WorldWideScience

Sample records for therapy methods applications

  1. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Oh, B. H. [Seoul National University. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, H. J. [Antibody Engineering Research Unit, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology.

  2. The FLUKA code for application of Monte Carlo methods to promote high precision ion beam therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Parodi, K; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Mairani, A; Paganetti, H; Sommerer, F

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) methods are increasingly being utilized to support several aspects of commissioning and clinical operation of ion beam therapy facilities. In this contribution two emerging areas of MC applications are outlined. The value of MC modeling to promote accurate treatment planning is addressed via examples of application of the FLUKA code to proton and carbon ion therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center in Heidelberg, Germany, and at the Proton Therapy Center of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Boston, USA. These include generation of basic data for input into the treatment planning system (TPS) and validation of the TPS analytical pencil-beam dose computations. Moreover, we review the implementation of PET/CT (Positron-Emission-Tomography / Computed- Tomography) imaging for in-vivo verification of proton therapy at MGH. Here, MC is used to calculate irradiation-induced positron-emitter production in tissue for comparison with the +-activity measurement in order to infer indirect infor...

  3. [The application of methods of physical therapy in the military health resort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, I G; Didenko, S V

    2015-03-01

    Presented the main guidelines concerning the application of methods and forms of physical therapy in the complex sanatorium treatment and rehabilitation in sanatoria and health resorts of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. It is concluded that the basis for the application and further development of forms and methods of physical therapy should be based on the methodological principle of a differentiated approach to the assessment of the severity of dysfunction cardiorespiratory and nervous system, musculoskeletal system, the mode of motor activity and exercise tolerance.

  4. Spinal Tissue Loading Created by Different Methods of Spinal Manipulative Therapy Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Martha; Nougarou, François; Descarreaux, Martin; Prasad, Narasimha; Kawchuk, Gregory N.

    2017-01-01

    Study Design. Comparative study using robotic replication of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) vertebral kinematics together with serial dissection. Objective. The aim of this study was to quantify loads created in cadaveric spinal tissues arising from three different forms of SMT application. Summary of Background Data. There exist many distinct methods by which to apply SMT. It is not known presently whether different forms of SMT application have different effects on spinal tissues. Should the method of SMT application modulate spinal tissue loading, quantifying this relation may help explain the varied outcomes of SMT in terms of effect and safety. Methods. SMT was applied to the third lumbar vertebra in 12 porcine cadavers using three SMT techniques: a clinical device that applies forces through a hand-held instrument (INST), a manual technique of applying SMT clinically (MAN) and a research device that applies parameters of manual SMT through a servo-controlled linear actuator motor (SERVO). The resulting kinematics from each SMT application were tracked optically via indwelling bone pins. The L3/L4 segment was then removed, mounted in a parallel robot and the resulting kinematics from SMT replayed for each SMT application technique. Serial dissection of spinal structures was conducted to quantify loading characteristics of discrete spinal tissues. Results. In terms of load magnitude, SMT application with MAN and SERVO created greater forces than INST in all conditions (P < 0.05). Additionally, MAN and SERVO created comparable posterior forces in the intact specimen, but MAN created greater posterior forces on IVD structures compared to SERVO (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Specific methods of SMT application create unique vertebral loading characteristics, which may help explain the varied outcomes of SMT in terms of effect and safety. Level of Evidence: N/A PMID:28146021

  5. Spinal Tissue Loading Created by Different Methods of Spinal Manipulative Therapy Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Martha; Nougarou, François; Descarreaux, Martin; Prasad, Narasimha; Kawchuk, Gregory N

    2017-05-01

    Comparative study using robotic replication of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) vertebral kinematics together with serial dissection. The aim of this study was to quantify loads created in cadaveric spinal tissues arising from three different forms of SMT application. There exist many distinct methods by which to apply SMT. It is not known presently whether different forms of SMT application have different effects on spinal tissues. Should the method of SMT application modulate spinal tissue loading, quantifying this relation may help explain the varied outcomes of SMT in terms of effect and safety. SMT was applied to the third lumbar vertebra in 12 porcine cadavers using three SMT techniques: a clinical device that applies forces through a hand-held instrument (INST), a manual technique of applying SMT clinically (MAN) and a research device that applies parameters of manual SMT through a servo-controlled linear actuator motor (SERVO). The resulting kinematics from each SMT application were tracked optically via indwelling bone pins. The L3/L4 segment was then removed, mounted in a parallel robot and the resulting kinematics from SMT replayed for each SMT application technique. Serial dissection of spinal structures was conducted to quantify loading characteristics of discrete spinal tissues. In terms of load magnitude, SMT application with MAN and SERVO created greater forces than INST in all conditions (P < 0.05). Additionally, MAN and SERVO created comparable posterior forces in the intact specimen, but MAN created greater posterior forces on IVD structures compared to SERVO (P < 0.05). Specific methods of SMT application create unique vertebral loading characteristics, which may help explain the varied outcomes of SMT in terms of effect and safety. N/A.

  6. Method for MRI-guided conformal thermal therapy of prostate with planar transurethral ultrasound heating applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Rajiv; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Haider, Masoom A; Bronskill, Michael J

    2005-11-07

    A method for conformal prostate thermal therapy using transurethral ultrasound heating applicators incorporating planar transducers is described. The capability to shape heating patterns to the geometry of the prostate gland from a single element in a multi-element heating applicator was evaluated using Bioheat transfer modelling. Eleven prostate geometries were obtained from patients who underwent MR imaging of the prostate gland prior to radical prostatectomy. Results indicate that ultrasound heating applicators incorporating multi-frequency planar transducers (4 x 20 mm, f = 4.7 MHz, 9.7 MHz) are capable of shaping thermal damage patterns to the geometry of individual prostates. A temperature feedback control algorithm has been developed to control the frequency, rotation rate and applied power level from transurethral heating applicators based on measurements of the boundary temperature during heating. The discrepancy between the thermal damage boundary and the target boundary was less than 5 mm, and the transition distance between coagulation and normal tissue was less than 1 cm. Treatment times for large prostate volumes were less than 50 min, and perfusion did not have significant impact on the control algorithm. Rectal cooling will play an important role in reducing undesired heating near the rectal wall. Experimental validation of the simulations in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom demonstrated good agreement between the predicted and generated patterns of thermal damage.

  7. Molecular diagnostics for pharmacogenomic testing of fluoropyrimidine based-therapy: costs, methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francia, Raffaele; Berretta, Massimiliano; Catapano, Oriana; Canzoniero, Lorella M T; Formisano, Luigi

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Genetic testing of drug response represents an important goal for targeted therapy. In particular, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is the backbone of several chemotherapic protocols for treatment of solid tumors. Unfortunately, in some patients, 5-FU is toxic and causes gastrointestinal and hematologic lesions leading to the suspension of therapy. Some adverse drug responses can be predicted by pharmacogenomics. Recently, several polymorphic traits of different genes involved with 5-FU biotransformation have been reported. Many methods have been used for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the mutational status of these genes, without a precise cost-effectiveness analysis. This article reviews recent findings on the seven germline polymorphic traits of four genes involved in the biotransformation of the 5-FU. In particular, we analyze the most common platforms used to identify the specific genetic alterations and their relative costs. Genotyping can be performed either by custom service laboratories or academic reference laboratories by using either the commercial kits (when available) or "in house" tests. By random selection of 20 certified laboratories out of a total of 71, we estimate that the cost of the analysis/single trait is on average €120.00 as custom genotyping service. "In house" validated tests by PCR-based platforms cost approximately €20.00 per single polimorphism. On the basis of this information, the lab manager can evaluate the advantage and limitations, in terms of costs and applicability, of the most appropriate methods for diagnostics of 5-FU pharmacogenomics tests.

  8. [Research of Characteristics of Stimulation Methods and Application of Acupoint in Auricular Needle Therapy Based on Data Mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Na; Wang, Qiong; Jia, Ye-Juan; Yang, Ke; Kong, Ling-Juan; Sun, Yan-Hui; Li, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Xuan-Ping; Zhang, Xin; Du, Yu-Zhu; Li, Jun-Lei; Yang, Qing-Qing; Feng, Xin-Xin; Shi, Jing; Jia, Chun-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Ling

    2017-08-25

    In the present paper, using data mining technology,the authors downloaded information from databases on auricular needle therapy, and obtained data samples from journals and academic dissertations involving the application of auricular needle therapy to treat diseases, and then screened, audited, and extracted the data and performed a statistical analysis. The authors extracted data on the application of auricular needle therapy in the stimulation methods of medicine (needling instrument), selection of the side of ear to treat disease and the number of times the ear was pressed per day and the compression time. In the stimulation methods, the needling instrument varied, the seeds of cowherb Semen Vaccariae were applied in 60.89% of the total stimulation methods. The number of times the ear was pressed per day and the compression time in the clinic were optional. The main points in auricular needle therapy were the contralateral side; there was no significant difference in the effect of a single side or both sides of the ear to treat disease.

  9. Optimal control for mathematical models of cancer therapies an application of geometric methods

    CERN Document Server

    Schättler, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This book presents applications of geometric optimal control to real life biomedical problems with an emphasis on cancer treatments. A number of mathematical models for both classical and novel cancer treatments are presented as optimal control problems with the goal of constructing optimal protocols. The power of geometric methods is illustrated with fully worked out complete global solutions to these mathematically challenging problems. Elaborate constructions of optimal controls and corresponding system responses provide great examples of applications of the tools of geometric optimal control and the outcomes aid the design of simpler, practically realizable suboptimal protocols. The book blends mathematical rigor with practically important topics in an easily readable tutorial style. Graduate students and researchers in science and engineering, particularly biomathematics and more mathematical aspects of biomedical engineering, would find this book particularly useful.

  10. Treatment planning for internal emitter therapy: Methods, applications and clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgouros, G. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Treatment planning involves three basic steps: (1) a procedure must be devised that will provide the most relevant information, (2) the procedure must be applied and (3) the resulting information must be translated into a definition of the optimum implementation. There are varying degrees of treatment planning that may be implemented in internal emitter therapy. As in chemotherapy, the information from a Phase 1 study may be used to treat patients based upon body surface area. If treatment planning is included on a patient-specific basis, a pretherapy, trace-labeled, administration of the radiopharmaceutical is generally required. The data collected following the tracer dose may range from time-activity curves of blood and whole-body for use in blood, marrow or total body absorbed dose estimation to patient imaging for three-dimensional internal emitter dosimetry. The most ambitious approach requires a three-dimensional set of images representing radionuclide distribution (SPECT or PET) and a corresponding set of images representing anatomy (CT or MRI). The absorbed dose (or dose-rate) distribution may be obtained by convolution of a point kernel with the radioactivity distribution or by direct Monte Carlo calculation. A critical requirement for both techniques is the development of an overall structure that makes it possible, in a routine manner, to input the images, to identify the structures of interest and to display the results of the dose calculations in a clinically relevant manner. 52 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. [The venous ulcer therapy in use of the selected physical methods--circumstances for clinical application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franek, Andrzej; Król, Piotr; Chmielewska, Daria; Błaszczak, Edward; Polak, Anna; Kucharzewski, Marek; Taradaj, Jakub

    2006-05-01

    Venous ulcers are significant both surgical and dermatological problem. The chronic and recurrent natures of the disease require a search for new methods to improve treatment efficiency. Therefore, the attempts at using some physical methods are needed. The authors review the current literature on characteristics and biological effects of high voltage stimulation (HVS), ultrasound (sonotherapy) and laser biostimulation. Modern hypotheses (skin battery theory, cavitation, acoustic streaming, fotobiostimulation effect) explaining the mechanisms of applied physical factors arising in soft tissue healing process are presented too.

  12. Photodynamic therapy: development of methods and clinical applications in FCI MRCC MOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kaplan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to clinical experience of photodynamic therapy (PDT in Medical Radiological Research Center. Authors represent the results of treatment in 156 patients with primary untreated tumors of different localizations as follows: basal cell skin cancer (BCSC in 156 patients, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SCCS in 24 patients, cancer of upper and lower lips in 30 patients. The other group of patients included recurrent and metastatic diseases: recurrent BCSC were in 127 patients, recurrent or continued growth of SCCS – in 27, recurrent or continued growth of lip cancer – in 13, intracutaneous metastases of skin melanoma (62 patients and breast cancer (46 – in 108. PDT was performed with photosensitizers Photosense (2.0 mg/kg, Photolon (0.9–2.5 mg/kg, and Photoditazine (0.7–0.8 mg/kg. The light irradiation dose was 100–600 J/cm2. After PDT of previously untreated BCSC the complete regression (CR of tumor lesions was in 96.8% of patients, partial regression (PR – in 3.2% of patients; for PDT of recurrent BCSC in 76.4% and 23.6%, respectively. After PDT treatment in patients with previously untreated SCCS CR of tumor lesions was achieved in 91.7% of patients, PR – in 8.3% of patients. For treatment of relapses in SCCS CR was achieved in 59.3% of cases, PR – in 33.3%, absence of regression was reported in 7.4% of cases. PDT of intracutaneous metastases of skin melanoma and breast cancer provided positive treatment effect (CR + PR + stabilizing in 95 and 98% of cases, respectively. CR in primary lip cancer after PDT was reported in 86.0% of patients, PR – in 14.0%. For PDT of recurrent lip cancer CR accounted for 69.2%, PR – 30.8%. 

  13. Accuracy of Rhenium-188 SPECT/CT activity quantification for applications in radionuclide therapy using clinical reconstruction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquinas, Pedro L.; Uribe, Carlos F.; Gonzalez, M.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Cristina; Häfeli, Urs O.; Celler, Anna

    2017-08-01

    The main applications of 188Re in radionuclide therapies include trans-arterial liver radioembolization and palliation of painful bone-metastases. In order to optimize 188Re therapies, the accurate determination of radiation dose delivered to tumors and organs at risk is required. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used to perform such dosimetry calculations. However, the accuracy of dosimetry estimates strongly depends on the accuracy of activity quantification in 188Re images. In this study, we performed a series of phantom experiments aiming to investigate the accuracy of activity quantification for 188Re SPECT using high-energy and medium-energy collimators. Objects of different shapes and sizes were scanned in Air, non-radioactive water (Cold-water) and water with activity (Hot-water). The ordered subset expectation maximization algorithm with clinically available corrections (CT-based attenuation, triple-energy window (TEW) scatter and resolution recovery was used). For high activities, the dead-time corrections were applied. The accuracy of activity quantification was evaluated using the ratio of the reconstructed activity in each object to this object’s true activity. Each object’s activity was determined with three segmentation methods: a 1% fixed threshold (for cold background), a 40% fixed threshold and a CT-based segmentation. Additionally, the activity recovered in the entire phantom, as well as the average activity concentration of the phantom background were compared to their true values. Finally, Monte-Carlo simulations of a commercial γ -camera were performed to investigate the accuracy of the TEW method. Good quantification accuracy (errors  15%), mostly due to partial-volume effects. The Monte-Carlo simulations confirmed that TEW-scatter correction applied to 188Re, although practical, yields only approximate estimates of the true scatter.

  14. The report of Task Group 100 of the AAPM: Application of risk analysis methods to radiation therapy quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, M Saiful; Fraass, Benedick A; Dunscombe, Peter B; Gibbons, John P; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Mundt, Arno J; Mutic, Sasa; Palta, Jatinder R; Rath, Frank; Thomadsen, Bruce R; Williamson, Jeffrey F; Yorke, Ellen D

    2016-07-01

    The increasing complexity of modern radiation therapy planning and delivery challenges traditional prescriptive quality management (QM) methods, such as many of those included in guidelines published by organizations such as the AAPM, ASTRO, ACR, ESTRO, and IAEA. These prescriptive guidelines have traditionally focused on monitoring all aspects of the functional performance of radiotherapy (RT) equipment by comparing parameters against tolerances set at strict but achievable values. Many errors that occur in radiation oncology are not due to failures in devices and software; rather they are failures in workflow and process. A systematic understanding of the likelihood and clinical impact of possible failures throughout a course of radiotherapy is needed to direct limit QM resources efficiently to produce maximum safety and quality of patient care. Task Group 100 of the AAPM has taken a broad view of these issues and has developed a framework for designing QM activities, based on estimates of the probability of identified failures and their clinical outcome through the RT planning and delivery process. The Task Group has chosen a specific radiotherapy process required for "intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)" as a case study. The goal of this work is to apply modern risk-based analysis techniques to this complex RT process in order to demonstrate to the RT community that such techniques may help identify more effective and efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of our treatment processes. The task group generated by consensus an example quality management program strategy for the IMRT process performed at the institution of one of the authors. This report describes the methodology and nomenclature developed, presents the process maps, FMEAs, fault trees, and QM programs developed, and makes suggestions on how this information could be used in the clinic. The development and implementation of risk-assessment techniques will make radiation therapy

  15. The report of Task Group 100 of the AAPM: Application of risk analysis methods to radiation therapy quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, M. Saiful; Fraass, Benedick A.; Dunscombe, Peter B.; Gibbons, John P.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mutic, Sasa; Palta, Jatinder R.; Rath, Frank; Thomadsen, Bruce R.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Yorke, Ellen D.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing complexity of modern radiation therapy planning and delivery challenges traditional prescriptive quality management (QM) methods, such as many of those included in guidelines published by organizations such as the AAPM, ASTRO, ACR, ESTRO, and IAEA. These prescriptive guidelines have traditionally focused on monitoring all aspects of the functional performance of radiotherapy (RT) equipment by comparing parameters against tolerances set at strict but achievable values. Many errors that occur in radiation oncology are not due to failures in devices and software; rather they are failures in workflow and process. A systematic understanding of the likelihood and clinical impact of possible failures throughout a course of radiotherapy is needed to direct limit QM resources efficiently to produce maximum safety and quality of patient care. Task Group 100 of the AAPM has taken a broad view of these issues and has developed a framework for designing QM activities, based on estimates of the probability of identified failures and their clinical outcome through the RT planning and delivery process. The Task Group has chosen a specific radiotherapy process required for “intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)” as a case study. The goal of this work is to apply modern risk-based analysis techniques to this complex RT process in order to demonstrate to the RT community that such techniques may help identify more effective and efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of our treatment processes. The task group generated by consensus an example quality management program strategy for the IMRT process performed at the institution of one of the authors. This report describes the methodology and nomenclature developed, presents the process maps, FMEAs, fault trees, and QM programs developed, and makes suggestions on how this information could be used in the clinic. The development and implementation of risk-assessment techniques will make radiation

  16. Gene Therapy and its applications in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Lakhanpal Manisha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This era of advanced technology is marked by progress in identifying and understanding the molecular and cellular cause of a disease. With the conventional methods of treatment failing to render satisfactory results, gene therapy is not only being used for the cure of inherited diseases but also the acquired ones. The broad spectrum of gene therapy includes its application in the treatment of oral cancer and precancerous conditions and lesions, treatment of salivary gland diseases, bone repair, autoimmune diseases, DNA vaccination, etc. The aim of this article is to throw light on the history, methodology, applications and future of gene therapy as it would change the nature and face of dentistry in the coming years.

  17. Method for microbeam radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Spanne, Per O.

    1994-01-01

    A method of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation, in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue.

  18. [Operative applications of occupational therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, A

    2010-01-01

    Occupational therapy is the branch of rehabilitation whose main aim is to achieve maximum possible autonomy of the disabled person and the most complete integration into society, family and work. In subjects with motor disabilities following an occupational injury, the re-education programme includes a series of interventions aimed at progressive recovery of the ability to carry out work tasks compatible with the residual motor capacity of the worker. This article presents some examples related to the different stages making up the specific re-education programme: from the initial stages (with more purely kinesiotherapeutic techniques) directed at recovering movements and muscle strength, to the intermediate and final stages (more typically ergotherapeutic) directed first at the recovery of basic functions (clasping, pulling, pushing, lifting, lowering, carrying, etc.) and then, finally, retraining of work movements, with the introduction of compensatory methods and/or use of auxiliaries, when necessary.

  19. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Maxillofacial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Mellott

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Negative pressure wound therapy has greatly advanced the field of wound healing for nearly two decades, by providing a robust surgical adjunct technique for accelerating wound closure in acute and chronic wounds. However, the application of negative pressure wound therapy in maxillofacial applications has been relatively under utilized as a result of the physical articulations and contours of the head and neck that make it challenging to obtain an airtight seal for different negative pressure wound therapy systems. Adapting negative pressure wound therapies for maxillofacial applications could yield significant enhancement of wound closure in maxillofacial applications. The current review summarizes the basic science underlying negative pressure wound therapy, as well as specific maxillofacial procedures that could benefit from negative pressure wound therapy.

  20. Cancer nanotechnology: application of nanotechnology in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ranjita; Acharya, Sarbari; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2010-10-01

    The application of nanotechnology for cancer therapy has received considerable attention in recent years. Cancer nanotechnology (an interdisciplinary area of research in science, engineering and medicine) is an upcoming field with extensive applications. It provides a unique approach and comprehensive technology against cancer through early diagnosis, prediction, prevention, personalized therapy and medicine. Target-specific drug therapy and methods for early diagnosis of pathologies are the priority research areas in which nanotechnology would play a vital part. This review focuses on the approaches of cancer nanotechnology in the advancement of cancer therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. DNA origami applications in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomprasert, Anuttara; Kangsamaksin, Thaned

    2017-08-01

    Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of cancer, the development of cancer diagnosis and therapy is still progressing, and a complete understanding of cancer biology remains elusive. Recently, cancer nanomedicine has gained much interest as a promising diagnostic and therapeutic strategy, as a wide range of nanomaterials possess unique physical properties that can render drug delivery systems safer and more effective. Also, targeted drug delivery and precision medicine have now become a new paradigm in cancer therapy. With nanocarriers, chemotherapeutic drugs could be directly delivered into target cancer cells, resulting in enhanced efficiency with fewer side-effects. DNA, a biomolecule with molecular self-assembly properties, has emerged as a versatile nanomaterial to construct multifunctional platforms; DNA nanostructures can be modified with functional groups to improve their utilities as biosensors or drug carriers. Such applications have become possible with the advent of the scaffolded DNA origami method. This breakthrough technique in structural DNA nanotechnology provides an easier and faster way to construct DNA nanostructures with various shapes. Several experiments proved that DNA origami nanostructures possess abilities to enhance efficacies of chemotherapy, reduce adverse side-effects, and even circumvent drug resistance. Here, we highlight the principles of the DNA origami technique and its applications in cancer therapeutics and discuss current challenges and opportunities to improve cancer detection and targeted drug delivery. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  2. Nuclear medicine therapy principles and clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Aktolun, Cumali

    2012-01-01

    This book reviews nuclear medicine techniques and technology for therapy of malignant and benign diseases, covering scientific principles and clinical applications, and trials of experimental agents for treating tumors involving virtually every organ system.

  3. New applications of lithium therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J B

    1990-01-01

    Several placebo-controlled double-blind studies have indicated that lithium sometimes augments antidepressants, converting nonresponding patients to responders. Lithium therapy has also benefitted some schizoaffective patients and some alcoholics. Side effects are minimal. Mechanisms involved in lithium's effectiveness have not yet been discovered.

  4. Mixed methods research in music therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Burns, Debra S; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Music therapists have an ethical and professional responsibility to provide the highest quality care possible to their patients. Much of the time, high quality care is guided by evidence-based practice standards that integrate the most current, available research in making decisions. Accordingly, music therapists need research that integrates multiple ways of knowing and forms of evidence. Mixed methods research holds great promise for facilitating such integration. At this time, there have not been any methodological articles published on mixed methods research in music therapy. The purpose of this article is to introduce mixed methods research as an approach to address research questions relevant to music therapy practice. This article describes the core characteristics of mixed methods research, considers paradigmatic issues related to this research approach, articulates major challenges in conducting mixed methods research, illustrates four basic designs, and provides criteria for evaluating the quality of mixed methods articles using examples of mixed methods research from the music therapy literature. Mixed methods research offers unique opportunities for strengthening the evidence base in music therapy. Recommendations are provided to ensure rigorous implementation of this research approach.

  5. Nanodrug applications in photodynamic therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Paszko, Edyta

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has developed over last century and is now becoming a more widely used medical tool having gained regulatory approval for the treatment of various diseases such as cancer and macular degeneration. It is a two-step technique in which the delivery of a photosensitizing drug is followed by the irradiation of light. Activated photosensitizers transfer energy to molecular oxygen which results in the generation of reactive oxygen species which in turn cause cells apoptosis or necrosis. Although this modality has significantly improved the quality of life and survival time for many cancer patients it still offers significant potential for further improvement. In addition to the development of new PDT drugs, the use of nanosized carriers for photosensitizers is a promising approach which might improve the efficiency of photodynamic activity and which can overcome many side effects associated with classic photodynamic therapy. This review aims at highlighting the different types of nanomedical approaches currently used in PDT and outlines future trends and limitations of nanodelivery of photosensitizers.

  6. Nanotechnology application for pain therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradkhani, Mahmoud Reza; Karimi, Arash; Negahdari, Babak

    2018-03-01

    Prolonged delivery of analgesic drugs at target sites remains a critical issue for efficient pain management. The use of nano-carriers has been reported to facilitate applicable delivery of these agents to target sites with a reduced level of systemic toxicity. Different analgesics have been loaded onto various nano carriers, including those that are natural, synthetic and copolymer, for various medical applications. In this review, we will discuss the concept of nano-formulated carriers for analgesic drugs and their impacts on the field of pain management.

  7. Application of MM wave therapy in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, R.S. [Inst. of Radio Physics & Electronics, Ashtarack (Argentina); Gasparyan, L.V. [Republican Medical Centre Armenia, Yerevan (Argentina)

    1995-12-31

    The authors studied the effects of MM wave electromagnetic radiation influence on patients, affected by X-ray radiation during the reparation works after Chernobyl nuclear power plant exposure. They compared results of treatment of two groups of patients: (1) control group patients received only basis therapy; (2) testing group, 10 patients received basis therapy and MM wave influence. The authors used the wide band noise generator `Artsakh - 2` for local irradiation on the acupuncture points. Their data proved that low intensity MM waves have immunocorrective, antioxidant effects, and MM wave therapy is a perspective method for treatment of patients with radiological pathology.

  8. Applications of ozone therapy in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is an allotropic form of oxygen, which is effectively used in the treatment of different diseases for more than 100 years. In the present era of increasing antibiotic resistance, ozone therapy is an alternative medical treatment that rationales to increase the amount of oxygen to the body through institution of ozone into the body. Owing to its beneficial biological properties including antimicrobial and immune-stimulating effects, ozone therapy has opened new vistas in treatment modalities of dental pathologies for patients of all ages. The objective of this article is to review the literature available on applications of ozone in dentistry.

  9. Comparison of two methods for measuring γ-H2AX nuclear fluorescence as a marker of DNA damage in cultured human cells: applications for microbeam radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.; Andrais, B.; Mirzayans, R.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Fallone, B. G.; Warkentin, B.

    2013-06-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) delivers single fractions of very high doses of synchrotron x-rays using arrays of microbeams. In animal experiments, MRT has achieved higher tumour control and less normal tissue toxicity compared to single-fraction broad beam irradiations of much lower dose. The mechanism behind the normal tissue sparing of MRT has yet to be fully explained. An accurate method for evaluating DNA damage, such as the γ-H2AX immunofluorescence assay, will be important for understanding the role of cellular communication in the radiobiological response of normal and cancerous cell types to MRT. We compare two methods of quantifying γ-H2AX nuclear fluorescence for uniformly irradiated cell cultures: manual counting of γ-H2AX foci by eye, and an automated, MATLAB-based fluorescence intensity measurement. We also demonstrate the automated analysis of cell cultures irradiated with an array of microbeams. In addition to offering a relatively high dynamic range of γ-H2AX signal versus irradiation dose ( > 10 Gy), our automated method provides speed, robustness, and objectivity when examining a series of images. Our in-house analysis facilitates the automated extraction of the spatial distribution of the γ-H2AX intensity with respect to the microbeam array — for example, the intensities in the peak (high dose area) and valley (area between two microbeams) regions. The automated analysis is particularly beneficial when processing a large number of samples, as is needed to systematically study the relationship between the numerous dosimetric and geometric parameters involved with MRT (e.g., microbeam width, microbeam spacing, microbeam array dimensions, peak dose, valley dose, and geometric arrangement of multiple arrays) and the resulting DNA damage.

  10. [Acupoint catgut-embedding therapy: superiorities and principles of application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan-Ping; Jia, Chun-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Ling; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Kang; Qin, Liang; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Kang, Su-Gang; Duan, Xiao-Dong

    2012-10-01

    To analyze the superiorities of acupoint catgut-embedding therapy, discuss its law of clinical application and provide scientific decision-making for clinical treatment. Literatures on acupoint catgut-embedding therapy in the recent 40 years were selected, input, examined and verified, picked up and analyzed by establishing database with the modern computer technology. (1) One thousand and seventy-five literatures were input. It shows that the acupoint catgut-embedding therapy has an extensive application in all departments, especially in the internal department, accounting for 48.54% (50/103) of the total disease category. It has the most extensive application on treatment of epigastric pain, with the frequency of 102 times, and obesity of 74 times. The next is surgery, accounting for 14.56% (15/103). The major application is on low back pain and leg pain with the frequency of 79 times. Psoriasis, with the frequency of 30 times, holds the major application in dermatological department. And blepharoplasty, with the frequency of 30 times, gains the most application in department of ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology. (2) In the included literatures, selection of adjacent acupoints and distal acupoints are held as the major method of acupoint selection. The adjusted lumbar puncture needle is taken as the major tool for the acupoint catgut-embedding therapy. And catguts of different sizes are adopted for the operation. (3) Analysis of the therapeutic effect shows that acupoint catgut-embedding therapy has obvious effect in all departments, especially in surgery and dermatology, with the total effective rate over 90%. Epigastric pain, obesity, epilepsy, asthma, abdominal pain, facial paralysis and constipation of the internal medicine, low back pain and leg pain of the surgical department, psoriasis of the dermatological department and blepharoplasty of the department of ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology are considered as the dominant diseases for acupoint

  11. Clinical applications of advanced rotational radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalichowski, Adrian

    Purpose: With a fast adoption of emerging technologies, it is critical to fully test and understand its limits and capabilities. In this work we investigate new graphic processing unit (GPU) based treatment planning algorithm and its applications in helical tomotherapy dose delivery. We explore the limits of the system by applying it to challenging clinical cases of total marrow irradiation (TMI) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). We also analyze the feasibility of alternative fractionation schemes for total body irradiation (TBI) and TMI based on reported historical data on lung dose and interstitial pneumonitis (IP) incidence rates. Methods and Materials: An anthropomorphic phantom was used to create TMI plans using the new GPU based treatment planning system and the existing CPU cluster based system. Optimization parameters were selected based on clinically used values for field width, modulation factor and pitch. Treatment plans were also created on Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems Inc, Palo Alto, CA) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for dose delivery on IX treatment unit. A retrospective review was performed of 42 publications that reported IP rates along with lung dose, fractionation regimen, dose rate and chemotherapy. The analysis consisted of nearly thirty two hundred patients and 34 unique radiation regimens. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine parameters associated with IP and establish does response function. Results: The results showed very good dosimetric agreement between the GPU and CPU calculated plans. The results from SBRT study show that GPU planning system can maintain 90% target coverage while meeting all the constraints of RTOG 0631 protocol. Beam on time for Tomotherapy and flattening filter free RapidArc was much faster than for Vero or Cyberknife. Retrospective data analysis showed that lung dose and Cyclophosphomide (Cy) are both predictors of IP in TBI/TMI treatments. The

  12. Combinatorial methods with computer applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Jonathan L

    2007-01-01

    Combinatorial Methods with Computer Applications provides in-depth coverage of recurrences, generating functions, partitions, and permutations, along with some of the most interesting graph and network topics, design constructions, and finite geometries. Requiring only a foundation in discrete mathematics, it can serve as the textbook in a combinatorial methods course or in a combined graph theory and combinatorics course.After an introduction to combinatorics, the book explores six systematic approaches within a comprehensive framework: sequences, solving recurrences, evaluating summation exp

  13. Plasma emission spectroscopy method of tumor therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, K.J.

    1997-03-11

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for performing photon diagnostics using a portable and durable apparatus which incorporates the use of a remote sensing probe in fiberoptic communication with an interferometer or spectrometer. Also disclosed are applications for the apparatus including optically measuring high velocities and analyzing plasma/emission spectral characteristics. 6 figs.

  14. Photodynamic therapy for infections: clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkwal, Gitika B; Sharma, Sulbha K; Huang, Ying-Ying; Dai, Tianhong; Hamblin, Michael R

    2011-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was discovered over 100 years ago by its ability to kill various microorganisms when the appropriate dye and light were combined in the presence of oxygen. However it is only in relatively recent times that PDT has been studied as a treatment for various types of localized infections. This resurgence of interest has been partly motivated by the alarming increase in drug resistance amongst bacteria and other pathogens. This review will focus on the clinical applications of antimicrobial PDT. The published peer-reviewed literature was reviewed between 1960 and 2011. The basics of antimicrobial PDT are discussed. Clinical applications of antimicrobial PDT to localized viral infections caused by herpes and papilloma viruses, and nonviral dermatological infections such as acne and other yeast, fungal and bacterial skin infections are covered. PDT has been used to treat bacterial infections in brain abscesses and non-healing ulcers. PDT for dental infections including periodontitis and endodontics has been well studied. PDT has also been used for cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Clinical trials of PDT and blue light alone therapy for gastric Helicobacter pylori infection are also covered. As yet clinical PDT for infections has been mainly in the field of dermatology using 5-aminolevulanic acid and in dentistry using phenothiazinium dyes. We expect more to see applications of PDT to more challenging infections using advanced antimicrobial photosensitizers targeted to microbial cells in the years to come. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Application of art therapy practice in educational and psychological counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Mazehóová, Yvona

    2008-01-01

    The dissertation thesis deals with art therapy applied in educational and psychological counseling. Theoretical part of the thesis defines the term "art therapy", theoretical and historical fundaments of the art therapy and touches upon possible applications in treatment. The art therapy process is described from the projective art therapy point of view; specificities of this particular approach in work with children are explained. The developmental view on the art therapy is esp. accented (a...

  16. Active music therapy and Parkinson's disease: methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchetti, C; Aglieri, R; Mancini, F; Martignoni, E; Nappi, G

    1998-01-01

    Music therapy (MT) is an unconventional, multisensorial therapy poorly assessed in medical care but widely used to different ends in a variety of settings. MT has two branches: active and passive. In active MT the utilisation of instruments is structured to correspond to all sensory organs so as to obtain suitable motor and emotional responses. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the effects of MT in the neurorehabilitation of patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD), a common degenerative disorder involving movement and emotional impairment. Sixteen PD patients took part in 13 weekly sessions of MT each lasting 2 hours. At the beginning and at the end of the session, every 2 weeks, the patients were evaluated by a neurologist, who assessed PD severity with UPDRS, emotional functions with Happiness Measures (HM) and quality of life using the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQL). After every session a significant improvement in motor function, particularly in relation to hypokinesia, was observed both in the overall and in the pre-post session evaluations. HM, UPDRS-ADL and PDQL changes confirmed an improving effect of MT on emotional functions, activities of daily living and quality of life. In conclusion, active MT, operating at a multisensorial level, stimulates motor, affective and behavioural functions. Finally, we propose active MT as new method to include in PD rehabilitation programmes. This article describes the methods adopted during MT sessions with PD patients.

  17. Theoretical and experimental physical methods of neutron-capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, G. I.

    2011-09-01

    This review is based to a substantial degree on our priority developments and research at the IR-8 reactor of the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute. New theoretical and experimental methods of neutron-capture therapy are developed and applied in practice; these are: A general analytical and semi-empiric theory of neutron-capture therapy (NCT) based on classical neutron physics and its main sections (elementary theories of moderation, diffuse, reflection, and absorption of neutrons) rather than on methods of mathematical simulation. The theory is, first of all, intended for practical application by physicists, engineers, biologists, and physicians. This theory can be mastered by anyone with a higher education of almost any kind and minimal experience in operating a personal computer.

  18. Scope of nanotechnology-based radiation therapy and thermotherapy methods in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakht, Mohamadreza K; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Pourbaghi-Masouleh, Milad; Tenreiro, Claudio

    2012-10-01

    The main aim of nanomedicine is to revolutionize the health care system and find effective approaches to fighting fatal diseases. Therapeutic beams, which are employed in radiation therapy, do not discriminate between normal and cancerous cells and must rely on targeting the radiation beams to specific cells. Interestingly, the application of nanoscale particles in radiation therapy has aimed to improve outcomes in radiation therapy by increasing toxicity in tumors and reducing it in normal tissues. This review focuses on approaches to nanotechnology-based cancer radiation therapy methods such as radionuclide therapy, photodynamic therapy, and neutron capture therapy. Moreover, we have investigated nanotechnology-based thermotherapy methods, including hyperthermia and thermoablation, as non-ionizing modalities of treatment using thermal radiation. The results strongly demonstrate that nanotechnology-based cancer radiation therapy and thermotherapy methods hold substantial potential to improve the efficacy of anticancer radiation and thermotherapy modalities.

  19. Informetrics theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Junping; Yang, Siluo; Dong, Ke

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an accessible introduction to the history, theory and techniques of informetrics. Divided into 14 chapters, it develops the content system of informetrics from the theory, methods and applications; systematically analyzes the six basic laws and the theory basis of informetrics and presents quantitative analysis methods such as citation analysis and computer-aided analysis. It also discusses applications in information resource management, information and library science, science of science, scientific evaluation and the forecast field. Lastly, it describes a new development in informetrics- webometrics. Providing a comprehensive overview of the complex issues in today's environment, this book is a valuable resource for all researchers, students and practitioners in library and information science.

  20. Methods and Applications of Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lane

    In considering Methods and Applications of Inversions, it is important to realize that the study of inverse problems is not a well-posed endeavor. To begin with, the variety of such problems is extremely broad; any systematic attempt to use observational data to make inferences about a model of the underlying physical processes qualifies as an inverse method. And then, the methods of analysis can branch off in innumerable directions. Many choices must be made in formulating the problem, determining the type and amount of regularization, selecting a solution algorithm, and in representing the results. Finally there is the peculiar process of appraisal, which is often treated as optional, in which one attempts to determine whether a solution was actually obtained and whether it contains any new information. What this means is that when a group gets together to discuss inverse problems, one should not be surprised to encounter a broad variety of problems and approaches. Such is the case with Methods and Applications of Inversions.

  1. Adjunct Methods of the Standard Diabetic Foot Ulceration Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Waniczek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of management of diabetic foot ulceration (DFU is poor and insufficient. DFU therapy includes the standard management as debridement of the wound, revascularization procedures, off-loading of the ulcer and antibacterial actions, and supplementation of growth factors and cytokines, leading to stimulation of granulation, epidermization, and angiogenesis. The aim of the present review is to summarize the adjunct methods of the standard DFU therapy as hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT, maggot therapy (MT, and platelet-rich plasma therapy (PRPT. The results of preclinical and clinical trials indicated that the methods may reduce time of therapy, short-term morbidity, and the risk of major amputation.

  2. Biometrics Theory, Methods, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Boulgouris, N V; Micheli-Tzanakou, Evangelia

    2009-01-01

    An in-depth examination of the cutting edge of biometrics. This book fills a gap in the literature by detailing the recent advances and emerging theories, methods, and applications of biometric systems in a variety of infrastructures. Edited by a panel of experts, it provides comprehensive coverage of:. Multilinear discriminant analysis for biometric signal recognition;. Biometric identity authentication techniques based on neural networks;. Multimodal biometrics and design of classifiers for biometric fusion;. Feature selection and facial aging modeling for face recognition;. Geometrical and

  3. Distance sampling methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buckland, S T; Marques, T A; Oedekoven, C S

    2015-01-01

    In this book, the authors cover the basic methods and advances within distance sampling that are most valuable to practitioners and in ecology more broadly. This is the fourth book dedicated to distance sampling. In the decade since the last book published, there have been a number of new developments. The intervening years have also shown which advances are of most use. This self-contained book covers topics from the previous publications, while also including recent developments in method, software and application. Distance sampling refers to a suite of methods, including line and point transect sampling, in which animal density or abundance is estimated from a sample of distances to detected individuals. The book illustrates these methods through case studies; data sets and computer code are supplied to readers through the book’s accompanying website.  Some of the case studies use the software Distance, while others use R code. The book is in three parts.  The first part addresses basic methods, the ...

  4. A Standardised Method for Investigating Learning in Music Therapy. Occasional Paper Number 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Dianne; Athanasou, James A.

    This paper outlines a method for professional assessment of music therapy students' learning and recall. The purpose of the assessment is to examine the Model of Domain Learning (P. Alexander, 1997) within an Australian context and to provide a professional assessment for application within music therapy education. Despite the music therapy…

  5. Application of MINERVA Monte Carlo simulations to targeted radionuclide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descalle, Marie-Anne; Hartmann Siantar, Christine L; Dauffy, Lucile; Nigg, David W; Wemple, Charles A; Yuan, Aina; DeNardo, Gerald L

    2003-02-01

    Recent clinical results have demonstrated the promise of targeted radionuclide therapy for advanced cancer. As the success of this emerging form of radiation therapy grows, accurate treatment planning and radiation dose simulations are likely to become increasingly important. To address this need, we have initiated the development of a new, Monte Carlo transport-based treatment planning system for molecular targeted radiation therapy as part of the MINERVA system. The goal of the MINERVA dose calculation system is to provide 3-D Monte Carlo simulation-based dosimetry for radiation therapy, focusing on experimental and emerging applications. For molecular targeted radionuclide therapy applications, MINERVA calculates patient-specific radiation dose estimates using computed tomography to describe the patient anatomy, combined with a user-defined 3-D radiation source. This paper describes the validation of the 3-D Monte Carlo transport methods to be used in MINERVA for molecular targeted radionuclide dosimetry. It reports comparisons of MINERVA dose simulations with published absorbed fraction data for distributed, monoenergetic photon and electron sources, and for radioisotope photon emission. MINERVA simulations are generally within 2% of EGS4 results and 10% of MCNP results, but differ by up to 40% from the recommendations given in MIRD Pamphlets 3 and 8 for identical medium composition and density. For several representative source and target organs in the abdomen and thorax, specific absorbed fractions calculated with the MINERVA system are generally within 5% of those published in the revised MIRD Pamphlet 5 for 100 keV photons. However, results differ by up to 23% for the adrenal glands, the smallest of our target organs. Finally, we show examples of Monte Carlo simulations in a patient-like geometry for a source of uniform activity located in the kidney.

  6. Artificial DNA : methods and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khudyakov, Yury E; Fields, Howard A

    2002-01-01

    ... applications of synthetic oligonucleotideso Covers applications for synthetic DNA in various fields and industrieso Includes historical aspects, comprehensive review, trend analysis, and future developments...

  7. Clinical applications of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Sam H; Diaz, James H; Kaye, Alan David

    2015-12-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE; Intralipid) therapy, a standard treatment in local anesthetic toxicity, has demonstrated therapeutic efficacies for a number of different drug class-mediated toxicities. Some of these varied drug groups include antipsychotics, antidepressants, antiarrhythmics, and calcium channel blockers. To meet the objective of describing the growing number of indications for Intralipid therapy and any diverse effects and/or failures of Intralipid therapy in reversing multiple drug toxicities, we queried several Internet search engines with the key words "intravenous lipid emulsion therapy," "Intralipid," "lipid emulsion," and "local anesthetic systemic toxicity," resulting in the identification of 31 case reports for descriptive analysis. These case reports included 49 separate drug overdose cases involving ten separate drug classes which were successfully reversed with Intralipid. The education of clinicians regarding the beneficial and varied roles of Intralipid therapy in different clinical settings is warranted, particularly in terms of the potential for Intralipid therapy to reverse the toxicities of non-local anesthetic drugs.

  8. Multifaceted Applications of Chitosan in Cancer Drug Delivery and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Babu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a versatile polysaccharide of biological origin. Due to the biocompatible and biodegradable nature of chitosan, it is intensively utilized in biomedical applications in scaffold engineering as an absorption enhancer, and for bioactive and controlled drug release. In cancer therapy, chitosan has multifaceted applications, such as assisting in gene delivery and chemotherapeutic delivery, and as an immunoadjuvant for vaccines. The present review highlights the recent applications of chitosan and chitosan derivatives in cancer therapy.

  9. Testosterone Therapy: Review of Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Ryan C; Brooks, Nathan A

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone therapy is increasingly common in the United States, and many of these prescriptions are written by primary care physicians. There is conflicting evidence on the benefit of male testosterone therapy for age-related declines in testosterone. Physicians should not measure testosterone levels unless a patient has signs and symptoms of hypogonadism, such as loss of body hair, sexual dysfunction, hot flashes, or gynecomastia. Depressed mood, fatigue, decreased strength, and a decreased sense of vitality are less specific to male hypogonadism. Testosterone therapy should be initiated only after two morning total serum testosterone measurements show decreased levels, and all patients should be counseled on the potential risks and benefits before starting therapy. Potential benefits of therapy include increased libido, improved sexual function, improved mood and well-being, and increased muscle mass and bone density; however, there is little or mixed evidence confirming clinically significant benefits. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration warns that testosterone therapy may increase the risk of cardiovascular complications. Other possible risks include rising prostate-specific antigen levels, worsening lower urinary tract symptoms, polycythemia, and increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Patients receiving testosterone therapy should be monitored to ensure testosterone levels rise appropriately, clinical improvement occurs, and no complications develop. Testosterone therapy may also be used to treat hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women and to produce physical male sex characteristics in female-to-male transgender patients.

  10. Applications of ozone therapy in dentistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shiva Gupta; D Deepa

    2016-01-01

    .... In the present era of increasing antibiotic resistance, ozone therapy is an alternative medical treatment that rationales to increase the amount of oxygen to the body through institution of ozone into the body...

  11. Applications of ozone therapy in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Gupta; Deepa, D.

    2016-01-01

    Ozone is an allotropic form of oxygen, which is effectively used in the treatment of different diseases for more than 100 years. In the present era of increasing antibiotic resistance, ozone therapy is an alternative medical treatment that rationales to increase the amount of oxygen to the body through institution of ozone into the body. Owing to its beneficial biological properties including antimicrobial and immune-stimulating effects, ozone therapy has opened new vistas in treatment modali...

  12. Alternative Therapy of Animals – Homeopathy and Other Alternative Methods of Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Løken Torleiv

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternative therapy of animals is described, in the meaning of alternatives to veterinary therapy traditionally accepted by veterinary faculties and schools and included in their curricula. Alternative therapy composes of different disciplines, of which homeopathy is emphasised in this presentation. Information is given on the use and interest of such therapy among veterinarians and animal owners. Homeopathy as other alternative therapies, may offer great advances, if they induce any effect. Some of the disciplines are based on a scientifically accepted documentation. Others, and homeopathy in particular, are missing such a documentation of effect. The justification of including alternative therapy in treating animals is discussed. Research in alternative therapy of animals is greatly needed, in particular to evaluate therapeutic methods which are in extensive use without any documented effect. An ongoing research project in Norway on the effect of homeopathic treatment of mastitis in cows is shortly presented.

  13. [Application of music therapy in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, P; Díaz, V

    2001-02-01

    Music therapy is a science that has been applied since many centuries ago, but it has been organized as a profession during the past century. This science studies the therapeutic effects of music in human beings. Professionals who practice this science are called "music therapists" and they must be trained not only in music theory and performance, but also in psychology, anatomy, research techniques, and other subjects. Today, we can find music therapy research in many areas such as the effects of music in children with autism, adults with psychiatric illnesses, elderly with Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, people with brain injuries, among others. Numerous studies demonstrate the functionality of music therapy in patients with neurological disorders. These studies show that music helps patients to gain control over their walking patterns after a brain injury, stimulates long and short term memory in patients with Alzheimer disease, and increase self esteem and social interaction in elders.

  14. Ion beam therapy fundamentals, technology, clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The book provides a detailed, up-to-date account of the basics, the technology, and the clinical use of ion beams for radiation therapy. Theoretical background, technical components, and patient treatment schemes are delineated by the leading experts that helped to develop this field from a research niche to its current highly sophisticated and powerful clinical treatment level used to the benefit of cancer patients worldwide. Rather than being a side-by-side collection of articles, this book consists of related chapters. It is a common achievement by 76 experts from around the world. Their expertise reflects the diversity of the field with radiation therapy, medical and accelerator physics, radiobiology, computer science, engineering, and health economics. The book addresses a similarly broad audience ranging from professionals that need to know more about this novel treatment modality or consider to enter the field of ion beam therapy as a researcher. However, it is also written for the interested public an...

  15. Discrete Methods and their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-03

    closeness, assign to each element being judged a real interval, and take two intervals to overlap if and only if the corresponding elements are judged...Applications of Mathematical Programming, Italy, September 1992. Fred S. Roberts "Elementary, Sub- Fibonacci , Regular, Van Lier, and other Interesting

  16. Methods for Stem Cell Production and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Pier Paolo (Inventor); Valluri, Jagan V. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for rapidly expanding a stem cell population with or without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention relates to methods for rapidly increasing the life span of stem cell populations without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention also relates to methods for increasing the sensitivity of cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions and in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The methods of the present invention can also be used to proliferate cancer cells by culturing them in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The present invention also relates to methods for testing the sensitivity of cancer cells and cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer cells and cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce tissue for use in transplantation by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors to promote differentiation of cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions.

  17. Selection of Voice Therapy Methods. Results of an Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Iris; Meier, Birte; Nolte, Katharina; Oppermann, Tina; Rogg, Verena; Beushausen, Ulla

    2015-11-01

    Providing an evidence basis for voice therapy in the German-speaking countries faces the challenge that-for historical reasons-a variety of direct voice therapy methods is available. The aim of this study was to clarify which therapy methods are chosen and the underlying principles for this selection. An online survey was implemented to identify to what extent the variety of methods described in theory is also applied in practice. A total of 434 voice therapists in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland were asked, among other things, which methods they prefer. A significant majority of therapists do not apply one specific method but rather work with a unique combination of direct voice therapy methods for individual clients. These results show that the variety of methods described in the literature is also applied in voice therapy practice. The combination of methods becomes apparent during the choice of exercises. The type of voice disorder plays no decisive role in the method selection process, whereas certain patient variables do have an influence on this process. In particular, the patients' movement restrictions, their state of mind or mood on a given day, and aspects of learning theory are taken into account. The results suggest that a patient-oriented selection of appropriate exercises is of primary importance to voice therapists and that they rarely focus on specific direct voice therapy methods. It becomes clear that an evaluation of single methods does not correspond to practical experience, and therefore, an overall evaluation of voice therapy appears to be more useful. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The Art therapy's methods use at work with handicapped children

    OpenAIRE

    Němcová, Jindřiška

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with using art therapy's methods and technique by multi-handicapped children. The first chapter characterizes multi-handicap, defines various disorders and their influence on the personality of a child. The second chapter introduces the therapy options which can be applied to multi-handicapped children, with a strong accent on artetherapy. In the third chapter there are various artetherapic methods and techniques which can be applied to multi-handicapped children. The fourth ...

  19. Directional microwave applicator and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A miniature microwave antenna is disclosed which may be utilized for biomedical applications such as, for example, radiation induced hyperthermia through catheter systems. One feature of the antenna is that it possesses azimuthal directionality despite its small size. This directionality permits targeting of certain tissues while limiting thermal exposure of adjacent tissue. One embodiment has an outer diameter of about 0.095'' (2.4 mm) but the design permits for smaller diameters.

  20. Using mixed methods in music therapy health care research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2015-01-01

    »Mixed methods« (or »multiple methods») is a fairly new concept in music therapy research. It is inspired by recent methodological developments in social science, covering the interaction of quantitative and qualitative methods in one and the same research study. Mixed methods are not the same...... as the diversity or pluralism of methods advocated by many scholars who are critical towards the principles of evidence-based medicine. This article presents a concrete example of mixed methods in music therapy research: a psycho-social study of music therapy with female cancer survivors. Problems related...... to ontology, epistemology, design and methodology are illustrated and discussed, and the perspective is broadened into a discussion of the core concept »triangulation« as related to validity....

  1. Dosimetry methods in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G.; Artuso, E.; Felisi, M.; Regazzoni, V.; Giove, D. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Physics, Via Festa del Patrono 7, 20122 Milano (Italy); Agosteo, S.; Barcaglioni, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milano (Italy); Campi, F.; Garlati, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Department, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); De Errico, F. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Lungamo Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Borroni, M.; Carrara, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Medical Physics Unit, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milano (Italy); Burian, J.; Klupak, V.; Viererbl, L.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez, Department of Neutron Physics, 250-68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    Dosimetry studies have been carried out at thermal and epithermal columns of Lvr-15 research reactor for investigating the spatial distribution of gamma dose, fast neutron dose and thermal neutron fluence. Two different dosimetry methods, both based on solid state detectors, have been studied and applied and the accuracy and consistency of the results have been inspected. One method is based on Fricke gel dosimeters that are dilute water solutions and have good tissue equivalence for neutrons and also for all the secondary radiations produced by neutron interactions in tissue or water phantoms. Fricke gel dosimeters give the possibility of separating the various dose contributions, i.e. the gamma dose, the fast neutron dose and the dose due to charged particles generated during thermal neutron reactions by isotopes having high cross section, like 10-B. From this last dose, thermal neutron fluence can be obtained by means of the kerma factor. The second method is based on thermoluminescence dosimeters. In particular, the developed method draw advantage from the different heights of the peaks of the glow curve of such phosphors when irradiated with photons or with thermal neutrons. The results show that satisfactory results can be obtained with simple methods, in spite of the complexity of the subject. However, the more suitable dosimeters and principally their utilization and analysis modalities are different for the various neutron beams, mainly depending on the relative intensities of the three components of the neutron field, in particular are different for thermal and epithermal columns. (Author)

  2. Statistical methods and computer applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, PN

    2009-01-01

    Some of the exclusive features of the book are: Every concept has been explained with the help of solved examples. Working rules showing the various steps for the applications of formulae have also been given. The diagrams and graphs have been neatly and correctly drawn in such a way that the students have the complete understanding of the problem by simply looking at them. Efforts have been made to make the subject throughly exhaustive and nothing important has been omitted. Answer to all the problems have been throughly checked. It is a user-friendly book containing many, solved problems and

  3. Therapy Decision Support Based on Recommender System Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Gräßer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a system for data-driven therapy decision support based on techniques from the field of recommender systems. Two methods for therapy recommendation, namely, Collaborative Recommender and Demographic-based Recommender, are proposed. Both algorithms aim to predict the individual response to different therapy options using diverse patient data and recommend the therapy which is assumed to provide the best outcome for a specific patient and time, that is, consultation. The proposed methods are evaluated using a clinical database incorporating patients suffering from the autoimmune skin disease psoriasis. The Collaborative Recommender proves to generate both better outcome predictions and recommendation quality. However, due to sparsity in the data, this approach cannot provide recommendations for the entire database. In contrast, the Demographic-based Recommender performs worse on average but covers more consultations. Consequently, both methods profit from a combination into an overall recommender system.

  4. Therapy Decision Support Based on Recommender System Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräßer, Felix; Beckert, Stefanie; Küster, Denise; Schmitt, Jochen; Abraham, Susanne; Malberg, Hagen; Zaunseder, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We present a system for data-driven therapy decision support based on techniques from the field of recommender systems. Two methods for therapy recommendation, namely, Collaborative Recommender and Demographic-based Recommender, are proposed. Both algorithms aim to predict the individual response to different therapy options using diverse patient data and recommend the therapy which is assumed to provide the best outcome for a specific patient and time, that is, consultation. The proposed methods are evaluated using a clinical database incorporating patients suffering from the autoimmune skin disease psoriasis. The Collaborative Recommender proves to generate both better outcome predictions and recommendation quality. However, due to sparsity in the data, this approach cannot provide recommendations for the entire database. In contrast, the Demographic-based Recommender performs worse on average but covers more consultations. Consequently, both methods profit from a combination into an overall recommender system.

  5. Data mining methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, Kenneth D; Klimberg, Ronald K

    2007-01-01

    With today's information explosion, many organizations are now able to access a wealth of valuable data. Unfortunately, most of these organizations find they are ill-equipped to organize this information, let alone put it to work for them. Gain a Competitive Advantage Employ data mining in research and forecasting Build models with data management tools and methodology optimization Gain sophisticated breakdowns and complex analysis through multivariate, evolutionary, and neural net methodsLearn how to classify data and maintain qualityTransform Data into Business Acumen Data Mining Methods and

  6. Music therapy CD creation for initial pediatric radiation therapy: a mixed methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Philippa; O'Callaghan, Clare; Wheeler, Greg; Grocke, Denise

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods research design was used to investigate the effects of a music therapy CD (MTCD) creation intervention on pediatric oncology patients' distress and coping during their first radiation therapy treatment. The music therapy method involved children creating a music CD using interactive computer-based music software, which was "remixed" by the music therapist-researcher to extend the musical material. Eleven pediatric radiation therapy outpatients aged 6 to 13 years were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they could create a music CD prior to their initial treatment to listen to during radiation therapy, or to a standard care group. Quantitative and qualitative analyses generated multiple perceptions from the pediatric patients, parents, radiation therapy staff, and music therapist-researcher. Ratings of distress during initial radiation therapy treatment were low for all children. The comparison between the two groups found that 67% of the children in the standard care group used social withdrawal as a coping strategy, compared to 0% of the children in the music therapy group; this trend approached significance (p = 0.076). MTCD creation was a fun, engaging, and developmentally appropriate intervention for pediatric patients, which offered a positive experience and aided their use of effective coping strategies to meet the demands of their initial radiation therapy treatment.

  7. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Applications on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetimakman, Ayse Filiz; Tanyildiz, Murat; Kesici, Selman; Kockuzu, Esra; Bayrakci, Benan

    2017-06-01

    Continuous venovenous hemofiltration or hemodiafiltration is used frequently in pediatric patients, but experience of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) application on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit is still limited. Among several methods used for applying CRRT on ECMO patients, we aim to share our experience on inclusion of a CRRT device in the ECMO circuit which we believe is easier and safer to apply. The data were collected on demographics, outcomes, and details of the treatment of ECMO patients who had CRRT. During the study period of 3 years, venous cannula of ECMO circuit before pump was used for CRRT access for both the filter inlet and outlet of CRRT machine to minimize the thromboembolic complications. The common indication for CRRT was fluid overload. CRRT was used in 3.68% of a total number of patients admitted and 43% of patients on ECMO. The patients have undergone renal replacement therapy for periods of time ranging between 24 h and 25 days (260 h mean). The survival rate of this group of patients with multiorgan failure was 33%. Renal recovery occurred in all of the survivors. Complications such as electrolyte imbalance, hypothermia, and bradykinin syndrome were easily managed. Adding a CRRT device on ECMO circuit is a safe and effective technique. The major advantages of this technique are easy to access, applying CRRT without extra anticoagulation process, preventing potential hemodynamic disturbances, and increased clearance of solutes and fluid overload using larger hemofilter.

  8. USAGE OF NON MEDICATED METHODS FOR CHILDREN'S BRONCHIAL ASTHMA THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Vishneva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes current situation of bronchial asthma non medicated therapy. The need to apply such therapy is associated with the on going trend of more frequent severe bronchial asthma cases, as well as not always efficient standard schemes of medicated treatment. The authors announce a physiotherapy device «aster» — it is based on innovative technologies and designed for noninvasive impact of electromagnetic waves with non thermal intensity upon the «pulmonary triangle» body area. A randomized multicentered survey of Russia's pediatricians union is being conducted to prove the efficiency of this device for children with bronchial asthma and basic therapy adequate to the severity degree. The application of this device is expected to reduce symptoms and eliminate dysfunctions of respiratory system typical for bronchial asthma, which cannot be totally eliminated with the current anti inflammatory agents.Key words: bronchial asthma, non medicated therapy.

  9. Differential equations methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a variety of techniques for solving ordinary differential equations analytically and features a wealth of examples. Focusing on the modeling of real-world phenomena, it begins with a basic introduction to differential equations, followed by linear and nonlinear first order equations and a detailed treatment of the second order linear equations. After presenting solution methods for the Laplace transform and power series, it lastly presents systems of equations and offers an introduction to the stability theory. To help readers practice the theory covered, two types of exercises are provided: those that illustrate the general theory, and others designed to expand on the text material. Detailed solutions to all the exercises are included. The book is excellently suited for use as a textbook for an undergraduate class (of all disciplines) in ordinary differential equations. .

  10. Magnetic nanoparticles for application in cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, J. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Banobre-Lopez, M. [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pineiro-Redondo, Y. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rivas, B., E-mail: jose.rivas@usc.es [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lopez-Quintela, M.A. [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Magnetic particles play nowadays an important role in different technological areas with potential applications in fields such as electronics, energy and biomedicine. In this report we will focus on the hyperthermia properties of magnetite nanoparticles and the effect of several chemical/physical parameters on their heating properties. We will discuss about the need of searching new smaller magnetic systems in order to fulfill the required physical properties which allow treating tumoral tissues more efficiently by means of magnetically induced heat. Preliminary results will be shown about the effect of a biocompatible shell of core-shell magnetite NPs on the heating properties by application of a RF magnetic field.

  11. WE-F-16A-03: 3D Printer Application in Proton Therapy: A Novel Method to Deliver Passive-Scattering Proton Beams with a Fixed Range and Modulation for SRS and SRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, X; Witztum, A; Liang, X; Reiche, M; Lin, H; Teo, B; Yin, L; Fiene, J; McDonough, J; Kassaee, A [University Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To present a novel technique to deliver passive-scattering proton beam with fixed range and modulation using a 3D printed patient-specific bolus for proton stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy. Methods: A CIRS head phantom was used to simulate a patient with a small brain lesion. A custom bolus was created in the Eclipse Treatment Planning System (TPS) to compensate for the different water equivalent depths from the patient surface to the target from multiple beam directions. To simulate arc therapy, a plan was created on the initial CT using three passive-scattering proton beams with a fixed range and modulations irradiating from different angles. The DICOM-RT structure file of the bolus was exported from the TPS and converted to STL format for 3D printing. The phantom was rescanned with the printed custom bolus and head cup to verify the dose distribution comparing to the initial plan. EBT3 films were placed in the sagital plane of the target to verify the delivered dose distribution. The relative stopping power of the printing material(ABSplus-P430) was measured using the Zebra multi-plate ion chamber. Results: The relative stopping power of the 3D printing material, ABSplus-P430 was 1.05 which is almost water equivalent. The dose difference between verification CT and Initial CT is almost negligible. Film measurement also confirmed the accuracy for this new proton delivery technique. Conclusion: Our method using 3D printed range modifiers simplify the treatment delivery of multiple passive-scattering beams in treatment of small lesion in brain. This technique makes delivery of multiple beam more efficient and can be extended to allow arc therapy with proton beams. The ability to create and construct complex patient specific bolus structures provides a new dimension in creating optimized quality treatment plans not only for proton therapy but also for electron and photon therapy.

  12. The application of mixed methods designs to trauma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W; Zhang, Wanqing

    2009-12-01

    Despite the use of quantitative and qualitative data in trauma research and therapy, mixed methods studies in this field have not been analyzed to help researchers designing investigations. This discussion begins by reviewing four core characteristics of mixed methods research in the social and human sciences. Combining these characteristics, the authors focus on four select mixed methods designs that are applicable in trauma research. These designs are defined and their essential elements noted. Applying these designs to trauma research, a search was conducted to locate mixed methods trauma studies. From this search, one sample study was selected, and its characteristics of mixed methods procedures noted. Finally, drawing on other mixed methods designs available, several follow-up mixed methods studies were described for this sample study, enabling trauma researchers to view design options for applying mixed methods research in trauma investigations.

  13. Clinical Application of Vascular Regenerative Therapy for Peripheral Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prognosis of peripheral artery disease (PAD, especially critical limb ischemia, is very poor despite the development of endovascular therapy and bypass surgery. Many patients result in leg amputation and, therefore, vascular regenerative therapy is expected in this field. Gene therapy using vascular endothelial growth factor is the first step of vascular regenerative therapy, but did not confirm effectiveness in a large-scale randomized comparative study. Based on animal experiments, bone marrow mononuclear cells (MNCs, peripheral blood MNCs were used as the cell source for regenerative therapy. Those cells were confirmed to be effective to decrease rest pain and ulcer size, but its effect was not fully satisfied. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are expected as an effective cell source for vascular regeneration and clinical studies are ongoing, because the cells are able to differentiate into various cell types and produce a significant amount of vascular growth factors. Of vascular regeneration therapy, peripheral MNCs and bone marrow MNCs were recognized as advanced medical technology but do not attain to the standard therapy. However, clinical use of MSCs have already started, and induced pluripotent stem cells are surely promising tool for vascular regeneration therapy although further basic studies are required for clinical application.

  14. GNSS remote sensing theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Shuanggen; Xie, Feiqin

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the theory and methods of GNSS remote sensing as well as its applications in the atmosphere, oceans, land and hydrology. It contains detailed theory and study cases to help the reader put the material into practice.

  15. Nanophotonics for Molecular Diagnostics and Therapy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Conde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Light has always fascinated mankind and since the beginning of recorded history it has been both a subject of research and a tool for investigation of other phenomena. Today, with the advent of nanotechnology, the use of light has reached its own dimension where light-matter interactions take place at wavelength and subwavelength scales and where the physical/chemical nature of nanostructures controls the interactions. This is the field of nanophotonics which allows for the exploration and manipulation of light in and around nanostructures, single molecules, and molecular complexes. What is more is the use of nanophotonics in biomolecular interactions—nanobiophotonics—has prompt for a plethora of molecular diagnostics and therapeutics making use of the remarkable nanoscale properties. In this paper, we shall focus on the uses of nanobiophotonics for molecular diagnostics involving specific sequence characterization of nucleic acids and for gene delivery systems of relevance for therapy strategies. The use of nanobiophotonics for the combined diagnostics/therapeutics (theranostics will also be addressed, with particular focus on those systems enabling the development of safer, more efficient, and specific platforms. Finally, the translation of nanophotonics for theranostics into the clinical setting will be discussed.

  16. SOME STATISTICAL SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS FOR TAGUCHI METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Stere PARIS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper details the variety of Taguchi methods, as important contribution to the quality improvement. The extended use of these methods imposes more and more complex calculi for the practical application and optimization. It should be necessary to benefit by the new software developments, assisted by the advanced statistical methods. The paper presents a few particular applications of some statistical software for the Taguchi methods as a quality enhancement insisting on the quality loss functions, the design of experiments and the new developments of statistical process control.

  17. Advanced computational electromagnetic methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenxing; Elsherbeni, Atef; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    This new resource covers the latest developments in computational electromagnetic methods, with emphasis on cutting-edge applications. This book is designed to extend existing literature to the latest development in computational electromagnetic methods, which are of interest to readers in both academic and industrial areas. The topics include advanced techniques in MoM, FEM and FDTD, spectral domain method, GPU and Phi hardware acceleration, metamaterials, frequency and time domain integral equations, and statistics methods in bio-electromagnetics.

  18. Fractionated afterloading irradiation as a new therapy method for inoperable cerebral tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, H.; Scheffler, A.; Oppel, F.; Brock, M.; Brust, V.; Bauer, R.; Pannek, H.W.

    1986-07-01

    A method is shown for fractionated afterloading therapy of inoperable cerebral tumors. A 3 mm thick, tube-form applicator of noble metal which is closed at the front side is implanted into the tumor by a stereotaxic technique and firmly screwed together with the osseous calotte. It remains there up to two weeks, giving full mobility to the patient. The afterloading therapy with a moving iridium source is performed one or two times per day with individual doses of 2 Gray. Thus, the chronological and - to a certain extent - also the spatial dose distribution is variable when applying this method.

  19. Application of local ablative therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common malignant tumor in the world, and surgical resection and liver transplantation are two radical treatment modalities, but only 10%-20% of all patients can receive such treatments. In recent years, local therapies including radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, cryoablation, and the irreversible electroporation ablation which appeared recently have gradually become the alternative therapies for the patients who are unable to undergo surgery. In addition to local tumor growth control and improvement in survival outcomes, the ablation technology also helps to downgrade tumor for secondary resection. This article focuses on the research progress in radiofrequency ablation alone and in combination with other therapies in the treatment of HCC, compares radiofrequency ablation with other local ablative therapies, and briefly introduces the application of intelligent navigation technology in adjuvant ablation. With the development of medical imaging and progress in related fields, the ablation technology will be widely applied in clinical practice in the future.

  20. Nanotechnology and stem cell therapy for cardiovascular diseases: potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Francesca, Saverio

    2012-01-01

    The use of stem cell therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases has generated significant interest in recent years. Limitations to the clinical application of this therapy center on issues of stem cell delivery, engraftment, and fate. Nanotechnology-based cell labeling and imaging techniques facilitate stem cell tracking and engraftment studies. Nanotechnology also brings exciting new opportunities to translational stem cell research as it enables the controlled engineering of nanoparticles and nanomaterials that can properly relate to the physical scale of cell-cell and cell-niche interactions. This review summarizes the most relevant potential applications of nanoscale technologies to the field of stem cell therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Novel microwave applicators for thermal therapy, ablation, and hemostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Clegg, Peter

    2009-02-01

    Microwave applicators are becoming more prevalent in cancer ablation therapy due to factors of penetration, high power, and shortened treatment time. These applicators create the largest zones of necrosis of available energy sources. Progress has been made both with interstitial applicators for surgical, laparoscopic, or radiological approaches, as well as surface applicators that provide hemostasis or precoagulation prior to resection. Most commonly, the applicators operate at 915 MHz or 2450 MHz, and are well matched to tissue. Surgical applicators are as large as 5.6 mm and have the capability to operate at 100-200 W. With smaller applicators, internal cooling may be required to avoid heating sensitive skin surfaces if used percutaneously or laparoscopically. With the interstitial applicators, animal studies have shown a strong relationship between power and ablation volume, including reaching a steady-state plateau in performance based more on power level and less on time. As shown in-vivo, MW surface applicators are very efficient in surface coagulation for hemostasis or precoagulation and in the treatment of surface breaking lesions. These applicators are also capable of deep penetration as applied from the surface. Characteristic treatment times for interstitial applicators are four minutes and for surface applicators, one minute or less is sufficient. Examples will be shown of multi-organ results with surface coagulation using high-power microwaves. Finally, future trends will be discussed that include treatment planning, multiple applicators, and navigation.

  2. Liquid fiducial marker applicability in proton therapy of locally advanced lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherman Rydhög, Jonas; Perrin, Rosalind; Jølck, Rasmus Irming

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: We investigated the clinical applicability of a novel liquid fiducial marker (LFM) for image-guided pencil beam scanned (PBS) proton therapy (PBSPT) of locally advanced lung cancer (LALC). Materials and methods: The relative proton stopping power (RSP) of the LFM was calcu...

  3. Risk assessment theory, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rausand, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    With its balanced coverage of theory and applications along with standards and regulations, Risk Assessment: Theory, Methods, and Applications serves as a comprehensive introduction to the topic. The book serves as a practical guide to current risk analysis and risk assessment, emphasizing the possibility of sudden, major accidents across various areas of practice from machinery and manufacturing processes to nuclear power plants and transportation systems. The author applies a uniform framework to the discussion of each method, setting forth clear objectives and descriptions, while also shedding light on applications, essential resources, and advantages and disadvantages. Following an introduction that provides an overview of risk assessment, the book is organized into two sections that outline key theory, methods, and applications. * Introduction to Risk Assessment defines key concepts and details the steps of a thorough risk assessment along with the necessary quantitative risk measures. Chapters outline...

  4. Application of reality therapy on violent beliefs of Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of Reality Therapy on students' violent beliefs was investigated through quasi-experimental research design with a sample of 18 students (13 boys and 5 girls) and another set of 18 students (15 boys and 3 girls) for experimental and control groups respectively. The students in experimental group were those ...

  5. The Application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Problem Anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifert, Georg H.; Forsyth, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to familiarize clinicians with the use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for problem anger by describing the application of ACT to a case of a 45-year-old man struggling with anger. ACT is an approach and set of intervention technologies that support acceptance and mindfulness processes linked with commitment and…

  6. The clinical applicability of music therapy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    Research serves the functions of informing the clinical field, guiding future research, establishing new knowledge and theory, and meeting criteria for evidence based practice. Given the demands of health, education and social services today and there is an increasing expectation that clinical...... managers, the objective, method, results, implications and limitations need to be clearly set out and argued. Examples of this will be drawn from various clinical fields, including psychiatry, developmental disability, neurology, paediatrics, pervasive developmental disorder and oncology, together...

  7. Understanding the application of stem cell therapy in cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma RK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rakesh K Sharma, Donald J Voelker, Roma Sharma, Hanumanth K ReddyUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Medical Center of South Arkansas, El Dorado, AR, USAAbstract: Throughout their lifetime, an individual may sustain many injuries and recover spontaneously over a period of time, without even realizing the injury in the first place. Wound healing occurs due to a proliferation of stem cells capable of restoring the injured tissue. The ability of adult stem cells to repair tissue is dependent upon the intrinsic ability of tissues to proliferate. The amazing capacity of embryonic stem cells to give rise to virtually any type of tissue has intensified the search for similar cell lineage in adults to treat various diseases including cardiovascular diseases. The ability to convert adult stem cells into pluripotent cells that resemble embryonic cells, and to transplant those in the desired organ for regenerative therapy is very attractive, and may offer the possibility of treating harmful disease-causing mutations. The race is on to find the best cells for treatment of cardiovascular disease. There is a need for the ideal stem cell, delivery strategies, myocardial retention, and time of administration in the ideal patient population. There are multiple modes of stem cell delivery to the heart with different cell retention rates that vary depending upon method and site of injection, such as intra coronary, intramyocardial or via coronary sinus. While there are crucial issues such as retention of stem cells, microvascular plugging, biodistribution, homing to myocardium, and various proapoptotic factors in the ischemic myocardium, the regenerative potential of stem cells offers an enormous impact on clinical applications in the management of cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: stem cell therapy, stem cell delivery, cardiovascular diseases, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy

  8. Ancient Chinese Fangzhongshu (Sexual Skills and Methods Therapy for Premature Ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual dysfunction that can have significant effects on a couple’s relationship. Behavioral therapy and psychotherapy are both safe and effective methods of treating PE. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu (sexual skills and methods, which reflects a summary of expert experiences in sexology, contains many therapies for sexual dysfunction that are similar to those used in behavioral therapy or psychotherapy. A brief introduction dealing with the latest definitions of PE and treatment strategies drawn from behavioral therapy and psychotherapy is provided. Typical therapies for PE from ancient Chinese fangzhongshu are listed and briefly analyzed in order to define their domain of applicability and instructions for use. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu contains many effective and safe therapies for PE. It should be incorporated into modern medical practice after critical analysis, and its scientific aspects should be promoted as a way of improving reproductive health, both to benefit individuals affected by PE and to promote traditional Chinese culture. Based on an analysis of the condition of the individual patient, one or multiple therapies guided by fangzhongshu can be expected to have an effect on the patient. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu is of great value and should to be popularized and applied as a remedy for PE.

  9. Ancient Chinese Fangzhongshu (Sexual Skills and Methods) Therapy for Premature Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Chen, Qiang; Gu, Yuexing; Yue, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual dysfunction that can have significant effects on a couple's relationship. Behavioral therapy and psychotherapy are both safe and effective methods of treating PE. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu (sexual skills and methods), which reflects a summary of expert experiences in sexology, contains many therapies for sexual dysfunction that are similar to those used in behavioral therapy or psychotherapy. A brief introduction dealing with the latest definitions of PE and treatment strategies drawn from behavioral therapy and psychotherapy is provided. Typical therapies for PE from ancient Chinese fangzhongshu are listed and briefly analyzed in order to define their domain of applicability and instructions for use. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu contains many effective and safe therapies for PE. It should be incorporated into modern medical practice after critical analysis, and its scientific aspects should be promoted as a way of improving reproductive health, both to benefit individuals affected by PE and to promote traditional Chinese culture. Based on an analysis of the condition of the individual patient, one or multiple therapies guided by fangzhongshu can be expected to have an effect on the patient. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu is of great value and should to be popularized and applied as a remedy for PE. PMID:28053946

  10. An Annotated Bibliography of the Gestalt Methods, Techniques, and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O.

    The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to provide the reader with a guide to relevant research in the area of Gestalt therapy, techniques, and methods. The majority of the references are journal articles written within the last 5 years or documents easily obtained through interlibrary loans from local libraries. These references were…

  11. The optimal homotopy asymptotic method engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Marinca, Vasile

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasizes in detail the applicability of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method to various engineering problems. It is a continuation of the book “Nonlinear Dynamical Systems in Engineering: Some Approximate Approaches”, published at Springer in 2011, and it contains a great amount of practical models from various fields of engineering such as classical and fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, nonlinear oscillations, electrical machines, and so on. The main structure of the book consists of 5 chapters. The first chapter is introductory while the second chapter is devoted to a short history of the development of homotopy methods, including the basic ideas of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method. The last three chapters, from Chapter 3 to Chapter 5, are introducing three distinct alternatives of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method with illustrative applications to nonlinear dynamical systems. The third chapter deals with the first alternative of our approach with two iterations. Five application...

  12. Graphene doping methods and device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jong Sik; Kim, Kyong Nam; Yeom, Geun Young

    2014-02-01

    Graphene has recently been studied as a promising material to replace and enhance conventional electronic materials in various fields such as electronics, photovoltaics, sensors, etc. However, for the electronic applications of graphene prepared by various techniques such as chemical vapor deposition, chemical exfoliation, mechanical exfoliation, etc., critical limitations are found due to the defects in the graphene in addition to the absence of a semiconducting band gap. For that, many researchers have investigated the doped graphene which is effective to tailor its electronic property and chemical reactivity. This work presents a review of the various graphene doping methods and their device applications. As doping methods, direct synthesis method and post treatment method could be categorized. Because the latter case has been widely investigated and used in various electronic applications, we will focus on the post treatment method. Post treatment method could be further classified into wet and dry doping methods. In the case of wet doping, acid treatment, metal chloride, and organic material coating are the methods used to functionalize graphene by using dip-coating, spin coating, etc. Electron charge transfer achieved from graphene to dopants or from dopants to graphene makes p-type or n-type graphenes, respectively, with sheet resistance reduction effect. In the case of dry doping, it can be further categorized into electrostatic field method, evaporation method, thermal treatment method, plasma treatment method, etc. These doping techniques modify Fermi energy level of graphene and functionalize the property of graphene. Finally, some perspectives and device applications of doped graphene are also briefly discussed.

  13. Technical basis of radiation therapy. Practical clinical applications. 5. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, Seymour H. [Karolinska Institutet Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Oncol-Pathol; Perez, Carlos A. [Washington Univ. Medical Center, St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Purdy, James A. [California Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Poortmans, Philip [Institute Verbeeten, Tilburg (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-07-01

    This well-received book, now in its fifth edition, is unique in providing a detailed description of the technological basis of radiation therapy. Another novel feature is the collaborative writing of the chapters by North American and European authors. This considerably broadens the book's perspective and increases its applicability in daily practice throughout the world. The book is divided into two sections. The first covers basic concepts in treatment planning, including essential physics and biological principles related to time-dose-fractionation, and explains the various technological approaches to radiation therapy, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, tomotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, and high and low dose rate brachytherapy. Issues relating to quality assurance, technology assessment, and cost-benefit analysis are also reviewed. The second part of the book discusses in depth the practical clinical applications of the different radiation therapy techniques in a wide range of cancer sites. All of the chapters have been written by leaders in the field. This book will serve to instruct and acquaint teachers, students, and practitioners in the various fields of oncology with the basic technological factors and approaches in radiation therapy. (orig.)

  14. Synthesis of nanoscale titanium dioxide and its application in cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Min; Zhou, Zhiguo; YANG Shiping

    2015-01-01

    As an important inorganic material,titanium dioxide gets more and more attention and is used in various fields,especially in the biomedical field.This paper summarizes the main synthesis methods of titanium dioxide nanomaterial and its applications in cancer therapy area.The titanium dioxide nanomaterial can be prepared by gas,liquid and solid phase methods.Among them,we mainly introduce liquid phase methods including sol-gel method,hydrothermal method,solvothermal,and microemulsion method.We...

  15. Analysis of mixed data methods & applications

    CERN Document Server

    de Leon, Alexander R

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive source on mixed data analysis, Analysis of Mixed Data: Methods & Applications summarizes the fundamental developments in the field. Case studies are used extensively throughout the book to illustrate interesting applications from economics, medicine and health, marketing, and genetics. Carefully edited for smooth readability and seamless transitions between chaptersAll chapters follow a common structure, with an introduction and a concluding summary, and include illustrative examples from real-life case studies in developmental toxicolog

  16. Applications of nanotechnology to imaging and therapy of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohs, Aaron M; Provenzale, James M

    2010-08-01

    In the past decade, numerous advances in the understanding of brain tumor physiology, tumor imaging, and tumor therapy have been attained. In some cases, these advances have resulted from refinements of pre-existing technologies (eg, improvements of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging). In other instances, advances have resulted from development of novel technologies. The development of nanomedicine (ie, applications of nanotechnology to the field of medicine) is an example of the latter. In this review, the authors explain the principles that underlay nanoparticle design and function as well as the means by which nanoparticles can be used for imaging and therapy of brain tumors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular Combing of DNA: Methods and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazari, Zeniab Esmail; Gurevich, Leonid

    2013-01-01

    First proposed in 1994, molecular combing of DNA is a technique that allows adsorption and alignment of DNA on the surface with no need for prior modification of the molecule. Since then, many variations of the original method have been devised and used in a wide range of applications from genomi...... of the main methods in molecular combing as well as its major applications in nanotechnology.......First proposed in 1994, molecular combing of DNA is a technique that allows adsorption and alignment of DNA on the surface with no need for prior modification of the molecule. Since then, many variations of the original method have been devised and used in a wide range of applications from genomic...

  18. Applications of Cherenkov Light Emission for Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Adam Kenneth

    Since its discovery in the 1930's, the Cherenkov effect has been paramount in the development of high-energy physics research. It results in light emission from charged particles traveling faster than the local speed of light in a dielectric medium. The ability of this emitted light to describe a charged particle's trajectory, energy, velocity, and mass has allowed scientists to study subatomic particles, detect neutrinos, and explore the properties of interstellar matter. However, only recently has the phenomenon been considered in the practical context of medical physics and radiation therapy dosimetry, where Cherenkov light is induced by clinical x-ray photon, electron, and proton beams. To investigate the relationship between this phenomenon and dose deposition, a Monte Carlo plug-in was developed within the Geant4 architecture for medically-oriented simulations (GAMOS) to simulate radiation-induced optical emission in biological media. Using this simulation framework, it was determined that Cherenkov light emission may be well suited for radiation dosimetry of clinically used x-ray photon beams. To advance this application, several novel techniques were implemented to realize the maximum potential of the signal, such as time-gating for maximizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and Cherenkov-excited fluorescence for generating isotropic light release in water. Proof of concept experiments were conducted in water tanks to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method for two-dimensional (2D) projection imaging, three-dimensional (3D) parallel beam tomography, large field of view 3D cone beam tomography, and video-rate dynamic imaging of treatment plans for a number of common radiotherapy applications. The proposed dosimetry method was found to have a number of unique advantages, including but not limited to its non-invasive nature, water-equivalence, speed, high-resolution, ability to provide full 3D data, and potential to yield data in-vivo. Based on

  19. Extending the applicability of multigrid methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannick, J; Brezina, M; Falgout, R; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J; Sheehan, B; Xu, J; Zikatanov, L

    2006-09-25

    Multigrid methods are ideal for solving the increasingly large-scale problems that arise in numerical simulations of physical phenomena because of their potential for computational costs and memory requirements that scale linearly with the degrees of freedom. Unfortunately, they have been historically limited by their applicability to elliptic-type problems and the need for special handling in their implementation. In this paper, we present an overview of several recent theoretical and algorithmic advances made by the TOPS multigrid partners and their collaborators in extending applicability of multigrid methods. Specific examples that are presented include quantum chromodynamics, radiation transport, and electromagnetics.

  20. Extending the applicability of multigrid methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannick, J [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States); Brezina, M [Center for Applied and Scientific Computing, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Falgout, R [Center for Applied and Scientific Computing, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Manteuffel, T [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States); McCormick, S [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States); Ruge, J [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States); Sheehan, B [Center for Applied and Scientific Computing, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Xu, J [Department of Mathematics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States); Zikatanov, L [Department of Mathematics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Multigrid methods are ideal for solving the increasingly large-scale problems that arise in numerical simulations of physical phenomena because of their potential for computational costs and memory requirements that scale linearly with the degrees of freedom. Unfortunately, they have been historically limited by their applicability to elliptic-type problems and the need for special handling in their implementation. In this paper, we present an overview of several recent theoretical and algorithmic advances made by the TOPS multigrid partners and their collaborators in extending applicability of multigrid methods. specific examples that are presented include quantum chromodynamics, radiation transport, and electromagnetics.

  1. [The application of music therapy in maternity nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Chen; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2004-10-01

    Music therapy has been used in the care of patients in a variety of fields, to decrease anxiety and enhance health, and has shown promising results. It is reported that pregnancy and childbirth may result in stressful consequences for some women. This article describes the systematic applications of music therapy to perinatal women and their families. The use of music for the childbearing family is appropriate because it enhances learning, improves the birth experience, and promotes closer relationships. The labor nurses are charged with the tasks of assuring the positive aspects of pregnancy and childbirth and meeting the demands of the women in these stressful situations. In order to create a caring environment, we suggest that music therapy be incorporated into standard maternity care.

  2. Methods to increase efficiency of laser therapy of oncologic diseases: methods, equipment, experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikov, A. A.; Svirin, V. N.

    2008-04-01

    The rapid development of quantum electronics and the advent of various types of lasers favored the formation of an independent line in medicine, namely, laser medicine In recent years devices based on semiconductor lasers have been introduced into medicine at a most rapid pace At present day this is connected with , that the essential improvement energy and spectral features has occurred in development semiconductor laser. The power of serial discrete near-IR semiconductor lasers has reached a level of 5 W and more, the spectral range has extended to 1.7...1.8 μm. Laser-optical information technologies and devices develop since the 70- years at the end of 20 century and are broadly used for treatment of oncologic diseases. Although such methods as photodynamic therapy (PDT), laser-induce thermotherapy (LITT), fluorescent diagnostics and spectrophotometry already more than 30 years are used for treatment and diagnostics of oncologic diseases, nevertheless, they are enough new methods and, as a rule, are used in large scientific centers and medical institutions. This is bound, first of all, with lack of information on modern method of cancer treatment, the absence of widely available laser procedures and corresponding devices in the polyclinics and even in district hospitals, as well as insufficient understanding of application areas, where laser methods has an advantage by comparison, for instance, with beam or chemotherapy. Presented in the article are new developed methods and results of designing equipment and software for their realization aimed at increase in efficiency of treatment of oncologic diseases as well as several clinical materials of the use of industrial models of the developed devices at medical institutions.

  3. The application of data mining methods

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Data mining is becoming more and more important. The aim of this thesis is to study and research data mining, to clarify the background, knowledge and method of data mining, and research some specific areas applications. The aim is also to experiment with an open software by mining some sample data, to prove the advantage and convenience of data mining. This thesis first introduces the basic concepts of data mining, such as the definition of data mining, its basic function, common methods...

  4. Application of Nonparametric Methods in Studying Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of Nonparametric Methods in Studying Energy Consumption. ... Consumer behaviour towards different forms of energy varies over time. The variance ... It is found that the mean peak consumption is a decreasing function of the lagged time and that the more extreme the peak consumption, the higher the volatility.

  5. Development and Application of Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Development and Application of Kinetic. Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of. Metronidazole. Vojkan M Miljkovic1*, Danijela A Kostic2*, Zoran Z Bojanic1, Biljana. M.Kalicanin1, Gordana M Kocic1. 1Faculty of Medicine, 2Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, The University of Nis, ...

  6. Application of Lie transform perturbation method for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Application of Lie transform perturbation method for multidimensional ..... tions of eqs (12) and (13), we can evaluate classical action integrals Ii = ∮ ηi dξi exactly ..... [7] C M Bender, S Boettcher and P N Meisinger, J. Math. Phys. 40, 2201 ...

  7. Innovative Methods and Applications in Mucoadhesion Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, Alan; Goycoolea, Francisco M.; Menchicchi, Bianca

    2017-01-01

    . Then a selection of preparative techniques and testing methods are described (at molecular as well as micro and macroscale) that may support the pharmaceutical development of mucus interactive systems and assist formulators in the scale-up and industrialization steps. Recent applications of mucoadhesive systems...

  8. A maximum feasible subset algorithm with application to radiation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman

    1999-01-01

    . The algorithm relies on an iterative constraint removal procedure where constraints are eliminated from a set proposed by solutions to minmax linear programs. The method is illustrated by a simulated example of a linear system with double sided bounds and a case from the area of radiation therapy....

  9. Application of systematic reviews in speech-and-language therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Goldbart, Juliet; Pickstone, Caroline; Roulstone, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Systematic reviews are increasingly being carried out in speech-and-language therapy and are used by practitioners, service commissioners, policy-makers and researchers to inform decision-making, as the body of evidence available about speech-and-language therapy grows. Although systematic reviewing is developing to incorporate new methods of review and synthesis, there are currently limitations in the use of some types of systematic reviews within speech-and-language therapy. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the steps involved in the systematic review process and the range of options available. It highlights some challenges to using this process in speech-and-language therapy, with examples based in part on the authors' experiences of involvement in two systematic reviews. A number of developments in systematic review methodology will be outlined and several new approaches to reviewing, both within and outside of speech-and-language therapy, are introduced. These include realist synthesis, evidence-based practice briefs, speech BITE™ and the journal Evidence-Based Communication Assessment and Intervention. This paper highlights some of the current benefits and limitations of systematic reviews in speech-and-language therapy. It will facilitate readers to use and carry out systematic reviews in the speech-and-language therapy field. Systematic reviews are useful in speech-and-language therapy, but awareness of their limitations is important to practitioners, commissioners, policy-makers and researchers. New developments may further increase the benefits of systematic reviews. © 2010 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  10. The History, Mechanism, and Clinical Application of Auricular Therapy in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Pu-Wei; Hsu, Hsin-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Wen; Tang, Nou-Ying; Cheng, Chin-Yi; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Auricular therapy includes acupuncture, electroacupuncture, acupressure, lasering, cauterization, moxibustion, and bloodletting in the auricle. For 2500 years, people have employed auricular therapy for treating diseases, but the methods have been limited to bloodletting and cauterization. Only after 1957, the international scientific community became aware that the map of the ear resembles an inverted fetus, its introduction has led to auricular acupuncture (AA) becoming a more systemic approach, and, following the identification and standardization of more precise points, AA has been employed in clinical applications. The mechanisms of AA are considered to have a close relationship with the autonomic nervous system, the neuroendocrine system, neuroimmunological factors, neuroinflammation, and neural reflex, as well as antioxidation. Auricular therapy has been applied, for example, for pain relief, for the treatment of epilepsy, anxiety, and obesity, and for improving sleep quality. However, the mechanisms and evidence for auricular therapy warrant further study.

  11. The History, Mechanism, and Clinical Application of Auricular Therapy in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu-Wei Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auricular therapy includes acupuncture, electroacupuncture, acupressure, lasering, cauterization, moxibustion, and bloodletting in the auricle. For 2500 years, people have employed auricular therapy for treating diseases, but the methods have been limited to bloodletting and cauterization. Only after 1957, the international scientific community became aware that the map of the ear resembles an inverted fetus, its introduction has led to auricular acupuncture (AA becoming a more systemic approach, and, following the identification and standardization of more precise points, AA has been employed in clinical applications. The mechanisms of AA are considered to have a close relationship with the autonomic nervous system, the neuroendocrine system, neuroimmunological factors, neuroinflammation, and neural reflex, as well as antioxidation. Auricular therapy has been applied, for example, for pain relief, for the treatment of epilepsy, anxiety, and obesity, and for improving sleep quality. However, the mechanisms and evidence for auricular therapy warrant further study.

  12. Application NO TGCH-therapy in complex treatment of postoperative lumbar localization radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salina E.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a survey of 50 patients to study the application of terahertz therapy of NO in the complex treatment of postoperative lumbar radiculopathy localization. Materials and methods. Using a visual analogue scale assessed the degree of regression of pain, depending on the nature of the therapy. For the diagnosis of intra-articular inflammation in the postoperative motor segment and a local mikrovaskulita determined the level of antibodies in the serum of patients to collagen and myeloperoxidase. The results suggest shortening pain and reducing the content of antibodies to MPO and collagen in patients receiving short-wave therapy. Therefore, we conclude that the use of NO therapy TGCH improves the treatment of postoperative lumbar radiculopathy localization

  13. Structural equation modeling methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jichuan

    2012-01-01

    A reference guide for applications of SEM using Mplus Structural Equation Modeling: Applications Using Mplus is intended as both a teaching resource and a reference guide. Written in non-mathematical terms, this book focuses on the conceptual and practical aspects of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Basic concepts and examples of various SEM models are demonstrated along with recently developed advanced methods, such as mixture modeling and model-based power analysis and sample size estimate for SEM. The statistical modeling program, Mplus, is also featured and provides researchers with a

  14. Patients' satisfaction with therapy methods of advanced chronic venous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudek, Jerzy; Mikosiński, Jacek; Kobielski, Andrzej; Hering, Artur; Aleksiejew-Kleszczyński, Tomasz; Umiński, Jacek; Zubilewicz, Tomasz; Kobusiewicz, Wojciech; Iłżecki, Marek; Wojtak, Andrzej; Stec, Janusz; Urbanek, Tomasz

    2016-02-01

    To assess patients' satisfaction from the therapy of advanced chronic venous disorders (CVD) in everyday clinical practice in Poland, and to compare the efficacy of various venoactive drugs (VADs) in venous ulcers healing process. Seven hundred and eighty unselected adult patients with active (N.=441) or healed (N.=339) venous ulcers participated in the non-interventional observational 6-week study. Compression therapy and VADs were utilized by 81.5% and 89.2% of patients respectively: 31.2% of all patients underwent surgical procedures for vein incompetence, 61.3% were satisfied with surgical methods, 43% with compression therapy, and 32.6% with VADs ‑ with highest rate of satisfied patients in the group taking Ruscus aculeatus and HMC and ascorbic acid (51.4%). Of 377 patients with active venous ulcers smaller than 200 cm2, adherent to VADs, 18.0% have been cured, and 66.6% have improved during 6-week period of observation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the compression therapy (OR=2.74), the size of ulcer ≤10 cm2 (OR=2.70) were increasing the change of ulcer healing. No VADs was better than another in the healing process. 1) Compression therapy and VADs are highly utilized by patients with advanced CVD. 2) Patients are more satisfied with surgical than conservative treatment of advanced CVD. 3) More than half of the patients with the advanced stage CVD taking Ruscus aculeatus and HMC and ascorbic acid is satisfied with the obtained improvement. 4) Ruscus aculeatus and HMC and ascorbic acid is similarly effective as other frequently used VADs in venous ulcer healing. 5) Ruscus aculeatus and HMC and ascorbic acid exerting effects on veins, capillaries and lymphatic vessels may explain the positive results observed in this study.

  15. Finite Element Methods and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhangxin

    2005-01-01

    This book serves as a text for one- or two-semester courses for upper-level undergraduates and beginning graduate students and as a professional reference for people who want to solve partial differential equations (PDEs) using finite element methods. The author has attempted to introduce every concept in the simplest possible setting and maintain a level of treatment that is as rigorous as possible without being unnecessarily abstract. Quite a lot of attention is given to discontinuous finite elements, characteristic finite elements, and to the applications in fluid and solid mechanics including applications to porous media flow, and applications to semiconductor modeling. An extensive set of exercises and references in each chapter are provided.

  16. Advanced Methods and Applications in Computational Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nikodem, Jan; Jacak, Witold; Chaczko, Zenon; ACASE 2012

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an excellent presentation of intelligent engineering and informatics foundations for researchers in this field as well as many examples with industrial application. It contains extended versions of selected papers presented at the inaugural ACASE 2012 Conference dedicated to the Applications of Systems Engineering. This conference was held from the 6th to the 8th of February 2012, at the University of Technology, Sydney, Australia, organized by the University of Technology, Sydney (Australia), Wroclaw University of Technology (Poland) and the University of Applied Sciences in Hagenberg (Austria). The  book is organized into three main parts. Part I contains papers devoted to the heuristic approaches that are applicable in situations where the problem cannot be solved by exact methods, due to various characteristics or  dimensionality problems. Part II covers essential issues of the network management, presents intelligent models of the next generation of networks and distributed systems ...

  17. Heat kernel method and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Avramidi, Ivan G

    2015-01-01

    The heart of the book is the development of a short-time asymptotic expansion for the heat kernel. This is explained in detail and explicit examples of some advanced calculations are given. In addition some advanced methods and extensions, including path integrals, jump diffusion and others are presented. The book consists of four parts: Analysis, Geometry, Perturbations and Applications. The first part shortly reviews of some background material and gives an introduction to PDEs. The second part is devoted to a short introduction to various aspects of differential geometry that will be needed later. The third part and heart of the book presents a systematic development of effective methods for various approximation schemes for parabolic differential equations. The last part is devoted to applications in financial mathematics, in particular, stochastic differential equations. Although this book is intended for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students in, it should also provide a useful reference ...

  18. Theranostic Applications of Lutetium-177 in Radionuclide Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tapas; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    Lutetium-177 has been widely discussed as a radioisotope of choice for targeted radionuclide therapy. The simultaneous emission of imageable gamma photons [208 keV (11%) and 113 keV (6.4%)] along with particulate β(-) emission [β(max) = 497 keV] makes it a theranostically desirable radioisotope. In the present article, the possibility of using two 177Lu-based agents viz. 177Lu-EDTMP and 177Lu-DOTATATE for theranostic applications in metastatic bone pain palliation (MBPP) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), have been explored. In the case of 177Lu-EDTMP, the whole-body images obtained are compared with those recorded using 99mTc-MDP in the same patient. On the other hand, pre-therapy images acquired with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE are compared with similar images obtained with standard agents, such as 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC (SPECT) and 68Ga-DOTA-TOC (PET) in the same patient. The advantage of the long physical half-life (T1/2) of 177Lu has been utilized in mapping the pharmacokinetics of two additional agents, 177Lu-labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) in radiation synovectomy of knee joints and 177Lu-HA for therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Results of these multiple studies conclusively document the potential of 177Lu as a theranostic radioisotope.

  19. Adherence to raloxifene therapy: assessment methods and relationship with efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan, J; Naylor, K; Paggiosi, M A; Peel, N F; Eastell, R

    2013-11-01

    Response to therapy depends on patient compliance but accurate assessment is difficult and adequate levels of adherence are uncertain. Adherence to raloxifene treatment may be assessed more accurately by electronic monitoring than by counting returned tablets. The level of adherence is positively associated with the degree of bone response. Adherence to study medication is usually estimated by counting returned tablets. This method relies on subjects' honesty and may be inaccurate. We aimed to assess adherence more accurately, and examine its effect on measures of bone response, by using electronic monitoring. Osteopenic women, ages 50 to 80, were prescribed daily raloxifene for 2 years. Electronic bottle caps (Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS), Aardex) recorded the date and time on opening. Returned tablets were also counted. We measured bone mineral density (BMD) in duplicate at the spine and hip at baseline and 2 years. We also measured urinary N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) at baseline, 1 and 2 years. We calculated the percentage changes in BMD and NTX from mean baseline to mean follow up measurements. Percentage adherence was assessed by both methods for 71 subjects that completed the study. The two methods correlated significantly (p caps (95.7 vs. 85.0%, p caps may assess adherence more accurately than tablet counts and would be the preferred method in clinical trials. The degree of adherence is associated with both bone turnover and BMD responses to anti-resorptive therapy.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for nonmusculoskeletal diseases: emerging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tom K; Ho, Jennifer H; Lee, Oscar K

    2009-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are stem/progenitor cells originated from the mesoderm and can different into multiple cell types of the musculoskeletal system. The vast differentiation potential and the relative ease for culture expansion have established mesenchymal stem cells as the building blocks in cell therapy and tissue engineering applications for a variety of musculoskeletal diseases, including repair of fractures and bone defects, cartilage regeneration, treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head, and correction of genetic diseases such as osteogenesis imperfect. However, research in the past decade has revealed differentiation potentials of mesenchymal stem cells beyond lineages of the mesoderm, suggesting broader applications than originally perceived. In this article, we review the recent developments in mesenchymal stem cell research with respect to their emerging properties and applications in nonmusculoskeletal diseases.

  1. Applications of Nanoparticles for MRI Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Blasiak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in nanotechnology, molecular biology, and imaging technology allow the application of nanomaterials for early and specific cancer detection and therapy. As early detection is a prerequisite for successful treatment, this area of research has been rapidly growing. This paper provides an overview of recent advances in production, functionalization, toxicity reduction, and application of nanoparticles to cancer diagnosis, treatment, and treatment monitoring. This review focuses on superparamagnetic nanoparticles used as targeted contrast agents in MRI, but it also describes nanoparticles applied as contrasts in CT and PET. A very recent development of core/shell nanoparticles that promises to provide positive contrast in MRI of cancer is provided. The authors concluded that despite unenviable obstacles, the progress in the area will lead to rapidly approaching applications of nanotechnology to medicine enabling patient-specific diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Low temperature plasma technology methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Paul K

    2013-01-01

    Written by a team of pioneering scientists from around the world, Low Temperature Plasma Technology: Methods and Applications brings together recent technological advances and research in the rapidly growing field of low temperature plasmas. The book provides a comprehensive overview of related phenomena such as plasma bullets, plasma penetration into biofilms, discharge-mode transition of atmospheric pressure plasmas, and self-organization of microdischarges. It describes relevant technology and diagnostics, including nanosecond pulsed discharge, cavity ringdown spectroscopy, and laser-induce

  3. Harmony Search Method: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Z. Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Harmony Search (HS method is an emerging metaheuristic optimization algorithm, which has been employed to cope with numerous challenging tasks during the past decade. In this paper, the essential theory and applications of the HS algorithm are first described and reviewed. Several typical variants of the original HS are next briefly explained. As an example of case study, a modified HS method inspired by the idea of Pareto-dominance-based ranking is also presented. It is further applied to handle a practical wind generator optimal design problem.

  4. Keller-box method and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Kerehalli V

    2014-01-01

    Most of the problems arising in science and engineering are nonlinear. They are inherently difficult to solve. Traditional analytical approximations are valid only for weakly nonlinear problems, and often break down for problems with strong nonlinearity. This book presents the current theoretical developments and applications of Keller-Box method to nonlinear problems. The first half of the bookaddresses basic concepts to understand the theoretical framework for the method. In the second half of the book, the authorsgive a number of examples of coupled nonlinear problems that have been solved

  5. Autogenic therapy: Techniques, foundations, health and clinical applications, and empirical support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Abuín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Autogenic therapy emerges from the "autogenic training" method created by Schultz, and its development incorporates different therapeutic methods based on a psychophysiological approach. All these methods promote homeostatic self-regulatory brain processes. The aims of this paper are to describe and analyse the autogenic methods, the psychophysiological and neurophysiological processes involved, and their effective applications in both health and clinical fields. For these purposes, beside reviewing the earlier work by Schultz and Luthe, an electronic search of literature was conducted in order to find relevant contributions on these topics. Results show a big development of autogenic methods until the 80s, with an enormous amount of applications and studies on the psychophysiological and neurophysiological changes related to the practice of autogenic training. However, their expansion during the last 25 years has been much lower in comparison with other methods such as mindfulness and hypnosis. Possible causes are discussed and new challenges are suggested

  6. Brown recluse spider envenomation: dermatologic application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutrone, William D; Green, Kimberly M; Norris, Tom; Weinberg, Jeffrey M; Clarke, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Envenomation from the brown recluse (Loxosceles recluse) spider commonly proceed on one of three clinical pathways. The majority of bites (90%) result in nothing more than a local reaction. They are essentially self-limiting, require little if any attention, and resolve spontaneously. A great majority of the remaining bites will produce necrotic ulcerations of various sizes and dimensions, with systemic sequela ranging from fever to hemolysis and kidney failure. Finally, and in the most rare cases, the patient will succumb a fatal systemic reaction. Current therapeutic options for these wounds remain controversial and include the following: local care, corticosteroids, dapsone, and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy. This article will review the application of HBO therapy for patients who are envenomated by brown recluse spiders. Information for this manuscript was derived from multiple MEDLINE searches as well as searches of the National Baromedical Service's hyperbaric specialty literature collection.

  7. Genetic correction using engineered nucleases for gene therapy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei Lisa; Nakano, Takao; Hotta, Akitsu

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations in humans are associated with congenital disorders and phenotypic traits. Gene therapy holds the promise to cure such genetic disorders, although it has suffered from several technical limitations for decades. Recent progress in gene editing technology using tailor-made nucleases, such as meganucleases (MNs), zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) and, more recently, CRISPR/Cas9, has significantly broadened our ability to precisely modify target sites in the human genome. In this review, we summarize recent progress in gene correction approaches of the human genome, with a particular emphasis on the clinical applications of gene therapy. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  8. Involving relatives in aphasia therapy: an application of language enrichment therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, R; Bryan, K; Anderson, J; Hilton, R

    1986-01-01

    A programme of therapy for aphasia devised in Finland, Language Enrichment Therapy, was tested in an English version, particularly in respect of its co-operative use by speech therapists and the patients' relatives at home. Although a number of changes were recommended, the method was approved of by therapists and relatives. The majority of patients showed improvement, as assessed by the Western Aphasia Battery, over a period of less than three months with a regimen of one hour a week with the therapist supplemented by an average of five hours of help by a relative at home. These results should encourage the development of programmes such as Language Enrichment Therapy as an economic way of enabling speech therapists to use volunteer helpers.

  9. Magnetic seizure therapy (MST)--a safer method for evoking seizure activity than current therapy with a confirmed antidepressant efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyss, Tomasz; Zieba, Andrzej; Hese, Robert T; Dudek, Dominika; Grabski, Bartosz; Gorczyca, Piotr; Modrzejewska, Renata

    2010-01-01

    Since 1999, attempts have been made in the application of a new technique called magnetic seizure therapy (MST) or magnetic convulsion therapy (MCT) in the treatment of depressive disorder--as an alternative to electroconvulsive treatment. The technique of rapid rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is used to evoke intentional and repeated magnetoconvulsive seizures, though it requires the use of stimulation parameters practically inaccessible in commercially available rTMS magnetic stimulators. Magnetic convulsion therapy has been tested on monkeys as well as humans. A decisive majority of studies carried out both on animals and humans addressed the issue of safety of the MST method and confirmed that the side-effects (mostly of a cognitive nature) which occurred after magnetic seizures were weaker than those observed after electroconvulsive seizures. An analysis of available sources, however, does not confirm any proven antidepressant action of the MST technique. No experimental investigations have been carried out on animal models of depression. Clinical effectiveness had been confirmed in merely a few (perhaps three) patients with depression. The authors submit the results of the hitherto conducted studies on MST to critical analysis, particularly in the aspect of their antidepressant efficacy.

  10. Linear algebraic methods applied to intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, S M; Xing, L

    2001-10-01

    Methods of linear algebra are applied to the choice of beam weights for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). It is shown that the physical interpretation of the beam weights, target homogeneity and ratios of deposited energy can be given in terms of matrix equations and quadratic forms. The methodology of fitting using linear algebra as applied to IMRT is examined. Results are compared with IMRT plans that had been prepared using a commercially available IMRT treatment planning system and previously delivered to cancer patients.

  11. Dental applications of ozone therapy: A review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansriti Tiwari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone has been used successfully for the treatment of various diseases for more than a decade. Its unique properties include immunostimulant, analgesic, antihypnotic, detoxicating, antimicrobial, bioenergetic and biosynthetic actions. Its atraumatic, painless, non invasive nature, and relative absence of discomfort and side effects increase the patient’s acceptability and compliance thus making it an ideal treatment choice specially for pediatric patients. This review is an attempt to highlight various treatment modalities of ozone therapy and its possible clinical applications in future.

  12. Application of Formal Methods in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to examine: (1 why are necessary the formal methods for software systems today, (2 high integrity systems through the methodology C-by-C –Correctness-by-Construction–, and (3 an affordable methodology to apply formal methods in software engineering. The research process included reviews of the literature through Internet, in publications and presentations in events. Among the Research results found that: (1 there is increasing the dependence that the nations have, the companies and people of software systems, (2 there is growing demand for software Engineering to increase social trust in the software systems, (3 exist methodologies, as C-by-C, that can provide that level of trust, (4 Formal Methods constitute a principle of computer science that can be applied software engineering to perform reliable process in software development, (5 software users have the responsibility to demand reliable software products, and (6 software engineers have the responsibility to develop reliable software products. Furthermore, it is concluded that: (1 it takes more research to identify and analyze other methodologies and tools that provide process to apply the Formal Software Engineering methods, (2 Formal Methods provide an unprecedented ability to increase the trust in the exactitude of the software products and (3 by development of new methodologies and tools is being achieved costs are not more a disadvantage for application of formal methods.

  13. Smartphone applications for immersive virtual reality therapy for internet addiction and internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ho, Roger C M

    2017-01-01

    There have been rapid advances in technologies over the past decade and virtual reality technology is an area which is increasingly utilized as a healthcare intervention in many disciplines including that of Medicine, Surgery and Psychiatry. In Psychiatry, most of the current interventions involving the usage of virtual reality technology is limited to its application for anxiety disorders. With the advances in technology, Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorders are increasingly prevalent. To date, these disorders are still being treated using conventional psychotherapy methods such as cognitive behavioural therapy. However, there is an increasing number of research combining various other therapies alongside with cognitive behavioural therapy, as an attempt possibly to reduce the drop-out rates and to make such interventions more relevant to the targeted group of addicts, who are mostly adolescents. To date, there has been a prior study done in Korea that has demonstrated the comparable efficacy of virtual reality therapy with that of cognitive behavioural therapy. However, the intervention requires the usage of specialized screens and devices. It is thus the objective of the current article to highlight how smartphone applications could be designed and be utilized for immersive virtual reality treatment, alongside low cost wearables.

  14. Application of receptive music therapy in internal medicine and cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyntia Marconato

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of receptive music therapy in clinical practice. METHODS: Receptive music therapy was individually applied via musical auditions, including five stages: musical stimulation, sensation, situation, reflection, and behavioral alteration. Following anamnesis and obtainment of consent, patients answered a first questionnaire on health risk evaluation (Q1, and after participating in 16 weekly music therapy sessions, answered a second one (Q2. RESULTS: Two men and 8 women, aged above 18 years, referred to us due to symptoms of stress, emotional suffering, and the need to change lifestyles (health risk behavior were studied between August 1998 and December 1999. Comparison between answers to Q1 and Q2, showed a trend (P=0.059 for reduction of ingestion of cholesterol-rich foods and for increased prospects in life with a tendency towards improvement, and also of increased intake of fiber-rich food (55.6%, increased levels of personal satisfaction (44.5%, and decreased levels of stress (66.7%. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated decreased stress levels and increased personal satisfaction, higher consumption of fiber-rich food, lower cholesterol intake, and a better perspective on life, suggesting that receptive music therapy may be applied in clinical practice as an auxiliary therapeutic intervention for the treatment of behavioral health risks.

  15. Clinical applications of laser therapy on the dental practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.

    2004-09-01

    Dental practice consists of a series of laboring procedures which demands the use of several types of equipment and materials. Usually patient"s fears brings additional burden to the Dentists. The use of Lasers for treating and diagnosis in Dentistry is quite new comparing to other medical areas. Initially Laser technology was used as an alternative method for treating dental caries in order to substitute the use of the drill. Lately surgical Lasers have shown themselves very useful for treating several pathologies and began to be used as a powerful tool on the treatment of several conditions affecting the maxillofacial complex and later on, the era of the use of Laser therapy began. The advent of the diode Lasers made possible the introduction of small units at the dental office and Laser therapy was used to improve healing and later included also caries diagnosis. This paper discuss the use of Laser therapy on Restorative Dentistry, Periodondology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral implantology and other. Clinical and laboratorial experience has demonstrated that Laser therapy does improve the healing of both mineralized and soft tissues, reduces pain and inflammation, and also reduces both cost and length of the dental treatment.

  16. Big data analytics methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, BLS; Rao, SB

    2016-01-01

    This book has a collection of articles written by Big Data experts to describe some of the cutting-edge methods and applications from their respective areas of interest, and provides the reader with a detailed overview of the field of Big Data Analytics as it is practiced today. The chapters cover technical aspects of key areas that generate and use Big Data such as management and finance; medicine and healthcare; genome, cytome and microbiome; graphs and networks; Internet of Things; Big Data standards; bench-marking of systems; and others. In addition to different applications, key algorithmic approaches such as graph partitioning, clustering and finite mixture modelling of high-dimensional data are also covered. The varied collection of themes in this volume introduces the reader to the richness of the emerging field of Big Data Analytics.

  17. Nested partitions method, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Leyuan

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing need to solve large-scale complex optimization problems in a wide variety of science and engineering applications, including designing telecommunication networks for multimedia transmission, planning and scheduling problems in manufacturing and military operations, or designing nanoscale devices and systems. Advances in technology and information systems have made such optimization problems more and more complicated in terms of size and uncertainty. Nested Partitions Method, Theory and Applications provides a cutting-edge research tool to use for large-scale, complex systems optimization. The Nested Partitions (NP) framework is an innovative mix of traditional optimization methodology and probabilistic assumptions. An important feature of the NP framework is that it combines many well-known optimization techniques, including dynamic programming, mixed integer programming, genetic algorithms and tabu search, while also integrating many problem-specific local search heuristics. The book uses...

  18. The Personalization of Therapy: Molecular Profiling Technologies and Their Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeron-Medina, Jorge; Ochoa de Olza, Maria; Braña, Irene; Rodon, Jordi

    2015-12-01

    Advances in tumor biology and human genetics that have identified driver events and critical dependencies, together with the development of drugs for specific targets, hold promise for an era of personalized oncology treatment. The efficacy of targeted therapies in patient populations selected for treatment on the basis of the molecular features of their tumors is shifting the current practice, and molecular profiling of patients to support clinical decision-making is becoming part of the everyday clinical practice in oncology. Actionable biomarkers are those that allow matching patients to specific therapies. Currently, there is a strong need to have accurate and reliable means of identifying these biomarkers. With the evolution of biotechnology and the advent of next-generation sequencing, platforms for molecular analysis have quickly evolved, allowing a high degree of multiplexing that aims to transform the use of targeted therapies in oncology. This article aims to summarize the different biomarker applications and discuss the current challenges along with the major technologies presently used in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A method for implementation of nutritional therapy in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Kondrup, Jens; Staun, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Background & aims: Many barriers make implementation of nutritional therapy difficult in hospitals. In this study we investigated whether, a targeted plan made by the staff in different departments could improve nutritional treatment within selected quality goals based on the ESPEN screening...... guidelines. Methods: The project was carried out as a continuous quality improvement project. Four different specialities participated in the study with a nutrition team of both doctors, nurses, and a dietician, and included the following methods: (1) Premeasurement: assessment of quality goals prior...... to study including the use of screening of nutritional risk (NRS-2002), whether a nutrition plan was made, and monitoring was documented in the records. (2) Intervention: multidisciplinary meeting for the ward staff using a PC-based meeting system for detecting barriers in the department concerning...

  20. Restricted Kalman Filtering Theory, Methods, and Application

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzinga, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    In statistics, the Kalman filter is a mathematical method whose purpose is to use a series of measurements observed over time, containing random variations and other inaccuracies, and produce estimates that tend to be closer to the true unknown values than those that would be based on a single measurement alone. This Brief offers developments on Kalman filtering subject to general linear constraints. There are essentially three types of contributions: new proofs for results already established; new results within the subject; and applications in investment analysis and macroeconomics, where th

  1. Exergy method technical and ecological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Szargut, J

    2005-01-01

    The exergy method makes it possible to detect and quantify the possibilities of improving thermal and chemical processes and systems. The introduction of the concept ""thermo-ecological cost"" (cumulative consumption of non-renewable natural exergy resources) generated large application possibilities of exergy in ecology. This book contains a short presentation on the basic principles of exergy analysis and discusses new achievements in the field over the last 15 years. One of the most important issues considered by the distinguished author is the economy of non-renewable natural exergy.

  2. Surface functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydra, Robert John

    Despite recent advances, cancer remains the second leading cause of deaths in the United States. Magnetic nanoparticles have found various applications in cancer research as drug delivery platforms, enhanced contrast agents for improved diagnostic imaging, and the delivery of thermal energy as standalone therapy. Iron oxide nanoparticles absorb the energy from an alternating magnetic field and convert it into heat through Brownian and Neel relaxations. To better utilize magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy, surface functionalization is essential for such factors as decreasing cytotoxicity of healthy tissue, extending circulation time, specific targeting of cancer cells, and manage the controlled delivery of therapeutics. In the first study, iron oxide nanoparticles were coated with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based polymer shell. The PEG coating was selected to prevent protein adsorption and thus improve circulation time and minimize host response to the nanoparticles. Thermal therapy application feasibility was demonstrated in vitro with a thermoablation study on lung carcinoma cells. Building on the thermal therapy demonstration with iron oxide nanoparticles, the second area of work focused on intracellular delivery. Nanoparticles can be appropriately tailored to enter the cell and deliver energy on the nanoscale eliminating individual cancer cells. The underlying mechanism of action is still under study, and we were interested in determining the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) catalytically generated from the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles in this measured cytotoxicity. When exposed to an AMF, the nanoscale heating effects are capable of enhancing the Fenton-like generation of ROS determined through a methylene blue degradation assay. To deliver this enhanced ROS effect to cells, monosaccharide coated nanoparticles were developed and successfully internalized by colon cancer cell lines. Upon AMF exposure, there was a measured increase in

  3. Application of optical non-invasive methods in skin physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Darvin, M.; Richter, H.; Antoniou, C.; Sterry, W.; Koch, S.

    2008-05-01

    In the present paper the application of optical non-invasive methods in dermatology and cosmetology is discussed. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and optical coherent tomography (OCT) are the most promising methods for this application. Using these methods, the analysis of different skin parameters like dryness and oiliness of the skin, the barrier function and the structure of furrows and wrinkles are discussed. Additionally the homogeneity of distribution of topically applied creams, as well as their penetration into the skin were investigated. It is shown that these methods are highly valuable in dermatology for diagnostic and therapy control and for basic research, for instance in the field of structure analysis of hair follicles and sweat glands. The vertical images of the tissue produced by OCT can be easily compared with histological sections. Unfortunately, the resolution of the OCT technique is not high enough to carry out measurements on a cellular level, as is possible by LSM. LSM has the advantage that it can be used for the investigation of penetration and storage processes of topically applied substances, if these substances have fluorescent properties or if they are fluorescent-labelled.

  4. Minicircle DNA vectors for gene therapy: advances and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Vítor; de Melo-Diogo, Duarte; Costa, Elisabete; Moreira, André; Queiroz, João; Pichon, Chantal; Correia, Ilídio; Sousa, Fani

    2015-03-01

    Nucleic-acid-based biopharmaceuticals enclose a remarkable potential for treating debilitating or life-threatening diseases that currently remain incurable. This promising area of research envisages the creation of state-of-the-art DNA vaccines, pluripotent cells or gene-based therapies, which can be used to overcome current issues. To achieve this goal, DNA minicircles are emerging as ideal nonviral vectors due to their safety and persistent transgene expression in either quiescent or actively dividing cells. This review focuses on the characteristics of minicircle DNA (mcDNA) technology and the current advances in their production. The possible modifications to further improve minicircle efficacy are also emphasized and discussed in light of recent advances. As a final point, the main therapeutic applications of mcDNA are summarized, with a special focus on pluripotent stem cells production and cancer therapy. Achieving in-target and persistent transgene expression is a challenging issue that is of critical importance for a successful therapeutic outcome. The use of miniaturized mcDNA cassettes with additional modifications that increase and prolong expression may contribute to an improved generation of biopharmaceuticals. The unique features of mcDNA render it an attractive alternative to overcome current technical issues and to bridge the significant gap that exists between basic research and clinical applications.

  5. Intelligent numerical methods applications to fractional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph the authors present Newton-type, Newton-like and other numerical methods, which involve fractional derivatives and fractional integral operators, for the first time studied in the literature. All for the purpose to solve numerically equations whose associated functions can be also non-differentiable in the ordinary sense. That is among others extending the classical Newton method theory which requires usual differentiability of function. Chapters are self-contained and can be read independently and several advanced courses can be taught out of this book. An extensive list of references is given per chapter. The book’s results are expected to find applications in many areas of applied mathematics, stochastics, computer science and engineering. As such this monograph is suitable for researchers, graduate students, and seminars of the above subjects, also to be in all science and engineering libraries.

  6. Fluctuating Asymmetry: Methods, Theory, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Graham

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry consists of random deviations from perfect symmetry in populations of organisms. It is a measure of developmental noise, which reflects a population’s average state of adaptation and coadaptation. Moreover, it increases under both environmental and genetic stress, though responses are often inconsistent. Researchers base studies of fluctuating asymmetry upon deviations from bilateral, radial, rotational, dihedral, translational, helical, and fractal symmetries. Here, we review old and new methods of measuring fluctuating asymmetry, including measures of dispersion, landmark methods for shape asymmetry, and continuous symmetry measures. We also review the theory, developmental origins, and applications of fluctuating asymmetry, and attempt to explain conflicting results. In the process, we present examples from the literature, and from our own research at “Evolution Canyon” and elsewhere.

  7. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triscari, Maria Teresa; Faraci, Palmira; Catalisano, Dario; D'Angelo, Valerio; Urso, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization.

  8. Peptide-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Anastasia Kruse

    oxide nanoparticles for therapeutic applications, these inherent toxicities were harnessed and utilized to enhance radiation therapy. Therefore, the third application of magnetic nanoparticles was their ability to catalyze reactive oxygen species formation and increase efficacy of radiation. Overall, iron oxide nanoparticles have a variety of cancer therapy applications and are a promising class of materials for increasing efficacy and reducing the side effects of conventional cancer treatments. Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, peptides, magnetically mediated hyperthermia, magnetically mediated energy delivery, reactive oxygen species.

  9. Cough: neurophysiology, methods of research, pharmacological therapy and phonoaudiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The cough is the more common respiratory symptom in children and adults. Objective: To present a revision on the neurophysiology and the methods for study of the consequence of the cough, as well as the pharmacotherapy and phonoaudiology therapy of the cough, based on the works published between 2005 and 2010 and indexed in the bases Medline, Lilacs and Library Cochrane under them to keywords "cough" or "anti-cough". Synthesis of the data: The consequence of the cough involves activation of receiving multiples becomes vacant in the aerial ways and of neural projections of the nucleus of the solitary treatment for other structures of the central nervous system. Experimental techniques allow studying the consequence of the cough to the cellular and molecular level to develop new anti-cough agents. It does not have evidences of that anti-cough exempt of medical lapsing they have superior effectiveness to the one of placebo for the relief of the cough. The phonoaudiology therapy can benefit patients with refractory chronic cough to the pharmacological treatment, over all when paradoxical movement of the vocal folds coexists. Final Comments: The boarding to multidiscipline has basic paper in the etiological diagnosis and treatment of the cough. The otolaryngologist must inform the patients on the risks of the anti-cough of free sales in order to prevent adverse poisonings and effect, especially in children.

  10. Managing resistance in cognitive behavioural therapy: the application of motivational interviewing in mixed anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Henny A

    2004-01-01

    While cognitive behavioural therapy is highly effective in the treatment of anxiety and depression, a substantive number of individuals either refuse treatment, fail to respond to treatment or respond only partially. Arguably, ambivalence about change or about engaging in treatment tasks may in part be related to incomplete recovery rates in cognitive behavioural therapy. Motivational interviewing is a client-centred, directive treatment originally developed in the addictions domain whose goal is to enhance motivation for change by understanding and resolving ambivalence. This method has consistently received support for enhancing outcomes in the addictions domain, particularly when used as an adjunct to further treatment. As yet, motivational methods have not been generalized to the treatment of prevalent mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression. The present paper presents the application of a treatment targeting motivation (motivational interviewing adapted for anxiety and depression) to the management of resistance in cognitive behavioural therapy for 3 clients with mixed anxiety and depression. Motivational interviewing is conceived as an adjunct to highly effective traditional cognitive behavioural therapy methods, which is indicated for use with clients resistant to and significantly ambivalent about change-based techniques for managing anxiety or alleviating depression.

  11. A Design Method for FES Bone Health Therapy in SCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Andrews

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available FES assisted activities such as standing, walking, cycling and rowing induce forces within the leg bones and have been proposed to reduce osteoporosis in spinal cord injury (SCI. However, details of the applied mechanical stimulus for osteogenesis is often not reported. Typically, comparisons of bone density results are made after costly and time consuming clinical trials. These studies have produced inconsistent results and are subject to sample size variations. Here we propose a design process that may be used to predict the clinical outcome based on biomechanical simulation and mechano-biology. This method may allow candidate therapies to be optimized and quantitatively compared. To illustrate the approach we have used data obtained from a rower with complete paraplegia using the RowStim (III system.

  12. Schema Therapy for Emotional Dysregulation: Theoretical Implication and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadomo, Harold; Grecucci, Alessandro; Giardini, Irene; Ugolini, Erika; Carmelita, Alessandro; Panzeri, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The term emotional dysregulation refers to an impaired ability to regulate unwanted emotional states. Scientific evidence supports the idea that emotional dysregulation underlies several psychological disorders as, for example: personality disorders, bipolar disorder type II, interpersonal trauma, anxiety disorders, mood disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. Emotional dysregulation may derive from early interpersonal traumas in childhood. These early traumatic events create a persistent sensitization of the central nervous system in relation to early life stressing events. For this reason, some authors suggest a common endophenotypical origin across psychopathologies. In the last 20 years, cognitive behavioral therapy has increasingly adopted an interactive-ontogenetic view to explain the development of disorders associated to emotional dysregulation. Unfortunately, standard Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) methods are not useful in treating emotional dysregulation. A CBT-derived new approach called Schema Therapy (ST), that integrates theory and techniques from psychodynamic and emotion focused therapy, holds the promise to fill this gap in cognitive literature. In this model, psychopathology is viewed as the interaction between the innate temperament of the child and the early experiences of deprivation or frustration of the subject’s basic needs. This deprivation may lead to develop early maladaptive schemas (EMS), and maladaptive Modes. In the present paper we point out that EMSs and Modes are associated with either dysregulated emotions or with dysregulatory strategies that produce and maintain problematic emotional responses. Thanks to a special focus on the therapeutic relationship and emotion focused-experiential techniques, this approach successfully treats severe emotional dysregulation. In this paper, we make several comparisons between the main ideas of ST and the science of emotion regulation, and we present how to conceptualize pathological

  13. Schema Therapy for Emotional Dysregulation: Theoretical Implication and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadomo, Harold; Grecucci, Alessandro; Giardini, Irene; Ugolini, Erika; Carmelita, Alessandro; Panzeri, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The term emotional dysregulation refers to an impaired ability to regulate unwanted emotional states. Scientific evidence supports the idea that emotional dysregulation underlies several psychological disorders as, for example: personality disorders, bipolar disorder type II, interpersonal trauma, anxiety disorders, mood disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. Emotional dysregulation may derive from early interpersonal traumas in childhood. These early traumatic events create a persistent sensitization of the central nervous system in relation to early life stressing events. For this reason, some authors suggest a common endophenotypical origin across psychopathologies. In the last 20 years, cognitive behavioral therapy has increasingly adopted an interactive-ontogenetic view to explain the development of disorders associated to emotional dysregulation. Unfortunately, standard Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) methods are not useful in treating emotional dysregulation. A CBT-derived new approach called Schema Therapy (ST), that integrates theory and techniques from psychodynamic and emotion focused therapy, holds the promise to fill this gap in cognitive literature. In this model, psychopathology is viewed as the interaction between the innate temperament of the child and the early experiences of deprivation or frustration of the subject's basic needs. This deprivation may lead to develop early maladaptive schemas (EMS), and maladaptive Modes. In the present paper we point out that EMSs and Modes are associated with either dysregulated emotions or with dysregulatory strategies that produce and maintain problematic emotional responses. Thanks to a special focus on the therapeutic relationship and emotion focused-experiential techniques, this approach successfully treats severe emotional dysregulation. In this paper, we make several comparisons between the main ideas of ST and the science of emotion regulation, and we present how to conceptualize pathological

  14. Complex networks principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Latora, Vito; Russo, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Networks constitute the backbone of complex systems, from the human brain to computer communications, transport infrastructures to online social systems and metabolic reactions to financial markets. Characterising their structure improves our understanding of the physical, biological, economic and social phenomena that shape our world. Rigorous and thorough, this textbook presents a detailed overview of the new theory and methods of network science. Covering algorithms for graph exploration, node ranking and network generation, among the others, the book allows students to experiment with network models and real-world data sets, providing them with a deep understanding of the basics of network theory and its practical applications. Systems of growing complexity are examined in detail, challenging students to increase their level of skill. An engaging presentation of the important principles of network science makes this the perfect reference for researchers and undergraduate and graduate students in physics, ...

  15. Application of Nanoparticles on Diagnosis and Therapy in Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Y. Hernández-Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is one of the most deadly diseases that affect humans, and it is characterized by high resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Its median survival is only fourteen months, and this dramatic prognosis has stilled without changes during the last two decades; consequently GBM remains as an unsolved clinical problem. Therefore, alternative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are needed for gliomas. Nanoparticles represent an innovative tool in research and therapies in GBM due to their capacity of self-assembly, small size, increased stability, biocompatibility, tumor-specific targeting using antibodies or ligands, encapsulation and delivery of antineoplastic drugs, and increasing the contact surface between cells and nanomaterials. The active targeting of nanoparticles through conjugation with cell surface markers could enhance the efficacy of nanoparticles for delivering several agents into the tumoral area while significantly reducing toxicity in living systems. Nanoparticles can exploit some biological pathways to achieve specific delivery to cellular and intracellular targets, including transport across the blood-brain barrier, which many anticancer drugs cannot bypass. This review addresses the advancements of nanoparticles in drug delivery, imaging, diagnosis, and therapy in gliomas. The mechanisms of action, potential effects, and therapeutic results of these systems and their future applications in GBM are discussed.

  16. Application of numerical methods to elasticity imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Benjamin; Ormachea, Juvenal; Rodríguez, Paul; Parker, Kevin J

    2013-03-01

    Elasticity imaging can be understood as the intersection of the study of biomechanical properties, imaging sciences, and physics. It was mainly motivated by the fact that pathological tissue presents an increased stiffness when compared to surrounding normal tissue. In the last two decades, research on elasticity imaging has been an international and interdisciplinary pursuit aiming to map the viscoelastic properties of tissue in order to provide clinically useful information. As a result, several modalities of elasticity imaging, mostly based on ultrasound but also on magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography, have been proposed and applied to a number of clinical applications: cancer diagnosis (prostate, breast, liver), hepatic cirrhosis, renal disease, thyroiditis, arterial plaque evaluation, wall stiffness in arteries, evaluation of thrombosis in veins, and many others. In this context, numerical methods are applied to solve forward and inverse problems implicit in the algorithms in order to estimate viscoelastic linear and nonlinear parameters, especially for quantitative elasticity imaging modalities. In this work, an introduction to elasticity imaging modalities is presented. The working principle of qualitative modalities (sonoelasticity, strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse) and quantitative modalities (Crawling Waves Sonoelastography, Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF), Supersonic Imaging) will be explained. Subsequently, the areas in which numerical methods can be applied to elasticity imaging are highlighted and discussed. Finally, we present a detailed example of applying total variation and AM-FM techniques to the estimation of elasticity.

  17. Dynamics of psychological crisis experience with psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrutdinova, Liliya Raifovna; Nugmanova, Dzhamilia Renatovna

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of experience as such and its corporeal, emotional and cognitive elements in the situation of psychological consulting provisioning is covered. The aim of research was to study psychological crisis experience dynamics in the situation when psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods is provided. Theoretical analysis of the problem of crisis situations, phenomenon and structural, and dynamic organization of experience of the subject of consulting have been carried out. To fulfill research project test subjects experience crisis situation have been selected, studied in the situation when they provided psychological consulting by methods of gestalt therapy, and methodology of study of crisis situations experience has been prepared. Specifics of psychological crisis experience have been revealed and its elements in different stages of psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods. Dynamics of experience of psychological crisis and its structural elements have been revealed and reliable changes in it have been revealed. Dynamics of psychological crisis experience and its structural elements have been revealed and reliable changes in it have been revealed. "Desiccation" of experience is being observed, releasing its substantiality of negative impression to the end of consulting and development of the new experience of control over crisis situation. Interrelations of structural elements of experience in the process of psychological consulting have been shown. Effecting one structure causes reliable changes in all others structural elements of experience. Giving actual psychological help to clients in crisis situation by methods of gestalt therapy is possible as it was shown in psychological consulting sessions. Structure of client's request has been revealed - problems of personal sense are fixed as the most frequent cause of clients' applications, as well as absence of choices, obtrusiveness of negative thoughts, tend to getting stuck on events

  18. [The application of total quality management (TQM) in quality management of radiation therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui-yao; Fu, Shen; Li, Bin

    2009-03-01

    The strategies and methods of the total quality management (TQM) need to applied in quality management of radiation therapy. We should improve the level of quality control and quality assurance in radiation therapy. By establishing quality control system in radiation therapy, standardization of radiation therapy workflow, strengthening quality control of devices and physical technique and paying attention to safety protection and staff training.

  19. Methods of geodiversity assessment and theirs application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The concept of geodiversity has rapidly gained the approval of scientists around the world (Wiedenbein 1993, Sharples 1993, Kiernan 1995, 1996, Dixon 1996, Eberhard 1997, Kostrzewski 1998, 2011, Gray 2004, 2008, 2013, Zwoliński 2004, Serrano, Ruiz- Flano 2007, Gordon et al. 2012). However, the problem recognition is still at an early stage, and in effect not explicitly understood and defined (Najwer, Zwoliński 2014). Nevertheless, despite widespread use of the concept, little progress has been made in its assessment and mapping. Less than the last decade can be observing investigation of methods for geodiversity assessment and its visualisation. Though, many have acknowledged the importance of geodiversity evaluation (Kozłowski 2004, Gray 2004, Reynard, Panizza 2005, Zouros 2007, Pereira et al. 2007, Hjort et al. 2015). Hitherto, only a few authors have undertaken that kind of methodological issues. Geodiversity maps are being created for a variety of purposes and therefore their methods are quite manifold. In the literature exists some examples of the geodiversity maps applications for the geotourism purpose, basing mainly on the geological diversity, in order to point the scale of the area's tourist attractiveness (Zwoliński 2010, Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Zwoliński and Stachowiak 2012). In some studies, geodiversity maps were created and applied to investigate the spatial or genetic relationships with the richness of particular natural environmental components (Burnett et al. 1998, Silva 2004, Jačková, Romportl 2008, Hjort et al. 2012, 2015, Mazurek et al. 2015, Najwer et al. 2014). There are also a few examples of geodiversity assessment in order to geoconservation and efficient management and planning of the natural protected areas (Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Pellitero et al. 2011, 2014, Jaskulska et al. 2013, Melelli 2014, Martinez-Grana et al. 2015). The most popular method of assessing the diversity of abiotic components of the natural

  20. Emerging applications of nanotechnology for diagnosis and therapy of disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayford, Richard; Rademacher, Tom; Roitt, Ivan; Wang, Scarlet Xiaoyan

    2017-07-24

    Nanotechnology is of increasing interest in the fields of medicine and physiology over recent years. Its application could considerably improve disease detection and therapy, and although the potential is considerable, there are still many challenges that need to be addressed before it is accepted in routine clinical use. This review focuses on emerging applications that nanotechnology could enhance or provide new approaches in diagnoses and therapy. The main focus of recent research centres on targeted therapies and enhancing imaging; however, the introduction of nanomaterial into the human body must be controlled, as there are many issues with possible toxicity and long-term effects. Despite these issues, the potential for nanotechnology to provide new methods of combating cancer and other disease conditions is considerable. There are still key challenges for researchers in this field, including the means of delivery and targeting in the body to provide effective treatment for specific disease conditions. Nanoparticles are difficult to measure due to their size and physical properties; hence there is still a great need to improve physiological measurement methods in the field to ascertain how effective their use is in the human subject. This review is a brief snapshot into the fast changing research field of measurement and physiological links to nanoparticle use and its potential in the future.

  1. Clinical application of shock wave therapy (SWT) in musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioppolo, F; Rompe, J D; Furia, J P; Cacchio, A

    2014-04-01

    Currently the application of shock wave therapy (SWT) in musculoskeletal disorders has been primarily used in the treatment of tendinopathies (proximal plantar fasciopathy, lateral elbow tendinopathy, calcific tendinopathy of the shoulder, and patellar tendinopathy, etc.) and bone defects (delayed- and non-union of bone fractures, avascular necrosis of femoral head, etc.). Although the mechanism of their therapeutic effects are still unknown, the majority of published papers have shown positive and beneficial effects of using SWT as a treatment for musculoskeletal disorders, with a success rate ranging from 65% to 91%, while the complications are low or negligible. The purpose of this paper is to inform the reader about the published data on the clinical application of SWT in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. In this paper, with the help of a literature review, indications and success rates for SWT in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders are outlined, while adequate SWT parameters (e.g., rate of impulses, energy flux density, etc.) are defined according to the present state of knowledge.

  2. Effects of application methods and species of wood on color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... while the lowest value was obtained in roller sponge in respect to the application methods for waterborne varnishes. However, the application method of spray gun for self crosslinked polyurethane, topcoat-clear, (SCPt) gave the highest metric chroma value among the three different application methods.

  3. [Research of bleeding volume and method in blood-letting acupuncture therapy based on data mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Jia, Chun-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Ling; Du, Yu-Zhu; Zhang, Xiao-Xu; Shi, Jing; Li, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Shen; Zhang, Xuan-Ping; Gang, Wei-Juan

    2014-03-01

    Through computer-based technology and data mining method, with treatment in cases of bloodletting acupuncture therapy in collected literature as sample data, the association rule in data mining was applied. According to self-built database platform, the data was input, arranged and summarized, and eventually required data was acquired to perform the data mining of bleeding volume and method in blood-letting acupuncture therapy, which summarized its application rules and clinical values to provide better guide for clinical practice. There were 9 kinds of blood-letting tools in the literature, in which the frequency of three-edge needle was the highest, accounting for 84.4% (1239/1468). The bleeding volume was classified into six levels, in which less volume (less than 0.1 mL) had the highest frequency (401 times). According to the results of the data mining, blood-letting acupuncture therapy was widely applied in clinical practice of acupuncture, in which use of three-edge needle and less volume (less than 0.1 mL) of blood were the most common, however, there was no central tendency in general.

  4. [Proton imaging applications for proton therapy: state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amblard, R; Floquet, V; Angellier, G; Hannoun-Lévi, J M; Hérault, J

    2015-04-01

    Proton therapy allows a highly precise tumour volume irradiation with a low dose delivered to the healthy tissues. The steep dose gradients observed and the high treatment conformity require a precise knowledge of the proton range in matter and the target volume position relative to the beam. Thus, proton imaging allows an improvement of the treatment accuracy, and thereby, in treatment quality. Initially suggested in 1963, radiographic imaging with proton is still not used in clinical routine. The principal difficulty is the lack of spatial resolution, induced by the multiple Coulomb scattering of protons with nuclei. Moreover, its realization for all clinical locations requires relatively high energies that are previously not considered for clinical routine. Abandoned for some time in favor of X-ray technologies, research into new imaging methods using protons is back in the news because of the increase of proton radiation therapy centers in the world. This article exhibits a non-exhaustive state of the art in proton imaging. Copyright © 2015 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial applications of nanotechnology: methods and literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seil, Justin T; Webster, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    The need for novel antibiotics comes from the relatively high incidence of bacterial infection and the growing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics. Consequently, new methods for reducing bacteria activity (and associated infections) are badly needed. Nanotechnology, the use of materials with dimensions on the atomic or molecular scale, has become increasingly utilized for medical applications and is of great interest as an approach to killing or reducing the activity of numerous microorganisms. While some natural antibacterial materials, such as zinc and silver, possess greater antibacterial properties as particle size is reduced into the nanometer regime (due to the increased surface to volume ratio of a given mass of particles), the physical structure of a nanoparticle itself and the way in which it interacts with and penetrates into bacteria appears to also provide unique bactericidal mechanisms. A variety of techniques to evaluate bacteria viability, each with unique advantages and disadvantages, has been established and must be understood in order to determine the effectiveness of nanoparticles (diameter ≤ 100 nm) as antimicrobial agents. In addition to addressing those techniques, a review of select literature and a summary of bacteriostatic and bactericidal mechanisms are covered in this manuscript.

  6. Immunofluorescence in cytogenetic analysis: method and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppesen Peter

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of the genetic information encoded by DNA in mammalian chromosomes is mediated by proteins, some of which are only transiently attached, although others are intrinsically associated with nucleic acid in the complex mixture known as chromatin. Chromatin-associated proteins range from the ubiquitous and abundant histones down to the most specific and rare of transcription factors. Although many chromatin proteins are probably excluded from highly condensed mitotic chromosomes, a number are retained throughout the cell cycle and can be detected on chromosomes in metaphase spreads. Comparing the distribution of a chromosomal protein with known cytogenetic markers on metaphase chromosomes can provide an important and potentially highly informative first source of data on the function of the protein under consideration. The aim of the present study is to summarize some of the principles involved in obtaining suitable chromosome preparations for subsequent immunolocalization of protein antigens. Some applications of the method will be included to illustrate how this approach has increased our understanding of chromosome structure and genetic regulation.

  7. Personalized antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy: applications and significance of pharmacogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beitelshees AL

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amber L Beitelshees,1,* Deepak Voora,2,* Joshua P Lewis,1,* 1Program for Personalized and Genomic Medicine and Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Center for Applied Genomics & Precision Medicine, Department of Medicine, Duke School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA*All authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: In recent years, substantial effort has been made to better understand the influence of genetic factors on the efficacy and safety of numerous medications. These investigations suggest that the use of pharmacogenetic data to inform physician decision-making has great potential to enhance patient care by reducing on-treatment clinical events, adverse drug reactions, and health care-related costs. In fact, integration of such information into the clinical setting may be particularly applicable for antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapeutics, given the increasing body of evidence implicating genetic variation in variable drug response. In this review, we summarize currently available pharmacogenetic information for the most commonly used antiplatelet (ie, clopidogrel and aspirin and anticoagulation (ie, warfarin medications. Furthermore, we highlight the currently known role of genetic variability in response to next-generation antiplatelet (prasugrel and ticagrelor and anticoagulant (dabigatran agents. While compelling evidence suggests that genetic variants are important determinants of antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy response, significant barriers to clinical implementation of pharmacogenetic testing exist and are described herein. In addition, we briefly discuss development of new diagnostic targets and therapeutic strategies as well as implications for enhanced patient care. In conclusion, pharmacogenetic testing can provide important information to assist clinicians with prescribing the most personalized and effective antiplatelet and

  8. Nanoparticles for hyperthermic therapy: synthesis strategies and applications in glioblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, Jyoti; Lal, Sumit; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans. Current GBM treatment includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, sometimes supplemented with novel therapies. Despite recent advances, survival of GBM patients remains poor.

  9. Engineering of gadofluoroprobes: Broad-spectrum applications from cancer diagnosis to therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Ranu A., E-mail: ranu.dutta16@gmail.com [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); NanoeRA medicare Private Limited, Uttar Pradesh (India); Sharma, Prashant K. [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India); Tiwari, Vandana [Department of Pathology, KGMU, Lucknow (India); Tiwari, Vivek; Patel, Anant B. [Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad (India); Pandey, Ravindra [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Michigan 49931-1295 (United States); Pandey, Avinash C. [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); NanoeRA medicare Private Limited, Uttar Pradesh (India); Bundelkhand University, Jhansi (India)

    2014-01-13

    The engineering of the Gadolinium based nanostructures have been demonstrated in this paper. Nanostructures of α-Gd{sub 2}S{sub 3} exhibit a unique transition between ferromagnetic state and paramagnetic state of the system. It was demonstrated that their properties could be tuned for a wide range of applications ranging from hyperthermia to Magnetic Resonance Imaging, owing to their magnetic moments and large relaxivities. Metallic Gd nanoparticles obtained by reduction method were employed for cancer imaging in mice. The Gd nanoparticles were coated with Curcumin and their biomedical implications in the field of simultaneous diagnosis and therapy of cancer and related diseases has been discussed.

  10. Survey of Instant Messaging Applications Encryption Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kabakuş, Abdullah; Kara, Resul

    2015-01-01

    Instant messaging applications has already taken the place of traditional Short Messaging Service (SMS) and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) due to their popularity and usage easement they provide. Users of instant messaging applications are able to send both text and audio messages, different types of attachments such as photos, videos, contact information to their contacts in real time. Because of instant messaging applications use internet instead of Short Message Service Technical Reali...

  11. The Application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part of a case series illustrating the application of different therapies to a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It describes the hypothetical application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). This paper covers the philosophy and basic research on language and cognition that inform ACT. It also provides an ACT-based…

  12. The Long Term Effectiveness of Intensive Stuttering Therapy: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Farzan; Gabel, Rodney; Daniels, Derek; Hughes, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of client perceptions of an intensive stuttering therapy program that utilizes a multi-faceted approach to therapy. The study also proposed to gain a deeper understanding about the process involved in long-term maintenance of meaningful changes made in therapy. Methods: The…

  13. Telerehabilitation Store and Forward Applications: A Review of Applications and Privacy Considerations in Physical and Occupational Therapy Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Peterson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of store and forward applications commonly used in physical and occupational therapy practice is reviewed with respect to regulation, privacy, security, and clinical applications. A privacy and security checklist provides a clear reference of pertinent regulatory issues regarding these software applications. A case study format is used to highlight clinical applications of store and forward software features. Important considerations of successful implementation of store and forward applications are also identified and discussed.

  14. Interaction Methods for Virtual Reality Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Applications (pp. 14-1 – 14-8). Meeting Proceedings RTO-MP-HFM-136, Paper 14. Neuilly-sur-Seine, France : RTO. Available from: http...applications 14.06.2006 Military Air Systems Defence & Security Systems Military Air Systems EADS Eurocopter Military Transport Aircraft SpaceAirbus M B

  15. The clinical application of hyaluronic acid in gingivitis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorius, Alexander; Martin, Monika; Willershausen, Brita; Rockmann, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of a topical application of hyaluronic acid (HA) was tested for treating gingivitis. Sixty nonsmoking outpatients in good general condition, with clinical signs of gingivitis, were included in the study. Forty patients (HA group, 20 men, 20 women; age: 32.8 +/- 11.3 years) used a spray containing HA 5 times daily over a period of 1 week. The control group consisted of 20 patients (10 men, 10 women; age: 31.3 +/- 9.3 years). The clinical parameters DMF-T (decayed, missed, filled teeth) index, approximal plaque index, sulcus bleeding index, papilla bleeding index, and gingival crevicular fluid were measured at baseline (T1), after 3 days (T2), and after 7 days (T3). A reduction in the sulcus bleeding index of the HA group (T1: 72.9 +/- 19.5%) to 50.3 +/- 21.1% was noted at T2, and at T3 the sulcus bleeding index was 40.7 +/- 23.0%. The papilla bleeding index values of the HA group were 1.6 at T1, 1.0 at T2, and 0.7 at T3. The gingival crevicular fluid showed significant reductions in the HA group. At T1 the recorded mean value was 16.3, at T2 it was 11.8, and at T3 it was 7.9. Only insignificant changes were observed in the respective indices of the control group. There were no significant alterations in the plaque values of either group throughout the study period. The results obtained by this study demonstrate that the topical application of an HA-containing preparation represents a potentially useful adjunct in the therapy of gingivitis, although its use does not diminish the need for plaque reduction as a primary therapeutic measure.

  16. Progress in spatial analysis methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Páez, Antonio; Buliung, Ron N; Dall'erba, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    This book brings together developments in spatial analysis techniques, including spatial statistics, econometrics, and spatial visualization, and applications to fields such as regional studies, transportation and land use, population and health.

  17. Biomedical image understanding methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Joo-Hwee; Xiong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to understanding and interpreting digital images in medical and functional applications Biomedical Image Understanding focuses on image understanding and semantic interpretation, with clear introductions to related concepts, in-depth theoretical analysis, and detailed descriptions of important biomedical applications. It covers image processing, image filtering, enhancement, de-noising, restoration, and reconstruction; image segmentation and feature extraction; registration; clustering, pattern classification, and data fusion. With contributions from ex

  18. Application of fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging in the detection of a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Lixin; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Zhiguo; Cao, Wenwu

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is currently an advanced optical technology in medical applications. However, the application of PDT is limited by the detection of photosensitizers. This work focuses on the application of fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging in the detection of an effective photosenzitizer, hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME). Optical properties of HMME were measured and analyzed based on its absorption and fluorescence spectra. The production mechanism of its fluorescence emission was analyzed. The detection device for HMME based on fluorescence spectroscopy was designed. Ratiometric method was applied to eliminate the influence of intensity change of excitation sources, fluctuates of excitation sources and photo detectors, and background emissions. The detection limit of this device is 6 μg/L, and it was successfully applied to the diagnosis of the metabolism of HMME in the esophageal cancer cells. To overcome the limitation of the point measurement using fluorescence spectroscopy, a two-dimensional (2D) fluorescence imaging system was established. The algorithm of the 2D fluorescence imaging system is deduced according to the fluorescence ratiometric method using bandpass filters. The method of multiple pixel point addition (MPPA) was used to eliminate fluctuates of signals. Using the method of MPPA, SNR was improved by about 30 times. The detection limit of this imaging system is 1.9 μg/L. Our systems can be used in the detection of porphyrins to improve the PDT effect.

  19. Application Of Adomian's Decomposition Method In Solving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is shown in literature that Adomian's decomposition method gives better results than any other computational techniques. We use this method to tackle simple heat equation and compare the result with the closed form solution of the giving problem. Keywords: Adomian decomposition method; accuracy; nonlinear equation ...

  20. WEM: A design method for CMS-based web applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, I. van de

    2005-01-01

    The development of complex, data-intensive web applications is becoming simpler due to the usage of content management systems. Conventional information systems development methods as well as web application development methods do not cover the specific needs of a method for web content

  1. Augmented reality implementation methods in mainstream applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Procházka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality has became an useful tool in many areas from space exploration to military applications. Although used theoretical principles are well known for almost a decade, the augmented reality is almost exclusively used in high budget solutions with a special hardware. However, in last few years we could see rising popularity of many projects focused on deployment of the augmented reality on dif­ferent mobile devices. Our article is aimed on developers who consider development of an augmented reality application for the mainstream market. Such developers will be forced to keep the application price, therefore also the development price, at reasonable level. Usage of existing image processing software library could bring a significant cut-down of the development costs. In the theoretical part of the article is presented an overview of the augmented reality application structure. Further, an approach for selection appropriate library as well as the review of the existing software libraries focused in this area is described. The last part of the article out­lines our implementation of key parts of the augmented reality application using the OpenCV library.

  2. Optical Methods and Instrumentation in Brain Imaging and Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive up-to-date review of optical approaches used in brain imaging and therapy. It covers a variety of imaging techniques including diffuse optical imaging, laser speckle imaging, photoacoustic imaging and optical coherence tomography. A number of laser-based therapeutic approaches are reviewed, including photodynamic therapy, fluorescence guided resection and photothermal therapy. Fundamental principles and instrumentation are discussed for each imaging and therapeutic technique. Represents the first publication dedicated solely to optical diagnostics and therapeutics in the brain Provides a comprehensive review of the principles of each imaging/therapeutic modality Reviews the latest advances in instrumentation for optical diagnostics in the brain Discusses new optical-based therapeutic approaches for brain diseases

  3. A narrative perspective on genograms: revisiting classical family therapy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzastowski, Szymon K

    2011-10-01

    This article presents how genograms, a classic family therapy technique, can be used in the context of narrative therapy. Genograms create a unique opportunity to explore and re-tell family stories thus enabling their re-authoring. An important aspect of this process is that of tracking down family resources and wisdom. The graphic form of a genogram can be very helpful in distancing a person from the dominant narrations in her/his family. Additionally, genogram analysis is an excellent opportunity to conduct re-membering conversation and introducing the "club of life" metaphor. Finally, the creative approach to drawing genograms can be an invitation for family members to "play" with their family stories and, as a consequence, re-position their roles in these stories. The article completes the presentation of the family therapy case study which was inspired by narrative ideas and genogram analysis.

  4. Adaptive plasma for cancer therapy: physics, mechanism and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Michael

    2017-10-01

    One of the most promising applications of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is the cancer therapy. The uniqueness of plasma is in its ability to change composition in situ. Plasma self-organization could lead to formation of coherent plasma structures. These coherent structures tend to modulate plasma chemistry and composition, including reactive species, the electric field and charged particles. Formation of coherent plasma structures allows the plasma to adapt to external boundary conditions, such as different cells types and their contextual tissues. In this talk we will explore possibilities and opportunities that the adaptive plasma therapeutic system might offer. We shall define such an adaptive system as a plasma device that is able to adjust the plasma composition to obtain optimal desirable outcomes through its interaction with cells and tissues. The efficacy of cold plasma in a pre-clinical model of various cancer types such as lung, bladder, breast, head, neck, brain and skin has been demonstrated. Both in-vitro and in-vivo studies revealed that cold plasmas selectively kill cancer cells. Recently mechanism of plasma selectivity based on aquaporin hypothesis has been proposed. Aquaporins (AQPs) are the confirmed membrane channels of H2O2 and other large molecules. We have demonstrated that the anti-cancer capacity of plasma could be inhibited by silencing the expression of AQPs. Additional possible cell feedback mechanism was recently discovered. It is associated with production of reactive species during direct CAP treatment by cancer cells. Selective production of hydrogen peroxide by different cells can lead to adaptation of chemistry at the plasma-cell interface based on the cellular input. In particular we have found that the discharge voltage is an important factor affecting the ratio of reactive oxygen species to reactive nitrogen species in the gas phase and this correlates well with effect of hydrogen peroxide production by cells. This work was

  5. [Application of Delphi method in traditional Chinese medicine clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ying-fei; Mao, Jing-yuan

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, Delphi method has been widely applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical research. This article analyzed the present application situation of Delphi method in TCM clinical research, and discussed some problems presented in the choice of evaluation method, classification of observation indexes and selection of survey items. On the basis of present application of Delphi method, the author analyzed the method on questionnaire making, selection of experts, evaluation of observation indexes and selection of survey items. Furthermore, the author summarized the steps of application of Delphi method in TCM clinical research.

  6. Aptamer selection and applications for breast cancer diagnostics and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aptamers are short non-coding, single-stranded oligonucleotides (RNA or DNA developed through Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment (SELEX in vitro. Similar to antibodies, aptamers can bind to specific targets with high affinity, and are considered promising therapeutic agents as they have several advantages over antibodies, including high specificity, stability, and non-immunogenicity. Furthermore, aptamers can be produced at a low cost and easily modified, and are, therefore, called “chemical antibodies”. In the past years, a variety of aptamers specifically bound to both breast cancer biomarkers and cells had been selected. Besides, taking advantage of nanomaterials, there were a number of aptamer-nanomaterial conjugates been developed and widely investigated for diagnostics and targeted therapy of breast cancer. In this short review, we first present a systematical review of various aptamer selection methods. Then, various aptamer-based diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of breast cancer were provided. Finally, the current problems, challenges, and future perspectives in the field were thoroughly discussed.

  7. Application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy to osteoradionecrosis of the mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Kazuo; Yoshida, Shinichi; Ninomiya, Hidenori; Sekine, Joji; Michael, B.P.; Inokuchi, Tsugio (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry); Goto, Shinichi; Sumikawa, Koji

    1994-11-01

    Five cases of osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible were treated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO). In four cases, sequestrectomy in combination with HBO was performed. Furthermore, one of these cases underwent iliac bone grafting and HBO to correct mandibular discontinuity. One case underwent HBO after insertion of an implant into the irradiated mandible. Primary sites, with the histological diagnosis of the tumor and irradiation dose were: tonsil-squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), Linac X-ray 60 Gy; hard palate-malignant pleomorphic adenoma, Tele [sup 60]Co 50 Gy; floor of the mouth-SCC, Tele [sup 60]Co 38 Gy and [sup 198]Au grain 98 Gy; tonsil-SCC, Tele [sup 60]Co 60 Gy; tongue-SCC, Linac X-ray 40 Gy. ORN appeared in these five cases 3 years, 24 years, 8 months, 1.5 years and 10 years after irradiation, respectively. HBO was performed under the condition of 2.8 ATA for 60 minutes and the patients were given pure oxygen (51/min) using a reservoir mask. All five cases were successfully treated. Otitis, one of the side effects of HBO, occurred in one case. It was managed by puncture of the tympanic membrane. As ORN is caused by hypoxia of the bone and surrounding tissues, HBO is considered to be one of the basic treatment methods for this condition. (author).

  8. [Methods of heparin therapy in surgical patients with thrombohemorrhagic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasanov, F D

    2012-01-01

    The results of comparative study of different heparin medications efficacy in patients with thrombohemorrhagic syndrome (THS) are presented. The study was conducted in 286 patients with THS as a result of peritonitis of various etiology (174 patients), massive hemorrhage, shock, microcirculation disorders (112 patients). Heparin therapy carried out in 249 patients (87.1%), 37 patients (12.9%) had no heparin therapy./ In "heparin" group 193 patients (77.5%) received low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), 56 patients (22.5%) took unfractionated heparin (UFH). LWMH demonstrated high efficiency with fewer hemorrhagic complications in comparison with UFH/.

  9. Interstitial brachycurie therapy, renaissance of a radiooncological method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, R.; Thiel, H.J.; Mueller, R.

    1982-06-10

    In the past years there is a worldwide renaissance in interstitial low dose-rate implantation of tumors in many sites of origin. This renaissance is due to the development of new artifical radioisotopes (Au-198, Ir-192 and particularly I-125), the refinement of application techniques with after-loading devices and the introduction of computerized dosimetry. It is the opinion of a number of widely experienced radiotherapists that interstitial implants represent the treatment of choice 'par excellence' and one of the ways to overcome the treatment resistance of inoperable malignant tumors. For this reason we have introduced the method of permanent and removable implantation of inoperable brain tumors, head and neck cancers and prostate carcinomas with /sup 125/I-seeds at the University of Erlangen-Nuernberg. Our first clinical impressions are very encouraging. The techniques of implantation used, the properties and advantages of /sup 125/I-seeds, dosimetric considerations and problems related to radiation protection are described.

  10. Toward an Ethical Application of Intersectionality in Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuri, Erin

    2017-01-01

    A pertinent aim of art therapy is to support clients facing unprecedented barriers to social justice in a time of political uncertainty, which I argue is heightened by the impact of neoliberalism and globalization. In this article, I demonstrate the ongoing need to apply an intersectional framework to art therapy practice in a manner that…

  11. Applications of Generalized Method of Moments Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Wooldridge, Jeffrey M.

    2001-01-01

    I describe how the method of moments approach to estimation, including the more recent generalized method of moments (GMM) theory, can be applied to problems using cross section, time series, and panel data. Method of moments estimators can be attractive because in many circumstances they are robust to failures of auxiliary distributional assumptions that are not needed to identify key parameters. I conclude that while sophisticated GMM estimators are indispensable for complicated estimation ...

  12. Quinones as photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy: ROS generation, mechanism and detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, M

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the dye-sensitized photooxidation of biological matter in the target tissue, and utilizes light activated drugs for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies. Quinones and porphyrins moiety are available naturally and involved in the biological process. Quinone metabolites perform a variety of key functions in plants which includes pathogen protection, oxidative phosphorylation, and redox signaling. Quinones and porphyrin are biologically accessible and will not create any allergic effects. In the field of photodynamic therapy, porphyrin derivatives are widely used, because it absorb in the photodynamic therapy window region (600-900 nm). Hence, researchers synthesize drugs based on porphyrin structure. Benzoquinone and its simple polycyclic derivatives such as naphthaquinone and anthraquinones absorb at lower wavelength region (300-400 nm), which is lower than porphyrin. Hence they are not involved in PDT studies. However, higher polycyclic quinones absorb in the photodynamic therapy window region (600-900 nm), because of its conjugation and can be used as PDT agents. Redox cycling has been proposed as a possible mechanism of action for many quinone species. Quinones are involved in the photodynamic as well as enzymatic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Generations of ROS may be measured by optical, phosphorescence and EPR methods. The photodynamically generated ROS are also involved in many biological events. The photo-induced DNA cleavage by quinones correlates with the ROS generating efficiencies of the quinones. In this review basic reactions involving photodynamic generation of ROS by quinones and their biological applications were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Numerical Methods for Structured Matrices and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Dario A; Olshevsky, Vadim; Tyrtsyhnikov, Eugene; van Barel, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This cross-disciplinary volume brings together theoretical mathematicians, engineers and numerical analysts and publishes surveys and research articles related to the topics where Georg Heinig had made outstanding achievements. In particular, this includes contributions from the fields of structured matrices, fast algorithms, operator theory, and applications to system theory and signal processing.

  14. Comparison of methods for intestinal histamine application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, S; Søondergaard, I; Poulsen, L K

    1991-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate whether introduction of histamine in enterosoluble capsules produced the same amount of urinary histamine metabolites as that found after application of histamine through a duodeno-jejunal tube. Secondly, to examine whether a histamine-restrictive or a fast ...

  15. Dynamical Systems Method and Applications Theoretical Developments and Numerical Examples

    CERN Document Server

    Ramm, Alexander G

    2012-01-01

    Demonstrates the application of DSM to solve a broad range of operator equations The dynamical systems method (DSM) is a powerful computational method for solving operator equations. With this book as their guide, readers will master the application of DSM to solve a variety of linear and nonlinear problems as well as ill-posed and well-posed problems. The authors offer a clear, step-by-step, systematic development of DSM that enables readers to grasp the method's underlying logic and its numerous applications. Dynamical Systems Method and Applications begins with a general introduction and

  16. Local anisotropic features method and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibin, Igor S.; Popov, Pavel G.

    1996-12-01

    The local anisotropic features method is based on the analysis of anisotropy direction of energy Fourier spectrum of image points local neighborhood. Numbers of discrete anisotropic directions are chosen as features. In the features space the measure of images nearness is set. Thanks to its properties local anisotropic features (LAF) are invariant to a wide class of input images bright transformations. This allows to identify images got by different observing channels, in different spectral ranges, within different external observation conditions. LAF method allows to perform multifunctional images processing: recognition, tracking, compression of data. LAF method may be adapted practically to any image receiver and used for multichannel information processing: channels complexing and scene integral image synthesis. The advantage of LAF method is that all kinds of processing may be realized in one computing device. Another advantage of this method is its high obstacles stability. Using the dynamic nearness measure as a constituent and integral part of the method allows to select dynamic objects and to mark them out against the underlying background. It is convenient to use LAF method in hierarchical and neuro-like structures, this makes it winning to use this method in automatic recognition system. The report considers apparatus realization and gives experimental results of images processing in multichannel optoelectronic systems in real time.

  17. Development and Application of Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop an improved kinetic-spectrophotometric procedure for the determination of metronidazole (MNZ) in pharmaceutical formulations. Methods: The method is based on oxidation reaction of MNZ by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of Fe(II) ions at pH 4.5 (acetate buffer). The reaction was monitored ...

  18. Scenistic Methods for Training: Applications and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to complement an earlier article (2010) in "Journal of European Industrial Training" in which the description and theory bases of scenistic methods were presented. This paper also offers a description of scenistic methods and information on theory bases. However, the main thrust of this paper is to describe, give suggested…

  19. Participation - Methods and application in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Ahlhorn, F.

    2005-01-01

    The methods of participation used within coastal protection management projects in Germany are well established. The first part of this report summarizes the certain methods in a figure. The appendix comprises a list of certain projects. This report gives no detailed description and evaluation of

  20. Music Therapy with Bereaved Teenagers: A Mixed Methods Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina; Roberts, Melina; O'Grady, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative investigations have indicated that music therapy groups may be beneficial for bereaved teenagers. The existing relationship between young people and music serves as a platform for connectedness and emotional expression that is utilised within a therapeutic, support group format. This investigation confirms this suggestion through…

  1. Approaches and methods in gene therapy for kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, Els A; Sandovici, Maria; Henning, Robert H; de Zeeuw, Dick; Deelman, Leo E

    2004-01-01

    Renal gene therapy may offer new strategies to treat diseases of native and transplanted kidneys. Several experimental techniques have been developed and employed using nonviral, viral, and cellular vectors. The most efficient vector for in vivo transfection appears to be adenovirus. Glomeruli,

  2. Application of Monte Carlo methods in tomotherapy and radiation biophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ya-Yun

    Helical tomotherapy is an attractive treatment for cancer therapy because highly conformal dose distributions can be achieved while the on-board megavoltage CT provides simultaneous images for accurate patient positioning. The convolution/superposition (C/S) dose calculation methods typically used for Tomotherapy treatment planning may overestimate skin (superficial) doses by 3-13%. Although more accurate than C/S methods, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are too slow for routine clinical treatment planning. However, the computational requirements of MC can be reduced by developing a source model for the parts of the accelerator that do not change from patient to patient. This source model then becomes the starting point for additional simulations of the penetration of radiation through patient. In the first section of this dissertation, a source model for a helical tomotherapy is constructed by condensing information from MC simulations into series of analytical formulas. The MC calculated percentage depth dose and beam profiles computed using the source model agree within 2% of measurements for a wide range of field sizes, which suggests that the proposed source model provides an adequate representation of the tomotherapy head for dose calculations. Monte Carlo methods are a versatile technique for simulating many physical, chemical and biological processes. In the second major of this thesis, a new methodology is developed to simulate of the induction of DNA damage by low-energy photons. First, the PENELOPE Monte Carlo radiation transport code is used to estimate the spectrum of initial electrons produced by photons. The initial spectrum of electrons are then combined with DNA damage yields for monoenergetic electrons from the fast Monte Carlo damage simulation (MCDS) developed earlier by Semenenko and Stewart (Purdue University). Single- and double-strand break yields predicted by the proposed methodology are in good agreement (1%) with the results of published

  3. Ground water modeling applications using the analytic element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J

    2006-01-01

    Though powerful and easy to use, applications of the analytic element method are not as widespread as finite-difference or finite-element models due in part to their relative youth. Although reviews that focus primarily on the mathematical development of the method have appeared in the literature, a systematic review of applications of the method is not available. An overview of the general types of applications of analytic elements in ground water modeling is provided in this paper. While not fully encompassing, the applications described here cover areas where the method has been historically applied (regional, two-dimensional steady-state models, analyses of ground water-surface water interaction, quick analyses and screening models, wellhead protection studies) as well as more recent applications (grid sensitivity analyses, estimating effective conductivity and dispersion in highly heterogeneous systems). The review of applications also illustrates areas where more method development is needed (three-dimensional and transient simulations).

  4. Multi-loop calculations: numerical methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowka, S.; Heinrich, G.; Jahn, S.; Jones, S. P.; Kerner, M.; Schlenk, J.

    2017-11-01

    We briefly review numerical methods for calculations beyond one loop and then describe new developments within the method of sector decomposition in more detail. We also discuss applications to two-loop integrals involving several mass scales.

  5. Clinical application of cell, gene and tissue therapies in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez-Martín, P; Ruiz, A; Clares, B

    2017-10-12

    Scientific and technical advances in the areas of biomedicine and regenerative medicine have enabled the development of new treatments known as "advanced therapies", which encompass cell therapy, genetics and tissue engineering. The biologic products that can be manufactured from these elements are classified from the standpoint of the Spanish Agency of Medication and Health Products in advanced drug therapies, blood products and transplants. This review seeks to provide scientific and administrative information for clinicians on the use of these biologic resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  6. Gold Cleaning Methods for Electrochemical Detection Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Tenje, Maria; Heiskanen, Arto

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates methods for obtaining reliably clean gold film surfaces. Nine gold cleaning methods are investigated here: UV ozone photoreactor; potassium hydroxide-hydrogen peroxide; potassium hydroxide potential sweep; sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide; sulfuric acid potential cycling......; hydrochloric acid potential cycling; dimethylamine borane reducing agent solutions at 25 and 65 degrees C; and a dilute form of Aqua Regia. Peak-current potential-differences obtained from cyclic voltammetry and charge transfer resistance obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, as well as X...

  7. Multigrid methods with applications to reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Shengyou [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Multigrid methods are studied for solving elliptic partial differential equations. Focus is on parallel multigrid methods and their use for reservoir simulation. Multicolor Fourier analysis is used to analyze the behavior of standard multigrid methods for problems in one and two dimensions. Relation between multicolor and standard Fourier analysis is established. Multiple coarse grid methods for solving model problems in 1 and 2 dimensions are considered; at each coarse grid level we use more than one coarse grid to improve convergence. For a given Dirichlet problem, a related extended problem is first constructed; a purification procedure can be used to obtain Moore-Penrose solutions of the singular systems encountered. For solving anisotropic equations, semicoarsening and line smoothing techniques are used with multiple coarse grid methods to improve convergence. Two-level convergence factors are estimated using multicolor. In the case where each operator has the same stencil on each grid point on one level, exact multilevel convergence factors can be obtained. For solving partial differential equations with discontinuous coefficients, interpolation and restriction operators should include information about the equation coefficients. Matrix-dependent interpolation and restriction operators based on the Schur complement can be used in nonsymmetric cases. A semicoarsening multigrid solver with these operators is used in UTCOMP, a 3-D, multiphase, multicomponent, compositional reservoir simulator. The numerical experiments are carried out on different computing systems. Results indicate that the multigrid methods are promising.

  8. Development of Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Christopher

    The focus of this thesis is the functionalization and tailoring of nanoparticle surfaces to perform specific objectives in a biological environment. The nanoparticles examined include carbon nanotubes (CNTs), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocomposites. The unique nanomaterials have been developed to address continued issues in cancer therapy, including cancer diagnosis and efficient drug delivery. CNT surfaces were modified by plasma polymerization, providing functional groups for conjugation. Luminescent amine labeled quantum dots were fixed to the surface of the CNTs to aid in cancer diagnosis by in vivo imaging. Mice, injected with the quantum dot functionalized carbon nanotubes, were imaged displaying the in vivo imaging capability. In addition, the drug loading and drug release capabilities were examined by incorporating the drug paclitaxel into PLGA-coated CNTs, which showed much higher cytotoxicity to PC-3MM2 human prostate carcinoma cells compared to CNTs without paclitaxel. Paclitaxel was loaded at 112.5 microg/mg of PLGA-coated CNTs. Iron oxide nanocomposites were functionalized with quantum dots for diagnosis applications. Because the nanocomposites contain iron oxide, the nanoparticle provides the opportunity for magnetic hyperthermia, creating a unique material for diagnosis and therapy. Mice, injected with the quantum dot functionalized iron oxide nanocomposites, were imaged displaying the in vivo imaging capability. The magnetic hyperthermic property of the quantum dot functionalized nanocomposites was observed with the attainment of temperatures above 50°C during exposure to an alternating magnetic field. Thermoresponsive nanoparticles were prepared by immobilizing a 2 - 3 nm thick phospholipid layer on the surface of superparamagnetic Fe3O 4 nanoparticles via high affinity avidin/biotin interactions. Morphological and physicochemical surface properties were assessed using TEM, confocal laser scanning

  9. Therapy with radionuclides in thyroid disease, method - indication. Therapie mit Radionukliden bei Schilddruesenerkrankungen, Methoden - Indikationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgi, P.; Bubeck, B.; Elser, H. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Strahlenklinik)

    1993-02-01

    Radioiodine therapy is indicated for every tumor stage following thyroidectomy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, excepting papillary tumors stages as pT[sub 1], pN[sub 0], pM[sub 0]. Complete thyroid tissue ablatin occurs during endogenic stimulation 4-6 weeks after surgery, using either a standardized activity of 2.5-4 GBq, or after individual calculation of the activity required for a radiation dose exceeding 500 Gy. I-131 therapy of autoimmune hyperthyroidism or the thyroidism in multifocal or disseminated autonomic disease, requires the use of 150 Gy. The achieved 80-90% cure rate is however associated with frequent and early hypothyroidism, particularly in Grave's disease. Disease in patients less than 20 years of age, pregnancy, and malignancy are considered absolute or relative contraindications to this therapy. Conversely, a relative indication for therapy is considered to exist in the euthyroid patient with autonomic dysfunction. 400 Gy is commonly used in focal disease, whether single or bifocal in nature, while a dose of 200 Gy is considered minimal. The dosis calculation before therapy is based on the kinetic data obtained with a radioiodine test. (orig.).

  10. Applications of a transonic wing design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Richard L.; Smith, Leigh A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for designing wings and airfoils at transonic speeds using a predictor/corrector approach was developed. The procedure iterates between an aerodynamic code, which predicts the flow about a given geometry, and the design module, which compares the calculated and target pressure distributions and modifies the geometry using an algorithm that relates differences in pressure to a change in surface curvature. The modular nature of the design method makes it relatively simple to couple it to any analysis method. The iterative approach allows the design process and aerodynamic analysis to converge in parallel, significantly reducing the time required to reach a final design. Viscous and static aeroelastic effects can also be accounted for during the design or as a post-design correction. Results from several pilot design codes indicated that the method accurately reproduced pressure distributions as well as the coordinates of a given airfoil or wing by modifying an initial contour. The codes were applied to supercritical as well as conventional airfoils, forward- and aft-swept transport wings, and moderate-to-highly swept fighter wings. The design method was found to be robust and efficient, even for cases having fairly strong shocks.

  11. [Effect of combined application of ozone therapy and gravitational therapy on the remote results of complex treatment of geriatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, I V; Shchukin, Yu V; Lukashova, A V

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the remote results of treatment of an obliterating atherosclerosis of arteries of the lower extremities of the II stage at patients of advanced and senile age after the combined use of ozone therapy and gravitational therapy. We performed a prospective randomized study in three parallel groups (139 patients). The 1st group (n=57) received standard medical therapy in combination with ozone therapy; the group was divided into two subgroups: for patients of subgroup 1a (n=28) - intravenous ozonized physiological solution was performed, for patients of subgroup 1b (n=29) - major ozonized autohemotherapy. For patients of the 2nd group (n=62) - a comprehensive treatment, including gravitational therapy in addition to medical ozone, was carried out. In this group were also identified two subgroups: subgroup 2a (n=31) - patients received standard medical therapy in combination with ozonized physiological solution and gravitational therapy, subgroup 2b (n=31) - standard medical therapy in conjunction with major ozonized autohemotherapy and gravitational therapy. The 3rd control group (n=20) included patients, who received only standard medical therapy. Dynamics of changes of a stage of a disease and the number of surgeries in the remote period was estimated (up to 7 years). After 6 months of follow-on stages of the distribution of the disease patients significantly (p>0,05) did not differ from the initial amount. Analysis of survival and probable risk at 7 years of follow-Cox regression method revealed a maximum efficiency in the subgroup 2a where the risk of probability of surgeries and also increases in a stage of a disease effectively decreased.

  12. The DO ART Model: An Ethical Decision-Making Model Applicable to Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Jessica; Ling, Thomson

    2016-01-01

    Although art therapists have discussed the importance of taking a positive stance in terms of ethical decision making (Hinz, 2011), an ethical decision-making model applicable for the field of art therapy has yet to emerge. As the field of art therapy continues to grow, an accessible, theoretically grounded, and logical decision-making model is…

  13. Mechanism of Laser/light beam interaction at cellular and tissue level and study of the influential factors for the application of low level laser therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Khalid, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2016-01-01

    After the discovery of laser therapy it was realized it has useful application of wound healing and reduce pain, but due to the poor understanding of the mechanism and dose response this technique remained to be controversial for therapeutic applications. In order to understand the working and effectiveness different experiments were performed to determine the laser beam effect at the cellular and tissue level. This article discusses the mechanism of beam interaction at tissues and cellular level with different light sources and dosimetry principles for clinical application of low level laser therapy. Different application techniques and methods currently in use for clinical treatment has also been reviewed.

  14. Translational bioinformatics in psychoneuroimmunology: methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Translational bioinformatics plays an indispensable role in transforming psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) into personalized medicine. It provides a powerful method to bridge the gaps between various knowledge domains in PNI and systems biology. Translational bioinformatics methods at various systems levels can facilitate pattern recognition, and expedite and validate the discovery of systemic biomarkers to allow their incorporation into clinical trials and outcome assessments. Analysis of the correlations between genotypes and phenotypes including the behavioral-based profiles will contribute to the transition from the disease-based medicine to human-centered medicine. Translational bioinformatics would also enable the establishment of predictive models for patient responses to diseases, vaccines, and drugs. In PNI research, the development of systems biology models such as those of the neurons would play a critical role. Methods based on data integration, data mining, and knowledge representation are essential elements in building health information systems such as electronic health records and computerized decision support systems. Data integration of genes, pathophysiology, and behaviors are needed for a broad range of PNI studies. Knowledge discovery approaches such as network-based systems biology methods are valuable in studying the cross-talks among pathways in various brain regions involved in disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Applicable technical method for lower temperature freeze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryo-fixation and freeze substitution followed by microscopy are commonly used sample preparation methods for visualizing the morphology of intracellular organelles. Freeze substitution is an especially important preparative step because it enables the preservation of intracellular structures in cryo-fixed cells close to the ...

  16. Quantum Imaging: New Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    higher-nonlinearity, periodically- poled 2nd-order nonlinear crystals (lithium niobate and potassium titanyl phosphate) together with off-the-shelf high...imaging for multi- layered and scattering media. Dispersion cancellation has been demonstrated experimentally. In conjunction with this, a method for

  17. Ensemble Machine Learning Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yunqian

    2012-01-01

    It is common wisdom that gathering a variety of views and inputs improves the process of decision making, and, indeed, underpins a democratic society. Dubbed “ensemble learning” by researchers in computational intelligence and machine learning, it is known to improve a decision system’s robustness and accuracy. Now, fresh developments are allowing researchers to unleash the power of ensemble learning in an increasing range of real-world applications. Ensemble learning algorithms such as “boosting” and “random forest” facilitate solutions to key computational issues such as face detection and are now being applied in areas as diverse as object trackingand bioinformatics.   Responding to a shortage of literature dedicated to the topic, this volume offers comprehensive coverage of state-of-the-art ensemble learning techniques, including various contributions from researchers in leading industrial research labs. At once a solid theoretical study and a practical guide, the volume is a windfall for r...

  18. Asymmetric synthesis II more methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Christmann, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    After the overwhelming success of 'Asymmetric Synthesis - The Essentials', narrating the colorful history of asymmetric synthesis, this is the second edition with latest subjects and authors. While the aim of the first edition was mainly to honor the achievements of the pioneers in asymmetric syntheses, the aim of this new edition was bringing the current developments, especially from younger colleagues, to the attention of students. The format of the book remained unchanged, i.e. short conceptual overviews by young leaders in their field including a short biography of the authors. The growing multidisciplinary research within chemistry is reflected in the selection of topics including metal catalysis, organocatalysis, physical organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and its applications in total synthesis. The prospective reader of this book is a graduate or undergraduate student of advanced organic chemistry as well as the industrial chemist who wants to get a brief update on the current developments in th...

  19. Methods to Improve Adoptive T-Cell Therapy for Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; Hansen, Morten; Sendrup, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    Further development of adoptive T-cell therapy (ACT) with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) has the potential to markedly change the long-term prognosis of patients with metastatic melanoma, and modifications of the original protocol that can improve its clinical efficacy are highly...... desirable. In this study, we demonstrated that a high in vitro tumor reactivity of infusion products was associated with clinical responses upon adoptive transfer. In addition, we systematically characterized the responses of a series of TIL products to relevant autologous short term-cultured melanoma cell...

  20. Fuzzy multiple attribute decision making methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shu-Jen

    1992-01-01

    This monograph is intended for an advanced undergraduate or graduate course as well as for researchers, who want a compilation of developments in this rapidly growing field of operations research. This is a sequel to our previous works: "Multiple Objective Decision Making--Methods and Applications: A state-of-the-Art Survey" (No.164 of the Lecture Notes); "Multiple Attribute Decision Making--Methods and Applications: A State-of-the-Art Survey" (No.186 of the Lecture Notes); and "Group Decision Making under Multiple Criteria--Methods and Applications" (No.281 of the Lecture Notes). In this monograph, the literature on methods of fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) has been reviewed thoroughly and critically, and classified systematically. This study provides readers with a capsule look into the existing methods, their characteristics, and applicability to the analysis of fuzzy MADM problems. The basic concepts and algorithms from the classical MADM methods have been used in the development of the f...

  1. Real-time dose compensation methods for scanned ion beam therapy of moving tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luechtenborg, Robert

    2012-01-15

    Scanned ion beam therapy provides highly tumor-conformal treatments. So far, only tumors showing no considerable motion during therapy have been treated as tumor motion and dynamic beam delivery interfere, causing dose deteriorations. One proposed technique to mitigate these deteriorations is beam tracking (BT), which adapts the beam position to the moving tumor. Despite application of BT, dose deviations can occur in the case of non-translational motion. In this work, real-time dose compensation combined with beam tracking (RDBT) has been implemented into the control system to compensate these dose changes by adaptation of nominal particle numbers during irradiation. Compared to BT, significantly reduced dose deviations were measured using RDBT. Treatment planning studies for lung cancer patients including the increased biological effectiveness of ions revealed a significantly reduced over-dose level (3/5 patients) as well as significantly improved dose homogeneity (4/5 patients) for RDBT. Based on these findings, real-time dose compensated re-scanning (RDRS) has been proposed that potentially supersedes the technically complex fast energy adaptation necessary for BT and RDBT. Significantly improved conformity compared to re-scanning, i.e., averaging of dose deviations by repeated irradiation, was measured in film irradiations. Simulations comparing RDRS to BT revealed reduced under- and overdoses of the former method.

  2. VIDA: a voxel-based dosimetry method for targeted radionuclide therapy using Geant4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Susan D; Dewaraja, Yuni K; Abramson, Richard G; Stabin, Michael G

    2015-02-01

    We have developed the Voxel-Based Internal Dosimetry Application (VIDA) to provide patient-specific dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy performing Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport with the Geant4 toolkit. The code generates voxel-level dose rate maps using anatomical and physiological data taken from individual patients. Voxel level dose rate curves are then fit and integrated to yield a spatial map of radiation absorbed dose. In this article, we present validation studies using established dosimetry results, including self-dose factors (DFs) from the OLINDA/EXM program for uniform activity in unit density spheres and organ self- and cross-organ DFs in the Radiation Dose Assessment Resource (RADAR) reference adult phantom. The comparison with reference data demonstrated agreement within 5% for self-DFs to spheres and reference phantom source organs for four common radionuclides used in targeted therapy ((131)I, (90)Y, (111)In, (177)Lu). Agreement within 9% was achieved for cross-organ DFs. We also present dose estimates to normal tissues and tumors from studies of two non-Hodgkin Lymphoma patients treated by (131)I radioimmunotherapy, with comparison to results generated independently with another dosimetry code. A relative difference of 12% or less was found between methods for mean absorbed tumor doses accounting for tumor regression.

  3. Application of a photoelastic coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Cheng'ai; Fan, Guanghong; Li, Yajun; Li, Giangguo

    2002-05-01

    Some study results on photoelastic coating technique is presented in this paper. The study results include the manufacture method of photoelastic coating; the confection of adhesive, the design and integration of both the on site measure device and measure system with changeable wave length, as well as the system of data collection and process. The study results have been applied to practice test of the parts of mechanical products, for example, the integral structure analysis of the W67Y-63 sheet bend machine, the measure of residual stress due to welding of different steel.

  4. Ultrasound therapy applicators for controlled thermal modification of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, E. Clif; Lichtenstiger, Carol; Rund, Laurie; Keralapura, Mallika; Gossett, Chad; Stahlhut, Randy; Neubauer, Paul; Komadina, Bruce; Williams, Emery; Alix, Chris; Jensen, Tor; Schook, Lawrence; Diederich, Chris J.

    2011-03-01

    Heat therapy has long been used for treatments in dermatology and sports medicine. The use of laser, RF, microwave, and more recently, ultrasound treatment, for psoriasis, collagen reformation, and skin tightening has gained considerable interest over the past several years. Numerous studies and commercial devices have demonstrated the efficacy of these methods for treatment of skin disorders. Despite these promising results, current systems remain highly dependent on operator skill, and cannot effectively treat effectively because there is little or no control of the size, shape, and depth of the target zone. These limitations make it extremely difficult to obtain consistent treatment results. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility for using acoustic energy for controlled dose delivery sufficient to produce collagen modification for the treatment of skin tissue in the dermal and sub-dermal layers. We designed and evaluated a curvilinear focused ultrasound device for treating skin disorders such as psoriasis, stimulation of wound healing, tightening of skin through shrinkage of existing collagen and stimulation of new collagen formation, and skin cancer. Design parameters were examined using acoustic pattern simulations and thermal modeling. Acute studies were performed in 201 freshly-excised samples of young porcine underbelly skin tissue and 56 in-vivo treatment areas in 60- 80 kg pigs. These were treated with ultrasound (9-11MHz) focused in the deep dermis. Dose distribution was analyzed and gross pathology assessed. Tissue shrinkage was measured based on fiducial markers and video image registration and analyzed using NIH Image-J software. Comparisons were made between RF and focused ultrasound for five energy ranges. In each experimental series, therapeutic dose levels (60degC) were attained at 2-5mm depth. Localized collagen changes ranged from 1-3% for RF versus 8-15% for focused ultrasound. Therapeutic ultrasound applied at high

  5. Application of DCI to the lipid method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffi, J.; Lesgards, G.; Pouliquen, I.; Giamarchi, P.; Fakirian, A. [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Qualite des Aliments, Marseille (France)

    1996-12-31

    At the end of the sixties it was proposed that a cleavage point on the triglycerides which can produce alkanes and alkenes with one or two carbons less, aldehydes and free fatty acids. The first results of work on pork were extended to chicken and poultry meats. The methodology involved extraction of the lipid fraction followed by vacuum distillation and analysis by gas chromatography (GC). Other extraction and fractionation procedures have been investigated by ADMIT and BCR groups which are more appropriate for the routine examination of large numbers of samples. In the present study, the radio-induced volatile compounds were analysed with a DI200 chromatograph, used with a head-space system, also called the DCI system (Desorption, Concentration, Injection). The main advantage of the method is that it avoids the soxhlet extraction of the lipid fraction from the foodstuffs. Several products were studied; oils, poultry meat, avocado pear. It appears that the DCI is a good and fast method provided that the temperature of the oven is controlled, which is not the case with the commercial apparatus used. (author).

  6. Aquatic therapy: scientific foundations and clinical rehabilitation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Bruce E

    2009-09-01

    The aquatic environment has broad rehabilitative potential, extending from the treatment of acute injuries through health maintenance in the face of chronic diseases, yet it remains an underused modality. There is an extensive research base supporting aquatic therapy, both within the basic science literature and clinical literature. This article describes the many physiologic changes that occur during immersion as applied to a range of common rehabilitative issues and problems. Because of its wide margin of therapeutic safety and clinical adaptability, aquatic therapy is a very useful tool in the rehabilitative toolbox. Through a better understanding of the applied physiology, the practitioner may structure appropriate therapeutic programs for a diverse patient population.

  7. WORKING WITH HOMOSEXUAL CLIENTS: Application of Solution-Focused Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husmiati Husmiati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the psychosocial problems dealt by gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients. Gay is an individual who has sex orientation to male, whereas lesbian is to female. Bisexual has both sex orientation towards male and female. This article also points out one approach called Solution-Focused Therapy (SFT which can be applied in clinical practice. Working with SFT technique to homoerotic individual or group is significantly different to common people. Mental health experts such as social workers and clinical psychologists should have this understanding. Keywords: Homosexuality, client, clinical practice, therapy, solution focused

  8. Proportional representation apportionment methods and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pukelsheim, Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    The book offers an in-depth study of the translation of vote counts into seat numbers in proportional representation systems  – an approach guided by practical needs. It also provides plenty of empirical instances illustrating the results. It analyzes in detail the 2014 elections to the European Parliament in the 28 member states, as well as the 2009 and 2013 elections to the German Bundestag. This second edition is a complete revision and expanded version of the first edition published in 2014, and many empirical election results that serve as examples have been updated. Further, a final chapter has been added assembling biographical sketches and authoritative quotes from individuals who pioneered the development of apportionment methodology. The mathematical exposition and the interrelations with political science and constitutional jurisprudence make this an apt resource for interdisciplinary courses and seminars on electoral systems and apportionment methods.

  9. XRSW method, its application and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheludeva, S.I.; Kovalchuk, M.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Crystallography, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-09-01

    X-Ray Standing Waves (XRSW) may be obtained under dynamical diffraction in periodic structures or under total external reflection conditions (TR) is stratified medium. As the incident angle varies, XRSW nodes and antinodes move in the direction perpendicular to the reflecting planes, leading to drastic variation of photoelectron interaction of X-ray with matter and resulting in specific angular dependencies of secondary radiation yields (photoelectrons, fluorescence, internal photoeffect, photoluminescence, Compton and thermal diffuse scattering). The structural information - the position of investigated atoms in the direction of XRSW movement (coherent position), the distribution of atoms about this position (coherent fraction) - is obtained with the accuracy about several percents from XRSW period D. The objects under investigation are: semiconductor surface layers, heterostructure, multicomponent crystals, interfaces, adsorbed layers. Besides the development of XRSW method allow to obtain structure, geometrical and optical parameters of ultrathin films (crystalline and disordered, organic and inorganic) and nanostructures on their base.

  10. Applications of geophysical methods to volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Dzurisin, Daniel; Finn, Carol A.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Lahusen, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    The array of geophysical technologies used in volcano hazards studies - some developed originally only for volcano monitoring - ranges from satellite remote sensing including InSAR to leveling and EDM surveys, campaign and telemetered GPS networks, electronic tiltmeters and strainmeters, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, short-period and broadband seismic monitoring, even microphones tuned for infrasound. They include virtually every method used in resource exploration except large-scale seismic reflection. By “geophysical ” we include both active and passive methods as well as geodetic technologies. Volcano monitoring incorporates telemetry to handle high-bandwith cameras and broadband seismometers. Critical geophysical targets include the flux of magma in shallow reservoir and lava-tube systems, changes in active hydrothermal systems, volcanic edifice stability, and lahars. Since the eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State in 1980, and the eruption at Pu’u O’o in Hawai’i beginning in 1983 and still continuing, dramatic advances have occurred in monitoring technology such as “crisis GIS” and lahar modeling, InSAR interferograms, as well as gas emission geochemistry sampling, and hazards mapping and eruption predictions. The on-going eruption of Mount St. Helens has led to new monitoring technologies, including advances in broadband Wi-Fi and satellite telemetry as well as new instrumentation. Assessment of the gap between adequate monitoring and threat at the 169 potentially dangerous Holocene volcanoes shows where populations are dangerously exposed to volcanic catastrophes in the United States and its territories . This paper focuses primarily on Hawai’ian volcanoes and the northern Pacific and Cascades volcanoes. The US Geological Survey, the US National Park System, and the University of Utah cooperate in a program to monitor the huge Yellowstone volcanic system, and a separate observatory monitors the restive Long Valley

  11. Regulatory Considerations in Application of Encapsulated Cell Therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zanten, J.; de Vos, Paul; Pedraz, JL; Orive, G

    2010-01-01

    The encapsulation of tissue in semi-permeable membranes is a technology with high potential and in due time several new therapies based on this technology will be tested in clinical trials. Recent, new legislation requires that these investigational medicinal products used in clinical trials Phase I

  12. Clinical application of sensory integration therapy for children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nazurah Alwi

    We read with great interest the research entitled. ''Effectiveness of sensory integration program in motor skills in children with autism'' by Abdel Karim and. Mohammed [1]. Sensory integration therapy (SIT) is the most common interventions delivered to children with aut- ism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have atypical ...

  13. An Application of Art Therapy to the Trauma of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave-Nykaza, Karen

    1994-01-01

    Explores rape in terms of specific trauma usually experienced after rape: posttraumatic stress disorder, rape trauma syndrome, and permanent life changes. Explores ways in which art therapy can help rape victim engage in healing. Reviews study of one rape victim and current literature as example of life-altering effects of rape and importance of…

  14. An Application of General System Theory (GST) to Group Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Charles O.

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates the compatibility of General System Theory (GST) with the traditional counseling literature in explicating a therapy group's progression through Tuckman's (1965, 1977) developmental stages (forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning). Description uses both traditional group literature and GST concepts. (Author/NB)

  15. The Application of Cognitive Therapy for Command Hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alisa R.; Addington, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    It has become increasingly recognized that cognitive therapy (CT) is an effective treatment for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia yet there are few cognitive therapists in North America who are specialized to work with this patient population. There is a need for further dissemination of CT for schizophrenia in order to increase its…

  16. Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system s aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Air traffic control modernization has long held the promise of a more efficient air transportation system. Part of NASA s current mission is to develop advanced automation and operational concepts that will expand the capacity of our national airspace system while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we ll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and the promise of formal methods going forward.

  17. An update on applications of nanostructured drug delivery systems in cancer therapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberoumandi, Seyed Mohsen; Mohammadhosseini, Majid; Abasi, Elham; Saghati, Sepideh; Nikzamir, Nasrin; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Panahi, Yunes; Davaran, Soodabeh

    2017-09-01

    Cancer is a main public health problem that is known as a malignant tumor and out-of-control cell growth, with the potential to assault or spread to other parts of the body. Recently, remarkable efforts have been devoted to develop nanotechnology to improve the delivery of anticancer drug to tumor tissue as minimizing its distribution and toxicity in healthy tissue. Nanotechnology has been extensively used in the advance of new strategies for drug delivery and cancer therapy. Compared to customary drug delivery systems, nano-based drug delivery method has greater potential in different areas, like multiple targeting functionalization, in vivo imaging, extended circulation time, systemic control release, and combined drug delivery. Nanofibers are used for different medical applications such as drug delivery systems.

  18. The fractional - order controllers: Methods for their synthesis and application

    OpenAIRE

    Petras, I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with fractional-order controllers. We outline mathematical description of fractional controllers and methods of their synthesis and application. Synthesis method is a modified root locus method for fractional-order systems and fractional-order controllers. In the next section we describe how to apply the fractional controller on control systems.

  19. expansion method and its application to Sharma–Tasso–Olver ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The validity and advantage of the proposed method are illustrated by its application to the Sharma–Tasso–Olver equation. As a result, various ... method is introduced to construct exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The competitive point of this method is that there is no need to set a restriction to the function.

  20. Antiparasitic peptides from arthropods and their application in drug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Ferreira Lacerda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Africa, Asia and Latin America are regions highly affected by endemic diseases, such as Leishmaniasis, Malaria and Chagas’ disease. They are responsible for the death of thousands of patients every year, as there is not yet a cure for them and the drugs used are inefficient against the pathogenic parasites. During the life cycle of some parasitic protozoa, insects become the most important host and disseminator of the diseases triggered by these microorganisms. As infected insects do not develop nocive symptoms, they can carry the parasites for long time inside their body, enabling their multiplication and life cycle completion. Eventually, parasites infect human beings after insects transmission through their saliva and/or feces. Hence, host insects and general arthropods, which developed a way to coexist with such parasites, are a promising source for the prospection of antiparasitic compounds, as alternative methods for the treatment of protozoa-related diseases. Among the molecules already isolated and investigated, there are proteins and peptides with high activity against parasites, able to inhibit parasite activity in different stages of development. Although studies are still taking their first steps, initial results show new perspectives on the treatment of parasitic diseases. Therefore, in this report, we describe about peptides from host insect sources with activity against the three most endemic parasites: Leishmania sp, Plasmodium sp. and Trypanosomes. Moreover, we discuss the future application insect peptides as anti-parasitic drugs and the use of non-hosts insect transcriptomes on the prospection of novel molecules for the treatment of parasitic neglected diseases.

  1. Proton radiography and tomography with application to proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinson, N M; Evans, P M

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiography and tomography have long promised benefit for proton therapy. Their first suggestion was in the early 1960s and the first published proton radiographs and CT images appeared in the late 1960s and 1970s, respectively. More than just providing anatomical images, proton transmission imaging provides the potential for the more accurate estimation of stopping-power ratio inside a patient and hence improved treatment planning and verification. With the recent explosion in growth of clinical proton therapy facilities, the time is perhaps ripe for the imaging modality to come to the fore. Yet many technical challenges remain to be solved before proton CT scanners become commonplace in the clinic. Research and development in this field is currently more active than at any time with several prototype designs emerging. This review introduces the principles of proton radiography and tomography, their historical developments, the raft of modern prototype systems and the primary design issues. PMID:26043157

  2. Evaluation of endourological tools to improve the diagnosis and therapy of ureteral tumors – from model development to clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adequate diagnosis of upper urinary tract (UUT tumors is essential for successful local treatment. Organsparing approaches are technically difficult and require consistent further development. Appropriate models for investigating new diagnostic and therapeutic methods are not yet available. This study demonstrates the incorporation of a fresh sample model into five different test levels (I-V for improving the diagnosis and therapy of ureteral tumors. In these test levels, new diagnostic and ablation techniques are evaluated for feasibility, application safety, efficacy and accuracy. An assessment of their suitability for broad preclinical and clinical application also took economic aspects into account.

  3. The Ismail Center Hypertension Program: Application of Medical Nutrition Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Darbishire, Lily

    2016-01-01

    Lily Darbishire is a registered dietitian nutritionist and graduate student at Missouri State University completing a master’s degree in public health. During her senior year in the dietetics program at Purdue University, Darbishire was involved in a service-learning–based hypertension clinic focusing on medical nutrition therapy. This article outlines her experiences and what she learned as a result of completing the program.

  4. [Cognitive therapy: foundations, conceptual models, applications and research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Paulo; Beck, Aaron T

    2008-10-01

    There is growing interest in the cognitive model of psychotherapy stimulated by an extensive body of research findings demonstrating its effectiveness for a varied set of psychiatric disorders and medical conditions. This review article aims to give an overview of the historical and philosophical background to contemporary cognitive and cognitive-behavioral approaches to psychotherapy, pointing out similarities across and differences between them. A presentation of the cognitive model as designed by Aaron Beck, and some of the cognitive and behavioral techniques used in emotional disorders will be discussed. Outcome studies and meta-analyses contemplating the efficacy of cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies in various psychological and medical conditions will be briefly depicted. Through review of articles and textbooks, especially the works of Aaron Beck from which this review article has heavily borrowed, the origins and foundations of the cognitive-behavioral approaches to the treatment of psychiatric and medical conditions are described. Through Medline, the search of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses has pointed out the evidence-based efficacy of this psychotherapeutic approach. Cognitive-behavioral therapies in general and Beckian cognitive therapy in particular hold a theoretical foundation and a varied set of techniques, whose evidence-based efficacy was demonstrated for the treatment of diverse mental and physical conditions.

  5. The application of photodynamic therapy in the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerjes, Waseem; Upile, Tahwinder; Betz, Christian S; El Maaytah, Mohammed; Abbas, Syedda; Wright, Anthony; Hopper, Colin

    2007-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered to be a minimally invasive treatment modality which shows great promise in premalignant and malignant conditions of the head and neck. This therapy can be applied before or after any of the conventional treatment modalities (ie surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy) and the treatment can be repeated as much as is needed at the same site. PDT uses photosensitizing drugs that are activated by exposure to light of a specific wavelength. Illumination of the suspected premalignant or malignant site by light at the activating wavelength results in cellular destruction by a non-free radical oxidative process. Most photosensitizers are administered systemically, although some can be applied topically in the treatment of skin cancer. Recent developments in photosensitizers and light delivery systems have substantially reduced treatment times and residual photosensitivity, while increasing the achievable depth of necrosis. Compared with standard approaches, PDT can achieve equivalent or greater efficacy in the treatment of premalignant and malignant lesions in the head and neck, with greatly reduced morbidity and disfigurement. The technique is simple, can commonly be carried out in outpatient clinics, and is highly acceptable to patients. It can be repeated to debulk large tumours progressively, and it can also be applied through interstitial light delivery to large solid tumours. Photodynamic therapy is now shown to achieve equivalent or greater efficacy than standard treatment of premalignant and malignant lesions in the head and neck, with greatly reduced morbidity and disfigurement.

  6. Hybrid Particle-Continuum Numerical Methods for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    methodes de calcul des coulements de gaz rarefies). RTO-EN-AVT-194 14. ABSTRACT Often, rareed ows of interest in aerospace applications are embedded...Many applications of MEMS/NEMS devices, which include micro- turbines [3, 4], micro-sensors for chemical con- centrations or gas ow properties [5, 6, 7

  7. Cell therapy medicinal product regulatory framework in Europe and its application for MSC based therapy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis eAncans

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs, including cell therapy products, form a new class of medicines in the European Union. Since ATMPs are at the forefront of scientific innovation in medicine, specific regulatory framework has been developed for these medicines and implemented from 2009. The Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT has been established at European Medicines Agency (EMA for centralized classification, certification and evaluation procedures, and other ATMP related tasks. Guidance documents, initiatives and interaction platforms are available to make the new framework more accessible for small and medium-sized enterprises, academia, hospitals and foundations. Good understanding of centralised and national components of the regulatory system is required to plan product development. It is in the best interests of cell therapy developers to utilise provided resources starting with the preclinical stage. Whilst there have not been mesenchymal stem cell (MSC based medicine authorisations in the EU, three MSC products have received marketing approval in other regions since 2011. Information provided on regulatory requirements, procedures and initiatives is aimed to facilitate MSC based medicinal product development and authorisation in the EU.

  8. Application of biasing techniques to the contributon Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubi, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, a new Monte Carlo Method called the Contribution Monte Carlo Method was developed. The method is based on the theory of contributions, and uses a new receipe for estimating target responses by a volume integral over the contribution current. The analog features of the new method were discussed in previous publications. The application of some biasing methods to the new contribution scheme is examined here. A theoretical model is developed that enables an analytic prediction of the benefit to be expected when these biasing schemes are applied to both the contribution method and regular Monte Carlo. This model is verified by a variety of numerical experiments and is shown to yield satisfying results, especially for deep-penetration problems. Other considerations regarding the efficient use of the new method are also discussed, and remarks are made as to the application of other biasing methods. 14 figures, 1 tables.

  9. Bayesian non- and semi-parametric methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews and develops Bayesian non-parametric and semi-parametric methods for applications in microeconometrics and quantitative marketing. Most econometric models used in microeconomics and marketing applications involve arbitrary distributional assumptions. As more data becomes available, a natural desire to provide methods that relax these assumptions arises. Peter Rossi advocates a Bayesian approach in which specific distributional assumptions are replaced with more flexible distributions based on mixtures of normals. The Bayesian approach can use either a large but fixed number

  10. The applicability of a seminal professional development theory to creative arts therapies students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkibi, Hod

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to test the extent to which a seminal theory of the professional development of counsellors and therapists is applicable to the particular experiences of creative arts therapies graduate students who learn how to use the arts in psychotherapy. Nevertheless, readers may consider the results of the present study transferable to other healthcare disciplines. Questionnaires for each developmental phase were used for data collection, and analysis included data quantification, assessment of inter-rater agreement and theory derivation procedure. Results indicate that creative arts therapies students were concerned about translating theory into practice, learning how experienced therapists concretely function in practice, and reducing cognitive dissonance upon realization that their pre-training lay conceptions of helping were no longer valid. Stress and anxiety drove students to adopt easily mastered techniques that were implemented creatively in practicum. The results confirm that students who were older and had undergraduate human-service education and/or considerable life experience were less concerned about their suitability to the profession, were more acquainted with a professional working style and searched for their individual way of becoming therapists. Finally, recommendations for future research are suggested, and implications for practice are offered. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The Feasibility of Conformal Thermal Therapy with Transurethral Ultrasound Heating Applicators and MR Temperature Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Vanessa; Tang, Kee; Wachsmuth, Jeff; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Transurethral thermal therapy offers a minimally invasive alternative for the treatment of prostate diseases including benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. Accurate heating of a targeted region of the gland can be achieved through the use of a rotating directional heating source incorporating planar ultrasound transducers, and the implementation of active temperature feedback along the beam direction during heating provided by magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry. The performance of this control method with practical spatial, temporal, and temperature resolution (such as angular alignment, spatial resolution, update rate for temperature feedback (imaging time), and the presence of noise) for thermal feedback using a clinical 1.5 T MR scanner was investigated in simulations. As expected, the control algorithm was most sensitive to the presence of noise, with noticeable degradation in its performance above ±2°C of temperature uncertainty. With respect to temporal resolution, acceptable performance was achieved at update rates of 5s or faster. The control algorithm was relatively insensitive to reduced spatial resolution due to the broad nature of the heating pattern produced by the heating applicator, this provides an opportunity to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The overall simulation results confirm that existing clinical 1.5T MR imagers are capable of providing adequate temperature feedback for transurethral thermal therapy without special pulse sequences or enhanced imaging hardware.

  12. A tale of Persian cupping therapy: 1001 potential applications and avenues for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamfarahnak, Hossein; Azizi, Amir; Noorafshan, Ali; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2014-01-01

    Cupping therapy (CT) is one of the oldest medical techniques available, and is still used in several cultures instead of or as an adjunct or complement to 'western academic' medicine. Moreover, CT (wet or dry) is claimed to have therapeutic effects in many types of disorders which do not fully respond to conventional medicine or for which no effective treatment is available. However, no recent reviews of the clinical practice of cupping are available to the best of our knowledge. We describe the applications of CT as used in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM). Several databases were searched for relevant literature. In addition, we studied the main traditional treatises on TIM regarding the history and practice of CT. Information about current practices was obtained from a systematic survey among practitioners. Our results suggest that CT is currently prescribed for up to 120 diseases and disorders that are difficult to treat, including cutaneous (21.7%), musculoskeletal (15%), and central nervous system (13.3%) disorders. Moreover, TIM treatises note 25 specific sites on the body surface which correspond to certain diseases, and on which wet-cupping therapy has therapeutic effects. Additional clinical studies of CT may lead to findings on new therapeutic methods and may shed light on mechanisms of disease and illness that are not fully understood in conventional medicine. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  13. [Immunosuppressive therapy and fertility preservation: Indications and methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choux, C; Cavalieri, M; Barberet, J; Samson, M; Bonnotte, B; Fauque, P; Sagot, P

    2018-02-27

    Fertility preservation is routinely performed in cancerology but less systematically used in the field of immune diseases, even though the use of gonadotoxic treatments in young patients may be required and even though the disease itself can alter fertility. This review aimed to clarify the indications and methods of fertility preservation in this context. Cyclophosphamide is the only immunosuppressive drug requiring fertility preservation in women. In men, fertility preservation should be proposed before treatment with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil or mTOR inhibitors. Other factors inherent to the disease or the patient may alter fertility. Thus, screening for infertility and fertility preservation have to be implemented as much as possible to increase the chances of successful procreation in patients with immune disease. For women, the choice between the different preservation methods depends on the patient's age, disease activity, the time available before the start of treatment, the possibility of future pregnancy and the woman's and even couple's wishes. Before puberty, the only accepted method is cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. After puberty, the first-line method is the cryopreservation of mature oocytes. If the treatment has to be started in an emergency, if ovarian hyperstimulation/oocyte retrieval is contraindicated or if the patient refuses this option, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue or GnRH agonists could be proposed. For men, the accepted method is sperm cryopreservation. For prepubertal boys, the cryopreservation of spermatogonia after testicular biopsy is still experimental. Copyright © 2018 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Reconstruction of a ring applicator using CT imaging: impact of the reconstruction method and applicator orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellebust, Taran Paulsen [Department of Medical Physics, Rikshospital-Radiumhospital Medical Center, Oslo (Norway); Tanderup, Kari [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Bergstrand, Eva Stabell [Department of Medical Physics, Rikshospital-Radiumhospital Medical Center, Oslo (Norway); Knutsen, Bjoern Helge [Department of Medical Physics, Rikshospital-Radiumhospital Medical Center, Oslo (Norway); Roeislien, Jo [Section of Biostatistics, Rikshospital-Radiumhospital Medical Center, Oslo (Norway); Olsen, Dag Rune [Institute for Cancer Research, Rikshospital-Radiumhospital Medical Center, Oslo (Norway)

    2007-08-21

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the method of applicator reconstruction and/or the applicator orientation influence the dose calculation to points around the applicator for brachytherapy of cervical cancer with CT-based treatment planning. A phantom, containing a fixed ring applicator set and six lead pellets representing dose points, was used. The phantom was CT scanned with the ring applicator at four different angles related to the image plane. In each scan the applicator was reconstructed by three methods: (1) direct reconstruction in each image (DR) (2) reconstruction in multiplanar reconstructed images (MPR) and (3) library plans, using pre-defined applicator geometry (LIB). The doses to the lead pellets were calculated. The relative standard deviation (SD) for all reconstruction methods was less than 3.7% in the dose points. The relative SD for the LIB method was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than for the DR and MPR methods for all but two points. All applicator orientations had similar dose calculation reproducibility. Using library plans for applicator reconstruction gives the most reproducible dose calculation. However, with restrictive guidelines for applicator reconstruction the uncertainties for all methods are low compared to other factors influencing the accuracy of brachytherapy.

  15. Nondamaging Retinal Laser Therapy: Rationale and Applications to the Macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinsky, Daniel; Wang, Jenny; Huie, Philip; Dalal, Roopa; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Dae Yeong; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Retinal photocoagulation and nondamaging laser therapy are used for treatment of macular disorders, without understanding of the response mechanism and with no rationale for dosimetry. To establish a proper titration algorithm, we measured the range of tissue response and damage threshold. We then evaluated safety and efficacy of nondamaging retinal therapy (NRT) based on this algorithm for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) and macular telangiectasia (MacTel). Retinal response to laser treatment below damage threshold was assessed in pigmented rabbits by expression of the heat shock protein HSP70 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Energy was adjusted relative to visible titration using the Endpoint Management (EpM) algorithm. In clinical studies, 21 eyes with CSCR and 10 eyes with MacTel were treated at 30% EpM energy with high spot density (0.25-diameter spacing). Visual acuity, retinal and choroidal thickness, and subretinal fluid were monitored for 1 year. At 25% EpM energy and higher, HSP70 was expressed acutely in RPE, and GFAP upregulation in Müller cells was observed at 1 month. Damage appeared starting at 40% setting. Subretinal fluid resolved completely in 81% and partially in 19% of the CSCR patients, and visual acuity improved by 12 ± 3 letters. Lacunae in the majority of MacTel patients decreased while preserving the retinal thickness, and vision improved by 10 letters. Heat shock protein expression in response to hyperthermia helps define the therapeutic window for NRT. Lack of tissue damage enables high-density treatment to boost clinical efficacy, therapy in the fovea, and retreatments to manage chronic diseases.

  16. Method and system to synchronize acoustic therapy with ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Neil (Inventor); Bailey, Michael R. (Inventor); Hossack, James (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Interference in ultrasound imaging when used in connection with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is avoided by employing a synchronization signal to control the HIFU signal. Unless the timing of the HIFU transducer is controlled, its output will substantially overwhelm the signal produced by ultrasound imaging system and obscure the image it produces. The synchronization signal employed to control the HIFU transducer is obtained without requiring modification of the ultrasound imaging system. Signals corresponding to scattered ultrasound imaging waves are collected using either the HIFU transducer or a dedicated receiver. A synchronization processor manipulates the scattered ultrasound imaging signals to achieve the synchronization signal, which is then used to control the HIFU bursts so as to substantially reduce or eliminate HIFU interference in the ultrasound image. The synchronization processor can alternatively be implemented using a computing device or an application-specific circuit.

  17. Clinical application of Medical Resonance Therapy Music in high-risk pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, V N

    2000-01-01

    Music is an ancient method for healing. In the year 550 B.C., Pythagoras from Greece developed a concept for the use of music in medicine, esteeming music higher than many other medical treatments. The Medical Resonance Therapy Music (MRT-Music) of the German classical composer and musicologist Peter Huebner is built on this concept of Pythagorean music medicine. Its therapeutic effect may be best explained by the natural phenomenon of resonance between the harmony laws of the microcosm of music and the biological laws of the body. Results received after application of MRT-Music indicate multiple positive effects on the organism of pregnant women both with a healthy pregnancy as with a pathologic one, reducing the rate of premature births very effectively. Furthermore, MRT-Music came out to be an effective method in the complex therapy of late gestoses and a nearly irreplaceable method for preoperative preparation of pregnant woman for caesarean section. It demonstrated a powerful anti-stress effect and allowed to reduce the amount of administered pain-killers to pregnant women by the factor 1.5 to 2.0, thus reducing the negative pharmacological load to the foetus. It furthermore reduced labour time and shortened hospital stay. It helped to create optimal conditions for the course of pregnancy and heightened pain sensitivity threshold by means of improving the functional, hormonal, and psycho-emotional conditions of pregnant and lying-in women. Thus, the labour process became more natural, the delivery non-traumatic, and motherhood more happy and safe.

  18. Potential applications of nanotechnologies to Parkinson's disease therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linazasoro, G

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology will play a key role in developing new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Nanotechnologies use engineered materials with the smallest functional organization on the nanometre scale in at least one dimension. Some aspects of the material can be manipulated resulting in new functional properties. Nanotechnology could provide devices to limit and reverse neuropathological disease states, to support and promote functional regeneration of damaged neurons, to provide neuroprotection and to facilitate the delivery of drugs and small molecules across the blood-brain barrier. All of them are relevant to improve current therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD).

  19. Virtual reality as a method for evaluation and therapy after traumatic hand surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Adriana Sarah; Brailescu, Consuela Monica; Scarlet, Rodica Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, Virtual Reality has encountered a continuous development concerning medical purposes and there are a lot of devices based on the classic "cyberglove" concept that are used as new therapeutic method for upper limb pathology, especially neurologic problems [1;2;3]. One of the VR devices is Pablo (Tyromotion), with very sensitive sensors that can measure the hand grip strenght and the pinch force, also the ROM (range of motion) for all the joints of the upper limb (shoulder, elbow, wrist) and offering the possibility of interactive games based on Virtual Reality concept with application in occupational therapy programs. We used Pablo in our study on patients with hand surgery as an objective tool for assessment and as additional therapeutic method to the classic Rehabilitation program [4;5]. The results of the study proved that Pablo represents a modern option for evaluation of hand deficits and dysfunctions, with objective measurement replacement of classic goniometry and dynamometry, with computerized data base of patients with monitoring of parameters during the recovery program and with better muscular and neuro-cognitive feedback during the interactive therapeutic modules.

  20. Reconstruction of a ring applicator using CT imaging: impact of the reconstruction method and applicator orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Tanderup, Kari; Bergstrand, Eva Stabell

    2007-01-01

    in multiplanar reconstructed images (MPR) and (3) library plans, using pre-defined applicator geometry (LIB). The doses to the lead pellets were calculated. The relative standard deviation (SD) for all reconstruction methods was less than 3.7% in the dose points. The relative SD for the LIB method...... applicator set and six lead pellets representing dose points, was used. The phantom was CT scanned with the ring applicator at four different angles related to the image plane. In each scan the applicator was reconstructed by three methods: (1) direct reconstruction in each image (DR), (2) reconstruction...

  1. Effects of magnetic field therapy after taping application on pain and function of patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hyuck; Park, Young-Han; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of study was to investigate the effect of taping applied before magnetic field therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients who diagnosed with knee arthritis by a specialist in the rehabilitation department were divided into three groups using the random allocation method. The control group received 15 min general physiotherapy. For the experimental group 1, non-elastic taping was applied to the medial side of the knee after general physiotherapy, followed by a 15 min magnetic field therapy. For the experimental group 2, elastic taping was applied to the medial side of the knee after general physiotherapy, followed by a 15 min magnetic field therapy. This study used visual analog scale to evaluate pain. This study used Western Ontario and McMaster Universities to evaluate the knee function. [Results] Experimental group 1 and experimental group 2 showed a significant difference visual analog scale and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities from the control group. However, no significant difference was observed between experimental group 1 and experimental group 2. [Conclusion] Choosing the applicable taping method according to the condition of the patients and applying it to therapy is necessary to reduce pain and improve the function of the patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  2. Epidermal electronics for electromyography: An application to swallowing therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Gabriela; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Li, Xinda; Scott, Dylan K; Jang, Kyung-In; Chung, Hyun-Joong; Rogers, John A; Rieger, Jana

    2016-08-01

    Head and neck cancer treatment alters the anatomy and physiology of patients. Resulting swallowing difficulties can lead to serious health concerns. Surface electromyography (sEMG) is used as an adjuvant to swallowing therapy exercises. sEMG signal collected from the area under the chin provides visual biofeedback from muscle contractions and is used to help patients perform exercises correctly. However, conventional sEMG adhesive pads are relatively thick and difficult to effectively adhere to a patient's altered chin anatomy, potentially leading to poor signal acquisition in this population. Here, the emerging technology of epidermal electronics is introduced, where ultra-thin geometry allows for close contouring of the chin. The two objectives of this study were to (1) assess the potential of epidermal electronics technology for use with swallowing therapy and (2) assess the significance of the reference electrode placement. This study showed comparative signals between the new epidermal sEMG patch and the conventional adhesive patches used by clinicians. Furthermore, an integrated reference yielded optimal signal for clinical use; this configuration was more robust to head movements than when an external reference was used. Improvements for future iterations of epidermal sEMG patches specific to day-to-day clinical use are suggested. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Micro-Thermal Sensor for Focal Therapy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Harishankar; Hodges, Wyatt; Choi, Jeunghwan; Lubner, Sean; Dames, Chris; Bischof, John

    2016-02-26

    There is an urgent need for sensors deployed during focal therapies to inform treatment planning and in vivo monitoring in thin tissues. Specifically, the measurement of thermal properties, cooling surface contact, tissue thickness, blood flow and phase change with mm to sub mm accuracy are needed. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that a micro-thermal sensor based on the supported "3ω" technique can achieve this in vitro under idealized conditions in 0.5 to 2 mm thick tissues relevant to cryoablation of the pulmonary vein (PV). To begin with "3ω" sensors were microfabricated onto flat glass as an idealization of a focal probe surface. The sensor was then used to make new measurements of 'k' (W/m.K) of porcine PV, esophagus, and phrenic nerve, all needed for PV cryoabalation treatment planning. Further, by modifying the sensor use from traditional to dynamic mode new measurements related to tissue vs. fluid (i.e. water) contact, fluid flow conditions, tissue thickness, and phase change were made. In summary, the in vitro idealized system data presented is promising and warrants future work to integrate and test supported "3ω" sensors on in vivo deployed focal therapy probe surfaces (i.e. balloons or catheters).

  4. [Application of epigenetics to cancer diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Toshikazu; Kikuyama, Mizuho; Takeshima, Hideyuki

    2012-03-01

    Epigenetic modifications are responsible for the stable maintenance of cellular phenotypes and consist of DNA methylation and histone modifications. Epigenetic abnormalities can be causally involved in cancer development (driver) and can also be present as a passenger. Aberrant DNA methylation has unique characteristics different from point mutations and is utilized as a diagnostic target. First, aberrant DNA methylation can be present at a high level in noncancerous tissues, and because its level can correlate with cancer risk, it is useful as a cancer risk marker. Second, aberrant DNA methylation can be detected with high sensitivity and therefore it is used to detect cancer cells. Third, DNA methylation is stable at different time points, such as at biopsy and during chemotherapy, and provides a good source of biomarkers. In addition, resistance to contaminating cells makes DNA methylation useful in genome-wide screening of biomarkers for various clinicopathologic characteristics. From the therapeutic viewpoint, DNA demethylating agents have been approved for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome and histone deacetylase inhibitors for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The next steps include increasing the specificity for target genes, the development of biomarkers for dose and response studies, and establishing a strategy to select drugs for combination therapy. The further use of epigenetics for diagnosis and therapy is warranted.

  5. Application of laser radiation and magnetostimulation in therapy of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubsik, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Robert; Janczewska, Katarzyna; Klimkiewicz, Paulina; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is one of the most common neurological disorders. It is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS, whose etiology is not fully understood. Application of new rehabilitation methods are essential to improve functional status. The material studied consisted of 120 patients of both sexes (82 women and 38 men) aged 21-81 years. The study involved patients with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of laser radiation and other therapies on the functional status of patients with multiple sclerosis. Patients were randomly divided into four treatment groups. The evaluation was performed three times - before the start of rehabilitation, immediately after rehabilitation (21 days of treatment) and subsequent control - 30 days after the patients leave the clinic. The following tests were performed for all patients to assess functional status: Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of Kurtzke and Barthel Index. Results of all testing procedures show that the treatment methods are improving the functional status of patients with multiple sclerosis, with the significant advantage of the synergistic action of laser and magneto stimulation. The combination of laser and magneto stimulation significantly confirmed beneficial effect on quality of life. The results of these studies present new scientific value and are improved compared to program of rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis by laser radiation which was previously used. This study showed that synergic action of laser radiation and magneto stimulation has a beneficial effect on improving functional status, and thus improves the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis. The effects of all methods of rehabilitation are persisted after cessation of treatment applications, with a particular advantage of the synergistic action of laser radiation and magneto stimulation, which indicates the possibility to elicitation in these

  6. Introduction to the geophysical methods applicable to coal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter introduces a range of geophysical methods that may be applicable to coal mining and exploration problems. The focus of these discussions is on emphasising the link between geology and physics – and how the different geophysical methods...

  7. Effect of Fertilizer Type and Method of Application on Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of fertilizer types and methods of application on the nutritive value and in situ rumen degradability of maize straw were assessed. The fertilizer types were; Low analysis fertilizer (LAF), with nutrient contents of less than 41% and High analysis fertilizer (HAF), with nutrient contents greater than 41%. The methods of ...

  8. Application of Lyapunov's Second Method in the Stability Analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, Lyapunov's method for determining the stability of non-linear systems under dynamic states is presented. The paper highlights a practical application of the method to investigate the stability of crude oil/natural gas separation process. Mathematical state models for the separation process, used in the ...

  9. Using moving activities for therapy of communicative disability

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachová, Radka

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with movement methods used in speech therapy. The main goal is to point out on movement therapy used in therapy of communicative disorders. The first part of work explains terms such as therapy and introduces the acquisition of speech through speech-movement therapy. The second part of work is focused on the accent method of voice therapy and its application during therapy of voice disorders. An important part of my work are physiotherapeutic methods used in speech therapy suc...

  10. Preclinical imaging methods for assessing the safety and efficacy of regenerative medicine therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfe, Lauren; Brillant, Nathalie; Kumar, J. Dinesh; Ali, Noura; Alrumayh, Ahmed; Amali, Mohammed; Barbellion, Stephane; Jones, Vendula; Niemeijer, Marije; Potdevin, Sophie; Roussignol, Gautier; Vaganov, Anatoly; Barbaric, Ivana; Barrow, Michael; Burton, Neal C.; Connell, John; Dazzi, Francesco; Edsbagge, Josefina; French, Neil S.; Holder, Julie; Hutchinson, Claire; Jones, David R.; Kalber, Tammy; Lovatt, Cerys; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Patel, Sara; Patrick, P. Stephen; Piner, Jacqueline; Reinhardt, Jens; Ricci, Emanuelle; Sidaway, James; Stacey, Glyn N.; Starkey Lewis, Philip J.; Sullivan, Gareth; Taylor, Arthur; Wilm, Bettina; Poptani, Harish; Murray, Patricia; Goldring, Chris E. P.; Park, B. Kevin

    2017-10-01

    Regenerative medicine therapies hold enormous potential for a variety of currently incurable conditions with high unmet clinical need. Most progress in this field to date has been achieved with cell-based regenerative medicine therapies, with over a thousand clinical trials performed up to 2015. However, lack of adequate safety and efficacy data is currently limiting wider uptake of these therapies. To facilitate clinical translation, non-invasive in vivo imaging technologies that enable careful evaluation and characterisation of the administered cells and their effects on host tissues are critically required to evaluate their safety and efficacy in relevant preclinical models. This article reviews the most common imaging technologies available and how they can be applied to regenerative medicine research. We cover details of how each technology works, which cell labels are most appropriate for different applications, and the value of multi-modal imaging approaches to gain a comprehensive understanding of the responses to cell therapy in vivo.

  11. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF CANDIDAL DYSBACTERIOSIS THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Nikolaeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of effectiveness of different methods of microbiological disorders correction in children after 3 years old with candidal dysbacteriosis are presented in this article. The study compared probiotical sour milk-made stuff («Actimel» and sour milk-made stuff, not fortified with probiotical cultures («Rastishka» and traditional kefir. It was shown that an inclusion of probiotical sour milkmade stuff in diet of children with candidal dysbacteriosis results in normalization of lacto- and bifidobacteria level and decreasing of Candida level.Key words: children, candidal dysbacteriosis, probiotics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(6:31-35

  12. Grounded Theory as a Method for Research in Speech and Language Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeat, J.; Perry, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The use of qualitative methodologies in speech and language therapy has grown over the past two decades, and there is now a body of literature, both generally describing qualitative research, and detailing its applicability to health practice(s). However, there has been only limited profession-specific discussion of qualitative…

  13. Nano-systems for medical applications: biological detection, drug delivery, diagnosis and therapy; Applications medicales des nanoparticules: detection biologique, delivrance de medicaments, diagnostic, therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riviere, Ch. [Nano-H SAS, 69 - Lyon (France); Roux, S.; Tillement, O. [Lyon-1 Univ. Claude Bernard, Lab. de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, UMR 5620 CNRS, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Billotey, C. [Lyon-1 Univ. Claude Bernard, Lab. CREATIS-Animage, UMR 5515 CNRS, U630 INSERM, INSA de Lyon, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Perriat, P. [Groupe d' Etudes de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, UMR 5510 CNRS-INSA de Lyon, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2006-05-15

    A review. For a couple of decades, greater and greater connections have been made between nano-technology, biology and medicine. After a rapid description of the particles most often used for biological and medical purposes, the review will detail their potential applications in both domains. In the field of biological detection, a large number of new detection systems is offered by noble metals and semi-conductors, which exhibit very specific nanometer-scale induced properties. In the field of diagnosis and therapeutic applications, particles become more and more sophisticated with an increased possibility of specific targeting, drug delivery triggering and combination of both diagnosis and therapy. (authors)

  14. Nanomedicine in cancer therapy: challenges, opportunities, and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicki, Andreas; Witzigmann, Dominik; Balasubramanian, Vimalkumar; Huwyler, Jörg

    2015-02-28

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Currently available therapies are inadequate and spur demand for improved technologies. Rapid growth in nanotechnology towards the development of nanomedicine products holds great promise to improve therapeutic strategies against cancer. Nanomedicine products represent an opportunity to achieve sophisticated targeting strategies and multi-functionality. They can improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of conventional therapeutics and may thus optimize the efficacy of existing anti-cancer compounds. In this review, we discuss state-of-the-art nanoparticles and targeted systems that have been investigated in clinical studies. We emphasize the challenges faced in using nanomedicine products and translating them from a preclinical level to the clinical setting. Additionally, we cover aspects of nanocarrier engineering that may open up new opportunities for nanomedicine products in the clinic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  16. Viscous-Inviscid Coupling Methods for Advanced Marine Propeller Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Greve, Martin; Wöckner-Kluwe, Katja; Abdel-Maksoud, Moustafa; Rung, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports the development of coupling strategies between an inviscid direct panel method and a viscous RANS method and their application to complex propeller ows. The work is motivated by the prohibitive computational cost associated to unsteady viscous flow simulations using geometrically resolved propellers to analyse the dynamics of ships in seaways. The present effort aims to combine the advantages of the two baseline methods in order to reduce the numerical effort without comprom...

  17. Applications for Bacteriophage Therapy during Pregnancy and the Perinatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy L. Furfaro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women and their unborn children are a population that is particularly vulnerable to bacterial infection. Physiological changes that occur during pregnancy affect the way women respond to such infections and the options that clinicians have for treatment. Antibiotics are still considered the best option for active infections and a suitable prophylaxis for prevention of potential infections, such as vaginal/rectal Streptococcus agalactiae colonization prior to birth. The effect of such antibiotic use on the developing fetus, however, is still largely unknown. Recent research has suggested that the fetal gut microbiota plays a critical role in fetal immunologic programming. Hence, even minor alterations in this microbiota may have potentially significant downstream effects. An ideal antibacterial therapeutic for administration during pregnancy would be one that is highly specific for its target, leaving the surrounding microbiota intact. This review first provides a basic overview of the challenges a clinician faces when administering therapeutics to a pregnant patient and then goes on to explore common bacterial infections in pregnancy, use of antibiotics for treatment/prevention of such infections and the consequences of such treatment for the mother and infant. With this background established, the review then explores the potential for use of bacteriophage (phage therapy as an alternative to antibiotics during the antenatal period. Many previous reviews have highlighted the revitalization of and potential for phage therapy for treatment of a range of bacterial infections, particularly in the context of the increasing threat of widespread antibiotic resistance. However, information on the potential for the use of phage therapeutics in pregnancy is lacking. This review aims to provide a thorough overview of studies of this nature and discuss the feasibility of bacteriophage use during pregnancy to treat and/or prevent bacterial

  18. Next generation nutraceutical from shrimp waste: The convergence of applications with extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prameela, Kandra; Venkatesh, Kuncham; Immandi, Sarat Babu; Kasturi, Ashok Phani Kiran; Rama Krishna, Ch; Murali Mohan, Ch

    2017-12-15

    In recent years considerable progress in health therapy makes a significant improvement in natural nutraceuticals. Shrimp is a valuable natural sea food and is processed by removing head, tail and carapace as waste. The large amounts of waste produced by sea food industries capitulate, recoverable nutraceutical compound astaxanthin. This review emphasizes the chemistry and role of astaxanthin in pigmentation. The study highlights progress in applications and describes the current extraction methods starting with chemical to the best eco-friendly microbial processes. Relevant literature on the methods giving summary of results obtained using each approach has been reviewed and critically discussed. Intense research in advancing extraction methods to enhance productivity and to meet the demands of the consumer was discussed in future challenges. Further, aimed at collating valuable information about applications and recent extraction methodologies will promote a concept of intake of "a nutraceutical a day may keep the doctor away". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanoemulsions: the properties, methods of preparation and promising applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, M. Yu; Yurtov, Evgenii V.

    2012-01-01

    The properties of nanoemulsions and various methods for their preparation including the high-energy and low-energy emulsification methods and the combined methods are reviewed. Among the high-energy methods, the emphasis is placed on high-energy stirring, ultrasonic emulsification, high-pressure homogenization including microfluidics and membrane emulsification. Among the low-energy emulsification methods, the attention is focused on the phase inversion temperature method, the emulsion inversion point method and the spontaneous emulsification. Using a combined method, which includes the high-energy and low-energy emulsification, it is possible to prepare reverse nanoemulsions in highly viscous systems. Main advantages and limitations of different methods of nanoemulsion preparation are discussed and the potential fields of nanoemulsion applications are considered. The bibliography includes 255 references.

  20. Play-Diagnosis and Therapy in Sweden: The Erica-Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjolund, Margareta

    1981-01-01

    The Erica Method, a form of play-diagnosis and play-therapy used widely in Sweden, utilizes a standardized material that consists of sandboxes and miniature toys. The method is a very useful tool for better understanding of both developmental, neurological and psychopathological problems of childhood. (Author)

  1. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Opinions about Mathematical Modeling Method and Applicability of This Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Levent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify prospective secondary mathematics teachers' opinions about the mathematical modeling method and the applicability of this method in high schools. The case study design, which is among the qualitative research methods, was used in the study. The study was conducted with six prospective secondary mathematics…

  2. An ontology for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Application to Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragozá, Irene; Alcañiz, Mariano; Botella, Cristina; Baños, Rosa; Guixeres, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years the use of medical and biomedical ontologies has increased considerably. It is very common to find applications and semantic webs using this kind of ontologies and a large number of papers have been written explaining why ontologies are useful in these fields. In this paper the use of ontologies for psychology and its benefits is discussed and a first ontology for obesity treatment is presented.

  3. Application of methods of experiential education in corporate trainings

    OpenAIRE

    Šneiderová, Vilma

    2008-01-01

    The bachelor thesis discusses possible applications of the experiential learning method in adult education, mainly in professional training. The thesis defines the experiential pedagogy concept and covers the history of this area of pedagogy. It focuses on games as an important experiential learning tool as well as on conditions of their application in the development of adults. It explains how to prepare a game for adults and how to work with it to make it a real developmental tool. One sect...

  4. Application of geo-information science methods in ecotourism exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Suocheng; Hou, Xiaoli

    2004-11-01

    Application of geo-information science methods in ecotourism development was discussed in the article. Since 1990s, geo-information science methods, which take the 3S (Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing) as core techniques, has played an important role in resources reconnaissance, data management, environment monitoring, and regional planning. Geo-information science methods can easily analyze and convert geographic spatial data. The application of 3S methods is helpful to sustainable development in tourism. Various assignments are involved in the development of ecotourism, such as reconnaissance of ecotourism resources, drawing of tourism maps, dealing with mass data, and also tourism information inquire, employee management, quality management of products. The utilization of geo-information methods in ecotourism can make the development more efficient by promoting the sustainable development of tourism and the protection of eco-environment.

  5. Impact of Smartphone Applications on Timing of Endovascular Therapy for Ischemic Stroke: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Naif M; Sarzetto, Francesca; Guha, Daipayan; Lu, Michael; Bodo, Andre; Gupta, Shaurya; Dyer, Erin; Howard, Peter; da Costa, Leodante; Swartz, Richard H; Boyle, Karl; Nathens, Avery B; Yang, Victor X D

    2017-11-01

    The metrics of imaging-to-puncture and imaging-to-reperfusion were recently found to be associated with the clinical outcomes of endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. However, measures for improving workflow within hospitals to achieve better timing results are largely unexplored for endovascular therapy. The aim of this study was to examine our experience with a novel smartphone application developed in house to improve our timing metrics for endovascular treatment. We developed an encrypted smartphone application connecting all stroke team members to expedite conversations and to provide synchronized real-time updates on the time window from stroke onset to imaging and to puncture. The effects of the application on the timing of endovascular therapy were evaluated with a secondary analysis of our single-center cohort. Our primary outcome was imaging-to-puncture time. We assessed the outcomes with nonparametric tests of statistical significance. Forty-five patients met our criteria for analysis among 66 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who received endovascular therapy at our institution. After the implementation of the smartphone application, imaging-to-puncture time was significantly reduced (preapplication median time, 127 minutes; postapplication time, 69 minutes; P smartphone applications may reduce treatment times for endovascular therapy in acute ischemic stroke. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Application of Maximum Entropy Method to Semiconductor Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Yonamoto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The maximum entropy method (MEM is widely used in research fields such as linguistics, meteorology, physics, and chemistry. Recently, MEM application has become a subject of interest in the semiconductor engineering field, in which devices utilize very thin films composed of many materials. For thin film fabrication, it is essential to thoroughly understand atomic-scale structures, internal fixed charges, and bulk/interface traps, and many experimental techniques have been developed for evaluating these. However, the difficulty in interpreting the data they provide prevents the improvement of device fabrication processes. As a candidate for a very practical data analyzing technique, MEM is a promising approach to solve this problem. In this paper, we review the application of MEM to thin films used in semiconductor engineering. The method provides interesting and important information that cannot be obtained with conventional methods. This paper explains its theoretical background, important points for practical use, and application results.

  7. Multicomponent and multiscale systems theory, methods, and applications in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    This book examines the latest research results from combined multi-component and multi-scale explorations. It provides theory, considers underlying numerical methods, and presents brilliant computational experimentation. Engineering computations featured in this monograph further offer particular interest to many researchers, engineers, and computational scientists working in frontier modeling and applications of multicomponent and multiscale problems. Professor Geiser gives specific attention to the aspects of decomposing and splitting delicate structures and controlling decomposition and the rationale behind many important applications of multi-component and multi-scale analysis. Multicomponent and Multiscale Systems: Theory, Methods, and Applications in Engineering also considers the question of why iterative methods can be powerful and more appropriate for well-balanced multiscale and multicomponent coupled nonlinear problems. The book is ideal for engineers and scientists working in theoretical and a...

  8. Prony's method application for BWR instabilities characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Rogelio, E-mail: rogelio.castillo@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Ramírez, J. Ramón, E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Alonso, Gustavo, E-mail: gustavo.alonso@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Ed. 9, Lindavista, D.F. 07300 (Mexico); Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier, E-mail: javier.ortiz@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Prony's method application for BWR instability events. • Several BWR instability benchmark are assessed using this method. • DR and frequency are obtained and a new parameter is proposed to eliminate false signals. • Adequate characterization of in-phase and out-of-phase events is obtained. • The Prony's method application is validated. - Abstract: Several methods have been developed for the analysis of reactor power signals during BWR power oscillations. Among them is the Prony's method, its application provides the DR and the frequency of oscillations. In this paper another characteristic of the method is proposed to determine the type of oscillations that can occur, in-phase or out-of-phase. Prony's method decomposes a given signal in all the frequencies that it contains, therefore the DR of the fundamental mode and the first harmonic are obtained. To determine the more dominant pole of the system a normalized amplitude W of the system is calculated, which depends on the amplitude and the damping coefficient. With this term, it can be analyzed which type of oscillations is present, if W of the fundamental mode frequency is the greater, the type of oscillations is in-phase, if W of the first harmonic frequency is the greater, the type of oscillations is out-of-phase. The method is applied to several stability benchmarks to assess its validity. Results show the applicability of the method as an alternative analysis method to determine the type of oscillations occurred.

  9. Cationic porphyrin derivatives for application in photodynamic therapy of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prack McCormick, Bárbara P.; Florencia Pansa, M.; Milla Sanabria, Laura N.; Carvalho, Carla M. B.; Faustino, M. Amparo F.; Neves, Maria Graça P. M. S.; Cavaleiro, José A. S.; Rumie Vittar, Natalia B.; Rivarola, Viviana A.

    2014-04-01

    Current studies in photodynamic therapy (PDT) against cancer are focused on the development of new photosensitizers (PSs), with higher phototoxic action. The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic efficiency of tri-cationic meso-substituted porphyrin derivatives (Tri-Py+-Me-PF, Tri-Py+-Me-Ph, Tri-Py+-Me-CO2Me and Tri-Py+-Me-CO2H) with the well-known tetra-cationic T4PM. The phototoxic action of these derivatives was assessed in human colon adenocarcinoma cells by cell viability, intracellular localization and nuclear morphology analysis. In the experimental conditions used we determined that after light activation -PF, -Ph and -CO2Me cause a more significant decline of cell viability compared to -CO2H and T4PM. These results suggest that the nature of the peripheral substituent influences the extent of cell photodamage. Moreover, we have demonstrated that PS concentration, physicochemical properties and further light activation determine the PDT response. All porphyrins were clearly localized as a punctuated pattern in the cytoplasm of the cells, and the PDT scheme resulted in apoptotic cell death after 3 h post-PDT. The tri-cationic porphyrin derivatives Tri-Py+-Me-PF, Tri-Py+-Me-Ph and Tri-Py+-Me-CO2Me showed a promising ability, making them good photosensitizer candidates for oncological PDT.

  10. Nuclear physics applications in diagnostics and cancer therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2005-01-01

    Only 1% of the 18,000 world accelerators are devoted to the production of radioisotopes for medical diagnostics. In fact at present about 85% of all the medical examinations use /sup 99m/Tc produced in nuclear reactors. But the development of Positron Emission Tomography and of its combination with Computer Tomography will boost the hospital use of cyclotrons. Much more general is the use of electron linacs in cancer therapy about 40% of the world accelerators are used for this so called "conventional" radiotherapy. In the developed countries every 10 million inhabitants about 20,000 oncological patients are irradiated every year with high-energy photons (called X-rays by radiotherapists) produced by electron linacs. Much less used is "hadrontherapy", the radiotherapy technique that employs protons, neutrons or carbon ions. Protons and ions are 'heavy' charged particles: they assure a more 'conformal' treatment than X-rays and thus spare better the surrounding healthy tissues allowing a larger dose and thus a...

  11. Clinical application of dendritic cells in cancer vaccination therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Inge Marie; Soot, Mette Line; Buus, Søren

    2003-01-01

    for large-scale generation of dendritic cells for clinical applications has made possible phase I/II studies designed to analyze the toxicity, feasibility and efficacy of this approach. In clinical trials, DC-based vaccination of patients with advanced cancer has in many cases led to immunity...... endpoints, including toxicity and response evaluation. This paper aims to review the technical aspects and clinical impact of vaccination trials, focusing on the generation of DC-based vaccines, evaluation of immunologic parameters and design of clinical trials necessary to meet the need for good laboratory...

  12. A Split-and-Merge-Based Uterine Fibroid Ultrasound Image Segmentation Method in HIFU Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Menglong; Zhang, Dong; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yu; Yuan, Zhiyong; Qin, Qianqing

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy has been used to treat uterine fibroids widely and successfully. Uterine fibroid segmentation plays an important role in positioning the target region for HIFU therapy. Presently, it is completed by physicians manually, reducing the efficiency of therapy. Thus, computer-aided segmentation of uterine fibroids benefits the improvement of therapy efficiency. Recently, most computer-aided ultrasound segmentation methods have been based on the framework of contour evolution, such as snakes and level sets. These methods can achieve good performance, although they need an initial contour that influences segmentation results. It is difficult to obtain the initial contour automatically; thus, the initial contour is always obtained manually in many segmentation methods. A split-and-merge-based uterine fibroid segmentation method, which needs no initial contour to ensure less manual intervention, is proposed in this paper. The method first splits the image into many small homogeneous regions called superpixels. A new feature representation method based on texture histogram is employed to characterize each superpixel. Next, the superpixels are merged according to their similarities, which are measured by integrating their Quadratic-Chi texture histogram distances with their space adjacency. Multi-way Ncut is used as the merging criterion, and an adaptive scheme is incorporated to decrease manual intervention further. The method is implemented using Matlab on a personal computer (PC) platform with Intel Pentium Dual-Core CPU E5700. The method is validated on forty-two ultrasound images acquired from HIFU therapy. The average running time is 9.54 s. Statistical results showed that SI reaches a value as high as 87.58%, and normHD is 5.18% on average. It has been demonstrated that the proposed method is appropriate for segmentation of uterine fibroids in HIFU pre-treatment imaging and planning.

  13. A Split-and-Merge-Based Uterine Fibroid Ultrasound Image Segmentation Method in HIFU Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglong Xu

    Full Text Available High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy has been used to treat uterine fibroids widely and successfully. Uterine fibroid segmentation plays an important role in positioning the target region for HIFU therapy. Presently, it is completed by physicians manually, reducing the efficiency of therapy. Thus, computer-aided segmentation of uterine fibroids benefits the improvement of therapy efficiency. Recently, most computer-aided ultrasound segmentation methods have been based on the framework of contour evolution, such as snakes and level sets. These methods can achieve good performance, although they need an initial contour that influences segmentation results. It is difficult to obtain the initial contour automatically; thus, the initial contour is always obtained manually in many segmentation methods. A split-and-merge-based uterine fibroid segmentation method, which needs no initial contour to ensure less manual intervention, is proposed in this paper. The method first splits the image into many small homogeneous regions called superpixels. A new feature representation method based on texture histogram is employed to characterize each superpixel. Next, the superpixels are merged according to their similarities, which are measured by integrating their Quadratic-Chi texture histogram distances with their space adjacency. Multi-way Ncut is used as the merging criterion, and an adaptive scheme is incorporated to decrease manual intervention further. The method is implemented using Matlab on a personal computer (PC platform with Intel Pentium Dual-Core CPU E5700. The method is validated on forty-two ultrasound images acquired from HIFU therapy. The average running time is 9.54 s. Statistical results showed that SI reaches a value as high as 87.58%, and normHD is 5.18% on average. It has been demonstrated that the proposed method is appropriate for segmentation of uterine fibroids in HIFU pre-treatment imaging and planning.

  14. Timer switch to convert suction apparatus for negative pressure wound therapy application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surath Amarnath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT is an established modality in the treatment of chronic wounds, open fractures, and post-operative wound problems. This method has not been widely used due to the high cost of equipment and consumables. This study demonstrates an indigenously developed apparatus which gives comparable results at a fraction of the cost. Readily available materials are used for the air-tight dressing. Materials and Methods: Equipment consists of suction apparatus with adjustable pressure valve set to a pressure 125-150 mmHg. An electronic timer switch with a sequential working time of 5 min and a standby time of 3 min provides the required intermittent negative pressure. Readily available materials such as polyvinyl alcohol sponge, suction drains and steridrapes were used to provide an air tight wound cover. Results: A total of 90 cases underwent 262 NPWT applications from 2009 to 2014. This series, comprised of 30 open fractures, 21 post-operative and 39 chronic wounds. The wound healing rate in our study was comparable to other published studies using NPWT. Conclusion: The addition of electronic timer switch will convert a suction apparatus into NPWT machine, and the results are equally effective compared to more expensive counter parts. The use of indigenous dressing materials reduces the cost significantly.

  15. 3rd Workshop on "Combinations of Intelligent Methods and Applications"

    CERN Document Server

    Palade, Vasile

    2013-01-01

    The combination of different intelligent methods is a very active research area in Artificial Intelligence (AI). The aim is to create integrated or hybrid methods that benefit from each of their components.  The 3rd Workshop on “Combinations of Intelligent Methods and Applications” (CIMA 2012) was intended to become a forum for exchanging experience and ideas among researchers and practitioners who are dealing with combining intelligent methods either based on first principles or in the context of specific applications. CIMA 2012 was held in conjunction with the 22nd European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 2012).This volume includes revised versions of the papers presented at CIMA 2012.  .

  16. [Clinical application of moving cupping therapy based on skin reaction observation and syndrome differentiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao-Lan; Chen, Bo; Chen, Ze-Lin

    2014-12-01

    The diagnostic evidence on clinical diseases and theoretic basis of moving cupping therapy were ex- plored in the paper. By the observation of the local reaction, such as skin appearance and color, the affected location, duration of sickness and nature of disease were judged. Different moving cupping methods were selected for different disorders. It was discovered that the property of syndromes should be recognized by the palpation on skin and muscle in the moving cupping therapy so that the pathogenesis and treating principle could be carefully determined. The moving cupping therapy is the important component of body surface therapy. Skin reaction observation and syndrome differentiation is the essential guidance of the moving cupping therapy.

  17. Output calculation of electron therapy at extended SSD using an improved LBR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkhatib, Hassaan A.; Gebreamlak, Wondesen T., E-mail: wondtassew@gmail.com; Wright, Ben W.; Neglia, William J. [South Carolina Oncology Associates, Columbia, South Carolina 29210 (United States); Tedeschi, David J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States); Mihailidis, Dimitris [CAMC Cancer Center and Alliance Oncology, Charleston, West Virginia 25304 (United States); Sobash, Philip T. [The Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 (United States); Fontenot, Jonas D. [Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To calculate the output factor (OPF) of any irregularly shaped electron beam at extended SSD. Methods: Circular cutouts were prepared from 2.0 cm diameter to the maximum possible size for 15 × 15 applicator cone. In addition, two irregular cutouts were prepared. For each cutout, percentage depth dose (PDD) at the standard SSD and doses at different SSD values were measured using 6, 9, 12, and 16 MeV electron beam energies on a Varian 2100C LINAC and the distance at which the central axis electron fluence becomes independent of cutout size was determined. The measurements were repeated with an ELEKTA Synergy LINAC using 14 × 14 applicator cone and electron beam energies of 6, 9, 12, and 15 MeV. The PDD measurements were performed using a scanning system and two diodes—one for the signal and the other a stationary reference outside the tank. The doses of the circular cutouts at different SSDs were measured using PTW 0.125 cm{sup 3} Semiflex ion-chamber and EDR2 films. The electron fluence was measured using EDR2 films. Results: For each circular cutout, the lateral buildup ratio (LBR) was calculated from the measured PDD curve using the open applicator cone as the reference field. The effective SSD (SSD{sub eff}) of each circular cutout was calculated from the measured doses at different SSD values. Using the LBR value and the radius of the circular cutout, the corresponding lateral spread parameter [σ{sub R}(z)] was calculated. Taking the cutout size dependence of σ{sub R}(z) into account, the PDD curves of the irregularly shaped cutouts at the standard SSD were calculated. Using the calculated PDD curve of the irregularly shaped cutout along with the LBR and SSD{sub eff} values of the circular cutouts, the output factor of the irregularly shaped cutout at extended SSD was calculated. Finally, both the calculated PDD curves and output factor values were compared with the measured values. Conclusions: The improved LBR method has been generalized to

  18. Formal methods for industrial critical systems a survey of applications

    CERN Document Server

    Margaria-Steffen, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    "Today, formal methods are widely recognized as an essential step in the design process of industrial safety-critical systems. In its more general definition, the term formal methods encompasses all notations having a precise mathematical semantics, together with their associated analysis methods, that allow description and reasoning about the behavior of a system in a formal manner.Growing out of more than a decade of award-winning collaborative work within the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics, Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems: A Survey of Applications presents a number of mainstream formal methods currently used for designing industrial critical systems, with a focus on model checking. The purpose of the book is threefold: to reduce the effort required to learn formal methods, which has been a major drawback for their industrial dissemination; to help designers to adopt the formal methods which are most appropriate for their systems; and to offer a panel of state-of...

  19. Nanosilicon properties, synthesis, applications, methods of analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Ischenko, Anatoly A; Aslalnov, Leonid A

    2015-01-01

    Nanosilicon: Properties, Synthesis, Applications, Methods of Analysis and Control examines the latest developments on the physics and chemistry of nanosilicon. The book focuses on methods for producing nanosilicon, its electronic and optical properties, research methods to characterize its spectral and structural properties, and its possible applications. The first part of the book covers the basic properties of semiconductors, including causes of the size dependence of the properties, structural and electronic properties, and physical characteristics of the various forms of silicon. It presents theoretical and experimental research results as well as examples of porous silicon and quantum dots. The second part discusses the synthesis of nanosilicon, modification of the surface of nanoparticles, and properties of the resulting particles. The authors give special attention to the photoluminescence of silicon nanoparticles. The third part describes methods used for studying and controlling the structure and pro...

  20. The French functional physical therapy method for the treatment of congenital clubfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeglio, Alain; Canavese, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The French method, also called the functional physical therapy method, is a combination of physiotherapy, splinting and surgery à la carte. The French functional physical therapy method consists of daily manipulations of the newborn's clubfoot by a specialized physical therapist, stimulation of the muscles around the foot and temporary immobilization of the foot with elastic and nonelastic adhesive taping. Physiotherapy is optimized by early triceps surae lengthening. Sequences of plaster can also be used. If conservative treatment is no longer effective, surgery should be considered. Mini-invasive surgery is a complementary procedure to nonoperative treatment (surgery 'à la carte'). The French method reduces but does not eliminate the need for mini-invasive surgical procedures. Equinus is the most difficult deformity to treat; posterior release is sometimes necessary in a severe foot. Very severe feet (stiff-stiff; score, 16-20) are still a challenge. However, regular manipulations and splinting improve foot morphology and stiffness, and, ultimately, make surgery easier and less extensive. From the French method to the Ponseti method, the Hybrid method or the 'the third way', combining the advantages of both methods, is the future. The primary reason for relapses is the inability of families to maintain the correction initially achieved. The aim of this work is to provide an overview of the French functional physical therapy method and to help understand how it has evolved over time.

  1. [Application of music therapy for managing agitated behavior in older people with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chang, Anne M; Abbey, Jennifer

    2006-10-01

    Older people with dementia may display negative emotions, memory problems, sleep disturbance, and agitated behavior. Among these symptoms, agitated behavior has been identified by families and nursing staff as the care problem that presents the greatest challenge. Several studies have found that music therapy reduced agitated behaviors in those with dementia and recommended use of music as an effective strategy in managing this behavioral problem. Music therapy represents a lower cost, effective care approach that nursing staff can easily learn and apply to those with dementia. Furthermore, reductions in agitated behavior in dementia patients that result from music therapy can also alleviate caregiver stress and burden of care, leading to improvements in the health and quality of life of both dementia patients and their caregivers. This paper aims to introduce the principles and application of music therapy in the management of agitated behavior in those with dementia.

  2. Pheromone application in prevention and therapy of domestic animal behavioral disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review-type paper presents the latest knowledge on pheromone therapy. Pheromone therapy does not imply merely the use of structural analogues of pheromones in therapy, but also in the prevention of behavioral disorders in domestic animals. Their application is induced in all cases in which the effects of stressors are expected and their negative effect on the health condition, welfare and production results of domestic animals. Structural analogues of pheromones can successfully be applied in the prevention and therapy of behavioral disorders in horses, swine, dogs, and cats. Recent investigations have confirmed that structural analogues of semiochemicals exert a positive effect also on the production results and meat quality of broilers. They realize their therapeutic and preventive effect on the behavior of domestic animals through the stabilization of the emotional state, relaxation, and calming the animals that are disturbed, or could become disturbed due to the effect of stressors.

  3. [Basic principles and clinical application of retinal laser therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framme, C; Roider, J; Brinkmann, R; Birngruber, R; Gabel, V-P

    2008-04-01

    The scientific background of laser photocoagulation of the ocular fundus was studied extensively by several investigators in the 1970 s and 1980 s. The basic principles were successfully resolved during that time and clinical consequences for proper application of the laser photocoagulation for various diseases were deduced. The present paper gives an overview about the physical basics of laser-tissue interactions during and after retinal laser treatment and the particular laser strategies in the treatment of different retinal diseases. Thus, it addresses the issue of the impact on tissue of laser parameters as wavelength, spot size, pulse duration and laser power. Additionally, the different biological tissue reactions after laser treatment are presented, such as, e. g., for retinopexia or macular treatments as well as for diabetic retinopathies. Specific laser strategies such as the selective laser treatment of the RPE (SRT) or the transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) are presented and discussed.

  4. The J-Matrix Method Developments and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Alhaidari, Abdulaziz D; Heller, Eric J; Abdelmonem, Mohamed S

    2008-01-01

    This volume aims to provide the fundamental knowledge to appreciate the advantages of the J-matrix method and to encourage its use and further development. The J-matrix method is an algebraic method of quantum scattering with substantial success in atomic and nuclear physics. The accuracy and convergence property of the method compares favourably with other successful scattering calculation methods. Despite its thirty-year long history new applications are being found for the J-matrix method. This book gives a brief account of the recent developments and some selected applications of the method in atomic and nuclear physics. New findings are reported in which experimental results are compared to theoretical calculations. Modifications, improvements and extensions of the method are discussed using the language of the J-matrix. The volume starts with a Foreword by the two co-founders of the method, E.J. Heller and H.A. Yamani and it contains contributions from 24 prominent international researchers.

  5. Optimization in Radiation Therapy: Applications in Brachytherapy and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeachy, Philip David

    Over 50% of cancer patients require radiation therapy (RT). RT is an optimization problem requiring maximization of the radiation damage to the tumor while minimizing the harm to the healthy tissues. This dissertation focuses on two main RT optimization problems: 1) brachytherapy and 2) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The brachytherapy research involved solving a non-convex optimization problem by creating an open-source genetic algorithm optimizer to determine the optimal radioactive seed distribution for a given set of patient volumes and constraints, both dosimetric- and implant-based. The optimizer was tested for a set of 45 prostate brachytherapy patients. While all solutions met the clinical standards, they also benchmarked favorably with those generated by a standard commercial solver. Compared to its compatriot, the salient features of the generated solutions were: slightly reduced prostate coverage, lower dose to the urethra and rectum, and a smaller number of needles required for an implant. Historically, IMRT requires modulation of fluence while keeping the photon beam energy fixed. The IMRT-related investigation in this thesis aimed at broadening the solution space by varying photon energy. The problem therefore involved simultaneous optimization of photon beamlet energy and fluence, denoted by XMRT. Formulating the problem as convex, linear programming was applied to obtain solutions for optimal energy-dependent fluences, while achieving all clinical objectives and constraints imposed. Dosimetric advantages of XMRT over single-energy IMRT in the improved sparing of organs at risk (OARs) was demonstrated in simplified phantom studies. The XMRT algorithm was improved to include clinical dose-volume constraints and clinical studies for prostate and head and neck cancer patients were investigated. Compared to IMRT, XMRT provided improved dosimetric benefit in the prostate case, particularly within intermediate- to low-dose regions (≤ 40 Gy

  6. EMPLOYEE SELECTION METHODS IN ROMANIA: POPULARITY AND APPLICANT REACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Septimiu-Rare? SZABO

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of, and applicants’ reactions to 21 different employee selection methods. Past studies on this topic have focused mainly on countries in Western Europe. This research investigated a sample of 142 Romanian respondents using a postal survey. The most popular selection methods used by Romanian organizations were found to be CVs, ability tests and interviews. In contrast, applicants most favor work-samples, followed by ability tests, interviews, CVs and personal...

  7. Methods for production of aluminium powders and their application fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopienko, V.G.; Kiselev, V.P.; Zobnina, N.S. (Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij i Proektnyj Inst. Alyuminievoj, magnievoj i ehlektrodnoj promyshlennosti (USSR))

    1984-12-01

    Different types of powder products made of alluminium and its alloys (powder, fine powders, granules and pastes) as well as their basic physicochemical properties are briefly characterized. The principle methods for alluminium powder production are outlined: physicochemical methods, the melt spraying by compressed gas being the mostly developed among them, and physico-mechanical ones. Main application spheres for powder productions of aluminium and its alloys are reported in short.

  8. Applications in radiation therapy of a scintillating screen viewed by a CCD camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, J.M.; Boon, S.N.; van Luijk, P.

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) dosimetry system has been designed for position-sensitive dose-measurement applications in modem radiation therapy. The system consists of a scintillating screen (Gd2O2S:Tb), observed by a low-noise CCD camera with a long integration time. The system allows reliable and

  9. Analysis of 4-year Dutch reimbursement application data of biological therapies for psoriatic arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, R.J.B.; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Salemink, G.W.; Burer, J.H.G.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To get the approval for reimbursement of biological therapies for PsA, patients need to fulfil specific criteria in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 4-year Dutch reimbursement application data, including the diagnostic, disease activity and response criteria that

  10. E-learning-based speech therapy: a web application for speech training.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer, L.J.; Rietveld, T.C.; Beers, M.M. van; Slangen, R.M.; Heuvel, H. van den; Swart, B.J.M. de; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In The Netherlands, a web application for speech training, E-learning-based speech therapy (EST), has been developed for patients with dysarthria, a speech disorder resulting from acquired neurological impairments such as stroke or Parkinson's disease. In this report, the EST infrastructure

  11. Cognitive rehabilitation therapies for Alzheimer's disease: a review of methods to improve treatment engagement and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are becoming more readily available to the geriatric population in an attempt to curb the insidious decline in cognitive and functional performance. However, people with AD may have difficulty adhering to these cognitive treatments due to denial of memory deficits, compromised brain systems, cognitive incapacity for self-awareness, general difficulty following through on daily tasks, lack of motivation, hopelessness, and apathy, all of which may be either due to the illness or be secondary to depression. Cognitive rehabilitation training exercises are also labor intensive and, unfortunately, serve as a repeated reminder about the memory impairments and attendant functional consequences. In order for cognitive rehabilitation methods to be effective, patients must be adequately engaged and motivated to not only begin a rehabilitation program but also to remain involved in the intervention until a therapeutic dosage can be attained. We review approaches to cognitive rehabilitation in AD, neuropsychological as well as psychological obstacles to effective treatment in this population, and methods that target adherence to treatment and may therefore be applicable to cognitive rehabilitation therapies for AD. The goal is to stimulate discussion among researchers and clinicians alike on how treatment effects may be mediated by engagement in treatment, and what can be done to enhance patient adherence for cognitive rehabilitation therapies in order to obtain greater cognitive and functional benefits from the treatment itself.

  12. Distribution of stress on TMJ disc induced by use of chincup therapy: assessment by the finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calçada, Flávio Siqueira; Guimarães, Antônio Sérgio; Teixeira, Marcelo Lucchesi; Takamatsu, Flávio Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    To assess the distribution of stress produced on TMJ disc by chincup therapy, by means of the finite element method. a simplified three-dimensional TMJ disc model was developed by using Rhinoceros 3D software, and exported to ANSYS software. A 4.9N load was applied on the inferior surface of the model at inclinations of 30, 40, and 50 degrees to the mandibular plane (GoMe). ANSYS was used to analyze stress distribution on the TMJ disc for the different angulations, by means of finite element method. The results showed that the tensile and compressive stresses concentrations were higher on the inferior surface of the model. More presence of tensile stress was found in the middle-anterior region of the model and its location was not altered in the three directions of load application. There was more presence of compressive stress in the middle and mid-posterior regions, but when a 50o inclined load was applied, concentration in the middle region was prevalent. Tensile and compressive stresses intensities progressively diminished as the load was more vertically applied. stress induced by the chincup therapy is mainly located on the inferior surface of the model. Loads at greater angles to the mandibular plane produced distribution of stresses with lower intensity and a concentration of compressive stresses in the middle region. The simplified three-dimensional model proved useful for assessing the distribution of stresses on the TMJ disc induced by the chincup therapy.

  13. Application of TOPSIS method in evaluation and prioritization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of TOPSIS method in evaluation and prioritization of social stability in rural areas (Case Study: Zidasht Basin) ... social sustainability serves as one of the sustainable development components along with qualitative aspects which are evaluated by some concepts like human life and welfare feeling in an ambient.

  14. An Overview of the Monte Carlo Methods, Codes, & Applications Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Travis John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-30

    This report sketches the work of the Group to deliver first-principle Monte Carlo methods, production quality codes, and radiation transport-based computational and experimental assessments using the codes MCNP and MCATK for such applications as criticality safety, non-proliferation, nuclear energy, nuclear threat reduction and response, radiation detection and measurement, radiation health protection, and stockpile stewardship.

  15. Effects of tillage and fertilizer application methods on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, in 2002 and 2003 cropping seasons to evaluate the effects of tillage, fertilizer application method, and the interaction between these two factors on the performance of maize. The experiment was laid out in a ...

  16. Cattle slurry on grassland - application methods and nitrogen use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalor, S.T.J.

    2014-01-01

      Cattle slurry represents a significant resource on grassland-based farming systems. The objective of this thesis was to investigate and devise cattle slurry application methods and strategies that can be implemented on grassland farms to improve the efficiency with which nitrogen (N) in

  17. Applications of non-linear methods in astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, P.C.H.

    1984-01-01

    In this review I discuss catastrophes, bifurcations and strange attractors in a non-mathematical manner by giving very simple examples that st ill contain the essence of the phenomenon. The salientresults of the applications of these non-linear methods in astrophysics are reviewed and include such

  18. How to save water by choice of irrigation application method

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is known that irrigation application method can impact crop water use and water use efficiency, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood, particularly in terms of the water and energy balances during the growing season from pre-irrigation through planting, early growth and yield de...

  19. Application of New Variational Homotopy Perturbation Method For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the application of the New Variational Homotopy Perturbation Method (NVHPM) for solving integro-differential equations. The advantage of the new Scheme is that it does not require discretization, linearization or any restrictive assumption of any form be fore it is applied. Several test problems are ...

  20. Effects of application methods and species of wood on color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the color effects of wood materials to coloring with different application methods (brush, roller sponge and spray gun) and waterborne varnishes were investigated according to ASTM-D 2244. For this purpose, the experimental samples of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.), oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and ...

  1. Application of maximum entropy method for the study of electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Application of maximum entropy method for the study of electron density distribution in ... the sulphide has been divided into 64 × 64 × 64 pixels), a supercomputing system is needed in most cases involving lower ..... predicting metallurgical behaviour of the elements in binary alloy systems, LA-2345. (Los Alamos Scientific ...

  2. Applicability of the Kawa Model as a Framework for the Occupational Therapy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Majapuro, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Kawa is a client-centered and culturally sensitive occupational therapy model. Discussion has aroused if Kawa would be a suitable model for the clientele, which is culturally more diverse than before. Aim: To investigate how occupational therapists have applied Kawa for the occupational therapy process. Material and Methods: This qualitative study involved 15 occupational therapists, who had applied Kawa to their clients. They got selected on social media by ‘snowball sampling’. D...

  3. Learning style and teaching method preferences of Saudi students of physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maghraby, Mohamed A; Alshami, Ali M

    2013-09-01

    To the researchers' knowledge, there are no published studies that have investigated the learning styles and preferred teaching methods of physical therapy students in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted to determine the learning styles and preferred teaching methods of Saudi physical therapy students. A cross-sectional study design. Fifty-three Saudis studying physical therapy (21 males and 32 females) participated in the study. The principal researcher gave an introductory lecture to explain the different learning styles and common teaching methods. Upon completion of the lecture, questionnaires were distributed, and were collected on completion. Percentages were calculated for the learning styles and teaching methods. Pearson's correlations were performed to investigate the relationship between them. More than 45 (85%) of the students rated hands-on training as the most preferred teaching method. Approximately 30 (57%) students rated the following teaching methods as the most preferred methods: "Advanced organizers," "demonstrations," and "multimedia activities." Although 31 (59%) students rated the concrete-sequential learning style the most preferred, these students demonstrated mixed styles on the other style dimensions: Abstract-sequential, abstract-random, and concrete-random. The predominant concrete-sequential learning style is consistent with the most preferred teaching method (hands-on training). The high percentage of physical therapy students whose responses were indicative of mixed learning styles suggests that they can accommodate multiple teaching methods. It is recommended that educators consider the diverse learning styles of the students and utilize a variety of teaching methods in order to promote an optimal learning environment for the students.

  4. Methods and applications for detecting structure in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Elizabeth A.

    The use of networks to represent systems of interacting components is now common in many fields including the biological, physical, and social sciences. Network models are widely applicable due to their relatively simple framework of vertices and edges. Network structure, patterns of connection between vertices, impacts both the functioning of networks and processes occurring on networks. However, many aspects of network structure are still poorly understood. This dissertation presents a set of network analysis methods and applications to real-world as well as simulated networks. The methods are divided into two main types: linear algebra formulations and probabilistic mixture model techniques. Network models lend themselves to compact mathematical representation as matrices, making linear algebra techniques useful probes of network structure. We present methods for the detection of two distinct, but related, network structural forms. First, we derive a measure of vertex similarity based upon network structure. The method builds on existing ideas concerning calculation of vertex similarity, but generalizes and extends the scope to large networks. Second, we address the detection of communities or modules in a specific class of networks, directed networks. We propose a method for detecting community structure in directed networks, which is an extension of a community detection method previously only known for undirected networks. Moving away from linear algebra formulations, we propose two methods for network structure detection based on probabilistic techniques. In the first method, we use the machinery of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to probe patterns of connection among vertices in static networks. The technique allows for the detection of a broad range of types of structure in networks. The second method focuses on time evolving networks. We propose an application of the EM algorithm to evolving networks that can reveal significant structural

  5. A finite element method model to simulate laser interstitial thermo therapy in anatomical inhomogeneous regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yassene

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser Interstitial ThermoTherapy (LITT is a well established surgical method. The use of LITT is so far limited to homogeneous tissues, e.g. the liver. One of the reasons is the limited capability of existing treatment planning models to calculate accurately the damage zone. The treatment planning in inhomogeneous tissues, especially of regions near main vessels, poses still a challenge. In order to extend the application of LITT to a wider range of anatomical regions new simulation methods are needed. The model described with this article enables efficient simulation for predicting damaged tissue as a basis for a future laser-surgical planning system. Previously we described the dependency of the model on geometry. With the presented paper including two video files we focus on the methodological, physical and mathematical background of the model. Methods In contrast to previous simulation attempts, our model is based on finite element method (FEM. We propose the use of LITT, in sensitive areas such as the neck region to treat tumours in lymph node with dimensions of 0.5 cm – 2 cm in diameter near the carotid artery. Our model is based on calculations describing the light distribution using the diffusion approximation of the transport theory; the temperature rise using the bioheat equation, including the effect of microperfusion in tissue to determine the extent of thermal damage; and the dependency of thermal and optical properties on the temperature and the injury. Injury is estimated using a damage integral. To check our model we performed a first in vitro experiment on porcine muscle tissue. Results We performed the derivation of the geometry from 3D ultrasound data and show for this proposed geometry the energy distribution, the heat elevation, and the damage zone. Further on, we perform a comparison with the in-vitro experiment. The calculation shows an error of 5% in the x-axis parallel to the blood vessel

  6. Comparison of the effects of hamstring stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation with prior application of cryotherapy or ultrasound therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Francisco Elezier Xavier; Junior, Arlindo Rodrigues de Mesquita; Meneses, Harnold’s Tyson de Sousa; Moreira dos Santos, Rayele Pricila; Rodrigues, Ezaine Costa; Gouveia, Samara Sousa Vasconcelos; Gouveia, Guilherme Pertinni de Morais; Orsini, Marco; Bastos, Victor Hugo do Vale; Machado, Dionis de Castro Dutra

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation involve physiological reflex mechanisms through submaximal contraction of agonists which activate Golgi organ, promoting the relaxation reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation alone and with prior application of cryotherapy and thermotherapy on hamstring stretching. [Subjects and Methods] The sample comprised of 32 young subjects with hamstring retraction of the right limb. The subjects were randomly allocated to four groups: the control, flexibility PNF, flexibility PNF associated with cryotherapy, flexibility PNF in association with ultrasound therapy. [Results] After 12 stretching sessions, experimental groups showed significant improvements compared to the control group. Moreover, we did not find any significant differences among the experimental groups indicating PNF stretching alone elicits similar results to PNF stretching with prior administration of cryotherapy or thermotherapy. [Conclusion] PNF without other therapy may be a more practical and less expensive choice for clinical care. PMID:26157261

  7. Comparison of the effects of hamstring stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation with prior application of cryotherapy or ultrasound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Francisco Elezier Xavier; Junior, Arlindo Rodrigues de Mesquita; Meneses, Harnold's Tyson de Sousa; Moreira Dos Santos, Rayele Pricila; Rodrigues, Ezaine Costa; Gouveia, Samara Sousa Vasconcelos; Gouveia, Guilherme Pertinni de Morais; Orsini, Marco; Bastos, Victor Hugo do Vale; Machado, Dionis de Castro Dutra

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] Stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation involve physiological reflex mechanisms through submaximal contraction of agonists which activate Golgi organ, promoting the relaxation reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation alone and with prior application of cryotherapy and thermotherapy on hamstring stretching. [Subjects and Methods] The sample comprised of 32 young subjects with hamstring retraction of the right limb. The subjects were randomly allocated to four groups: the control, flexibility PNF, flexibility PNF associated with cryotherapy, flexibility PNF in association with ultrasound therapy. [Results] After 12 stretching sessions, experimental groups showed significant improvements compared to the control group. Moreover, we did not find any significant differences among the experimental groups indicating PNF stretching alone elicits similar results to PNF stretching with prior administration of cryotherapy or thermotherapy. [Conclusion] PNF without other therapy may be a more practical and less expensive choice for clinical care.

  8. Fourier modal method and its applications in computational nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hwi

    2012-01-01

    Most available books on computational electrodynamics are focused on FDTD, FEM, or other specific technique developed in microwave engineering. In contrast, Fourier Modal Method and Its Applications in Computational Nanophotonics is a complete guide to the principles and detailed mathematics of the up-to-date Fourier modal method of optical analysis. It takes readers through the implementation of MATLAB(R) codes for practical modeling of well-known and promising nanophotonic structures. The authors also address the limitations of the Fourier modal method. Features Provides a comprehensive guid

  9. Application of the IPEBS method to dynamic contingency analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, A.C.B. [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pedroso, A.S. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Dynamic contingency analysis is certainly a demanding task in the context of dynamic performance evaluation. This paper presents the results of a test for checking the contingency screening capability of the IPEBS method. A brazilian 1100-bus, 112-gen system was used in the test; the ranking of the contingencies based on critical clearing times obtained with IPEBS, was compared with the ranking derived from detailed time-domain simulation. The results of this comparison encourages us to recommended the use of the method in industry applications, in a complementary basis to the current method of time domain simulation. (author) 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Applications of alignment-free methods in epigenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinello, Luca; Lo Bosco, Giosuè; Yuan, Guo-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in the regulation of cell type-specific gene activities, yet how epigenetic patterns are established and maintained remains poorly understood. Recent studies have supported a role of DNA sequences in recruitment of epigenetic regulators. Alignment-free methods have been applied to identify distinct sequence features that are associated with epigenetic patterns and to predict epigenomic profiles. Here, we review recent advances in such applications, including the methods to map DNA sequence to feature space, sequence comparison and prediction models. Computational studies using these methods have provided important insights into the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms.

  11. Statistical disclosure control for microdata methods and applications in R

    CERN Document Server

    Templ, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    This book on statistical disclosure control presents the theory, applications and software implementation of the traditional approach to (micro)data anonymization, including data perturbation methods, disclosure risk, data utility, information loss and methods for simulating synthetic data. Introducing readers to the R packages sdcMicro and simPop, the book also features numerous examples and exercises with solutions, as well as case studies with real-world data, accompanied by the underlying R code to allow readers to reproduce all results. The demand for and volume of data from surveys, registers or other sources containing sensible information on persons or enterprises have increased significantly over the last several years. At the same time, privacy protection principles and regulations have imposed restrictions on the access and use of individual data. Proper and secure microdata dissemination calls for the application of statistical disclosure control methods to the data before release. This book is in...

  12. Physical methods of nucleic acid transfer: general concepts and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemejane, Julien; Mir, Lluis M

    2009-05-01

    Physical methods of gene (and/or drug) transfer need to combine two effects to deliver the therapeutic material into cells. The physical methods must induce reversible alterations in the plasma membrane to allow the direct passage of the molecules of interest into the cell cytosol. They must also bring the nucleic acids in contact with the permeabilized plasma membrane or facilitate access to the inside of the cell. These two effects can be achieved in one or more steps, depending upon the methods employed. In this review, we describe and compare several physical methods: biolistics, jet injection, hydrodynamic injection, ultrasound, magnetic field and electric pulse mediated gene transfer. We describe the physical mechanisms underlying these approaches and discuss the advantages and limitations of each approach as well as its potential application in research or in preclinical and clinical trials. We also provide conclusions, comparisons, and projections for future developments. While some of these methods are already in use in man, some are still under development or are used only within clinical trials for gene transfer. The possibilities offered by these methods are, however, not restricted to the transfer of genes and the complementary uses of these technologies are also discussed. As these methods of gene transfer may bypass some of the side effects linked to viral or biochemical approaches, they may find their place in specific clinical applications in the future.

  13. Status and applications of echinoid (phylum echinodermata) toxicity test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay, S.; Burgess, R.; Nacci, D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of echinoderms for toxicity testing has focused primarily on sea urchins and sand dollars (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Arbacia punctulata, Lytechinus pictus, and Dendraster excentricus, for example). The status and relative sensitivity of various test methods are described. The most frequently used test methods consist of short-term exposures of sea urchin sperm or embryos; these tests can be easily conducted at all times of the year by using species with complementary spawning cycles or laboratory conditioned populations of a single species. Data from reference toxicant and effluent toxicity tests are summarized. Information on the precision and sensitivity of echinoid test methods are limited and preclude rigorous comparisons with other test methods. The available data indicate that the sensitivity and precision of these methods are comparable to short-term chronic methods for other marine invertebrates and fish. Recent application of the sperm test in toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) and studies of effluent toxicity decay and sediment toxicity illustrate the versatility of this rapid (10 to 60 min exposure) test method. Embryo tests typically use a 48 to 96 h exposure period and measure the occurrence of embryo malformations. Most recent applications of the embryo test have been for the assessment of sediment elutriate toxicity. Adult echinoderms are not frequently used to assess effluent or receiving water toxicity. Recent studies have had success in using the adult life stage of urchins and sand dollars to assess the effects of contaminated sediment on growth, behavior, and bioaccumulation.

  14. Advances in clinical application of cryoablation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic liver tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ke-Qin

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Although surgical resection and liver transplantation are the curative treatments, many of HCC patients do not qualify for these curative therapies at the presentation. Thus, ablation therapies are currently important modalities in HCC treatment. Among currently available ablation therapies, cryoablation (ie, cryotherapy) is a novel local therapeutic modality. However, cryoablation has not been widely used as one of ablation therapies for HCC, because of historical concerns about risk of bleeding when cryotherapy is delivered by early generation of the argon-helium device. Nevertheless, with technological advances and increased clinical experience in the past decade, clinical application of cryoablation for HCC management has significantly increased. Accumulating data have demonstrated that cryoablation is highly effective in local tumor control with well-acceptable safety profile, and the overall survival is comparable with that of radiofrequency ablation in patients with tumors advances in clinical application of cryoablation therapy for HCC, including the related mechanisms and technology, clinical indications, efficacy and safety profiles, and future research directions.

  15. Application Profile Matching Method for Employees Online Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarti; Rangga, Rahmadian Y.; Marlim, Yulvia Nora

    2017-12-01

    Employees is one of the determinant factors of company’s success. Thus, reliable human resources are needed to support the survival of the company. This research takes case study at PT. Asuransi Bina Dana Arta, Tbk Pekanbaru Branch. Employee recruitment system at PT. Asuransi Bina Dana Arta, Tbk Pekanbaru Branch still uses manual system as seen in application letter files file so it needs long time to determine accepted and rejected the application. For that it needs to built a system or application that allows companies in determining employees who accepted or rejected easily. Pofile Matching Method is a process of competency assessment that is done by comparing the value of written, psychological and interview test between one applicationt with other. PT. Asuransi Bina Dana Arta, Tbk Pekanbaru branch set the percentage to calculate NCF (Core Factor Value) by 60% and NSF (Secondary Factor Value) by 40%, and set the percentage to calculate the total value of written test by 40%, the total value of psycho test by 30%, and the total value of interview 30%. The final result of this study is to determine the rank or ranking of each applicant based on the greater value which, the greater that score of final result of an application get, the greater the chance of the applicant occupy a position or vacancy. Online Recruitment application uses profile matching method can help employee selection process and employee acceptance decisions quickly. This system can be viewed by directors or owners anywhere because it is online and used for other company branch

  16. Applications and Preparation Methods of Copper Chromite Catalysts: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prasad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review article various applications and preparation methods of copper chromite catalysts have been discussed. While discussing it is concluded that copper chromite is a versatile catalyst which not only catalyses numerous processes of commercial importance and national program related to defence and space research but also finds applications in the most concerned problem worldwide i.e. environmental pollution control. Several other very useful applications of copper chromite catalysts are in production of clean energy, drugs and agro chemicals, etc. Various preparation methods about 15 have been discussed which depicts clear idea about the dependence of catalytic activity and selectivity on way of preparation of catalyst. In view of the globally increasing interest towards copper chromite catalysis, reexamination on the important applications of such catalysts and their useful preparation methods is thus the need of the time. This review paper encloses 369 references including a well-conceivable tabulation of the newer state of the art. Copyright © 2011 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 19th March 2011, Revised: 03rd May 2011, Accepted: 23rd May 2011[How to Cite: R. Prasad, and P. Singh. (2011. Applications and Preparation Methods of Copper Chromite Catalysts: A Review. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (2: 63-113. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.2.829.63-113][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.2.829.63-113 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/829 ] | View in 

  17. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  18. Probabilistic safety analysis of external floods. Method and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluegel, J.U. [Kernkraftwerk Goesgen-Daeniken (Switzerland)

    2013-05-15

    The events of Fukushima amplified the scientific interest in the improvement of methods for probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of extreme external events. The assessment of consequences of external floods belongs to this group of events. The paper presents the key steps of methodology for probabilistic safety assessment of external floods and a recent application for a nuclear power plant in Switzerland. The presented methodology is an extension of earlier activities and provides more focus on the PSA methodology part that may be applicable also for other studies. (orig.)

  19. Application of direct tracking method for measuring electrospun nanofiber diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ziabari

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, direct tracking method as an image analysis based technique for measuring electrospun nanofiber diameter has been presented and compared with distance transform method. Samples with known characteristics generated using a simulation scheme known as µ-randomness were employed to evaluate the accuracy of the method. Electrospun webs of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA were also used to verify the applicability of the method on real samples. Since direct tracking as well as distance transform require binary input images, micrographs of the electrospun webs obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM were first converted to black and white using local thresholding. Direct tracking resulted in more accurate estimations of fiber diameter for simulated images as well as electrospun webs suggesting the usefulness of the method for electrospun nanofiber diameter measurement.

  20. Spectral/hp element methods: Recent developments, applications, and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Hui; Cantwell, Chris; Monteserin, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The spectral/hp element method combines the geometric flexibility of the classical h-type finite element technique with the desirable numerical properties of spectral methods, employing high-degree piecewise polynomial basis functions on coarse finite element-type meshes. The spatial approximation...... regularity assumptions an exponential reduction in approximation error between numerical and exact solutions can be achieved. This method has now been applied in many simulation studies of both fundamental and practical engineering flows. This paper briefly describes the formulation of the spectral/hp...... element method and provides an overview of its application to computational fluid dynamics. In particular, it focuses on the use of the spectral/hp element method in transitional flows and ocean engineering. Finally, some of the major challenges to be overcome in order to use the spectral/hp element...

  1. Application of the Pareto principle to identify and address drug-therapy safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Fabian; Dormann, Harald; Pfistermeister, Barbara; Sonst, Anja; Patapovas, Andrius; Vogler, Renate; Hartmann, Nina; Plank-Kiegele, Bettina; Kirchner, Melanie; Bürkle, Thomas; Maas, Renke

    2014-06-01

    Adverse drug events (ADE) and medication errors (ME) are common causes of morbidity in patients presenting at emergency departments (ED). Recognition of ADE as being drug related and prevention of ME are key to enhancing pharmacotherapy safety in ED. We assessed the applicability of the Pareto principle (~80 % of effects result from 20 % of causes) to address locally relevant problems of drug therapy. In 752 cases consecutively admitted to the nontraumatic ED of a major regional hospital, ADE, ME, contributing drugs, preventability, and detection rates of ADE by ED staff were investigated. Symptoms, errors, and drugs were sorted by frequency in order to apply the Pareto principle. In total, 242 ADE were observed, and 148 (61.2 %) were assessed as preventable. ADE contributed to 110 inpatient hospitalizations. The ten most frequent symptoms were causally involved in 88 (80.0 %) inpatient hospitalizations. Only 45 (18.6 %) ADE were recognized as drug-related problems until discharge from the ED. A limited set of 33 drugs accounted for 184 (76.0 %) ADE; ME contributed to 57 ADE. Frequency-based listing of ADE, ME, and drugs involved allowed identification of the most relevant problems and development of easily to implement safety measures, such as wall and pocket charts. The Pareto principle provides a method for identifying the locally most relevant ADE, ME, and involved drugs. This permits subsequent development of interventions to increase patient safety in the ED admission process that best suit local needs.

  2. A CASE STUDY OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY APPLICATION IN A PATIENT WITH DEPRESSION AND HYPOACUSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Mihaela Ciucurel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We chose to present an exemplifying case-study of occupational therapy (OT application in an adult patient with depression and hypoacusis by using the narrative interview method. We started from the principle that in each OT case-study it is important to identify the patient’s previously life roles held and the activities that were fulfilled within these roles. As methodological tool, we applied the Person-Environment-Occupation Model (PEO in a 48 years old woman, with reactive depression (after her husband’s death and congenital hypoacusis. After identifying the occupational routine and life style of the client, we established as a valid aim of OT intervention the client’s return to an old hobby, the flowers photography, and we described the PEO factors that influence flower shooting performance. From a global perspective, client’s occupational performance was considered as satisfactory. Her abilities and independent functional status allow her to be engaged in different daily occupations that match with her environment. After completing the PEO transaction for flower shooting, we extracted the occupational needs of the client. This client centered case study is an example of good practice, which reveals the possibility of achieving a higher level of occupational performance and to increase self-esteem for individuals with depression.

  3. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Osteocalcin Expression with Application of LIPUS During Relapse Phase of Orthodontic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasem A. Abeas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many biomarkers (proteins representing the biological modifications during bone resorption and formation phenomena, one of the most important proteins is the osteocalcin ,which is the most abundant non collagenous matrix protein in bone and dentine, that used as a clinical marker for bone turnover. Osteocalcin is expressed solely by highly differentiated osteoblasts and is incorporated into the bony matrix, and thought to play a role in the body's metabolic regulation and is pro-osteoblastic, or bone-building, by nature. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS is a medical technology used to enhance bone healing, bone growth, bone formation and maturation in different medical situations. Material and method: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the LIPUS application on the osteocalcin expression and its role in accelerating the bone formation during relapse phase of orthodontic tooth movement. Fourteen male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: control and experimental (orthodontically treated(alone in the former plus LIPUS therapy during relapse phase in the latter group. Results: The result almost showed strong immunoreaction for osteocalcin expressed by dental cells and their progenitors in experimental group in the coronal, middle, and apical levels which play essential role in enhancing and accelerating the bone formation and regeneration via increasing the osteogenic cells activity that illustrates a benefit in orthodontic treatment.

  4. Experimental investigations of an endoluminal ultrasound applicator for MR-guided thermal therapy of pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew; Salgaonkar, Vasant; Jones, Peter; Plata, Juan; Chen, Henry; Pauly, Kim Butts; Sommer, Graham; Diederich, Chris

    2017-03-01

    An MR-guided endoluminal ultrasound applicator has been proposed for palliative and potential curative thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors. Minimally invasive ablation or hyperthermia treatment of pancreatic tumor tissue would be performed with the applicator positioned in the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen, and sparing of the luminal tissue would be achieved with a water-cooled balloon surrounding the ultrasound transducers. This approach offers the capability of conformal volumetric therapy for fast treatment times, with control over the 3D spatial deposition of energy. Prototype endoluminal ultrasound applicators have been fabricated using 3D printed fixtures that seat two 3.2 or 5.6 MHz planar or curvilinear transducers and contain channels for wiring and water flow. Spiral surface coils have been integrated onto the applicator body to allow for device localization and tracking for therapies performed under MR guidance. Heating experiments with a tissue-mimicking phantom in a 3T MR scanner were performed and demonstrated capability of the prototype to perform volumetric heating through duodenal luminal tissue under real-time PRF-based MR temperature imaging (MRTI). Additional experiments were performed in ex vivo pig carcasses with the applicator inserted into the esophagus and aimed towards liver or soft tissue surrounding the spine under MR guidance. These experiments verified the capacity of heating targets up to 20-25 mm from the GI tract. Active device tracking and automated prescription of imaging and temperature monitoring planes through the applicator were made possible by using Hadamard encoded tracking sequences to obtain the coordinates of the applicator tracking coils. The prototype applicators have been integrated with an MR software suite that performs real-time device tracking and temperature monitoring.

  5. Evaluation of conventional therapeutic methods versus maggot therapy in the evolution of healing of tegumental injuries in Wistar rats with and without diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, Franciéle Souza; Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    Larval therapy consists on the application of sterilized carrion flies larvae, reared in laboratory, on acute, chronic, and/or infected wounds in order to promote healing. Conventional methods for treating injuries include mechanical debridement or silver-based dressings; however, they are not always effective for wound healing. Larval therapy is a feasible and safe treatment for therapeutic application and, in many cases, the only and the most recommended alternative for difficult healing injuries. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the competence of Cochliomyia macellaria F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as a suitable species for therapeutic application and evaluate time and effectiveness of the types of treatments most commonly used to treat integumental injuries. C. macellaria eggs were obtained from colonies established in laboratory and sterilized prior to application. Twenty-five larvae were applied for each centimeter squared of lesion. Lesions were induced in 24 Wistar rats; type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced in 12 of them. Animals were divided in four groups with three individuals each, being denominated: larval therapy, larval therapy associated with foam dressing with silver release, mechanical debridement with foam dressing silver and control group, without treatment. All treatments were applied once and held for 24 h. Medical application of larvae was found to be safe, as only dead tissue was removed, and efficient to accelerate healing process when compared to other treatments.

  6. Capstone projects as scholarship of application in entry-level occupational therapy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Pitonyak, Jennifer S; Rollinger, Beth; Fogelberg, Donald; Mroz, Tracy M; Powell, Janet M

    2015-04-01

    Capstone projects are integrative student learning experiences used in higher education. This article describes the value and merit of capstone projects as scholarship of application within an entry-level occupational therapy education program. The capstone process is outlined and roles and responsibilities of student, faculty members, and community mentors described. Summative curricular evaluation from 5 years of capstone projects indicated that project characteristics and objectives aligned with the theory and desired outcomes of applied scholarship in the areas of student learning, faculty practice and development, and community service. Challenges identified can further inform development of the capstone experience in occupational therapy education.

  7. The Application of Nanoparticles in Gene Therapy and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    HERRANZ, FERNANDO; ALMARZA, ELENA; RODRÍGUEZ, IGNACIO; SALINAS, BEATRIZ; ROSELL, YAMILKA; DESCO, MANUEL; BULTE, JEFF W.; RUIZ-CABELLO, JESÚS

    2012-01-01

    The combination of nanoparticles, gene therapy, and medical imaging has given rise to a new field known as gene theranostics, in which a nanobioconjugate is used to diagnose and treat the disease. The process generally involves binding between a vector carrying the genetic information and a nanoparticle, which provides the signal for imaging. The synthesis of this probe generates a synergic effect, enhancing the efficiency of gene transduction and imaging contrast. We discuss the latest approaches in the synthesis of nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging, gene therapy strategies, and their conjugation and in vivo application. PMID:21484943

  8. Application of the selected physical methods in biological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Tlačbaba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of acoustic emission (AE, which is a part of the non-destructive methods, currently having an extensive application. This method is used for measuring the internal defects of materials. AE has a high potential in further research and development to extend the application of this method even in the field of process engineering. For that matter, it is the most elaborate acoustic emission monitoring in laboratory conditions with regard to external stimuli. The aim of the project is to apply the acoustic emission recording the activity of bees in different seasons. The mission is to apply a new perspective on the behavior of colonies by means of acoustic emission, which collects a sound propagation in the material. Vibration is one of the integral part of communication in the community. Sensing colonies with the support of this method is used for understanding of colonies biological behavior to stimuli clutches, colony development etc. Simulating conditions supported by acoustic emission monitoring system the illustrate colonies activity. Collected information will be used to represent a comprehensive view of the life cycle and behavior of honey bees (Apis mellifera. Use of information about the activities of bees gives a comprehensive perspective on using of acoustic emission in the field of biological research.

  9. Application of blended learning in teaching statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dębska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of a hybrid method (blended learning - linking traditional education with on-line education to teach selected problems of mathematical statistics. This includes the teaching of the application of mathematical statistics to evaluate laboratory experimental results. An on-line statistics course was developed to form an integral part of the module ‘methods of statistical evaluation of experimental results’. The course complies with the principles outlined in the Polish National Framework of Qualifications with respect to the scope of knowledge, skills and competencies that students should have acquired at course completion. The paper presents the structure of the course and the educational content provided through multimedia lessons made accessible on the Moodle platform. Following courses which used the traditional method of teaching and courses which used the hybrid method of teaching, students test results were compared and discussed to evaluate the effectiveness of the hybrid method of teaching when compared to the effectiveness of the traditional method of teaching.

  10. Physical therapy methods in the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucherova, T. Ya., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru; Choinzonov, E. L., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru; Tuzikov, S. A., E-mail: TuzikovSA@oncology.tomsk.ru; Vusik, M. V., E-mail: vusik@oncology.tomsk.ru; Doroshenko, A. V., E-mail: doroshenko@sibmail.com [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Velikaya, V. V., E-mail: viktoria.v.v@inbox.ru; Gribova, O. V., E-mail: gribova79@mail.ru; Startseva, Zh. A., E-mail: zhanna.alex@rambler.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The results of the effective use of magnetic laser therapy in the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients were presented. The effect of magnetic-laser therapy in the treatment of radiation-induced reactions in the patients with head and neck cancer and in the patients with breast cancer was analyzed. High efficiency of lymphedema and lymphorrhea treatment in the postoperative period in the patients with breast cancer was proved. The results of rehabilitation of the patients with gastric cancer after surgical treatment were presented. These data indicate a high effectiveness of different physical methods of treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients.

  11. Physical therapy methods in the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherova, T. Ya.; Velikaya, V. V.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Tuzikov, S. A.; Vusik, M. V.; Doroshenko, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The results of the effective use of magnetic laser therapy in the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients were presented. The effect of magnetic-laser therapy in the treatment of radiation-induced reactions in the patients with head and neck cancer and in the patients with breast cancer was analyzed. High efficiency of lymphedema and lymphorrhea treatment in the postoperative period in the patients with breast cancer was proved. The results of rehabilitation of the patients with gastric cancer after surgical treatment were presented. These data indicate a high effectiveness of different physical methods of treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients.

  12. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocess­ing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triscari MT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Teresa Triscari,1 Palmira Faraci,2 Dario Catalisano,3 Valerio D’Angelo,1 Viviana Urso1 1Laboratory for Psychosomatic Disorders, Local Health Trust, Palermo, Italy; 2Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Enna “Kore”, Enna, Italy; 3Italian Flight Safety Committee, Aeroporto di Fiumicino, Fiumicino (RM, Italy Abstract: The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization. Keywords: flight anxiety, fear of flying, aerophobia, cognitive behavioral therapy, EMDR, VRET 

  13. Analytical methods of laser spectroscopy for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyshkin, Dmitri V.

    Different aspects of the application of laser spectroscopy in biomedical research have been considered. A growing demand for molecular sensing techniques in biomedical and environmental research has led the introduction of existing spectroscopic techniques, as well as development of new methods. The applications of laser-induced fluorescence, Raman scattering, cavity ring-down spectroscopy, and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the monitoring of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and hemoglobin levels, the study of the characteristics of light-curing dental restorative materials, and the environmental monitoring of levels of toxic metal ion is presented. The development of new solid-state tunable laser sources based on color center crystals for these applications is presented as well.

  14. Application of cationic propyl gallate as inducer of thrombocyte aggregation for evaluation of effectiveness of antiaggregation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stejskal, D; Prosková, J; Petrzelová, A; Bartek, J; Oral, I; Lacnák, B; Horalík, D; Sekaninová, S

    2001-12-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is one of basic preparations used in the therapy of cardiovascular diseases. Application of ASA leads to irreversible reduction of platelet aggregation. The aim of the present study was to verify monitoring of effectiveness of ASA therapy using the measurement of platelet aggregability in vitro after induction by cationic propyl gallate (CPG), which is considered to be a highly potent inducer of aggregation. We examined a group of 27 healthy volunteers, divided into two subgroups (n = 19, n = 8). The first subgroup was examined for thrombocyte aggregation before and 24 hours after administration of 400 mg of ASA after induction by ADP, collagen, adrenalin and CPG. The second subgroup was examined for thrombocyte aggregation before and after a three-day administration of ASA in a dose of 100 mg/day. In the group of 27 healthy volunteers we determined normal values of aggregability for individual inducers. Low stability of the used methods was proved (weak or insignificant correlation of results of the same method before and after administration of ASA). The most advantageous parameter for monitoring of effectiveness of 400 and 100 mg of ASA was CPG slope (paired t test, p measurement of thrombocyte aggregation after CPG induction reveals a significantly lower percentage of ASA non-responders ASA than after other inducers. Measurement of thrombocyte aggregation after CPG induction is predicted to be highly promising for monitoring the effectiveness of anti-aggregation therapy.

  15. Application of DNA-based methods in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jeffrey D; Stevens, Jamie R

    2008-01-01

    A forensic entomological investigation can benefit from a variety of widely practiced molecular genotyping methods. The most commonly used is DNA-based specimen identification. Other applications include the identification of insect gut contents and the characterization of the population genetic structure of a forensically important insect species. The proper application of these procedures demands that the analyst be technically expert. However, one must also be aware of the extensive list of standards and expectations that many legal systems have developed for forensic DNA analysis. We summarize the DNA techniques that are currently used in, or have been proposed for, forensic entomology and review established genetic analyses from other scientific fields that address questions similar to those in forensic entomology. We describe how accepted standards for forensic DNA practice and method validation are likely to apply to insect evidence used in a death or other forensic entomological investigation.

  16. The application of the dynamic programming method in investment optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Nina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of investment in Measuring Transformers Factory in Zajecar and the application of the dynamic programming method as one of the methods used in business process optimization. Dynamic programming is a special case of nonlinear programming that is widely applicable to nonlinear systems in economics. Measuring Transformers Factory in Zajecar was founded in 1969. It manufactures electrical equipment, primarily low and medium voltage current measuring transformers, voltage transformers, bushings, etc. The company offers a wide range of products and for this paper's needs the company's management selected three products for each of which optimal investment costing was made. The purpose was to see which product would be the most profitable and thus proceed with the manufacturing and selling of that particular product or products.

  17. Application of hydrothermal method derived titanate nanotubes as adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Kung; Liu, Shin-Shou; Chen, Huang-Chi

    2009-01-01

    Titanate nanotubes (TNT) derived from alkaline hydrothermal method are characterized by high specific surface area, specific pore volume, and ion-exchange capacity. They may be a promising and important adsorbent in the environmental protection. Although their applications in the fields of lithium ion batteries, dye-sensitized solar cell, photocatalysis, catalysts support, gas and humidity sensors, and ion exchange have been intensely studied during recent years, however, the researches concerning their potential application as an adsorbent are seldom reported. In this mini-review, we first highlight the effects of hydrothermal temperature and sodium content on the microstructures of hydrothermal method derived TNT, because the morphology and microstructure of TNT are highly dependent on the preparation conditions. Effects of the alterations of microstructures induced by the variation of hydrothermal temperature and sodium content on the dyes, heavy metal ions, and organic vapors adsorption characteristics of TNT are then introduced citing recent patents.

  18. Fuzzy multiple objective decision making methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Young-Jou

    1994-01-01

    In the last 25 years, the fuzzy set theory has been applied in many disciplines such as operations research, management science, control theory, artificial intelligence/expert system, etc. In this volume, methods and applications of crisp, fuzzy and possibilistic multiple objective decision making are first systematically and thoroughly reviewed and classified. This state-of-the-art survey provides readers with a capsule look into the existing methods, and their characteristics and applicability to analysis of fuzzy and possibilistic programming problems. To realize practical fuzzy modelling, it presents solutions for real-world problems including production/manufacturing, location, logistics, environment management, banking/finance, personnel, marketing, accounting, agriculture economics and data analysis. This book is a guided tour through the literature in the rapidly growing fields of operations research and decision making and includes the most up-to-date bibliographical listing of literature on the topi...

  19. IFN Alfa-2B and BCG Therapy Is An Effective Method In Superficial Bladder Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ozdemir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The initial therapy for superficial bladder carcinoma is the transurethral resection of the tumor. In spite of successful resections, there are 60-79% recurrence and 15% progression rates. Additional therapies are suggested for the treatment of superficial bladder carcinoma. We compared the efficacy of interferon alfa-2b monotherapy with interferon alfa-2b plus Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG combination therapy with urine interleukin (IL 2, 6 and 10 levels of patients with superficial bladder carcinoma. Material and Method: The patients who underwent TUR-BT for superficial bladder tumor (pathological staging Ta-T1 between 2004 and 2007 at our hospital included in this prospective study. Intravesical immunotherapy was administered once a week for 6 weeks and there after a month for 6 months, starting 4 weeks after TUR-BT. IL levels were measured. Results: IL-2, IL-6 and IL- 10 levels in urine samples were taken at 2nd and 4th hours of intravesical therapy. A statistically significant difference was observed between mean urine IL-2 levels of patients treated with IFN%u03B1-2b monotherapy and IFN%u03B1- 2b plus BCG combination both at 2nd and 4th hours. (p=0.05 In IFN%u03B1-2b plus BCG combination group, there was a statistical significant difference between stages regarding IL-2 and IL-6 levels (p=0.05. Among patients with G3 tumors, IL-2 levels were higher at 2 and 4 hours (p=0.05 but there was no significant difference in IL-6 and IL-10 levels in this group of patients regardless of intravesical therapy received (p=0.05. Discussion: IFN%u03B1-2b and BCG combination therapy is a reliable and effective therapy in the management of superficial bladder tumors.

  20. Application of the taguchi method in change management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Ivić

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of the Taguchi methods results in efficient optimization of performance, quality and price, fast and accurate gathering of technical information, design and production of highly reliable products and processes at low prices, development of flexible technologies for designing of a whole group of high quality associated products. All this significantly reduces the duration of research, development and delivery. The most frequent use of the Taguchi methods is to improve existing products and production processes and to reduce the need for experiments. The Taguchi methods is a system of quality engineering which puts more emphasis on reduction of production costs and giving advantage to efficient use of engineering strategies than on the use of advanced statistical methods.

  1. Novel application of the kernel polynomial method to inhomogeneous superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covaci, Lucian; Berciu, Mona

    2009-05-01

    Inhomogeneities (surface, interfaces, impurities, etc.) in superconductors give rise to interesting phenomena, like broken time-reversal states, bound states near surfaces, etc. Numerical solutions of the self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes mean field equations become computationally intensive for systems whose translational symmetry is broken. We propose a new method of solving the mean-field equations based on the Kernel Polynomial Method by expanding the Green's functions in terms of Chebyshev polynomials and calculating the order parameters self-consistently. The benefits of this method are multiple: usage of large systems, easy implementation of symmetries, multiple bands. Although we apply this method to a specific example (formation of Andreev states in 2D superconductors), it is applicable to any mean-field calculation.

  2. New applications of renormalization group methods in nuclear physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnstahl, R J; Hebeler, K

    2013-12-01

    We review recent developments in the use of renormalization group (RG) methods in low-energy nuclear physics. These advances include enhanced RG technology, particularly for three-nucleon forces, which greatly extends the reach and accuracy of microscopic calculations. We discuss new results for the nucleonic equation of state with applications to astrophysical systems such as neutron stars, new calculations of the structure and reactions of finite nuclei, and new explorations of correlations in nuclear systems.

  3. Handbook of Partial Least Squares Concepts, Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vinzi, Vincenzo Esposito; Henseler, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    This handbook provides a comprehensive overview of Partial Least Squares (PLS) methods with specific reference to their use in marketing and with a discussion of the directions of current research and perspectives. It covers the broad area of PLS methods, from regression to structural equation modeling applications, software and interpretation of results. The handbook serves both as an introduction for those without prior knowledge of PLS and as a comprehensive reference for researchers and practitioners interested in the most recent advances in PLS methodology.

  4. Advanced FDTD methods parallelization, acceleration, and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has revolutionized antenna design and electromagnetics engineering. Here's a cutting-edge book that focuses on the performance optimization and engineering applications of FDTD simulation systems. Covering the latest developments in this area, this unique resource offer you expert advice on the FDTD method, hardware platforms, and network systems. Moreover the book offers guidance in distinguishing between the many different electromagnetics software packages on the market today. You also find a complete chapter dedicated to large multi-scale pro

  5. Characteristics, applications and prospects of mesenchymal stem cells in cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadix, Juan A; Zugaza, José L; Gálvez-Martín, Patricia

    2017-05-10

    Recent advances in the field of cell therapy and regenerative medicine describe mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as potential biological products due to their ability to self-renew and differentiate. MSCs are multipotent adult cells with immunomodulatory and regenerative properties, and, given their therapeutic potential, they are being widely studied in order to evaluate their viability, safety and efficacy. In this review, we describe the main characteristics and cellular sources of MSCs, in addition to providing an overview of their properties and current clinical applications, as well offering updated information on the regulatory aspects that define them as somatic cell therapy products. Cell therapy based on MSCs is offered nowadays as a pharmacological alternative, although there are still challenges to be addressed in this regard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of an efficient Bayesian discretization method to biomedical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Vanathi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several data mining methods require data that are discrete, and other methods often perform better with discrete data. We introduce an efficient Bayesian discretization (EBD method for optimal discretization of variables that runs efficiently on high-dimensional biomedical datasets. The EBD method consists of two components, namely, a Bayesian score to evaluate discretizations and a dynamic programming search procedure to efficiently search the space of possible discretizations. We compared the performance of EBD to Fayyad and Irani's (FI discretization method, which is commonly used for discretization. Results On 24 biomedical datasets obtained from high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic studies, the classification performances of the C4.5 classifier and the naïve Bayes classifier were statistically significantly better when the predictor variables were discretized using EBD over FI. EBD was statistically significantly more stable to the variability of the datasets than FI. However, EBD was less robust, though not statistically significantly so, than FI and produced slightly more complex discretizations than FI. Conclusions On a range of biomedical datasets, a Bayesian discretization method (EBD yielded better classification performance and stability but was less robust than the widely used FI discretization method. The EBD discretization method is easy to implement, permits the incorporation of prior knowledge and belief, and is sufficiently fast for application to high-dimensional data.

  7. Mechanomyographic parameter extraction methods: an appraisal for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Zuniga, Jorge M; Hasnan, Nazirah; Wahab, Ahmad Khairi Abdul

    2014-12-03

    The research conducted in the last three decades has collectively demonstrated that the skeletal muscle performance can be alternatively assessed by mechanomyographic signal (MMG) parameters. Indices of muscle performance, not limited to force, power, work, endurance and the related physiological processes underlying muscle activities during contraction have been evaluated in the light of the signal features. As a non-stationary signal that reflects several distinctive patterns of muscle actions, the illustrations obtained from the literature support the reliability of MMG in the analysis of muscles under voluntary and stimulus evoked contractions. An appraisal of the standard practice including the measurement theories of the methods used to extract parameters of the signal is vital to the application of the signal during experimental and clinical practices, especially in areas where electromyograms are contraindicated or have limited application. As we highlight the underpinning technical guidelines and domains where each method is well-suited, the limitations of the methods are also presented to position the state of the art in MMG parameters extraction, thus providing the theoretical framework for improvement on the current practices to widen the opportunity for new insights and discoveries. Since the signal modality has not been widely deployed due partly to the limited information extractable from the signals when compared with other classical techniques used to assess muscle performance, this survey is particularly relevant to the projected future of MMG applications in the realm of musculoskeletal assessments and in the real time detection of muscle activity.

  8. Mechanomyographic Parameter Extraction Methods: An Appraisal for Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olusola Ibitoye

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted in the last three decades has collectively demonstrated that the skeletal muscle performance can be alternatively assessed by mechanomyographic signal (MMG parameters. Indices of muscle performance, not limited to force, power, work, endurance and the related physiological processes underlying muscle activities during contraction have been evaluated in the light of the signal features. As a non-stationary signal that reflects several distinctive patterns of muscle actions, the illustrations obtained from the literature support the reliability of MMG in the analysis of muscles under voluntary and stimulus evoked contractions. An appraisal of the standard practice including the measurement theories of the methods used to extract parameters of the signal is vital to the application of the signal during experimental and clinical practices, especially in areas where electromyograms are contraindicated or have limited application. As we highlight the underpinning technical guidelines and domains where each method is well-suited, the limitations of the methods are also presented to position the state of the art in MMG parameters extraction, thus providing the theoretical framework for improvement on the current practices to widen the opportunity for new insights and discoveries. Since the signal modality has not been widely deployed due partly to the limited information extractable from the signals when compared with other classical techniques used to assess muscle performance, this survey is particularly relevant to the projected future of MMG applications in the realm of musculoskeletal assessments and in the real time detection of muscle activity.

  9. Segmentation Method for Magnetic Resonance-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vargas-Olivares

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU is a minimally invasive therapy modality in which ultrasound beams are concentrated at a focal region, producing a rise of temperature and selective ablation within the focal volume and leaving surrounding tissues intact. HIFU has been proposed for the safe ablation of both malignant and benign tissues and as an agent for drug delivery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been proposed as guidance and monitoring method for the therapy. The identification of regions of interest is a crucial procedure in HIFU therapy planning. This procedure is performed in the MR images. The purpose of the present research work is to implement a time-efficient and functional segmentation scheme, based on the watershed segmentation algorithm, for the MR images used for the HIFU therapy planning. The achievement of a segmentation process with functional results is feasible, but preliminary image processing steps are required in order to define the markers for the segmentation algorithm. Moreover, the segmentation scheme is applied in parallel to an MR image data set through the use of a thread pool, achieving a near real-time execution and making a contribution to solve the time-consuming problem of the HIFU therapy planning.

  10. Application of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis to Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Using Mobile Electron Linear Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciocca, Mario, E-mail: mario.ciocca@cnao.it [Unit of Medical Physics, Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) Foundation, via Campeggi, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Cantone, Marie-Claire; Veronese, Ivan [Department of Physics, Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, INFN Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Cattani, Federica; Pedroli, Guido [Unit of Medical Physics, European Institute of Oncology, via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milano (Italy); Molinelli, Silvia [Unit of Medical Physics, Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) Foundation, via Campeggi, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Vitolo, Viviana [Unit of Radiotherapy, Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) Foundation, via Campeggi, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Orecchia, Roberto [Division of Radiation Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milano (Italy); Scientific Direction, Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) Foundation, via Campeggi, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Faculty of Medicine, Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milano (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) represents a prospective approach for risk assessment. A multidisciplinary working group of the Italian Association for Medical Physics applied FMEA to electron beam intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) delivered using mobile linear accelerators, aiming at preventing accidental exposures to the patient. Methods and Materials: FMEA was applied to the IORT process, for the stages of the treatment delivery and verification, and consisted of three steps: 1) identification of the involved subprocesses; 2) identification and ranking of the potential failure modes, together with their causes and effects, using the risk probability number (RPN) scoring system, based on the product of three parameters (severity, frequency of occurrence and detectability, each ranging from 1 to 10); 3) identification of additional safety measures to be proposed for process quality and safety improvement. RPN upper threshold for little concern of risk was set at 125. Results: Twenty-four subprocesses were identified. Ten potential failure modes were found and scored, in terms of RPN, in the range of 42-216. The most critical failure modes consisted of internal shield misalignment, wrong Monitor Unit calculation and incorrect data entry at treatment console. Potential causes of failure included shield displacement, human errors, such as underestimation of CTV extension, mainly because of lack of adequate training and time pressures, failure in the communication between operators, and machine malfunctioning. The main effects of failure were represented by CTV underdose, wrong dose distribution and/or delivery, unintended normal tissue irradiation. As additional safety measures, the utilization of a dedicated staff for IORT, double-checking of MU calculation and data entry and finally implementation of in vivo dosimetry were suggested. Conclusions: FMEA appeared as a useful tool for prospective evaluation of patient safety in radiotherapy. The

  11. Results of clinical approbation of new local treatment method in the complex therapy of inflammatory parodontium diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. Romanova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases of parodontium are one of the most difficult problems in stomatology today. Purpose of research: estimation of clinical efficiency of local combined application of developed agent apigel for oral cavity care and low-frequency electromagnetic field magnetotherapy at treatment of inflammatory diseases of parodontium. Materials and methods: 46 patients with chronic generalized catarrhal gingivitis and chronic generalized periodontitis of 1st degree were included into the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups depending on treatment management: basic (n = 23 and control (n = 23. Conventional treatment with the local use of the dental gel with camomile was used in the control group. Patients of the basic group were treated with local combined application of apigel and magnetotherapy. Efficiency was estimated with clinical, laboratory, microbiological and functional (ultrasonic Doppler examination methods of examination. Results: The application of the apigel and pulsating electromagnetic field in the complex medical treatment of patients with chronic generalized periodontitis (GhGP caused positive changes in clinical symptom and condition of parodontal tissues, that was accompanied by decline of hygienic and parodontal indexes. As compared with patients who had traditional anti-inflammatory therapy, patients who were treated with local application of apigel and magnetoterapy had decline of edema incidence. It was revealed that decrease of the pain correlated with improvement of hygienic condition of oral cavity and promoted prevention of bacterial contamination of damaged mucous membranes. Estimation of microvasculatory blood stream with the method of ultrasonic doppler flowmetry revealed more rapid normalization of volume and linear high systole, speed of blood stream in the parodontal tissues in case of use of new complex local method. Conclusions: Effect of the developed local agent in patients

  12. Dose Assessment of Eye and Its Components in Proton Therapy by Monte Carlo Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Tavakol

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Proton therapy is used to treat malignant tumors such as melanoma inside the eye. Proton particles are adjusted according to various parameters such as tumor size and position and patient’s distance from the proton source. The purpose of this study was to assess absorbed doses in eyes and various tumors found in the area of sclera and choroid and the adjacent tissues in radiotherapy while changing most important proton therapy parameters such as moderators thickness (1.5-1.9 cm, exposure radius (0.5-0.8 cm, and proton energy beam (53.5-65 MeV. Materials and Methods A proton therapy system of Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFNwas simulated by Monte Carlo method. Moreover, the eye and its components were simulated using concentric spheres. To obtain a more accurate results, real density of eye components such as cornea and lens, were applied for simulation. Then, the absorbed dose of eye and eye tumor, in choroid and sclera areas, were calculated by Monte Carlo method. Results The absorbed dose in tumoral region of eye was calculated to be about 12.5 ±0.006Gy in one day with energy 62 MeV for a therapy session, which is suitable for treatment. However, normal eye cells received at most 11.01 Gy which is high. Conclusion The amount of absorbed dose in tumoral cells is noticeable. Therefore, accurate treatment planning, patient immobility and fine calibration of proton-therapy system and its simulator are very important to reduce the absorbed dose of healthy cells.

  13. Treating enuresis in a patient with ADHD: application of a novel behavioural modification therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Ruiz-Manrique, Gonzalo; Montañes, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old patient diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid enuresis disorder, who was treated with methylphenidate for the past 3 months and a novel behavioural modification therapy by using an application called ‘Enuresis Trainer’. This therapeutic application is basically an interactive ‘Bedwetting Calendar’, based on traditional cognitive behavioural modification therapies and positive reinforcement systems. Enuresis is defined as the failure of voluntary control of the urethral sphincter. The prevalence of enuresis is 15–20% in the child population; however, children with ADHD had a 2.7 times higher incidence of nocturnal enuresis. Bedwetting is a common cause of isolation in children as well as loss of self-esteem and other psychological distress for the child and the family. PMID:24916977

  14. Methods of «Gas» Therapy in Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases at Resort Medical Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid S. Khodasevich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers sanogenetic mechanisms and methods of “gas” therapy, namely ozone therapy and “dry” carbon dioxide baths impact on blood rheological factors, basing on the results of 1847 patients examination with the risk of developing coronary heart disease. The results are worth consideration in terms of “gas” therapy methods implementation for non-drug prevention and treatment of patients with the risk of developing coronary heart disease.

  15. Distribution of stress on TMJ disc induced by use of chincup therapy: assessment by the finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Siqueira Calçada

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the distribution of stress produced on TMJ disc by chincup therapy, by means of the finite element method. Methods: a simplified three-dimensional TMJ disc model was developed by using Rhinoceros 3D software, and exported to ANSYS software. A 4.9N load was applied on the inferior surface of the model at inclinations of 30, 40, and 50 degrees to the mandibular plane (GoMe. ANSYS was used to analyze stress distribution on the TMJ disc for the different angulations, by means of finite element method. Results: The results showed that the tensile and compressive stresses concentrations were higher on the inferior surface of the model. More presence of tensile stress was found in the middle-anterior region of the model and its location was not altered in the three directions of load application. There was more presence of compressive stress in the middle and mid-posterior regions, but when a 50o inclined load was applied, concentration in the middle region was prevalent. Tensile and compressive stresses intensities progressively diminished as the load was more vertically applied. Conclusions: stress induced by the chincup therapy is mainly located on the inferior surface of the model. Loads at greater angles to the mandibular plane produced distribution of stresses with lower intensity and a concentration of compressive stresses in the middle region. The simplified three-dimensional model proved useful for assessing the distribution of stresses on the TMJ disc induced by the chincup therapy.

  16. The application of statistical methods to assess economic assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Dianov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to consideration and evaluation of machinery, equipment and special equipment, methodological aspects of the use of standards for assessment of buildings and structures in current prices, the valuation of residential, specialized houses, office premises, assessment and reassessment of existing and inactive military assets, the application of statistical methods to obtain the relevant cost estimates.The objective of the scientific article is to consider possible application of statistical tools in the valuation of the assets, composing the core group of elements of national wealth – the fixed assets. Firstly, capital tangible assets constitute the basis of material base of a new value creation, products and non-financial services. The gain, accumulated of tangible assets of a capital nature is a part of the gross domestic product, and from its volume and specific weight in the composition of GDP we can judge the scope of reproductive processes in the country.Based on the methodological materials of the state statistics bodies of the Russian Federation, regulations of the theory of statistics, which describe the methods of statistical analysis such as the index, average values, regression, the methodical approach is structured in the application of statistical tools to obtain value estimates of property, plant and equipment with significant accumulated depreciation. Until now, the use of statistical methodology in the practice of economic assessment of assets is only fragmentary. This applies to both Federal Legislation (Federal law № 135 «On valuation activities in the Russian Federation» dated 16.07.1998 in edition 05.07.2016 and the methodological documents and regulations of the estimated activities, in particular, the valuation activities’ standards. A particular problem is the use of a digital database of Rosstat (Federal State Statistics Service, as to the specific fixed assets the comparison should be carried

  17. NEW BIOTESTING METHOD WITH THE APPLICATION OF MODERN IMPEDANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibirtsev V.S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with new concepts of biotesting method updating. Modern conductometric technologies and the analysis of microbial «growth curves» are used. The registration occurs in a real time mode for the set of parallel samples. Results are shown for comparison of the proposed impedance biotesting technique with standard cultural determination method for total amount of microorganismes in the tested samples. Results are presented for practical application of the proposed impedance biotesting technique to the analysis as inhibitory action of clorhexidine disinfectant on the vital activity of Escherichia coli, as milk ripening process at the presence of various microorganisms species and protein preparations. The impedance biotesting method, proposed in the present work, provides high level of its own data convergence with the data, being received as a result of application of standard cultural biotesting techniques. Thus, the proposed method has such advantages, as: an opportunity of the detailed information reception about dynamics change of magnitude of population and intensity of test microorganisms metabolism, significant reduction of the culture media amount used, as well as researcher's temporary and labor efforts while the analyses realization, and the growth of analysis objectivity.

  18. Current application of phytocompound-based nanocosmeceuticals for beauty and skin therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesan, Palanivel; Choi,Dong Kuk

    2016-01-01

    Palanivel Ganesan,1,2 Dong-Kug Choi1,2 1Department of Applied Life Science, Nanotechnology Research Center, 2Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, Republic of Korea Abstract: Phytocompounds have been used in cosmeceuticals for decades and have shown potential for beauty applications, including sunscreen, moisturizing and antiaging, and skin-based therapy. The major concerns in the usage of phyto-based cosmeceuticals are lower pene...

  19. Application of CRISPR-Cas system in gene therapy: Pre-clinical progress in animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lihong; Han, Yawei; Zhu, Shaoyi; Lin, Juntang

    2016-10-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated proteins (Cas) belong to the crucial adaptive immune system, which exist in archaea and bacteria. Currently, CRISPR-Cas9 system has been modified and widely used to edit genome. In this review, we summarized the discovery, classification and mechanism of CRISPR-Cas system and further discussed the application of CRISPR-Cas9 in gene therapy, mainly in disease models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Applications of mixed-methods methodology in clinical pharmacy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Closs, S José

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Mixed-methods methodology, as the name suggests refers to mixing of elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a single study. In the past decade, mixed-methods methodology has gained popularity among healthcare researchers as it promises to bring together the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Methodology A number of mixed-methods designs are available in the literature and the four most commonly used designs in healthcare research are: the convergent parallel design, the embedded design, the exploratory design, and the explanatory design. Each has its own unique advantages, challenges and procedures and selection of a particular design should be guided by the research question. Guidance on designing, conducting and reporting mixed-methods research is available in the literature, so it is advisable to adhere to this to ensure methodological rigour. When to use it is best suited when the research questions require: triangulating findings from different methodologies to explain a single phenomenon; clarifying the results of one method using another method; informing the design of one method based on the findings of another method, development of a scale/questionnaire and answering different research questions within a single study. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate possible applications of mixed-methods methodology. Limitations Possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake qualitative and quantitative data collection, analysis, interpretation and integration remains the biggest challenge for researchers conducting mixed-methods studies. Sequential study designs are often time consuming, being in two (or more) phases whereas concurrent study designs may require more than one data collector to collect both qualitative and quantitative data at the same time.

  1. A new method for photodynamic therapy of melanotic melanoma -- effects of depigmentation with violet light photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Wei; Nielsen, Kristian Pagh; Iani, Vladimir; Moan, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Melanotic melanomas have a poor response to photodynamic therapy (PDT). The reason for this is that melanin absorbs light over the entire wavelength region used for PDT (400-750 nm). Photobleaching of melanin is an approach to overcome this obstacle. In the present work, reflectance spectroscopy was applied to study depigmentation of human and murine skin with different melanin contents, and effects induced by PDT with topical application of methyl 5-aminolevulinate (MAL) on B16F10 melanotic melanomas transplanted to nude mice. Depigmentation and inhibition of tumor growth after violet light (420 nm) exposure, red light (634 nm) exposure, and combinations of both were studied. Reflectance spectroscopy was suitable for evaluation of the pigmentation of both human and murine skin. Skin depigmentation leads to increase in reflectance. PDT with violet light bleached some of the melanin in the skin above the B16F10 melanomas, and possibly also in the upper part of the melanomas. This resulted in a larger growth inhibition of tumors first given PDT with violet light and then with red light compared to treatments using the reverse order of illumination, namely, red light before violet light. It is concluded that violet light PDT can bleach melanin in melanotic tumors and therefore increase their sensitivity to red light PDT. This finding indicates a new PDT modality that can be further developed for treatment of superficial melanotic melanomas and possibly other diseases where pigmentation is a problem.

  2. Evolutionary Computation Methods and their applications in Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Battaglia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A brief discussion of the genesis of evolutionary computation methods, their relationship to artificial intelligence, and the contribution of genetics and Darwin’s theory of natural evolution is provided. Then, the main evolutionary computation methods are illustrated: evolution strategies, genetic algorithms, estimation of distribution algorithms, differential evolution, and a brief description of some evolutionary behavior methods such as ant colony and particle swarm optimization. We also discuss the role of the genetic algorithm for multivariate probability distribution random generation, rather than as a function optimizer. Finally, some relevant applications of genetic algorithm to statistical problems are reviewed: selection of variables in regression, time series model building, outlier identification, cluster analysis, design of experiments.

  3. Standard test methods for vitrified ceramic materials for electrical applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1986-01-01

    1.1 These test methods outline procedures for testing samples of vitrified ceramic materials that are to be used as electrical insulation. Where specified limits are mentioned herein, they shall not be interpreted as specification limits for completed insulators. 1.2 These test methods are intended to apply to unglazed specimens, but they may be equally suited for testing glazed specimens. The report section shall indicate whether glazed or unglazed specimens were tested. 1.3 The test methods appear as follows: This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precaution statements are given in 11.3, 13.5, and 15.3.

  4. Delayless acceleration measurement method for motion control applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaeliviita, S.; Ovaska, S.J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    Delayless and accurate sensing of angular acceleration can improve the performance of motion control in motor drives. Acceleration control is, however, seldom implemented in practical drive systems due to prohibitively high costs or unsatisfactory results of most acceleration measurement methods. In this paper we propose an efficient and accurate acceleration measurement method based on direct differentiation of the corresponding velocity signal. Polynomial predictive filtering is used to smooth the resulting noisy signal without delay. This type of prediction is justified by noticing that a low-degree polynomial can usually be fitted into the primary acceleration curve. No additional hardware is required to implement the procedure if the velocity signal is already available. The performance of the acceleration measurement method is evaluated by applying it to a demanding motion control application. (orig.) 12 refs.

  5. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2002-09-13

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issue (KTI) agreements, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (CNWRA 2002 [158449]), and 10 CFR Part 63. This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are utilized in this document.

  6. First Order Reliability Application and Verification Methods for Semistatic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderaime, Vincent

    1994-01-01

    Escalating risks of aerostructures stimulated by increasing size, complexity, and cost should no longer be ignored by conventional deterministic safety design methods. The deterministic pass-fail concept is incompatible with probability and risk assessments, its stress audits are shown to be arbitrary and incomplete, and it compromises high strength materials performance. A reliability method is proposed which combines first order reliability principles with deterministic design variables and conventional test technique to surmount current deterministic stress design and audit deficiencies. Accumulative and propagation design uncertainty errors are defined and appropriately implemented into the classical safety index expression. The application is reduced to solving for a factor that satisfies the specified reliability and compensates for uncertainty errors, and then using this factor as, and instead of, the conventional safety factor in stress analyses. The resulting method is consistent with current analytical skills and verification practices, the culture of most designers, and with the pace of semistatic structural designs.

  7. Effects of Neuropeptide Y on Stem Cells and Their Potential Applications in Disease Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y (NPY, a 36-amino acid peptide, is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and other peripheral tissues. It takes part in regulating various biological processes including food intake, circadian rhythm, energy metabolism, and neuroendocrine secretion. Increasing evidence indicates that NPY exerts multiple regulatory effects on stem cells. As a kind of primitive and undifferentiated cells, stem cells have the therapeutic potential to replace damaged cells, secret paracrine molecules, promote angiogenesis, and modulate immunity. Stem cell-based therapy has been demonstrated effective and considered as one of the most promising treatments for specific diseases. However, several limitations still hamper its application, such as poor survival and low differentiation and integration rates of transplanted stem cells. The regulatory effects of NPY on stem cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation may be helpful to overcome these limitations and facilitate the application of stem cell-based therapy. In this review, we summarized the regulatory effects of NPY on stem cells and discussed their potential applications in disease therapy.

  8. The Application of Nanomaterials in Stem Cell Therapy for some Neurological Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guilong; Khan, Ahsan Ali; Wu, Hao; Chen, Lukui; Gu, Yuchun; Gu, Ning

    2017-03-28

    Stem cell therapy provides great promising therapeutic benefits for various neurological disorders. Cell transplantation has emerged as cell replacement application for nerve damage. Recently, nanomaterials obtain wide development in various industrial and medical fields, and nanoparticles have been applied to neuro-medical field for tracking and treating nervous system diseases. Combining stem cell with nanotechnology has raised more and more attentions; and it has demonstrated that it has huge effects on clinical diagnosis and therapeutics in multiple central nervous system diseases, meanwhile, improving prognosis. This review gives a brief overview of the application of nanomaterials in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases. Nanoparticles not only promote stem cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro or in vivo, but also play dominant roles in stem cell imaging and tracking. Furthermore, via delivering genes or drugs, nanoparticles can participate in stem cell therapeutic applications for various neurological diseases, such as ischemic stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and gliomas. However, nanoparticles have potential cytotoxic effects on nerve cells, which are related to their physicochemical properties. Above all, nano-stem cell-based therapy as a promising strategy has the ability to affect neuronal repair and regeneration in the central nervous system. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging with hyperpolarized agents: methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Erin B.; Ludwig, Kai D.; Mummy, David G.; Fain, Sean B.

    2017-07-01

    In the past decade, hyperpolarized (HP) contrast agents have been under active development for MRI applications to address the twin challenges of functional and quantitative imaging. Both HP helium (3He) and xenon (129Xe) gases have reached the stage where they are under study in clinical research. HP 129Xe, in particular, is poised for larger scale clinical research to investigate asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and fibrotic lung diseases. With advances in polarizer technology and unique capabilities for imaging of 129Xe gas exchange into lung tissue and blood, HP 129Xe MRI is attracting new attention. In parallel, HP 13C and 15N MRI methods have steadily advanced in a wide range of pre-clinical research applications for imaging metabolism in various cancers and cardiac disease. The HP [1-13C] pyruvate MRI technique, in particular, has undergone phase I trials in prostate cancer and is poised for investigational new drug trials at multiple institutions in cancer and cardiac applications. This review treats the methodology behind both HP gases and HP 13C and 15N liquid state agents. Gas and liquid phase HP agents share similar technologies for achieving non-equilibrium polarization outside the field of the MRI scanner, strategies for image data acquisition, and translational challenges in moving from pre-clinical to clinical research. To cover the wide array of methods and applications, this review is organized by numerical section into (1) a brief introduction, (2) the physical and biological properties of the most common polarized agents with a brief summary of applications and methods of polarization, (3) methods for image acquisition and reconstruction specific to improving data acquisition efficiency for HP MRI, (4) the main physical properties that enable unique measures of physiology or metabolic pathways, followed by a more detailed review of the literature describing the use of HP agents to study: (5) metabolic pathways in cancer and cardiac

  10. The Distinct Element Method - Application to Structures in Jointed Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.P.; Glen, L.; Blair, S.; Heuze, F.

    2001-11-30

    The Distinct Element Method (DEM) is a meshfree method with applications to rock mechanics, mining sciences, simulations of nuclear repositories, and the stability of underground structures. Continuum mesh-based methods have been applied successfully to many problems in geophysics. Even if the geology includes fractures and faults, when sufficiently large length scales are considered a continuum approximation may be sufficient. However, a large class of problems exist where individual rock joints must be taken into account. This includes problems where the structures of interest have sizes comparable with the block size. In addition, it is possible that while the structure may experience loads which do no measurable damage to individual blocks, some joints may fail. This may launch smaller blocks as dangerous projectiles or even cause total failure of a tunnel. Traditional grid-based continuum approaches are wholly unsuited to this class of problem. It is possible to introduce discontinuities or slide lines into existing grid-based methods, however, such limited approaches can break down when new contacts form between blocks. The distinct element method (DEM) is an alternative, meshfree approach. The DEM can directly approximate the block structure of the jointed rock using arbitrary polyhedra. Using this approach, preexisting joints are readily incorporated into the DEM model. In addition, the method detects all new contacts between blocks resulting from relative block motion. We will describe the background of the DEM and review previous application of the DEM to geophysical problems. Finally we present preliminary results from a investigation into the stability of underground structures subjected to dynamic loading.

  11. A scoping review of the Photovoice method: implications for occupational therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shalini; Jarus, Tal; Suto, Melinda J

    2012-06-01

    Photovoice is a participatory action research method combining photography and group work to give people an opportunity to record and reflect on their daily lives. To review the use of Photovoice in health research and consider the implications for occupational therapy research. Literature review, guided by a scoping framework, reveals the purposes, rationales and populations with whom Photovoice has been used. From 351 documents retrieved, 191 original studies were surveyed; 68% were peer-reviewed. The majority of studies (76%) occurred within the public health domain and a smaller percentage (24%) with individuals experiencing a specific illness and/or disability, with very few (2%) documented in the occupational therapy literature. Photovoice provides a useful framework to apply a participant-centred research approach on occupational participation. It is important to consider and further examine ethical and methodological issues related to stigma, physical and cognitive capacities, mobility and technical accessibility related to using this method.

  12. An application of OFDM method to optical disc recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kimihiro

    2017-08-01

    An application of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) method to optical disc recording/readout is presented. OFDM has been widely used in the field of telecommunication owing to its highly efficient frequency usage. However OFDM has not been applied to optical disc recording because it is a multiple data transfer method and needs to record analog signals. Partial Response Maximum Likelihood (PRML) used in the current optical disc systems requires a certain kind of analog recording. Although optical recording usually creates binary marks, it is possible to obtain arbitrary analog readout signals by using PWM method. Another technique to generate analog signals using the oversampled binary recording is described and applied to multiple level recording. In addition, it is found that the level adjustment of multiple carriers for OFDM leads to the advantage when it is applied to the optical disc system. Using the simple transfer function model of the optical disc system, two types of readout signals using PRML and OFDM are calculated and then their qualities are compared. Since Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) method can be combined with OFDM, it is possible to increase the recoding density of optical disc systems. A method employing OFDM with 64-QAM and the pre-enhance method to the high frequency carrier shows an ability of 1.5 times recording density of the conventional Bru-ray Disc (BD).

  13. Alternative Therapeutic Method for Type Two Diabetes: Whole Body Vibration Therapy: A Mini-Review

    OpenAIRE

    Erika L Simmerman; Xu Qin; Henrik O Berdel; Mozaffari, Mahmood S.; Babak Baban; Jack C Yu

    2016-01-01

    Context As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes continues to increase there is a need for new interventions to control this epidemic. Multiple alternative treatment methods exist for type 2 diabetes mellitus such as acupuncture, bariatric surgery, yoga, aromatherapy, herbal remedies, etc. Whole Body Vibration is a relatively new area of interest recently utilized as an adjunctive therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus, representing a potentially new and novel treatment for type 2 diabetes mell...

  14. System and method for dose verification and gamma ray imaging in ion beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihailescu, Lucian

    2017-12-26

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to ion beam therapy. In one aspect, a system includes a position sensitive detector and a collimator. The position sensitive detector configured to detect gamma rays generated by an ion beam interacting with a target. The collimator is positioned between the target and the position sensitive detector. The collimator includes a plurality of knife-edge slits, with a first knife-edge slit intersecting with a second knife-edge slit.

  15. Frontiers of biostatistical methods and applications in clinical oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Crowley, John

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art of biostatistical methods and their applications in clinical oncology. Many methodologies established today in biostatistics have been brought about through its applications to the design and analysis of oncology clinical studies. This field of oncology, now in the midst of evolution owing to rapid advances in biotechnologies and cancer genomics, is becoming one of the most promising disease fields in the shift toward personalized medicine. Modern developments of diagnosis and therapeutics of cancer have also been continuously fueled by recent progress in establishing the infrastructure for conducting more complex, large-scale clinical trials and observational studies. The field of cancer clinical studies therefore will continue to provide many new statistical challenges that warrant further progress in the methodology and practice of biostatistics. This book provides a systematic coverage of various stages of cancer clinical studies. Topics from modern cancer clinical ...

  16. Intelligent numerical methods II applications to multivariate fractional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    2016-01-01

    In this short monograph Newton-like and other similar numerical methods with applications to solving multivariate equations are developed, which involve Caputo type fractional mixed partial derivatives and multivariate fractional Riemann-Liouville integral operators. These are studied for the first time in the literature. The chapters are self-contained and can be read independently. An extensive list of references is given per chapter. The book’s results are expected to find applications in many areas of applied mathematics, stochastics, computer science and engineering. As such this short monograph is suitable for researchers, graduate students, to be used in graduate classes and seminars of the above subjects, also to be in all science and engineering libraries.

  17. Physical Activity Recognition with Mobile Phones: Challenges, Methods, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Lu, Hong; Liu, Zhigang; Boda, Péter Pál

    In this book chapter, we present a novel system that recognizes and records the physical activity of a person using a mobile phone. The sensor data is collected by built-in accelerometer sensor that measures the motion intensity of the device. The system recognizes five everyday activities in real-time, i.e., stationary, walking, running, bicycling, and in vehicle. We first introduce the sensor's data format, sensor calibration, signal projection, feature extraction, and selection methods. Then we have a detailed discussion and comparison of different choices of feature sets and classifiers. The design and implementation of one prototype system is presented along with resource and performance benchmark on Nokia N95 platform. Results show high recognition accuracies for distinguishing the five activities. The last part of the chapter introduces one demo application built on top of our system, physical activity diary, and a selection of potential applications in mobile wellness, mobile social sharing and contextual user interface domains.

  18. Learning in Non-Stationary Environments Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lughofer, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Recent decades have seen rapid advances in automatization processes, supported by modern machines and computers. The result is significant increases in system complexity and state changes, information sources, the need for faster data handling and the integration of environmental influences. Intelligent systems, equipped with a taxonomy of data-driven system identification and machine learning algorithms, can handle these problems partially. Conventional learning algorithms in a batch off-line setting fail whenever dynamic changes of the process appear due to non-stationary environments and external influences.   Learning in Non-Stationary Environments: Methods and Applications offers a wide-ranging, comprehensive review of recent developments and important methodologies in the field. The coverage focuses on dynamic learning in unsupervised problems, dynamic learning in supervised classification and dynamic learning in supervised regression problems. A later section is dedicated to applications in which dyna...

  19. Allostery: An Overview of Its History, Concepts, Methods, and Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of allostery has evolved in the past century. In this Editorial, we briefly overview the history of allostery, from the pre-allostery nomenclature era starting with the Bohr effect (1904 to the birth of allostery by Monod and Jacob (1961. We describe the evolution of the allostery concept, from a conformational change in a two-state model (1965, 1966 to dynamic allostery in the ensemble model (1999; from multi-subunit (1965 proteins to all proteins (2004. We highlight the current available methods to study allostery and their applications in studies of conformational mechanisms, disease, and allosteric drug discovery. We outline the challenges and future directions that we foresee. Altogether, this Editorial narrates the history of this fundamental concept in the life sciences, its significance, methodologies to detect and predict it, and its application in a broad range of living systems.

  20. Methods for iPS cell generation for basic research and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochiduki, Yuji; Okita, Keisuke

    2012-06-01

    The induction of pluripotency can be achieved by forced expression of defined factors in somatic cells. The established cells, termed induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, have pluripotency and an infinite capacity for self-renewal in common with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Patient-specific iPS cells could be a useful source for drug discovery and cell transplantation therapies; however, the original method for iPS cell generation had several issues that were obstacles to their clinical application. Recent studies have brought about various improvements for iPS cell generation and uncovered several characteristics of iPS cells. Here we summarize the current status of iPS cell studies, with a focus on the improved methods that can be used to generate iPS cells, and also refer to the future challenges. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Method to observe hemodynamic and metabolic changes during hemodiafiltration therapy with exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Miguel; Pérez-Grovas, Héctor; Flores, Pedro; Azpiroz, Joaquín; Borja, Gisella; Medel, Humberto; Rodriguez, Fausto; Flores, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Intradyalitic exercise programas are important to improve patient's hemodynamic stability. Blood pressure and metabolic changes are correlated when heat accumulation is due to increment of the body core temperature (+1.0 °C). However, increase in temperature could be controlled by lowering dialysate's temperature using two main modalities techniques (isothermic and thermoneural) with different patient's thermal balance consequences, not yet well studied. In this work, a new method to observe the main physiological parameters (hearth rate variability (HRV), blood pressure, BTM dialysate temperature control and substrate utilization by indirect calorimtery) which are involved in hemodiafitration (HDF), are displayd. An experiment was carried out in a group of 5 patients waiting kidney transplant. In each patient, EE was assessed as well as the HRV during isothermic and thermoneutral modalities as a manner of cross and prospective study (a) at before therapy, (b) during therapy and (c) at the end of the HDF therapy. Power extraction was also measured by a BTM (Blood Temperature Monitor from Fresenius Inc), in order to determine how the dialysate temperature was controlled. The results showed important method's advantages which place the BTM performance as unstable control system with the possibility to produce undesirable HRV changes as the vagotonical response. However more patient cases are needed in order to identify the real advantage of this new method.

  2. Construction of crystal structure prototype database: methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chuanxun; Lv, Jian; Li, Quan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2017-04-26

    Crystal structure prototype data have become a useful source of information for materials discovery in the fields of crystallography, chemistry, physics, and materials science. This work reports the development of a robust and efficient method for assessing the similarity of structures on the basis of their interatomic distances. Using this method, we proposed a simple and unambiguous definition of crystal structure prototype based on hierarchical clustering theory, and constructed the crystal structure prototype database (CSPD) by filtering the known crystallographic structures in a database. With similar method, a program structure prototype analysis package (SPAP) was developed to remove similar structures in CALYPSO prediction results and extract predicted low energy structures for a separate theoretical structure database. A series of statistics describing the distribution of crystal structure prototypes in the CSPD was compiled to provide an important insight for structure prediction and high-throughput calculations. Illustrative examples of the application of the proposed database are given, including the generation of initial structures for structure prediction and determination of the prototype structure in databases. These examples demonstrate the CSPD to be a generally applicable and useful tool for materials discovery.

  3. Construction of crystal structure prototype database: methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chuanxun; Lv, Jian; Li, Quan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2017-04-01

    Crystal structure prototype data have become a useful source of information for materials discovery in the fields of crystallography, chemistry, physics, and materials science. This work reports the development of a robust and efficient method for assessing the similarity of structures on the basis of their interatomic distances. Using this method, we proposed a simple and unambiguous definition of crystal structure prototype based on hierarchical clustering theory, and constructed the crystal structure prototype database (CSPD) by filtering the known crystallographic structures in a database. With similar method, a program structure prototype analysis package (SPAP) was developed to remove similar structures in CALYPSO prediction results and extract predicted low energy structures for a separate theoretical structure database. A series of statistics describing the distribution of crystal structure prototypes in the CSPD was compiled to provide an important insight for structure prediction and high-throughput calculations. Illustrative examples of the application of the proposed database are given, including the generation of initial structures for structure prediction and determination of the prototype structure in databases. These examples demonstrate the CSPD to be a generally applicable and useful tool for materials discovery.

  4. Advances in product family and product platform design methods & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jiao, Jianxin; Siddique, Zahed; Hölttä-Otto, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Product Family and Product Platform Design: Methods & Applications highlights recent advances that have been made to support product family and product platform design and successful applications in industry. This book provides not only motivation for product family and product platform design—the “why” and “when” of platforming—but also methods and tools to support the design and development of families of products based on shared platforms—the “what”, “how”, and “where” of platforming. It begins with an overview of recent product family design research to introduce readers to the breadth of the topic and progresses to more detailed topics and design theory to help designers, engineers, and project managers plan, architect, and implement platform-based product development strategies in their companies. This book also: Presents state-of-the-art methods and tools for product family and product platform design Adopts an integrated, systems view on product family and pro...

  5. Multi-level decision making models, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Guangquan; Gao, Ya

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents new developments in multi-level decision-making theory, technique and method in both modeling and solution issues. It especially presents how a decision support system can support managers in reaching a solution to a multi-level decision problem in practice. This monograph combines decision theories, methods, algorithms and applications effectively. It discusses in detail the models and solution algorithms of each issue of bi-level and tri-level decision-making, such as multi-leaders, multi-followers, multi-objectives, rule-set-based, and fuzzy parameters. Potential readers include organizational managers and practicing professionals, who can use the methods and software provided to solve their real decision problems; PhD students and researchers in the areas of bi-level and multi-level decision-making and decision support systems; students at an advanced undergraduate, master’s level in information systems, business administration, or the application of computer science.  

  6. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nogami, Makiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Noto, Zenko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nikaido, Toshio, E-mail: tnikaido@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAM{alpha} cells and induced to osteogenic status-their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAM{alpha} cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAM{alpha} cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAM{alpha} cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAM{alpha} cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAM{alpha} cells) that have the properties of MSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAM{alpha} was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  7. Stamping Techniques for Micro and Nanofabrication: Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A.

    This chapter highlights some recent advances in high resolution printing methods, in which a "stamp" forms a pattern of "ink" on the surface it contacts. It focuses on two approaches whose capabilities, level of development, and demonstrated applications indicate a strong potential for widespread use, especially in areas where conventional methods are unsuitable. The first of these, known as microcontact printing, uses a high resolution rubber stamp to print patterns of chemical inks, mainly those that lead to the formation of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). These printed SAMs can be used either as resists in selective wet etching, or as templates in selective deposition to form structures of a variety of materials. The other approach, referred to as nanotransfer printing, uses similar high resolution stamps, but ones inked with solid thin film materials. In this case, SAMs, or other types of surface chemistries, bond these films to a substrate that the stamp contacts. The material transfer that results upon removal of the stamp forms a pattern in the geometry of the relief features, in a purely additive fashion. In addition to providing detailed descriptions of these micro/nanoprinting techniques, this chapter illustrates their use in some areas where these methods may provide attractive alternatives to more established lithographic methods. The demonstrator applications span fields as diverse as biotechnology (intravascular stents), fiber optics (tunable fiber devices), nanoanalytical chemistry (high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance), plastic electronics (paper-like displays), and integrated optics (distributed feedback lasers). The growing interest in nanoscience and nanotechnology motivates research and the development of new methods that can be used for nanofabricating the relevant test structures or devices. The attractive capabilities of the techniques described here, together with the interesting and subtle materials science, chemistry, and

  8. Photo-mediated ultrasound therapy (PUT): a novel method of selectively treating neovascularization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haonan; Hu, Zi Zhong; Li, Jia; Mordovanakis, Aghapi G.; Yang, Xinmai; Paulus, Yannis M.; Wang, Xueding

    2017-02-01

    Retinal and choroidal neovascularization play a pivotal role in the leading causes of blindness including macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Current therapy by focal laser photocoagulation can damage the normal surrounding cells, such as the photoreceptor inner and outer segments which are adjacent to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), due to the use of high laser energy and millisecond pulse duration. Therapies with pharmaceutical agents involve systemic administration of drugs, which can cause adverse effects and patients may become drug-resistant. We have developed a noninvasive photo-mediated ultrasound therapy (PUT) technique as a localized antivascular method, and applied it to remove micro blood vessels in the retina. PUT takes advantage of the high native optical contrast among biological tissues, and has the unique capability to self-target microvessels without causing unwanted damages to the surrounding tissues. This technique promotes cavitation activity in blood vessels by synergistically applying nanosecond laser pulses and ultrasound bursts. Through the interaction between cavitation and blood vessel wall, blood clots in microvessels and vasoconstriction can be induced. As a result, microvessels can be occluded. In comparison with other techniques that involves cavitation, both laser and ultrasound energy needed in PUT is significantly lower, and hence improves the safety in therapy.

  9. Selected asymptotic methods with applications to electromagnetics and antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Fikioris, George; Bakas, Odysseas N

    2013-01-01

    This book describes and illustrates the application of several asymptotic methods that have proved useful in the authors' research in electromagnetics and antennas. We first define asymptotic approximations and expansions and explain these concepts in detail. We then develop certain prerequisites from complex analysis such as power series, multivalued functions (including the concepts of branch points and branch cuts), and the all-important gamma function. Of particular importance is the idea of analytic continuation (of functions of a single complex variable); our discussions here include som

  10. Statistical methods for longitudinal data with agricultural applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantharama Ankinakatte, Smitha

    The PhD study focuses on modeling two kings of longitudinal data arising in agricultural applications: continuous time series data and discrete longitudinal data. Firstly, two statistical methods, neural networks and generalized additive models, are applied to predict masistis using multivariate...... continuous time series data obtained from robotic milking of cows, and their performance is compared. Secondly, the use of acyclic probabilistic finite automata /APFA) to model univariate discret longitudinal data is studied from a statistical modeling perspective, leading to a modified model selection...

  11. TRIZ method application for improving the special vehicles maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Saša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TRIZ methodology provides an opportunity for improving the classical engineering approach based on personal knowledge and experience. This paper presents the application of TRIZ methods for improving vehicle maintenance where special equipment is installed. A specific problem is the maintenance of the periscopes with heating system. Protective glass panels with heating system are rectangular glass elements. Their purpose is to perform mechanical protection of built-in prisms and provide heating of the prisms. Aging and long-term use leads to failure of these elements. The practice requires solutions in order to extend the lifetime of the system. New solution is evaluated by simulation and experiment.

  12. Application of the Smart method on the Picrocol data set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostoiu-Marin, I.; Delprat-Jannaud, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 64 - Pau (France)

    1995-12-31

    For the velocity model estimation in the case of complex geological structures, the PSI team has proposed the SMART method based on reflection tomography and pre-stack depth access to travel-times. Although theoretically very appealing, the feasibility of the method has not yet been proved. The objective of this study is to test the effectiveness of the method by applying it on a 2D synthetic data set. In particular, we test the possibility of retrieving additional kinematical information in the pre-stack depth migrated domain. We use a synthetic data set obtained from a saliferous structure: the PICROCOL data set. We show in detail the practical application of the method, enlightening the difficult stages (pre-stack depth interpretation, tuning of tomography parameters) and the possible pitfalls. Starting from picked travel-times in the pre-stack depth migration. We then show that the depth interpretation gives access to travel-times that were hardly interpretable in time. Carrying out 2 iterations (depth access to travel-times followed by tomography) of the SMART method, we finally obtain flat events in coherence panels that allow us to perform a post migration stack. The result is satisfactory since it is very close to the one obtained with the exact PICROCOL velocity model. (authors) 16 refs.

  13. Clinical Experience of Complex Application of Antiviral Therapy, Natural and Preformed Physical Factors in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Dragomiretska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the results of complex application of antiviral therapy, low-mineralized hydrocarbonate-sulphate-chloride sodium mineral water, EHF- and vibroacoustic therapy of the patients with chronic viral hepatitis C. The developed complex liquidates adverse effects of the antiviral therapy (leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and flu-like syndromes, promotes the normalization of the functional tests of the liver and normalization of the majority of indicators of the immune status, stimulates the synthesis of the endogenous interferon α.

  14. RF tunable devices and subsystems methods of modeling, analysis, and applications methods of modeling, analysis, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Qizheng

    2015-01-01

    This book serves as a hands-on guide to RF tunable devices, circuits and subsystems. An innovative method of modeling for tunable devices and networks is described, along with a new tuning algorithm, adaptive matching network control approach, and novel filter frequency automatic control loop.  The author provides readers with the necessary background and methods for designing and developing tunable RF networks/circuits and tunable RF font-ends, with an emphasis on applications to cellular communications. ·      Discusses the methods of characterizing, modeling, analyzing, and applying RF tunable devices and subsystems; ·      Explains the necessary methods of utilizing RF tunable devices and subsystems, rather than discussing the RF tunable devices themselves; ·      Presents and applies methods for MEMS tunable capacitors, which can be used for any RF tunable device; ·      Uses analytic methods wherever possible and provides numerous, closed-form solutions; ·      Includ...

  15. Application of Qualitative Methods in Health Research: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Upadhyaya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research is type of formative research that includes specialized techniques for obtaining in-depth responses about what people think and how they feel. It is seen as the research that seeks answer to the questions in the real world. Qualitative researchers gather what they see, hear, read from people and places, from events and activities, with the purpose to learn about the community and to generate new understanding that can be used by the social world. Qualitative research have often been conducted to answer the question “why” rather than “what”. A purpose of qualitative research is the construction of new understanding. Here, we present an overview of application of qualitative methods in health research. We have discussed here the different types of qualitative methods and how we and others have used them in different settings/scenarios; sample size and sampling techniques; analysis of qualitative data; validity in qualitative research; and ethical issues.

  16. Statistical methods for active pharmacovigilance, with applications to diabetes drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lan; Farrell, Patrick J; McNair, Doug; Krewski, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance aims to identify adverse drug reactions using postmarket surveillance data under real-world conditions of use. Unlike passive pharmacovigilance, which is based on largely voluntary (and hence incomplete) spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions with limited information on patient characteristics, active pharmacovigilance is based on electronic health records containing detailed information about patient populations, thereby allowing consideration of modifying factors such as polypharmacy and comorbidity, as well as sociodemographic characteristics. With the present shift toward active pharmacovigilance, statistical methods capable of addressing the complexities of such data are needed. We describe four such methods here, and demonstrate their application in the analysis of a large retrospective cohort of diabetics taking anti-hyperglycemic medications that may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events.

  17. Application of Target Costing method in the Hospitality Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andor Pajrok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches to managing costs are based on the costs that are the result of existing capabilities and resources in the company. Adding to these costs a specified margin or profit, leads to the sales price. If the market is not ready to accept such a selling price, managers need to find opportunities for rationalization and cost reduction. Target cost management begins the process of managing the sales price and the planned profit that the market can accept, and only then is it possible to determine the cost of the product. In the planning phase of the product and the manufacturing process the approach is to finding a method to lower costs and to reduce them as much as possible. The aim this of study is to investigate the application of target (strategy cost accounting methods in the Hospitality Industry.

  18. Statistical methods with applications to demography and life insurance

    CERN Document Server

    Khmaladze, Estáte V

    2013-01-01

    Suitable for statisticians, mathematicians, actuaries, and students interested in the problems of insurance and analysis of lifetimes, Statistical Methods with Applications to Demography and Life Insurance presents contemporary statistical techniques for analyzing life distributions and life insurance problems. It not only contains traditional material but also incorporates new problems and techniques not discussed in existing actuarial literature. The book mainly focuses on the analysis of an individual life and describes statistical methods based on empirical and related processes. Coverage ranges from analyzing the tails of distributions of lifetimes to modeling population dynamics with migrations. To help readers understand the technical points, the text covers topics such as the Stieltjes, Wiener, and Itô integrals. It also introduces other themes of interest in demography, including mixtures of distributions, analysis of longevity and extreme value theory, and the age structure of a population. In addi...

  19. Theoretical physics 7 quantum mechanics : methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to methods and applications in quantum mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, thus developing the understanding of quantized states further on. The first part of the book introduces the quantum theory of angular momentum and approximation methods. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes multiple particle systems and scattering theory. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in the basics of quantum mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets.  About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this seri...

  20. Time series analysis methods and applications for flight data

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jianye

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on different facets of flight data analysis, including the basic goals, methods, and implementation techniques. As mass flight data possesses the typical characteristics of time series, the time series analysis methods and their application for flight data have been illustrated from several aspects, such as data filtering, data extension, feature optimization, similarity search, trend monitoring, fault diagnosis, and parameter prediction, etc. An intelligent information-processing platform for flight data has been established to assist in aircraft condition monitoring, training evaluation and scientific maintenance. The book will serve as a reference resource for people working in aviation management and maintenance, as well as researchers and engineers in the fields of data analysis and data mining.

  1. Advanced symbolic analysis for VLSI systems methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Guoyong; Tlelo Cuautle, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the recent advances in symbolic analysis techniques for design automation of nanometer VLSI systems. The presentation is organized in parts of fundamentals, basic implementation methods and applications for VLSI design. Topics emphasized include  statistical timing and crosstalk analysis, statistical and parallel analysis, performance bound analysis and behavioral modeling for analog integrated circuits . Among the recent advances, the Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) based approaches are studied in depth. The BDD-based hierarchical symbolic analysis approaches, have essentially broken the analog circuit size barrier. In particular, this book   • Provides an overview of classical symbolic analysis methods and a comprehensive presentation on the modern  BDD-based symbolic analysis techniques; • Describes detailed implementation strategies for BDD-based algorithms, including the principles of zero-suppression, variable ordering and canonical reduction; • Int...

  2. Piezoelectric Materials Synthesized by the Hydrothermal Method and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Morita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis by the hydrothermal method has various advantages, including low reaction temperature, three-dimensional substrate availability, and automatic polarization alignment during the process. In this review, powder synthesis, the fabrication of piezoelectric thin films, and their applications are introduced. A polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate (PZT thin film was applied to a micro ultrasonic motor, and an epitaxial lead titanate (PbTiO3 thin film was estimated as a ferroelectric data storage medium. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties were successfully obtained for epitaxial PbTiO3 films. As lead-free piezoelectric powders, KNbO3 and NaNbO3 powders were synthesized by the hydrothermal method and sintered together to form (K,NaNbO3 ceramics, from which reasonable piezoelectric performance was achieved.

  3. The application of advanced rotor (performance) methods for design calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussel, G.J.W. van [Delft Univ. of Technology, Inst. for Wind Energy, Delft (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    The calculation of loads and performance of wind turbine rotors has been a topic for research over the last century. The principles for the calculation of loads on rotor blades with a given specific geometry, as well as the development of optimal shaped rotor blades have been published in the decades that significant aircraft development took place. Nowadays advanced computer codes are used for specific problems regarding modern aircraft, and application to wind turbine rotors has also been performed occasionally. The engineers designing rotor blades for wind turbines still use methods based upon global principles developed in the beginning of the century. The question what to expect in terms of the type of methods to be applied in a design environment for the near future is addressed here. (EG) 14 refs.

  4. SECTIONING METHOD APPLICATION AT ELLIPSOMETRY OF INHOMOGENEOUS REFLECTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gorlyak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with investigation of application peculiarities of ellipsometry methods and UF spectrophotometry at mechanical and chemical processing of optical engineering surface elements made of quartz glass. Ellipsometer LEF–3M–1, spectrophotometer SF–26 and interferometer MII–4 are used as experiment tools; they obtain widely known technical characteristics. Polarization characteristics of reflected light beam were measured by ellipsometry method; spectrophotometry method was used for measuring radiation transmission factor in UF spectrum area; by interference method surface layer thickness at quartz glass etching was measured. A method for HF–sectioning of inhomogeneous surface layer of polished quartz glass is developed based on ellipsometry equation for reflection system «inhomogeneous layer – inhomogeneous padding». The method makes it possible to carry out the measuring and analysis of optical characteristics for inhomogeneous layers system on inhomogeneous padding and to reconstruct optical profile of surface layers at quartz glass chemical processing. For definition of refractive index change along the layer depth, approximation of experimental values for polarization characteristics of homogeneous layers system is used. Inhomogeneous surface layer of polished quartz glass consists of an area (with thickness up to 20 nm and layer refractive index less than refractive index for quartz glass and an area (with thickness up to 0,1 μm and layer refractive index larger than refractive index for quartz glass. Ellipsometry and photometry methods are used for definition of technological conditions and optical characteristics of inhomogeneous layers at quartz glass chemical processing for optical elements with minimum radiation losses in UF spectrum area.

  5. Machine Learning-Empowered Biometric Methods for Biomedicine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxue Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, pervasive computing technologies are paving a promising way for advanced smart health applications. However, a key impediment faced by wide deployment of these assistive smart devices, is the increasing privacy and security issue, such as how to protect access to sensitive patient data in the health record. Focusing on this challenge, biometrics are attracting intense attention in terms of effective user identification to enable confidential health applications. In this paper, we take special interest in two bio-potential-based biometric modalities, electrocardiogram (ECG and electroencephalogram (EEG, considering that they are both unique to individuals, and more reliable than token (identity card and knowledge-based (username/password methods. After extracting effective features in multiple domains from ECG/EEG signals, several advanced machine learning algorithms are introduced to perform the user identification task, including Neural Network, K-nearest Neighbor, Bagging, Random Forest and AdaBoost. Experimental results on two public ECG and EEG datasets show that ECG is a more robust biometric modality compared to EEG, leveraging a higher signal to noise ratio and also more distinguishable morphological patterns. Among different machine learning classifiers, the random forest greatly outperforms the others and owns an identification rate as high as 98%. This study is expected to demonstrate that properly selected biometric empowered by an effective machine learner owns a great potential, to enable confidential biomedicine applications in the era of smart digital health.

  6. Application of Computational Methods in Planaria Research: A Current Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shyamasree

    2017-07-06

    Planaria is a member of the Phylum Platyhelminthes including flatworms. Planarians possess the unique ability of regeneration from adult stem cells or neoblasts and finds importance as a model organism for regeneration and developmental studies. Although research is being actively carried out globally through conventional methods to understand the process of regeneration from neoblasts, biology of development, neurobiology and immunology of Planaria, there are many thought provoking questions related to stem cell plasticity, and uniqueness of regenerative potential in Planarians amongst other members of Phylum Platyhelminthes. The complexity of receptors and signalling mechanisms, immune system network, biology of repair, responses to injury are yet to be understood in Planaria. Genomic and transcriptomic studies have generated a vast repository of data, but their availability and analysis is a challenging task. Data mining, computational approaches of gene curation, bioinformatics tools for analysis of transcriptomic data, designing of databases, application of algorithms in deciphering changes of morphology by RNA interference (RNAi) approaches, understanding regeneration experiments is a new venture in Planaria research that is helping researchers across the globe in understanding the biology. We highlight the applications of Hidden Markov models (HMMs) in designing of computational tools and their applications in Planaria decoding their complex biology.

  7. Effects of Fungicides, Time of Application, and Application Method on Control of Sclerotinia Blight in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Woodward

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to evaluate the response of peanut cultivars to different fungicides, application timings, and methods. Overall, fungicides reduced Sclerotinia blight incidence and increased pod yields when applied to susceptible and partially resistant cultivars. Disease suppression was greater when full fungicide rates were applied preventatively; however, yields between fungicide treated plots were similar. Lower levels of disease and higher yields were achieved with the partially resistant cultivar Tamrun OL07 compared to the susceptible cultivars Flavor Runner 458 and Tamrun OL 02. Despite possessing improved resistance Tamrun OL07 responded to all fungicide applications. While similar levels of disease control were achieved with broadcast or banded applications made during the day or at night, the yield response for the different application methods was inconsistent among years. A negative relationship (slope = −73.8; R2=0.73; P<0.01 was observed between final disease incidence ratings and yield data from studies where a fungicide response was observed. These studies suggest that both boscalid and fluazinam are effective at controlling Sclerotinia blight in peanuts. Alternative management strategies such as nighttime and banded applications could allow for lower fungicide rates to be used; however, additional studies are warranted.

  8. CRKSPH: A new meshfree hydrodynamics method with applications to astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, John Michael; Raskin, Cody; Frontiere, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    The study of astrophysical phenomena such as supernovae, accretion disks, galaxy formation, and large-scale structure formation requires computational modeling of, at a minimum, hydrodynamics and gravity. Developing numerical methods appropriate for these kinds of problems requires a number of properties: shock-capturing hydrodynamics benefits from rigorous conservation of invariants such as total energy, linear momentum, and mass; lack of obvious symmetries or a simplified spatial geometry to exploit necessitate 3D methods that ideally are Galilean invariant; the dynamic range of mass and spatial scales that need to be resolved can span many orders of magnitude, requiring methods that are highly adaptable in their space and time resolution. We have developed a new Lagrangian meshfree hydrodynamics method called Conservative Reproducing Kernel Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, or CRKSPH, in order to meet these goals. CRKSPH is a conservative generalization of the meshfree reproducing kernel method, combining the high-order accuracy of reproducing kernels with the explicit conservation of mass, linear momentum, and energy necessary to study shock-driven hydrodynamics in compressible fluids. CRKSPH's Lagrangian, particle-like nature makes it simple to combine with well-known N-body methods for modeling gravitation, similar to the older Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. Indeed, CRKSPH can be substituted for SPH in existing SPH codes due to these similarities. In comparison to SPH, CRKSPH is able to achieve substantially higher accuracy for a given number of points due to the explicitly consistent (and higher-order) interpolation theory of reproducing kernels, while maintaining the same conservation principles (and therefore applicability) as SPH. There are currently two coded implementations of CRKSPH available: one in the open-source research code Spheral, and the other in the high-performance cosmological code HACC. Using these codes we have applied

  9. Community therapy application in intervention with adolescents: new strategies for prevention and promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristina Zago

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Given adolescents vulnerability facing transformations and resistances, the group work used by Occupational Therapy through techniques and dynamics favors expression, anxiety control and biopsychosocial maturity in intervention. Currently, one strategy used with teenagers is Community Therapy (CT, because it provides a welcoming environment where all are equal and can share their sufferings, anxieties and affinities. Thus, this study examined the effectiveness of group activities used in occupational therapy as warm up strategies in Community Therapy circles. Eleven teenagers aged 12 to 14 years old participated in the research. The study was carried out in a social institution that aims to support children and youth in the municipality of Uberaba, Minas Gerais state. Video and photo images and handwritten records were used as data collection instruments during the application of the 12 strategies, divided into three categories: competition, cooperation, and self-knowledge/self-esteem, applied for warming up the CT circles. Data were analyzed and presented through the use of a chart for better visualization and understanding of the adolescents’ behavior during the warm up CT circles. The results obtained showed dispute, unrest, lack of attention and sociability; behaviors that are inherent to adolescence due to the several changes, emotional alterations and search for identity that these subjects experience. Based on the survey results, it was possible observe that the behaviors have triggered direct-indirect relationship with the strategies used as facilitators in the discussion development regarding the issues addressed in the CT circles.

  10. Development of proton computed tomography detectors for applications in hadron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkirov, Vladimir A; Johnson, Robert P; Sadrozinski, Hartmut F-W; Schulte, Reinhard W

    2016-02-11

    Radiation therapy with protons and heavier ions is an attractive form of cancer treatment that could enhance local control and survival of cancers that are currently difficult to cure and lead to less side effects due to sparing of normal tissues. However, particle therapy faces a significant technical challenge because one cannot accurately predict the particle range in the patient using data provided by existing imaging technologies. Proton computed tomography (pCT) is an emerging imaging modality capable of improving the accuracy of range prediction. In this paper, we describe the successive pCT scanners designed and built by our group with the goal to support particle therapy treatment planning and image guidance by reconstructing an accurate 3D map of the stopping power relative to water in patient tissues. The pCT scanners we have built to date consist of silicon telescopes, which track the proton before and after the object to be reconstructed, and an energy or range detector, which measures the residual energy and/or range of the protons used to evaluate the water equivalent path length (WEPL) of each proton in the object. An overview of a decade-long evolution of the conceptual design of pCT scanners and their calibration is given. Results of scanner performance tests are presented, which demonstrate that the latest pCT scanner approaches readiness for clinical applications in hadron therapy.

  11. The application of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in dentistry: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, E. T.; Dias, H. B.; Corbi, S. C. T.; Marcantonio, R. A. C.; Bernardi, A. C. A.; Bagnato, V. S.; Hamblin, M. R.; Rastelli, A. N. S.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years there have been an increasing number of in vitro and in vivo studies that show positive results regarding antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) used in dentistry. These include applications in periodontics, endodontics, and mucosal infections caused by bacteria present as biofilms. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy is a therapy based on the combination of a non-toxic photosensitizer (PS) and appropriate wavelength visible light, which in the presence of oxygen is activated to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS induce a series of photochemical and biological events that cause irreversible damage leading to the death of microorganisms. Many light-absorbing dyes have been mentioned as potential PS for aPDT and different wavelengths have been tested. However, there is no consensus on a standard protocol yet. Thus, the goal of this review was to summarize the results of research on aPDT in dentistry using the PubMed database focusing on recent studies of the effectiveness aPDT in decreasing microorganisms and microbial biofilms, and also to describe aPDT effects, mechanisms of action and applications.

  12. The application of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in dentistry: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, E T; Dias, H B; Corbi, S C T; Marcantonio, R A C; Bernardi, A C A; Bagnato, V S; Hamblin, M R; Rastelli, A N S

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there have been an increasing number of in vitro and in vivo studies that show positive results regarding antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) used in dentistry. These include applications in periodontics, endodontics, and mucosal infections caused by bacteria present as biofilms. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy is a therapy based on the combination of a non-toxic photosensitizer (PS) and appropriate wavelength visible light, which in the presence of oxygen is activated to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS induce a series of photochemical and biological events that cause irreversible damage leading to the death of microorganisms. Many light-absorbing dyes have been mentioned as potential PS for aPDT and different wavelengths have been tested. However, there is no consensus on a standard protocol yet. Thus, the goal of this review was to summarize the results of research on aPDT in dentistry using the PubMed database focusing on recent studies of the effectiveness aPDT in decreasing microorganisms and microbial biofilms, and also to describe aPDT effects, mechanisms of action and applications. PMID:29151775

  13. Potential clinical applications of adult human mesenchymal stem cell (Prochymal® therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel AN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Amit N Patel, Jorge GenoveseUniversity of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: In vitro, in vivo animal, and human clinical data show a broad field of application for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. There is overwhelming evidence of the usefulness of MSCs in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and immune therapy. At present, there are a significant number of clinical trials exploring the use of MSCs for the treatment of various diseases, including myocardial infarction and stroke, in which oxygen suppression causes widespread cell death, and others with clear involvement of the immune system, such as graft-versus-host disease, Crohn's disease, and diabetes. With no less impact, MSCs have been used as cell therapy to treat defects in bone and cartilage and to help in wound healing, or in combination with biomaterials in tissue engineering development. Among the MSCs, allogeneic MSCs have been associated with a regenerative capacity due to their unique immune modulatory properties. Their immunosuppressive capability without evidence of immunosuppressive toxicity at a global level define their application in the treatment of diseases with a pathogenesis involving uncontrolled activity of the immune system. Until now, the limitation in the number of totally characterized autologous MSCs available represents a major obstacle to their use for adult stem cell therapy. The use of premanufactured allogeneic MSCs from controlled donors under optimal conditions and their application in highly standardized clinical trials would lead to a better understanding of their real applications and reduce the time to clinical translation.Keywords: regeneration, immunomodulation, tissue engineering, allogeneic, mesenchymal stem cells

  14. A PILOT METHOD FOR MULTIMODAL GROUP THERAPY FOR ADULTS WITH ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Marin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The management of ADHD across the lifespan is a topic of scientific and public debate, with much discussion centering on optimal treatments. Increasing empirical evidence suggests that successful management of ADHD involves a combination of stimulant medication and psychosocial interventions. This article describes an original approach combining multiple psychotherapeutic modalities that addresses the complex treatment requirements of adult patients with ADHD, through a structured, integrative, psychosocial therapeutic model that holistically encompasses problematic aspects of life for the adult with ADHD. This model integrates a range of methods, including, problem-solving therapy, mindfulness, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT and family therapy. Each of these methods have previously been empirically proven to be effective for this patient population, but have never been integrated into a coherent intervention comprised of group work designed for problem identification, positive reinforcement and modeling, peer discussions aimed to facilitate anger expression, communication and assertiveness training, and mindfulness and CBT exercises for increased awareness and organization, and to support new solutions for identified problems. Patients are also encouraged to identify trans-generational interaction patterns, reflect on how these patterns impact their emotional difficulties, and eventually achieve enhanced self-acceptance.

  15. Physical Therapy and Exercise Interventions in Huntington's Disease: A Mixed Methods Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Nora E; Rao, Ashwini K; Kegelmeyer, Deb; Kloos, Anne; Busse, Monica; Hartel, Lynda; Carrier, Judith; Quinn, Lori

    2017-01-01

    A number of studies evaluating physical therapy and exercise interventions in Huntington's disease have been conducted over the past 15 years. However, an assessment of the quality and strength of the evidence in support of these interventions is lacking. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the effectiveness of physical therapy and exercise interventions in people with Huntington's disease, and to examine the perceptions of patients, families and caregivers of these interventions. This mixed-methods systematic review utilized the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) approach and extraction tools to evaluate the literature from January 2003 until May 2016. The review considered interventions that included exercise and physical therapy interventions, and included both quantitative and qualitative outcome measures. Twenty (20) studies met the inclusion criteria, including eighteen (18) that had quantitative outcome measures and two (2) that utilized qualitative methods. JBI Levels of evidence for the 18 quantitative studies were as follows: Eight studies were at evidence Level 1, seven were at Level 2, two were at Level 3, and one was at Level 4. Our review suggests that there is preliminary support for the benefits of exercise and physical activity in Huntington's disease in terms of motor function, gait speed, and balance, as well as a range of physical and social benefits identified through patient-reported outcomes. Variability in mode of intervention as well as outcome measures limits the interpretability of these studies, and high-quality studies that incorporate adaptive trial designs for this rare disease are needed.

  16. ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION IN RUSSIA: PROLOG STUDY AS A PROOF METHOD OF CONTEMPORARY THERAPY OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shalnova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To prove the advantage of the long-term controlled antihypertensive therapy compared with the real usual standard therapy in patients with mild to moderate arterial hypertension.Material and methods. It was multicenter, randomized, prospective parallel-group study in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. One part of patients (treatment group received the strongly regulated stepped antihypertensive therapy based on ACE-inhibitor spirapril, the second one (control group continued their usual standard therapy prescribed by doctors of polyclinics or other patient care institutions. The study lasted one year.Results. 1742 patients were enrolled in the study, 854 patients were included in the treatment group and 888 – in the control group. 220 patients dropped out of the study by different reasons, and 1552 patients finished the study. There were 651 (37,6% men and 1081 (62,4% women. It was substantial decrease in blood pressure in both group, but distinctions between systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the treatment and control group during the study were significant.The target levels of blood pressure (systolic < 140 mm Hg and diastolic < 90 mm Hg were registered substantially more frequent in the patients of treatment group than in control group (69,4% и 39,3% after three months and 83,6% и 66,9% after 12 months of the treatment correspondingly.Conclusion. Controlled stepped antihypertensive therapy resulted into more significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and more frequent achievement of target levels of blood pressure in comparison with control group. It supposes better prognosis of patients.

  17. ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION IN RUSSIA: PROLOG STUDY AS A PROOF METHOD OF CONTEMPORARY THERAPY OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shalnova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To prove the advantage of the long-term controlled antihypertensive therapy compared with the real usual standard therapy in patients with mild to moderate arterial hypertension.Material and methods. It was multicenter, randomized, prospective parallel-group study in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. One part of patients (treatment group received the strongly regulated stepped antihypertensive therapy based on ACE-inhibitor spirapril, the second one (control group continued their usual standard therapy prescribed by doctors of polyclinics or other patient care institutions. The study lasted one year.Results. 1742 patients were enrolled in the study, 854 patients were included in the treatment group and 888 – in the control group. 220 patients dropped out of the study by different reasons, and 1552 patients finished the study. There were 651 (37,6% men and 1081 (62,4% women. It was substantial decrease in blood pressure in both group, but distinctions between systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the treatment and control group during the study were significant.The target levels of blood pressure (systolic < 140 mm Hg and diastolic < 90 mm Hg were registered substantially more frequent in the patients of treatment group than in control group (69,4% и 39,3% after three months and 83,6% и 66,9% after 12 months of the treatment correspondingly.Conclusion. Controlled stepped antihypertensive therapy resulted into more significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and more frequent achievement of target levels of blood pressure in comparison with control group. It supposes better prognosis of patients.

  18. [Methods and applications of population viability analysis (PVA): a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Wu, Jian-Guo; Kou, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Tian-Ming; Smith, Andrew T; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2011-01-01

    With the accelerating human consumption of natural resources, the problems associated with endangered species caused by habitat loss and fragmentation have become greater and more urgent than ever. Conceptually associated with the theories of island biogeography, population viability analysis (PVA) has been one of the most important approaches in studying and protecting endangered species, and this methodology has occupied a central place in conservation biology and ecology in the past several decades. PVA has been widely used and proven effective in many cases, but its predictive ability and accuracy are still in question. Also, its application needs expand. To overcome some of the problems, we believe that PVA needs to incorporate some principles and methods from other fields, particularly landscape ecology and sustainability science. Integrating landscape pattern and socioeconomic factors into PVA will make the approach theoretically more comprehensive and practically more useful. Here, we reviewed the history, basic conception, research methods, and modeling applications and their accuracies of PVA, and proposed the perspective in this field.

  19. Aggregate Interview Method of ranking orthopedic applicants predicts future performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Jacqueline; VanHeest, Ann; Tatman, Penny; Gioe, Terence

    2013-07-01

    This article evaluates and describes a process of ranking orthopedic applicants using what the authors term the Aggregate Interview Method. The authors hypothesized that higher-ranking applicants using this method at their institution would perform better than those ranked lower using multiple measures of resident performance. A retrospective review of 115 orthopedic residents was performed at the authors' institution. Residents were grouped into 3 categories by matching rank numbers: 1-5, 6-14, and 15 or higher. Each rank group was compared with resident performance as measured by faculty evaluations, the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination (OITE), and American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) test results. Residents ranked 1-5 scored significantly better on patient care, behavior, and overall competence by faculty evaluation (Porthopedic resident candidates who scored highly on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education resident core competencies as measured by faculty evaluations, performed above the national average on the OITE, and passed the ABOS part 1 examination at rates exceeding the national average. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Application of nonlinear systems in nanomechanics and nanofluids analytical methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ganji, Davood Domairry

    2015-01-01

    With Application of Nonlinear Systems in Nanomechanics and Nanofluids the reader gains a deep and practice-oriented understanding of nonlinear systems within areas of nanotechnology application as well as the necessary knowledge enabling the handling of such systems. The book helps readers understand relevant methods and techniques for solving nonlinear problems, and is an invaluable reference for researchers, professionals and PhD students interested in research areas and industries where nanofluidics and dynamic nano-mechanical systems are studied or applied. The book is useful in areas suc

  1. Application of a thermoluminescence method for detection of irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastelum, S.; Osuna, I.; Melendrez, R.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Chernov, V.; Calderon, T.; Barboza-Flores, M

    2002-07-01

    Food irradiation is extremely effective at reducing food-borne illness as well as losses caused by infestation and contamination. Despite the well-established regulations that permit irradiation to control pathogens in spices, there are no widespread methods to detect previously irradiated food. Therefore, it has become necessary to develop new detection and dose determination methods for food subjected previously to irradiation. The present work deals with the application of the thermoluminescence (TL) phenomenon to detect irradiated spices. The process is based upon the thermoluminescence properties exhibited by the polymineral content of the irradiated specimen. After separating the organic material, it is possible to extract some polymineral substances that are suitable for thermoluminescence analysis due to interaction of the spice to ionising radiation. The method was successfully applied to examine irradiated and non-irradiated paprika of Mexican origin. The spice was irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 5, 10 and 15 kGy. The separated thermoluminescent polymineral was found to be composed mainly of quartz and feldspar. The thermoluminescence glow curve of the irradiated specimen shows a side band peaked 228, 268 and 336 deg. C, resembling pretty much the combined TL of quartz and feldspars. The method allows for the determination of the retrospective dose exposure. (author)

  2. Application of FMEA method in railway signalling projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmel Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the FMEA method application, which is relevant in verification of design of two separated railway signalling systems. The efficiency of the method at the stage of the design was discussed. The method was identified as an important element of safety management process and as safety analysis method, which is included in the Safety Case and is applied for the sake of safety arguments and its assessment. Safety process management comprises several phases and appropriate actions, linked with each other in the way to create safety life cycle consistent with system life cycle. The safety case is a set of documents demonstrating that the product is compliant with defined safety requirements including analysis that indicates the correctness of the design and the correct reaction of the system to the failures, with appropriate and requested fail-safe reaction. It is necessary that railway signalling system should fulfil SIL4 requirement and remain safe in case of occurrence any kind of single failure of the equipment considered as possible.

  3. [Behavioral, stress and immunological evaluation methods of music therapy in elderly patients with senile dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mizue; Kanamori, Masao; Nagasawa, Shingo; Saruhara, Takayuki

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of behavioral, stress and immunological evaluation methods in music therapy (MT) with elderly patients with senile dementia. The MT group consisted of 8 elderly patients with dementia and the control group included 8 similarly matched patients. A total of 25 sessions of music therapy were conducted for one hour, twice each week for three months. The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Gottfries-Brane-Steen Scale (GBS), and Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (Behave-AD) were used to evaluate behavioral changes. Saliva Chromogranin A (Cg A) and Immunoglobulin A (Ig A) were used to assess changes in stress and immunological status, respectively. The results of the study were as follows: 1. In GBS, the mean score of "different symptoms common in dementia" improved significantly after MT. 2. The mean Behave-AD score of "paranoid and delusional ideation" was also significantly improved (pdementia.

  4. An Approach in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning: A Fast, GPU-Based Monte Carlo Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaee, Mojtaba; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Tavakoli, Mohammad B

    2017-01-01

    An accurate and fast radiation dose calculation is essential for successful radiation radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to implement a new graphic processing unit (GPU) based radiation therapy treatment planning for accurate and fast dose calculation in radiotherapy centers. A program was written for parallel running based on GPU. The code validation was performed by EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc. Moreover, a semi-automatic, rotary, asymmetric phantom was designed and produced using a bone, the lung, and the soft tissue equivalent materials. All measurements were performed using a Mapcheck dosimeter. The accuracy of the code was validated using the experimental data, which was obtained from the anthropomorphic phantom as the gold standard. The findings showed that, compared with those of DOSXYZnrc in the virtual phantom and for most of the voxels (>95%), GPU-based Monte Carlo method in dose calculation may be useful in routine radiation therapy centers as the core and main component of a treatment planning verification system.

  5. A sensitivity comparison of the Quick and Owren prothrombin time methods in oral anticoagulant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Eero Horsti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Prothrombin time (PT is the leading test for monitoring oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT. According to the World Health Organization recommendation, International Normalized Ratio (INR results obtained from the same patient samples with the major PT methods (Quick and Owren should be the same when the therapeutic range is the same. In our study blood samples were obtained from 207 OAT patients. We analyzed the samples using two Quick and two Owren PT (combined thromboplastin reagents for INR and assessed the sensitivity and true coagulation activity using a new-generation PT method. The INR values with the Quick PT and Owren PT methods were very similar around the normal range, while unacceptable differences were seen within the therapeutic range and at higher INR values. The Quick PT results as INR are clearly lower than those given by Owren PT and the difference increases toward higher INR. The new PT method functions well with both Owren PT reagents, and we can calculate the true active INR. The Quick PT methods show no sensitivity to coagulation inhibition measurement. The harmonization of the INR is an important goal for the safety of OAT patients. More accurate INR results reduce morbidity and mortality, and the therapeutic ranges should be similar worldwide. In this study we found unacceptable differences in INR results produced by the two PT methods. The new method showed a lack of sensitivity to Quick PT. For the global harmonization of OAT therapy and for INR accuracy only the more sensitive Owren PT method should be used.

  6. [The effectiveness of physical therapy methods (Bobath and motor relearning program) in rehabilitation of stroke patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutulyte, Grazina; Kimtys, Algimantas; Krisciūnas, Aleksandras

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether two different physiotherapy regimes caused any differences in outcome in the rehabilitation after stroke. We examined 240 patients with stroke. Examination was carried out at the Rehabilitation Center of Kaunas Second Clinical Hospital. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Bobath method was applied to the first (I) group (n=147), motor relearning program (MRP) method was applied to the second (II) group (n=93). In every group of patients we established samples according to sex, age, hospitalization to rehab unit as occurrence of CVA degree of disorder (hemiplegia, hemiparesis). The mobility of patients was evaluated according to European Federation for Research in Rehabilitation (EFRR) scale. Activities of daily living were evaluated by Barthel index. Analyzed groups were evaluated before physical therapy. When preliminary analysis was carried out it proved no statically reliable differences between analyzed groups (reliability 95%). The same statistical analysis was carried out after physical therapy. The results of differences between patient groups were compared using chi(2) method. Bobath method was applied working with the first group of patients. The aim of the method is to improve quality of the affected body side's movements in order to keep both sides working as harmoniously as possible. While applying this method at work, physical therapist guides patient's body on key-points, stimulating normal postural reactions, and training normal movement pattern. MRP method was used while working with the second group patients. This method is based on movement science, biomechanics and training of functional movement. Program is based on idea that movement pattern shouldn't be trained; it must be relearned. CONCLUSION. This study indicates that physiotherapy with task-oriented strategies represented by MRP, is preferable to physiotherapy with facilitation/inhibition strategies, such the Bobath programme, in the

  7. Range Verification Methods in Particle Therapy: Underlying Physics and Monte Carlo Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Aafke Christine

    2015-01-01

    Hadron therapy allows for highly conformal dose distributions and better sparing of organs-at-risk, thanks to the characteristic dose deposition as function of depth. However, the quality of hadron therapy treatments is closely connected with the ability to predict and achieve a given beam range in the patient. Currently, uncertainties in particle range lead to the employment of safety margins, at the expense of treatment quality. Much research in particle therapy is therefore aimed at developing methods to verify the particle range in patients. Non-invasive in vivo monitoring of the particle range can be performed by detecting secondary radiation, emitted from the patient as a result of nuclear interactions of charged hadrons with tissue, including β (+) emitters, prompt photons, and charged fragments. The correctness of the dose delivery can be verified by comparing measured and pre-calculated distributions of the secondary particles. The reliability of Monte Carlo (MC) predictions is a key issue. Correctly modeling the production of secondaries is a non-trivial task, because it involves nuclear physics interactions at energies, where no rigorous theories exist to describe them. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of various aspects in modeling the physics processes for range verification with secondary particles produced in proton, carbon, and heavier ion irradiation. We discuss electromagnetic and nuclear interactions of charged hadrons in matter, which is followed by a summary of some widely used MC codes in hadron therapy. Then, we describe selected examples of how these codes have been validated and used in three range verification techniques: PET, prompt gamma, and charged particle detection. We include research studies and clinically applied methods. For each of the techniques, we point out advantages and disadvantages, as well as clinical challenges still to be addressed, focusing on MC simulation aspects.

  8. Range Verification Methods in Particle Therapy: Underlying Physics and Monte Carlo Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Aafke Christine

    2015-01-01

    Hadron therapy allows for highly conformal dose distributions and better sparing of organs-at-risk, thanks to the characteristic dose deposition as function of depth. However, the quality of hadron therapy treatments is closely connected with the ability to predict and achieve a given beam range in the patient. Currently, uncertainties in particle range lead to the employment of safety margins, at the expense of treatment quality. Much research in particle therapy is therefore aimed at developing methods to verify the particle range in patients. Non-invasive in vivo monitoring of the particle range can be performed by detecting secondary radiation, emitted from the patient as a result of nuclear interactions of charged hadrons with tissue, including β+ emitters, prompt photons, and charged fragments. The correctness of the dose delivery can be verified by comparing measured and pre-calculated distributions of the secondary particles. The reliability of Monte Carlo (MC) predictions is a key issue. Correctly modeling the production of secondaries is a non-trivial task, because it involves nuclear physics interactions at energies, where no rigorous theories exist to describe them. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of various aspects in modeling the physics processes for range verification with secondary particles produced in proton, carbon, and heavier ion irradiation. We discuss electromagnetic and nuclear interactions of charged hadrons in matter, which is followed by a summary of some widely used MC codes in hadron therapy. Then, we describe selected examples of how these codes have been validated and used in three range verification techniques: PET, prompt gamma, and charged particle detection. We include research studies and clinically applied methods. For each of the techniques, we point out advantages and disadvantages, as well as clinical challenges still to be addressed, focusing on MC simulation aspects. PMID:26217586

  9. The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, J; Nadeau, V; Ferguson, J; Moseley, H; Ibbotson, S; Allen, J W; Sibbett, W; Padgett, M

    2001-03-01

    A novel, compact and low-cost multispectral fluorescence imaging system with an integrated excitation light source is described. Data are presented demonstrating the application of this method to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence before, during and after topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers. The excitation source comprised a fluorescent tube with the phosphor selected to emit broadband violet light centered at 394 nm. The camera system simultaneously captured spectrally specific images of the fluorescence of the photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX, the illumination profile and the skin autofluorescence. Real-time processing enabled images to be manipulated to create a composite image of high contrast. The application and validation of this method will allow further detailed studies of the characteristics and time-course of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence, during topical photodynamic therapy in human skin in vivo.

  10. [Clinical applications of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth in stem cell therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoxia, Li; Jiaozi, Fangteng; Shi, Yu; Yuming, Zhao; Lihong, Ge

    2017-10-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are one category of dental stem cells. They belong to ectodermal mesenchymal stem cells. As an ideal stem cell source, SHED possess great potential in stem cell therapy. This review demonstrates the biological characteristics and advantages of SHED in stem cell therapy and discusses its multiple functions in tissue regeneration and repair, including multiple differentiation potentiality, cell secretion of cytokines, and immunomodulatory ability. Furthermore, this article introduces the main findings regarding the potential clinical applications of SHED to a variety of diseases. This article demonstrates research progress in dentin-pulp regeneration, maxillofacial bone regeneration, and treatment of nervous system and immune system diseases with SHED for stem cell transplantation.

  11. [POSSIBILITIES OF VACUUM THERAPY APPLICATION IN DISORDERS OF VENOUS OUTFLOW IN ISLET GRAFTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyul, P O; Samoylenko, G E; Nor, N M; Slesarenko, K S

    2015-07-01

    The experience of "distressed" (problematic) flaps application in 33 patients with soft tissue defects over 2010-2014 years were analysed. It was proposed to use the local negative pressure for the prevention and treatment of complications associated with venous insufficiency or trombosis in using of plastics with vascularised complexes of tissues. Vacuum-therapy was conducted with the help of negative pressure apparatus "AGATE-Dnepr" (Ukraine) by attaching silver-containing polyurethane sponge on the operating zone, covering the flap with the surrounding skin netting band "Grassolind". The recommended standard of negative pressure of 75-125 mm Hg, both in impulse and in continuous mode was used. The high efficiency of vacuum-therapy for survival of grafts has been demonstrated. Thus, it might be considered as an effective element of prevention and treatment of complications associated with venous insufficiency or trombosis using of vascularised tissue complex plastics of defects.

  12. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Pediatric Chronic Pain: Theory and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielech, Melissa; Vowles, Kevin E.; Wicksell, Rikard

    2017-01-01

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a third wave behavior therapy approach which aims to increase engagement in activities that bring meaning, vitality, and value to the lives of individuals experiencing persistent pain, discomfort, or distress. This goal is particularly relevant when these aversive experiences cannot be effectively avoided or when avoidance efforts risk their exacerbation, all of which may be common experiences in children and adolescents with chronic pain conditions. The primary aim of the present paper is to review and summarize the extant literature on the application, utility, and evidence for using ACT with pediatric chronic pain populations by: (1) defining the theoretical assumptions of the ACT model; (2) summarizing research study findings and relevant measures from the published literature; and (3) critically discussing the strengths, limitations and areas in need of further development. PMID:28146108

  13. Spot scanning proton therapy plan assessment: design and development of a dose verification application for use in routine clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Walsh, Timothy J.; Beltran, Chris J.; Stoker, Joshua B.; Mundy, Daniel W.; Parry, Mark D.; Bues, Martin; Fatyga, Mirek

    2016-04-01

    The use of radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer has been carried out clinically since the late 1800's. Early on however, it was discovered that a radiation dose sufficient to destroy cancer cells can also cause severe injury to surrounding healthy tissue. Radiation oncologists continually strive to find the perfect balance between a dose high enough to destroy the cancer and one that avoids damage to healthy organs. Spot scanning or "pencil beam" proton radiotherapy offers another option to improve on this. Unlike traditional photon therapy, proton beams stop in the target tissue, thus better sparing all organs beyond the targeted tumor. In addition, the beams are far narrower and thus can be more precisely "painted" onto the tumor, avoiding exposure to surrounding healthy tissue. To safely treat patients with proton beam radiotherapy, dose verification should be carried out for each plan prior to treatment. Proton dose verification systems are not currently commercially available so the Department of Radiation Oncology at the Mayo Clinic developed its own, called DOSeCHECK, which offers two distinct dose simulation methods: GPU-based Monte Carlo and CPU-based analytical. The three major components of the system include the web-based user interface, the Linux-based dose verification simulation engines, and the supporting services and components. The architecture integrates multiple applications, libraries, platforms, programming languages, and communication protocols and was successfully deployed in time for Mayo Clinic's first proton beam therapy patient. Having a simple, efficient application for dose verification greatly reduces staff workload and provides additional quality assurance, ultimately improving patient safety.

  14. Generalization of mixed multiscale finite element methods with applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C S [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Many science and engineering problems exhibit scale disparity and high contrast. The small scale features cannot be omitted in the physical models because they can affect the macroscopic behavior of the problems. However, resolving all the scales in these problems can be prohibitively expensive. As a consequence, some types of model reduction techniques are required to design efficient solution algorithms. For practical purpose, we are interested in mixed finite element problems as they produce solutions with certain conservative properties. Existing multiscale methods for such problems include the mixed multiscale finite element methods. We show that for complicated problems, the mixed multiscale finite element methods may not be able to produce reliable approximations. This motivates the need of enrichment for coarse spaces. Two enrichment approaches are proposed, one is based on generalized multiscale finte element metthods (GMsFEM), while the other is based on spectral element-based algebraic multigrid (rAMGe). The former one, which is called mixed GMsFEM, is developed for both Darcy’s flow and linear elasticity. Application of the algorithm in two-phase flow simulations are demonstrated. For linear elasticity, the algorithm is subtly modified due to the symmetry requirement of the stress tensor. The latter enrichment approach is based on rAMGe. The algorithm differs from GMsFEM in that both of the velocity and pressure spaces are coarsened. Due the multigrid nature of the algorithm, recursive application is available, which results in an efficient multilevel construction of the coarse spaces. Stability, convergence analysis, and exhaustive numerical experiments are carried out to validate the proposed enrichment approaches. iii

  15. Repeated applications of photodynamic therapy on Candida glabrata biofilms formed in acrylic resin polymerized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo Freitas, Lírian Silva; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have been suggested that photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be used as an adjuvant treatment for denture stomatitis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of multiple sessions of PDT on Candida glabrata biofilms in specimens of polymerized acrylic resin formed after 5 days. Subsequently, four applications of PDT were performed on biofilms in 24-h intervals (days 6-9). Also, we evaluated two types of PDT, including application of laser and methylene blue or light-emitting diode (LED) and erythrosine. The control groups were treated with physiological solution. The effects of PDT on biofilm were evaluated after the first and fourth application of PDT. The biofilm analysis was performed by counting the colony-forming units. The results showed that between the days 6 and 9, the biofilms not treated by PDT had an increase of 5.53 to 6.05 log (p = 0.0271). Regarding the treatments, after one application of PDT, the biofilms decreased from 5.53 to 0.89 log. When it was done four applications, the microbial reduction ranged from 6.05 log to 0.11 log. We observed that one application of PDT with laser or LED caused a reduction of 3.36 and 4.64 compared to the control groups, respectively (p = 0.1708). When it was done four applications of PDT, the reductions achieved were 1.57 for laser and 5.94 for LED (p = 0.0001). It was concluded that repeated applications of PDT on C. glabrata biofilms showed higher antimicrobial activity compared to single application. PDT mediated by LED and erythrosine was more efficient than the PDT mediated by laser and methylene blue.

  16. Nanotechnology in hyperthermia cancer therapy: From fundamental principles to advanced applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beik, Jaber; Abed, Ziaeddin; Ghoreishi, Fatemeh S; Hosseini-Nami, Samira; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Shakeri-Zadeh, Ali; Kamrava, S Kamran

    2016-08-10

    In this work, we present an in-depth review of recent breakthroughs in nanotechnology for hyperthermia cancer therapy. Conventional hyperthermia methods do not thermally discriminate between the target and the surrounding normal tissues, and this non-selective tissue heating can lead to serious side effects. Nanotechnology is expected to have great potential to revolutionize current hyperthermia methods. To find an appropriate place in cancer treatment, all nanotechnology-based hyperthermia methods and their risks/benefits must be thoroughly understood. In this review paper, we extensively examine and compare four modern nanotechnology-based hyperthermia methods. For each method, the possible physical mechanisms of heat generation and enhancement due to the presence of nanoparticles are explained, and recent in vitro and in vivo studies are reviewed and discussed. Nano-Photo-Thermal Therapy (NPTT) and Nano-Magnetic Hyperthermia (NMH) are reviewed as the two first exciting approaches for targeted hyperthermia. The third novel hyperthermia method, Nano-Radio-Frequency Ablation (NaRFA) is discussed together with the thermal effects of novel nanoparticles in the presence of radiofrequency waves. Finally, Nano-Ultrasound Hyperthermia (NUH) is described as the fourth modern method for cancer hyperthermia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Applications in radiation therapy of a scintillating screen viewed by a CCD camera

    CERN Document Server

    Schippers, J M; Luijk, P V

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) dosimetry system has been designed for position-sensitive dose-measurement applications in modern radiation therapy. The system consists of a scintillating screen (Gd sub 2 O sub 2 S : Tb), observed by a low-noise CCD camera with a long integration time. The system allows reliable and accurate simultaneous 2D imaging of therapeutic dose distributions in the scintillator with sub millimeter spatial resolution. This system has been applied successfully at different applications in radiation therapy. Results of dose measurements in a treatment modality using a scanning proton beam are reported. It is shown that a quick and reliable measurement can be done. The screen+CCD system has proven to perform accurate dosimetry in applications where beams with a small (1-5 mm) diameter are used and where absolute dosimetry by means of standard ionization chambers is not possible due to their relatively large size. For the routine measurements of the alignment of therapeutic beams with respect to the...

  18. Practical Aspects of Finite Element Method Applications in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbović Aleksandar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of numerical methods, such as finite element method (FEM, has been widely adopted in solving structural problems with complex geometry under external loads when analytical solutions are unachievable. Basic idea behind FEM is to divide the complex body geometry into smaller and simpler domains, called finite elements, and then to formulate solution for each element instead of seeking a solution for the entire domain. After finding the solutions for all elements they can be combined to obtain a solution for the whole domain. This numerical method is mostly used in engineering, but it is also useful for studying the biomechanical properties of materials used in medicine and the influence of mechanical forces on the biological systems. Since its introduction in dentistry four decades ago, FEM became powerful tool for the predictions of stress and strain distribution on teeth, dentures, implants and surrounding bone. FEM can indicate aspects of biomaterials and human tissues that can hardly be measured in vivo and can predict the stress distribution in the contact areas which are not accessible, such as areas between the implant and cortical bone, denture and gingiva, or around the apex of the implant in trabecular bone. Aim of this paper is to present - using results of several successful FEM studies - the usefulness of this method in solving dentistry problems, as well as discussing practical aspects of FEM applications in dentistry. Some of the method limitations, such as impossibility of complete replication of clinical conditions and need for simplified assumptions regarding loads and materials modeling, are also presented. However, the emphasis is on FE modelling of teeth, bone, dentures and implants and their modifications according to the requirements. All presented studies have been carried out in commercial software for FE analysis ANSYS Workbench.

  19. Chlorins in Photodynamic Therapy – Synthesis and applications [Clorinas em Terapia Fotodinâmica – Síntese e aplicações

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno M. M. Moura; Ana T. P. C. Gomes; Mário J. F. Calvete

    2009-01-01

    Porphyrins have already demonstrated its potentiality in several scientific areas, with emphasis to medicinal applications, like Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). Over the last years, the efforts to develop methods able to convert porphyrins in new derivatives with adequate structural and spectroscopic characteristics to become efficient PDT photosensitizers have been outstanding. In this work we review chlorins role in PDT as well as synthesis of these derivatives, always taking into account its p...

  20. Application of generalized perturbation theory to sensitivity analysis in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanessa S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional em Ciencia e Tecnologia; Silva, Fernando C.; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Alvarez, Gustavo B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas

    2011-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy - BNCT - is a binary cancer treatment used in brain tumors. The tumor is loaded with a boron compound and subsequently irradiated by thermal neutrons. The therapy is based on the {sup 10}B (n, {alpha}) {sup 7}Li nuclear reaction, which emits two types of high-energy particles, {alpha} particle and the {sup 7}Li nuclei. The total kinetic energy released in this nuclear reaction, when deposited in the tumor region, destroys the cancer cells. Since the success of the BNCT is linked to the different selectivity between the tumor and healthy tissue, it is necessary to carry out a sensitivity analysis to determinate the boron concentration. Computational simulations are very important in this context because they help in the treatment planning by calculating the lowest effective absorbed dose rate to reduce the damage to healthy tissue. The objective of this paper is to present a deterministic method based on generalized perturbation theory (GPT) to perform sensitivity analysis with respect to the {sup 10}B concentration and to estimate the absorbed dose rate by patients undergoing this therapy. The advantage of the method is a significant reduction in computational time required to perform these calculations. To simulate the neutron flux in all brain regions, the method relies on a two-dimensional neutron transport equation whose spatial, angular and energy variables are discretized by the diamond difference method, the discrete ordinate method and multigroup formulation, respectively. The results obtained through GPT are consistent with those obtained using other methods, demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed method. (author)

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance technology in acupoint catgut embedding therapy for the treatment of menopausal panic disorder: its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gui-zhen; Zhang, Sha-sha; Xu, Yun-xiang; Wang, Xiao-yun

    2012-03-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a diagnostic method which is non-invasive and non-ionizing irradiative to the human body. It not only suits structural, but also functional imaging. The NMR technique develops rapidly in its application in life science, which has become the hotspot in recent years. Menopausal panic disorder (MPD) is a typical psychosomatic disease during climacteric period, which may affect physical and mental health. Looking for a convenient, effective, and safe method, which is free of toxic-side effects to control the disease, is a modern medical issue. Based on reviewing the etiology and pathogenesis of MPD according to dual traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine, further analyzed the advantages and principles for selecting acupoint prescription by tonifying kidney and benefiting marrow therapy for acupoint catgut-embedding to this disease. The application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMRS) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technologies in mechanism research on acupoint catgut embedding for the treatment of MPD was discussed. It's pointed out that this intervention method is safe and effective to treat MPD. Breakthrough will be achieved from the research of the selection of acupoint prescription and therapeutic mechanism of acupoint catgut embedding for the treatment of menopausal panic disorder by utilizing the Functional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Metabonomics technologies.

  2. The Benefits of the ABC Method Application in Croatian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Pekanov-Starčević

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available New business environment has changed the structure and behaviour of company costs. The changes are primarily reflected in the increasing share of overhead costs in the total costs. Given that competitiveness is reflected in the unit product cost, the exact determination of unit costs by cost drivers, primarily the precise allocation of overhead costs to cost drivers, have become crucial to the survival of companies in a turbulent market environment. The biggest problem in determining the exact product costs is incorrect allocation of overhead costs to cost drivers. In the 1980s, a new method of allocating overhead costs was developed – activity-based costing (ABC method. Advocates of this method claim that it allows a more accurate determination of product costs and identification and elimination of activities that do not add value to the company, thereby reducing costs and increasing profits, and ultimately creating and sustaining a competitive advantage. Using a sample of Croatian companies listed on the Zagreb Stock Exchange, we investigated to which extent they applied activity-based costing; its benefits to the cost management system, and which factors influenced the application of this methodology. This study provides a new insight into the development of cost management systems in Croatian companies.

  3. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2003-12-08

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document.

  4. On the Application of the Energy Method to Stability Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguerre, Karl

    1947-01-01

    Since stability problems have come into the field of vision of engineers, energy methods have proved to be one of the most powerful aids in mastering them. For finding the especially interesting critical loads special procedures have evolved that depart somewhat from those customary in the usual elasticity theory. A clarification of the connections seemed desirable,especially with regard to the post-critical region, for the treatment of which these special methods are not suited as they are. The present investigation discusses this question-complex (made important by shell construction in aircraft) especially in the classical example of the Euler strut, because in this case - since the basic features are not hidden by difficulties of a mathematical nature - the problem is especially clear. The present treatment differs from that appearing in the Z.f.a.M.M. (1938) under the title "Uber die Behandlung von Stabilittatsproblemen mit Hilfe der energetischen Methode" in that, in order to work out the basic ideas still more clearly,it dispenses with the investigation of behavior at large deflections and of the elastic foundation;in its place the present version gives an elaboration of the 6th section and (in its 7 th and 8th secs.)a new example that shows the applicability of the general criterion to a stability problem that differs from that of Euler in many respects.

  5. [Improvement of gynecologic radium therapy through the afterloading method using cesium 137].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, D V; Senf, W; Kuttig, H; Kubli, F

    1976-03-01

    For all centers performing gynecological contact irradiation the use of afterloading techniques is urgently required, since they eliminate any radiation exposure to the personnel. The radio-therapist may position and control the empty applicators still free from radiation withoug haste. This procedure diminishes the occurrence of overdosages and underdosages. The care for the patients is possible without radiation exposure, and the morbidity of contact therapy can be reduced by occasional mobilization of the patient, the applicator without sources remaining at its place. The fully automatic apparatus "Curietron" using cesium-137 sources (0.662 MeV gamma emission, half-life period 26.6 years) with an equivalent source activity (factor 2.6) yields the dose distribution demanded in the gynecologic field which in practice is identical to that of Ra-226 (medium gamma emission 1 MeV, half-life period 1620 years). With similar dose distribution, a biological and therapeutical effect alike to Ra-226 may be expected from Cs-137. In comparison with Ra-226, the following advantages of Cs-137 may be mentioned: Lower half-value thickness of 5.5 mm lead (low expenses for radioprotection), less danger with handling (no emanation of radioactive gases), and lower contamination risks in case of breaking. The measured dose distributions at equivalent source activity and similar geometry of the applicators revealed the possibility with regard of all techniques of gynecologic irradiation utilized in our field of arriving at similar relative and absolute dose distributions by means of the Cs-137 afterloading technique. Whilst short-term afterloading irradiation with highly active sources, their radiobiological effectiveness being not yet ascertained, has to be tested at appropriate scientific centers, it is necessary to demand afterloading techniques with dosages and duration of irradiations approved over decades for all centers of gynecological contact therapy because of radiation

  6. Singular perturbations introduction to system order reduction methods with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shchepakina, Elena; Mortell, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    These lecture notes provide a fresh approach to investigating singularly perturbed systems using asymptotic and geometrical techniques. It gives many examples and step-by-step techniques, which will help beginners move to a more advanced level. Singularly perturbed systems appear naturally in the modelling of many processes that are characterized by slow and fast motions simultaneously, for example, in fluid dynamics and nonlinear mechanics. This book’s approach consists in separating out the slow motions of the system under investigation. The result is a reduced differential system of lesser order. However, it inherits the essential elements of the qualitative behaviour of the original system. Singular Perturbations differs from other literature on the subject due to its methods and wide range of applications. It is a valuable reference for specialists in the areas of applied mathematics, engineering, physics, biology, as well as advanced undergraduates for the earlier parts of the book, and graduate stude...

  7. Ultrafast optical imaging technology: principles and applications of emerging methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikami Hideharu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High-speed optical imaging is an indispensable technology for blur-free observation of fast transient dynamics in virtually all areas including science, industry, defense, energy, and medicine. High temporal resolution is particularly important for microscopy as even a slow event appears to occur “fast” in a small field of view. Unfortunately, the shutter speed and frame rate of conventional cameras based on electronic image sensors are significantly constrained by their electrical operation and limited storage. Over the recent years, several unique and unconventional approaches to high-speed optical imaging have been reported to circumvent these technical challenges and achieve a frame rate and shutter speed far beyond what can be reached with the conventional image sensors. In this article, we review the concepts and principles of such ultrafast optical imaging methods, compare their advantages and disadvantages, and discuss an entirely new class of applications that are possible using them.

  8. Flow Applications of the Least Squares Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo-Nan

    1998-01-01

    The main thrust of the effort has been towards the development, analysis and implementation of the least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) for fluid dynamics and electromagnetics applications. In the past year, there were four major accomplishments: 1) special treatments in computational fluid dynamics and computational electromagnetics, such as upwinding, numerical dissipation, staggered grid, non-equal order elements, operator splitting and preconditioning, edge elements, and vector potential are unnecessary; 2) the analysis of the LSFEM for most partial differential equations can be based on the bounded inverse theorem; 3) the finite difference and finite volume algorithms solve only two Maxwell equations and ignore the divergence equations; and 4) the first numerical simulation of three-dimensional Marangoni-Benard convection was performed using the LSFEM.

  9. Single Molecule Detection in Solution: Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Christoph; Enderlein, Jorg; Keller, Richard A.

    2002-07-01

    The detection of single molecules opens up new horizons in analytical chemistry, biology and medicine. This discipline, which belongs to the expanding field of nanoscience, has been rapidly emerging over the last ten years. This handbook provides a thorough overview of the field. It begins with basics of single molecule detection in solution, describes methods and devices (fluorescense correlation spectroscopy, surface enhanced Raman scattering, sensors, especially dyes, screening techniques, especially confocal laser scanning microscopy). In the second part, various applications in life sciences and medicine provide the latest research results. This modern handbook is a highly accessible reference for a broad community from advanced researchers, specialists and company professionals in physics, spectroscopy, biotechnology, analytical chemistry, and medicine. Written by leading authorities in the field, it is timely and fills a gap - up to now there exists no handbook concerning this theme.

  10. Semantic Model Driven Architecture Based Method for Enterprise Application Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghui; Ying, Jing; Yan, Hui

    Enterprise applications have the requirements of meeting dynamic businesses processes and adopting lasted technologies flexibly, with to solve the problems caused by the nature of heterogeneous characteristic. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is becoming a leading paradigm for business process integration. This research work focuses on business process modeling, proposes a semantic model-driven development method named SMDA combined with the Ontology and Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) technologies. The architecture of SMDA is presented in three orthogonal perspectives. (1) Vertical axis is the MDA 4 layers, the focus is UML profiles in M2 (meta-model layer) for ontology modeling, and three abstract levels: CIM, PIM and PSM modeling respectively. (2) Horizontal axis is different concerns involved in the development: Process, Application, Information, Organization, and Technology. (3) Traversal Axis is referred to aspects that have influence on other models of the cross-cutting axis: Architecture, Semantics, Aspect, and Pattern. The paper also introduces the modeling and transformation process in SMDA, and describes dynamic service composition supports briefly.

  11. Three-dimensional cardiac computational modelling: methods, features and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Perez, Alejandro; Sebastian, Rafael; Ferrero, Jose M

    2015-04-17

    The combination of computational models and biophysical simulations can help to interpret an array of experimental data and contribute to the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of complex diseases such as cardiac arrhythmias. For this reason, three-dimensional (3D) cardiac computational modelling is currently a rising field of research. The advance of medical imaging technology over the last decades has allowed the evolution from generic to patient-specific 3D cardiac models that faithfully represent the anatomy and different cardiac features of a given alive subject. Here we analyse sixty representative 3D cardiac computational models developed and published during the last fifty years, describing their information sources, features, development methods and online availability. This paper also reviews the necessary components to build a 3D computational model of the heart aimed at biophysical simulation, paying especial attention to cardiac electrophysiology (EP), and the existing approaches to incorporate those components. We assess the challenges associated to the different steps of the building process, from the processing of raw clinical or biological data to the final application, including image segmentation, inclusion of substructures and meshing among others. We briefly outline the personalisation approaches that are currently available in 3D cardiac computational modelling. Finally, we present examples of several specific applications, mainly related to cardiac EP simulation and model-based image analysis, showing the potential usefulness of 3D cardiac computational modelling into clinical environments as a tool to aid in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cardiac diseases.

  12. Bayesian statistic methods and theri application in probabilistic simulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Iannazzo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian statistic methods are facing a rapidly growing level of interest and acceptance in the field of health economics. The reasons of this success are probably to be found on the theoretical fundaments of the discipline that make these techniques more appealing to decision analysis. To this point should be added the modern IT progress that has developed different flexible and powerful statistical software framework. Among them probably one of the most noticeably is the BUGS language project and its standalone application for MS Windows WinBUGS. Scope of this paper is to introduce the subject and to show some interesting applications of WinBUGS in developing complex economical models based on Markov chains. The advantages of this approach reside on the elegance of the code produced and in its capability to easily develop probabilistic simulations. Moreover an example of the integration of bayesian inference models in a Markov model is shown. This last feature let the analyst conduce statistical analyses on the available sources of evidence and exploit them directly as inputs in the economic model.

  13. Noble metal based plasmonic nanomaterials and their application for bio-imaging and photothermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dewei

    During the past two decades, researchers have gained more and more insight into the manipulation of nanomaterials to create useful technologies. Numerous classes of nanomaterials have been produced and studied based upon their intriguing chemical and physical properties and their potential applications in diverse fields, ranging from electronics to renewable energy and biomedicine. In this dissertation, we describe the synthesis and potential biomedical applications of several types of noble metal-based nanomaterials in which we control size, shape, and coupling to other materials to tune their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) interaction with light. We demonstrate the application of these novel nanostructures as contrast agents for photoacoustic imaging and as photosensitizers for photothermal therapy. Chapter one first presents protocols for producing monodisperse spherical nanoparticles of gold and silver. The diameter of the nanospheres can be adjusted from less than 2 nm to greater than 10 nm by controlling the reaction conditions, including ligands that cap the nanosphere surfaces, reaction time, and reaction temperature. Next, we describe the synthesis of multi-branched Au nanocrystals with predominantly tripodal, tetrapodal and star-shaped morphologies. We demonstrate tuning of the LSPR energy in these materials by changing the branch length. In the third part of this chapter, we present a novel method for coupling heavily-doped p-type copper selenide (Cu2-xSe) NPs with Au NPs by seeded nanocrystal growth to form a new type of semiconductor-metal heterogeneous nanostructure. This new class of plasmonic nanomaterials can simultaneously exhibit two types of LSPR in a single system, producing a broad optical absorbance that is nearly flat across the near infrared (NIR) spectral region (750-1150nm), along with a small shoulder at 566 nm that originates from the Au NP. We conclude this first chapter by demonstrating the use of self-doped copper sulfide

  14. APPLICATION OF IMAGING METHODS IN THE DIAGNOSTICS OF MALIGNANT NECK LYMPH NODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slađana Petrović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of malignant lymph nodes in the neck is a prognostic factor in planocellular carcinomas of the head and neck which are the most common primary tumors of this region. Determination of neck lymph nodes involvement is necessary for deciding on surgical treatment and planning chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Metastases in the neck lymph nodes reduce patient survival to a half. Localization of metastatic lymph nodes, their number and size are also very important factors which correlate with distant metastases. Besides clinical examination which includes inspection and palpation of the neck, the diagnostics of metastatic neck lymph nodes also uses imaging techniques: ultrasound (US, computerized tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Precision and reliability of these methods depends on the application of adequate radiological criteria in the diagnostics of malignant lymph nodes of the neck.

  15. The Tree Theme Method in psychosocial occupational therapy: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, A Birgitta; Jansson, Jan-Ake; Eklund, Mona

    2006-12-01

    This study aimed to describe the Tree Theme Method (TTM) as a method for intervention in psychosocial occupational therapy. The TTM is based on theories concerning creative activities and occupational storytelling and story making. In order to exemplify the method a case study of a treatment process with follow up was undertaken. The participant was a female client suffering from anxiety and depression. During an interview the client painted symbolic trees on five different occasions with specific variations of the tree theme: a tree symbolizing her present life, her childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and, finally, a tree representing her future. The trees were used as starting points for the client to tell her life story. The intention was that she would find new strategies for how to change her daily life. Three years later there was a follow up stage where the client painted new trees and told her story. Some life themes were identified. The TTM appears suitable for intervention in psychosocial occupational therapy. In future studies the TTM should be subjected to evaluation research based on several clients in order to develop a deeper understanding of the process and what kind of results changes in the TTM intervention may provide.

  16. Art-therapy as a method for mobilizing personal resources in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glozman J.M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging can be viewed as a continuation of development and an active interaction with the environment during which regressive changes are combined with progressive new formations. It is believed that the self-determining nature of subjectivity in the elderly mediates self-awareness and favors self-acceptance as an active agent that determines the outcomes of one’s own life at this age as an autonomous self-regulating subject of one’s own activity. A formative experience proved the efficiency of using art therapy as a method for mobilizing personal resources during aging.

  17. Pilates and mobilization methods in therapy for low back pain among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Mączka, Martyna; Sass, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Mączka Martyna, Sass Anna. Pilates and mobilization methods in therapy for low back pain among pregnant women. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(8):473-488. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.883771 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4760 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health an...

  18. Application of Finite Layer Method in Pavement Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The finite element (FE method has been widely used in predicting the structural responses of asphalt pavements. However, the three-dimensional (3D modeling in general-purpose FE software systems such as ABAQUS requires extensive computations and is relatively time-consuming. To address this issue, a specific computational code EasyFEM was developed based on the finite layer method (FLM for analyzing structural responses of asphalt pavements under a static load. Basically, it is a 3D FE code that requires only a one-dimensional (1D mesh by incorporating analytical methods and using Fourier series in the other two dimensions, which can significantly reduce the computational time and required resources due to the easy implementation of parallel computing technology. Moreover, a newly-developed Element Energy Projection (EEP method for super-convergent calculations was implemented in EasyFEM to improve the accuracy of solutions for strains and stresses over the whole pavement model. The accuracy of the program is verified by comparing it with results from BISAR and ABAQUS for a typical asphalt pavement structure. The results show that the predicted responses from ABAQUS and EasyFEM are in good agreement with each other. The EasyFEM with the EEP post-processing technique converges faster compared with the results derived from ordinary EasyFEM applications, which proves that the EEP technique can improve the accuracy of strains and stresses from EasyFEM. In summary, the EasyFEM has a potential to provide a flexible and robust platform for the numerical simulation of asphalt pavements and can easily be post-processed with the EEP technique to enhance its advantages.

  19. Effect of Teaching Reading and Traditional Methods of Language Therapy on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehghan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study compares the effects of reading instruction and traditional methods on grammar quotient of 4 to 10 years old children with down syndrome having IQ scores of 40 to 60. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental and interventional study, 20 children with down syndrome, average mean age of 63 months, and 40 to 60 IQ scores were selected from 96 children with down syndrome from rehabilitation clinics within Tehran and Karaj, using convenience sampling. Then, they were assigned into two groups in the presence of their parents, using balanced randomized method. The first group was educated by whole-word reading method and the second group by traditional methods. Both groups had three 15-minute sessions per week for a period of 6 months. Pre-test and post-test grammar quotient of both groups was assessed using the Test of Persian language development. The obtained data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, t-test, and paired t-test. Results: Both groups were quite similar in age, IQ, and grammar quotient, prior to training. However, the first group showed significant development in grammar quotient, after training (p<0.001. Conclusion: In comparison with traditional methods of language therapy that emphasize on weakness of children with down syndrome by employing auditory modality, teaching reading through whole-word method based on their strength “visual memory” has more influence on grammar quotient of them.

  20. A new method and device of aligning patient setup lasers in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ui-Jung; Jo, Kwanghyun; Lim, Young Kyung; Kwak, Jung Won; Choi, Sang Hyuon; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kim, Mi Young; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Sung Yong; Kim, Siyong

    2016-01-08

    The aim of this study is to develop a new method to align the patient setup lasers in a radiation therapy treatment room and examine its validity and efficiency. The new laser alignment method is realized by a device composed of both a metallic base plate and a few acrylic transparent plates. Except one, every plate has either a crosshair line (CHL) or a single vertical line that is used for alignment. Two holders for radiochromic film insertion are prepared in the device to find a radiation isocenter. The right laser positions can be found optically by matching the shadows of all the CHLs in the gantry head and the device. The reproducibility, accuracy, and efficiency of laser alignment and the dependency on the position error of the light source were evaluated by comparing the means and the standard deviations of the measured laser positions. After the optical alignment of the lasers, the radiation isocenter was found by the gantry and collimator star shots, and then the lasers were translated parallel to the isocenter. In the laser position reproducibility test, the mean and standard deviation on the wall of treatment room were 32.3 ± 0.93 mm for the new method whereas they were 33.4 ± 1.49 mm for the conventional method. The mean alignment accuracy was 1.4 mm for the new method, and 2.1 mm for the conventional method on the walls. In the test of the dependency on the light source position error, the mean laser position was shifted just by a similar amount of the shift of the light source in the new method, but it was greatly magnified in the conventional method. In this study, a new laser alignment method was devised and evaluated successfully. The new method provided more accurate, more reproducible, and faster alignment of the lasers than the conventional method.

  1. Fast Monte Carlo Electron-Photon Transport Method and Application in Accurate Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lijuan; Sun, Guangyao; Zheng, Huaqing; Song, Jing; Chen, Zhenping; Li, Gui

    2014-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) method is the most accurate computational method for dose calculation, but its wide application on clinical accurate radiotherapy is hindered due to its poor speed of converging and long computation time. In the MC dose calculation research, the main task is to speed up computation while high precision is maintained. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the calculation speed of MC method for electron-photon transport with high precision and ultimately to reduce the accurate radiotherapy dose calculation time based on normal computer to the level of several hours, which meets the requirement of clinical dose verification. Based on the existing Super Monte Carlo Simulation Program (SuperMC), developed by FDS Team, a fast MC method for electron-photon coupled transport was presented with focus on two aspects: firstly, through simplifying and optimizing the physical model of the electron-photon transport, the calculation speed was increased with slightly reduction of calculation accuracy; secondly, using a variety of MC calculation acceleration methods, for example, taking use of obtained information in previous calculations to avoid repeat simulation of particles with identical history; applying proper variance reduction techniques to accelerate MC method convergence rate, etc. The fast MC method was tested by a lot of simple physical models and clinical cases included nasopharyngeal carcinoma, peripheral lung tumor, cervical carcinoma, etc. The result shows that the fast MC method for electron-photon transport was fast enough to meet the requirement of clinical accurate radiotherapy dose verification. Later, the method will be applied to the Accurate/Advanced Radiation Therapy System ARTS as a MC dose verification module.

  2. Application of Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for an Exposed Titanium Plate After Mandible Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Taku; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Tanaka, Soichi; Hayashi, Toshihiko

    2016-10-01

    The authors report a case of an 84-year-old woman with an exposed mandibular plate after reconstruction, which finally healed with combination therapy using vacuum-assisted closure therapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The woman was diagnosed with mucosal carcinoma of the right oral cavity. During reconstruction after segmental excision of the mandible, a titanium plate was selected based on several risk factors. After the operation, the plate became exposed at the center of the chin. A second surgery was deemed inappropriate because of her age, malnutrition, and recurrent aspiration pneumonia. Instead, combination therapy consisting of vacuum-assisted closure therapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy was initiated, leading to epithelizaion of the wound. Adapt Barrier Rings was effectively used to generate a stable negative pressure at the complicated craniofacial wound. A surgical or conservative approach is chosen as salvage treatment of an exposed plate. In this patient, only conservative treatment involving combination therapy resulted in complete healing of the wound with plate exposure. This patient highlights 2 important clinical issues: combination therapy was effective for an exposed mandibular plate, and a dressing technique using Adapt Barrier Rings enabled stable negative pressure in the craniofacial wound.

  3. Ubiquitous Chromatin-opening Elements (UCOEs): Applications in biomanufacturing and gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Jonathan J; Orlando, Joe; Mann, Kimberly; McCloskey, Bethany; Antoniou, Michael N

    2017-09-01

    Ubiquitous Chromatin-opening Elements (UCOEs) are defined by their ability to consistently confer stable, site of integration-independent transgene expression that is proportional to copy number, including from within regions of heterochromatin such as centromeres. UCOEs structurally consist of methylation-free CpG islands encompassing single or dual divergently-transcribed housekeeping gene promoters. Since their discovery in 1999, UCOEs and their sub-fragments have found applications in areas of biotechnology requiring stable, reproducible, and high levels of gene expression. This review recounts the discovery of UCOEs and examines their current and future applications in protein therapeutic biomanufacturing and gene therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reflections on clinical applications of yoga in voice therapy with MTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carmelle

    2012-12-01

    This paper explores the application of modified yoga techniques, as an adjunct to voice therapy, by a speech pathologist who is also a yoga teacher. Yoga practices, with effects that may be short-term, are not considered a substitute for comprehensive and integrated somatic retraining systems (such as the Alexander Technique or Feldenkrais ATM). However, when yoga is conducted emphasizing kinaesthetic and proprioceptive awareness, the client may achieve an 'awareness state' that facilitates the learning of vocal remediation techniques (for example, by more easily 'tuning in' to the subtle sensations of supralaryngeal deconstriction). Core yoga elements and clinical applications are identified. The potential benefits and considerations when using yoga as an adjunct to the treatment of muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) are explored.

  5. Current application of phytocompound-based nanocosmeceuticals for beauty and skin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Palanivel; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-01-01

    Phytocompounds have been used in cosmeceuticals for decades and have shown potential for beauty applications, including sunscreen, moisturizing and antiaging, and skin-based therapy. The major concerns in the usage of phyto-based cosmeceuticals are lower penetration and high compound instability of various cosmetic products for sustained and enhanced compound delivery to the beauty-based skin therapy. To overcome these disadvantages, nanosized delivery technologies are currently in use for sustained and enhanced delivery of phyto-derived bioactive compounds in cosmeceutical sectors and products. Nanosizing of phytocompounds enhances the aseptic feel in various cosmeceutical products with sustained delivery and enhanced skin protecting activities. Solid lipid nanoparticles, transfersomes, ethosomes, nanostructured lipid carriers, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes are some of the emerging nanotechnologies currently in use for their enhanced delivery of phytocompounds in skin care. Aloe vera, curcumin, resveratrol, quercetin, vitamins C and E, genistein, and green tea catechins were successfully nanosized using various delivery technologies and incorporated in various gels, lotions, and creams for skin, lip, and hair care for their sustained effects. However, certain delivery agents such as carbon nanotubes need to be studied for their roles in toxicity. This review broadly focuses on the usage of phytocompounds in various cosmeceutical products, nanodelivery technologies used in the delivery of phytocompounds to various cosmeceuticals, and various nanosized phytocompounds used in the development of novel nanocosmeceuticals to enhance skin-based therapy.

  6. Current application of phytocompound-based nanocosmeceuticals for beauty and skin therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Palanivel; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-01-01

    Phytocompounds have been used in cosmeceuticals for decades and have shown potential for beauty applications, including sunscreen, moisturizing and antiaging, and skin-based therapy. The major concerns in the usage of phyto-based cosmeceuticals are lower penetration and high compound instability of various cosmetic products for sustained and enhanced compound delivery to the beauty-based skin therapy. To overcome these disadvantages, nanosized delivery technologies are currently in use for sustained and enhanced delivery of phyto-derived bioactive compounds in cosmeceutical sectors and products. Nanosizing of phytocompounds enhances the aseptic feel in various cosmeceutical products with sustained delivery and enhanced skin protecting activities. Solid lipid nanoparticles, transfersomes, ethosomes, nanostructured lipid carriers, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes are some of the emerging nanotechnologies currently in use for their enhanced delivery of phytocompounds in skin care. Aloe vera, curcumin, resveratrol, quercetin, vitamins C and E, genistein, and green tea catechins were successfully nanosized using various delivery technologies and incorporated in various gels, lotions, and creams for skin, lip, and hair care for their sustained effects. However, certain delivery agents such as carbon nanotubes need to be studied for their roles in toxicity. This review broadly focuses on the usage of phytocompounds in various cosmeceutical products, nanodelivery technologies used in the delivery of phytocompounds to various cosmeceuticals, and various nanosized phytocompounds used in the development of novel nanocosmeceuticals to enhance skin-based therapy. PMID:27274231

  7. Enhancing cell and gene therapy manufacture through the application of advanced fluorescent optical sensors (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Richard P; Chauhan, Veeren M

    2017-12-15

    Cell and gene therapies (CGTs) are examples of future therapeutics that can be used to cure or alleviate the symptoms of disease, by repairing damaged tissue or reprogramming defective genetic information. However, despite the recent advancements in clinical trial outcomes, the path to wide-scale adoption of CGTs remains challenging, such that the emergence of a "blockbuster" therapy has so far proved elusive. Manufacturing solutions for these therapies require the application of scalable and replicable cell manufacturing techniques, which differ markedly from the existing pharmaceutical incumbent. Attempts to adopt this pharmaceutical model for CGT manufacture have largely proved unsuccessful. The most significant challenges facing CGT manufacturing are process analytical testing and quality control. These procedures would greatly benefit from improved sensory technologies that allow direct measurement of critical quality attributes, such as pH, oxygen, lactate and glucose. In turn, this would make manufacturing more robust, replicable and standardized. In this review, the present-day state and prospects of CGT manufacturing are discussed. In particular, the authors highlight the role of fluorescent optical sensors, focusing on their strengths and weaknesses, for CGT manufacture. The review concludes by discussing how the integration of CGT manufacture and fluorescent optical sensors could augment future bioprocessing approaches.

  8. In utero stem cell transplantation and gene therapy: rationale, history, and recent advances toward clinical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Porada, Graça; Atala, Anthony; Porada, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput molecular testing have made it possible to diagnose most genetic disorders relatively early in gestation with minimal risk to the fetus. These advances should soon allow widespread prenatal screening for the majority of human genetic diseases, opening the door to the possibility of treatment/correction prior to birth. In addition to the obvious psychological and financial benefits of curing a disease in utero, and thereby enabling the birth of a healthy infant, there are multiple biological advantages unique to fetal development, which provide compelling rationale for performing potentially curative treatments, such as stem cell transplantation or gene therapy, prior to birth. Herein, we briefly review the fields of in utero transplantation (IUTx) and in utero gene therapy and discuss the biological hurdles that have thus far restricted success of IUTx to patients with immunodeficiencies. We then highlight several recent experimental breakthroughs in immunology, hematopoietic/marrow ontogeny, and in utero cell delivery, which have collectively provided means of overcoming these barriers, thus setting the stage for clinical application of these highly promising therapies in the near future. PMID:27069953

  9. In utero stem cell transplantation and gene therapy: rationale, history, and recent advances toward clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Porada, Graça; Atala, Anthony; Porada, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput molecular testing have made it possible to diagnose most genetic disorders relatively early in gestation with minimal risk to the fetus. These advances should soon allow widespread prenatal screening for the majority of human genetic diseases, opening the door to the possibility of treatment/correction prior to birth. In addition to the obvious psychological and financial benefits of curing a disease in utero, and thereby enabling the birth of a healthy infant, there are multiple biological advantages unique to fetal development, which provide compelling rationale for performing potentially curative treatments, such as stem cell transplantation or gene therapy, prior to birth. Herein, we briefly review the fields of in utero transplantation (IUTx) and in utero gene therapy and discuss the biological hurdles that have thus far restricted success of IUTx to patients with immunodeficiencies. We then highlight several recent experimental breakthroughs in immunology, hematopoietic/marrow ontogeny, and in utero cell delivery, which have collectively provided means of overcoming these barriers, thus setting the stage for clinical application of these highly promising therapies in the near future.

  10. History of Music Therapy and Its Contemporary Applications in Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montinari, Maria Rosa; Giardina, Simona; Minelli, Pierluca; Minelli, Sergio

    2018-02-01

    Contrary to what is commonly believed, music therapy is an old cure, the use of which is lost in the mists of time. Music always has been perceived to have particular healing powers, and the entire history of civilization contains aspects that link music to physical and mental healing. It seems that the adoption of music for therapeutic purposes harks back to a distant past, probably since the Paleolithic period: it was believed that listening to music could affect the behavior of human beings. In later centuries, the concept of "musical organ-tropism" was born and developed, because according to the type of music, one may affect the cardiovascular, respiratory, and neuroendocrine systems. Studies have shown that music can powerfully evoke and modulate emotions and moods, along with changes in heart activity, blood pressure, and breathing. Indeed, the following findings arise from the literature: heart and respiratory rates are higher in response to exciting music than in the case of tranquilizing music. In addition, music produces activity changes in brain structures (amygdala, hypothalamus, insular and orbitofrontal cortex) known to modulate heart function. This article provides a careful overview of music therapy history from prehistory to the present and a review of the latest applications of music therapy in cardiovascular diseases.

  11. One-step synthesis of soy protein/graphene nanocomposites and their application in photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuejiao; Li, Zhao; Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong; Chen, Xin

    2016-11-01

    Photothermal therapy, due to its security and effectiveness, has recently become a promising cancer treatment after surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and biological therapy. In this article, soy protein isolate/reduced graphene oxide (SPI/rGO) nanocomposites are prepared via a simple and green process. That is, GO is reduced in situ and stabilized by SPI, an abundant, low-cost, sustainable natural material, and simultaneously forms SPI/rGO nanocomposites. The resulting SPI/rGO nanocomposites disperse in water very well and exhibit good biocompatibility due to the attachment of SPI to the surface of rGO. Such SPI/rGO nanocomposites demonstrate an excellent photothermal capacity and are able to kill HeLa cells efficiently with near-infrared irradiation (808nm). The results in this work suggest that such a SPI/rGO hybrid material could be a promising candidate for future applications of photothermal therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Compact Dielectric Wall Accelerator Development For Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy And Homeland Security Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y -; Caporaso, G J; Guethlein, G; Sampayan, S; Akana, G; Anaya, R; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Gower, E; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Hickman, B; Holmes, C; Horner, A; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Sanders, D; Stanley, J; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Weir, J

    2009-06-17

    Compact dielectric wall (DWA) accelerator technology is being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The DWA accelerator uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. Its high electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The DWA concept can be applied to accelerate charge particle beams with any charge to mass ratio and energy. Based on the DWA system, a novel compact proton therapy accelerator is being developed. This proton therapy system will produce individual pulses that can be varied in intensity, energy and spot width. The system will be capable of being sited in a conventional linac vault and provide intensity modulated rotational therapy. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, SiC photoconductive switches and compact proton sources. Applications of the DWA accelerator to problems in homeland security will also be discussed.

  13. First test of the prompt gamma ray timing method with heterogeneous targets at a clinical proton therapy facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso-González, Fernando; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Fiedler, Fine; Golnik, Christian; Janssens, Guillaume; Petzoldt, Johannes; Prieels, Damien; Priegnitz, Marlen; Römer, Katja E; Smeets, Julien; Vander Stappen, François; Wagner, Andreas; Pausch, Guntram

    2015-08-21

    Ion beam therapy promises enhanced tumour coverage compared to conventional radiotherapy, but particle range uncertainties significantly blunt the achievable precision. Experimental tools for range verification in real-time are not yet available in clinical routine. The prompt gamma ray timing method has been recently proposed as an alternative to collimated imaging systems. The detection times of prompt gamma rays encode essential information about the depth-dose profile thanks to the measurable transit time of ions through matter. In a collaboration between OncoRay, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and IBA, the first test at a clinical proton accelerator (Westdeutsches Protonentherapiezentrum Essen, Germany) with several detectors and phantoms is performed. The robustness of the method against background and stability of the beam bunch time profile is explored, and the bunch time spread is characterized for different proton energies. For a beam spot with a hundred million protons and a single detector, range differences of 5 mm in defined heterogeneous targets are identified by numerical comparison of the spectrum shape. For higher statistics, range shifts down to 2 mm are detectable. A proton bunch monitor, higher detector throughput and quantitative range retrieval are the upcoming steps towards a clinically applicable prototype. In conclusion, the experimental results highlight the prospects of this straightforward verification method at a clinical pencil beam and settle this novel approach as a promising alternative in the field of in vivo dosimetry.

  14. A calibration method for patient specific IMRT QA using a single therapy verification film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Arvind Kumar; Oinam, Arun S; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sandhu, I S; Sharma, S C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop and verify the single film calibration procedure used in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance. Radiographic films have been regularly used in routine commissioning of treatment modalities and verification of treatment planning system (TPS). The radiation dosimetery based on radiographic films has ability to give absolute two-dimension dose distribution and prefer for the IMRT quality assurance. However, the single therapy verification film gives a quick and significant reliable method for IMRT verification. A single extended dose rate (EDR 2) film was used to generate the sensitometric curve of film optical density and radiation dose. EDR 2 film was exposed with nine 6 cm × 6 cm fields of 6 MV photon beam obtained from a medical linear accelerator at 5-cm depth in solid water phantom. The nine regions of single film were exposed with radiation doses raging from 10 to 362 cGy. The actual dose measurements inside the field regions were performed using 0.6 cm(3) ionization chamber. The exposed film was processed after irradiation using a VIDAR film scanner and the value of optical density was noted for each region. Ten IMRT plans of head and neck carcinoma were used for verification using a dynamic IMRT technique, and evaluated using the gamma index method with TPS calculated dose distribution. Sensitometric curve has been generated using a single film exposed at nine field region to check quantitative dose verifications of IMRT treatments. The radiation scattered factor was observed to decrease exponentially with the increase in the distance from the centre of each field region. The IMRT plans based on calibration curve were verified using the gamma index method and found to be within acceptable criteria. The single film method proved to be superior to the traditional calibration method and produce fast daily film calibration for highly accurate IMRT verification.

  15. Application of Delphi method in site selection of desalination plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sepehr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the reduced freshwater supplies across the world, seawater desalination is one of the appropriate methods available for producing freshwater. Selecting an optimal location is crucial in the installation of these plants owing to the environmental problems they cause. The present study was conducted to identify optimal locations for installing desalination Plants in the coastal areas of southern Iran (Hormozgan Province with application of Delphi method. To implement this technique and identify, screen and prioritize effective criteria and sub-criteria, ten experts were surveyed through questionnaires and eight criteria and 18 sub-criteria were identified. All these sub-criteria were evaluated and classified in ArcGIS into five classes as input layers. The maps were then integrated based on the modulation importance coefficient and the identified priorities using a linear Delphi model and the final map was reclassified into five categories. Environmentally sensitive areas and seawater quality were respectively the criterion and sub-criterion that received the highest importance. After combining the layers and obtaining the final map, 63 locations were identified for installing desalination plants in the coastal areas on the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea in Hormozgan Province.  At the end, 27 locations were high important and had optimal environmental conditions for establishing desalination plants. Of the 27 locations, six were located in the coastal area of the Oman Sea, one in the coastal area of the Strait of Hormuz and 20 others in the coastal area of the Persian Gulf.

  16. Hierarchical Matrices Method and Its Application in Electromagnetic Integral Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical (H- matrices method is a general mathematical framework providing a highly compact representation and efficient numerical arithmetic. When applied in integral-equation- (IE- based computational electromagnetics, H-matrices can be regarded as a fast algorithm; therefore, both the CPU time and memory requirement are reduced significantly. Its kernel independent feature also makes it suitable for any kind of integral equation. To solve H-matrices system, Krylov iteration methods can be employed with appropriate preconditioners, and direct solvers based on the hierarchical structure of H-matrices are also available along with high efficiency and accuracy, which is a unique advantage compared to other fast algorithms. In this paper, a novel sparse approximate inverse (SAI preconditioner in multilevel fashion is proposed to accelerate the convergence rate of Krylov iterations for solving H-matrices system in electromagnetic applications, and a group of parallel fast direct solvers are developed for dealing with multiple right-hand-side cases. Finally, numerical experiments are given to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed multilevel preconditioner compared to conventional “single level” preconditioners and the practicability of the fast direct solvers for arbitrary complex structures.

  17. MRI Segmentation of the Human Brain: Challenges, Methods, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despotović, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Image segmentation is one of the most important tasks in medical image analysis and is often the first and the most critical step in many clinical applications. In brain MRI analysis, image segmentation is commonly used for measuring and visualizing the brain's anatomical structures, for analyzing brain changes, for delineating pathological regions, and for surgical planning and image-guided interventions. In the last few decades, various segmentation techniques of different accuracy and degree of complexity have been developed and reported in the literature. In this paper we review the most popular methods commonly used for brain MRI segmentation. We highlight differences between them and discuss their capabilities, advantages, and limitations. To address the complexity and challenges of the brain MRI segmentation problem, we first introduce the basic concepts of image segmentation. Then, we explain different MRI preprocessing steps including image registration, bias field correction, and removal of nonbrain tissue. Finally, after reviewing different brain MRI segmentation methods, we discuss the validation problem in brain MRI segmentation. PMID:25945121

  18. Adaptive two-regime method: Application to front propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Martin, E-mail: martin.robinson@maths.ox.ac.uk; Erban, Radek, E-mail: erban@maths.ox.ac.uk [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Flegg, Mark, E-mail: mark.flegg@monash.edu [School of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Monash University Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2014-03-28

    The Adaptive Two-Regime Method (ATRM) is developed for hybrid (multiscale) stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion problems. It efficiently couples detailed Brownian dynamics simulations with coarser lattice-based models. The ATRM is a generalization of the previously developed Two-Regime Method [Flegg et al., J. R. Soc., Interface 9, 859 (2012)] to multiscale problems which require a dynamic selection of regions where detailed Brownian dynamics simulation is used. Typical applications include a front propagation or spatio-temporal oscillations. In this paper, the ATRM is used for an in-depth study of front propagation in a stochastic reaction-diffusion system which has its mean-field model given in terms of the Fisher equation [R. Fisher, Ann. Eugen. 7, 355 (1937)]. It exhibits a travelling reaction front which is sensitive to stochastic fluctuations at the leading edge of the wavefront. Previous studies into stochastic effects on the Fisher wave propagation speed have focused on lattice-based models, but there has been limited progress using off-lattice (Brownian dynamics) models, which suffer due to their high computational cost, particularly at the high molecular numbers that are necessary to approach the Fisher mean-field model. By modelling only the wavefront itself with the off-lattice model, it is shown that the ATRM leads to the same Fisher wave results as purely off-lattice models, but at a fraction of the computational cost. The error analysis of the ATRM is also presented for a morphogen gradient model.

  19. Application of the case method in medical student radiology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Felix S; Ochoa, E Ricardo; Relyea-Chew, Annemarie

    2005-06-01

    Our goal is to design, implement, and evaluate a rich educational activity to engage medical students in learning the importance of providing clinical histories when ordering radiological examinations. We adapted the format of the case method commonly used in business schools. In the setting of a 1-week required radiology course offered during the third year of medical school, we created an unknown case assignment consisting of two chest radiographs and a concise history for three- to four-person study teams. Unknown to students, each team received the same images, but different patient histories. After turning in their written analyses, students had a classroom opportunity to discuss their conclusions. A written evaluation of the entire experience using both Likert items and unstructured response items was conducted at the end of each session. The evaluation was conducted during a 17-month period, and 141 evaluations were received from students. The response rate was 100%. Most teams met several times and worked on the assignment for 2 or 3 hours. Students agreed that the learning experience was worthwhile (95%), content was appropriate (93%), and the activity should be continued for subsequent classes (94%). Unstructured responses indicated that students learned the importance of clinical histories in the interpretation of radiological studies. An educational activity based on the case method was well received by students and met its educational objectives. Activities of this type have potential for widespread application in radiology education.

  20. POLARIZATION REMOTE SENSING PHYSICAL MECHANISM, KEY METHODS AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available China's long-term planning major projects "high-resolution earth observation system" has been invested nearly 100 billion and the satellites will reach 100 to 2020. As to 2/3 of China's area covered by mountains,it has a higher demand for remote sensing. In addition to light intensity, frequency, phase, polarization is also the main physical characteristics of remote sensing electromagnetic waves. Polarization is an important component of the reflected information from the surface and the atmospheric information, and the polarization effect of the ground object reflection is the basis of the observation of polarization remote sensing. Therefore, the effect of eliminating the polarization effect is very important for remote sensing applications. The main innovations of this paper is as follows: (1 Remote sensing observation method. It is theoretically deduced and verified that the polarization can weaken the light in the strong light region, and then provide the polarization effective information. In turn, the polarization in the low light region can strengthen the weak light, the same can be obtained polarization effective information. (2 Polarization effect of vegetation. By analyzing the structure characteristics of vegetation, polarization information is obtained, then the vegetation structure information directly affects the absorption of biochemical components of leaves. (3 Atmospheric polarization neutral point observation method. It is proved to be effective to achieve the ground-gas separation, which can achieve the effect of eliminating the atmospheric polarization effect and enhancing the polarization effect of the object.