, J; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Röthel, W; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martínez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H

    2007-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a study of the two-body B-meson decays to a charmonium state (ccbar) and a K+ or K*0(892) meson using a sample of about 349 fb-1 of data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. Here ccbar indicates either the eta_c state, reconstructed in the K_S K+- pi-+ and K+K-pi0 decay channels, or the h_c state, reconstructed in its decay to eta_c gamma. We measure BR(B0 -> eta_c K*0)=(6.1+-0.8_stat +- 1.1_syst) * 10-4, BR(B+ -> h_c K+) * BR(h_c -> eta_c gamma) h_c K*0) * BR(h_c -> eta_c gamma)<2.41 * 10^-4, at the 90% C.L.

  8. Dosimetric comparison of intensity modulated radiation, Proton beam therapy and proton arc therapy for para-aortic lymph node tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Konyang University Hospital. Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    To test feasibility of proton arc therapy (PAT) in the treatment of para-aortic lymph node tumor and compare its dosimetric properties with advanced radiotherapy techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and conventional 3D conformal proton beam therapy (PBT). The treatment plans for para-aortic lymph node tumor were planned for 9 patients treated at our institution using IMRT, PBT, and PAT. Feasibility test and dosimetric evaluation were based on comparisons of dose volume histograms (DVHs) which reveal mean dose, D{sub 30%}, D{sub 60%}, D{sub 90%}, V{sub 30%}, V{sub 60%}, V{sub 90}%, organ equivalent doses (OEDs), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index (CI). The average doses delivered by PAT to the liver, kidney, small bowel, duodenum, stomach were 7.6%, 3%, 17.3%, 26.7%, and 14.4%, of the prescription dose (PD), respectively, which is higher than the doses delivered by IMRT (0.4%, 7.2%, 14.2%, 15.9%, and 12.8%, respectively) and PBT (4.9%, 0.5%, 14.12%, 16.1% 9.9%, respectively). The average homogeneity index and conformity index of tumor using PAT were 12.1 and 1.21, respectively which were much better than IMRT (21.5 and 1.47, respectively) and comparable to PBT (13.1 and 1.23, respectively). The result shows that both NTCP and OED of PAT are generally lower than IMRT and PBT. This study demonstrates that PAT is better in target conformity and homogeneity than IMRT and PBT but worse than IMRT and PBT for most of dosimetric factor which indicate that PAT is not recommended for the treatment of para-aortic lymph node tumor.

  9. Imaging Changes in Pediatric Intracranial Ependymoma Patients Treated With Proton Beam Radiation Therapy Compared to Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunther, Jillian R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Sato, Mariko; Chintagumpala, Murali [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children' s Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ketonen, Leena [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jones, Jeremy Y. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Paulino, Arnold C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children' s Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Okcu, M. Fatih; Su, Jack M. [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children' s Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Weinberg, Jeffrey [Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Boehling, Nicholas S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Khatua, Soumen [Department of Pediatrics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Adesina, Adekunle [Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, Texas (United States); Dauser, Robert; Whitehead, William E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, Texas (United States); Mahajan, Anita, E-mail: amahajan@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes after radiation therapy (RT) in children with ependymoma is not well defined. We compared imaging changes following proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) to those after photon-based intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Seventy-two patients with nonmetastatic intracranial ependymoma who received postoperative RT (37 PBRT, 35 IMRT) were analyzed retrospectively. MRI images were reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists. Results: Sixteen PBRT patients (43%) developed postradiation MRI changes at 3.8 months (median) with resolution by 6.1 months. Six IMRT patients (17%) developed changes at 5.3 months (median) with 8.3 months to resolution. Mean age at radiation was 4.4 and 6.9 years for PBRT and IMRT, respectively (P=.06). Age at diagnosis (>3 years) and time of radiation (≥3 years) was associated with fewer imaging changes on univariate analysis (odds ratio [OR]: 0.35, P=.048; OR: 0.36, P=.05). PBRT (compared to IMRT) was associated with more frequent imaging changes, both on univariate (OR: 3.68, P=.019) and multivariate (OR: 3.89, P=.024) analyses. Seven (3 IMRT, 4 PBRT) of 22 patients with changes had symptoms requiring intervention. Most patients were treated with steroids; some PBRT patients also received bevacizumab and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. None of the IMRT patients had lasting deficits, but 2 patients died from recurrent disease. Three PBRT patients had persistent neurological deficits, and 1 child died secondarily to complications from radiation necrosis. Conclusions: Postradiation MRI changes are more common with PBRT and in patients less than 3 years of age at diagnosis and treatment. It is difficult to predict causes for development of imaging changes that progress to clinical significance. These changes are usually self-limiting, but some require medical intervention, especially those involving the brainstem.

  10. Observation of B to eta' K* and Evidence for B+ to eta' rho+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B

    2006-09-26

    The authors presented an observation of B {yields} {eta}{prime}K*. The data sample corresponds to 232 million B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. They measure the branching fractions (in units of 10{sup -6}) {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}{prime}K*{sup 0}) = 3.8 {+-} 1.1 {+-} 0.5 and {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {eta}{prime}K*{sup +}) = 4.9{sub -1.7}{sup +1.9} {+-} 0.8, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. A simultaneous fit results in the observation of B {yields} {eta}{prime}K* with {Beta}(B {yields} {eta}{prime}K*) = 4.1{sub -0.9}{sup +1.0} {+-} 0.5. They also search for B {yields} {eta}{prime}{rho} and {eta}{prime} f{sub 0}(980)(f{sub 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) with results and 90% confidence level upper limits {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {eta}{prime}{rho}{sup +}) = 8.7{sub -2.8-1.3}{sup +3.1+2.3} (< 14), {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}{prime}{rho}{sup 0}) < 3.7, and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}{prime} f{sub 0}(980)(f{sub 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})) < 1.5. Charge asymmetries in the channels with significant yields are consistent with zero.

  11. Museo del oro: viñetas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Field

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En enero de 2011 convocamos a un grupo internacional de académicos/activistas para discutir en Colombia las complejidades de la relación entre arqueología, excavaciones “ilícitas”, museos y comunidades indígenas desde una mirada comparativa. El taller de tres días tuvo lugar en Bogotá y Villa de Leyva. Uno de los eventos programados durante los dos días de la parte bogotana del taller fue una visita al Museo del Oro. En el restaurante del museo conversamos sobre lo que acabábamos de ver, sentir y pensar, y surgieron estas impresiones en las que el estupor convive con un fuerte deseo por decir algo. En Villa de Leyva nació la idea de que cada uno de nosotros transcribiera sus emociones en formato de viñeta.

  12. Eta Production At Threshold In The Reaction, Pions On Protons Going To Eta And Neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, T W

    2000-01-01

    The eta meson production thresholds in the reactions p- p→h and K- p→Lh are close to the mass of the S11(N*(1535)) and S01 (Λ*(1670)) resonances, respectively. Both of these resonances have an unexpectedly large branching ratio into the eta channel despite a large handicap in the phase space. Data with low uncertainties, particularly angular distributions, for these reactions are needed to assist in understanding the role of these resonances near the eta threshold. A factor of four discrepancy exists in the present determination of the hN scattering length, and the hL scattering is unknown due to a lack of data with small uncertainties near the production threshold. This experiment, E909, was performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS Facility in March and April 1995. The reactions were studied from threshold (Pπ = 685 MeV/c and P K = 723 MeV/c) up to 760 MeV/c. There were two measurements taken; the differential cross section as a function of momentum, and the ang...

  13. Eta Car through the Eyes of Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesneau, O.; van Boekel, R.; Herbst, T.; Kervella, P.; Min, M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Leinert, Ch.; Petrov, R.; Weigelt, G.

    The core of the nebula surrounding Eta Carinae has recently been observed with VLT/NACO, VLTI/VINCI, VLTI/MIDI and VLTI/AMBER in order to spatially and spectrally constrain the warm dusty environment and the central object. Narrow-band images at 3.74 μm and 4.05 μm reveal the structured butterfly-shaped dusty environment close to the central star with an unprecedented spatial resolution of about 60 mas. VINCI has resolved the present-day stellar wind of Eta Carinae on a scale of several stellar radii owing to the spatial resolution of the order of 5 mas (~ 11 AU). The VINCI observations show that the object is elongated with a de-projected axis ratio of approximately 1.5. Moreover the major axis is aligned with that of the large bipolar nebula that was ejected in the 19th century. Fringes have also been obtained in the Mid-IR with MIDI using baselines of 75m. A peak of correlated flux of 100 Jy is detected 0.3" south-east from the photocenter of the nebula at 8.7 μm is detected. This correlated flux is partly attributed to the central object but it is worth noting that at these wavelengths, virtually all the 0.5" x 0.5" central area can generate detectable fringes witnessing the large clumping of the dusty ejecta. These observations provide an upper limit for the SED of the central source from 3.8 μm to 13.5 μm and constrain some parameters of the stellar wind which can be compared to Hillier's model. Lastly, we present the great potential of the AMBER instrument to study the numerous near-IR emissive lines from the star and its close vicinity. In particular, we discuss its ability to detect and follow the faint companion.

  14. Structure and mechanism of human DNA polymerase [eta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biertümpfel, Christian; Zhao, Ye; Kondo, Yuji; Ramón-Maiques, Santiago; Gregory, Mark; Lee, Jae Young; Masutani, Chikahide; Lehmann, Alan R.; Hanaoka, Fumio; Yang, Wei (Sussex); (NIH); (Gakushuin); (Osaka)

    2010-11-03

    The variant form of the human syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum (XPV) is caused by a deficiency in DNA polymerase {eta} (Pol{eta}), a DNA polymerase that enables replication through ultraviolet-induced pyrimidine dimers. Here we report high-resolution crystal structures of human Pol{eta} at four consecutive steps during DNA synthesis through cis-syn cyclobutane thymine dimers. Pol{eta} acts like a 'molecular splint' to stabilize damaged DNA in a normal B-form conformation. An enlarged active site accommodates the thymine dimer with excellent stereochemistry for two-metal ion catalysis. Two residues conserved among Pol{eta} orthologues form specific hydrogen bonds with the lesion and the incoming nucleotide to assist translesion synthesis. On the basis of the structures, eight Pol{eta} missense mutations causing XPV can be rationalized as undermining the molecular splint or perturbing the active-site alignment. The structures also provide an insight into the role of Pol{eta} in replicating through D loop and DNA fragile sites.

  15. Comparison of Continuous-Wave and Micropulse Modulation in Retinal Laser Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jenny; Quan, Yi; Dalal, Roopa; Palanker, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Recent progress in retinal laser therapy has centered upon using thermal stress below damage threshold or selective destruction of targeted tissue layers as a stimulus for retinal repair. Temporal modulation, including micropulse, is thought to increase the selectivity of laser treatment, but has not been carefully analyzed. We measure and model the tissue response to continuous-wave (CW) and micropulse laser to evaluate the advantages and drawbacks of temporal modulation. Thresholds of ophthalmoscopic visibility, which indicates damage to photoreceptors, and fluorescein angiography (FA), indicating damage to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), were measured with 577-nm laser in rabbits for duty cycles ranging from 3% to 100% (CW) and pulse envelopes of 20 and 200 ms. Heat shock protein (HSP) expression was measured in rats. Thresholds were compared to a computational model of tissue response based on the Arrhenius integral. Damage to photoreceptors was defined by average power, regardless of the duty cycle, as predicted by the model. The average power for FA threshold was lower with 5% duty cycle than with CW laser by 22 ± 15% for 200-ms and 35 ± 21.5% for 20-ms envelopes, demonstrating some heat localization to RPE. The ratio of RPE damage threshold to HSP expression threshold was 1.30 ± 0.15 and 1.39 ± 0.11 for 20 ms at 5% duty cycle and CW, respectively. Micropulse modulation with sufficiently short envelope and duty cycle can help reduce the spread of heat from the light-absorbing RPE and choroid. However, this localization does not benefit nondamaging retinal laser therapy, which is intended to avoid any cell death.

  16. Immune modulator therapy for microscopic colitis in a case series of 73 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, T G; Kamboj, A K; Hicks, S B; Tremaine, W J; Loftus, E V; Pardi, D S

    2017-07-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is a common cause of chronic diarrhoea. Various treatment options have been described, but there are limited data describing outcomes of corticosteroid-sparing treatments. To evaluate the outcomes of patients with active MC treated with immune modulators. All patients seen at Mayo Clinic, Rochester between January 1, 1997 and November 30, 2016 with a histological diagnosis of MC were identified. Patients treated with an immune modulator of interest were selected and clinical outcomes recorded. Seventy-three MC patients (50 collagenous colitis and 23 lymphocytic colitis) with a median disease duration of 24 months (range, 7-60) were included. The indications for treatment were budesonide-refractoriness in 66%, budesonide dependence in 29%, and budesonide intolerance in 5%. Median age was 51.8 years (range, 43.4-63.1) and 61 (84%) were female. Thiopurines were used in 49 patients (67%) for a median of 4 months (range, 1.5-15). Complete and partial response occurred in 43% and 22% respectively. Adverse effects resulting in therapy cessation occurred in 17 patients (35%). Twelve patients (16%) were treated with methotrexate for a median of 14 months (3-18.8). Complete and partial response occurred in 58% and 17%, respectively. Anti-TNF therapy was used in 10 patients (14%) for a median of 4 months (range, 2.3-5.5). Complete response occurred in four patients and partial response in four patients. The majority of patients with active MC responded to thiopurines, methotrexate, or anti-TNF therapy. Larger controlled studies are required to confirm the efficacy and safety of these medications in MC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Error Sources in the ETA Energy Analyzer Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexsen, W E

    2004-12-13

    At present the ETA beam energy as measured by the ETA energy analyzer and the DARHT spectrometer differ by {approx}12%. This discrepancy is due to two sources, an overestimate of the effective length of the ETA energy analyzer bending-field, and data reduction methods that are not valid. The discrepancy can be eliminated if we return to the original process of measuring the angular deflection of the beam and use a value of 43.2cm for the effective length of the axial field profile.

  18. Direct leaf trajectory optimization for volumetric modulated arc therapy planning with sliding window delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, Dávid, E-mail: Papp.David@mgh.harvard.edu; Unkelbach, Jan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 30 Fruit Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The authors propose a novel optimization model for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning that directly optimizes deliverable leaf trajectories in the treatment plan optimization problem, and eliminates the need for a separate arc-sequencing step. Methods: In this model, a 360° arc is divided into a given number of arc segments in which the leaves move unidirectionally. This facilitates an algorithm that determines the optimal piecewise linear leaf trajectories for each arc segment, which are deliverable in a given treatment time. Multileaf collimator constraints, including maximum leaf speed and interdigitation, are accounted for explicitly. The algorithm is customized to allow for VMAT delivery using constant gantry speed and dose rate, however, the algorithm generalizes to variable gantry speed if beneficial. Results: The authors demonstrate the method for three different tumor sites: a head-and-neck case, a prostate case, and a paraspinal case. The authors first obtain a reference plan for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using fluence map optimization and 20 intensity-modulated fields in equally spaced beam directions, which is beyond the standard of care. Modeling the typical clinical setup for the treatment sites considered, IMRT plans using seven or nine beams are also computed. Subsequently, VMAT plans are optimized by dividing the 360° arc into 20 corresponding arc segments. Assuming typical machine parameters (a dose rate of 600 MU/min, and a maximum leaf speed of 3 cm/s), it is demonstrated that the optimized VMAT plans with 2–3 min delivery time are of noticeably better quality than the 7–9 beam IMRT plans. The VMAT plan quality approaches the quality of the 20-beam IMRT benchmark plan for delivery times between 3 and 4 min. Conclusions: The results indicate that high quality treatments can be delivered in a single arc with 20 arc segments if sufficient time is allowed for modulation in each segment.

  19. Selective modulation of postmenopausal women: cutting the Gordian knot of hormone replacement therapy with breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2003-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has proven and presumable benefits for women desiring postmenopausal health preservation. Among HRT-associated risks, the fear of breast carcinoma intimidates women and physicians contemplating hormonal treatment and limits long-term compliance. Identifying effective alternative medications that are not associated with breast carcinoma or that even may prevent its development would be a major advance. This article discusses the clinical perspective of HRT and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) in light of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of estrogen and progesterone action on the breast. Emphasis is placed on the potential of selective receptor modulation as the future of postmenopausal treatment. Current epidemiologic evidence suggests that HRT is associated with a small but substantial increase in the risk of breast carcinoma, and combined estrogen-progesterone regimens further increase this hazard. Ample biologic data support this clinical association and propose multiple molecular mechanisms for the effects of estrogen and progesterone on breast cells. SERMs are a novel class of drugs that demonstrate estrogen agonistic and antagonistic actions in a tissue specific manner. SERMs act by binding the estrogen receptor and selectively modulating its effect on gene transcription at target tissues. SERMs offer an alternative to HRT that can successfully circumvent the intimidating side-effect of breast carcinoma. Further insight into the molecular mechanisms of SERM action may enable the development of agents with improved target-tissue selectivity. Identifying selective modulators with unique pharmacologic properties would facilitate the creation of individualized treatment for the postmenopausal woman according to her particular predisposition for menopause-related morbidities and her overall clinical profile. Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.DOI 10.1002/cncr.11049

  20. ETA rahuprotsess ajas tülli Hispaania suurimad parteid / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Hispaania peaminister Luiz Rodriguez Zapatero teatas baski sotsialistide kavatsusest alustada läbirääkimisi ETA poliitilise esindajaga. Autori väitel on valitsuse ja opositsiooni suhted ETA-teema tõttu katkenud, peaministri ootamatud sammud ja reeglite muutmine ETA-ga seoses tekitavad ühiskonnas ebakindlust. Lisa: ETA on euroliidu nimekirjas

  1. Measurement of chi(cJ) decaying into eta ' K+K-

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Braun, S.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feng, C. Q.; Fu, C. D.; Fuks, O.; Gao, Q.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, H. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, L.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kloss, B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leyhe, M.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D.; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. J.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, H. L.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Moeini, H.; Morales, C. Morales; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Q, N.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zang, S. L.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. B.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Using (106.41 +/- 0.86) x 10(6) Psi(3686) events collected with the BESIII detector at BEPCII, we study for the first time the decay chi(cJ) -> eta'K+K- (J = 1, 2), where eta' -> gamma rho(0) and eta' -> eta pi(+)pi(-). A partial wave analysis in the covariant tensor amplitude formalism is performed

  2. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy to bilateral lower limb extremities concurrently: a planning case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Emma, E-mail: emmafitz1390@gmail.com; Miles, Wesley; Fenton, Paul; Frantzis, Jim [Radiation Oncology, Epworth HealthCare, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Non-melanomatous skin cancers represent 80% of all newly diagnosed cancers in Australia with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) being the most common. A previously healthy 71-year-old woman presented with widespread and tender superficial skin cancers on the lower bilateral limbs. External beam radiation therapy through the use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was employed as the treatment modality of choice as this technique provides conformal dose distribution to a three-dimensional treatment volume while reducing toxicity to surrounding tissues. The patient was prescribed a dose of 60 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) with 1.0 cm bolus over the ventral surface of each limb. The beam arrangement consisted of six treatment fields that avoided entry and exit through the contralateral limb. The treatment plans met the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) guidelines and produced highly conformal dosimetric results. Skin toxicity was measured against the National Cancer Institute: Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI: CTCAE) version 3. A well-tolerated treatment was delivered with excellent results given the initial extent of the disease. This case study has demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of IMRT for skin cancers as an alternative to surgery and traditional superficial radiation therapy, utilising a complex PTV of the extremities for patients with similar presentations.

  3. Compact Dielectric Wall Accelerator Development For Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy And Homeland Security Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y -; Caporaso, G J; Guethlein, G; Sampayan, S; Akana, G; Anaya, R; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Gower, E; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Hickman, B; Holmes, C; Horner, A; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Sanders, D; Stanley, J; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Weir, J

    2009-06-17

    Compact dielectric wall (DWA) accelerator technology is being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The DWA accelerator uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. Its high electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The DWA concept can be applied to accelerate charge particle beams with any charge to mass ratio and energy. Based on the DWA system, a novel compact proton therapy accelerator is being developed. This proton therapy system will produce individual pulses that can be varied in intensity, energy and spot width. The system will be capable of being sited in a conventional linac vault and provide intensity modulated rotational therapy. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, SiC photoconductive switches and compact proton sources. Applications of the DWA accelerator to problems in homeland security will also be discussed.

  4. Modulating Wnt signaling to improve cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Clare L; Thompson, Lachlan H

    2014-02-01

    Clinical trials have demonstrated the capacity for dopamine neurons, transplanted ectopically into the striatum, to structurally integrate, restore dopamine transmission, and induce long-term functional benefits for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Despite this proof of principle, a number of limitations have hindered the development of cell replacement therapy over the past 20 years, particularly tissue availability, graft survival, and adequate reinnervation of the host brain. With a greater understanding of failure in prior clinical trials, increased knowledge of midbrain dopamine development (now including Wnts), and the development of pluripotent stem cell technologies, we are better equipped than ever to re-address a number of these challenges. This review summarizes the trials, tribulations, and progress in cell replacement therapy for PD. We discuss the prospects of modulating canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling to improve cell therapy based upon their roles in dopamine neural development and the adult brain. This will include the potential of Wnts to (i) expand fetally derived tissue in vitro and following transplantation, (ii) promote the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, (iii) increase graft integration and restoration of neural circuitry, and finally (iv) enhance graft survival.

  5. Measurement of \\Gamma(\\eta -> \\pi^+\\pi^-\\gamma)/\\Gamma(\\eta -> \\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0) with the KLOE Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Babusci, D.; Balwierz-Pytko, I.; Bencivenni, G.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Caldeira Balkest, L.; Capon, G.; Ceradini, F.; Ciambrone, P.; Czerwinski, E.; Dane, E.; De Lucia, E.; De Robertis, G.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Micco, B.; Di Salvo, R.; Domenici, D.; Erriquez, O.; Fanizzi, G.; Fantini, A.; Felici, G.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P.; Giardina, G.; Giovannella, S.; Gonnella, F.; Graziani, E.; Happacher, F.; Hoistad, B.; Iafolla, L.; Jacewicz, M.; Johansson, T.; Kupsc, A.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Leverington, B.; Loddo, F.; Loffredo, S.; Mandaglio, G.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Mascolo, M.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Morello, G.; Moricciani, D.; Moskal, P.; Nguyen, F.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Prado Longhi, I.; Ranieri, A.; Redmer, C.F.; Santangelo, P.; Sarra, I.; Schioppa, M.; Sciascia, B.; Silarski, M.; Taccini, C.; Tortora, L.; Venanzoni, G.; Versaci, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wolke, M.; Xu, G.; Zdebik, J.

    2013-01-08

    The ratio R_{\\eta}=\\Gamma(\\eta -> \\pi^+\\pi^-\\gamma)/\\Gamma(\\eta -> \\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0) has been measured by analyzing 22 million \\phi \\to \\eta \\gamma decays collected by the KLOE experiment at DA\\PhiNE, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 558 pb^{-1}. The \\eta \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-\\gamma proceeds both via the \\rho resonant contribution, and possibly a non-resonant direct term, connected to the box anomaly. Our result, R_{\\eta}= 0.1856\\pm 0.0005_{stat} \\pm 0.0028_{syst}, points out a sizable contribution of the direct term to the total width. The di-pion invariant mass for the \\eta -> \\pi^+\\pi^-\\gamma decay could be described in a model-independent approach in terms of a single free parameter, \\alpha. The determined value of the parameter \\alpha is \\alpha = (1.32 \\pm 0.08_{stat} +0.10/-0.09_{syst}\\pm 0.02_{theo}) GeV^{-2}

  6. Intensity-modulated proton beam therapy (IMPT) versus intensity-modulated photon therapy (IMRT) for patients with oropharynx cancer - A case matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Pierre; Garden, Adam S; Gunn, G Brandon; Rosenthal, David I; Morrison, William H; Hernandez, Mike; Crutison, Joseph; Lee, Jack J; Ye, Rong; Fuller, C David; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Hutcheson, Kate A; Holliday, Emma B; Thaker, Nikhil G; Sturgis, Erich M; Kies, Merrill S; Zhu, X Ronald; Mohan, Radhe; Frank, Steven J

    2016-07-01

    Owing to its physical properties, intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) used for patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma has the ability to reduce the dose to organs at risk compared to intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) while maintaining adequate tumor coverage. Our aim was to compare the clinical outcomes of these two treatment modalities. We performed a 1:2 matching of IMPT to IMRT patients. Our study cohort consisted of IMPT patients from a prospective quality of life study and consecutive IMRT patients treated at a single institution during the period 2010-2014. Patients were matched on unilateral/bilateral treatment, disease site, human papillomavirus status, T and N status, smoking status, and receipt of concomitant chemotherapy. Survival analyzes were performed using a Cox model and binary toxicity endpoints using a logistic regression analysis. Fifty IMPT and 100 IMRT patients were included. The median follow-up time was 32months. There were no imbalances in patient/tumor characteristics except for age (mean age 56.8years for IMRT patients and 61.1years for IMPT patients, p-value=0.010). Statistically significant differences were not observed in overall survival (hazard ratio (HR)=0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12-2.50, p-value=0.44) or in progression-free survival (HR=1.02; 95% CI: 0.41-2.54; p-value=0.96). The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the presence of a gastrostomy (G)-tube during treatment for IMPT vs IMRT were OR=0.53; 95% CI: 0.24-1.15; p-value=0.11 and OR=0.43; 95% CI: 0.16-1.17; p-value=0.10 at 3months after treatment. When considering the pre-planned composite endpoint of grade 3 weight loss or G-tube presence, the ORs were OR=0.44; 95% CI: 0.19-1.0; p-value=0.05 at 3months after treatment and OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.07-0.73; p-value=0.01 at 1year after treatment. Our results suggest that IMPT is associated with reduced rates of feeding tube dependency and severe weight loss without jeopardizing outcome. Prospective multicenter

  7. Quality of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans Using a {sup 60}Co Magnetic Resonance Image Guidance Radiation Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, H. Omar, E-mail: hwooten@radonc.wustl.edu; Green, Olga; Yang, Min; DeWees, Todd; Kashani, Rojano; Olsen, Jeff; Michalski, Jeff; Yang, Deshan; Tanderup, Kari; Hu, Yanle; Li, H. Harold; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: This work describes a commercial treatment planning system, its technical features, and its capabilities for creating {sup 60}Co intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans for a magnetic resonance image guidance radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system. Methods and Materials: The ViewRay treatment planning system (Oakwood Village, OH) was used to create {sup 60}Co IMRT treatment plans for 33 cancer patients with disease in the abdominal, pelvic, thorax, and head and neck regions using physician-specified patient-specific target coverage and organ at risk (OAR) objectives. Backup plans using a third-party linear accelerator (linac)-based planning system were also created. Plans were evaluated by attending physicians and approved for treatment. The {sup 60}Co and linac plans were compared by evaluating conformity numbers (CN) with 100% and 95% of prescription reference doses and heterogeneity indices (HI) for planning target volumes (PTVs) and maximum, mean, and dose-volume histogram (DVH) values for OARs. Results: All {sup 60}Co IMRT plans achieved PTV coverage and OAR sparing that were similar to linac plans. PTV conformity for {sup 60}Co was within <1% and 3% of linac plans for 100% and 95% prescription reference isodoses, respectively, and heterogeneity was on average 4% greater. Comparisons of OAR mean dose showed generally better sparing with linac plans in the low-dose range <20 Gy, but comparable sparing for organs with mean doses >20 Gy. The mean doses for all {sup 60}Co plan OARs were within clinical tolerances. Conclusions: A commercial {sup 60}Co MR-IGRT device can produce highly conformal IMRT treatment plans similar in quality to linac IMRT for a variety of disease sites. Additional work is in progress to evaluate the clinical benefit of other novel features of this MR-IGRT system.

  8. Minute Temperature Fluctuations Detected in Eta Bootis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    A group of astronomers from the Aarhus University (Denmark) and the European Southern Observatory (2) have for the first time succeeded in detecting solar-type oscillations in another star. They observed the temperature of the bright northern star Eta Bootis during six nights with the 2.5-metre Nordic Optical Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory on the island of La Palma (Canary Islands) and were able to show that it varies periodically by a few hundredths of a degree. These changes are caused by pressure waves in the star and are directly dependent on its inner structure. A detailed analysis by the astronomers has shown that the observed effects are in good agreement with current stellar models. This is a most important, independent test of stellar theory. The Sun is an Oscillating Star About twenty years ago, it was discovered that the nearest star, our Sun, oscillates like the ringing of a bell with a period of about 5 minutes. The same phenomenon is known in the Earth, which begins to vibrate after earthquakes; in this way seismologists have been able to discern a layered structure in the Earth's interior. The recent impacts of a comet on Jupiter most likely had a similar effect on that planet. The observed solar oscillations concern the entire gaseous body of the Sun, but we can of course only observe them on its surface. It has been found that each mode moves the surface up and down by less than 25 metres; the combined motion is very complicated, because there are many different, simultaneous modes, each of which has a slightly different period. The exact values of these periods are sensitive to the speed of sound in the Sun's interior, which in turn depends on the density of the material there. Thus, by measuring the periods of solar oscillations, we may probe the internal structure of the Sun, that is otherwise inaccessible to observations. Why does the Sun oscillate and what is the cause of these oscillations ? We do not know yet, but it is

  9. Clinical Outcomes and Patterns of Disease Recurrence After Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Oropharyngeal Squamous Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, G Brandon; Blanchard, Pierre; Garden, Adam S; Zhu, X Ronald; Fuller, C David; Mohamed, Abdallah S; Morrison, William H; Phan, Jack; Beadle, Beth M; Skinner, Heath D; Sturgis, Erich M; Kies, Merrill S; Hutcheson, Kate A; Rosenthal, David I; Mohan, Radhe; Gillin, Michael T; Frank, Steven J

    2016-05-01

    A single-institution prospective study was conducted to assess disease control and toxicity of proton therapy for patients with head and neck cancer. Disease control, toxicity, functional outcomes, and patterns of failure for the initial cohort of patients with oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma (OPC) treated with intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) were prospectively collected in 2 registry studies at a single institution. Locoregional failures were analyzed by using deformable image registration. Fifty patients with OPC treated from March 3, 2011, to July 2014 formed the cohort. Eighty-four percent were male, 50% had never smoked, 98% had stage III/IV disease, 64% received concurrent therapy, and 35% received induction chemotherapy. Forty-four of 45 tumors (98%) tested for p16 were positive. All patients received IMPT (multifield optimization to n=46; single-field optimization to n=4). No Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 4 or 5 toxicities were observed. The most common grade 3 toxicities were acute mucositis in 58% of patients and late dysphagia in 12%. Eleven patients had a gastrostomy (feeding) tube placed during therapy, but none had a feeding tube at last follow-up. At a median follow-up time of 29 months, 5 patients had disease recurrence: local in 1, local and regional in 1, regional in 2, and distant in 1. The 2-year actuarial overall and progression-free survival rates were 94.5% and 88.6%. The oncologic, toxicity, and functional outcomes after IMPT for OPC are encouraging and provide the basis for ongoing and future clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical Outcomes and Patterns of Disease Recurrence After Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Oropharyngeal Squamous Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, G. Brandon [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Blanchard, Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Fuller, C. David [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Medical Physics Program, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohamed, Abdallah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Alexandria (Egypt); Morrison, William H.; Phan, Jack; Beadle, Beth M.; Skinner, Heath D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Sturgis, Erich M. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kies, Merrill S. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hutcheson, Kate A. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rosenthal, David I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohan, Radhe; Gillin, Michael T. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); and others

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: A single-institution prospective study was conducted to assess disease control and toxicity of proton therapy for patients with head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Disease control, toxicity, functional outcomes, and patterns of failure for the initial cohort of patients with oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma (OPC) treated with intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) were prospectively collected in 2 registry studies at a single institution. Locoregional failures were analyzed by using deformable image registration. Results: Fifty patients with OPC treated from March 3, 2011, to July 2014 formed the cohort. Eighty-four percent were male, 50% had never smoked, 98% had stage III/IV disease, 64% received concurrent therapy, and 35% received induction chemotherapy. Forty-four of 45 tumors (98%) tested for p16 were positive. All patients received IMPT (multifield optimization to n=46; single-field optimization to n=4). No Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 4 or 5 toxicities were observed. The most common grade 3 toxicities were acute mucositis in 58% of patients and late dysphagia in 12%. Eleven patients had a gastrostomy (feeding) tube placed during therapy, but none had a feeding tube at last follow-up. At a median follow-up time of 29 months, 5 patients had disease recurrence: local in 1, local and regional in 1, regional in 2, and distant in 1. The 2-year actuarial overall and progression-free survival rates were 94.5% and 88.6%. Conclusions: The oncologic, toxicity, and functional outcomes after IMPT for OPC are encouraging and provide the basis for ongoing and future clinical studies.

  11. A study of tau decays involving eta and omega mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Carrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Bauer, C; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, A M; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1997-01-01

    The 132 pb$^{-1}$ of data collected by ALEPH from 1991 to 1994 have been used to analyze $\\eta$ and $\\omega$ production in $\\tau$ decays. The following branching fractions have been measured: \\begin{eqnarray*} B(\\tau^-\\to\

  12. Single-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy planning for left breast cancer and regional nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakumi, Akira; Shiraishi, Kenshiro; Onoe, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Haga, Akihiro; Yoda, Kiyoshi; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    We have successfully created a single arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan for treating post-surgical left breast/chest wall and regional nodes using Elekta multileaf collimator (MLC). Dose volume histograms (DVHs) were compared between the VMAT plans and conventional tangential beam plans using a field-in-field technique, leading to significant DVH advantages in the VMAT plans. The difference between Elekta VMAT and Varian RapidArc due to different MLC designs was discussed in terms of the number of arcs required to cover a large target, highlighting a single arc capability of Elekta VMAT for a large target volume which may be less sensitive to unexpected organ motion during dose delivery.

  13. Dance movement therapy improves emotional responses and modulates neurohormones in adolescents with mild depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young-Ja; Hong, Sung-Chan; Lee, Myeong Soo; Park, Min-Cheol; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Suh, Chae-Moon

    2005-12-01

    This study assessed the profiles of psychological health and changes in neurohormones of adolescents with mild depression after 12 weeks of dance movement therapy (DMT). Forty middle school seniors (mean age: 16 years old) volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly assigned into either a dance movement group (n = 20) or a control group (n = 20). All subscale scores of psychological distress and global scores decreased significantly after the 12 weeks in the DMT group. Plasma serotonin concentration increased and dopamine concentration decreased in the DMT group. These results suggest that DMT may stabilize the sympathetic nervous system. In conclusion, DMT may be effective in beneficially modulating concentrations of serotonin and dopamine, and in improving psychological distress in adolescents with mild depression.

  14. Approximated segmentation considering technical and dosimetric constraints in intensity-modulated radiation therapy with electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kiesel, Antje

    2010-01-01

    In intensity-modulated radiation therapy, optimal intensity distributions of incoming beams are decomposed into linear combinations of leaf openings of a multileaf collimator (segments). In order to avoid inefficient dose delivery, the decomposition should satisfy a number of dosimetric constraints due to suboptimal dose characteristics of small segments. However, exact decomposition with dosimetric constraints is only in limited cases possible. The present work introduces new heuristic segmentation algorithms for the following optimization problem: Find a segmentation of an approximated matrix using only allowed fields and minimize the approximation error. Finally, the decomposition algorithms were implemented into an optimization programme in order to examine the assumptions of the algorithms for a clinical example. As a result, identical dose distributions with much fewer segments and a significantly smaller number of monitor units could be achieved using dosimetric constraints. Consequently, the dose deli...

  15. Single Arc Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy of head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Anders; Hansen, Christian Rønn; Johansen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    planning objectives were to achieve clinical target coverage and sparing of the organs at risk (OAR). Comparison with the original clinically used IMRT was made by evaluating (1) dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for PTVs, (2) DVHs for OARs, (3) delivery time and monitor units (MU), and (4) treatment accuracy......BACKGROUND: The quality of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) plans is highly dependent on the performance of the optimization algorithm used. Recently new algorithms have become available which are capable of generating VMAT plans for Elekta accelerators. The VMAT algorithm in Pinnacle...... is named SmartArc and its capability to generate treatment plans for head and neck cancer was tested. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal carcinoma, previously treated with IMRT by means of Pinnacle and Elekta accelerators, were replanned with single arc VMAT. The VMAT...

  16. Comparison of acute and subacute genitourinary and gastrointestinal adverse events of radiotherapy for prostate cancer using intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, permanent implant brachytherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morimoto, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Konishi, Koji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Yutaka; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Teshima, Teruki; Bijl, Henk P; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Langendijk, Johannes A; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    AIMS AND BACKGROUND: To examine acute and subacute urinary and rectal toxicity in patients with localized prostate cancer monotherapeutically treated with the following four radiotherapeutic techniques: intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy,

  17. Robust Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT Increases Estimated Clinical Benefit in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanne V van Dijk

    Full Text Available To compare the clinical benefit of robust optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (minimax IMPT with current photon Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT and PTV-based IMPT for head and neck cancer (HNC patients. The clinical benefit is quantified in terms of both Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP and target coverage in the case of setup and range errors.For 10 HNC patients, PTV-based IMRT (7 fields, minimax and PTV-based IMPT (2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 fields plans were tested on robustness. Robust optimized plans differed from PTV-based plans in that they target the CTV and penalize possible error scenarios, instead of using the static isotropic CTV-PTV margin. Perturbed dose distributions of all plans were acquired by simulating in total 8060 setup (±3.5 mm and range error (±3% combinations. NTCP models for xerostomia and dysphagia were used to predict the clinical benefit of IMPT versus IMRT.The robustness criterion was met in the IMRT and minimax IMPT plans in all error scenarios, but this was only the case in 1 of 40 PTV-based IMPT plans. Seven (out of 10 patients had relatively large NTCP reductions in minimax IMPT plans compared to IMRT. For these patients, xerostomia and dysphagia NTCP values were reduced by 17.0% (95% CI; 13.0-21.1 and 8.1% (95% CI; 4.9-11.2 on average with minimax IMPT. Increasing the number of fields did not contribute to plan robustness, but improved organ sparing.The estimated clinical benefit in terms of NTCP of robust optimized (minimax IMPT is greater than that of IMRT and PTV-based IMPT in HNC patients. Furthermore, the target coverage of minimax IMPT plans in the presence of errors was comparable to IMRT plans.

  18. Spherical cluster analysis for beam angle optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, Mark; Oelfke, Uwe

    2010-10-01

    An intuitive heuristic to establish beam configurations for intensity-modulated radiation therapy is introduced as an extension of beam ensemble selection strategies applying scalar scoring functions. It is validated by treatment plan comparisons for three intra-cranial, pancreas, and prostate cases each. Based on a patient specific matrix listing the radiological quality of candidate beam directions individually for every target voxel, a set of locally ideal beam angles is generated. The spherical distribution of locally ideal beam angles is characteristic for every treatment site and patient: ideal beam angles typically cluster around distinct orientations. We interpret the cluster centroids, which are identified with a spherical K-means algorithm, as irradiation angles of an intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment plan. The fluence profiles are subsequently optimized during a conventional inverse planning process. The average computation time for the pre-optimization of a beam ensemble is six minutes on a state-of-the-art work station. The treatment planning study demonstrates the potential benefit of the proposed beam angle optimization strategy. For the three prostate cases under investigation, the standard treatment plans applying nine coplanar equi-spaced beams and treatment plans applying an optimized non-coplanar nine-beam ensemble yield clinically comparable dose distributions. For symmetric patient geometries, the dose distribution formed by nine equi-spaced coplanar beams cannot be improved significantly. For the three pancreas and intra-cranial cases under investigation, the optimized non-coplanar beam ensembles enable better sparing of organs at risk while guaranteeing equivalent target coverage. Beam angle optimization by spherical cluster analysis shows the biggest impact for target volumes located asymmetrically within the patient and close to organs at risk.

  19. Ipsilateral kidney sparing in treatment of pancreatic malignancies using volumetric-modulated arc therapy avoidance sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Raymond W., E-mail: rwc3b@alumni.virginia.edu; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has shown treating pancreatic cancer with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to be superior to either intensity-modulated radiation therapy or 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), with respect to reducing normal tissue toxicity, monitor units, and treatment time. Furthermore, using avoidance sectors with RapidArc planning can further reduce normal tissue dose while maintaining target conformity. This study looks at the methods in reducing dose to the ipsilateral kidney, in pancreatic head cases, while observing dose received by other critical organs using avoidance sectors. Overall, 10 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Each patient had preoperative/unresectable pancreatic tumor and were selected based on the location of the right kidney being situated within the traditional 3D-CRT treatment field. The target planning target volume (286.97 ± 85.17 cm{sup 3}) was prescribed to 50.4 Gy using avoidance sectors of 30°, 40°, and 50° and then compared with VMAT as well as 3D-CRT. Analysis of the data shows that the mean dose to the right kidney was reduced by 11.6%, 15.5%, and 21.9% for avoidance angles of 30°, 40°, and 50°, respectively, over VMAT. The mean dose to the total kidney also decreased by 6.5%, 8.5%, and 11.0% for the same increasing angles. Spinal cord maximum dose, however, increased as a function of angle by 3.7%, 4.8%, and 6.1% compared with VMAT. Employing avoidance sector angles as a complement to VMAT planning can significantly reduce high dose to the ipsilateral kidney while not greatly overdosing other critical organs.

  20. Spherical cluster analysis for beam angle optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, Mark; Oelfke, Uwe

    2010-10-07

    An intuitive heuristic to establish beam configurations for intensity-modulated radiation therapy is introduced as an extension of beam ensemble selection strategies applying scalar scoring functions. It is validated by treatment plan comparisons for three intra-cranial, pancreas, and prostate cases each. Based on a patient specific matrix listing the radiological quality of candidate beam directions individually for every target voxel, a set of locally ideal beam angles is generated. The spherical distribution of locally ideal beam angles is characteristic for every treatment site and patient: ideal beam angles typically cluster around distinct orientations. We interpret the cluster centroids, which are identified with a spherical K-means algorithm, as irradiation angles of an intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment plan. The fluence profiles are subsequently optimized during a conventional inverse planning process. The average computation time for the pre-optimization of a beam ensemble is six minutes on a state-of-the-art work station. The treatment planning study demonstrates the potential benefit of the proposed beam angle optimization strategy. For the three prostate cases under investigation, the standard treatment plans applying nine coplanar equi-spaced beams and treatment plans applying an optimized non-coplanar nine-beam ensemble yield clinically comparable dose distributions. For symmetric patient geometries, the dose distribution formed by nine equi-spaced coplanar beams cannot be improved significantly. For the three pancreas and intra-cranial cases under investigation, the optimized non-coplanar beam ensembles enable better sparing of organs at risk while guaranteeing equivalent target coverage. Beam angle optimization by spherical cluster analysis shows the biggest impact for target volumes located asymmetrically within the patient and close to organs at risk.

  1. A Study of High Transverse Momentum Eta Meson Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skow, Dana Duane [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Production of high transverse momentum ($P_T$) $\\eta$ (eta) mesons by hadron beams with incident momentum of 530 GeV/c ($\\sqrt{s}$ = 31.6 GeV) has been measured using the E706 spectrometer at FNAL. The $\\gamma\\gamma$ decay mode was studied using data from the highly segmented liquid argon calorimeter in E706. Results are presented for inclusive $\\eta$ production for $\\pi^-$ and $p$ beams on a beryllium target, and compared to inclusive $\\pi^0$ production. Data cover the range of transverse momentum of 3.5 < $P_T$ < 10 GeV /c and rapidity $\\mid y \\mid$ < 0.7. The integrated ratio of inclusive $\\eta$ production for incident $K^-$ and $\\pi^-$ at 530 GeV/c ($K^- Be \\to \\eta X/\\pi^- Be \\to \\eta X$) was found to be 1.32 ± 0.32 measured for the range 3.5 < 6.0 Ge V/c with rapidity $\\mid y \\mid$ < 1.0.

  2. A compact linac for intensity modulated proton therapy based on a dielectric wall accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, G J; Mackie, T R; Sampayan, S; Chen, Y-J; Blackfield, D; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Reckwerdt, P J; Schmidt, R; Pearson, D; Flynn, R W; Matthews, D; Purdy, J

    2008-06-01

    A novel compact CT-guided intensity modulated proton radiotherapy (IMPT) system is described. The system is being designed to deliver fast IMPT so that larger target volumes and motion management can be accomplished. The system will be ideal for large and complex target volumes in young patients. The basis of the design is the dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) system being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The DWA uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. High electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The system will produce individual pulses that can be varied in intensity, energy and spot width. The IMPT planning system will optimize delivery characteristics. The system will be capable of being sited in a conventional linac vault and provide intensity modulated rotational therapy. Feasibility tests of an optimization system for selecting the position, energy, intensity and spot size for a collection of spots comprising the treatment are underway. A prototype is being designed and concept designs of the envelope and environmental needs of the unit are beginning. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, SiC photoconductive switches and compact proton sources.

  3. Feasibility study of volumetric modulated arc therapy with constant dose rate for endometrial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ruijie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Junjie, E-mail: junjiewang47@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Xu, Feng [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Li, Hua [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhang, Xile [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the feasibility, efficiency, and delivery accuracy of volumetric modulated arc therapy with constant dose rate (VMAT-CDR) for whole-pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) of endometrial cancer. The nine-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), VMAT with variable dose-rate (VMAT-VDR), and VMAT-CDR plans were created for 9 patients with endometrial cancer undergoing WPRT. The dose distribution of planning target volume (PTV), organs at risk (OARs), and normal tissue (NT) were compared. The monitor units (MUs) and treatment delivery time were also evaluated. For each VMAT-CDR plan, a dry run was performed to assess the dosimetric accuracy with MatriXX from IBA. Compared with IMRT, the VMAT-CDR plans delivered a slightly greater V{sub 20} of the bowel, bladder, pelvis bone, and NT, but significantly decreased the dose to the high-dose region of the rectum and pelvis bone. The MUs decreased from 1105 with IMRT to 628 with VMAT-CDR. The delivery time also decreased from 9.5 to 3.2 minutes. The average gamma pass rate was 95.6% at the 3%/3 mm criteria with MatriXX pretreatment verification for 9 patients. VMAT-CDR can achieve comparable plan quality with significant shorter delivery time and smaller number of MUs compared with IMRT for patients with endometrial cancer undergoing WPRT. It can be accurately delivered and be an alternative to IMRT on the linear accelerator without VDR capability.

  4. {eta} meson photoproduction on deuterium; Photoproduction du meson {eta} sur le deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann-Rothe, P.

    1996-05-30

    Measurements of the total and differential cross sections for {eta}-meson photoproduction on a D{sub 2} liquid target from threshold to 1.2 GeV, have been taken using the tagged Bremsstrahlung photon beam produced by the electrons extracted from the ELSA storage ring at Bonn. The reaction was identified by detecting the eta decay products in the neutral meson spectrometer SPES0-2{pi}, while the recoil baryons (proton, neutron or deuteron) were detected by a variety of large angle scintillator detectors. We succeeded to identify completely the final states corresponding to the production of an {eta} meson on a Quasi-Free (QF) proton, a QF neutron and the coherent deuteron. The differential cross sections corresponding to the production of a coherent deuteron n the final state have been measured, from threshold to 800 MeV; they are 6 times smaller the only previous measurement reported by Anderson and Prepost in 1969. This is consistent with an Isoscalar part of the Amplitude much smaller than the Isovector one. The differential cross sections are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction on the impulse approximation mechanism; indicating in particular, fairly small contributions from rescattering terms. A direct measurement of the neutron to proton cross section ratios has been obtained by integrating the counting rates on the corresponding QF peaks and is 0.70 {+-} 0.03, from 700 MeV to 900 MeV, with a small angular dependence. These two results by comparison to the measured free proton data should allow to reconstruct the free neutron cross sections in a rather model-independent way. (authors). 56 refs., 90 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Bis(. eta. sup 6 -hexamethylbenzene)(. eta. sup 6 ,. eta. sup 6 -polycyclic aromatic)diruthenium(II,II) complexes and their two-electron reduction to cyclohexadienyl anion complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plitzko, K.; Wehrle, G.; Gollas, B.; Rapko, B.; Dannheim, J.; Boekelheide, V. (Univ. of Oregon, Eugene (USA))

    1990-08-29

    The bis({eta}{sup 6}-hexamethylbenzene)({eta}{sup 6},{eta}{sup 6}-polycyclic aromatic)diruthenium(II,II) complexes where the polycyclic aromatic ligands are phenanthrene, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, biphenyl, 3,3{prime},5,5{prime}-tetramethylbiphenyl, 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene, and triphenylene, respectively, have been synthesized and their electrochemical properties measured. A two-electron chemical reduction of each of these 4+ diruthenium complexes has led to the isolation and characterization of each of their corresponding 2+ diruthenium complexes. On the basis of analyses of their {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra, structural assignments have been made for all of these 2+ diruthenium complexes.

  6. Observation of the decay B-s(0) -> eta(c)phi and evidence for B-s(0) -> eta(c)pi(+)pi(-)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufour, L.; Mulder, M; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.; van Veghel, M.

    2017-01-01

    A study of B-s(0) -> eta(c)phi and B-s(0) -> eta(c)pi(+)pi(-) decays is performed using pp collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb(-1), collected with the LHCb detector in Run 1 of the LHC. The observation of the decay B-s(0) -> eta(c)phi is reported, where the eta(c)

  7. Determination of the {eta} mass from the production threshold for the {gamma}p {yields} p{eta} reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaev, Alexander

    2012-09-06

    This thesis is dedicated to a new precise determination of the {eta} meson mass based on a measurement of the threshold for the {gamma}p {yields} p{eta} reaction. This experiment was performed in the years 2004/2005 using the Crystal Ball/TAPS detector setup and the recently developed tagger focal-plane microscope detector at the MAMI-B facility in the Institut fuer Kernphysik of the Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz. The real photon beam was produced by Bremsstrahlung of the 883 MeV electrons from MAMI-B on a thin diamond radiator. The {eta} mesons were identified via their two main decay modes, {eta} {yields} 2{gamma} and {eta} {yields} 3{pi}{sup 0}, with the Crystal Ball/TAPS setup, which measured energies and emission angles of particles. The identification of the {eta} {yields} 2{gamma} decay was performed using events with two clusters detected as photons, ignoring all other particles, and the standard invariant mass analysis. Cuts were applied on the invariant and missing mass distributions. The identification of the {eta} {yields} 3{pi}{sup 0} {yields} 6{gamma} decay concentrated on events with six clusters detected as photons. Among fifteen possible combinations of six photons to be arranged in three pairs, the combination with the smallest {chi}{sup 2}-value for the three pion masses was assumed to be correct. Cuts were applied on the {chi}{sup 2}-distribution and on the invariant and missing mass distributions. The normalization of the total cross section was obtained from the target thickness, the intensity of the photon flux, the simulated acceptance of the Crystal Ball, and the branching ratios of the {eta} decays. The determination of the {eta} mass required a very precise measurement of the production threshold. This was obtained by fitting the measured cross section as a function of photon energy and gave the result for the {eta} mass, m{sub {eta}}=(547.851{+-}0.031{sub stat.}{+-}0.062{sub syst.}) MeV.

  8. A class solution for volumetric-modulated arc therapy planning in postprostatectomy radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Elizabeth; Bromley, Regina; Kneebone, Andrew; Eade, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed to test a postprostatectomy volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning class solution. The solution applies to both the progressive resolution optimizer algorithm version 2 (PRO 2) and the algorithm version 3 (PRO 3), addressing the effect of an upgraded algorithm. A total of 10 radical postprostatectomy patients received 68 Gy to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV), which was planned using VMAT. Each case followed a set of planning instructions; including contouring, field setup, and predetermined optimization parameters. Each case was run through both algorithms only once, with no user interaction. Results were averaged and compared against Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0534 end points. In addition, the clinical target volume (CTV) D100, PTV D99, and PTV mean doses were recorded, along with conformity indices (CIs) (95% and 98%) and the homogeneity index. All cases satisfied PTV D95 of 68 Gy and a maximum dose class solution has been established for prostate bed VMAT radiotherapy regardless of the algorithm used. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Statistical process control analysis for patient quality assurance of intensity modulated radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rena; Kim, Kyubo; Cho, Samju; Lim, Sangwook; Lee, Suk; Shim, Jang Bo; Huh, Hyun Do; Lee, Sang Hoon; Ahn, Sohyun

    2017-11-01

    This study applied statistical process control to set and verify the quality assurances (QA) tolerance standard for our hospital's characteristics with the criteria standards that are applied to all the treatment sites with this analysis. Gamma test factor of delivery quality assurances (DQA) was based on 3%/3 mm. Head and neck, breast, prostate cases of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric arc radiation therapy (VMAT) were selected for the analysis of the QA treatment sites. The numbers of data used in the analysis were 73 and 68 for head and neck patients. Prostate and breast were 49 and 152 by MapCHECK and ArcCHECK respectively. C p value of head and neck and prostate QA were above 1.0, C pml is 1.53 and 1.71 respectively, which is close to the target value of 100%. C pml value of breast (IMRT) was 1.67, data values are close to the target value of 95%. But value of was 0.90, which means that the data values are widely distributed. C p and C pml of breast VMAT QA were respectively 1.07 and 2.10. This suggests that the VMAT QA has better process capability than the IMRT QA. Consequently, we should pay more attention to planning and QA before treatment for breast Radiotherapy.

  10. Role of BRCA Mutations in the Modulation of Response to Platinum Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Mylavarapu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen cancer emerge as one of the leading cause of mortality worldwide with breast cancer being the second most common cause of death among women. Individuals harboring BRCA mutations are at a higher risk of developing breast and/or ovarian cancers. This risk is much greater in the presence of germline mutations. BRCA1 and BRCA2 play crucial role in the DNA damage response and repair pathway, a function that is critical in preserving the integrity of the genome. Mutations that interfere with normal cellular function of BRCA not only lead to onset and progression of cancer but also modulate therapy outcome of treatment with platinum drugs. In this review, we discuss the structural and functional impact of some of the prevalent BRCA mutations in breast and ovarian cancers and their role in platinum therapy response. Understanding the response of platinum drugs in the context of BRCA mutations may contribute toward developing better therapeutics that can improve survival and quality of life of patients.

  11. Volumetric Modulated Arc (Radio Therapy in Pets Treatment: The “La Cittadina Fondazione” Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Dolera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT is a modern technique, widely used in human radiotherapy, which allows a high dose to be delivered to tumor volumes and low doses to the surrounding organs at risk (OAR. Veterinary clinics takes advantage of this feature due to the small target volumes and distances between the target and the OAR. Sparing the OAR permits dose escalation, and hypofractionation regimens reduce the number of treatment sessions with a simpler manageability in the veterinary field. Multimodal volumes definition is mandatory for the small volumes involved and a positioning device precisely reproducible with a setup confirmation is needed before each session for avoiding missing the target. Additionally, the elaborate treatment plan must pursue hard constraints and objectives, and its feasibility must be evaluated with a per patient quality control. The aim of this work is to report results with regard to brain meningiomas and gliomas, trigeminal nerve tumors, brachial plexus tumors, adrenal tumors with vascular invasion and rabbit thymomas, in comparison with literature to determine if VMAT is a safe and viable alternative to surgery or chemotherapy alone, or as an adjuvant therapy in pets.

  12. Disease-Control Rates Following Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Small Primary Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Adam S.; Morrison, William H.; Wong, Pei-Fong; Tung, Sam S.; Rosenthal, David I.; Dong, Lei; Mason, Brian; Perkins, George H.; Ang, K. Kian

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to achieve favorable disease-control rates while minimizing parotid gland doses in patients treated for small primary tumors of the oropharynx. Methods We retrospectively identified all patients who received IMRT as treatment for a small (therapy; in 4 patients, the tube remained in place for more than 6 months following completion of IMRT. The median follow-up was 45 months. The 2-year actuarial local-regional control, recurrence-free, and overall survival rates were 94%, 88%, and 94%, respectively. Conclusions These preliminary data suggest that treatment with IMRT results in favorable local-regional control of small primary oropharynx tumors. IMRT did not appear to have a more favorable acute toxicity profile in this group with respect to the use of a feeding tube; however, the mean dose of radiation delivered to the parotid gland by IMRT was decreased, as 95% of patients had a mean dose of < 30 Gy to at least one gland. PMID:17141972

  13. Transcranial cavitation-mediated ultrasound therapy at sub-MHz frequency via temporal interference modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Sutton, Jonathan T.; Power, Chanikarn; Zhang, Yongzhi; Miller, Eric L.; McDannold, Nathan J.

    2017-10-01

    Sub-megahertz transmission is not usually adopted in pre-clinical small animal experiments for focused ultrasound (FUS) brain therapy due to the large focal size. However, low frequency FUS is vital for preclinical evaluations due to the frequency-dependence of cavitation behavior. To maximize clinical relevance, a dual-aperture FUS system was designed for low-frequency (274.3 kHz) cavitation-mediated FUS therapy. Combining two spherically curved transducers provides significantly improved focusing in the axial direction while yielding an interference pattern with strong side lobes, leading to inhomogeneously distributed cavitation activities. By operating the two transducers at slightly offset frequencies to modulate this interference pattern over the period of sonication, the acoustic energy was redistributed and resulted in a spatially homogenous treatment profile. Simulation and pressure field measurements in water were performed to assess the beam profiles. In addition, the system performance was demonstrated in vivo in rats via drug delivery through microbubble-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption. This design resulted in a homogenous treatment profile that was fully contained within the rat brain at a clinically relevant acoustic frequency.

  14. Multifield Optimization Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Head and Neck Tumors: A Translation to Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Steven J., E-mail: sjfrank@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gillin, Michael; Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Garden, Adam S.; Rosenthal, David I.; Gunn, G. Brandon [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Weber, Randal S. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kies, Merrill S. [Department of Head and Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lewin, Jan S. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Palmer, Matthew B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Sahoo, Narayan; Zhang, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Background: We report the first clinical experience and toxicity of multifield optimization (MFO) intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for patients with head and neck tumors. Methods and Materials: Fifteen consecutive patients with head and neck cancer underwent MFO-IMPT with active scanning beam proton therapy. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) had comprehensive treatment extending from the base of the skull to the clavicle. The doses for chemoradiation therapy and radiation therapy alone were 70 Gy and 66 Gy, respectively. The robustness of each treatment plan was also analyzed to evaluate sensitivity to uncertainties associated with variations in patient setup and the effect of uncertainties with proton beam range in patients. Proton beam energies during treatment ranged from 72.5 to 221.8 MeV. Spot sizes varied depending on the beam energy and depth of the target, and the scanning nozzle delivered the spot scanning treatment “spot by spot” and “layer by layer.” Results: Ten patients presented with SCC and 5 with adenoid cystic carcinoma. All 15 patients were able to complete treatment with MFO-IMPT, with no need for treatment breaks and no hospitalizations. There were no treatment-related deaths, and with a median follow-up time of 28 months (range, 20-35 months), the overall clinical complete response rate was 93.3% (95% confidence interval, 68.1%-99.8%). Xerostomia occurred in all 15 patients as follows: grade 1 in 10 patients, grade 2 in 4 patients, and grade 3 in 1 patient. Mucositis within the planning target volumes was seen during the treatment of all patients: grade 1 in 1 patient, grade 2 in 8 patients, and grade 3 in 6 patients. No patient experienced grade 2 or higher anterior oral mucositis. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first clinical report of MFO-IMPT for head and neck tumors. Early clinical outcomes are encouraging and warrant further investigation of proton therapy in prospective clinical trials.

  15. New possibilities for volumetric-modulated arc therapy using the Agility trademark 160-leaf multileaf collimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemer, Nadine; Scherf, Christian; Koehn, Janett; Kara, Eugen; Loutfi-Krauss, Britta; Imhoff, Detlef; Roedel, Claus; Ramm, Ulla; Licher, Joerg [Universitaetsklinikum Frankfurt, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    This study compares the quality of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans optimized for an Elekta Agility trademark (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) multileaf collimator (MLC; leaf width 5 mm) and an Elekta MLCi2 (leaf width 10 mm) for complex target volumes (anal, AC; head and neck, H and N and prostate cancer, PC). For plan comparisons, 15 patients who had been treated with IMRT or VMAT using the MLCi2 were selected. For each patient, a retrospective treatment plan using the MLCi2 for the technique not applied was created, as were treatment plans for both techniques using the Agility trademark MLC. Dose-volume histograms (DHVs) for planning target volumes (PTVs) and organs at risk (OARs) were compared. Further parameters relating to dose conformity, dose homogeneity and mean dose (D{sub mean}) to the PTV, compliance with the intended OAR dose criteria and overall dose to normal tissue were analyzed. Verification measurements were performed and optimization and treatment times were compared. Compared to the MLCi2 plans, the Agility trademark IMRT and VMAT plans show better or equivalent results in terms of PTV dose conformity and homogeneity. Compliance with the intended OAR dose criteria does not differ according to technique or MLC type. Slight differences are shown for dose distributions in OARs and normal tissue. Verification measurements show that all plans fulfill the acceptance criteria of a minimum of 95 % matched dose points for the 3 %/3 mm γ criterion. Optimization times for the VMAT plans increase compared to the IMRT plans, whereas treatment times decrease. With the MLCi2, treatment of complex target volumes with VMAT was only possible with compromises in terms of target coverage. Using the Agility trademark MLC, even complex target volumes can be treated with VMAT without compromising target coverage or resulting in higher exposure of OARs or normal tissue. (orig.) [German] Diese Studie vergleicht die

  16. Acute Esophagus Toxicity in Lung Cancer Patients After Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwint, Margriet [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Uyterlinde, Wilma [Department of Thoracic Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nijkamp, Jasper; Chen, Chun; Bois, Josien de; Sonke, Jan-Jakob [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heuvel, Michel van den [Department of Thoracic Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Knegjens, Joost; Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belderbos, Jose, E-mail: j.belderbos@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-effect relation between acute esophageal toxicity (AET) and the dose-volume parameters of the esophagus after intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: One hundred thirty-nine patients with inoperable NSCLC treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy were prospectively analyzed. The fractionation scheme was 66 Gy in 24 fractions. All patients received concurrently a daily dose of cisplatin (6 mg/m Superscript-Two ). Maximum AET was scored according to Common Toxicity Criteria 3.0. Dose-volume parameters V5 to V70, D{sub mean} and D{sub max} of the esophagus were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the dose-effect relation between these parameters and grade {>=}2 and grade {>=}3 AET. The outcome was compared with the clinically used esophagus V35 prediction model for grade {>=}2 after radical 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) treatment. Results: In our patient group, 9% did not experience AET, and 31% experienced grade 1 AET, 38% grade 2 AET, and 22% grade 3 AET. The incidence of grade 2 and grade 3 AET was not different from that in patients treated with CCRT using 3DCRT. The V50 turned out to be the most significant dosimetric predictor for grade {>=}3 AET (P=.012). The derived V50 model was shown to predict grade {>=}2 AET significantly better than the clinical V35 model (P<.001). Conclusions: For NSCLC patients treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy, the V50 was identified as most accurate predictor of grade {>=}3 AET. There was no difference in the incidence of grade {>=}2 AET between 3DCRT and IMRT in patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy.

  17. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy as Preoperative Treatment for Localized Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarty, Twisha; Crane, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mansfield, Paul F. [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Briere, Tina M.; Beddar, A. Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mok, Henry; Reed, Valerie K.; Krishnan, Sunil; Delclos, Marc E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Das, Prajnan, E-mail: PrajDas@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate dosimetric parameters, acute toxicity, pathologic response, and local control in patients treated with preoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for localized gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods: Between November 2007 and April 2010, 25 patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma were treated with induction chemotherapy, followed by preoperative IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy and, finally, surgical resection. The median radiation therapy dose was 45 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin in 18 patients, capecitabine in 3, and other regimens in 4. Subsequently, resection was performed with total gastrectomy in 13 patients, subtotal gastrectomy in 7, and other surgeries in 5. Results: Target coverage, expressed as the ratio of the minimum dose received by 99% of the planning target volume to the prescribed dose, was a median of 0.97 (range, 0.92-1.01). The median V{sub 30} (percentage of volume receiving at least 30 Gy) for the liver was 26%; the median V{sub 20} (percentage of volume receiving at least 20 Gy) for the right and left kidneys was 14% and 24%, respectively; and the median V{sub 40} (percentage of volume receiving at least 40 Gy) for the heart was 18%. Grade 3 acute toxicity developed in 14 patients (56%), including dehydration in 10, nausea in 8, and anorexia in 5. Grade 4 acute toxicity did not develop in any patient. There were no significant differences in the rates of acute toxicity, hospitalization, or feeding tube use in comparison to those in a group of 50 patients treated with preoperative three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy. R0 resection was obtained in 20 patients (80%), and pathologic complete response occurred in 5 (20%). Conclusions: Preoperative IMRT for gastric adenocarcinoma was well tolerated, accomplished excellent target coverage and normal structure sparing, and led to appropriate

  18. Three-Dimensional Dosimetric Validation of a Magnetic Resonance Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankine, Leith J., E-mail: Leith_Rankine@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Mein, Stewart [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Cai, Bin; Curcuru, Austen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Juang, Titania; Miles, Devin [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Mutic, Sasa; Wang, Yuhe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Oldham, Mark [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Li, H. Harold, E-mail: hli@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To validate the dosimetric accuracy of a commercially available magnetic resonance guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (MRgIMRT) system using a hybrid approach: 3-dimensional (3D) measurements and Monte Carlo calculations. Methods and Materials: We used PRESAGE radiochromic plastic dosimeters with remote optical computed tomography readout to perform 3D high-resolution measurements, following a novel remote dosimetry protocol. We followed the intensity modulated radiation therapy commissioning recommendations of American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 119, adapted to incorporate 3D data. Preliminary tests (“AP” and “3D-Bands”) were delivered to 9.5-cm usable diameter cylindrical PRESAGE dosimeters to validate the treatment planning system (TPS) for nonmodulated deliveries; assess the sensitivity, uniformity, and rotational symmetry of the PRESAGE dosimeters; and test the robustness of the remote dosimetry protocol. Following this, 4 clinical MRgIMRT plans (“MultiTarget,” “Prostate,” “Head/Neck,” and “C-Shape”) were measured using 13-cm usable diameter PRESAGE dosimeters. For all plans, 3D-γ (3% or 3 mm global, 10% threshold) passing rates were calculated and 3D-γ maps were examined. Point doses were measured with an IBA-CC01 ionization chamber for validation of absolute dose. Finally, by use of an in-house-developed, GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo algorithm (gPENELOPE), we independently calculated dose for all 6 Task Group 119 plans and compared against the TPS. Results: For PRESAGE measurements, 3D-γ analysis yielded passing rates of 98.7%, 99.2%, 98.5%, 98.0%, 99.2%, and 90.7% for AP, 3D-Bands, MultiTarget, Prostate, Head/Neck, and C-Shape, respectively. Ion chamber measurements were within an average of 0.5% (±1.1%) from the TPS dose. Monte Carlo calculations demonstrated good agreement with the TPS, with a mean 3D-γ passing rate of 98.5% ± 1.9% using a stricter 2%/2-mm criterion. Conclusions: We

  19. TU-CD-304-02: Planning and Delivery of Fully Dynamic Trajectory Modulated Arc Therapy On Pituitary Adenoma: Dosimetric Advantages Over Conventional Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, J; Kim, S [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Virginia (United States); Hristov, D [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, CA (United States); Otto, K [Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the potential benefit of trajectory modulated arc therapy (TMAT) for treatments of small benign intracranial tumor, pituitary adenoma. Methods: A TMAT planning platform that incorporates complex source motion trajectory involving synchronized gantry rotation with translational and rotational couch movement was used for the study. The platform couples an interactive trajectory generation tool with a VMAT algorithm that performs multi-resolution, progressive sampling MLC optimization on a user-designed trajectory. A continuous couch rotation of 160° angular span with ±20° mini gantry arcs was used to emulate a non-coplanar horizontal arc-like trajectory. Compared to conventional non-coplanar gantry arcs (60°-100° gantry rotation with couch kicks), TMAT limited the unnecessary low to medium dose spread in the anterior and posterior directions, where primary OARs (e.g., brainstem, optic chiasm, optic nerves, and lens) are in close proximity to the targeted pituitary tumor volume. For 5 standard fractionation pituitary adenoma cases (50.4Gy/28fractions), TMAT and non-coplanar VMAT plans were generated and compared under equivalent objectives/constraints. TMAT delivery was implemented and demonstrated on Varian TrueBeam via XML scripts. Results: Both techniques showed good target coverage while OARs were able to meet the constraints on QUANTEC guidelines. Notably, TMAT decreased the dose deposition in the anterior-to-posterior direction surrounding PTV. TMAT significantly reduced the mean doses on brainstem, optic nerves, eyes and lens by 47.29%±13.17%, 28.51%±8.68%, 80.82%±8.71% and 65.38%±19.99% compared with VMAT, all p≤0.01. Percentage reductions of maximum point dose in eyes and lens were 75.68%±10.30% and 70.72%±18.62% respectively for TMAT versus VMAT, all p≤0.01. A representative isocentric TMAT pituitary plan was delivered via an XML script with 200 control points and 282 MUs. Conclusion: Deliverable TMAT plans were achieved in

  20. SU-F-T-209: Multicriteria Optimization Algorithm for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Using Pencil Proton Beam Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, C; Kamal, H [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To provide a multicriteria optimization algorithm for intensity modulated radiation therapy using pencil proton beam scanning. Methods: Intensity modulated radiation therapy using pencil proton beam scanning requires efficient optimization algorithms to overcome the uncertainties in the Bragg peaks locations. This work is focused on optimization algorithms that are based on Monte Carlo simulation of the treatment planning and use the weights and the dose volume histogram (DVH) control points to steer toward desired plans. The proton beam treatment planning process based on single objective optimization (representing a weighted sum of multiple objectives) usually leads to time-consuming iterations involving treatment planning team members. We proved a time efficient multicriteria optimization algorithm that is developed to run on NVIDIA GPU (Graphical Processing Units) cluster. The multicriteria optimization algorithm running time benefits from up-sampling of the CT voxel size of the calculations without loss of fidelity. Results: We will present preliminary results of Multicriteria optimization for intensity modulated proton therapy based on DVH control points. The results will show optimization results of a phantom case and a brain tumor case. Conclusion: The multicriteria optimization of the intensity modulated radiation therapy using pencil proton beam scanning provides a novel tool for treatment planning. Work support by a grant from Varian Inc.

  1. The impact of leaf width and plan complexity on DMLC tracking of prostate intensity modulated arc therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommer, Tobias; Falk, Marianne; Poulsen, Per Rugaard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) is commonly used to treat prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of leaf width and plan complexity on dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking for prostate motion management during IMAT treatments.Methods: Prostate...

  2. Multi-dimensional modulations of alpha and gamma cortical dynamics following mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenberg, P.L.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    To illuminate candidate neural working mechanisms of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) in the treatment of recurrent depressive disorder, parallel to the potential interplays between modulations in electro-cortical dynamics and depressive symptom severity and self-compassionate experience.

  3. Application of fluence field modulation to proton computed tomography for proton therapy imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedes, G.; De Angelis, L.; Rit, S.; Hansen, D.; Belka, C.; Bashkirov, V.; Johnson, R. P.; Coutrakon, G.; Schubert, K. E.; Schulte, R. W.; Parodi, K.; Landry, G.

    2017-08-01

    This simulation study presents the application of fluence field modulated computed tomography, initially developed for x-ray CT, to proton computed tomography (pCT). By using pencil beam (PB) scanning, fluence modulated pCT (FMpCT) may achieve variable image quality in a pCT image and imaging dose reduction. Three virtual phantoms, a uniform cylinder and two patients, were studied using Monte Carlo simulations of an ideal list-mode pCT scanner. Regions of interest (ROI) were selected for high image quality and only PBs intercepting them preserved full fluence (FF). Image quality was investigated in terms of accuracy (mean) and noise (standard deviation) of the reconstructed proton relative stopping power compared to reference values. Dose calculation accuracy on FMpCT images was evaluated in terms of dose volume histograms (DVH), range difference (RD) for beam-eye-view (BEV) dose profiles and gamma evaluation. Pseudo FMpCT scans were created from broad beam experimental data acquired with a list-mode pCT prototype. FMpCT noise in ROIs was equivalent to FF images and accuracy better than  -1.3%(-0.7%) by using 1% of FF for the cylinder (patients). Integral imaging dose reduction of 37% and 56% was achieved for the two patients for that level of modulation. Corresponding DVHs from proton dose calculation on FMpCT images agreed to those from reference images and 96% of BEV profiles had RD below 2 mm, compared to only 1% for uniform 1% of FF. Gamma pass rates (2%, 2 mm) were 98% for FMpCT while for uniform 1% of FF they were as low as 59%. Applying FMpCT to preliminary experimental data showed that low noise levels and accuracy could be preserved in a ROI, down to 30% modulation. We have shown, using both virtual and experimental pCT scans, that FMpCT is potentially feasible and may allow a means of imaging dose reduction for a pCT scanner operating in PB scanning mode. This may be of particular importance to proton therapy given the low integral dose found

  4. Measurement of $\\mid\\eta_{00}\\mid^{2}$/$\\mid\\eta_{+-}\\mid^{2}$

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is an accurate determination of the ratio of neutral to charged two pion decays of $K_{L}$ and $K_{S}$ mesons: \\\\ R=$|\\eta_{00}|^{2}/|\\eta_{+-}|^{2} = \\Gamma(K _{L} \\rightarrow 2\\pi^{0})/\\Gamma(K _{S} \\rightarrow 2\\pi^{0}) : \\Gamma(K_{L} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-})/\\Gamma(K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-})$ \\\\ In the superweak model of CP violation this ratio is equal to one exactly. Sizeable deviations from unity are predicted in popular models of the weak and electromagnetic interaction among six quarks. \\\\ The two decay modes $K^{0} \\rightarrow 2\\pi^{0}$ and $K^{0} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ are measured simultaneously, and alternately in $K_{L}$ and $K_{S}$ beams. The detector consists of\\\\ 1) an evacuated decay region; \\\\ 2) proportional wire chambers to measure the charged pion directions; \\\\ 3) a liquid argon calorimeter with good energy and position resolution to measure the photons from $\\pi^{0}$ decays; \\\\ 4) a hadron calorimeter to measure the energy of the charged pio...

  5. Analysis of autonomic modulation of heart rate in patients with Parkinson's disease and elderly individuals submitted to game therapy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rodrigo Santiago Barbosa; De Oliveira Rocha, Larissa Salgado; Pena, Elza Sara Maués; Caldas, Laiz Cristinna Ponce; Moreno, Marlene Aparecida

    2018-01-01

    Elderly patients and individuals with Parkinson's disease have a reduction in autonomic heart rate modulation, which may influence the survival of these patients, and rehabilitation can minimize this event. We tested the hypothesis that rehabilitation protocol with game console would influence the cardiac autonomic modulation of patients with Parkinson's Disease. Eight-seven volunteers were divided into two groups, control (n = 45) and Parkinson's (n = 42), they completed the study 40 volunteers in the control group (CG) and 31 patients in the Parkinson group (PG), and subjected to 24 sessions of game therapy physiotherapy, thrice a week. Analysis of autonomic HR modulation was conducted before and after the rehabilitation program using a Polar RS800CX HR sensor. For the analysis of heart rate variability the data were transferred to the Kubios HRV 2.2 program. Statistical analysis was performed in the Biostat 5.2 program, the comparison of the data by ANOVA followed by Tukey test, and the general characteristics by the chi-square test. The critical value for rejecting the null hypothesis was set at P modulation of HR values. Subjects with PD exhibit less autonomic modulation of HR and the rehabilitation protocol with game therapy improved autonomic modulation of HR. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 20-25. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Disease Control After Reduced Volume Conformal and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Radiological Sciences, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Kun, Larry E.; Hua, Chia-Ho [St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Radiological Sciences, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping [St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Biostatistics, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Sanford, Robert A.; Boop, Frederick A. [Semmes Murphey Neurologic and Spine Institute, Neurosurgery, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To estimate the rate of disease control after conformal radiation therapy using reduced clinical target volume (CTV) margins and to determine factors that predict for tumor progression. Methods and Materials: Eighty-eight children (median age, 8.5 years; range, 3.2-17.6 years) received conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy between 1998 and 2009. The study group included those prospectively treated from 1998 to 2003, using a 10-mm CTV, defined as the margin surrounding the solid and cystic tumor targeted to receive the prescription dose of 54 Gy. The CTV margin was subsequently reduced after 2003, yielding 2 groups of patients: those treated with a CTV margin greater than 5 mm (n=26) and those treated with a CTV margin less than or equal to 5 mm (n=62). Disease progression was estimated on the basis of additional variables including sex, race, extent of resection, tumor interventions, target volume margins, and frequency of weekly surveillance magnetic resonance (MR) imaging during radiation therapy. Median follow-up was 5 years. Results: There was no difference between progression-free survival rates based on CTV margins (>5 mm vs ≤5 mm) at 5 years (88.1% ± 6.3% vs 96.2% ± 4.4% [P=.6386]). There were no differences based on planning target volume (PTV) margins (or combined CTV plus PTV margins). The PTV was systematically reduced from 5 to 3 mm during the time period of the study. Factors predictive of superior progression-free survival included Caucasian race (P=.0175), no requirement for cerebrospinal fluid shunting (P=.0066), and number of surveillance imaging studies during treatment (P=.0216). Patients whose treatment protocol included a higher number of weekly surveillance MR imaging evaluations had a lower rate of tumor progression. Conclusions: These results suggest that targeted volume reductions for radiation therapy using smaller margins are feasible and safe but require careful monitoring. We are currently investigating

  7. Image Guided Hypofractionated Postprostatectomy Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Stephen L.; Patel, Pretesh; Song, Haijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Freedland, Stephen J. [Surgery Section, Durham Veterans Administration, and Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Bynum, Sigrun; Oh, Daniel; Palta, Manisha; Yoo, David; Oleson, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Salama, Joseph K., E-mail: joseph.salama@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) has promising long-term biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) with comparable toxicity for definitive treatment of prostate cancer. However, data reporting outcomes after adjuvant and salvage postprostatectomy hypofractionated RT are sparse. Therefore, we report the toxicity and clinical outcomes after postprostatectomy hypofractionated RT. Methods and Materials: From a prospectively maintained database, men receiving image guided hypofractionated intensity modulated RT (HIMRT) with 2.5-Gy fractions constituted our study population. Androgen deprivation therapy was used at the discretion of the radiation oncologist. Acute toxicities were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Late toxicities were scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer scale. Biochemical recurrence was defined as an increase of 0.1 in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) from posttreatment nadir or an increase in PSA despite treatment. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for the time-to-event outcomes. Results: Between April 2008 and April 2012, 56 men received postoperative HIMRT. The median follow-up time was 48 months (range, 21-67 months). Thirty percent had pre-RT PSA <0.1; the median pre-RT detectable PSA was 0.32 ng/mL. The median RT dose was 65 Gy (range, 57.5-65 Gy). Ten patients received neoadjuvant and concurrent hormone therapy. Posttreatment acute urinary toxicity was limited. There was no acute grade 3 toxicity. Late genitourinary (GU) toxicity of any grade was noted in 52% of patients, 40% of whom had pre-RT urinary incontinence. The 4-year actuarial rate of late grade 3 GU toxicity (exclusively gross hematuria) was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16%-41%). Most grade 3 GU toxicity resolved; only 7% had persistent grade ≥3 toxicity at the last follow-up visit. Fourteen patients experienced biochemical recurrence at a

  8. Quantification of uncertainties in conventional plan evaluation methods in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbumani, Surega; Arunai Nambi Raj, N; S Prabhakar, Girish; Anchineyan, Pichandi; Bilimagga, Ramesh S; Palled, Siddanna R; Chairmadhurai, Arun

    2014-01-01

    In Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) dose distributions tend to be more complex and heterogeneous because of the modulated fluences in each beamlet of every single beam. These dose-volume (DV) parameters derived from the dose volume histogram (DVH) are physical quantities, thought to correlate with the biological response of the tissues. The aim of this study was to quantify the uncertainty of physical dose metrics to predict clinical outcomes of radiotherapy. The radiobiological estimates such as tumor control probability (TCP) and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) were made for a cohort of 40 cancer patients (10 brain;19 head & neck;11 cervix) using the DV parameters. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the correlation of physical plan quality indicators with radiobiological estimates. The correlation between conformity index (CI) and TCP was found to be good and the dosimetric parameters for optic nerves, optic chiasm, brain stem, normal brain and parotids correlated well with the NTCP estimates. A follow up study (median duration 18 months) was also performed. There was no grade 3 or 4 normal tissue complications observed. Local tumor control was found to be higher in brain (90%) and pelvic cases (95%), whereas a decline of 70% was noted with head & neck cancer cases. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) concept of radiobiological model used in the software determines TCP and NTCP values which can predict outcomes precisely using DV data in the voxel level. The uncertainty of using physical dose metrics for plan evaluation is quantified with the statistical analysis. Radiobiological evaluation is helpful in ranking the rival treatment plans also.

  9. Volumetric modulated arc therapy for carotid sparing in the management of early glottic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Lee, Sol Min; Kim, Gwi Eon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Gi; Park, Jong In; Sung, Won Mo [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Dept. of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Radiotherapy of the neck is known to cause carotid artery stenosis. We compared the carotid artery dose received between volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and conventional fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans in patients with early glottic cancer. Twenty-one early glottic cancer patients who previously underwent definitive radiotherapy were selected for this study. For each patient, double arc VMAT, 8-field IMRT, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), and lateral parallel-opposed photon field radiotherapy (LPRT) plans were created. The 3DCRT plan was generated using lateral parallel-opposed photon fields plus an anterior photon field. VMAT and IMRT treatment plan optimization was performed under standardized conditions to obtain adequate target volume coverage and spare the carotid artery. Dose-volume specifications for the VMAT, IMRT, 3DCRT, and LPRT plans were calculated with radiotherapy planning system. Monitor units (MUs) and delivery time were measured to evaluate treatment efficiency. Target volume coverage and homogeneity results were comparable between VMAT and IMRT; however, VMAT was superior to IMRT for carotid artery dose sparing. The mean dose to the carotid arteries in double arc VMAT was reduced by 6.8% compared to fixed-field IMRT (p < 0.001). The MUs for VMAT and IMRT were not significantly different (p = 0.089). VMAT allowed an approximately two-fold reduction in treatment delivery time in comparison to IMRT (3 to 5 minutes vs. 5 to 10 minutes). VMAT resulted in a lower carotid artery dose compared to conventional fixed-field IMRT, and maintained good target coverage in patients with early glottic cancer.

  10. Applicator-guided volumetric-modulated arc therapy for low-risk endometrial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cilla, Savino, E-mail: savinocilla@gmail.com [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Macchia, Gabriella [Radiation Oncology Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Sabatino, Domenico [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Digesù, Cinzia; Deodato, Francesco [Radiation Oncology Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Piermattei, Angelo [Physics Institute, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome (Italy); De Spirito, Marco [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Morganti, Alessio G. [Radiation Oncology Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Radiation Oncology Unit, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to report the feasibility of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in the postoperative irradiation of the vaginal vault. Moreover, the VMAT technique was compared with 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), in terms of target coverage and organs at risk sparing. The number of monitor units and the delivery time were analyzed to score the treatment efficiency. All plans were verified in a dedicated solid water phantom using a 2D array of ionization chambers. Twelve patients with endometrial carcinoma who underwent radical hystero-adenexectomy and fixed-field IMRT treatments were retrospectively included in this analysis; for each patient, plans were compared in terms of dose-volume histograms, homogeneity index, and conformity indexes. All techniques met the prescription goal for planning target volume coverage, with VMAT showing the highest level of conformity at all dose levels. VMAT resulted in significant reduction of rectal and bladder volumes irradiated at all dose levels compared with 3D-CRT. No significant differences were found with respect to IMRT. Moreover, a significant improvement of the dose conformity was reached by VMAT technique not only at the 95% dose level (0.74 vs. 0.67 and 0.62) but also at 50% and 75% levels of dose prescription. In addition, VMAT plans showed a significant reduction of monitor units by nearly 28% with respect to IMRT, and reduced treatment time from 11 to <3 minutes for a single 6-Gy fraction. In conclusion, VMAT plans can be planned and carried out with high quality and efficiency for the irradiation of vaginal vault alone, providing similar or better sparing of organs at risk to fixed-field IMRT and resulting in the most efficient treatment option. VMAT is currently our standard approach for radiotherapy of low-risk endometrial cancer.

  11. A review of stereotactic body radiotherapy – is volumetric modulated arc therapy the answer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapkaroski, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.sapkaroski@gmail.com; Osborne, Catherine; Knight, Kellie A [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a high precision radiotherapy technique used for the treatment of small to moderate extra-cranial tumours. Early studies utilising SBRT have shown favourable outcomes. However, major disadvantages of static field SBRT include long treatment times and toxicity complications. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) may potentially mitigate these disadvantages. This review aims to assess the feasibility of emerging VMAT and IMRT-based SBRT treatment techniques and qualify which offers the best outcome for patients, whilst identifying any emerging and advantageous SBRT planning trends. A review and synthesis of data from current literature up to September 2013 was conducted on EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Proquest central, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews. Only full text papers comparing VMAT and or IMRT and or Static SBRT were included. Ten papers were identified that evaluated the results of VMAT/IMRT SBRT. Five related to medically inoperable stage 1 and 2 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), three to spinal metastasis, one related to abdominal lymph node malignancies, with the final one looking at pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Overall treatment times with VMAT were reduced by 66–70% for lung, 46–58% for spine, 42% and 21% for lymph node and pancreatic metastasis respectively, planning constraints were met with several studies showing improved organs at risk sparing with IMRT/VMAT to static SBRT. Both IMRT and VMAT were able to meet all planning constraints in the studies reviewed, with VMAT offering the greatest treatment efficiency. Early clinical outcomes with VMAT and IMRT SBRT have demonstrated excellent local control and favourable survival outcomes.

  12. Observation of $\\eta'$ decays to $\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0$ and $\\pi^+\\pi^-\\e^+e^-$

    OpenAIRE

    CLEO Collaboration; Naik, P.

    2008-01-01

    Using psi(2S) --> pi+ pi- J/psi, J/psi --> gamma eta' events acquired with the CLEO-c detector at the CESR e+e- collider, we make the first observations of the decays eta' --> pi+ pi- pi0 and eta' --> pi+ pi- e+ e-, measuring absolute branching fractions (37 +11 -9 +- 4) x 10^-4 and (25 +12 -9 +- 5) x 10^-4, respectively. For eta' --> pi+ pi- pi0, this result probes the mechanism of isospin violation and the roles of pi0/eta/eta'-mixing and final state rescattering in strong decays. We also s...

  13. Assessing the Dosimetric Impact of Real-Time Prostate Motion During Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azcona, Juan Diego, E-mail: jdazcona@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Division of Radiation Physics, Department of Oncology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Xing, Lei; Chen, Xin; Bush, Karl; Li, Ruijiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To develop a method for dose reconstruction by incorporating the interplay effect between aperture modulation and target motion, and to assess the dosimetric impact of real-time prostate motion during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods and Materials: Clinical VMAT plans were delivered with the TrueBeam linac for 8 patients with prostate cancer. The real-time target motion during dose delivery was determined based on the 2-dimensional fiducial localization using an onboard electronic portal imaging device. The target shift in each image was correlated with the control point with the same gantry angle in the VMAT plan. An in-house-developed Monte Carlo simulation tool was used to calculate the 3-dimensional dose distribution for each control point individually, taking into account the corresponding real-time target motion (assuming a nondeformable target with no rotation). The delivered target dose was then estimated by accumulating the dose from all control points in the plan. On the basis of this information, dose–volume histograms and 3-dimensional dose distributions were calculated to assess their degradation from the planned dose caused by target motion. Thirty-two prostate motion trajectories were analyzed. Results: The minimum dose to 0.03 cm{sup 3} of the gross tumor volume (D{sub 0.03cc}) was only slightly degraded after taking motion into account, with a minimum value of 94.1% of the planned dose among all patients and fractions. However, the gross tumor volume receiving prescription dose (V{sub 100%}) could be largely affected by motion, dropping below 60% in 1 trajectory. We did not observe a correlation between motion magnitude and dose degradation. Conclusions: Prostate motion degrades the delivered dose to the target in an unpredictable way, although its effect is reduced over multiple fractions, and for most patients the degradation is small. Patients with greater prostate motion or those treated with stereotactic body

  14. The dosimetric effects of photon energy on the quality of prostate volumetric modulated arc therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Malcolm D; Tai, Cyril; Lee, Alvin; Ashamalla, Hani; Ikoro, N C

    2014-01-01

    Studies comparing the dosimetric effects of high- and low-energy photons to treat prostate cancer using 3-dimensional conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapy have yielded mixed results. With the advent of newer radiation delivery systems like volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), the impact of changing photon energy is readdressed. Sixty-five patients treated for prostate cancer at our institution from 2011 to 2012 underwent CT simulation. A target volume encompassing the prostate and entire seminal vesicles was treated to 50.4 Gy, followed by a boost to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles to a total dose of 81 Gy. The VMAT plans were generated for 6-MV and 10-MV photons under identical optimization conditions using the Eclipse system version 8.6 (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The analytical anisotropic algorithm was used for all dose calculations. Plans were normalized such that 98% of the planning target volume (PTV) received 100% of the prescribed dose. Dose-volumetric data from the treatment planning system was recorded for both 6-MV and 10-MV plans, which were compared for both the entire cohort and subsets of patients stratified according to the anterior-posterior separation. Plans using 10-MV photons had statistically significantly lower relative integral dose (4.1%), gradient measure (4.1%), skin Dmax (16.9%), monitor units (13.0%), and bladder V(30) (3.1%) than plans using 6-MV photons (P photons was more pronounced for thicker patients (anterior-posterior separation >21 cm) for most parameters, with statistically significant differences in bladder V(30), bladder V(65), integral dose, conformity index, and monitor units. The main dosimetric benefits of 10-MV as compared with 6-MV photons are seen in thicker patients, though for the entire cohort 10-MV plans resulted in a lower integral dose, gradient measure, skin Dmax, monitor units, and bladder V(30), possibly at the expense of higher rectum V(81). Copyright © 2014

  15. Search for the $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta^\\prime$ and $\\Lambda_b^0\\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta$ decays with the LHCb detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casanova Mohr, Raimon; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Matthieu, Kecke; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Ninci, Daniele; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Sterpka, Christopher Francis; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    A search is performed for the as yet unobserved baryonic $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta^\\prime$ and $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta$ decays with 3$fb^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data recorded by the LHCb experiment. The $B^0 \\rightarrow K_S^0 \\eta^\\prime$ decay is used as a normalisation channel. No significant signal is observed for the $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta^\\prime$ decay. An upper limit is found on the branching fraction of $\\mathcal{B}(\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta^\\prime)<3.1\\times10^{-6}$ at 90% confidence level. Evidence is seen for the presence of the $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta$ decay at the level of $3\\sigma$ significance, with a branching fraction $\\mathcal{B}(\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta)=(9.3^{+7.3}_{-5.3})\\times10^{-6}$.

  16. Search for the decays {eta}{r_arrow}{mu}{ital e} and {eta}{r_arrow}{ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.B.; Tippens, W.B.; Abegg, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Boudard, A.; Briscoe, W.; Fabbro, B.; Garcon, M.; Hermes, E.A.; Jacobs, W.W.; Kessler, R.S.; Lytkin, L.; Mayer, B.; Nefkens, B.M.; Niebuhr, C.; Petrov, A.M.; Poitou, J.; Saudinos, J.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; van der Schaaf, A.; van Oers, W.T.; Vigdor, S.E.; Wang, M. [UCLA Department of Physics, Los Angeles, California 90024-1547 (United States)]|[TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6TH2A3]|[Service de Physique Nucleaire, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[Center for Nuclear Studies and Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, D.C., 20052 (United States)]|[Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8001 Zuerich (Switzerland)]|[Laboratoire National Saturne, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)]|[Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, 141980 Dubna, Moscow District (Russia)

    1996-06-01

    A search for the lepton-family-violating decay {eta}{r_arrow}{mu}{ital e} and the rare decay {eta}{r_arrow}{ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} yields the following branching ratio ({ital B}) upper limits at a 90{percent} confidence level: {ital B}({eta}{r_arrow}{mu}{ital e}){lt}6{times}10{sup {minus}6} and {ital B}({eta}{r_arrow}{ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}}){lt}2{times}10{sup {minus}4}. This is the first direct search for {eta}{r_arrow}{mu}{ital e}. The measurements were carried out at the SPES2 tagged {eta} facility at Laboratoire National Saturne in the course of a measurement of {ital B}({eta}{r_arrow}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}}). {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  17. Measurement of the B+ --> eta l+ nu and B+ --> eta' l+ nu Branching Fractions using Upsilon(4S)-->BBbar Events Tagged by a Fully Reconstructed B Meson

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Bóna, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Hart, A J; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev,Y K; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martínez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihályi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-01-01

    We report preliminary measurements of the exclusive charmless semileptonic branching fractions of the B+ --> eta l+ nu and B+ --> eta' l+ nu decays. These measurements are based on 316 fb-1 of data collected at the Y(4S) resonance by the BABAR detector. In events in which the decay of one B meson to a hadronic final state is fully reconstructed, the semileptonic decay of the recoiling B meson is identified by the detection of a charged lepton and an eta or eta'. We measure the branching fraction BR(B+ --> eta l+ nu) = (0.84 +/- 0.27 +/- 0.21) x 10-4, where the first error is statistical and the second one systematic. We also set an upper limit on the branching fraction of BR(B+ --> eta l+ nu) eta' l+ nu) < 1.3 x 10^-4 at the 90% confidence level.

  18. Measurement of $\\Gamma(\\eta \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-\\gamma)/\\Gamma(\\eta \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0)$ with KLOE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, M.; Archilli, F.; Balwierz, I.; Bencivenni, G.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocchetta, S.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Ceradini, F.; Ciambrone, P.; Czerwiński, E.; De Lucia, E.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Micco, B.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Graziani, E.; Jacewicz, M.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Massarotti, P.; Meola, S.; Miscetti, S.; Morello, G.; Moulson, M.; Müller, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nguyen, F.; Palutan, M.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Prado Longhi, I.; Santangelo, P.; Sciascia, B.; Silarski, M.; Spadaro, T.; Taccini, C.; Tortora, L.; Venanzoni, G.; Versaci, R.; Xu, G.; Zdebik, J.; Babusci, D.; Badoni, D.; Bocci, V.; Budano, A.; Bulychjev, S.A.; Campana, P.; Dané, E.; De Robertis, G.; Domenici, D.; Erriquez, O.; Fanizzi, G.; Gonnella, F.; Happacher, F.; Höistad, B.; Iarocci, E.; Johansson, T.; Kulikov, V.; Kupsc, A.; Loddo, F.; Matsyuk, M.; Messi, R.; Moricciani, D.; Moskal, P.; Ranieri, A.; Sarra, I.; Schioppa, M.; Sciubba, A.; Wiślicki, W.; Wolke, M.

    2011-01-01

    We report the measurement of the ratio $\\Gamma(\\eta \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-\\gamma)/\\Gamma(\\eta \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0)$ analyzing a large sample of $\\phi \\to \\eta \\gamma$ decays recorded with the KLOE experiment at the DA$\\Phi$NE $e^+ e^-$ collider, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 558 pb$^{-1}$. The $\\eta \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-\\gamma$ process is supposed to proceed both via a resonant contribution, mediated by the $\\rho$ meson, and a non resonant direct term, connected to the box anomaly. The presence of the direct term affects the partial width value. Our result $R_{\\eta}=\\Gamma(\\eta \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^- \\gamma)/\\Gamma(\\eta \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^- \\pi^0)= 0.1838\\pm 0.0005_{stat} \\pm 0.0030_{syst}$ is in agreement with a recent CLEO measurement, which differs by more 3 $\\sigma$ from the average of previous results.

  19. Replanning During Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Improved Quality of Life in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Haihua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Taizhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Hu Wei, E-mail: huw@enzemed.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Taizhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang Wei; Chen Peifang; Ding Weijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Taizhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Luo Wei [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Anatomic and dosimetric changes have been reported during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of replanning on quality of life (QoL) and clinical outcomes during the course of IMRT for NPC patients. Methods and Materials: Between June 2007 and August 2011, 129 patients with NPC were enrolled. Forty-three patients received IMRT without replanning, while 86 patients received IMRT replanning after computed tomography (CT) images were retaken part way through therapy. Chinese versions of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and Head and Neck Quality of Life Questionnaire 35 were completed before treatment began and at the end of treatment and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the completion of treatment. Overall survival (OS) data were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: IMRT replanning had a profound impact on the QoL of NPC patients, as determined by statistically significant changes in global QoL and other QoL scales. Additionally, the clinical outcome comparison indicates that replanning during IMRT for NPC significantly improved 2-year local regional control (97.2% vs 92.4%, respectively, P=.040) but did not improve 2-year OS (89.8% vs 82.2%, respectively, P=.475). Conclusions: IMRT replanning improves QoL as well as local regional control in patients with NPC. Future research is needed to determine the criteria for replanning for NPC patients undergoing IMRT.

  20. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in the Salvage of Locally Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Sufang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, National University Cancer Institute, National University Health System, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Lin Shaojun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Tham, Ivan W.K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, National University Cancer Institute, National University Health System, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Pan Jianji; Lu Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Lu, Jiade J., E-mail: mdcljj@nus.edu.sg [Department of Radiation Oncology, National University Cancer Institute, National University Health System, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Local recurrences of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) may be salvaged by reirradiation with conventional techniques, but with significant morbidity. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may improve the therapeutic ratio by reducing doses to normal tissue. The aim of this study was to address the efficacy and toxicity profile of IMRT for a cohort of patients with locally recurrent NPC. Methods and Materials: Between August 2003 and June 2009, 70 patients with radiologic or pathologically proven locally recurrent NPC were treated with IMRT. The median time to recurrence was 30 months after the completion of conventional radiation to definitive dose. Fifty-seven percent of the tumors were classified asrT3-4. The minimum planned doses were 59.4 to 60 Gy in 1.8- to 2-Gy fractions per day to the gross disease with margins, with or without chemotherapy. Results: The median dose to the recurrent tumor was 70 Gy (range, 50-77.4 Gy). Sixty-five patients received the planned radiation therapy; 5 patients received between 50 and 60 Gy because of acute side effects. With a median follow-up time of 25 months, the rates of 2-year locoregional recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 65.8%, 65.8%, and 67.4%, respectively. Moderate to severe late toxicities were noted in 25 patients (35.7%). Eleven patients (15.7%) had posterior nasal space ulceration, 17 (24.3%) experienced cranial nerve palsies, 12 (17.1%) had trismus, and 12 (17.1%) experienced deafness. Extended disease-free interval (relative risk 2.049) and advanced T classification (relative risk 3.895) at presentation were adverse prognostic factors. Conclusion: Reirradiation with IMRT provides reasonable long-term control in patients with locally recurrent NPC.

  1. Target tracking using DMLC for volumetric modulated arc therapy: A simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Baozhou; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Papiez, Lech; Oddiraju, Swetha; Yang Deshan; Li, H. Harold [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Washington University, 4921 Parkview Place, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Southwestern Medical Center, University of Texas, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Washington University, 4921 Parkview Place, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: Target tracking using dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) is a promising approach for intrafraction motion management in radiation therapy. The purpose of this work is to develop a DMLC tracking algorithm capable of delivering volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to the targets that experience two-dimensional (2D) rigid motion in the beam's eye view. Methods: The problem of VMAT delivery to moving targets is formulated as a control problem with constraints. The relationships between gantry speed, gantry acceleration, MLC leaf-velocity, dose rate, and target motion are derived. An iterative search algorithm is developed to find numerical solutions for efficient delivery of a specific VMAT plan to the moving target using 2D DMLC tracking. The delivery of five VMAT lung plans is simulated. The planned and delivered fluence maps in the target-reference frame are calculated and compared. Results: The simulation demonstrates that the 2D tracking algorithm is capable of delivering the VMAT plan to a moving target fast and accurately without violating the machine constraints and the integrity of the treatment plan. The average delivery time is only 29 s longer than that of no-tracking delivery, 101 versus 72 s, respectively. The fluence maps are normalized to 200 MU and the average root-mean-square error between the desired and the delivered fluence is 2.1 MU, compared to 14.8 MU for no-tracking and 3.6 MU for one-dimensional tracking. Conclusions: A locally optimal MLC tracking algorithm for VMAT delivery is proposed, aiming at shortest delivery time while maintaining treatment plan invariant. The inconsequential increase of treatment time due to DMLC tracking is clinically desirable, which makes VMAT with DMLC tracking attractive in treating moving tumors.

  2. Fast voxel and polygon ray-tracing algorithms in intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christopher; Romeijn, H Edwin; Dempsey, James F

    2006-05-01

    We present work on combining three algorithms to improve ray-tracing efficiency in radiation therapy dose computation. The three algorithms include: An improved point-in-polygon algorithm, incremental voxel ray tracing algorithm, and stereographic projection of beamlets for voxel truncation. The point-in-polygon and incremental voxel ray-tracing algorithms have been used in computer graphics and nuclear medicine applications while the stereographic projection algorithm was developed by our group. These algorithms demonstrate significant improvements over the current standard algorithms in peer reviewed literature, i.e., the polygon and voxel ray-tracing algorithms of Siddon for voxel classification (point-in-polygon testing) and dose computation, respectively, and radius testing for voxel truncation. The presented polygon ray-tracing technique was tested on 10 intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning cases that required the classification of between 0.58 and 2.0 million voxels on a 2.5 mm isotropic dose grid into 1-4 targets and 5-14 structures represented as extruded polygons (a.k.a. Siddon prisms). Incremental voxel ray tracing and voxel truncation employing virtual stereographic projection was tested on the same IMRT treatment planning cases where voxel dose was required for 230-2400 beamlets using a finite-size pencil-beam algorithm. Between a 100 and 360 fold cpu time improvement over Siddon's method was observed for the polygon ray-tracing algorithm to perform classification of voxels for target and structure membership. Between a 2.6 and 3.1 fold reduction in cpu time over current algorithms was found for the implementation of incremental ray tracing. Additionally, voxel truncation via stereographic projection was observed to be 11-25 times faster than the radial-testing beamlet extent approach and was further improved 1.7-2.0 fold through point-classification using the method of translation over the cross product technique.

  3. Adoption of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy For Early-Stage Breast Cancer From 2004 Through 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Elyn H. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Mougalian, Sarah S. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Soulos, Pamela R. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a newer method of radiation therapy (RT) that has been increasingly adopted as an adjuvant treatment after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). IMRT may result in improved cosmesis compared to standard RT, although at greater expense. To investigate the adoption of IMRT, we examined trends and factors associated with IMRT in women under the age of 65 with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study of early stage breast cancer patients treated with BCS followed by whole-breast irradiation (WBI) who were ≤65 years old in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004 to 2011. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of IMRT (vs standard RT). Results: We identified 11,089 women with early breast cancer (9.6%) who were treated with IMRT and 104,448 (90.4%) who were treated with standard RT, after BCS. The proportion of WBI patients receiving IMRT increased yearly from 2004 to 2009, with 5.3% of WBI patients receiving IMRT in 2004 and 11.6% receiving IMRT in 2009. Further use of IMRT declined afterward, with the proportion remaining steady at 11.0% and 10.7% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Patients treated in nonacademic community centers were more likely to receive IMRT (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-1.43 for nonacademic vs academic center). Compared to privately insured patients, the uninsured patients (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95) and those with Medicaid insurance (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.95) were less likely to receive IMRT. Conclusions: The use of IMRT rose from 2004 to 2009 and then stabilized. Important nonclinical factors associated with IMRT use included facility type and insurance status.

  4. Expert Consensus Contouring Guidelines for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Esophageal and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Abraham J., E-mail: wua@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Chang, Daniel T. [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Hong, Theodore S. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Jabbour, Salma K. [Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Kleinberg, Lawrence R. [Johns Hopkins Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Mamon, Harvey J. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Sciences University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Goodman, Karyn A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose/Objective(s): Current guidelines for esophageal cancer contouring are derived from traditional 2-dimensional fields based on bony landmarks, and they do not provide sufficient anatomic detail to ensure consistent contouring for more conformal radiation therapy techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Therefore, we convened an expert panel with the specific aim to derive contouring guidelines and generate an atlas for the clinical target volume (CTV) in esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Methods and Materials: Eight expert academically based gastrointestinal radiation oncologists participated. Three sample cases were chosen: a GEJ cancer, a distal esophageal cancer, and a mid-upper esophageal cancer. Uniform computed tomographic (CT) simulation datasets and accompanying diagnostic positron emission tomographic/CT images were distributed to each expert, and the expert was instructed to generate gross tumor volume (GTV) and CTV contours for each case. All contours were aggregated and subjected to quantitative analysis to assess the degree of concordance between experts and to generate draft consensus contours. The panel then refined these contours to generate the contouring atlas. Results: The κ statistics indicated substantial agreement between panelists for each of the 3 test cases. A consensus CTV atlas was generated for the 3 test cases, each representing common anatomic presentations of esophageal cancer. The panel agreed on guidelines and principles to facilitate the generalizability of the atlas to individual cases. Conclusions: This expert panel successfully reached agreement on contouring guidelines for esophageal and GEJ IMRT and generated a reference CTV atlas. This atlas will serve as a reference for IMRT contours for clinical practice and prospective trial design. Subsequent patterns of failure analyses of clinical datasets using these guidelines may require modification in the future.

  5. Beam angle optimization for intensity-modulated radiation therapy using a guided pattern search method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Humberto; Dias, Joana M.; Ferreira, Brígida C.; Lopes, Maria C.

    2013-05-01

    Generally, the inverse planning of radiation therapy consists mainly of the fluence optimization. The beam angle optimization (BAO) in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) consists of selecting appropriate radiation incidence directions and may influence the quality of the IMRT plans, both to enhance better organ sparing and to improve tumor coverage. However, in clinical practice, most of the time, beam directions continue to be manually selected by the treatment planner without objective and rigorous criteria. The goal of this paper is to introduce a novel approach that uses beam’s-eye-view dose ray tracing metrics within a pattern search method framework in the optimization of the highly non-convex BAO problem. Pattern search methods are derivative-free optimization methods that require a few function evaluations to progress and converge and have the ability to better avoid local entrapment. The pattern search method framework is composed of a search step and a poll step at each iteration. The poll step performs a local search in a mesh neighborhood and ensures the convergence to a local minimizer or stationary point. The search step provides the flexibility for a global search since it allows searches away from the neighborhood of the current iterate. Beam’s-eye-view dose metrics assign a score to each radiation beam direction and can be used within the pattern search framework furnishing a priori knowledge of the problem so that directions with larger dosimetric scores are tested first. A set of clinical cases of head-and-neck tumors treated at the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Coimbra is used to discuss the potential of this approach in the optimization of the BAO problem.

  6. Dose-painted intensity modulated radiation therapy improves local control for locally advanced pancreas cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunceroglu, Ahmet; Park, Joo Han; Balasubramanian, Sairam; Poppe, Matthew; Anker, Christopher J; Poplin, Elizabeth; Moss, Rebecca A; Yue, Ning J; Carpizo, Darren; Gannon, Christopher J; Haffty, Bruce G; Jabbour, Salma K

    2012-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the outcomes, adverse events, and therapeutic role of Dose-Painted Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (DP-IMRT) for locally advanced pancreas cancer (LAPC). Methods. Patients with LAPC were treated with induction chemotherapy (n = 25) and those without metastasis (n = 20) received DP-IMRT consisting of 45 Gy to Planning Treatment Volume 1 (PTV1) including regional lymph nodes with a concomitant boost to the PTV2 (gross tumor volume + 0.5 cm) to either 50.4 Gy (n = 9) or 54 Gy (n = 11) in 25 fractions. DP-IMRT cases were compared to three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) plans to assess the potential relationship of radiation dose to adverse events. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to calculate survival probabilities. The Fisher exact test and t-test were utilized to investigate potential prognostic factors of toxicity and survival. Results. Median overall and progression-free survivals were 11.6 and 5.9 months, respectively. Local control was 90%. Post-RT CA-19-9 levels following RT were predictive of survival (P = 0.02). Grade 2 and ≥grade 3 GI toxicity were 60% and 20%, respectively. In comparison to 3D-CRT, DP-IMRT plans demonstrated significantly lower V45 values of small bowel (P = 0.0002), stomach (P = 0.007), and mean liver doses (P = 0.001). Conclusions. Dose-escalated DP-IMRT offers improved local control in patients treated with induction chemotherapy for LAPC. Radiation-related morbidity appears reduced with DP-IMRT compared to 3D-CRT techniques, likely due to reduction in RT doses to organs at risk.

  7. Prognostication of serial post-intensity-modulated radiation therapy undetectable plasma EBV DNA for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor Ho-Fun; Kwong, Dora Lai-Wan; Leung, To-Wai; Choi, Cheuk-Wai; Lai, Vincent; Ng, Lydia; Lam, Ka-On; Ng, Sherry Chor-Yi; Sze, Chun-Kin; Tong, Chi-Chung; Ho, Patty Pui-Ying; Chan, Wing-Lok; Wong, Lai-San; Leung, Dennis Kwok-Chuen; Chan, Sum-Yin; Khong, Pek-Lan

    2017-01-01

    Plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA titers have been used to monitor treatment response and provide prognostic information on survival for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the long-term prognostic role of pretreatment and posttreatment titers after radical contemporaneous radiation therapy remains uncertain. We recruited 260 evaluable patients with non-metastatic NPC treated with radical intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with or without adjunct chemotherapy. Plasma EBV DNA titers at baseline and then 8 weeks and 6 months after IMRT were measured. Cox regression models were employed to identify interaction between post-IMRT 8th week and 6th month undetectable titers and 3-year survival endpoints. Concordance indices (Ct) from time-dependent receiver-operating characteristics (TDROC) were compared between patients with post-IMRT undetectable and those with detectable titers. After a median follow-up duration of 3.4 years (range 1.4-4.6 years), patients with post-IMRT 8th week and 6th month undetectable plasma EBV DNA titers enjoyed longer 3-year survival endpoints than those who had detectable titers at the same time points. Post-IMRT 8th week, and more significantly, post-IMRT 6th month undetectable plasma EBV DNA were the only significant prognostic factors of 3-year survival endpoints. Ct values for all 3-year survival endpoints for both post-IMRT 8th week and 6th month undetectable plasma EBV DNA were significantly higher in those with stage IVA–IVB diseases compared to stage I-III counterparts. Early post-IMRT undetectable plasma EBV DNA titers were prognostic of 3-year survival endpoints in patients with non-metastatic NPC. Intensified treatment should be further explored for patients with persistently detectable titers after IMRT. PMID:28029657

  8. SU-F-T-79: Monte Carlo Investigation of Optimizing Parameters for Modulated Electron Arc Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Ashkar, E; Eraba, K; Imam, M [Azhar university, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Eldib, A; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Electron arc therapy provides excellent dose distributions for treating superficial tumors along curved surfaces. However this modality has not received widespread application due to the lack of needed advancement in electron beam delivery, accurate electron dose calculation and treatment plan optimization. The aim of the current work is to investigate possible parameters that can be optimized for electron arc (eARC) therapy. Methods: The MCBEAM code was used to generate phase space files for 6 and 12MeV electron beam energies from a Varian trilogy machine. An Electron Multi-leaf collimator eMLC of 2cm thickness positioned at 82 cm source collimated distance was used in the study. Dose distributions for electron arcs were calculated inside a cylindrical phantom using the MCSIM code. The Cylindrical phantom was constructed with 0.2cm voxels and a 15cm diameter. Electron arcs were delivered with two different approaches. The first approach was to deliver the arc as segments of very small field widths. In this approach we also tested the impact of the segment size and the arc increment angle. The second approach is to deliver the arc as a sum of large fields each covering the whole target as seen from the beam eye view. Results: In considering 90 % as the prescription isodose line, the first approach showed a region of buildup proceeding before the prescription zone. This build up is minimizing with the second approach neglecting need for bolus. The second approach also showed less x-ray contamination. In both approaches the variation of the segment size changed the size and location of the prescription isodose line. The optimization process for eARC could involve interplay between small and large segments to achieve desired coverage. Conclusion: An advanced modulation of eARCs will allow for tailored dose distribution for superficial curved target as with challenging scalp cases.

  9. A new method to reconstruct intra-fractional prostate motion in volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Y.; Rezaeian, N. H.; Shen, C.; Zhou, Y.; Lu, W.; Yang, M.; Hannan, R.; Jia, X.

    2017-07-01

    Intra-fractional motion is a concern during prostate radiation therapy, as it may cause deviations between planned and delivered radiation doses. Because accurate motion information during treatment delivery is critical to address dose deviation, we developed the projection marker matching method (PM3), a novel method for prostate motion reconstruction in volumetric modulated arc therapy. The purpose of this method is to reconstruct in-treatment prostate motion trajectory using projected positions of implanted fiducial markers measured in kV x-ray projection images acquired during treatment delivery. We formulated this task as a quadratic optimization problem. The objective function penalized the distance from the reconstructed 3D position of each fiducial marker to the corresponding straight line, defined by the x-ray projection of the marker. Rigid translational motion of the prostate and motion smoothness along the temporal dimension were assumed and incorporated into the optimization model. We tested the motion reconstruction method in both simulation and phantom experimental studies. We quantified the accuracy using 3D normalized root-mean-square (RMS) error defined as the norm of a vector containing ratios between the absolute RMS errors and corresponding motion ranges in three dimensions. In the simulation study with realistic prostate motion trajectories, the 3D normalized RMS error was on average ~0.164 (range from 0.097 to 0.333 ). In an experimental study, a prostate phantom was driven to move along a realistic prostate motion trajectory. The 3D normalized RMS error was ~0.172 . We also examined the impact of the model parameters on reconstruction accuracy, and found that a single set of parameters can be used for all the tested cases to accurately reconstruct the motion trajectories. The motion trajectory derived by PM3 may be incorporated into novel strategies, including 4D dose reconstruction and adaptive treatment replanning to address motion

  10. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With or Without Chemotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Phase II Trial 0225

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy; Harris, Jonathan; Garden, Adam S.; Straube, William; Glisson, Bonnie; Xia, Ping; Bosch, Walter; Morrison, William H.; Quivey, Jeanne; Thorstad, Wade; Jones, Christopher; Ang, K. Kian

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the feasibility of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with or without chemotherapy, and to assess toxicities, failure patterns, and survivals in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients and Methods Radiation consisted of 70 Gy given to the planning target volumes of primary tumor plus any N+ disease and 59.4 Gy given to subclinical disease, delivered over 33 treatment days. Patients with stage T2b or greater or with N+ disease also received concurrent cisplatin (100 mg/m2) on days 1, 22, and 43 followed by adjuvant cisplatin (80 mg/m2) on day 1; fluorouracil (1,000 mg/m2/d) on days 1 through 4 administered every 4 weeks for three cycles. Tumor, clinical status, and acute/late toxicities were assessed. The primary objective was to test the transportability of IMRT to a multi-institutional setting. Results Between February 2003 and November 2005, 68 patients with stages I through IVB NPC (of which 93.8% were WHO types 2 and 3) were enrolled. Prescribed IMRT (target delineation) was given to 83.8%, whereas 64.9% received chemotherapy per protocol. The estimated 2-year local progression-free (PF), regional PF, locoregional PF, and distant metastasis–free rates were 92.6%, 90.8%, 89.3%, and 84.7%, respectively. The estimated 2-year PF and overall survivals were 72.7% and 80.2%, respectively. Acute grade 4 mucositis occurred in 4.4%, and the worst late grade 3 toxicities were as follows: esophagus, 4.7%; mucous membranes, 3.1%; and xerostomia, 3.1%. The rate of grade 2 xerostomia at 1 year from start of IMRT was 13.5%. Only two patients complained of grade 3 xerostomia, and none had grade 4 xerostomia. Conclusion It was feasible to transport IMRT with or without chemotherapy in the treatment of NPC to a multi-institutional setting with 90% LRPF rate reproducing excellent reports from single institutions. Minimal grade 3 and lack of grade 4 xerostomia were encouraging. PMID:19564532

  11. Study of pp{yields}pp{eta} reaction at threshold; Etude de la reaction pp{yields}pp{eta} au seuil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleb, A.

    1994-11-01

    The {eta} production has been studied through the pp {yields} pp{eta} reaction at threshold. Data were taken at the Synchrotron of the ``Laboratoire National Saturne``. The detection in coincidence of the two protons scattered near 0 deg and analysed with the magnetic spectrometer SPES3 allows the reconstruction of missing mass spectra for the {eta} signature. A simulation program which takes into account all the experimental set up characteristics has been realized and tested through the pp {yields} d{pi}{sup +} reaction detected simultaneously with pp {yields} pp{eta}. The generated proton momentum spectra for pp {yields} pp{eta} show a pronounced {eta} mass dependence. This characteristic, connected to the kinematical properties of pp {yields} pp{eta} at threshold, is used to extract the mass of the meson {eta}. The obtained value, m{sub {eta}} = 547.65 {+-} 0.18 MeV, is in good agreement with measurement done recently through the pd {yields} {sup H}e{eta} reaction. The total cross section {sigma}{sub t} of pp {yields} pp{eta} measured at 1260, 1265 and 1300 MeV presents a strong energy dependence. This cross section increases less with energy than the phase-space. The influence of p-p and {eta}-p final state interactions in our measurements is studied. Our results are compared with theoretical predictions and assess the dominant character of the baryonic resonance N{sup *}(1535) in the {eta} mechanism production at threshold. These experimental results give an energy dependence which is not well reproduced by the theoretical predictions. This discrepancy could be an incorrect description of the {eta}-p interaction in the models. (author). 48 refs., 60 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Predictors of Dysgeusia in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer Treated With Chemotherapy and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapir, Eli [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Tao, Yebin [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Felix; Samuels, Stuart; El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Murdoch-Kinch, Carol A. [School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Eisbruch, Avraham, E-mail: eisbruch@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Objective(s): Dysgeusia is a significant factor reducing quality of life and worsening dysphagia in patients receiving chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer. The factors affecting dysgeusia severity are uncertain. We investigated the effects on patient-reported dysgeusia of doses to the oral cavity, salivary output (required to dissolve food particles), and patient-reported xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Seventy-three patients with stage III to IV oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) (N=73) receiving definitive intensity modulated radiation therapy concurrently with chemotherapy participated in a prospective, longitudinal study of quality of life (QOL), including assessment of patient-reported gustatory function by taste-related questions from the Head and Neck QOL instrument (HNQOL) and the University of Washington Head and Neck-related QOL instrument (UWQOL), before therapy and periodically after treatment. At these intervals, patients also completed a validated xerostomia-specific questionnaire (XQ) and underwent unstimulated and stimulated major salivary gland flow rate measurements. Results: At 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment, dysgeusia improved over time: severe dysgeusia was reported by 50%, 40%, 22%, and 23% of patients, respectively. Significant associations were found between patient-reported severe dysgeusia and radiation dose to the oral cavity (P=.005) and tongue (P=.019); normal tissue complication probability for severe dysgeusia at 3 months showed mean oral cavity D{sub 50} doses 53 Gy and 57 Gy in the HNQOL and WUQOL questionnaires, respectively, with curve slope (m) of 0.41. Measured salivary output was not statistically significantly correlated with severe taste dysfunction, whereas patient-reported XQ summary scores and xerostomia while eating scores were correlated with severe dysgeusia in the UWQOL tool (P=.04). Conclusions: Taste impairment is significantly correlated with mean radiation dose to the oral cavity. Patient

  13. Meningioma Causing Visual Impairment: Outcomes and Toxicity After Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maclean, Jillian, E-mail: jillian.maclean@uclh.nhs.uk [Radiotherapy Department, University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Fersht, Naomi [Radiotherapy Department, University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Bremner, Fion [Neuro-Ophthalmology Department, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom); Stacey, Chris; Sivabalasingham, Suganya [Radiotherapy Department, University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Short, Susan [Radiotherapy Department, University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, St James University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate ophthalmologic outcomes and toxicity of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with meningiomas causing visual deficits. Methods and Materials: A prospective observational study with formal ophthalmologic and clinical assessment of 30 consecutive cases of meningioma affecting vision treated with IMRT from 2007 to 2011. Prescriptions were 50.4 Gy to mean target dose in 28 daily fractions. The median follow-up time was 28 months. Twenty-six meningiomas affected the anterior visual pathway (including 3 optic nerve sheath meningiomas); 4 were posterior to the chiasm. Results: Vision improved objectively in 12 patients (40%). Improvements were in visual field (5/16 patients), color vision (4/9 patients), acuity (1/15 patients), extraocular movements (3/11 patients), ptosis (1/5 patients), and proptosis (2/6 patients). No predictors of clinical response were found. Two patients had minor reductions in tumor dimensions on magnetic resonance imaging, 1 patient had radiological progression, and the other patients were stable. One patient experienced grade 2 keratitis, 1 patient had a minor visual field loss, and 5 patients had grade 1 dry eye. Conclusion: IMRT is an effective method for treating meningiomas causing ophthalmologic deficits, and toxicity is minimal. Thorough ophthalmologic assessment is important because clinical responses often occur in the absence of radiological change.

  14. 4D-CBCT reconstruction using MV portal imaging during volumetric modulated arc therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Satoshi; Saotome, Naoya; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Hideomi; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Sakumi, Akira; Haga, Akihiro

    2011-09-01

    Recording target motion during treatment is important for verifying the irradiated region. Recently, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction from portal images acquired during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), known as VMAT-CBCT, has been investigated. In this study, we developed a four-dimensional (4D) version of the VMAT-CBCT. The MV portal images were sequentially acquired from an electronic portal imaging device. The flex, background, monitor unit, field size, and multi-leaf collimator masking corrections were considered during image reconstruction. A 4D VMAT-CBCT requires a respiratory signal during image acquisition. An image-based phase recognition (IBPR) method was performed using normalised cross correlation to extract a respiratory signal from the series of portal images. Our original IBPR method enabled us to reconstruct 4D VMAT-CBCT with no external devices. We confirmed that 4D VMAT-CBCT was feasible for two patients and in good agreement with in-treatment 4D kV-CBCT. The visibility of the anatomy in 4D VMAT-CBCT reconstruction for lung cancer patients has the potential of using 4D VMAT-CBCT as a tool for verifying relative positions of tumour for each respiratory phase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Establishing an optimized patient-specific verification program for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serna, Alfredo, E-mail: alfredo.serna@carm.es [Department of Medical Physics, Hospital Universitario Santa Lucía, Cartagena (Spain); Mata, Fernando; Puchades, Vicente [Department of Medical Physics, Hospital Universitario Santa Lucía, Cartagena (Spain)

    2013-10-01

    Quality assurance (QA) of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) increases the workload significantly. We compared the results from 4 verification methods to establish an efficient VMAT QA. Planning for VMAT treatments was carried out for 40 consecutive patients. Pretreatment verifications were carried out with ion chamber array Physikalish-Technische Werkstätten (PTW729), electronic portal dosimetry (EPID), ion chamber measurements, and independent dose calculation with Diamond program. 2D analyses were made using the gamma analysis (3 mm distance to agreement and 3% dose difference relative to maximum, 10% dose threshold). Average point dose difference calculated by Eclipse relative to ion chamber measurements and Diamond were 0.1%±0.9% and 0.6%±2.2%, respectively. Average pass rate for PTW729 was 99.2%±1.9% and 98.3%±1.3% for EPID. The total required time (linac occupancy time given in parentheses) for each QA method was: PTW729 43.5 minutes (26.5 minutes), EPID 14.5 minutes (2.5 minutes), ion chamber 34.5 minutes (26.5 minutes), and Diamond 12.0 minutes (0 minute). The results were consistent and allowed us to establish an optimized protocol, considering safety and accuracy as well as workload, consisting of 2 verification methods: EPID 2D analysis and independent dose calculation.

  16. A nested partitions framework for beam angle optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Souza, Warren D; Nazareth, Daryl P [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhang, Hao H; Shi Leyuan [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Meyer, Robert R [Computer Sciences Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)], E-mail: dsouzaw@ohsu.edu

    2008-06-21

    Coupling beam angle optimization with dose optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) increases the size and complexity of an already large-scale combinatorial optimization problem. We have developed a novel algorithm, nested partitions (NP), that is capable of finding suitable beam angle sets by guiding the dose optimization process. NP is a metaheuristic that is flexible enough to guide the search of a heuristic or deterministic dose optimization algorithm. The NP method adaptively samples from the entire feasible region, or search space, and coordinates the sampling effort with a systematic partitioning of the feasible region at successive iterations, concentrating the search in promising subsets. We used a 'warm-start' approach by initiating NP with beam angle samples derived from an integer programming (IP) model. In this study, we describe our implementation of the NP framework with a commercial optimization algorithm. We compared the NP framework with equi-spaced beam angle selection, the IP method, greedy heuristic and random sampling heuristic methods. The results of the NP approach were evaluated using two clinical cases (head and neck and whole pelvis) involving the primary tumor and nodal volumes. Our results show that NP produces better quality solutions than the alternative considered methods.

  17. Randomized Algorithms For High Quality Treatment Planning in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yu; Wen, Zaiwen

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has been becoming a more and more important radiation technique widely used in clinical application for cancer treatment. One of the key problems in VMAT is treatment plan optimization, which is complicated due to the constraints imposed by the involved equipments. In this paper, we consider a model with four major constraints: the bound on the beam intensity, an upper bound on the rate of the change of the beam intensity, the moving speed of leaves of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) and its directional-convexity. We solve the model by a two-stage algorithm: performing minimization with respect to the shapes of the aperture and the beam intensities alternatively. Specifically, the shapes of the aperture are obtained by a greedy algorithm whose performance is enhanced by random sampling in the leaf pairs with a decremental rate. The beam intensity is optimized using a gradient projection method with non-monotonic line search. We further improve the propo...

  18. Comparison of optimization algorithms in intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Rachel

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy is used to better conform the radiation dose to the target, which includes avoiding healthy tissue. Planning programs employ optimization methods to search for the best fluence of each photon beam, and therefore to create the best treatment plan. The Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR), a program written in MATLAB, was used to examine some commonly-used algorithms for one 5-beam plan. Algorithms include the genetic algorithm, quadratic programming, pattern search, constrained nonlinear optimization, simulated annealing, the optimization method used in Varian EclipseTM, and some hybrids of these. Quadratic programing, simulated annealing, and a quadratic/simulated annealing hybrid were also separately compared using different prescription doses. The results of each dose-volume histogram as well as the visual dose color wash were used to compare the plans. CERR's built-in quadratic programming provided the best overall plan, but avoidance of the organ-at-risk was rivaled by other programs. Hybrids of quadratic programming with some of these algorithms seems to suggest the possibility of better planning programs, as shown by the improved quadratic/simulated annealing plan when compared to the simulated annealing algorithm alone. Further experimentation will be done to improve cost functions and computational time.

  19. SU-E-P-18: Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Cervical Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, W; Qiao, X; Zhou, Z; Song, Y; Zhang, R; Zhen, C [The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze the outcomes and prognostic factors of cervical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: Thirty-seven patients with cervical esophageal SCC treated with IMRT were analyzed retrospectively. They received 54–66 Gy in 27–32 fractions. Nineteen patients received concurrent (n=12) or sequential (n=7) platinum-based two drugs chemoradiotherapy. Overall survival (OS), local control rates (LCR) and prognostic factors were evaluated. Acute toxicities and patterns of first failures were observed. Results: The median follow-up was 46 months for alive patients. The l-, 3-, 4- and 5-year OS of the all patients were 83.8%, 59.1%, 47.5% and 32.6% respectively. The median survival time was 46 months. The l-, 3-,4- and 5-year LCR were 82.9%, 63.0%, 54.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Univariate and Multivariate analysis all showed that size of GTV was an independent prognostic factor (p=0.033, p=0.039). There were no patients with Grade 3 acute radiation esophagitis and Grade 2–4 acute pneumonitis. The local failure accounted for 70.0% of all treatment-related failures. Conclusion: IMRT is safe and effective in the treatment of cervical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Size of GTV is an independent prognostic factor. Local failure still remains the main reason of treatment failures. The authors declare no conflicts of interest in preparing this article.

  20. Randomized algorithms for high quality treatment planning in volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Dong, Bin; Wen, Zaiwen

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has been becoming a more and more important radiation technique widely used in clinical application for cancer treatment. One of the key problems in VMAT is treatment plan optimization, which is complicated due to the constraints imposed by the involved equipments. In this paper, we consider a model with four major constraints: the bound on the beam intensity, an upper bound on the rate of the change of the beam intensity, the moving speed of leaves of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) and its directional-convexity. We solve the model by a two-stage algorithm: performing minimization with respect to the shapes of the aperture and the beam intensities alternatively. Specifically, the shapes of the aperture are obtained by a greedy algorithm whose performance is enhanced by random sampling in the leaf pairs with a decremental rate. The beam intensity is optimized using a gradient projection method with non-monotonic line search. We further improve the proposed algorithm by an incremental random importance sampling of the voxels to reduce the computational cost of the energy functional. Numerical simulations on two clinical cancer date sets demonstrate that our method is highly competitive to the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of both computational time and quality of treatment planning.

  1. A fast optimization algorithm for multicriteria intensity modulated proton therapy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Craft, David; Madden, Thomas M; Zhang, Kewu; Kooy, Hanne M; Herman, Gabor T

    2010-09-01

    To describe a fast projection algorithm for optimizing intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans and to describe and demonstrate the use of this algorithm in multicriteria IMPT planning. The authors develop a projection-based solver for a class of convex optimization problems and apply it to IMPT treatment planning. The speed of the solver permits its use in multicriteria optimization, where several optimizations are performed which span the space of possible treatment plans. The authors describe a plan database generation procedure which is customized to the requirements of the solver. The optimality precision of the solver can be specified by the user. The authors apply the algorithm to three clinical cases: A pancreas case, an esophagus case, and a tumor along the rib cage case. Detailed analysis of the pancreas case shows that the algorithm is orders of magnitude faster than industry-standard general purpose algorithms (MOSEK'S interior point optimizer, primal simplex optimizer, and dual simplex optimizer). Additionally, the projection solver has almost no memory overhead. The speed and guaranteed accuracy of the algorithm make it suitable for use in multicriteria treatment planning, which requires the computation of several diverse treatment plans. Additionally, given the low memory overhead of the algorithm, the method can be extended to include multiple geometric instances and proton range possibilities, for robust optimization.

  2. Dosimetric comparison of tools for intensity modulated radiation therapy with gamma analysis: a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Ugur; Okutan, Murat; Demir, Bayram; Koksal, Canan

    2015-07-01

    Dosimetry of the Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is very important because of the complex dose distributions. Diode arrays are the most common and practical measurement tools for clinical usage for IMRT. Phantom selection is critical for QA process. IMRT treatment plans are recalculated for the phantom irradiation in QA. Phantoms are made in different geometrical shapes to measure the doses of different types of irradiation techniques. Comparison of measured and calculated dose distributions for IMRT can be made by using gamma analysis. In this study, 10 head-and-neck IMRT QA plans were created with Varian Eclipse 8.9 treatment planning system. Water equivalent RW3-slab phantoms, Octavius-2 phantom and PTW Seven29 2D-array were used for QA measurements. Gantry, collimator and couch positions set to 00 and QA plans were delivered to RW3 and Octavius phantoms. Then the positions set to original angles and QA plans irradiated again. Measured and calculated fluence maps were evaluated with gamma analysis for different DD and DTA criteria. The effect of different set-up conditions for RW3 and Octavius phantoms in QA plan delivery evaluated by gamma analysis. Results of gamma analysis show that using RW3-slab phantoms with setting parameters to 00 is more appropriate for IMRT QA.

  3. Including robustness in multi-criteria optimization for intensity-modulated proton therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei; Trofimov, Alexei; Madden, Thomas; Kooy, Hanne; Bortfeld, Thomas; Craft, David

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to include robustness into a multi-criteria optimization (MCO) framework for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). The approach allows one to simultaneously explore the trade-off between different objectives as well as the trade-off between robustness and nominal plan quality. In MCO, a database of plans each emphasizing different treatment planning objectives, is pre-computed to approximate the Pareto surface. An IMPT treatment plan that strikes the best balance between the different objectives can be selected by navigating on the Pareto surface. In our approach, robustness is integrated into MCO by adding robustified objectives and constraints to the MCO problem. Uncertainties of the robust problem are modeled by pre-calculated dose-influence matrices for a nominal scenario and a number of pre-defined error scenarios. A robustified objective represents the worst objective function value that can be realized for any of the error scenarios. The optimization method is based on a linear...

  4. Efficacy and Feasibility of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer in Renal Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, J; Hashimoto, Yas; Hashimoto, Yai; Kondo, T; Takagi, T; Nozaki, T; Shimizu, T; Akimoto, T; Ishida, H; Karasawa, K; Tanabe, K

    2016-04-01

    In transplant patients with localized prostate cancer, irradiation is not proposed as often as it is in healthy adults because of the post-radiation risks, such as ureteral stenosis and gastrointestinal toxicity as the result of fragile tissue. The objective of the study was to analyze the efficacy and feasibility of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Between May 2005 and December 2014, all patients who had undergone IMRT for clinically localized prostate cancer at our institution were retrospectively identified (n = 365). Of these patients, 2 had a history of renal transplantation. We reviewed all available clinical data. One patient had a functioning graft and the other had restarted hemodialysis 7 years after the transplantation. The mean time from renal transplantation to prostate cancer diagnosis was 11 years. The mean follow-up after irradiation was 43 months. The 2 patients remain free of prostate-specific antigen progression. There was no severe acute and chronic genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity. Renal function of the patient with a functioning graft as measured by serum creatinine was stable during and after the irradiation. IMRT is feasible and acceptable as a minimally invasive treatment in the carefully selected RTRs with localized prostate cancer. This treatment should be considered a good option for RTRs with localized prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular switch of Cre/loxP for radiation modulated gene therapy on hepatoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Chen, Fu-Du; Wang, Fu Hui; Ke, Chien Chih; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Liu, Ren-Shyan

    2007-02-01

    For the purpose of enhancement of AFP promoter for the use of radiation modulated gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we combined hepatitis B virus (HBV) enhancer II with AFP promoter which shows the selectivity to the target cells to control the Cre/loxP system. Different gene constructs, pE4luc, pE4Tk, EIIAPA-Cre, E4CMV-STOP-Tk and chimeric promoters combined with HBV enhancer were constructed and transfected into HepG2, HeLa and NIH-3T3 cell lines. Cell experiments revealed that E4 enhancer responses to radiation best after 60 h irradiation at a dose range of 5-7 Gy in HepG2 stable clone. The EIIAPA promoter provided high specificity to hepatoma and activated the Cre downstream and removed the stop cassette only in hepatoma cells. After removal of the stop cassette, the E4 response to radiation could encode more Tk protein and kill more tumor cells. In summary, the chimeric EIIAPA promoter can stringently control the expression of Cre recombinase only in HCC. The radiation effect of the EIIAPA-Cre and E4CMV-STOP-Tk system shows promising results in terms of cell survival of HCC.

  6. Mathematical Models of the Impact of IL2 Modulation Therapies on T Cell Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Kalet; García-Martínez, Karina; Carmenate, Tania

    2013-12-11

    Several reports in the literature have drawn a complex picture of the effect of treatments aiming to modulate IL2 activity in vivo. They seem to promote either immunity or tolerance, probably depending on the specific context, dose, and timing of their application. Such complexity might derive from the pleiotropic role of IL2 in T cell dynamics. To theoretically address the latter possibility, our group has developed several mathematical models for Helper, Regulatory, and Memory T cell population dynamics, which account for most well-known facts concerning their relationship with IL2. We have simulated the effect of several types of therapies, including the injection of: IL2; antibodies anti-IL2; IL2/anti-IL2 immune-complexes; and mutant variants of IL2. We studied the qualitative and quantitative conditions of dose and timing for these treatments which allow them to potentiate either immunity or tolerance. Our results provide reasonable explanations for the existent pre-clinical and clinical data, predict some novel treatments, and further provide interesting practical guidelines to optimize the future application of these types of treatments.

  7. Direct-aperture optimization applied to selection of beam orientations in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, J. L.; Webb, S.

    2007-01-01

    Direct-aperture optimization (DAO) was applied to iterative beam-orientation selection in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), so as to ensure a realistic segmental treatment plan at each iteration. Nested optimization engines dealt separately with gantry angles, couch angles, collimator angles, segment shapes, segment weights and wedge angles. Each optimization engine performed a random search with successively narrowing step sizes. For optimization of segment shapes, the filtered backprojection (FBP) method was first used to determine desired fluence, the fluence map was segmented, and then constrained direct-aperture optimization was used thereafter. Segment shapes were fully optimized when a beam angle was perturbed, and minimally re-optimized otherwise. The algorithm was compared with a previously reported method using FBP alone at each orientation iteration. An example case consisting of a cylindrical phantom with a hemi-annular planning target volume (PTV) showed that for three-field plans, the method performed better than when using FBP alone, but for five or more fields, neither method provided much benefit over equally spaced beams. For a prostate case, improved bladder sparing was achieved through the use of the new algorithm. A plan for partial scalp treatment showed slightly improved PTV coverage and lower irradiated volume of brain with the new method compared to FBP alone. It is concluded that, although the method is computationally intensive and not suitable for searching large unconstrained regions of beam space, it can be used effectively in conjunction with prior class solutions to provide individually optimized IMRT treatment plans.

  8. Targeting epigenetic regulators for cancer therapy: modulation of bromodomain proteins, methyltransferases, demethylases, and microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelato, Kathy A; Shaikhibrahim, Zaki; Ocker, Matthias; Haendler, Bernard

    2016-07-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) were the first epigenetic targets to be successfully addressed for cancer treatment, but more recently additional families of epigenetic modulators have been the subject of intense research. Potent inhibitors have been identified in several instances and have proven to be invaluable tools for studying these proteins in normal physiology and in disease. Some have now progressed to clinical studies in hematological and solid tumors, and encouraging early results have been reported. This article reviews recent advances regarding the roles of new epigenetic players beyond HDACs and DNMTs in cancer, and discusses the impact of selective chemical probes on unravelling their function. The emerging field of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and ongoing clinical studies with epigenetic drugs and microRNAs (miRNAs) are also addressed. The roles of different epigenetic factors in numerous cancers have been unraveled recently, leading to the initiation of clinical studies. With inhibitors of BET bromodomain proteins, the histone methyltransferases EZH2 and DOT1L, and the histone demethylase LSD1 progressing through clinical trials, and the recognition of the importance of ncRNAs as potential biomarkers and therapeutics, this bears the hope that novel epigenetic therapies will be approved soon.

  9. Observation of eta_b(2S) in Upsilon(2S) -> gamma eta_b(2S), eta_b(2S) -> hadrons, and Confirmation of eta_b(1S)

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbs, S; Seth, Kamal K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T

    2012-01-01

    The data for 9.3 million Upsilon(2S) and 20.9 million Upsilon(1S) taken with the CLEO III detector has been used to study the radiative population of states identified by their decay into twenty six different exclusive hadronic final states. In the Upsilon(2S) decays an enhancement is observed at a ~5 sigma level at a mass of 9974.6+-2.3(stat)+-2.1(syst) MeV. It is attributed to eta_b(2S), and corresponds to the Upsilon(2S) hyperfine splitting of 48.7+-2.3(stat)+-2.1(syst) MeV. In the Upsilon(1S) decays, the identification of eta_b(1S) is confirmed at a ~3 sigma level with M(eta_b(1S)) in agreement with its known value.

  10. Evidence for the decay B0->\\eta \\pi^0

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, B; Abdesselam, A; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Said, S Al; Arinstein, K; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Ayad, R; Babu, V; Badhrees, I; Bakich, A M; Bobrov, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Browder, T E; Červenkov, D; Chang, M -C; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Dalseno, J; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dutta, D; Eidelman, S; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Ferber, T; Frost, O; Fulsom, B G; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Ganguly, S; Garmash, A; Getzkow, D; Gillard, R; Glattauer, R; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Grzymkowska, O; Hara, T; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; He, X H; Hou, W -S; Huschle, M; Hyun, H J; Iijima, T; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, Y; Jaegle, I; Julius, T; Kang, K H; Kato, E; Kiesling, C; Kim, D Y; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Ko, B R; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kuhr, T; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y -J; Lange, J S; Lee, D H; Lee, I S; Li, Y; Gioi, L Li; Libby, J; Liventsev, D; Lukin, P; Matvienko, D; Miyata, H; Mohanty, G B; Moll, A; Moon, H K; Nakamura, K R; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nanut, T; Natkaniec, Z; Nayak, M; Nishida, S; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Park, C W; Park, H; Pedlar, T K; Pesántez, L; Petrič, M; Piilonen, L E; Pulvermacher, C; Ribežl, E; Ritter, M; Rostomyan, A; Ryu, S; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santel, D; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Sato, Y; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Senyo, K; eon, O S; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shiu, J -G; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Sohn, Y -S; Solovieva, E; Stanič, S; Starič, M; mihama, M Su; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Tamponi, U; Teramoto, Y; Thorne, F; Uchida, M; Uehara, S; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Usov, Y; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; ova, A Vinokur; Vorobyev, V; Vossen, A; Wagner, M N; Wang, C H; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, Y; Won, E; Yamamoto, H; Yamaoka, J; Yashchenko, S; Zhang, Z P; lich, V Zhi; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A

    2015-01-01

    We report a search for the charmless hadronic decay B0 -> \\eta \\pi^0 with a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 694 fb^{-1} containing 753\\times 10^6 B\\bar{B} pairs. The data were collected by the Belle experiment running on the \\Upsilon(4S) resonance at the KEKB e^+e^- collider. We measure a branching fraction \\mathcal{B}(B^0\\to\\eta\\pi^0)=(4.1^{+1.7+0.5}_{-1.5-0.7})\\times 10^{-7}, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. Our measurement gives an upper limit of \\mathcal{B}(B^0\\to\\eta\\pi^0)<6.5\\times 10^{-7} at 90\\% confidence level. The signal has a significance of 3.0 standard deviations and constitutes the first evidence for this decay mode.

  11. DARHT II Scaled Accelerator Tests on the ETA II Accelerator*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, J T; Anaya Jr, E M; Caporaso, G J; Chambers, F W; Chen, Y; Falabella, S; Lee, B S; Paul, A C; Raymond, B A; Richardson, R A; Watson, J A; Chan, D; Davis, H A; Day, L A; Scarpetti, R D; Schultze, M E; Hughes, T P

    2005-05-26

    The DARHT II accelerator at LANL is preparing a series of preliminary tests at the reduced voltage of 7.8 MeV. The transport hardware between the end of the accelerator and the final target magnet was shipped to LLNL and installed on ETA II. Using the ETA II beam at 5.2 MeV we completed a set of experiments designed reduce start up time on the DARHT II experiments and run the equipment in a configuration adapted to the reduced energy. Results of the beam transport using a reduced energy beam, including the kicker and kicker pulser system will be presented.

  12. Start of Eta Car's X-ray Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Michael F.; Liburd, Jamar; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Gull, Theodore; Madura, Thomas; Teodoro, Mairan; Moffat, Anthony; Richardson, Noel; Russell, Chris; Pollock, Andrew; hide

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of Eta Car's X-ray spectrum in the 2-10 keV band using quicklook data from the XRay Telescope on Swift shows that the flux on July 30, 2014 was 4.9 plus or minus 2.0×10(exp-12) ergs s(exp-1)cm(exp-2). This flux is nearly equal to the X-ray minimum flux seen by RXTE in 2009, 2003.5, and 1998, and indicates that Eta Car has reached its X-ray minimum, as expected based on the 2024-day period derived from previous 2-10 keV observations with RXTE.

  13. Dosimetric advantages of intensity-modulated proton therapy for oropharyngeal cancer compared with intensity-modulated radiation: A case-matched control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Emma B; Kocak-Uzel, Esengul; Feng, Lei; Thaker, Nikhil G; Blanchard, Pierre; Rosenthal, David I; Gunn, G Brandon; Garden, Adam S; Frank, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    A potential advantage of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) over intensity-modulated (photon) radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) is lower radiation dose to several critical structures involved in the development of nausea and vomiting, mucositis, and dysphagia. The purpose of this study was to quantify doses to critical structures for patients with OPC treated with IMPT and compare those with doses on IMRT plans generated for the same patients and with a matched cohort of patients actually treated with IMRT. In this study, 25 patients newly diagnosed with OPC were treated with IMPT between 2011 and 2012. Comparison IMRT plans were generated for these patients and for additional IMRT-treated controls extracted from a database of patients with OPC treated between 2000 and 2009. Cases were matched based on the following criteria, in order: unilateral vs bilateral therapy, tonsil vs base of tongue primary, T-category, N-category, concurrent chemotherapy, induction chemotherapy, smoking status, sex, and age. Results showed that the mean doses to the anterior and posterior oral cavity, hard palate, larynx, mandible, and esophagus were significantly lower with IMPT than with IMRT comparison plans generated for the same cohort, as were doses to several central nervous system structures involved in the nausea and vomiting response. Similar differences were found when comparing dose to organs at risks (OARs) between the IMPT cohort and the case-matched IMRT cohort. In conclusion, these findings suggest that patients with OPC treated with IMPT may experience fewer and less severe side effects during therapy. This may be the result of decreased beam path toxicities with IMPT due to lower doses to several dysphagia, odynophagia, and nausea and vomiting-associated OARs. Further study is needed to evaluate differences in long-term disease control and chronic toxicity between patients with OPC treated with IMPT in comparison to those

  14. Comparison of a new noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique for craniospinal irradiation with 3 coplanar techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders T; Lukacova, Slavka; Lassen-Ramshad, Yasmin A.

    2015-01-01

    When standard conformal x-ray technique for craniospinal irradiation is used, it is a challenge to achieve satisfactory dose coverage of the target including the area of the cribriform plate, while sparing organs at risk. We present a new intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), noncoplanar...... patient using the noncoplanar IMRT-based technique, a coplanar IMRT-based technique, and a coplanar volumetric-modulated arch therapy (VMAT) technique. Dosimetry data for all patients were compared with the corresponding data from the conventional treatment plans. The new noncoplanar IMRT technique...... substantially reduced the mean dose to organs at risk compared with the standard radiation technique. The 2 other coplanar techniques also reduced the mean dose to some of the critical organs. However, this reduction was not as substantial as the reduction obtained by the noncoplanar technique. Furthermore...

  15. Determination of the quadratic slope parameter in eta-->3pi(0) decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippens, W B; Prakhov, S; Allgower, C E; Bekrenev, V; Berger, E; Briscoe, W J; Clajus, M; Comfort, J R; Craig, K; Efendiev, A; Grosnick, D; Holstein, B R; Huber, G M; Isenhower, D; Knecht, N; Koetke, D; Koulbardis, A; Kozlenko, N; Kruglov, S; Lolos, G J; Lopatin, I; Manley, D M; Marusić, A; Manweiler, R; McDonald, S; Nefkens, B M; Olmsted, J; Papandreou, Z; Phaisangittisakul, N; Price, J W; Pulver, M; Ramirez, A F; Sadler, M E; Shafi, A; Spinka, H; Stanislaus, S; Starostin, A; Staudenmaier, H M

    2001-11-05

    We have determined the quadratic slope parameter alpha for eta-->3pi(0) to be alpha = -0.031(4) from a 99% pure sample of 10(6)eta-->3pi(0) decays produced in the reaction pi(-)p-->n(eta) close to the eta threshold using the Crystal Ball detector at the AGS. The result is four times more precise than the present world data and disagrees with current chiral perturbation theory calculations by about four standard deviations.

  16. SU-F-T-184: 3D Range-Modulator for Scanned Particle Therapy: Development, Monte Carlo Simulations and Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeonov, Y; Penchev, P; Ringbaek, T Printz [University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany); Brons, S [Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Weber, U [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Zink, K [University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany); University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, Marburg (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Active raster scanning in particle therapy results in highly conformal dose distributions. Treatment time, however, is relatively high due to the large number of different iso-energy layers used. By using only one energy and the so called 3D range-modulator irradiation times of a few seconds only can be achieved, thus making delivery of homogeneous dose to moving targets (e.g. lung cancer) more reliable. Methods: A 3D range-modulator consisting of many pins with base area of 2.25 mm2 and different lengths was developed and manufactured with rapid prototyping technique. The form of the 3D range-modulator was optimised for a spherical target volume with 5 cm diameter placed at 25 cm in a water phantom. Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA package were carried out to evaluate the modulating effect of the 3D range-modulator and simulate the resulting dose distribution. The fine and complicated contour form of the 3D range-modulator was taken into account by a specially programmed user routine. Additionally FLUKA was extended with the capability of intensity modulated scanning. To verify the simulation results dose measurements were carried out at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) with a 400.41 MeV 12C beam. Results: The high resolution measurements show that the 3D range-modulator is capable of producing homogeneous 3D conformal dose distributions, simultaneously reducing significantly irradiation time. Measured dose is in very good agreement with the previously conducted FLUKA simulations, where slight differences were traced back to minor manufacturing deviations from the perfect optimised form. Conclusion: Combined with the advantages of very short treatment time the 3D range-modulator could be an alternative to treat small to medium sized tumours (e.g. lung metastasis) with the same conformity as full raster-scanning treatment. Further simulations and measurements of more complex cases will be conducted to investigate the full potential of the 3D

  17. Suitability of a Group Behavioural Therapy Module for Workplace Smoking Cessation Programs in Malaysia: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarof, Muhammad Faizal; Ali, Adliah Mhd; Amit, Noh; Bakry, Mohd Makmor; Taha, Nur Akmar

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, data on components suitability the established smoking cessation module is limited. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate the suitability of the components developed in the module for group behavioural therapy in workplace smoking cessation programs. Twenty staff were identified but only eight individuals were selected according to the study criteria during the recruitment period in May 2014. Focus group discussion was conducted to identify themes relevant to the behavioural issues among smokers. Thematic analysis yielded seven major themes which were reasons for regular smoking, reasons for quitting, comprehending smoking characteristics, quit attempt experiences, support and encouragement, learning new skills and behaviour, and preparing for lapse/relapse or difficult situations. As a result, the developed module was found to be relevant and suitable for use based on these themes.

  18. Range optimization for mono- and bi-energetic proton modulated arc therapy with pencil beam scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Parcerisa, Daniel; Kirk, Maura; Fager, Marcus; Burgdorf, Brendan; Stowe, Malorie; Solberg, Tim; Carabe, Alejandro

    2016-11-01

    The development of rotational proton therapy plans based on a pencil-beam-scanning (PBS) system has been limited, among several other factors, by the energy-switching time between layers, a system-dependent parameter that ranges between a fraction of a second and several seconds. We are investigating mono- and bi-energetic rotational proton modulated arc therapy (PMAT) solutions that would not be affected by long energy switching times. In this context, a systematic selection of the optimal proton energy for each arc is vital. We present a treatment planning comparison of four different range selection methods, analyzing the dosimetric outcomes of the resulting treatment plans created with the ranges obtained. Given the patient geometry and arc definition (gantry and couch trajectories, snout elevation) our in-house treatment planning system (TPS) FoCa was used to find the maximum, medial and minimum water-equivalent thicknesses (WETs) of the target viewed from all possible field orientations. Optimal ranges were subsequently determined using four methods: (1) by dividing the max/min WET interval into equal steps, (2) by taking the average target midpoints from each field, (3) by taking the average WET of all voxels from all field orientations, and (4) by minimizing the fraction of the target which cannot be reached from any of the available angles. After the range (for mono-energetic plans) or ranges (for bi-energetic plans) were selected, the commercial clinical TPS in use in our institution (Varian Eclipse™) was used to produce the PMAT plans using multifield optimization. Linear energy transfer (LET) distributions of all plans were also calculated using FoCa and compared among the different methods. Mono- and bi-energetic PMAT plans, composed of a single 180° arc, were created for two patient geometries: a C-shaped target located in the mediastinal area of a thoracic tissue-equivalent phantom and a small brain tumor located directly above the brainstem. All

  19. Osteoradionecrosis of the mandible. Minimized risk profile following Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, G.; Huguenin, P.; Luetolf, U.M.; Glanzmann, C. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Studer, S.P.; Zwahlen, R.A.; Graetz, K.W. [Dept. of Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-05-15

    Background and purpose: osteoradionecrosis (ON) of the mandible is a serious late complication of high-dose radiation therapy for tumors of the oropharynx and oral cavity. After doses between 60 and 72 Gy using standard fractionation, an incidence of ON between 5% and 15% is reported in a review from 1989, whereas in more recent publications using moderately accelerated or hyperfractionated irradiation and doses between 69 and 81 Gy, the incidence of ON is between < 1% and {proportional_to} 6%. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is expected to translate into a further important reduction of ON. The aim of this descriptive study was to assess absolute and relative bone volumes exposed to high IMRT doses, related to observed bone tolerance. Patients and methods: between December 2001 and November 2004, 73 of 123 patients treated with IMRT were identified as subgroup ''at risk'' for ON (> 60 Gy for oropharyngeal or oral cavity cancer). 21/73 patients were treated in a postoperative setting, 52 patients underwent primary definitive irradiation. In 56 patients concomitant cisplatin-based chemotherapy was applied. Mean follow-up time was 22 months (12-46 months). Oral cavity including the mandible bone outside the planning target volume was contoured and dose-volume constraints were defined in order to spare bone tissue. Dose-volume histograms were obtained from contoured mandible in each patient and were analyzed and related to clinical mandible bone tolerance. Results: using IMRT with doses between 60 and 75 Gy (mean 67 Gy), on average 7.8, 4.8, 0.9, and 0.3 cm{sup 3} were exposed to doses > 60, 65, 70, and 75 Gy, respectively. These values are substantially lower than when using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. The difference has been approximately quantified by comparison with a historic series. Additional ON risk factors of the patients were also analyzed. Only one grade 3 ON of the lingual horizontal branch, treated with

  20. Mixed integer programming with dose-volume constraints in intensity-modulated proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Fan, Neng; Shan, Jie; Schild, Steven E; Bues, Martin; Liu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    In treatment planning for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), we aim to deliver the prescribed dose to the target yet minimize the dose to adjacent healthy tissue. Mixed-integer programming (MIP) has been applied in radiation therapy to generate treatment plans. However, MIP has not been used effectively for IMPT treatment planning with dose-volume constraints. In this study, we incorporated dose-volume constraints in an MIP model to generate treatment plans for IMPT. We created a new MIP model for IMPT with dose volume constraints. Two groups of IMPT treatment plans were generated for each of three patients by using MIP models for a total of six plans: one plan was derived with the Limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) method while the other plan was derived with our MIP model with dose-volume constraints. We then compared these two plans by dose-volume histogram (DVH) indices to evaluate the performance of the new MIP model with dose-volume constraints. In addition, we developed a model to more efficiently find the best balance between tumor coverage and normal tissue protection. The MIP model with dose-volume constraints generates IMPT treatment plans with comparable target dose coverage, target dose homogeneity, and the maximum dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared to treatment plans from the conventional quadratic programming method without any tedious trial-and-error process. Some notable reduction in the mean doses of OARs is observed. The treatment plans from our MIP model with dose-volume constraints can meet all dose-volume constraints for OARs and targets without any tedious trial-and-error process. This model has the potential to automatically generate IMPT plans with consistent plan quality among different treatment planners and across institutions and better protection for important parallel OARs in an effective way. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on

  1. Multimodal hypoxia imaging and intensity modulated radiation therapy for unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer: the HIL trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askoxylakis Vasileios

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiotherapy, preferably combined with chemotherapy, is the treatment standard for locally advanced, unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The tumor response to different therapy protocols is variable, with hypoxia known to be a major factor that negatively influences treatment effectiveness. Visualisation of tumor hypoxia prior to the use of modern radiation therapy strategies, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, might allow optimized dose applications to the target volume, leading to improvement of therapy outcome. 18 F-fluoromisonidazole dynamic positron emission tomography and computed tomography (18 F-FMISO dPET-CT and functional magnetic resonance imaging (functional MRI are attractive options for imaging tumor hypoxia. Methods/design The HIL trial is a single centre study combining multimodal hypoxia imaging with 18 F-FMISO dPET-CT and functional MRI, with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT in patients with inoperable stage III NSCLC. 15 patients will be recruited in the study. All patients undergo initial FDG PET-CT and serial 18 F-FMISO dPET-CT and functional MRI before treatment, at week 5 of radiotherapy and 6 weeks post treatment. Radiation therapy is performed as inversely planned IMRT based on 4D-CT. Discussion Primary objectives of the trial are to characterize the correlation of 18 F-FMISO dPET-CT and functional MRI for tumor hypoxia imaging in NSCLC and evaluate possible effects of radiation therapy on tumor re-oxygenation. Further objectives include the generation of data regarding the prognostic value of 18 F-FMISO dPET-CT and functional MRI for locoregional control, progression free survival and overall survival of NSCLC treated with IMRT, which will form the basis for larger clinical trials focusing on possible interactions between tumor oxygenation and radiotherapy outcome. Trial registration The ClinicalTrials.gov protocol ID is NCT01617980

  2. Zuzendaritza-prestakuntzarako tresna gisa coaching exekutiboaren baliotasun zientifiko eta sozialaren analisia

    OpenAIRE

    Rekalde Abasolo, Izaskun

    2017-01-01

    177 p. Enpresa-erakundeek zuzendarien balio estrategikoa eta haien etengabeko prestakuntzaren garrantzia ezagutzen dute. Hori dela eta, beraiek behar duten zentzuan, zuzendaritza-gaitasunak benetan eraldatzen dituzten prestakuntza-teknikak eskatzen dituzte.Coaching exekutiboa zuzendaritza garapenerako tresna bat da, enpresa-munduan geroz eta onarpen handiagoa duena, norabide horretan diharduela baitirudi. Hala ere, coaching exekutiboa, zuzendaritza garapenerako teknika gisa, berri samarra ...

  3. SEARCH FOR eta' (958)-NUCLEUS BOUND STATES BY (p, d) REACTION AT GSI AND FAIR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujioka, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Brinkmann, K. -T.; Friedrich, S.; Geissel, H.; Gellanki, J.; Guo, C.; Gutz, E.; Haettner, E.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Higashi, Y.; Hirenzaki, S.; Hornung, C.; Igarashi, Y.; Ikeno, N.; Itahashi, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Jido, D.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kanungo, R.; Knoebel, R.; Kurz, N.; Metag, V.; Mukha, I.; Nagae, T.; Nagahiro, H.; Nanova, M.; Nishi, T.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rappold, C.; Reiter, M. P.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, J. L.; Scheidenberger, C.; Simon, H.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Sun, B.; Suzuki, K.; Szarka, I.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, Y. K.; Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Watanabe, Y. N.; Weick, H.; Widmann, E.; Winfield, J. S.; Xu, X.; Yamakami, H.; Zhao, J.

    The mass of the eta' meson is theoretically expected to be reduced at finite density, which indicates the existence of eta'-nucleus bound states. To investigate these states, we perform missing-mass spectroscopy for the (p, d) reaction near the eta' production threshold. The overview of the

  4. Search for eta '(958)-nucleus Bound States by (p,d) Reaction at GSI and FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Friedrich, S.; Geissel, H.; Gellanki, J.; Guo, C.; Gutz, E.; Haettner, E.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Higashi, Y.; Hirenzaki, S.; Hornung, C.; Igarashi, Y.; Ikeno, N.; Itahashi, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Jido, D.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kanungo, R.; Knoebel, R.; Kurz, N.; Metag, V.; Mukha, I.; Nagae, T.; Nagahiro, H.; Nanova, M.; Nishi, T.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rappold, C.; Reiter, M. P.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Scheidenberger, C.; Simon, H.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Sun, B.; Suzuki, K.; Szarka, I.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, Y. K.; Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Watanabe, Y. N.; Weick, H.; Widmann, E.; Winfield, J. S.; Xu, X.; Yamakami, H.; Zhao, J.

    The mass of the {\\eta}' meson is theoretically expected to be reduced at finite density, which indicates the existence of {\\eta}'-nucleus bound states. To investigate these states, we perform missing-mass spectroscopy for the (p, d) reaction near the {\\eta}' production threshold. The overview of the experimental situation is given and the current status is discussed.

  5. ETA ja Hispaania valitsus kohtusid esimest korda / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Kuigi Hispaanias teatatakse ikka ja jälle ETA vaherahu võimalikust lõpetamisest, algasid ETA ja Hispaania valitsuse läbirääkimised. Samal ajal jätkuvad kohtumõistmised ETA liikmete üle. Lisa: Ummikseis läbirääkimistel

  6. Measurement of the Color-Suppressed B0->D(*)0 pi0 /omega/eta/eta Prime Branching Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudent, X

    2008-11-05

    The authors report results on the branching fraction (BF) measurement of the color-suppressed decays {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, D*{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, D{sup 0}{eta}, D*{sup 0}{eta}, D{sup 0}{omega}, D*{sup 0}{omega}, D{sup 0}{eta}{prime}, and D*{sup 0}{eta}{prime}. They measure the branching fractions BF(D{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) = (2.78 {+-} 0.08 {+-} 0.20) x 10{sup -4}, BF(D*{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) = (1.78 {+-} 0.13 {+-} 0.23) x 10{sup -4}, BF(D{sup 0}{eta}) = (2.41 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.17) x 10{sup -4}, BF(D*{sup 0}{eta}) = (2.32 {+-} 0.13 {+-} 0.22) x 10{sup -4}, BF(D{sup 0}{omega}) = (2.77 {+-} 0.13 {+-} 0.22) x 10{sup -4}, BF(D*{sup 0}{omega}) = (4.44 {+-} 0.23 {+-} 0.61) x 10{sup -4}, BF(D{sup 0}{eta}{prime}) = (1.38 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.22) x 10{sup -4} and BF(D*{sup 0}{eta}{prime}) = (1.29 {+-} 0.23 {+-} 0.23) x 10{sup -4}, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The result is based on a sample of (454 {+-} 5) x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance from 1999 to 2007, with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage rings at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The measurements are compared to theoretical predictions by factorization, SCET and pQCD. The presence of final state interactions predictions by factorization, SCET and pQCD. The presence of final state interactions is confirmed and the measurements seem to be more in favor of SCET compared to pQCD.

  7. Three-dimensional radiochromic film dosimetry for volumetric modulated arc therapy using a spiral water phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanooka, Masao; Doi, Hiroshi; Miura, Hideharu; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Niwa, Yasue; Takada, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Sakamoto, Kiyoshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Hirota, Shozo

    2013-11-01

    We validated 3D radiochromic film dosimetry for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using a newly developed spiral water phantom. The phantom consists of a main body and an insert box, each of which has an acrylic wall thickness of 3 mm and is filled with water. The insert box includes a spiral film box used for dose-distribution measurement, and a film holder for positioning a radiochromic film. The film holder has two parallel walls whose facing inner surfaces are equipped with spiral grooves in a mirrored configuration. The film is inserted into the spiral grooves by its side edges and runs along them to be positioned on a spiral plane. Dose calculation was performed by applying clinical VMAT plans to the spiral water phantom using a commercial Monte Carlo-based treatment-planning system, Monaco, whereas dose was measured by delivering the VMAT beams to the phantom. The calculated dose distributions were resampled on the spiral plane, and the dose distributions recorded on the film were scanned. Comparisons between the calculated and measured dose distributions yielded an average gamma-index pass rate of 87.0% (range, 91.2-84.6%) in nine prostate VMAT plans under 3 mm/3% criteria with a dose-calculation grid size of 2 mm. The pass rates were increased beyond 90% (average, 91.1%; range, 90.1-92.0%) when the dose-calculation grid size was decreased to 1 mm. We have confirmed that 3D radiochromic film dosimetry using the spiral water phantom is a simple and cost-effective approach to VMAT dose verification.

  8. Intensity modulated radiation therapy planning for patients with a metal hip prosthesis based on class solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Est, Henrie; Prins, Paulette; Heijmen, Ben J M; Dirkx, Maarten L P

    2012-01-01

    With the aging of the population, an increasing number of patients with metallic hip implants are referred for radiotherapy treatment. Class solutions for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning are generally not applicable for these patients due to the required avoidance of dose delivery through prostheses. In this work a new approach for IMRT planning is presented, allowing the use of a default beam setup. For IMRT planning, Monaco (Elekta; CMS Software, Maryland Heights, MO) was used. In addition to the target and organs at risk, so-called prosthesis avoidance volumes (PAVs) were delineated in the beam's eye view projection for beams in which the prosthesis was partially in front of the target. By putting strict constraints on these virtual organs at risk, entrance dose delivery through a prosthesis is avoided while exit dose delivery is allowed. In this way, uncertainties in the dose delivery to the target and organs at risk, as derived by the treatment planning system, are largely minimized. To show the advantages of this IMRT-PAV technique, for 2 prostate cancer patients, 1 with bilateral and the other with unilateral metallic hip prostheses, obtained IMRT plans were compared with conventional IMRT plans using a prosthesis-avoiding beam setup. For both IMRT techniques a similar planning target volume coverage was achieved, but with the IMRT-PAV technique the mean doses to the bladder and the rectum were reduced by up to 25%. While the IMRT-PAV technique required more time for delineation, the time for treatment planning reduced because the default beam setup could be applied. The number of segments needed for dose delivery was comparable for both techniques. With the new IMRT-PAV technique IMRT class solutions can safely be applied for cancer patients with metallic hip prostheses, generally yielding a reduced dose delivery to organs at risk or improved target coverage. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Radiation Oncology

  9. Reoptimization of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Plans Based on Linear Energy Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkelbach, Jan, E-mail: junkelbach@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Botas, Pablo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Faculty of Physics, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Gorissen, Bram L.; Paganetti, Harald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: We describe a treatment plan optimization method for intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) that avoids high values of linear energy transfer (LET) in critical structures located within or near the target volume while limiting degradation of the best possible physical dose distribution. Methods and Materials: To allow fast optimization based on dose and LET, a GPU-based Monte Carlo code was extended to provide dose-averaged LET in addition to dose for all pencil beams. After optimizing an initial IMPT plan based on physical dose, a prioritized optimization scheme is used to modify the LET distribution while constraining the physical dose objectives to values close to the initial plan. The LET optimization step is performed based on objective functions evaluated for the product of LET and physical dose (LET×D). To first approximation, LET×D represents a measure of the additional biological dose that is caused by high LET. Results: The method is effective for treatments where serial critical structures with maximum dose constraints are located within or near the target. We report on 5 patients with intracranial tumors (high-grade meningiomas, base-of-skull chordomas, ependymomas) in whom the target volume overlaps with the brainstem and optic structures. In all cases, high LET×D in critical structures could be avoided while minimally compromising physical dose planning objectives. Conclusion: LET-based reoptimization of IMPT plans represents a pragmatic approach to bridge the gap between purely physical dose-based and relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-based planning. The method makes IMPT treatments safer by mitigating a potentially increased risk of side effects resulting from elevated RBE of proton beams near the end of range.

  10. Individualized Selection of Beam Angles and Treatment Isocenter in Tangential Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninkhof, Joan, E-mail: j.penninkhof@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Spadola, Sara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Baaijens, Margreet [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lanconelli, Nico [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Heijmen, Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose and Objective: Propose a novel method for individualized selection of beam angles and treatment isocenter in tangential breast intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: For each patient, beam and isocenter selection starts with the fully automatic generation of a large database of IMRT plans (up to 847 in this study); each of these plans belongs to a unique combination of isocenter position, lateral beam angle, and medial beam angle. The imposed hard planning constraint on patient maximum dose may result in plans with unacceptable target dose delivery. Such plans are excluded from further analyses. Owing to differences in beam setup, database plans differ in mean doses to organs at risk (OARs). These mean doses are used to construct 2-dimensional graphs, showing relationships between: (1) contralateral breast dose and ipsilateral lung dose; and (2) contralateral breast dose and heart dose (analyzed only for left-sided). The graphs can be used for selection of the isocenter and beam angles with the optimal, patient-specific tradeoffs between the mean OAR doses. For 30 previously treated patients (15 left-sided and 15 right-sided tumors), graphs were generated considering only the clinically applied isocenter with 121 tangential beam angle pairs. For 20 of the 30 patients, 6 alternative isocenters were also investigated. Results: Computation time for automatic generation of 121 IMRT plans took on average 30 minutes. The generated graphs demonstrated large variations in tradeoffs between conflicting OAR objectives, depending on beam angles and patient anatomy. For patients with isocenter optimization, 847 IMRT plans were considered. Adding isocenter position optimization next to beam angle optimization had a small impact on the final plan quality. Conclusion: A method is proposed for individualized selection of beam angles in tangential breast IMRT. This may be especially important for patients with cardiac risk factors or an

  11. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, Joris, E-mail: joris.vandevelde@ugent.be [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Emmanuel [Department of Physical Medicine and Orthopedic Surgery, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Speleers, Bruno; Vercauteren, Tom; Mulliez, Thomas [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Achten, Eric [Department of Radiology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Kerckaert, Ingrid; D' Herde, Katharina [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoof, Tom [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection.

  12. Patterns of disease recurrence following treatment of oropharyngeal cancer with intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Adam S; Dong, Lei; Morrison, William H; Stugis, Erich M; Glisson, Bonnie S; Frank, Steven J; Beadle, Beth M; Gunn, Gary B; Schwartz, David L; Kies, Merill S; Weber, Randal S; Ang, K Kian; Rosenthal, David I

    2013-03-15

    To report mature results of a large cohort of patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx who were treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The database of patients irradiated at The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center was searched for patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal cancer and treated with IMRT between 2000 and 2007. A retrospective review of outcome data was performed. The cohort consisted of 776 patients. One hundred fifty-nine patients (21%) were current smokers, 279 (36%) former smokers, and 337 (43%) never smokers. T and N categories and American Joint Committee on Cancer group stages were distributed as follows: T1/x, 288 (37%); T2, 288 (37%); T3, 113 (15%); T4, 87 (11%); N0, 88(12%); N1/x, 140 (18%); N2a, 101 (13%); N2b, 269 (35%); N2c, 122 (16%); and N3, 56 (7%); stage I, 18(2%); stage II, 40(5%); stage III, 150(19%); and stage IV, 568(74%). Seventy-one patients (10%) presented with nodes in level IV. Median follow-up was 54 months. The 5-year overall survival, locoregional control, and overall recurrence-free survival rates were 84%, 90%, and 82%, respectively. Primary site recurrence developed in 7% of patients, and neck recurrence with primary site control in 3%. We could only identify 12 patients (2%) who had locoregional recurrence outside the high-dose target volumes. Poorer survival rates were observed in current smokers, patients with larger primary (T) tumors and lower neck disease. Patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated with IMRT have excellent disease control. Locoregional recurrence was uncommon, and most often occurred in the high dose volumes. Parotid sparing was accomplished in nearly all patients without compromising tumor coverage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Patterns of Disease Recurrence Following Treatment of Oropharyngeal Cancer With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garden, Adam S., E-mail: agarden@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Morrison, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Stugis, Erich M. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Glisson, Bonnie S. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Frank, Steven J.; Beadle, Beth M.; Gunn, Gary B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Schwartz, David L. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Kies, Merill S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Weber, Randal S. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ang, K. Kian; Rosenthal, David I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To report mature results of a large cohort of patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx who were treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: The database of patients irradiated at The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center was searched for patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal cancer and treated with IMRT between 2000 and 2007. A retrospective review of outcome data was performed. Results: The cohort consisted of 776 patients. One hundred fifty-nine patients (21%) were current smokers, 279 (36%) former smokers, and 337 (43%) never smokers. T and N categories and American Joint Committee on Cancer group stages were distributed as follows: T1/x, 288 (37%); T2, 288 (37%); T3, 113 (15%); T4, 87 (11%); N0, 88(12%); N1/x, 140 (18%); N2a, 101 (13%); N2b, 269 (35%); N2c, 122 (16%); and N3, 56 (7%); stage I, 18(2%); stage II, 40(5%); stage III, 150(19%); and stage IV, 568(74%). Seventy-one patients (10%) presented with nodes in level IV. Median follow-up was 54 months. The 5-year overall survival, locoregional control, and overall recurrence-free survival rates were 84%, 90%, and 82%, respectively. Primary site recurrence developed in 7% of patients, and neck recurrence with primary site control in 3%. We could only identify 12 patients (2%) who had locoregional recurrence outside the high-dose target volumes. Poorer survival rates were observed in current smokers, patients with larger primary (T) tumors and lower neck disease. Conclusions: Patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated with IMRT have excellent disease control. Locoregional recurrence was uncommon, and most often occurred in the high dose volumes. Parotid sparing was accomplished in nearly all patients without compromising tumor coverage.

  14. Application of influence diagrams to prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy plan selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, PO Box 356043, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Phillips, Mark H [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, PO Box 356043, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cho, Paul S [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, PO Box 356043, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Kalet, Ira [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, PO Box 356043, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Doctor, Jason N [Biomedical and Health Informatics, University of Washington, PO Box 357240, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2004-05-07

    The purpose is to incorporate clinically relevant factors such as patient-specific and dosimetric information as well as data from clinical trials in the decision-making process for the selection of prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. The approach is to incorporate the decision theoretic concept of an influence diagram into the solution of the multiobjective optimization inverse planning problem. A set of candidate IMRT plans was obtained by varying the importance factors for the planning target volume (PTV) and the organ-at-risk (OAR) in combination with simulated annealing to explore a large part of the solution space. The Pareto set for the PTV and OAR was analysed to demonstrate how the selection of the weighting factors influenced which part of the solution space was explored. An influence diagram based on a Bayesian network with 18 nodes was designed to model the decision process for plan selection. The model possessed nodes for clinical laboratory results, tumour grading, staging information, patient-specific information, dosimetric information, complications and survival statistics from clinical studies. A utility node was utilized for the decision-making process. The influence diagram successfully ranked the plans based on the available information. Sensitivity analyses were used to judge the reasonableness of the diagram and the results. In conclusion, influence diagrams lend themselves well to modelling the decision processes for IMRT plan selection. They provide an excellent means to incorporate the probabilistic nature of data and beliefs into one model. They also provide a means for introducing evidence-based medicine, in the form of results of clinical trials, into the decision-making process.

  15. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Treatment results and locoregional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.L.Y.; Tsai, C.L.; Chen, W.Y.; Wang, C.W. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Radiation Oncology; Huang, Y.S.; Chen, Y.F. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Kuo, S.H. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Radiation Oncology; National Taiwan Univ. College of Medicine, Taipei (China). Graduate Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Hong, R.L. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Medical Oncology; Ko, J.Y.; Lou, P.J. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Otolaryngology

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to examine outcomes in patients with T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and materials: Between 2007 and 2010, 154 patients with nonmetastatic T4 NPC were treated with IMRT to a total dose of 70 Gy in 33-35 fractions. In addition, 97 % of patients received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 52.8 months. Results: The rates of 5-year actuarial locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, progression free-survival, and overall survival (OS) were 81.2, 72.2, 61.9, and 78.1 %, respectively. A total of 27 patients had locoregional recurrence: 85.2 % in-field failures, 11.1 % marginal failures, and 3.7 % out-of-field failures. Fourteen patients with locoregional recurrence received aggressive treatments, including nasopharyngectomy, neck dissection, or re-irradiation, and the 5-year OS rate tended to be better (61.9 %) compared to those receiving conservative treatment (32.0 %, p = 0.051). In patients treated with 1 course of radiotherapy, grade {>=} 3 toxicities of ototoxicity, neck fibrosis, xerostomia, epistaxis, and radiographic temporal lobe necrosis occurred in 18.2, 9.8, 6.3, 2.1, and 5.6 % of patients, respectively. Increased ototoxicity, osteonecrosis, severe nasal bleeding, and temporal necrosis were observed in patients treated by re-irradiation. Conclusion: IMRT offers good locoregional control in patients with T4 NPC. For patients with locoregional recurrence after definitive radiotherapy, aggressive local treatment may be considered for a better outcome. (orig.)

  16. Proton energy optimization and reduction for intensity-modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenhua; Lim, Gino; Liao, Li; Li, Yupeng; Jiang, Shengpeng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Zhu, X. Ronald; Gomez, Daniel; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-10-01

    Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is commonly delivered via the spot-scanning technique. To ‘scan’ the target volume, the proton beam is controlled by varying its energy to penetrate the patient’s body at different depths. Although scanning the proton beamlets or spots with the same energy can be as fast as 10-20 m s-1, changing from one proton energy to another requires approximately two additional seconds. The total IMPT delivery time thus depends mainly on the number of proton energies used in a treatment. Current treatment planning systems typically use all proton energies that are required for the proton beam to penetrate in a range from the distal edge to the proximal edge of the target. The optimal selection of proton energies has not been well studied. In this study, we sought to determine the feasibility of optimizing and reducing the number of proton energies in IMPT planning. We proposed an iterative mixed-integer programming optimization method to select a subset of all available proton energies while satisfying dosimetric criteria. We applied our proposed method to six patient datasets: four cases of prostate cancer, one case of lung cancer, and one case of mesothelioma. The numbers of energies were reduced by 14.3%-18.9% for the prostate cancer cases, 11.0% for the lung cancer cases and 26.5% for the mesothelioma case. The results indicate that the number of proton energies used in conventionally designed IMPT plans can be reduced without degrading dosimetric performance. The IMPT delivery efficiency could be improved by energy layer optimization leading to increased throughput for a busy proton center in which a delivery system with slow energy switch is employed.

  17. Clinical experience of volumetric modulated arc therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma after extrapleural pneumonectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tomoki; Doi, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Takeo; Imano, Nobuki; Katsuta, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Shigeo; Kenjo, Masahiro; Ozawa, Shuichi; Murakami, Yuji; Nagata, Yasushi

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). A total of 15 patients who received VMAT after EPP were enrolled. All patients were males, and the median age was 67 years (Stage IB in two, II in six, and III in seven patients). The clinical target volume (CTV) included the entire preoperative ipsilateral hemithorax and involved nodal stations. The CTV was generally expanded by 10-15 mm beyond the planning target volume (PTV). The dose prescription was designed to cover 95% of the PTV with 54 Gy in 30 fractions. The median follow-up period was 11 months. Treatment-related toxicities were evaluated by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) ver. 4. One-year local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 55.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 25.6-85.8%], 29.3% (95% CI: 5.3-53.3%), and 43.1% (95% CI: 17.1-69.0%), respectively. According to the histological analysis, the one-year LC rate was significantly worse in patients with non-epithelial type (biphasic and sarcomatoid types) than in patients with epithelial type [epithelial type: 83.3% (95% CI, 53.5-100%), non-epithelial type: 0% (95% CI, 0%), P = 0.0011]. Grade 3 pneumonitis after VMAT was observed in three patients (20.0%); however, no patients died of pulmonary toxicity. VMAT appears to be relatively safe for patients with MPM after EPP because of the low pulmonary dose. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  18. Automatically-generated rectal dose constraints in intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taejin; Kim, Yong Nam; Kim, Soo Kon; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Park, Soah; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Han, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Meyeon; Kim, Kyoung-Joo; Bae, Hoonsik; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2015-06-01

    The dose constraint during prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) optimization should be patient-specific for better rectum sparing. The aims of this study are to suggest a novel method for automatically generating a patient-specific dose constraint by using an experience-based dose volume histogram (DVH) of the rectum and to evaluate the potential of such a dose constraint qualitatively. The normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) of the rectum with respect to V %ratio in our study were divided into three groups, where V %ratio was defined as the percent ratio of the rectal volume overlapping the planning target volume (PTV) to the rectal volume: (1) the rectal NTCPs in the previous study (clinical data), (2) those statistically generated by using the standard normal distribution (calculated data), and (3) those generated by combining the calculated data and the clinical data (mixed data). In the calculated data, a random number whose mean value was on the fitted curve described in the clinical data and whose standard deviation was 1% was generated by using the `randn' function in the MATLAB program and was used. For each group, we validated whether the probability density function (PDF) of the rectal NTCP could be automatically generated with the density estimation method by using a Gaussian kernel. The results revealed that the rectal NTCP probability increased in proportion to V %ratio , that the predictive rectal NTCP was patient-specific, and that the starting point of IMRT optimization for the given patient might be different. The PDF of the rectal NTCP was obtained automatically for each group except that the smoothness of the probability distribution increased with increasing number of data and with increasing window width. We showed that during the prostate IMRT optimization, the patient-specific dose constraints could be automatically generated and that our method could reduce the IMRT optimization time as well as maintain the

  19. Reirradiation of Head and Neck Cancers With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: Outcomes and Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takiar, Vinita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States); Garden, Adam S.; Ma, Dominic; Morrison, William H.; Edson, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zafereo, Mark E. [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gunn, Gary B.; Fuller, Clifton D.; Beadle, Beth; Frank, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); William, William N.; Kies, Merrill [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); El-Naggar, Adel K. [Department of Pathology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Weber, Randal [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rosenthal, David I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Phan, Jack, E-mail: jphan@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To review our 15-year institutional experience using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to reirradiate patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and identify predictors of outcomes and toxicity. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 227 patients who received head and neck reirradiation using IMRT from 1999 to 2014. Patients treated with noncurative intent were excluded. Radiation-related acute and late toxicities were recorded. Prognostic variables included performance status, disease site, disease-free interval, chemotherapy, and RT dose and volume. Correlative analyses were performed separately for surgery and nonsurgery patients. Results: Two hundred six patients (91%) were retreated with curative intent, and 173 had HNSCC histology; 104 (50%) underwent salvage resection, and 135 (66%) received chemotherapy. Median follow-up after reirradiation was 24.7 months. Clinical outcomes were worse for HNSCC patients, with 5-year locoregional control, progression-free survival, and overall survival rates of 53%, 22%, and 32%, respectively, compared with 74%, 59%, and 79%, respectively, for non-HNSCC patients. On multivariate analysis, concurrent chemotherapy and retreatment site were associated with tumor control, whereas performance status was associated with survival. Favorable prognostic factors specific to surgery patients were neck retreatment and lack of extracapsular extension, whereas for nonsurgery patients, these were a nasopharynx subsite and complete response to induction chemotherapy. Actuarial rates of grade ≥3 toxicity were 32% at 2 years and 48% at 5 years, with dysphagia or odynophagia being most common. Increased grade ≥3 toxicity was associated with retreatment volume >50 cm{sup 3} and concurrent chemotherapy. Conclusions: Reirradiation with IMRT either definitively or after salvage surgery can produce promising local control and survival in selected patients with head and neck

  20. Assessment of volumetric-modulated arc therapy for constant and variable dose rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariluz De Ornelas-Couto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the effects of dose rate on volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans to determine optimal dose rates for prostate and head and neck (HN cases. Materials and Methods: Ten prostate and ten HN cases were retrospectively studied. For each case, seven plans were generated: one variable dose rate (VDR and six constant dose rate (CDR (100–600 monitor units [MUs]/min plans. Prescription doses were: 80 Gy to planning target volume (PTV for the prostate cases, and 70, 60, and 54 Gy to PTV1, PTV2, and PTV3, respectively, for HN cases. Plans were normalized to 95% of the PTV and PTV1, respectively, with the prescription dose. Plans were assessed using Dose-Volume-Histogram metrics, homogeneity index, conformity index, MUs, and delivery time. Results: For the prostate cases, significant differences were found for rectum D35 between VDR and all CDR plans, except CDR500. Furthermore, VDR was significantly different than CDR100 and 200 for bladder D50. Delivery time for all CDR plans and MUs for CDR400–600 were significantly higher when compared to VDR. HN cases showed significant differences between VDR and CDR100, 500 and 600 for D2 to the cord and brainstem. Significant differences were found for delivery time and MUs for all CDR plans, except CDR100 for number of MUs. Conclusion: The most significant differences were observed in delivery time and number of MUs. All-in-all, the best CDR for prostate cases was found to be 300 MUs/min and 200 or 300 MUs/min for HN cases. However, VDR plans are still the choice in terms of MU efficiency and plan quality.

  1. Multi-GPU configuration of 4D intensity modulated radiation therapy inverse planning using global optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Aaron; Sawant, Amit; Folkerts, Michael; Modiri, Arezoo

    2018-01-01

    We report on the design, implementation and characterization of a multi-graphic processing unit (GPU) computational platform for higher-order optimization in radiotherapy treatment planning. In collaboration with a commercial vendor (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA), a research prototype GPU-enabled Eclipse (V13.6) workstation was configured. The hardware consisted of dual 8-core Xeon processors, 256 GB RAM and four NVIDIA Tesla K80 general purpose GPUs. We demonstrate the utility of this platform for large radiotherapy optimization problems through the development and characterization of a parallelized particle swarm optimization (PSO) four dimensional (4D) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique. The PSO engine was coupled to the Eclipse treatment planning system via a vendor-provided scripting interface. Specific challenges addressed in this implementation were (i) data management and (ii) non-uniform memory access (NUMA). For the former, we alternated between parameters over which the computation process was parallelized. For the latter, we reduced the amount of data required to be transferred over the NUMA bridge. The datasets examined in this study were approximately 300 GB in size, including 4D computed tomography images, anatomical structure contours and dose deposition matrices. For evaluation, we created a 4D-IMRT treatment plan for one lung cancer patient and analyzed computation speed while varying several parameters (number of respiratory phases, GPUs, PSO particles, and data matrix sizes). The optimized 4D-IMRT plan enhanced sparing of organs at risk by an average reduction of 26% in maximum dose, compared to the clinical optimized IMRT plan, where the internal target volume was used. We validated our computation time analyses in two additional cases. The computation speed in our implementation did not monotonically increase with the number of GPUs. The optimal number of GPUs (five, in our study) is directly related to the

  2. Sparing the contralateral submandibular gland without compromising PTV coverage by using volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slotman Ben J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salivary gland function decreases after radiation doses of 39 Gy or higher. Currently, submandibular glands are not routinely spared. We implemented a technique for sparing contralateral submandibular glands (CLSM during contralateral elective neck irradiation without compromising PTV coverage. Methods Volumetric modulated arc therapy (RapidArc™ plans were applied in 31 patients with stage II-IV HNC without contralateral neck metastases, all of whom received elective treatment to contralateral nodal levels II-IV. Group 1 consisted of 21 patients undergoing concurrent chemo-radiotherapy, with elective nodal doses of 57.75 Gy (PTVelect and 70 Gy to tumor and pathological nodes (PTVboost in 7 weeks. Group 2 consisted of 10 patients treated with radiotherapy to 54.45 Gy to PTVelect and 70 Gy to PTVboost in 6 weeks. All clinical plans spared the CLSM using individually adapted constraints. For each patient, a second plan was retrospectively generated without CLSM constraints ('non-sparing plan'. Results PTV coverage was similar for both plans, with 98.7% of PTVelect and 99.2% of PTVboost receiving ≥95% of the prescription dose. The mean CLSM dose in group 1 was 33.2 Gy for clinical plans, versus 50.6 Gy in 'non-sparing plans' (p Conclusions Elective radiotherapy to contralateral nodal levels II-IV using RapidArc consistently limited CLSM doses well below 39 Gy, without compromising PTV-coverage. Future studies will reveal if this extent of dose reduction can reduce patient symptoms.

  3. eta pi(+)pi(-) Resonant Structure around 1.8 GeV/c(2) and eta in J/psi -> omega eta pi(+)pi(-)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Alberto, D.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini, R.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A. C.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, X. X.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fan, R. R.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Feng, C. Q.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Greco, M.; Grishin, S.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, G. C.; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y. W.; Liu, Yong; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Z. Q.; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X.; Ma, X. Y.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Muchnoi, N. Yu; Nefedov, Y.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Sonoda, S.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Varner, G. S.; Wan, X.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xu, Z. Z.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, M.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, L.; Yu, S. P. Yu; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, Jiawei; Zhao, Jingwei; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhao, Z. L.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhong, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

    2011-01-01

    We present results of a study of the decay J/psi -> omega eta pi(+)pi(-) using a sample of (225.2 +/- 2.8) x 10(6) J/psi events collected by the BESIII detector, and report the observation of a new process J/psi -> omega X(1870) with a statistical significance of 7.2 sigma, in which X(1870) decays

  4. 31 CFR 208.5 - Availability of the ETA SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of the ETA SM. 208.5 Section 208.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE MANAGEMENT OF FEDERAL AGENCY...

  5. A new {eta} facility using the Crystal Ball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tippens, W.B. [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States)

    1995-07-10

    The SLAC Crystal Ball detector is part of a proposed program at the AGS to measure rare and forbidden {eta} decays. It`s 4{pi} geometry also makes many interesting studies in baryon spectroscopy possible. A description of the detector`s capabilities at the AGS will be given. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  6. Can We Advance Proton Therapy for Prostate? Considering Alternative Beam Angles and Relative Biological Effectiveness Variations When Comparing Against Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Tracy, E-mail: tunderwood@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Moteabbed, Maryam; Zietman, Anthony; Efstathiou, Jason; Paganetti, Harald; Lu, Hsiao-Ming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: For prostate treatments, robust evidence regarding the superiority of either intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or proton therapy is currently lacking. In this study we investigated the circumstances under which proton therapy should be expected to outperform IMRT, particularly the proton beam orientations and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) assumptions. Methods and Materials: For 8 patients, 4 treatment planning strategies were considered: (A) IMRT; (B) passively scattered standard bilateral (SB) proton beams; (C) passively scattered anterior oblique (AO) proton beams, and (D) AO intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). For modalities (B)-(D) the dose and linear energy transfer (LET) distributions were simulated using the TOPAS Monte Carlo platform and RBE was calculated according to 3 different models. Results: Assuming a fixed RBE of 1.1, our implementation of IMRT outperformed SB proton therapy across most normal tissue metrics. For the scattered AO proton plans, application of the variable RBE models resulted in substantial hotspots in rectal RBE weighted dose. For AO IMPT, it was typically not possible to find a plan that simultaneously met the tumor and rectal constraints for both fixed and variable RBE models. Conclusion: If either a fixed RBE of 1.1 or a variable RBE model could be validated in vivo, then it would always be possible to use AO IMPT to dose-boost the prostate and improve normal tissue sparing relative to IMRT. For a cohort without rectum spacer gels, this study (1) underlines the importance of resolving the question of proton RBE within the framework of an IMRT versus proton debate for the prostate and (2) highlights that without further LET/RBE model validation, great care must be taken if AO proton fields are to be considered for prostate treatments.

  7. SU-E-T-28: A Treatment Planning Comparison of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Vs. Proton Therapy for Post-Mastectomy Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M; Zhang, R; Sanders, M; Newhauser, W [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The delivery of post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) can be challenging for patients with left-sided breast cancer due to the PTV size and proximity to critical organs. This study investigates the use of protons for PMRT in a clinically-representative cohort of patients, and quantitatively compares volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to proton therapy to have an evidence-based rationale for selecting a treatment modality for these patients. Methods: Eight left-sided PMRT patients previously treated at our clinic with VMAT were identified for the study. PTVs included the chest wall and regional lymph nodes. Passively scattered (PS) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans were constructed using the Eclipse proton planning system. The resulting plans were compared to the original VMAT plan on the basis of PTV coverage; dose homogeneity index (DHI) and conformity index (CI); dose to organs at risk (OAR); tumor control probability (TCP), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and secondary cancer complication probability (SCCP). Differences were tested for significance using the paired Student's t-test (p<0.01). Results: All modalities produced clinically acceptable PMRT plans. The comparison demonstrated proton treatment plans provide significantly lower NTCP values for the heart and the lung while maintaining significantly better CI and DHI. At a prescribed dose of 50.4 Gy (RBE) in the PTV, the calculated mean NTCP value for the patients decreased from 1.3% to 0.05% for the whole heart (cardiac mortality) and from 3.8% to 1.1% for the lungs (radiation pneumonitis) for both proton therapy plans from VMAT plans. Both proton modalities showed a significantly lower SCCP for the contralateral breast compared to VMAT. Conclusion: All three plans (VMAT, PS, and IMPT) provide acceptable treatment plans for PMRT. However, proton therapy shows a significant advantage over VMAT with regards to sparing OARs and may be more advantageous for

  8. In vitro study of cell survival following dynamic MLC intensity-modulated radiation therapy dose delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseenko, Vitali; Duzenli, Cheryl; Durand, Ralph E

    2007-04-01

    The possibility of reduced cell kill following intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compared to conventional radiation therapy has been debated in the literature. This potential reduction in cell kill relates to prolonged treatment times typical of IMRT dose delivery and consequently increased repair of sublethal lesions. While there is some theoretical support to this reduction in cell kill published in the literature, direct experimental evidence specific to IMRT dose delivery patterns is lacking. In this study we present cell survival data for three cell lines: Chinese hamster V79 fibroblasts, human cervical carcinoma, SiHa and colon adenocarcinoma, WiDr. Cell survival was obtained for 2.1 Gy delivered as acute dose with parallel-opposed pair (POP), irradiation time 75 s, which served as a reference; regular seven-field IMRT, irradiation time 5 min; and IMRT with a break for multiple leaf collimator (MLC) re-initialization after three fields were delivered, irradiation time 10 min. An actual seven-field dynamic MLC IMRT plan for a head and neck patient was used. The IMRT plan was generated for a Varian EX or iX linear accelerator with 120 leaf Millenium MLC. Survival data were also collected for doses 1X, 2X, 3X, 4X, and 5x 2.1 Gy to establish parameters of the linear-quadratic equation describing survival following acute dose delivery. Cells were irradiated inside an acrylic cylindrical phantom specifically designed for this study. Doses from both IMRT and POP were validated using ion chamber measurements. A reproducible increase in cell survival was observed following IMRT dose delivery. This increase varied from small for V79, with a surviving fraction of 0.8326 following POP vs 0.8420 following uninterrupted IMRT, to very pronounced for SiHa, with a surviving fraction of 0.3903 following POP vs 0.5330 for uninterrupted IMRT. When compared to IMRT or IMRT with a break for MLC initialization, cell survival following acute dose delivery was

  9. Measurements of the absolute branching fractions for D-s(+) -> eta e(+)nu(e) and D-s(+) -> eta ' e(+)nu(e)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Bakina, O.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chai, J.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, P. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dorjkhaidav, O.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fegan, S.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, X. Q.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Holtmann, T.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Andersson, W. Ikegami; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kuhn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leithoff, H.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. L.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y. Y.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Long, Y. F.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mezzadri, G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Musiol, P.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, J. J.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schnier, C.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, Dan; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiong, X. A.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; You, Z. Y.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing 482 pb(-1) of e(+)e(-) collision data collected at root s = 4.009 GeV with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, we measure the absolute branching fractions for the semileptonic decays D-s(+) -> eta e(+)nu(e) and D-s(+) -> eta ' e(+)nu(e) to be B(D-s(+) -> eta e(+)nu(e)) = (2.30

  10. Adaptation is mandatory for intensity modulated proton therapy of advanced lung cancer to ensure target coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Lone; Alber, Markus; Jensen, Maria Fuglsang

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Large anatomical changes during radiotherapy are seen for a large proportion of lung cancer patients. We investigate the applicability of a decision support protocol for photon therapy in a proton therapy setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-three consecutive NSCLC patien...... in the positioning of the bones. CONCLUSIONS: Proton therapy for loco-regional lung cancer demands daily imaging and therapy adaptation for a high proportion of patients....

  11. SU-E-T-309: Tangential Modulated Arc Therapy: A Novel Technique for the Treatment of Superficial Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadsell, M; Chin, E; Li, R; Xing, L; Bush, K [Stanford University Cancer Center, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We propose a new type of treatment that employs a modulated and sliding tangential photon field to provide superior coverage of superficial targets when compared to other commonly employed methods while drastically reducing dose to the underlying sensitive structures often present in these cases. Methods: Modulated treatment plans were formulated for a set of three representative cases. The first was a revised treatment of a scalp sarcoma, while the second was a treatment of a right posterior chest wall sarcoma. For these cases, asymmetric jaw placement, angular limitations, and central isocenter placements were used to force the optimization algorithm into finding solutions with beamlines that were not perpendicular to the body surface. The final case targeted the chest wall of a breast cancer patient, in which standard treatments were compared to the use of modulated fields with multiple isocenters along the chest wall. Results: When compared with unrestricted modulated arcs, the tangential arc scalp treatment reduced the max and mean doses delivered to the brain by 33Gy (from 55 to 22Gy) and 6Gy (from 14Gy to 8Gy), respectively. In the right posterior chest wall case, the V10 in the ipsilateral lung was kept below 5% while retaining a Rx dose (45Gy) target coverage of over 97%. For the breast case, the modulated plan achieved reductions in high dose to the ipsilateral lung and heart by a factor of 2–3 when compared to classic laterally opposed tangents and reduced the V5 by 40% when compared to standard modulated arcs. Conclusion: Tangential modulated arc therapy has outperformed the conventional modalities of treatment for superficial lesions used in our clinic. We hope that with the advent of digitally controlled linear accelerators, we can uncover further benefits of this new technique and extend its applicability to a wider section of the patient population.

  12. A New Upper Limit on the Decay $\\eta\\to e^{+}e^{-}$

    OpenAIRE

    CLEO Collaboration; al, T. Browder et

    1997-01-01

    We have searched for the rare decay of the eta meson $\\eta \\to e^{+}e^{-}$ using the CLEO II detector. The $\\eta$'s were produced in $e^{+}e^{-}$ collisions with 10 GeV center-of-mass energy at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). We find with 90% confidence the upper limit on the branching fraction $B(\\eta \\to e^{+}e^{-}) < 7.7\\times 10^{-5}$. The application of conventional elementary particle theory to this decay predicts a branching fraction of about $10^{-9}$.

  13. Production and interaction of the eta meson with nucleons and nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Krzemien, Wojciech; Moskal, Paweł; Ozyrianska-Schätti, Iryna; Rundel, Oleksandr; Skurzok, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    We report on the status of the search for eta-mesic nuclei and the studies of the interaction of the eta meson with nucleons. Recently we have completed the analysis of the new WASA-at-COSY data on the production of the eta meson with polarized proton beam. New results on the analyzing power for the pp->ppeta reaction with more than an order of magnitude improved precision shed a new light on the production mechanism of the eta meson in nucleon-nucleon collisions. Also, the latest results of the search for eta-mesic nuclei are discussed.

  14. Search for the $\\Lambda^0_b \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta^\\prime$ and $\\Lambda^0_b \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta$ decays with the LHCb detector

    OpenAIRE

    Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad,; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Au; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    A search is performed for the as yet unobserved baryonic $\\Lambda_b \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta^\\prime$ and $\\Lambda_b \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta$ decays with 3$fb^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data recorded by the LHCb experiment. The $B^0 \\rightarrow K_S^0 \\eta^\\prime$ decay is used as a normalisation channel. No significant signal is observed for the $\\Lambda_b \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta^\\prime$ decay. An upper limit is found on the branching fraction of $\\mathcal{B}(\\Lambda_b \\rightarrow \\Lam...

  15. Observation of the {pi}(1800) and {pi}{sub 2}(1880) mesons in {eta}{eta}{pi}{sup -} decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eugenio, P. [Dept. of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Ostrovidov, A.I. [Dept. of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)], E-mail: ostrov@hadron.physics.fsu.edu; Adams, G.S. [Dept. of Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Adams, T. [Dept. of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Bar-Yam, Z. [Dept. of Physics, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, MA 02747 (United States); Bishop, J.M. [Dept. of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bodyagin, V.A. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Moscow State University, Moscow 119899 (Russian Federation); Brown, D.S. [Dept. of Physics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Cason, N.M. [Dept. of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Chung, S.U. [Dept. of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Cummings, J.P. [Dept. of Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Danyo, K. [Dept. of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Denisov, S.P.; Dorofeev, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino 142284 (Russian Federation); Dowd, J.P. [Dept. of Physics, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, MA 02747 (United States); Fan, X.L. [Dept. of Physics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Gribushin, A.M. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Moscow State University, Moscow 119899 (Russian Federation); Hackenburg, R.W. [Dept. of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Hayek, M. [Dept. of Physics, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, MA 02747 (United States); Hu, J. [Dept. of Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)] (and others)

    2008-03-06

    A partial-wave analysis of the reaction {pi}{sup -}p{yields}{eta}{eta}{pi}{sup -}p at 18 GeV/c has been performed on a data sample of approximately 4000 events obtained by Brookhaven experiment E852. The J{sup PC}=0{sup -+}{pi}(1800) state is observed in the a{sub 0}(980){eta} and f{sub 0}(1500){pi} decay modes. It has a mass of 1876{+-}18{+-}16 MeV/c{sup 2} and a width of 221{+-}26{+-}38 MeV/c{sup 2}. The J{sup PC}=2{sup -+}{pi}{sub 2}(1880) meson is observed decaying through a{sub 2}(1320){eta}. It has a mass of 1929{+-}24{+-}18 MeV/c{sup 2} and a width of 323{+-}87{+-}43 MeV/c{sup 2}. Both states are potential candidates for non-exotic hybrid mesons.

  16. Search for {psi}(3770){yields} charmless final states involving {eta} or {pi} {sup 0} mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablikim, M.; Bai, J.Z.; Bai, Y.; Cai, X.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, H.X.; Chen, J.C.; Chen, J.; Chen, Y.B.; Chu, Y.P.; Deng, Z.Y.; Fang, J.; Fu, C.D.; Gao, C.S.; Gu, S.D.; Guo, Y.N.; He, K.L.; Heng, Y.K.; Hu, H.M.; Hu, T.; Huang, Y.P.; Ji, X.B.; Jiang, L.L.; Jiang, X.S.; Jin, D.P.; Jin, S.; Li, G.; Li, H.B.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Li, R.Y.; Li, W.D.; Li, W.G.; Li, X.L.; Li, X.N.; Liu, C.X.; Liu, Fang; Liu, H.M.; Liu, J.; Liu, R.G.; Liu, Z.A.; Lu, F.; Lu, J.G.; Ma, H.L.; Ma, Q.M.; Malik, M.Q.A.; Mao, Z.P.; Mo, X.H.; Nie, J.; Ping, R.G.; Qi, N.D.; Qiu, J.F.; Rong, G.; Shan, L.Y.; Shang, L.; Shen, X.Y.; Sheng, H.Y.; Sun, H.S.; Sun, S.S.; Sun, Y.Z.; Sun, Z.J.; Tang, X.; Tong, G.L.; Wan, X.; Wang, L.; Wang, L.L.; Wang, L.S.; Wang, P.; Wang, P.L.; Wang, Y.F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.Y.; Wei, C.L.; Wu, N.; Xia, X.M.; Xu, G.F.; Yang, H.X.; Yang, M.; Yuan, C.Z.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, B.X.; Zhang, B.Y.; Zhang, C.C.; Zhang, D.H.; Zhang, H.Q.; Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, J.W.; Zhang, J.Y.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhao, J.W.; Zhao, M.G.; Zhao, P.P.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J.P.; Zheng, Z.P.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, K.J.; Zhu, Q.M.; Zhu, X.W.; Zhu, Y.S.; Zhu, Z.A.; Zhuang, B.A.; Zou, B.S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); An, L.; Gu, Y.T.; Ruan, X.D. [Guangxi University, Nanning (China); Ban, Y.; Zhang, Z.X.; Zheng, H.Q. [Peking University, Beijing (China); Chen, H.F.; Yan, M.L.; Ye, Y.X.; Zhang, Z.P. [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Chen, X.D.; Lu, G.R. [Henan Normal University, Xinxiang (China); Dai, Y.S. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Du, S.X. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Gao, Y.N.; Tian, J.P. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); He, M.; Huang, X.T.; Jiao, J.B.; Zhang, X.Y. [Shandong University, Jinan (China); Huang, G.S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Li, X.Q.; Xu, Y.; Yu, C.X. [Nankai University, Tianjin (China)] [and others

    2010-03-15

    We search for {psi}(3770){yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{eta}, K{sup +}K{sup -}{eta}, p anti p{eta}, {rho}{sup 0}{pi} {sup +}{pi}{sup -} {eta}, K {sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{eta}, p anti p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{eta}, p anti pK{sup +}K{sup -}{eta} and p anti pK{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} using data samples of 17.3 and 6.5 pb{sup -1} integrated luminosities recorded at the center-of-mass energies of 3.773 and 3.65 GeV, respectively, by the BES-II detector operating at the BEPC collider. We obtain cross section measurements at both energies and upper limits on {psi}(3770) decay branching fractions to the final states studied. (orig.)

  17. A search for $\\eta'_c$ production in photon-photon fusion at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P.; Adye, T.; Adzic, P.; Alekseev, G.D.; Alemany, R.; Allport, P.P.; Almehed, S.; Amaldi, U.; Amato, S.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Andersson, P.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Bambade, P.; Barao, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, Dmitri Yu.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Beilliere, P.; Belokopytov, Yu.; Belous, K.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Bertini, D.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Bianchi, F.; Bigi, M.; Bilenky, Mikhail S.; Bizouard, M.A.; Bloch, D.; Blom, H.M.; Bonesini, M.; Bonivento, W.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borgland, A.W.; Borisov, G.; Bosio, C.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bourdarios, C.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bozovic, I.; Bozzo, M.; Branchini, P.; Brenke, T.; Brenner, R.A.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buran, T.; Burgsmuller, T.; Buschmann, P.; Cabrera, S.; Caccia, M.; Calvi, M.; Camacho Rozas, A.J.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Carroll, L.; Caso, C.; Castillo Gimenez, M.V.; Cattai, A.; Cavallo, F.R.; Cerruti, C.; Chabaud, V.; Charpentier, P.; Chaussard, L.; Checchia, P.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chierici, R.; Chochula, P.; Chorowicz, V.; Chudoba, J.; Collins, P.; Colomer, M.; Contri, R.; Cortina, E.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Cowell, J.H.; Crawley, H.B.; Crennell, D.; Crosetti, G.; Cuevas Maestro, J.; Czellar, S.; Damgaard, G.; Davenport, M.; Da Silva, W.; Deghorain, A.; Della Ricca, G.; Delpierre, Q.; Demaria, N.; De Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; De Brabandere, S.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Min, A.; De Paula, L.; Dijkstra, H.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Diodato, A.; Dolbeau, J.; Doroba, K.; Dracos, M.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Duperrin, A.; Durand, J.D.; Ehret, R.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ekspong, G.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Engel, J.P.; Erzen, B.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Harris, Elisabeth Falk; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fayot, J.; Feindt, M.; Fenyuk, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Fichet, S.; Firestone, A.; Fischer, P.A.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fontanelli, F.; Franek, B.; Frodesen, A.G.; Fruhwirth, R.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Galloni, A.; Gamba, D.; Gamblin, S.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Garcia, J.; Gaspar, C.; Gaspar, M.; Gasparini, U.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gele, D.; Gerber, J.P.; Ghodbane, N.; Gil Botella, Ines; Glege, F.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez-Caballero, I.; Gopal, G.; Gorn, L.; Gorski, M.; Gouz, Yu.; Gracco, V.; Grahl, J.; Graziani, E.; Green, C.; Gris, P.; Grzelak, K.; Gunther, M.; Guy, J.; Hahn, F.; Hahn, S.; Haider, S.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Harris, F.J.; Hedberg, V.; Heising, S.; Hernandez, J.J.; Herquet, P.; Herr, H.; Hessing, T.L.; Heuser, J.M.; Higon, E.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Holthuizen, D.; Hoorelbeke, S.; Houlden, M.; Hrubec, J.; Huet, K.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, P.; Janik, R.; Jarlskog, C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Juillot, P.; Kapusta, Frederic; Karafasoulis, K.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.C.; Keranen, R.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Khomenko, B.A.; Khovanski, N.N.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.; Kjaer, N.J.; Klapp, O.; Klein, Hansjorg; Kluit, P.; Knoblauch, D.; Kokkinias, P.; Konopliannikov, A.; Koratzinos, M.; Kostioukhine, V.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krammer, M.; Kreuter, C.; Krstic, J.; Krumshtein, Z.; Kubinec, P.; Kucewicz, W.; Kurvinen, K.; Lamsa, J.W.; Lane, D.W.; Langefeld, P.; Lapin, V.; Laugier, J.P.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Lefebure, V.; Leinonen, L.; Leisos, A.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lenzen, G.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Libby, J.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lippi, I.; Loerstad, B.; Lokajicek, M.; Loken, J.G.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; Mahon, J.R.; Maio, A.; Malek, A.; Malmgren, T.G.M.; Malychev, V.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthiae, G.; Mazik, J.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McCubbin, M.; McKay, R.; McNulty, R.; McPherson, G.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W.T.; Myagkov, A.; Migliore, E.; Mirabito, L.; Mitaroff, W.A.; Mjornmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moller, Rasmus; Monig, Klaus; Monge, M.R.; Moreau, X.; Morettini, P.; Morton, G.; Muller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mulet-Marquis, C.; Muresan, R.; Murray, W.J.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Naraghi, F.; Navarria, F.L.; Navas, Sergio; Nawrocki, K.; Negri, P.; Neufeld, N.; Neumeister, N.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nielsen, B.S.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolenko, M.; Nomokonov, V.; Normand, A.; Nygren, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.F.; Olshevski, A.G.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Orazi, G.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Pain, R.; Paiva, R.; Palacios, J.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Pegoraro, M.; Peralta, L.; Pernicka, M.; Perrotta, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolini, A.; Phillips, H.T.; Piana, G.; Pierre, F.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Privitera, P.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahmani, H.; Rakoczy, D.; Ratoff, P.N.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Redaelli, Nicola Giuseppe; Regler, M.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.B.; Resvanis, L.K.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rinaudo, G.; Rohne, O.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosinsky, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ruiz, A.; Saarikko, H.; Sacquin, Y.; Sadovsky, A.; Sajot, G.; Salt, J.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sannino, M.; Schneider, H.; Schwemling, P.; Schwickerath, U.; Schyns, M.A.E.; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seager, P.; Sedykh, Y.; Segar, A.M.; Sekulin, R.L.; Seth, K.K.; Shellard, R.C.; Sheridan, A.; Siebel, M.; Silvestre, R.; Simard, L.; Simonetto, F.; Sisakian, A.N.; Skaali, T.B.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, G.R.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassoff, Tz.; Spiriti, E.; Sponholz, P.; Squarcia, S.; Stampfer, D.; Stanescu, C.; Stanic, S.; Stapnes, S.; Stevenson, K.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Strub, R.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Terranova, F.; Thomas, J.; Tilquin, A.; Timmermans, Jan; Tkachev, L.G.; Todorov, T.; Todorova, S.; Toet, D.Z.; Tomaradze, A.G.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Transtromer, G.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Troncon, C.; Tsirou, A.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tzamarias, S.; Ueberschaer, B.; Ullaland, O.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallazza, E.; van Apeldoorn, G.W.; van Dam, Piet; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Vegni, G.; Ventura, L.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verlato, M.; Vertogradov, L.S.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vlasov, E.; Vodopianov, A.S.; Voulgaris, G.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Walck, C.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.H.; Wilkinson, G.R.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Wolf, G.; Yi, J.; Yushchenko, O.; Zaitsev, A.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zevgolatakos, E.; Zimine, N.I.; Zucchelli, G.C.; Zumerle, G.

    1998-11-26

    A search for the production of the $\\eta'_c$ meson, the first radial excitation of the ground state of charmonium $\\eta_c$(2980), in the photon-photon fusion reaction at LEP has been performed using the data collected by the DELPHI detector during 1992-1996. No evidence of $\\eta'_c$ production is found in the mass region 3520--3800 MeV/c$^2$. %By using the signal of the $\\eta_c$(2980) %Assuming that the decay branching ratios of the $\\eta_c$ and %$\\eta'_c$ into the hadrons are nearly the same, the An upper limit for the ratio of the two-photon widths of the $\\eta'_c$ and $ccess to f

  18. EBT GAFCHROMIC(TM) film dosimetry in compensator-based intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezzadeh, Seyedali; Allahverdi, Mahmoud; Nedaie, Hasan A; Ay, Mohammadreza; Shirazi, Alireza; Yarahmadi, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The electron benefit transfer (EBT) GAFCHROMIC films possess a number of features making them appropriate for high-quality dosimetry in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Compensators to deliver IMRT are known to change the beam-energy spectrum as well as to produce scattered photons and to contaminate electrons; therefore, the accuracy and validity of EBT-film dosimetry in compensator-based IMRT should be investigated. Percentage-depth doses and lateral-beam profiles were measured using EBT films in perpendicular orientation with respect to 6 and 18 MV photon beam energies for: (1) different thicknesses of cerrobend slab (open, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 cm), field sizes (5×5, 10×10, and 20×20 cm(2)), and measurement depths (Dmax, 5.0 and 10.0 cm); and (2) step-wedged compensator in a solid phantom. To verify results, same measurements were implemented using a 0.125 cm(3) ionization chamber in a water phantom and also in Monte Carlo simulations using the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code. The mean energy of photons was increased due to beam hardening in comparison with open fields at both 6 and 18 MV energies. For a 20×20 cm(2) field size of a 6 MV photon beam and a 6.0 cm thick block, the surface dose decreased by about 12% and percentage-depth doses increased up to 3% at 30.0 cm depth, due to the beam-hardening effect induced by the block. In contrast, at 18 MV, the surface dose increased by about 8% and depth dose reduced by 3% at 30.0 cm depth. The penumbral widths (80% to 20%) increase with block thickness, field size, and beam energy. The EBT film results were in good agreement with the ionization chamber dose profiles and Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code simulation behind the step-wedged compensator. Also, there was a good agreement between the EBT-film and the treatment-planning results on the anthropomorphic phantom. The EBT films can be accurately used as a 2D dosimeter for dose verification and

  19. A GPU-accelerated and Monte Carlo-based intensity modulated proton therapy optimization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiasen; Beltran, Chris; Seum Wan Chan Tseung, Hok; Herman, Michael G

    2014-12-01

    Conventional spot scanning intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) treatment planning systems (TPSs) optimize proton spot weights based on analytical dose calculations. These analytical dose calculations have been shown to have severe limitations in heterogeneous materials. Monte Carlo (MC) methods do not have these limitations; however, MC-based systems have been of limited clinical use due to the large number of beam spots in IMPT and the extremely long calculation time of traditional MC techniques. In this work, the authors present a clinically applicable IMPT TPS that utilizes a very fast MC calculation. An in-house graphics processing unit (GPU)-based MC dose calculation engine was employed to generate the dose influence map for each proton spot. With the MC generated influence map, a modified least-squares optimization method was used to achieve the desired dose volume histograms (DVHs). The intrinsic CT image resolution was adopted for voxelization in simulation and optimization to preserve spatial resolution. The optimizations were computed on a multi-GPU framework to mitigate the memory limitation issues for the large dose influence maps that resulted from maintaining the intrinsic CT resolution. The effects of tail cutoff and starting condition were studied and minimized in this work. For relatively large and complex three-field head and neck cases, i.e., >100,000 spots with a target volume of ∼ 1000 cm(3) and multiple surrounding critical structures, the optimization together with the initial MC dose influence map calculation was done in a clinically viable time frame (less than 30 min) on a GPU cluster consisting of 24 Nvidia GeForce GTX Titan cards. The in-house MC TPS plans were comparable to a commercial TPS plans based on DVH comparisons. A MC-based treatment planning system was developed. The treatment planning can be performed in a clinically viable time frame on a hardware system costing around 45,000 dollars. The fast calculation and

  20. Particle swarm optimizer for weighting factor selection in intensity-modulated radiation therapy optimization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Pengcheng; Zhang, Liyuan; Shu, Huazhong; Li, Baosheng; Gui, Zhiguo

    2017-01-01

    In inverse treatment planning of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the objective function is typically the sum of the weighted sub-scores, where the weights indicate the importance of the sub-scores. To obtain a high-quality treatment plan, the planner manually adjusts the objective weights using a trial-and-error procedure until an acceptable plan is reached. In this work, a new particle swarm optimization (PSO) method which can adjust the weighting factors automatically was investigated to overcome the requirement of manual adjustment, thereby reducing the workload of the human planner and contributing to the development of a fully automated planning process. The proposed optimization method consists of three steps. (i) First, a swarm of weighting factors (i.e., particles) is initialized randomly in the search space, where each particle corresponds to a global objective function. (ii) Then, a plan optimization solver is employed to obtain the optimal solution for each particle, and the values of the evaluation functions used to determine the particle's location and the population global location for the PSO are calculated based on these results. (iii) Next, the weighting factors are updated based on the particle's location and the population global location. Step (ii) is performed alternately with step (iii) until the termination condition is reached. In this method, the evaluation function is a combination of several key points on the dose volume histograms. Furthermore, a perturbation strategy - the crossover and mutation operator hybrid approach - is employed to enhance the population diversity, and two arguments are applied to the evaluation function to improve the flexibility of the algorithm. In this study, the proposed method was used to develop IMRT treatment plans involving five unequally spaced 6MV photon beams for 10 prostate cancer cases. The proposed optimization algorithm yielded high-quality plans for all of the cases, without human

  1. Definitive Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy in Elderly Patients with Locally Advanced Oropharyngeal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Felice, Francesca; Galdieri, Alessandro; Abate, Gessica; Bulzonetti, Nadia; Musio, Daniela; Tombolini, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment tolerance and clinical outcomes in patients aged 70 years and older with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer treated by definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We retrospectively analyzed 15 consecutive elderly patients, with histologically-proven squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, staged T3-4 with or without involved lymph nodes at diagnosis, who received definitive sequential IMRT (70 Gy; 2 Gy/fraction). Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27) score was calculated and its influence on treatment tolerance and clinical outcomes was analyzed. A total of 15 patients were included with a median age of 77 years (range=70-88 years). At baseline, 8 patients (53.3%) had an ACE-27 score of 1, and the remainder (n=7, 46.7%) had a comorbidity index of 0. All patients completed programmed IMRT treatment, without any reduction of total dose. Oral pain and mucositis were the most common acute side-effects, classified as grade 3 in 6 patients (40%) only. Xerostomia was reported in 13 patients (86.7%), without severe manifestation. There was no hematological toxicity. ACE-27 score was not related to higher severe acute toxicity. No patients experienced grade 3 or more late toxicity. Five-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 63.6% (95% confidence interval=32.7-83.3%) and 55% (95% confidence interval=24.4-77.6%), respectively. Comorbidity score did not influence survival outcomes, both overall survival (p=0.46) and disease-free survival (p=0.55). Treatment tolerance, as well as survival outcomes were good in elderly oropharyngeal cancer patients treated with definitive sequential IMRT. Due to age and comorbidity, no dose or volume reduction for IMRT should be considered in this setting of patients. A prospective randomized trial with a large sample size should be conducted to confirm our results. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Efficiency of analytical and sampling-based uncertainty propagation in intensity-modulated proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, N; Hennig, P; Wieser, H P; Bangert, M

    2017-06-26

    The sensitivity of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) treatment plans to uncertainties can be quantified and mitigated with robust/min-max and stochastic/probabilistic treatment analysis and optimization techniques. Those methods usually rely on sparse random, importance, or worst-case sampling. Inevitably, this imposes a trade-off between computational speed and accuracy of the uncertainty propagation. Here, we investigate analytical probabilistic modeling (APM) as an alternative for uncertainty propagation and minimization in IMPT that does not rely on scenario sampling. APM propagates probability distributions over range and setup uncertainties via a Gaussian pencil-beam approximation into moments of the probability distributions over the resulting dose in closed form. It supports arbitrary correlation models and allows for efficient incorporation of fractionation effects regarding random and systematic errors. We evaluate the trade-off between run-time and accuracy of APM uncertainty computations on three patient datasets. Results are compared against reference computations facilitating importance and random sampling. Two approximation techniques to accelerate uncertainty propagation and minimization based on probabilistic treatment plan optimization are presented. Runtimes are measured on CPU and GPU platforms, dosimetric accuracy is quantified in comparison to a sampling-based benchmark (5000 random samples). APM accurately propagates range and setup uncertainties into dose uncertainties at competitive run-times (GPU [Formula: see text] min). The resulting standard deviation (expectation value) of dose show average global [Formula: see text] pass rates between 94.2% and 99.9% (98.4% and 100.0%). All investigated importance sampling strategies provided less accuracy at higher run-times considering only a single fraction. Considering fractionation, APM uncertainty propagation and treatment plan optimization was proven to be possible at constant time

  3. An FMEA evaluation of intensity modulated radiation therapy dose delivery failures at tolerance criteria levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Jacqueline Tonigan; Balter, Peter A; Johnson, Jennifer L; Kry, Stephen F; Court, Laurence E; Stingo, Francesco C; Followill, David S

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this work was to assess both the perception of failure modes in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) when the linac is operated at the edge of tolerances given in AAPM TG-40 (Kutcher et al.) and TG-142 (Klein et al.) as well as the application of FMEA to this specific section of the IMRT process. An online survey was distributed to approximately 2000 physicists worldwide that participate in quality services provided by the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core - Houston (IROC-H). The survey briefly described eleven different failure modes covered by basic quality assurance in step-and-shoot IMRT at or near TG-40 (Kutcher et al.) and TG-142 (Klein et al.) tolerance criteria levels. Respondents were asked to estimate the worst case scenario percent dose error that could be caused by each of these failure modes in a head and neck patient as well as the FMEA scores: Occurrence, Detectability, and Severity. Risk probability number (RPN) scores were calculated as the product of these scores. Demographic data were also collected. A total of 181 individual and three group responses were submitted. 84% were from North America. Most (76%) individual respondents performed at least 80% clinical work and 92% were nationally certified. Respondent medical physics experience ranged from 2.5 to 45 yr (average 18 yr). A total of 52% of individual respondents were at least somewhat familiar with FMEA, while 17% were not familiar. Several IMRT techniques, treatment planning systems, and linear accelerator manufacturers were represented. All failure modes received widely varying scores ranging from 1 to 10 for occurrence, at least 1-9 for detectability, and at least 1-7 for severity. Ranking failure modes by RPN scores also resulted in large variability, with each failure mode being ranked both most risky (1st) and least risky (11th) by different respondents. On average MLC modeling had the highest RPN scores. Individual estimated percent dose errors and severity

  4. Factors influencing the incidence of sinusitis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan-xia; Liu, Lan-ping; Li, Lei; Li, Xu; Cao, Xiu-juan; Dong, Wei; Yang, Xin-hua; Xu, Jin; Yu, Shui; Hao, Jun-fang

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of sinusitis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients before and after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and to analyze factors associated with the incidence of sinusitis following IMRT. We retrospectively analyzed 283 NPC patients who received IMRT in our hospital from March 2009 to May 2011. The diagnostic criteria for sinusitis are based on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. CT or MRI scans were performed before and after IMRT to evaluate the incidence of sinusitis. Factors influencing the incidence of sinusitis were analyzed by log-rank univariate and logistic multivariate analyses. Among the 283 NPC patients, 128 (45.2 %) suffered from sinusitis before radiotherapy. The incidence rates of sinusitis in patients with T1, T2, T3, and T4 NPC before radiotherapy were 22.6, 37.5, 46.8, and 61.3 %, respectively (χ 2 = 14.548, p = 0.002). Among the 155 NPC patients without sinusitis before radiotherapy, the incidence rates of sinusitis at the end of radiotherapy and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after radiotherapy were 32.9, 43.2, 61.3, 68.4, 73.5, 69.7, and 61.3 %, respectively (χ 2 = 86.461, p sinusitis in NPC patients after IMRT (p = 0.003, 0.006, 0.002, and 0.020). Multivariate analysis showed that T stage, invasion of the nasal cavity, and nasal irrigation were influential factors for the incidence of sinusitis in NPC patients after IMRT (p = 0.002, 0.002, and 0.000). There was a higher incidence of sinusitis with higher T stage among NPC patients before radiotherapy, and the incidence of sinusitis in NPC patients after IMRT was high (45.2 %). The incidence of sinusitis increased rapidly within the first 3 months after IMRT, and the number of sinusitis cases peaked at 6-9 months after IMRT and showed a trend toward stabilization after 1 year. Advanced T stage, invasion of the nasal cavity, and nasal irrigation were positively associated with the incidence

  5. Efficiency of analytical and sampling-based uncertainty propagation in intensity-modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, N.; Hennig, P.; Wieser, H. P.; Bangert, M.

    2017-07-01

    The sensitivity of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) treatment plans to uncertainties can be quantified and mitigated with robust/min-max and stochastic/probabilistic treatment analysis and optimization techniques. Those methods usually rely on sparse random, importance, or worst-case sampling. Inevitably, this imposes a trade-off between computational speed and accuracy of the uncertainty propagation. Here, we investigate analytical probabilistic modeling (APM) as an alternative for uncertainty propagation and minimization in IMPT that does not rely on scenario sampling. APM propagates probability distributions over range and setup uncertainties via a Gaussian pencil-beam approximation into moments of the probability distributions over the resulting dose in closed form. It supports arbitrary correlation models and allows for efficient incorporation of fractionation effects regarding random and systematic errors. We evaluate the trade-off between run-time and accuracy of APM uncertainty computations on three patient datasets. Results are compared against reference computations facilitating importance and random sampling. Two approximation techniques to accelerate uncertainty propagation and minimization based on probabilistic treatment plan optimization are presented. Runtimes are measured on CPU and GPU platforms, dosimetric accuracy is quantified in comparison to a sampling-based benchmark (5000 random samples). APM accurately propagates range and setup uncertainties into dose uncertainties at competitive run-times (GPU ≤slant {5} min). The resulting standard deviation (expectation value) of dose show average global γ{3% / {3}~mm} pass rates between 94.2% and 99.9% (98.4% and 100.0%). All investigated importance sampling strategies provided less accuracy at higher run-times considering only a single fraction. Considering fractionation, APM uncertainty propagation and treatment plan optimization was proven to be possible at constant time complexity

  6. Including robustness in multi-criteria optimization for intensity-modulated proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Unkelbach, Jan; Trofimov, Alexei; Madden, Thomas; Kooy, Hanne; Bortfeld, Thomas; Craft, David

    2012-02-07

    We present a method to include robustness in a multi-criteria optimization (MCO) framework for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). The approach allows one to simultaneously explore the trade-off between different objectives as well as the trade-off between robustness and nominal plan quality. In MCO, a database of plans each emphasizing different treatment planning objectives, is pre-computed to approximate the Pareto surface. An IMPT treatment plan that strikes the best balance between the different objectives can be selected by navigating on the Pareto surface. In our approach, robustness is integrated into MCO by adding robustified objectives and constraints to the MCO problem. Uncertainties (or errors) of the robust problem are modeled by pre-calculated dose-influence matrices for a nominal scenario and a number of pre-defined error scenarios (shifted patient positions, proton beam undershoot and overshoot). Objectives and constraints can be defined for the nominal scenario, thus characterizing nominal plan quality. A robustified objective represents the worst objective function value that can be realized for any of the error scenarios and thus provides a measure of plan robustness. The optimization method is based on a linear projection solver and is capable of handling large problem sizes resulting from a fine dose grid resolution, many scenarios, and a large number of proton pencil beams. A base-of-skull case is used to demonstrate the robust optimization method. It is demonstrated that the robust optimization method reduces the sensitivity of the treatment plan to setup and range errors to a degree that is not achieved by a safety margin approach. A chordoma case is analyzed in more detail to demonstrate the involved trade-offs between target underdose and brainstem sparing as well as robustness and nominal plan quality. The latter illustrates the advantage of MCO in the context of robust planning. For all cases examined, the robust optimization for

  7. Larynx-sparing techniques using intensity-modulated radiation therapy for oropharyngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar Ad, Voichita, E-mail: voichita.bar-ad@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lin, Haibo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hwang, Wei-Ting [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Deville, Curtiland [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dutta, Pinaki R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tochner, Zelig; Both, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore whether the laryngeal dose can be reduced by using 2 intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques: whole-neck field IMRT technique (WF-IMRT) vs. junctioned IMRT (J-IMRT). The effect on planning target volumes (PTVs) coverage and laryngeal sparing was evaluated. WF-IMRT technique consisted of a single IMRT plan, including the primary tumor and the superior and inferior neck to the level of the clavicular heads. The larynx was defined as an organ at risk extending superiorly to cover the arytenoid cartilages and inferiorly to include the cricoid cartilage. The J-IMRT technique consisted of an IMRT plan for the primary tumor and the superior neck, matched to conventional antero-posterior opposing lower neck fields at the level of the thyroid notch. A central block was used for the anterior lower neck field at the level of the larynx to restrict the dose to the larynx. Ten oropharyngeal cancer cases were analyzed. Both the primary site and bilateral regional lymphatics were included in the radiotherapy targets. The averaged V95 for the PTV57.6 was 99.2% for the WF-IMRT technique compared with 97.4% (p = 0.02) for J-IMRT. The averaged V95 for the PTV64 was 99.9% for the WF-IMRT technique compared with 98.9% (p = 0.02) for J-IMRT and the averaged V95 for the PT70 was 100.0% for WF-IMRT technique compared with 99.5% (p = 0.04) for J-IMRT. The averaged mean laryngeal dose was 18 Gy with both techniques. The averaged mean doses within the matchline volumes were 69.3 Gy for WF-MRT and 66.2 Gy for J-IMRT (p = 0.03). The WF-IMRT technique appears to offer an optimal coverage of the target volumes and a mean dose to the larynx similar with J-IMRT and should be further evaluated in clinical trials.

  8. Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy for Cervical and Endometrial Cancer: A Prospective Report on Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandecasteele, Katrien, E-mail: Katrien.Vandecasteele@uzgent.be [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Tummers, Philippe; Makar, Amin [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Eijkeren, Marc van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Delrue, Louke [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Denys, Hannelore [Department of Medical Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Lambert, Bieke [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Beerens, Anne-Sophie [Department of Pathology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Van den Broecke, Rudy [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Lambein, Kathleen [Department of Pathology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Fonteyne, Valerie; De Meerleer, Gert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To report on toxicity after postoperative intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) for cervical (CC) and endometrial cancer (EC). Methods and Materials: Twenty-four CC and 41 EC patients were treated with postoperative IMAT. If indicated, para-aortic lymph node irradiation (preventive or when affected, PALN) and/or concomitant cisplatin (40 mg/m Superscript-Two , weekly) was administered. The prescribed dose for IMAT was 45 Gy (CC, 25 fractions) and 46 Gy (EC, 23 fractions), followed by a brachytherapeutic boost if possible. Radiation-related toxicity was assessed prospectively. The effect of concomitant cisplatin and PALN irradiation was evaluated. Results: Regarding acute toxicity (n = 65), Grade 3 and 2 acute gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in zero and 63% of patients (79% CC, 54% EC), respectively. Grade 3 and 2 acute genitourinary toxicity was observed in 1% and 18% of patients, respectively. Grade 2 (21%) and 3 (12%) hematologic toxicity (n = 41) occurred only in CC patients. Seventeen percent of CC patients and 2% of EC patients experienced Grade 2 fatigue and skin toxicity, respectively. Adding cisplatin led to an increase in Grade >2 nausea (57% vs. 9%; p = 0.01), Grade 2 nocturia (24% vs. 4%; p = 0.03), Grade {>=}2 hematologic toxicity (38% vs. nil, p = 0.003), Grade {>=}2 leukopenia (33% vs. nil, p = 0.009), and a strong trend toward more fatigue (14% vs. 2%; p = 0.05). Para-aortic lymph node irradiation led to an increase of Grade 2 nocturia (31% vs. 4%, p = 0.008) and a strong trend toward more Grade >2 nausea (44% vs. 18%; p = 0.052). Regarding late toxicity (n = 45), no Grade 3 or 4 late toxicity occurred. Grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicity, genitourinary toxicity, and fatigue occurred in 4%, 9%, and 1% of patients. Neither concomitant cisplatin nor PALN irradiation increased late toxicity rates. Conclusions: Postoperative IMAT for EC or CC is associated with low acute and late toxicity. Concomitant chemotherapy and PALN irradiation

  9. Failure Patterns After Hemithoracic Pleural Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimner, Andreas, E-mail: rimnera@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Spratt, Daniel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zauderer, Marjorie G. [Department of Medicine, Thoracic Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York (United States); Rosenzweig, Kenneth E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Wu, Abraham J.; Foster, Amanda [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yorke, Ellen D. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Adusumilli, Prasad; Rusch, Valerie W. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Krug, Lee M. [Department of Medicine, Thoracic Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: We previously reported our technique for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to the entire pleura while attempting to spare the lung in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Herein, we report a detailed pattern-of-failure analysis in patients with MPM who were unresectable or underwent pleurectomy/decortication (P/D), uniformly treated with hemithoracic pleural IMRT. Methods and Materials: Sixty-seven patients with MPM were treated with definitive or adjuvant hemithoracic pleural IMRT between November 2004 and May 2013. Pretreatment imaging, treatment plans, and posttreatment imaging were retrospectively reviewed to determine failure location(s). Failures were categorized as in-field (within the 90% isodose line), marginal (<90% and ≥50% isodose lines), out-of-field (outside the 50% isodose line), or distant. Results: The median follow-up was 24 months from diagnosis and the median time to in-field local failure from the end of RT was 10 months. Forty-three in-field local failures (64%) were found with a 1- and 2-year actuarial failure rate of 56% and 74%, respectively. For patients who underwent P/D versus those who received a partial pleurectomy or were deemed unresectable, the median time to in-field local failure was 14 months versus 6 months, respectively, with 1- and 2-year actuarial in-field local failure rates of 43% and 60% versus 66% and 83%, respectively (P=.03). There were 13 marginal failures (19%). Five of the marginal failures (38%) were located within the costomediastinal recess. Marginal failures decreased with increasing institutional experience (P=.04). Twenty-five patients (37%) had out-of-field failures. Distant failures occurred in 32 patients (48%). Conclusions: After hemithoracic pleural IMRT, local failure remains the dominant form of failure pattern. Patients treated with adjuvant hemithoracic pleural IMRT after P/D experience a significantly longer time to local and distant failure than

  10. Failure patterns after hemithoracic pleural intensity modulated radiation therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimner, Andreas; Spratt, Daniel E; Zauderer, Marjorie G; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Wu, Abraham J; Foster, Amanda; Yorke, Ellen D; Adusumilli, Prasad; Rusch, Valerie W; Krug, Lee M

    2014-10-01

    We previously reported our technique for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to the entire pleura while attempting to spare the lung in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Herein, we report a detailed pattern-of-failure analysis in patients with MPM who were unresectable or underwent pleurectomy/decortication (P/D), uniformly treated with hemithoracic pleural IMRT. Sixty-seven patients with MPM were treated with definitive or adjuvant hemithoracic pleural IMRT between November 2004 and May 2013. Pretreatment imaging, treatment plans, and posttreatment imaging were retrospectively reviewed to determine failure location(s). Failures were categorized as in-field (within the 90% isodose line), marginal (<90% and ≥50% isodose lines), out-of-field (outside the 50% isodose line), or distant. The median follow-up was 24 months from diagnosis and the median time to in-field local failure from the end of RT was 10 months. Forty-three in-field local failures (64%) were found with a 1- and 2-year actuarial failure rate of 56% and 74%, respectively. For patients who underwent P/D versus those who received a partial pleurectomy or were deemed unresectable, the median time to in-field local failure was 14 months versus 6 months, respectively, with 1- and 2-year actuarial in-field local failure rates of 43% and 60% versus 66% and 83%, respectively (P=.03). There were 13 marginal failures (19%). Five of the marginal failures (38%) were located within the costomediastinal recess. Marginal failures decreased with increasing institutional experience (P=.04). Twenty-five patients (37%) had out-of-field failures. Distant failures occurred in 32 patients (48%). After hemithoracic pleural IMRT, local failure remains the dominant form of failure pattern. Patients treated with adjuvant hemithoracic pleural IMRT after P/D experience a significantly longer time to local and distant failure than patients treated with definitive pleural IMRT. Increasing

  11. Treatment of Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Adjuvant or Definitive Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sher, David J., E-mail: dsher@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Thotakura, Vijaya [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Balboni, Tracy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Norris, Charles M.; Haddad, Robert I.; Posner, Marshall R.; Lorch, Jochen [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Goguen, Laura A.; Annino, Donald J. [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Tishler, Roy B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The optimal management of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) typically involves surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in the setting of adverse pathologic features. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is frequently used to treat oral cavity cancers, but published IMRT outcomes specific to this disease site are sparse. We report the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute experience with IMRT-based treatment for OCSCC. Methods and Materials: Retrospective study of all patients treated at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute for OCSCC with adjuvant or definitive IMRT between August 2004 and December 2009. The American Joint Committee on Cancer disease stage criteria distribution of this cohort included 5 patients (12%) with stage I; 10 patients (24%) with stage II (n = 10, 24%),; 14 patients (33%) with stage III (n = 14, 33%),; and 13 patients (31%) with stage IV. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS); secondary endpoints were locoregional control (LRC) and acute and chronic toxicity. Results: Forty-two patients with OCSCC were included, 30 of whom were initially treated with surgical resection. Twenty-three (77%) of 30 surgical patients treated with adjuvant IMRT also received concurrent chemotherapy, and 9 of 12 (75%) patients treated definitively without surgery were treated with CRT or induction chemotherapy and CRT. With a median follow-up of 2.1 years (interquartile range, 1.1-3.1 years) for all patients, the 2-year actuarial rates of OS and LRC following adjuvant IMRT were 85% and 91%, respectively, and the comparable results for definitive IMRT were 63% and 64% for OS and LRC, respectively. Only 1 patient developed symptomatic osteoradionecrosis, and among patients without evidence of disease, 35% experienced grade 2 to 3 late dysphagia, with only 1 patient who was continuously gastrostomy-dependent. Conclusions: In this single-institution series, postoperative IMRT was associated with promising LRC

  12. Density overwrites of internal tumor volumes in intensity modulated proton therapy plans for mobile lung tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botas, Pablo; Grassberger, Clemens; Sharp, Gregory; Paganetti, Harald

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate internal tumor volume density overwrite strategies to minimize intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plan degradation of mobile lung tumors. Four planning paradigms were compared for nine lung cancer patients. Internal gross tumor volume (IGTV) and internal clinical target volume (ICTV) structures were defined encompassing their respective volumes in every 4DCT phase. The paradigms use different planning CT (pCT) created from the average intensity projection (AIP) of the 4DCT, overwriting the density within the IGTV to account for movement. The density overwrites were: (a) constant filling with 100 HU (C100) or (b) 50 HU (C50), (c) maximum intensity projection (MIP) across phases, and (d) water equivalent path length (WEPL) consideration from beam’s-eye-view. Plans were created optimizing dose-influence matrices calculated with fast GPU Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in each pCT. Plans were evaluated with MC on the 4DCTs using a model of the beam delivery time structure. Dose accumulation was performed using deformable image registration. Interplay effect was addressed applying 10 times rescanning. Significantly less DVH metrics degradation occurred when using MIP and WEPL approaches. Target coverage (D99≥slant 70 Gy(RBE)) was fulfilled in most cases with MIP and WEPL (D{{99}WEPL}=69.2+/- 4.0 Gy (RBE)), keeping dose heterogeneity low (D5-D{{95}WEPL}=3.9+/- 2.0 Gy(RBE)). The mean lung dose was kept lowest by the WEPL strategy, as well as the maximum dose to organs at risk (OARs). The impact on dose levels in the heart, spinal cord and esophagus were patient specific. Overall, the WEPL strategy gives the best performance and should be preferred when using a 3D static geometry for lung cancer IMPT treatment planning. Newly available fast MC methods make it possible to handle long simulations based on 4D data sets to perform studies with high accuracy and efficiency, even prior to individual treatment planning.

  13. Treatment planning of intensity modulated composite particle therapy with dose and linear energy transfer optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaniwa, Taku; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Noda, Koji; Kamada, Tadashi

    2017-06-01

    The biological effect of charged-particle beams depends on both dose and particle spectrum. As one of the physical quantities describing the particle spectrum of charged-particle beams, we considered the linear energy transfer (LET) throughout this study. We investigated a new therapeutic technique using two or more ion species in one treatment session, which we call an intensity modulated composite particle therapy (IMPACT), for optimizing the physical dose and dose-averaged LET distributions in a patient as its proof of principle. Protons and helium, carbon, and oxygen ions were considered as ion species for IMPACT. For three cubic targets of 4  ×  4  ×  4, 8  ×  8  ×  8, and 12  ×  12  ×  12 cm3, defined at the center of the water phantom of 20  ×  20  ×  20 cm3, we made IMPACT plans of two composite fields with opposing and orthogonal geometries. The prescribed dose to the target was fixed at 1 Gy, while the prescribed LET to the target was varied from 1 keV µm-1 to 120 keV µm-1 to investigate the range of LET valid for prescription. The minimum and maximum prescribed LETs, (L T_min, L T_max), by the opposing-field geometry, were (3 keV µm-1, 115 keV µm-1), (2 keV µm-1, 84 keV µm-1),and (2 keV µm-1, 66 keV µm-1), while those by the orthogonal-field geometry were (8 keV µm-1, 98 keV µm-1), (7 keV µm-1, 72 keV µm-1), and (8 keV µm-1, 57 keV µm-1) for the three targets, respectively. To show the proof of principle of IMPACT in a clinical situation, we made IMPACT plans for a prostate case. In accordance with the prescriptions, the LETs in prostate, planning target volume (PTV), and rectum could be adjusted at 80 keV µm-1, at 50 keV µm-1, and below 30 keV µm-1, respectively, while keeping the dose to the PTV at 2 Gy uniformly. IMPACT enables the optimization of the dose and the LET distributions in a patient, which will maximize the

  14. Development of a head and neck companion module for the quality of life-radiation therapy instrument (QOL-RTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotti, A; Johnson, D J; Gwede, C; Casey, L; Sauder, B; Cantor, A; Pearlman, J

    1998-09-01

    A review of available head and neck quality of life (QOL) instruments reveals them to inadequately address important radiation related side effects, or to be too cumbersome for routine use. The purpose of this study was to develop a head and neck disease specific module as a companion to the previously developed quality of life - radiation therapy instrument (QOL-RTI). The goal was to create a more complete, yet concise, head and neck site-specific module geared toward patients receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. This exploratory study included 34 consecutive patients undergoing definitive radiotherapy over a 6-7 week course (60-79.8 Gy). We developed and administered a 14-item questionnaire to all eligible patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck cancer who were not already registered in another research study assessing quality of life (e.g., RTOG). During the treatment period, the QOL-RTI general tool and the head and neck (H&N) module were administered as follows: at baseline, at week four (for test-retest), and at the end of the treatment period. For validation purposes the QOL-RTI/H&N was compared to the functional assessment cancer tool head and neck (FACT-H&N) questionnaire. The FACT-H&N was administered one time at week 4, on the same day as the QOL-RTI/H&N. This report includes the treatment phase of the study (during the course of radiation). Mean age was 62 years (range 40-75). Internal consistency of the module was satisfactory (Chronbach's alpha = 0.85). Test-retest yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.90 (p neck module, the difference in the mean baseline (7.17) and end of treatment scores (4.20) was 2.94, or 42% change (p bread and liquids), changes in mucous and saliva, changes in taste, difficulty chewing, trouble with coughing, and speech difficulties. Items that were not significant were pain in the mouth, and appearance. These initial results suggest that the H&N companion module to the QOL-RTI is a valid and

  15. Target volume delineation and field setup. A practical guide for conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nancy Y. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States). Radiation Oncology; Lu, Jiade J. (eds.) [National Univ. Health System, Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Medicine

    2013-03-01

    Practical handbook on selection and delineation of tumor volumes and fields for conformal radiation therapy, including IMRT. Helpful format facilitating use on a step-by-step basis in daily practice. Designed to ensure accurate coverage of commonly encountered tumors along their routes of spread. This handbook is designed to enable radiation oncologists to appropriately and confidently delineate tumor volumes/fields for conformal radiation therapy, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), in patients with commonly encountered cancers. The orientation of this handbook is entirely practical, in that the focus is on the illustration of clinical target volume (CTV) delineation for each major malignancy. Each chapter provides guidelines and concise knowledge on CTV selection for a particular disease, explains how the anatomy of lymphatic drainage shapes the selection of the target volume, and presents detailed illustrations of volumes, slice by slice, on planning CT images. While the emphasis is on target volume delineation for three-dimensional conformal therapy and IMRT, information is also provided on conventional radiation therapy field setup and planning for certain malignancies for which IMRT is not currently suitable.

  16. An analysis of the inclusive decay {upsilon}(1S){yields}{eta}'X and constraints on the {eta}'-meson distribution amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A. [Theory Division, CERN, 1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Parkhomenko, A.Ya [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Bern, 3012, Bern (Switzerland)

    2003-09-01

    We calculate the {eta}'-meson energy spectrum in the decay {upsilon}(1S){yields}{eta}'ggg{yields}{eta}'X in leading-order perturbative QCD in the static quark limit for orthoquarkonium. Our principal result is the extraction of parameters of the {eta}'g{sup *}g effective vertex function (EVF) involving a virtual and a real gluon from the available data on the hard part of the {eta}'-meson energy spectrum. The perturbative-QCD based framework provides a good description of the available CLEO data, allowing one to constrain the lowest Gegenbauer coefficients B{sup (q)}{sub 2} and B{sup (g)}{sub 2} of the quark-antiquark and gluonic distribution amplitudes of the {eta}'-meson. The resulting constraints are combined with the existing ones on these coefficients from an analysis of the {eta}-{gamma} and {eta}'-{gamma} transition form factors and the requirement of positivity of the EVF, yielding B{sup (q)}{sub 2}({mu}{sub 0}{sup 2}) = -0.008 {+-}0.054 and B{sup (g)}{sub 2}({mu}{sub 0}{sup 2}) = 4.6 {+-}2.5 for {mu}{sub 0}{sup 2} = 2 GeV{sup 2}. This significantly reduces the current uncertainty on these coefficients. The resulting EFV F{sub {eta}}{sub 'g{sup *}}{sub g}(p{sup 2},0,m{sub {eta}}{sub '}{sup 2}), including the {eta}'-meson mass effects, is presented. (orig.)

  17. The Role of Descending Modulation in Manual Therapy and Its Analgesic Implications: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew D. Vigotsky; Bruhns, Ryan P.

    2015-01-01

    Manual therapy has long been a component of physical rehabilitation programs, especially to treat those in pain. The mechanisms of manual therapy, however, are not fully understood, and it has been suggested that its pain modulatory effects are of neurophysiological origin and may be mediated by the descending modulatory circuit. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the neurophysiological response to different types of manual therapy, in order to better understand the neurophys...

  18. SU-E-T-166: Evaluation of Integral Dose in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Basheer, A; Hunag, J; Kaminski, J; Dasher, B; Howington, J; Stewart, J; Martin, D; Kong, F; Jin, J [Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA (Georgia)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) usually achieves higher conformity of radiation doses to targets and less delivery time than Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). We hypothesized that VMAT will increase integral dose (ID) to patients which will decrease the count of white blood count (WBC) lymphocytes, and consequently has a subsequent impact on the immune system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ID to patients undergoing IMRT and VMAT for Head and Neck cancers and its impact on the immune system. Methods: As a pilot study, 30 head and neck patients who received 9-fields IMRT or 3-arcs Radip-Arcbased VMAT were included in this study. Ten of these patients who received the VMAT plans were re-planned using IMRT with the same objectives. ID was calculated for all cases. All patients also had a baseline WBC obtained prior to treatment, and 3 sets of labs drawn during the course of radiation treatment. Results: For the 10 re-planned patients, the mean ID was 13.3 Gy/voxel (range 10.2–17.5 Gy/voxel) for the 9-fields IMRT plans, and was 15.9 Gy/voxel (range 12.4-20.9 Gy/voxel) for the 3-Arc VMAT plan (p=0.01). The integral dose was significant correlated with reducing WBC count during RT even when controlling for concurrent chemotherapy (R square =0.56, p=0.008). Conclusion: Although VMAT can deliver higher radiation dose conformality to targets, this benefit is achieved generally at the cost of greater integral doses to normal tissue outside the planning target volume (PTV). Lower WBC counts during RT were associated with higher Integral doses even when controlling for concurrent chemotherapy. This study is ongoing in our Institution to exam the impact of integral doses and WBC on overall survival.

  19. Dosimetric comparison between step-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy for upper thoracic and cervical esophageal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Min; Li, Qilin; Ning, Zhonghua; Gu, Wendong; Huang, Jin; Mu, Jinming; Pei, Honglei, E-mail: hongleipei@126.com

    2016-07-01

    To compare and analyze the dosimetric characteristics of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) vs step-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (sIMRT) for upper thoracic and cervical esophageal carcinoma. Single-arc VMAT (VMAT1), dual-arc VMAT (VMAT2), and 7-field sIMRT plans were designed for 30 patients with upper thoracic or cervical esophageal carcinoma. Planning target volume (PTV) was prescribed to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions, and PTV1 was prescribed to 60 Gy in 28 fractions. The parameters evaluated included dose homogeneity and conformality, dose to organs at risk (OARs), and delivery efficiency. (1) In comparison to sIMRT, VMAT provided a systematic improvement in PTV1 coverage. The homogeneity index of VMAT1 was better than that of VMAT2. There were no significant differences among sIMRT, VMAT1, and VMAT2 in PTV coverage. (2) VMAT1 and VMAT2 reduced the maximum dose of spinal cord as compared with sIMRT (p < 0.05). The rest dose-volume characteristics of OARs were similar. (3) Monitor units of VMAT2 and VMAT1 were more than sIMRT. However, the treatment time of VMAT1, VMAT2, and sIMRT was (2.0 ± 0.2), (2.8 ± 0.3), and (9.8 ± 0.8) minutes, respectively. VMAT1 was the fastest, and the difference was statistically significant. In the treatment of upper thoracic and cervical esophageal carcinoma by the AXESSE linac, compared with 7-field sIMRT, VMAT showed better PTV1 coverage and superior spinal cord sparing. Single-arc VMAT had similar target volume coverage and the sparing of OAR to dual-arc VMAT, with shortest treatment time and highest treatment efficiency in the 3 kinds of plans.

  20. Adjuvant intensity-modulated proton therapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma. A comparison with intensity-modulated radiotherapy and a spot size variation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorentini, S. [Agenzia Provinciale per la Protonterapia (ATreP), Trento (Italy); Padova Univ. (Italy). Medical Physics School; Amichetti, M.; Fellin, F.; Schwarz, M. [Agenzia Provinciale per la Protonterapia (ATreP), Trento (Italy); Spiazzi, L. [Brescia Hospital (Italy). Medical Physics Dept.; Tonoli, S.; Magrini, S.M. [Brescia Hospital (Italy). Radiation Oncology Dept.

    2012-03-15

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the state-of-the-art treatment for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The goal of this work was to assess whether intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) could further improve the dosimetric results allowed by IMRT. We re-planned 7 MPM cases using both photons and protons, by carrying out IMRT and IMPT plans. For both techniques, conventional dose comparisons and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) analysis were performed. In 3 cases, additional IMPT plans were generated with different beam dimensions. IMPT allowed a slight improvement in target coverage and clear advantages in dose conformity (p < 0.001) and dose homogeneity (p = 0.01). Better organ at risk (OAR) sparing was obtained with IMPT, in particular for the liver (D{sub mean} reduction of 9.5 Gy, p = 0.001) and ipsilateral kidney (V{sub 20} reduction of 58%, p = 0.001), together with a very large reduction of mean dose for the contralateral lung (0.2 Gy vs 6.1 Gy, p = 0.0001). NTCP values for the liver showed a systematic superiority of IMPT with respect to IMRT for both the esophagus (average NTCP 14% vs. 30.5%) and the ipsilateral kidney (p = 0.001). Concerning plans obtained with different spot dimensions, a slight loss of target coverage was observed along with sigma increase, while maintaining OAR irradiation always under planning constraints. Results suggest that IMPT allows better OAR sparing with respect to IMRT, mainly for the liver, ipsilateral kidney, and contralateral lung. The use of a spot dimension larger than 3 x 3 mm (up to 9 x 9 mm) does not compromise dosimetric results and allows a shorter delivery time.

  1. COMPETITIVE CH ACTIVATION IN (PENTAMETHYLCYCLOPENTADIENYL)(CYCLOOCTATETRAENE)ALKYLZIRCONIUM COMPOUNDS CP-ASTERISK-ZR(COT)R - SELECTIVE FORMATION OF FULVENE OR CYCLOOCTATRIENYNE LIGANDS - MOLECULAR-STRUCTURE OF CP-ASTERISK-ZR(MU-ETA-8-ETA-2-C8H6)ZRCP-ASTERISK(ETA-4-C8H8), A DINUCLEAR ZWITTERIONIC ZIRCONIUM COMPLEX WITH A BRIDGING CYCLOOCTARIENYNE LIGAND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SINNEMA, PJ; MEETSMA, A; TEUBEN, JH

    Thermolysis of Cp*Zr(COT)R (Cp* = eta5-C5Me5, COT = eta8-C8H8, R = CH2SiMe3, Me) proceeds via a double hydrogen abstraction from a cyclooctatetraene ligand to give RH and Cp*Zr(mu-eta8:eta2-C8H6)ZrCp*(eta4-C8H8) as the kinetic product. Cp*Zr(mu-eta8:eta2-C8H6) undergoes a thermally induced hydrogen

  2. Regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase eta transcript and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabla, Ritu; Rozario, Donald; Siede, Wolfram

    2008-02-01

    RAD30-encoded DNA polymerase eta functions as a translesion polymerase that can bypass the most frequent types of UV-induced pyrimidine photoproducts in an error-free manner. Although its transcript is UV-inducible in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rad30 (studied as a Rad30-Myc fusion) is a stable protein whose levels do not fluctuate following UV treatment or during cell cycle progression. Rad30 protein is subject to monoubiquitination whose level is upregulated in G1 and downregulated during S-phase reentry. This downregulation is accelerated in UV-treated cells. A missense mutation (L577Q) of the ubiquitin binding domain (UBZ) confers a reduced degree of ubiquitination outside of G1 and a complete failure to stably interact with ubiquitinated substrates. This mutation confers a phenotype resembling a complete RAD30 deletion, thus attesting to the significance of the UBZ motif for polymerase eta function in vivo.

  3. Eta photoproduction as a test of the extended chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ramirez, C. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: cesar@nuc2.fis.ucm.es; Moya de Guerra, E. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-08-09

    We analyze the {gamma}p->{eta}p process from threshold up to 1.2 GeV, employing an effective Lagrangian approach that allows for a mixing of eta couplings of pseudoscalar and pseudovector nature. The mixing ratio of the couplings may serve as a quantitative estimation of the SU{sub L}(3)xSU{sub R}(3) extended chiral symmetry violation in this energy regime. The data analyzed (differential cross sections and asymmetries) show a preference for the pseudoscalar coupling-91% of pseudoscalar coupling component for the best fit. We stress that a more conclusive answer to this question requires a more complete electromagnetic multipole database than the presently available one.

  4. Turbidity of a Binary Fluid Mixture: Determining Eta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Donald T.

    1996-01-01

    A ground based (1-g) experiment is in progress that will measure the turbidity of a density-matched, binary fluid mixture extremely close to its liquid-liquid critical point. By covering the range of reduced temperatures t equivalent to (T-T(sub c)) / T(sub c) from 10(exp -8) to 10(exp -2), the turbidity measurements will allow the critical exponent eta to be determined. No experiment has precisely determined a value of the critical exponent eta, yet its value is significant to theorists in critical phenomena. Relatively simple critical phenomena, as in the liquid-liquid system studied here, serve as model systems for more complex systems near a critical point.

  5. Multi-field Optimization Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy for Head and Neck Tumors – A Translation to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven J.; Cox, James D.; Gillin, Michael; Mohan, Radhe; Garden, Adam S.; Rosenthal, David I.; Gunn, G. Brandon; Weber, Randal S.; Kies, Merrill S.; Lewin, Jan S.; Munsell, Mark F.; Palmer, Matthew B.; Sahoo, Narayan; Zhang, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Zhu, X. Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Summary The first fifteen consecutive patients treated with multi-field optimization intensity modulated proton therapy (MFO-IMPT) were able to complete treatment with no need for treatment breaks and no hospitalizations. Ten patients presented with SCC and 5 with ACC. There were no treatment-related deaths and with a median follow-up of 28 months, the overall clinical complete response rate was 93.3%. Early clinical outcomes warrant further investigation of proton therapy in the management of head and neck malignancies. Background We report the first clinical experience and toxicity of multi-field optimization (MFO) intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for patients with head and neck tumors. Methods Fifteen consecutive patients with head and neck cancer underwent MFO-IMPT with active scanning beam proton therapy. Patients with SCC had comprehensive treatment extending from the base of the skull to the clavicle. The dose for chemoradiation therapy and radiation therapy alone was 70 Gy and 66 Gy, respectively. The robustness of each treatment plan was also analyzed to evaluate sensitivity to uncertainties associated with variations in patient setup and the effect of uncertainties with proton beam range in patients. Proton beam energies during treatment ranged from 72.5 to 221.8 MeV. Spot sizes varied depending on the beam energy and depth of the target, and the scanning nozzle delivered the spot scanning treatment “spot-by-spot” and “layer-by-layer” Results Ten patients presented with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 5 with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). All 15 patients were able to complete treatment with MFO-IMPT with no need for treatment breaks and no hospitalizations. There were no treatment-related deaths and with a median follow-up of 28 months (range: 20-35), the overall clinical complete response rate was 93.3% (95%, confidence interval 68.1% to 99.8%). Xerostomia occurred in all 15 patients as follows; Grade 1 - ten patients, Grade 2 - four

  6. An Analysis of the Inclusive Decay $\\Upsilon (1S) \\to \\eta^\\prime X$ and Constraints on the $\\eta^\\prime$-Meson Distribution Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, A

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the $\\eta^\\prime$-meson energy spectrum in the decay $\\Upsilon (1S) \\to \\eta^\\prime g g g \\to \\eta^\\prime X$ in the leading-order perturbative QCD in the static quark limit for the Orthoquarkonium. Our principal result is the extraction of parameters of the $\\eta^\\prime g^* g$ effective vertex function (EVF) involving a virtual and a real gluon from the available data on the hard part of the $\\eta^\\prime$-meson energy spectrum. The perturbative QCD based framework provides a good description of the available CLEO data, allowing to constrain the lowest Gegenbauer coefficients $B^{(q)}_2$ and $B^{(g)}_2$ of the quark-antiquark and gluonic distribution amplitudes of the $\\eta^\\prime$-meson. The resulting constraints are combined with the existing ones on these coefficients from an analysis of the $\\eta-\\gamma$ and $\\eta^\\prime-\\gamma$ transition form factors and the requirement of positivity of the EVF, yielding $B^{(q)}_2(\\mu_0^2) = 0.010 \\pm 0.068$ and $B^{(g)}_2(\\mu_0^2) = 5.6 \\pm 3.4$ for $\\mu_0...

  7. Observation of B0-->omega K0, B+-->eta pi+, and B+-->eta K+ and study of related decays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Layter, J; Shen, B C; Wang, K; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Erwin, R J; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Lee, C L; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Cote-Ahern, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Allmendinger, T; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Elsen, E E; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-02-13

    We present measurements of branching fractions and charge asymmetries for seven B-meson decays with an eta, eta', or omega meson in the final state. The data sample corresponds to 89x10(6) BB pairs produced from e(+)e(-) annihilation at the Upsilon(4S) resonance. We measure the following branching fractions in units of 10(-6): B(B+-->eta pi(+))=5.3+/-1.0+/-0.3, B(B+-->eta K+)=3.4+/-0.8+/-0.2, B(B0-->eta K0)=2.9+/-1.0+/-0.2 (eta(')pi(+))=2.7+/-1.2+/-0.3 (omega pi(+))=5.5+/-0.9+/-0.5, B(B+-->omega K+)=4.8+/-0.8+/-0.4, and B(B0-->omega K0)=5.9(+1.6)(-1.3)+/-0.5. The charge asymmetries are A(ch)(B+-->eta pi(+))=-0.44+/-0.18+/-0.01, A(ch)(B+-->eta K+)=-0.52+/-0.24+/-0.01, A(ch)(B+-->omega pi(+))=0.03+/-0.16+/-0.01, and A(ch)(B+-->omega K+)=-0.09+/-0.17+/-0.01.

  8. Search for the $C\\!P$-violating strong decays $\\eta \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $\\eta^\\prime(958) \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, V.V.; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-01-10

    A search for the $C\\!P$-violating strong decays $\\eta \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $\\eta^\\prime(958) \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-$ has been performed using approximately $2.5 \\times 10^{7}$ events of each of the decays $D^+ \\to \\pi^+\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $D_s^+ \\to \\pi^+\\pi^+\\pi^-$, recorded by the LHCb experiment. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data recorded during LHC Run 1 and 0.3 fb$^{-1}$ recorded in Run 2. No evidence is seen for $D^+_{(s)} \\to \\pi^+ \\eta^{(\\prime)}$ with $\\eta^{(\\prime)} \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-$, and upper limits at 90% confidence level are set on the branching fractions, $\\mathcal{B}(\\eta \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-) < 1.6 \\times 10^{-5}$ and $\\mathcal{B}(\\eta^\\prime \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-) < 1.8 \\times 10^{-5}$. The limit for the $\\eta$ decay is comparable with the existing one, while that for the $\\eta^\\prime$ is a factor of three smaller than the previous limit.

  9. Chiral unitary approach to {eta}'N scattering at low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oset, E. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Ramos, A., E-mail: ramos@ecm.ub.es [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-19

    We study the {eta}'N interaction within a chiral unitary approach which includes {pi}N, {eta}N and related pseudoscalar meson-baryon coupled channels. Since the SU(3) singlet does not contribute to the standard interaction and the {eta}{sup '} is mostly a singlet, the resulting scattering amplitude is very small and inconsistent with the experimental scattering length. The additional consideration of vector meson-baryon states into the coupled channel scheme, via normal and anomalous couplings of pseudoscalar to vector mesons, enhances substantially the {eta}'N amplitude. We also exploit the freedom of adding to the Lagrangian a new term, allowed by the symmetries of QCD, which couples baryons to the singlet meson of SU(3). Adjusting the unknown strength to the {eta}'N scattering length, we obtain predictions for the elastic {eta}{sup '}N{yields}{eta}{sup '}N and inelastic {eta}{sup '}N{yields}{eta}N, {pi}N, K{Lambda}, K{Sigma} cross sections at low {eta}' energies, and discuss their significance.

  10. Analyzing temporal variation in the lethality of ETA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Cuenca, Ignacio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes time variation in the lethal violence of the terrorist organization ETA. Given the dynamic structure of the time series of fatalities, I look at the effect of a number of independent variables (the celebration of different types of elections, anti-ETA activity by extreme right-wing organizations and the GAL, police arrests, and other relevant events, such as the referendums on the Constitution and the Statute of Autonomy of Guernica. To do so, I have estimated several ARIMA models using the time series of fatalities between 1968 and 2007. Moreover, the results obtained are complemented by a historical-political analysis of the period of maximum violence, which took place during the Spanish transition to democracy.

    Este artículo analiza la variación temporal en la violencia letal de la organización terrorista ETA. Dada la estructura dinámica de la serie temporal de víctimas mortales, se estudia el efecto de una serie de variables independientes (celebración de distintos tipos de elecciones, actividad anti-ETA de la extrema derecha y del GAL, detenciones policiales y sucesos especiales como los referendos sobre la Constitución o el Estatuto de Autonomía de Guernica. Para ello, se estiman diversos modelos ARIMA con la serie trimestral de víctimas mortales entre 1968 y 2007. Además, se completan los resultados obtenidos con un análisis histórico-político del periodo de máxima violencia durante la transición a la democracia.

  11. Estimating the excess lifetime risk of radiation induced secondary malignancy (SMN) in pediatric patients treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI): Conventional radiation therapy versus helical intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jordan A; Chera, Bhishamjit S; Brenner, David J; Shuryak, Igor; Wilson, Adam K; Lehman-Davis, Misty; Fried, David V; Somasundaram, Vivek; Lian, Jun; Cullip, Tim; Marks, Lawrence B

    To quantify the risk of radiation-induced second malignancies (SMN) in pediatric patients receiving craniospinal irradiation (CSI) either with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (Conv CSI) or tomotherapy helical intensity modulated radiation therapy (Tomo CSI). A novel predictive model that accounts for short- and long-term carcinogenesis was incorporated into our institutional treatment planning system to quantify the lifetime risk of SMN in incidentally irradiated organs. Five pediatric patients previously treated with CSI were studied. For each case, Conv CSI and Tomo CSI plans were computed. The excess absolute number of SMN was computed for each plan for each patient. For female patients, age was varied to assess its impact. Tomo CSI has a much higher risk than Conv CSI for breast cancer. Tomo has a slightly increased risk for the lung, and conventional has a slightly higher risk for the thyroid. Both techniques have intermediate risks to the pancreas and stomach, and lesser risks to the bladder and rectum. For the breast, the magnitude of the absolute risks varied with age: 14.2% versus 7.4% (Tomo vs Conv) age 5; 16.9% versus 7.6% age 10, and 18.6% versus 8.0% age 15. Tomo has a higher risk for inducing breast and lung second cancers, and when using Tomo-based intensity modulated radiation therapy, care should be taken to avoid incidental radiation to the breast. When planning CSI, one needs to balance these cancer risks against other normal tissue effects. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Volumetric modulated arc therapy versus step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy in the treatment of large nerve perineural spread to the skull base: a comparative dosimetric planning study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorayski, Peter; Fitzgerald, Rhys; Barry, Tamara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Queensland (Australia); Burmeister, Elizabeth [Nursing Practice Development Unit, Princess Alexandra Hospital and Research Centre for Clinical and Community Practice Innovation, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Foote, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Queensland (Australia); Diamantina Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with large nerve perineural (LNPN) infiltration of the base of skull is a radiotherapeutic challenge given the complex target volumes to nearby organs at risk (OAR). A comparative planning study was undertaken to evaluate dosimetric differences between volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of LNPN. Five consecutive patients previously treated with IMRT for LNPN were selected. VMAT plans were generated for each case using the same planning target volumes (PTV), dose prescriptions and OAR constraints as IMRT. Comparative parameters used to assess target volume coverage, conformity and homogeneity included V95 of the PTV (volume encompassed by the 95% isodose), conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI). In addition, OAR maximum point doses, V20, V30, non-target tissue (NTT) point max doses, NTT volume above reference dose, monitor units (MU) were compared. IMRT and VMAT plans generated were comparable for CI (P = 0.12) and HI (P = 0.89). VMAT plans achieved better V95 (P = < 0.001) and reduced V20 and V30 by 652 cubic centimetres (cc) (28.5%) and 425.7 cc (29.1%), respectively. VMAT increased MU delivered by 18% without a corresponding increase in NTT dose. Compared with IMRT plans for LNPN, VMAT achieved comparable HI and CI.

  13. A novel conformity index for intensity modulated radiation therapy plan evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fion W K; Law, Maria Y Y

    2012-09-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has gained popularity in the treatment of cancers. Manual evaluation of IMRT plans for head-and-neck cancers has been especially challenging necessitating efficient and objective assessment tools. In this work, the authors address this issue by developing a personalized conformity index (CI) for comparison of IMRT plans for head-and-neck cancers and evaluating its plan quality discerning power in comparison with other widely used CIs. A two-dimensional CI with dose and distance incorporated (CI(DD)) was developed using the MATLAB program language, to quantify the planning target volume (PTV) coverage. Valuable information contained in the digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) RT objects were harvested for computation of each of the CI(DD) components. Apart from the dose penalty factor, a distance-based exponential function was employed by varying the penalty weight associated with the location of cold spots within the PTV. With the goal of deriving a customized penalty factor, the distances between individual pixel and its nearest PTV boundary was found. Using the exponential function, the impact of distance penalty was substantially larger for cold spots closer to the PTV centroid but petered out quickly wherever they were situated in the vicinity of PTV border. In order to evaluate the CI(DD) scoring system, three CT image data sets of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients were collected. Ten IMRT plans with degrading qualities were generated from each dataset and were ranked based on CI(DD) and other existing indices. The coefficient of variance was calculated for each dataset to compare the degree of variation. The CI(DD) scoring system that considered spatial importance of each voxel within the PTV was successfully developed. The results demonstrated that the CI(DD) including four discrete factors could provide accurate rankings of plan quality by examining the relative importance of each cold spot

  14. Evaluation of volumetric modulated arc therapy for cranial radiosurgery using multiple noncoplanar arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audet, Chantal; Poffenbarger, Brett A.; Chang, Pauling; Jackson, Paul S.; Lundahl, Robert E.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Ray, Gordon R. [Radiation Oncology Department, Palo Alto Medical Foundation, Palo Alto, California 94301 (United States); Neurosurgery Department, Palo Alto Medical Foundation, Palo Alto, California 94301 (United States); Radiation Oncology Department, Palo Alto Medical Foundation, Palo Alto, California 94301 (United States); Neurosurgery Department, Palo Alto Medical Foundation, Palo Alto, California 94301 (United States); Radiation Oncology Department, Palo Alto Medical Foundation, Palo Alto, California 94301 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a commercial volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), using multiple noncoplanar arcs, for linac-based cranial radiosurgery, as well as evaluate the combined accuracy of the VMAT dose calculations and delivery. Methods: Twelve patients with cranial lesions of variable size (0.1-29 cc) and two multiple metastases patients were planned (Eclipse RapidArc AAA algorithm, v8.6.15) using VMAT (1-6 noncoplanar arcs), dynamic conformal arc (DCA, {approx}4 arcs), and IMRT (nine static fields). All plans were evaluated according to a conformity index (CI), healthy brain tissue doses and volumes, and the dose to organs at risk. A 2D dose distribution was measured (Varian Novalis Tx, HD120 MLC, 1000 MU/min, 6 MV beam) for the {approx}4 arc VMAT treatment plans using calibrated film dosimetry. Results: The CI (0-1 best) average for all plans was best for {approx}4 noncoplanar arc VMAT at 0.86 compared with {approx}0.78 for IMRT and a single arc VMAT and 0.68 for DCA. The volumes of healthy brain receiving 50% of the prescribed target coverage dose or more (V{sub 50%}) were lowest for the four arc VMAT [RA(4)] and DCA plans. The average ratio of the V{sub 50%} for the other plans to the RA(4) V{sub 50%} were 1.9 for a single noncoplanar arc VMAT [RA(1nc)], 1.4 for single full coplanar arc VMAT [RA(1f)] and 1.3 for IMRT. The V{sub 50%} improved significantly for single isocenter multiple metastases plan when two noncoplanar VMAT arcs were added to a full single coplanar one. The maximum dose to 5 cc of the outer 1 cm rim of healthy brain which one may want to keep below nonconsequential doses of 300-400 cGy, was 2-3 times greater for IMRT, RA(1nc) and RA(1f) plans compared with the multiple noncoplanar arc DCA and RA(4) techniques. Organs at risk near (0-4 mm) to targets were best spared by (i) single noncoplanar arcs when the targets are lateral to the organ at risk and (ii) by skewed nonvertical planes of IMRT fields when the targets are not lateral to the

  15. Evaluation of volumetric modulated arc therapy for cranial radiosurgery using multiple noncoplanar arcs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Chantal; Poffenbarger, Brett A; Chang, Pauling; Jackson, Paul S; Lundahl, Robert E; Ryu, Stephen I; Ray, Gordon R

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate a commercial volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), using multiple noncoplanar arcs, for linac-based cranial radiosurgery, as well as evaluate the combined accuracy of the VMAT dose calculations and delivery. Twelve patients with cranial lesions of variable size (0.1-29 cc) and two multiple metastases patients were planned (Eclipse RapidArc AAA algorithm, v8.6.15) using VMAT (1-6 noncoplanar arcs), dynamic conformal arc (DCA, ∼4 arcs), and IMRT (nine static fields). All plans were evaluated according to a conformity index (CI), healthy brain tissue doses and volumes, and the dose to organs at risk. A 2D dose distribution was measured (Varian Novalis Tx, HD120 MLC, 1000 MU/min, 6 MV beam) for the ∼4 arc VMAT treatment plans using calibrated film dosimetry. The CI (0-1 best) average for all plans was best for ∼4 noncoplanar arc VMAT at 0.86 compared with ∼0.78 for IMRT and a single arc VMAT and 0.68 for DCA. The volumes of healthy brain receiving 50% of the prescribed target coverage dose or more (V(50%)) were lowest for the four arc VMAT [RA(4)] and DCA plans. The average ratio of the V(50%) for the other plans to the RA(4) V(50%) were 1.9 for a single noncoplanar arc VMAT [RA(1nc)], 1.4 for single full coplanar arc VMAT [RA(1f)] and 1.3 for IMRT. The V(50%) improved significantly for single isocenter multiple metastases plan when two noncoplanar VMAT arcs were added to a full single coplanar one. The maximum dose to 5 cc of the outer 1 cm rim of healthy brain which one may want to keep below nonconsequential doses of 300-400 cGy, was 2-3 times greater for IMRT, RA(1nc) and RA(1f) plans compared with the multiple noncoplanar arc DCA and RA(4) techniques. Organs at risk near (0-4 mm) to targets were best spared by (i) single noncoplanar arcs when the targets are lateral to the organ at risk and (ii) by skewed nonvertical planes of IMRT fields when the targets are not lateral to the organ at risk. The highest dose gradient observed between an

  16. Orionids and Eta Aquariids in the IAU MDC database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoreň, J.; Kaňuchová, Z.

    2017-09-01

    The structure of the Orionids and the Eta Aquariids meteor streams was studied using the IAU MDC Photographic Orbits Database. Both the streams are associated with one of the most active comet known in the cometary population - 1 P/Halley. The stream is therefore constantly supplemented by new particles, what creates conditions for a formation of a complex internal structure. We found that two frequency maxima of the photographic Orionids identified at the solar longitudes λ⊙=208.5° and λ⊙=210.5° coincide with the positions of the maximum activity of the visual meteors and bolides. One of five identified associations (O1) probably does not belong to the Orionids, i.e. meteor stream 008 ORI, but regards the September omicron Orionids - 479 SOO. The orbital parameters of the filament O4 correspond to the mean orbit of the Orionids resulting from the meteor radar observations in the period 2002-2012. There is no spatial relation between meteors observed in May (031 ETA) and October (008 ORI). While Eta Aquariids are in fact the core of the stream, the orbits of Orionids are much further from the cometary orbit.

  17. Religion, evolution, and mental health: attachment theory and ETAS theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the historical origins of Attachment Theory and Evolutionary Threat Assessment Systems Theory (ETAS Theory), their evolutionary basis and their application in research on religion and mental health. Attachment Theory has been most commonly applied to religion and mental health in research on God as an attachment figure, which has shown that secure attachment to God is positively associated with psychological well-being. Its broader application to religion and mental health is comprehensively discussed by Kirkpatrick (2005). ETAS Theory explains why certain religious beliefs--including beliefs about God and life-after-death--should have an adverse association, an advantageous association, or no association at all with mental health. Moreover, it makes specific predictions to this effect, which have been confirmed, in part. The authors advocate the application of ETAS Theory in research on religion and mental health because it explains how religious and other beliefs related to the dangerousness of the world can directly affect psychiatric symptoms through their affects on specific brain structures.

  18. A Phase II Study of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy to the Pelvis for Postoperative Patients With Endometrial Carcinoma: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 0418

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhingran, Anuja, E-mail: ajhingra@mdanderson.org [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Winter, Kathryn [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Portelance, Lorraine [University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Miller, Brigitte [Carolinas Medical Center North East, Concord, North Carolina (United States); Salehpour, Mohammad [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gaur, Rakesh [St. Luke' s Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri (United States); Souhami, Luis [McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Small, William [Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illionis (United States); Berk, Lawrence [H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Gaffney, David [Huntsman Cancer Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for patients with endometrial cancer in a multi-institutional setting and to determine whether this treatment is associated with fewer short-term bowel adverse events than standard radiation therapy. Methods: Patients with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium treated with pelvic radiation therapy alone were eligible. Guidelines for target definition and delineation, dose prescription, and dose-volume constraints for the targets and critical normal structures were detailed in the study protocol and a web-based atlas. Results: Fifty-eight patients were accrued by 25 institutions; 43 were eligible for analysis. Forty-two patients (98%) had an acceptable IMRT plan; 1 had an unacceptable variation from the prescribed dose to the nodal planning target volume. The proportions of cases in which doses to critical normal structures exceeded protocol criteria were as follows: bladder, 67%; rectum, 76%; bowel, 17%; and femoral heads, 33%. Twelve patients (28%) developed grade {>=}2 short-term bowel adverse events. Conclusions: Pelvic IMRT for endometrial cancer is feasible across multiple institutions with use of a detailed protocol and centralized quality assurance (QA). For future trials, contouring of vaginal and nodal tissue will need continued monitoring with good QA and better definitions will be needed for organs at risk.

  19. Measurement of the final states $\\omega \\pi^0$, $\\rho \\eta$, and $\\rho \\eta^{'}$ from $\\psip$ electromagnetic decays and $\\ee$ annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ban, Y; Bian, J G; Cai, X; Chang, J F; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, H X; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, Y B; Chi, S P; Chu, Y P; Cui, X Z; Dai, H L; Dai, Y S; Deng, Z Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, Q F; Du, S X; Du, Z Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fu, C D; Fu, H Y; Gao, C S; Gao, Y N; Gong, M Y; Gong, W X; Gu, S D; Guo, Y N; Guo, Y Q; He, K L; He, M; He, X; Heng, Y K; Hu, H M; Hu, T; Huang, X P; Huang, X T; Ji, X B; Jiang, C H; Jiang, X S; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jin, Y; Yi Jin; Lai, Y F; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H H; Li, J; Li, J C; Li, Q J; Li, R Y; Li, S M; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X Q; Li, Y L; Liang, Y F; Liao, H B; Liu, C X; Liu, F; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, R G; Liu, Z A; Liu, Z X; Lu, F; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Luo, C L; Luo, L X; Luo, X L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, J M; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Ma, X B; Ma, X Y; Mao, Z P; Mo, X H; Nie, J; Nie, Z D; Peng, H P; Qi, N D; Qian, C D; Qin, H; Qiu, J F; Ren, Z Y; Rong, G; Shan, L Y; Shang, L; Shen, D L; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, F; Shi, X; Sun, H S; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Tang, X; Tao, N; Tian, Y R; Tong, G L; Wang, D Y; Wang, J Z; Wang, K; Wang, L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S Z; Wang, W F; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z Y; Wei, C L; Wei, D H; Wu, N; Wu, Y M; Xia, X M; Xie, X X; Xin, B; Xu, G F; Xu, H; Xue, S T; Yan, M L; Yang, F; Yang, H X; Yang, J; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Ye, Y X; Yi, L H; Yi, Z Y; Yu, C S; Yu, G W; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, J M; Yuan, Y; Zang, S L; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, Q J; Zhang, S Q; Zhang Xiao Min; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Q; Zhao, D X; Zhao, J B; Zhao, J W; Zhao, M G; Zhao, P P; Zhao, W R; Zhao, X J; Zhao, Y B; Zheng, H Q; Zheng, J P; Zheng, L S; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, X C; Zhou, B Q; Zhou, G M; Zhou, L; Zhou, N F; Zhu, K J; Zhu, Q M; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, B A; Zhuang, X A; Zou, B S

    2004-01-01

    Cross sections and form factors for $\\ee \\to \\wpi$, $\\rho\\eta$, and $\\rho\\etap$ at center of mass energies of 3.650, 3.686, and 3.773 GeV are measured using data samples collected with the BESII detector at the BEPC. Also, the branching fractions of $\\psi(2S) \\rar \\wpi$, $\\rho\\eta$, and $\\rho\\etap$ are determined to be $(1.87^{+0.68}_{-0.62}\\pm0.28)\\times 10^{-5}$, $(1.78^{+0.67}_{-0.62}\\pm0.17)\\times 10^{-5}$, and $(1.87^{+1.64}_{-1.11}\\pm0.33)\\times10^{-5}$, respectively.

  20. Accommodating practical constraints for intensity-modulated radiation therapy by means of compensators

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, J

    2001-01-01

    intensity distribution, inverse modelling of the radiation attenuation within the compensator is required. Two novel and independent approaches, based on deconvolution and system identification, respectively, are proposed to accomplish this. To compare the approach with the 'rival' state of the art beam modulation technique, theoretical and experimental examination of the modulated fields generated by manufactured compensators and multileaf collimators is presented. This comparison focused on the achievable resolution of the intensity modulated beams in lateral and longitudinal directions. To take into account the characteristics of a clinical environment, a comprehensive study has been carried out to investigate the suitability of the most common commercially available treatment couch systems for their suitability for IMRT treatments. In this context, an original rule based advisory system has been developed to alert the operator of any potential collision of the beam with the moveable supporting structures ...

  1. Monte Carlo evaluation of Acuros XB dose calculation Algorithm for intensity modulated radiation therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Peter C. Y.; Lee, C. C.; Chao, T. C.; Tung, C. J.

    2017-11-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy is an effective treatment modality for the nasopharyngeal carcinoma. One important aspect of this cancer treatment is the need to have an accurate dose algorithm dealing with the complex air/bone/tissue interface in the head-neck region to achieve the cure without radiation-induced toxicities. The Acuros XB algorithm explicitly solves the linear Boltzmann transport equation in voxelized volumes to account for the tissue heterogeneities such as lungs, bone, air, and soft tissues in the treatment field receiving radiotherapy. With the single beam setup in phantoms, this algorithm has already been demonstrated to achieve the comparable accuracy with Monte Carlo simulations. In the present study, five nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with the intensity-modulated radiation therapy were examined for their dose distributions calculated using the Acuros XB in the planning target volume and the organ-at-risk. Corresponding results of Monte Carlo simulations were computed from the electronic portal image data and the BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc code. Analysis of dose distributions in terms of the clinical indices indicated that the Acuros XB was in comparable accuracy with Monte Carlo simulations and better than the anisotropic analytical algorithm for dose calculations in real patients.

  2. Art in Occupational Therapy Education: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Study of an ArtsBased Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Coppola

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Art-based learning experiences have demonstrated a range of benefits, including improved observation skills and perspective taking. This article describes the effects of an art-based module in an entry-level curriculum for occupational therapy (OT students. An exploratory pilot study investigated the feasibility of a groupadministered visual art-based module for 20 first-year OT graduate students. Outcomes were evaluated using a mixed-methods approach that combined pre-post quantitative results from survey questionnaires and qualitative reflective essays. Pre- and post-surveys revealed significant changes in the students’ perception regarding the benefits of art in OT curricula. The students’ reflective essays on their learning described artbased sessions as: (a opportunities to practice perspective shifting, (b tapping into emotion, (c exemplars of the therapeutic encounter, (d integrative and “out of the box,” and (e impacting student roles and the classroom environment. Findings support art-based pedagogies to complement coursework to build an understanding of clients, creative thinking, and valued learning experiences. Learning partnerships between occupational therapy faculty, art museum educators, and artists can offer fruitful interdisciplinary learning experiences.

  3. Precise measurements of the eta meson and the neutral kaon masses with the KLOE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Antonelli, M; Archilli, F; Bacci, C; Beltrame, P; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, S; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocchetta, S; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Capon, G; Capussela, T; Ceradini, F; Chi, S; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; De Lucia, E; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Micco, B; Doria, A; Dreucci, M; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Fiore, S; Forti, C; Franzini, P; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Gorini, E; Graziani, E; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Leone, D; Martini, M; Massarotti, P; Mei, W; Meola, S; Miscetti, S; Moulson, M; Müller, S; Murtas, F; Napolitano, M; Nguyen, F; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Perfetto, F; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Saracino, G; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Sibidanov, A; Spadaro, T; Testa, M; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Venanzoni, G; Versaci, R; Xu, G

    2007-01-01

    We present precise measurements of the eta and K0 masses using the processes phi to eta gamma, eta to gamma gamma and phi to Ks Kl, Ks to pi+ pi-. The K0 mass measurement, M_K=497.583 +/- 0.005 (stat) +/- 0.020 (syst) MeV, is in acceptable agreement with the previous measurements but is more accurate. We find m(eta) = 547.874 +/- 0.007 (stat) +/- 0.031 (syst) MeV. Our value is the most accurate to date and is in agreement with two recent measurements based on eta decays, but is inconsistent, by about 10 sigma, with a measurement of comparable precision based on eta production at threshold.

  4. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for adrenal metastases : a feasibility study of advanced techniques with modulated photons and protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorsetti, Marta; Mancosu, Pietro; Navarria, Piera; Tozzi, Angelo; Castiglioni, Simona; Clerici, Elena; Reggiori, Giacomo; Lobefalo, Francesca; Fogliata, Antonella; Cozzi, Luca

    2011-04-01

    To compare advanced treatment techniques with photons and protons as a stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for adrenal glands metastases. Planning computer tomographic (CT) scans of 10 patients were selected. A total dose of 45 Gy in 7.5 Gy fractions was prescribed. Organs at risk (OAR) were liver and kidneys. Dose-volume metrics were defined to quantify quality of plans assessing target coverage and sparing of organs at risk. Plans for RapidArc, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), dynamic conformal arcs, 3D conformal static fields, and intensity modulated protons were compared. The main planning objective for the clinical target volume (CTV) was to cover 100% of the volume with 95% (V(95%) = 100%) and to keep the maximum dose below 107% of the prescribed dose (V(107%) = 0%). Planning objective for planning target volume (PTV) was V(95%) > 80%. For kidneys, the general planning objective was V(15Gy) protons) to 1.6 Gy (conformal static fields) on CTV. Maximal organ at risk sparing was achieved by protons. RapidArc presented the second lowest dose bath (V(10Gy) and integral dose) after protons and the best conformality together with IMRT. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to adrenal glands metastases is achievable with several advanced techniques with either photons or protons. The intensity modulated approaches using either static fields, dynamic arcs or protons are superior to the other conformal solutions. For their simplicity, IMRT or RapidArc should be considered as the first option radiation treatment for those patients not eligible for proton treatment.

  5. [Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in non-small cell lung cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, M; Zahra, N; Thariat, J; Bouilhol, G; Boissard, P; Van Houtte, P; Claude, L; Mornex, F

    2014-10-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy is increasingly used in non-small-cell lung cancers despite a low level of evidence. A literature review was conducted. Several critical physical and dosimetric uncertainties are however unsolved. Methods to circumvent these limitations are being developed. In several retrospective studies, survival rates were at least similar with intensity-modulated radiotherapy as those reported with three-dimensional irradiation. To date, intensity modulated radiotherapy might be authorized in complex anatomical situations such as tumours close to the spinal cord (such as Pancoast Tobias, paraspinal and paracardiac tumours) or with limited motion amplitudes. Dosimetric benefits should also account for 4D dose distribution issues. The reduction of intermediate and high doses in the organs at risk with intensity modulated radiotherapy is advantageous. However, the effect of low doses in large volumes (lung, bone, unspecified tissues along beam paths) and the effect of increasing integral dose are still poorly known. In conclusion, dose-volume correlations need to be better documented and prospective randomized trials should be encouraged. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Guiding synovial inflammation by macrophage phenotype modulation: An in vitro study towards a therapy for osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Utomo (Lizette); G.J.V.M. van Osch (Gerjo); Y. Bayon (Yves); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); Y.M. Bastiaansen-Jenniskens (Yvonne)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractObjective: The aims of this study were to modulate inflammation in synovial explants with the compounds: dexamethasone, rapamycin, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) and pravastatin, and to investigate the modulatory capacity of the compounds on specific macrophage phenotypes.

  7. Pseudoscalar glueball and $\\eta'$-meson in low-energy QCD expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Nekrasov, M L

    1995-01-01

    An effective chiral lagrangian of order $p^2$, describing the interaction of light pseudoscalar (PS) mesons with $\\eta'$-meson and PS-glueball, has been determined taking into consideration the renorm-group requirements imposed by QCD renormalization. It is shown that the interpolating fields for the lowest singlet quarkic and gluonic states, $\\eta^0$ and $\\eta^G$, may be involved into the effective theory to be renorm-invariant objects not mixing due to QCD renormalization. It is established...

  8. ETA pomm ei vaigistanud jutte vaherahu võimalikkusest / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Kuigi Hispaania valitsus seab ETA-ga läbirääkimiste alustamiseks tingimuse, et ETA loobuks relvadest, on autori sõnul mõlemad osapooled viimastel kuudel andnud mõista rahuläbirääkimiste soodsast kulgemisest. Enamik hispaanlasi on veendunud, et valitsuse võidus aastakümneid kestnud terrorismi üle. Vt. samas: Segadust tekitav olukord. Lisa: Kinnitus otsekontaktidest ETA-ga

  9. Conformal radiation therapy with or without intensity modulation in the treatment of localized prostate cancer; La radiotherapie de conformation avec et sans modulation d'intensite dans le traitement du cancer localise de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingon, P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Peignaux, K.; Ammor, A. [Centre Georges-Francois-Leclerc, Dept. Radiotherapie, 21 - Dijon (France); Bolla, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble, Service de Radiotherapie-Oncologie, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-11-15

    Conformal radiation therapy has now to be considered as a standard treatment of localized prostatic adenocarcinomas. Using conformational methods and intensity modulated radiation therapy requires a rigorous approach for their implementation in routine, focused on the reproducibility of the treatment, target volume definitions, dosimetry, quality control, setup positioning. In order to offer to the largest number of patients high-dose treatment, the clinicians must integrate as prognostic factors accurate definition of microscopic extension as well as the tolerance threshold of critical organs. High-dose delivery is expected to be most efficient in intermediary risks and locally advanced diseases. Intensity modulated radiation therapy is specifically dedicated to dose escalation. Perfect knowledge of classical constraints of conformal radiation therapy is required. Using such an approach in routine needs a learning curve including the physicists and a specific quality assurance program. (author)

  10. A comparative dosimetric study on tangential photon beams, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) for breast cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C.-M.; Ding, M.; Li, J. S.; Lee, M. C.; Pawlicki, T.; Deng, J.

    2003-04-01

    Recently, energy- and intensity-modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) has garnered a growing interest for the treatment of superficial targets. In this work, we carried out a comparative dosimetry study to evaluate MERT, photon beam intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and conventional tangential photon beams for the treatment of breast cancer. A Monte Carlo based treatment planning system has been investigated, which consists of a set of software tools to perform accurate dose calculation, treatment optimization, leaf sequencing and plan analysis. We have compared breast treatment plans generated using this home-grown treatment optimization and dose calculation software for these treatment techniques. The MERT plans were planned with up to two gantry angles and four nominal energies (6, 9, 12 and 16 MeV). The tangential photon treatment plans were planned with 6 MV wedged photon beams. The IMRT plans were planned using both multiple-gantry 6 MV photon beams or two 6 MV tangential beams. Our results show that tangential IMRT can reduce the dose to the lung, heart and contralateral breast compared to conventional tangential wedged beams (up to 50% reduction in high dose volume or 5 Gy in the maximum dose). MERT can reduce the maximum dose to the lung by up to 20 Gy and to the heart by up to 35 Gy compared to conventional tangential wedged beams. Multiple beam angle IMRT can significantly reduce the maximum dose to the lung and heart (up to 20 Gy) but it induces low and medium doses to a large volume of normal tissues including lung, heart and contralateral breast. It is concluded that MERT has superior capabilities to achieve dose conformity both laterally and in the depth direction, which will be well suited for treating superficial targets such as breast cancer.

  11. Volumetric modulated arc therapy is superior to conventional intensity modulated radiotherapy - a comparison among prostate cancer patients treated in an Australian centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydu Lauren E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiotherapy technology is expanding rapidly. Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT technologies such as RapidArc® (RA may be a more efficient way of delivering intensity-modulated radiotherapy-like (IM treatments. This study is an audit of the RA experience in an Australian department with a planning and economic comparison to IM. Methods 30 consecutive prostate cancer patients treated radically with RA were analyzed. Eight RA patients treated definitively were then completely re-planned with 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D; and a conventional sliding window IM technique; and a new RA plan. The acceptable plans and their treatment times were compared and analyzed for any significant difference. Differences in staff costs of treatment were computed and analyzed. Results Thirty patients had been treated to date with eight being treated definitely to at least 74 Gy, nine post high dose brachytherapy (HDR to 50.4Gy and 13 post prostatectomy to at least 64Gy. All radiotherapy courses were completed with no breaks. Acute rectal toxicity by the RTOG criteria was acceptable with 22 having no toxicity, seven with grade 1 and one had grade 2. Of the eight re-planned patients, none of the 3D (three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans were acceptable based on local guidelines for dose to organs at risk. There was no statistically significant difference in planning times between IM and RA (p = 0.792. IM had significantly greater MUs per fraction (1813.9 vs 590.2 p Conclusions 3D was incapable of covering a modern radiotherapy volume for the radical treatment of prostate cancer. These volumes can be treated via conventional IM and RA. RA was significantly more efficient, safe and cost effective than IM. VMAT technologies are a superior way of delivering IM-like treatments.

  12. Dosimetric comparison of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in total scalp irradiation: a single institutional experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostheimer, Christian; Huebsch, Patrick; Janich, Martin; Gerlach, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Total scalp irradiation (TSI) is a rare but challenging indication. We previously reported that non-coplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was superior to coplanar IMRT in organ-at-risk (OAR) protection and target dose distribution. This consecutive treatment planning study compared IMRT with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). A retrospective treatment plan databank search was performed and 5 patient cases were randomly selected. Cranial imaging was restored from the initial planning computed tomography (CT) and target volumes and OAR were redelineated. For each patients, three treatment plans were calculated (coplanar/non-coplanar IMRT, VMAT; prescribed dose 50 Gy, single dose 2 Gy). Conformity, homogeneity and dose volume histograms were used for plan. VMAT featured the lowest monitor units and the sharpest dose gradient (1.6 Gy/mm). Planning target volume (PTV) coverage and homogeneity was better in VMAT (coverage, 0.95; homogeneity index [HI], 0.118) compared to IMRT (coverage, 0.94; HI, 0.119) but coplanar IMRT produced the most conformal plans (conformity index [CI], 0.43). Minimum PTV dose range was 66.8% –88.4% in coplanar, 77.5%–88.2% in non-coplanar IMRT and 82.8%–90.3% in VMAT. Mean dose to the brain, brain stem, optic system (maximum dose) and lenses were 18.6, 13.2, 9.1, and 5.2 Gy for VMAT, 21.9, 13.4, 14.5, and 6.3 Gy for non-coplanar and 22.8, 16.5, 11.5, and 5.9 Gy for coplanar IMRT. Maximum optic chiasm dose was 7.7, 8.4, and 11.1 Gy (non-coplanar IMRT, VMAT, and coplanar IMRT). Target coverage, homogeneity and OAR protection, was slightly superior in VMAT plans which also produced the sharpest dose gradient towards healthy tissue.

  13. Full Monte Carlo-Based Biologic Treatment Plan Optimization System for Intensity Modulated Carbon Ion Therapy on Graphics Processing Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Nan; Shen, Chenyang; Tsai, Min-Yu; Pinto, Marco; Tian, Zhen; Dedes, Georgios; Pompos, Arnold; Jiang, Steve B; Parodi, Katia; Jia, Xun

    2018-01-01

    One of the major benefits of carbon ion therapy is enhanced biological effectiveness at the Bragg peak region. For intensity modulated carbon ion therapy (IMCT), it is desirable to use Monte Carlo (MC) methods to compute the properties of each pencil beam spot for treatment planning, because of their accuracy in modeling physics processes and estimating biological effects. We previously developed goCMC, a graphics processing unit (GPU)-oriented MC engine for carbon ion therapy. The purpose of the present study was to build a biological treatment plan optimization system using goCMC. The repair-misrepair-fixation model was implemented to compute the spatial distribution of linear-quadratic model parameters for each spot. A treatment plan optimization module was developed to minimize the difference between the prescribed and actual biological effect. We used a gradient-based algorithm to solve the optimization problem. The system was embedded in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system under a client-server architecture to achieve a user-friendly planning environment. We tested the system with a 1-dimensional homogeneous water case and 3 3-dimensional patient cases. Our system generated treatment plans with biological spread-out Bragg peaks covering the targeted regions and sparing critical structures. Using 4 NVidia GTX 1080 GPUs, the total computation time, including spot simulation, optimization, and final dose calculation, was 0.6 hour for the prostate case (8282 spots), 0.2 hour for the pancreas case (3795 spots), and 0.3 hour for the brain case (6724 spots). The computation time was dominated by MC spot simulation. We built a biological treatment plan optimization system for IMCT that performs simulations using a fast MC engine, goCMC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that full MC-based IMCT inverse planning has been achieved in a clinically viable time frame. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Spot-scanning beam proton therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy for ipsilateral head and neck malignancies: A treatment planning comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandula, Shravan [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Zhu, Xiaorong [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gillin, Michael [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Rosenthal, David I.; Ang, Kie-Kian [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Amin, Mayankkumar V.; Garcia, John A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Wu, Richard; Sahoo, Narayan [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Frank, Steven J., E-mail: sjfrank@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy for head and neck malignancies can have side effects that impede quality of life. Theoretically, proton therapy can reduce treatment-related morbidity by minimizing the dose to critical normal tissues. We evaluated the feasibility of spot-scanning proton therapy for head and neck malignancies and compared dosimetry between those plans and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. Plans from 5 patients who had undergone IMRT for primary tumors of the head and neck were used for planning proton therapy. Both sets of plans were prepared using computed tomography (CT) scans with the goals of achieving 100% of the prescribed dose to the clinical target volume (CTV) and 95% to the planning TV (PTV) while maximizing conformity to the PTV. Dose-volume histograms were generated and compared, as were conformity indexes (CIs) to the PTVs and mean doses to the organs at risk (OARs). Both modalities in all cases achieved 100% of the dose to the CTV and 95% to the PTV. Mean PTV CIs were comparable (0.371 IMRT, 0.374 protons, p = 0.953). Mean doses were significantly lower in the proton plans to the contralateral submandibular (638.7 cGy IMRT, 4.3 cGy protons, p = 0.002) and parotid (533.3 cGy IMRT, 48.5 cGy protons, p = 0.003) glands; oral cavity (1760.4 cGy IMRT, 458.9 cGy protons, p = 0.003); spinal cord (2112.4 cGy IMRT, 249.2 cGy protons, p = 0.002); and brainstem (1553.52 cGy IMRT, 166.2 cGy protons, p = 0.005). Proton plans also produced lower maximum doses to the spinal cord (3692.1 cGy IMRT, 2014.8 cGy protons, p = 0.034) and brainstem (3412.1 cGy IMRT, 1387.6 cGy protons, p = 0.005). Normal tissue V{sub 10}, V{sub 30}, and V{sub 50} values were also significantly lower in the proton plans. We conclude that spot-scanning proton therapy can significantly reduce the integral dose to head and neck critical structures. Prospective studies are underway to determine if this reduced dose translates to improved quality of life.

  15. Modulations in the Peripheral Immune System of Glioblastoma Patient Is Connected to Therapy and Tumor Progression-A Case Report from the IMMO-GLIO-01 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühle, Paul F; Goerig, Nicole; Wunderlich, Roland; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S; Strnad, Annedore; Frey, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Immune responses are important for efficient tumor elimination, also in immune privileged organs such as the brain. Fostering antitumor immunity has therefore become an important challenge in cancer therapy. This cannot only be achieved by immunotherapies as already standard treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy modify the immune system. Consequently, the understanding of how the tumor, the tumor microenvironment, and immune system are modulated by cancer therapy is required for prognosis, prediction, and therapy adaption. The prospective, explorative, and observational IMMO-GLIO-01 trial was initiated to examine the detailed immune status and its modulation of about 50 patients suffering from primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or anaplastic astrocytoma during standard therapy. Prior to the study, a flow cytometry-based assay was established allowing the analysis of 34 immune cell subsets and their activation state. Here, we present the case of the first and longest accompanied patient, a 53-year-old woman suffering from GBM in the front left lobe. In context of tumor progression and therapy, we describe the modulation of the peripheral immune status over 17 months. Distinct immune modulations that were connected to therapy response or tumor progression were identified. Inter alia, a shift of CD4:CD8 ratio was observed that correlated with tumor progression. Twice we observed a unique composition of peripheral immune cells that correlated with tumor progression. Thus, following up these immune modulations in a closely-meshed manner is of high prognostic and predictive relevance for supporting personalized therapy and increasing therapy success. Clinical Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02022384 (registered retrospectively on 13th of December, 2013).

  16. The adaptive CCCG({eta}) method for efficient solution of time dependent partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, F.F. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Birkett, N.R.C. [Oxford Univ. Computing Lab. (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The Controlled Cholesky factorisation has been shown to be a robust preconditioner for the Conjugate Gradient method. In this scheme the amount of fill-in is defined in terms of a parameter {eta}, the number of extra elements allowed per column. It is demonstrated how an optimum value of {eta} can be automatically determined when solving time dependent p.d.e.`s using an implicit time step method. A comparison between CCCG({eta}) and the standard ICCG solving parabolic problems on general grids shows CCCG({eta}) to be an efficient general purpose solver.

  17. Study of the Charmless Inclusive $B\\to \\eta^{'} X$ Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvicini, G; Dubrovin, M; McGee, S; Bornheim, A; Lipeles, E; Pappas, S P; Shapiro, A; Sun, W M; Weinstein, A J; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G T; Vogel, H; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Boisvert, V; Cassel, D G; Drell, P S; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Magerkurth, A; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Mistry, N B; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Richichi, S J; Riley, D; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shepherd, M R; Thayer, J G; Urner, D; Wilksen, T; Warburton, A; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Potlia, V; Stöck, H; Yelton, J; Benslama, K; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Plager, C; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Williams, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Zhao, X; Anderson, S; Frolov, V V; Gong, D T; Kubota, Y; Li, S Z; Poling, R A; Smith, A; Stepaniak, C J; Urheim, J; Metreveli, Z V; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Zweber, P; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J; Jian, L; Saleem, M; Wappler, F; Arms, K; Eckhart, E; Gan, K K; Gwon, C; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pedlar, T K; Von Törne, E; Zoeller, M M; Severini, H; Skubic, P L; Dytman, S A; Müller, J A; Nam, S; Savinov, V; Hinson, J W; Lee, J; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Lyon, A L; Park, C S; Park, W; Thayer, J B; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Maravin, Y; Stroynowski, R; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S R; Bukin, K; Dambasuren, E; Mountain, R; Muramatsu, H; Nandakumar, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Mahmood, A H; Csorna, S E; Danko, I

    2003-01-01

    Based on a measurement of high momentum eta' production in B decays, we determine the charmless inclusive B -> eta'X_(nc) branching fraction in the lab-frame momentum interval 2.0 eta'X_(nc)) = (4.6 +- 1.1 +- 0.4 +- 0.5)x 10^(-4) in the 2.0eta')<2.7 GeV/c momentum range, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic, and from subtraction of background from B decays to charm, respectively.

  18. First observation of the M1 transition $\\psi^\\prime\\to \\gamma\\eta_c^\\prime$

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ambrose, D J; An, F F; An, Q; An, Z H; Bai, J Z; Ban, Y; Becker, J; Berger, N; Bertani, M; Bian, J M; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Bytev, V; Cai, X; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, Y; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, Y P; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; Ding, W M; Ding, Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fava, L; Feldbauer, F; Feng, C Q; Ferroli, R B; Fu, C D; Fu, J L; Gao, Y; Geng, C; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y P; Han, Y L; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Huang, B; Huang, G M; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y P; Hussain, T; Ji, C S; Ji, Q; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jia, L K; Jiang, L L; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jing, F F; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kavatsyuk, M; Kuehn, W; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Leung, J K C; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, N B; Li, Q J; Li, S L; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, X R; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Liao, X T; Liu, B J; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, C Y; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, H W; Liu, J P; Liu, K Y; Liu, Kai; Liu, Kun; Liu, P L; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, X H; Liu, Y; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Q W; Lu, X R; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Ma, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, H; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Morales, C Morales; Motzko, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Nefedov, Y; Nicholson, C; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Park, J W; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prencipe, E; Pun, C S J; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Schaefer, B D; Schulze, J; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, X Y; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, D H; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X D; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Thorndike, E H; Tian, H L; Toth, D; Ullrich, M; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B Q; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, X F; Wang, X L; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z Y; Wei, D H; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, Q G; Wen, S P; Werner, M; Wiedner, U; Wu, L H; Wu, N; Wu, S X; Wu, W; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, G M; Xu, H; Xu, Q J; Xu, X P; Xu, Y; Xu, Z R; Xue, F; Xue, Z; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, T; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yu, L; Yu, S P; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J G; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, L; Zhang, S H; Zhang, T R; Zhang, X J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, H S; Zhao, J W; Zhao, K X; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, X H; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Y H; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, B; Zhong, J; Zhou, L; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhu, C; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, X W; Zhu, Y M; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H; Zuo, J X

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 106 million $\\psi^\\prime$ events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage ring, we have made the first measurement of the M1 transition between the radially excited charmonium $S$-wave spin-triplet and the radially excited $S$-wave spin-singlet states: $\\psi^\\prime\\to\\gamma\\eta_c^\\prime$. Analyses of the processes $\\psi^\\prime\\to \\gamma\\eta_c^\\prime$ with $\\eta_c^\\prime\\to \\K_S^0 K\\pi$ and $K^+K^-\\pi^0$ gave an $\\eta_c^\\prime$ signal with a statistical significance of greater than 10 standard deviations under a wide range of assumptions about the signal and background properties. The data are used to obtain measurements of the $\\eta_c^\\prime$ mass ($M(\\eta_c^\\prime)=3637.6\\pm 2.9_\\mathrm{stat}\\pm 1.6_\\mathrm{sys}$ MeV/$c^2$), width ($\\Gamma(\\eta_c^\\prime)=16.9\\pm 6.4_\\mathrm{stat}\\pm 4.8_\\mathrm{sys}$ MeV), and the product branching fraction ($\\BR(\\psi^\\prime\\to \\gamma\\eta_c^\\prime)\\times \\BR(\\eta_c^\\prime\\to K\\bar K\\pi) = (1.30\\pm 0.20_\\mathrm{stat}\\pm 0.30_\\mathrm{sys})\\tim...

  19. Synthesis of Group 4 metal compounds containing cyclopentadienyl ligands with a pendant alkoxide function : Molecular structure of {[eta(5):eta(1)-C5H4(CH2)(2)O]TiCl2}(2) and [eta(5):eta(1)-C5H4(CH2)(3)O]TiCl2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouvé, Gwénaëlle; Laske, D.A.; Meetsma, A.; Teuben, J.H

    1996-01-01

    Trimethylsilylcyclopentadiene-siloxy ethers Me(3)SiC(5)H(4)(CH2),OSiMe(3) (n = 2, 3) react with TiCl4 to give (2-(cyclopentadienyl)-eth-1-oxy)titanium dichloride, [[eta(5): eta(1)-C5H4(CH2)(2)O]TiCl2](2) and (3-(cyclopentadienyl)-prop-1-oxy)titanium dichloride [eta(5): eta(1)- C5H4(CH2)(3)O]TiCl2,

  20. Long-term results of forward intensity-modulated radiation therapy for patients with early-stage breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Boram; Suh, Hyun Suk; Lee, Ji Hae; Lee, Kyung Ja; Lee, Rena; Moon, Byung In [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    To observe long-term clinical outcomes for patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with forward intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), including local control and clinical toxicities. We retrospectively analyzed a total of 214 patients with stage I-II breast cancer who were treated with breast conserving surgery followed by adjuvant breast radiation therapy between 2001 and 2008. All patients were treated using forward IMRT. The whole breast was irradiated to a dose of 50 to 50.4 Gy followed by an 8 to 12 Gy electron boost to the surgical bed. The median age was 46 years (range, 21 to 82 years) and the medial follow-up time was 7.3 years (range, 2.4 to 11.7 years). Stage T1 was 139 (65%) and T2 was 75 (35%), respectively. Ipsilateral breast recurrence was observed in 3 patients. The 5- and 10-year local control rates were 99.1% and 97.8%, respectively. The cosmetic outcome was evaluated according to the Harvard scale and 89.4% of patients were scored as excellent or good. The whole breast radiation therapy as an adjuvant treatment using a forward IMRT technique showed excellent long-term local control as well as favorable outcomes of toxicity and cosmesis.

  1. PD-1, PD-L1 (B7-H1) and Tumor-Site Immune Modulation Therapy: The Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yuan, Ruirong; Song, Wenru; Sun, Jingwei; Liu, Delong; Li, Zihai

    2017-01-25

    The current success of targeted inhibition against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and Programmed Death 1/Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1, herein collectively referred to as PD) pathways is hailed as a cancer immunotherapy breakthrough. PD-L1, known also as B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1), was initially discovered by Dr. Lieping Chen in 1999. To recognize the seminal contributions by Chen to the development of PD-directed therapy against cancer, the Chinese American Hematologist and Oncologist Network (CAHON) decided to honor him with its inaugural Lifetime Achievement Award in Hematology and Oncology at the CAHON's 2015 annual meeting. This essay chronicles the important discoveries made by Chen in the exciting field of immuno-oncology, which goes beyond his original fateful finding. It also argues that PD-directed therapy should be appropriately considered as Tumor-Site Immune Modulation Therapy to distinguish it from CTLA-4-based immune checkpoint blocking agents.

  2. Risk Factors for Pelvic Insufficiency Fractures in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Following Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlov, Anne; Pedersen, Erik Morre; Røhl, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    and underwent external beam radiation therapy with 45 Gy in 25 fractions (node-negative patients) or 50 Gy in 25 fractions with a simultaneous integrated boost of 60 Gy in 30 fractions (node-positive patients). Pulsed dose rate magnetic resonance imaging guided adaptive brachytherapy was given in addition......PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence of and risk factors for pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF) after definitive chemoradiation therapy for locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: We analyzed 101 patients with LACC treated from 2008-2014. Patients received weekly cisplatin...

  3. 2012 ETA Guidelines: The Use of L-T4 + L-T3 in the Treatment of Hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Background: Data suggest symptoms of hypothyroidism persist in 5–10% of levothyroxine (L-T4)-treated hypothyroid patients with normal serum thyrotrophin (TSH). The use of L-T4 + liothyronine (L-T3) combination therapy in such patients is controversial. The ETA nominated a task force to review....... There is insufficient evidence that L-T4 + L-T3 combination therapy is better than L-T4 monotherapy, and it is recommended that L-T4 monotherapy remains the standard treatment of hypothyroidism. L-T4 + L-T3 combination therapy might be considered as an experimental approach in compliant L-T4-treated hypothyroid...

  4. Measurements of the mass and width of the eta(c) meson and of an eta(c)(2S) candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Shen, B C; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Schwanke, U; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; Van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Biasini, M; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Pioppi, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Won, E; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Cote-Ahern, D; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tanaka, H A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-04-09

    The mass m(eta(c)) and total width Gamma(eta(c))(tot) of the eta(c) meson have been measured in two-photon interactions at the SLAC e(+)e(-) asymmetric B Factory with the BABAR detector. With a sample of approximately 2500 reconstructed eta(c)-->K(0)(S)K+/-pi(-/+) decays in 88 fb(-1) of data, the results are m(eta(c))=2982.5+/-1.1(stat)+/-0.9(syst) MeV/c(2) and Gamma(eta(c))(tot)=34.3+/-2.3(stat)+/-0.9(syst) MeV/c(2). Using the same decay mode, a second resonance with 112+/-24 events is observed with a mass of 3630.8+/-3.4(stat)+/-1.0(syst) MeV/c(2) and width of 17.0+/-8.3(stat)+/-2.5(syst) MeV/c(2). This observation is consistent with expectations for the eta(c)(2S) state.

  5. Evidence for Direct CP Violation in $B^\\pm \\to \\eta h^\\pm$ and Observation of $B^0 \\to \\eta K^0$

    CERN Document Server

    Hoi, C -T

    2011-01-01

    We report measurements of the branching fractions and CP asymmetries for B^+- -> eta h^+- (h = K or pi) and the observation of the decay B^0 -> eta K^0 from the final data sample of 772x10^6 BBbar pairs collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e^+e^- collider. The measured branching fractions are Br(B^+- -> eta K^+-) = (2.12 +- 0.23 +- 0.11)x10^-6}, Br(B^+- -> eta pi^+-) = (4.07 +- 0.26 +- 0.21)x10^{-6} and Br(B^0 -> eta K^0) = (1.27^{+0.33}_{-0.29} +- 0.08)x10^-6, where the last decay is observed for the first time with a significance of 5.4 standard deviations (\\sigma). We also find evidence for CP violation in the charged B modes, A_{CP}(B^+- -> eta K^+-) = -0.38 +- 0.11 +- 0.01 and A_{CP}(B^+- -> eta pi^+- = -0.19 +- 0.06 +- 0.01 with significances of 3.8 sigma and 3.0 sigma, respectively. For all measurements, the first and second uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

  6. Observation of the decay $B^0_s \\to \\eta_c \\phi$ and evidence for $B^0_s \\to \\eta_c \\pi^+ \\pi^- $ at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Martin, Morgan Leni

    2017-01-01

    A study of $B^0_s \\to \\eta_c \\phi$ and $B^0_s \\to \\eta_c \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ decays is performed using $pp$ collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb, collected with the LHCb detector in Run 1 of the LHC. The observation of the decay $B^0_s \\to \\eta_c \\phi$ is reported, where the $\\eta_c$ meson is reconstructed in the $p\\bar p$, $K^+K^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $K^+K^-K^+K^-$ decay modes and the $\\phi(1020)$ in the $K^+ K^-$ decay mode. The decay $B^0_s \\to J/\\psi \\phi$ is used as a normalisation channel. Evidence is also reported for the decay $B^0_s \\to \\eta_c \\pi^+\\pi^-$, where the $\\eta_c$ meson is reconstructed in the $p\\bar p$ decay mode, using the decay $B^0_s \\to J/\\psi \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ as a normalisation channel. The measured branching fractions are \\begin{eqnarray*} {\\mathcal B (B^{0}_{s} \\to \\eta_{c} \\phi)} &=& \\left(5.01 \\pm 0.53 \\pm 0.27 \\pm 0.63 \\right) \\times 10^{-4} \\,, \

  7. Modulation power of porous materials and usage as ripple filter in particle therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz Ringbæk, Toke; Simeonov, Yuri; Witt, Matthias; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Kraft, Gerhard; Zink, Klemens; Weber, Uli

    2017-04-07

    Porous materials with microscopic structures like foam, sponges, lung tissues and lung substitute materials have particular characteristics, which differ from those of solid materials. Ion beams passing through porous materials show much stronger energy straggling than expected for non-porous solid materials of the same thickness. This effect depends on the microscopic fine structure, the density and the thickness of the porous material. The beam-modulating effect from a porous plate enlarges the Bragg peak, yielding similar benefits in irradiation time reduction as a ripple filter. A porous plate can additionally function as a range shifter, which since a higher energy can be selected for the same penetration depth in the body reduces the scattering at the beam line and therefore improves the lateral fall-off. Bragg curve measurements of ion beams passing through different porous materials have been performed in order to determine the beam modulation effect of each. A mathematical model describing the correlation between the mean material density, the porous pore structure size and the strength of the modulation has been developed and a new material parameter called 'modulation power' is defined as the square of the Gaussian sigma divided by the mean water-equivalent thickness of the porous absorber. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed in order to validate the model and to investigate the Bragg peak enlargement, the scattering effects of porosity and the lateral beam width at the end of the beam range. The porosity is found to only influence the lateral scattering in a negligible way. As an example of a practical application, it is found that a 20 mm and 50 mm plate of Gammex LN300 performs similar to a 3 mm and 6 mm ripple filter, respectively, and at the same time can improve the sharpness of the lateral beam due to its multifunctionality as a ripple filter and a range shifter.

  8. Neurohumoral Modulation During Waon Therapy in Chronic Heart Failure - Subanalysis of Waon-CHF Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiki, Tomoko; Burnett, John C; Scott, Christopher G; Heublein, Denise M; Miyata, Masaaki; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Inoue, Teruo; Tei, Chuwa

    2017-04-25

    Heart failure (HF) is a disease of neurohumoral dysfunction and current pharmacological therapies for HF have not improved mortality rates, thus requiring additional new strategies. Waon therapy for HF patients may be a complementary strategy with peripheral vasodilation via nitric oxide. We hypothesized that Waon therapy would improve neurohumoral factors, such as natriuretic peptides (NP) and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in HF.Methods and Results:Plasma samples were collected from patients enrolled in the WAON-CHF Study (Waon therapy (n=77) or control (n=73)) before and after the treatment. B-type NP (BNP), C-type NP (CNP), and aldosterone (Aldo) levels were measured by respective specific radioimmunoassays. Although clinical parameters significantly improved in the Waon group compared with the control group, BNP, Aldo, and CNP levels were not statistically different between groups. On subanalysis with patient variables, BNP levels were improved in the Waon group treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin-receptor blocker or spironolactone. In addition, Aldo levels were improved in the Waon group patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and inotrope use, and CNP levels were improved in Waon group patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate CHF Study: UMIN000006705).

  9. Future clinical challenges in multiple sclerosis Relevance to sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hohlfeld, R.; Barkhof, F.; Polman, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    The limitations of established therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) are well-known and include the need for injections, treatment adherence and convenience issues, partial efficacy, and, in some cases, a risk of potentially life-threatening adverse events, such as progressive multifocal

  10. Quality of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans Using a ⁶⁰Co Magnetic Resonance Image Guidance Radiation Therapy System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Yang, Min; DeWees, Todd; Kashani, Rojano; Olsen, Jeff; Michalski, Jeff; Yang, Deshan; Tanderup, Kari; Hu, Yanle; Li, H Harold; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-07-15

    This work describes a commercial treatment planning system, its technical features, and its capabilities for creating (60)Co intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans for a magnetic resonance image guidance radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system. The ViewRay treatment planning system (Oakwood Village, OH) was used to create (60)Co IMRT treatment plans for 33 cancer patients with disease in the abdominal, pelvic, thorax, and head and neck regions using physician-specified patient-specific target coverage and organ at risk (OAR) objectives. Backup plans using a third-party linear accelerator (linac)-based planning system were also created. Plans were evaluated by attending physicians and approved for treatment. The (60)Co and linac plans were compared by evaluating conformity numbers (CN) with 100% and 95% of prescription reference doses and heterogeneity indices (HI) for planning target volumes (PTVs) and maximum, mean, and dose-volume histogram (DVH) values for OARs. All (60)Co IMRT plans achieved PTV coverage and OAR sparing that were similar to linac plans. PTV conformity for (60)Co was within 20 Gy. The mean doses for all (60)Co plan OARs were within clinical tolerances. A commercial (60)Co MR-IGRT device can produce highly conformal IMRT treatment plans similar in quality to linac IMRT for a variety of disease sites. Additional work is in progress to evaluate the clinical benefit of other novel features of this MR-IGRT system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.